WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese literature reveals

  1. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  2. INTRODUCTION TO CHINESE MEDICAL LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAN, L B

    1965-01-01

    The history of medicine in China is divided into four periods, from about 2700 B.C. to the present. Brief descriptions of standard works of these periods (e.g. Pèn-Ts'ao, Nei Ching, Nan Ching, Shang Han Lun, Ch'in K'ue Yao Lüeh, Chai I Ching, Chou Hou Pei Chi Fang, Mo Ching, Ming I Pieh Lu, Ch'ao Shih Pin Yüan, Chien Chin Yao Fang, Wai T'ai Pi Yao, Hsi Yüan Lu, Pèn-Ts'ao Kang-Mu, etc.) are given. The latter part of the paper deals with the state of modern medical research and literature in Mainland China, where equal emphasis is placed on the practice of both traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of diseases, thus resulting in a new era in Chinese medical history. This is based on the information obtainable in Hong Kong. Information about medical developments in Taiwan is readily available elsewhere and so has been omitted.

  3. Translation of Idioms in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丹丹

    2009-01-01

    <正>This paper explains two approaches to the translation of idioms in Chinese literature: free translation and literal translation.Chinese idioms,in its broad sense including set phrases,proverbs and two-part allegorical,have the specific features and rich in their content.By analyzing the basic principles of translation,we can better understand how to make full use of various translation methods,which can lay a good foundation for the translation of Chinese idioms.

  4. ENGLISH LITERATURE TEACHING IN CHINESE CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ignorance of English literature hinders Chinese studentsfrom improving their English reading and writing abilities.Aneffective solution is to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in their English class.Three tactics ofintroduction of English literature—fragmented quotations,comparison and guided reading—are recommended andillustrated in details in this article.Though most Chinese students spend as long as eight yearson English study,few of them get to see English literature.It isabsurd that of the hundreds of articles in English textbooks forChinese students(who do not major in English)available,notone is a passage of English literary works,and none of themintroduce English writers or recommend English poets.Resultedly,Chinese students know very little about Englishliterature and their knowledge of English culture and traditionsis also limited.This hinders them from improving their readingand writing abilities.Trying for years to introduce a little English literature toChinese students in my English class,I find the effect has beenunexpectedly inspiring,not only making my lectures morevivid,but also enriching my students’English knowledge andarousing their enthusiasm for further study of Englishliterautre.My methods are as follows.

  5. Against besieged literature: fictions, obsessions and globalisations of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Prado-Fonts

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese literature in the 20th century has seen how the combination between, on one hand, the canon established by Socialist realism in China and, on the other, the approaches of Area Studies in the West imposed a limited vision and a partial and slanted assessment of its complexity. The article defends the fact that it is essential to recover the literariness of the literary text, appealing to the sophistication and critical capacity of readers, as a basic strategy for liberating Chinese literature from the interpretive siege that constrains it. The article analyses the interrelation of various aspects -such as the confusion between reality and fiction, the obsessions for interpretations of a national allegorical nature or other mechanisms of globalisation and self-Orientalism- that, in an interrelated way, determine the production and circulation of modern and contemporary Chinese literature in the global literary system. The novel Fortress Besieged by the writer Qian Zhongshu is a paradigmatic example of this situation.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS OF CHINESE COMPARATIVE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiyun Yue

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis of the development of the Chinese Studies ofComparative Literature. After having delineated a short history of the discipline in China, the authordiscusses a series of fundamental theoretical nodes in order to characterize appropriately the wide fieldof action of the comparatist research. According to the author, in the period of transition withoutprecedence that we all have been living, the Comparative Literature is called to play a fundamentalrole in the construction of an ideal world, in which the various cultures can coexist and become rich bymeans of mutual exchange. The single national cultures, in fact, are destined unavoidably to open theirown borders and to develop, thanks to the encounter and interaction with the other cultures.

  7. Renovation and Involution-Paradox of Chinese Literature in Modernity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-bin

    2013-01-01

    With a special matter, Chinese literature has differences with traditional theories from western countries in essence, so that Chinese literature demonstrates its renovation and involution. The main reason is its trends of modernity. The transformation from oversea exchange is very important. This paper mainly explains the specific content of paradox of Chinese literature in mo-dernity, and explores the reasons for differences between China and western countries.

  8. Images of Women in Chinese Literature. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-ning, Li, Ed.

    This book examines the ways in which Chinese literature offers a vast array of prospects, new interpretations, new fields of study, and new themes for the study of women. As a result of the global movement toward greater recognition of gender equality and human dignity, the study of women as portrayed in Chinese literature has a long and rich…

  9. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  10. Annual Meeting Reveals Competitiveness of Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓午

    2008-01-01

    This is the fifth year since the first "Chinese Enterprises Competitiveness Annual Meeting" convened in 2003. During those five years,we have witnessed a period of remarkable performance by Chinese enterprises. These last five years have seen a reaping of the fruits brought about by China’s three-decade-long reform and opening, as evidenced by the increasing growth and maturity of Chinese enterprises and the rising competitiveness of publicly listed Chinese enterprises. Along with the development of globalization initiatives, Chinese enterprises are moving firmly and solidly towards internationalization and have begun to have a profound impact on the world economy. The roadmap of Chinese enterprises has now become a focus of global attention.

  11. Chinese Graduate Students' Experiences with Writing a Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Krugly-Smolska, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Based on interview data, this study investigated four Chinese graduate students' experiences with writing a literature review at a medium-sized university in Canada. These students, from four subject areas, held varying perceptions of a literature review, but all saw the writing challenges that they encountered mainly as linguistic problems,…

  12. Revealing Relationships: First Graders Share Personal Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Literature holds the potential to significantly influence the lives of readers, but what is the nature of this influence for very young readers? This study investigated the question: What are the relationships between beginning readers and their personal literature? A first grade class of 18 students individually assembled a collection of personal…

  13. Learning across Borders--Chinese Migrant Literature and Intercultural Chinese Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongyang

    2014-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…

  14. Local literature bias in genetic epidemiology: an empirical evaluation of the Chinese literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglun Pan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulated epidemiological associations are subject to several biases. We evaluated whether the Chinese literature on human genome epidemiology may offer insights on the operation of selective reporting and language biases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We targeted 13 gene-disease associations, each already assessed by meta-analyses, including at least 15 non-Chinese studies. We searched the Chinese Journal Full-Text Database for additional Chinese studies on the same topics. We identified 161 Chinese studies on 12 of these gene-disease associations; only 20 were PubMed-indexed (seven English full-text. Many studies (14-35 per topic were available for six topics, covering diseases common in China. With one exception, the first Chinese study appeared with a time lag (2-21 y after the first non-Chinese study on the topic. Chinese studies showed significantly more prominent genetic effects than non-Chinese studies, and 48% were statistically significant per se, despite their smaller sample size (median sample size 146 versus 268, p < 0.001. The largest genetic effects were often seen in PubMed-indexed Chinese studies (65% statistically significant per se. Non-Chinese studies of Asian-descent populations (27% significant per se also tended to show somewhat more prominent genetic effects than studies of non-Asian descent (17% significant per se. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence for the interplay of selective reporting and language biases in human genome epidemiology. These biases may not be limited to the Chinese literature and point to the need for a global, transparent, comprehensive outlook in molecular population genetics and epidemiologic studies in general.

  15. 彰显中国气派才能讲好中国抗战故事--兼论《牛全德与红萝卜》在抗战文学史上的开创性%To Tell Good Chinese Anti-Japanese War Stories by Revealing Chinese Grandure:Also on the Creativity of Niu Quande & Radish in the History of Anti-Japanese War Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏爱风; 刘淑萍

    2016-01-01

    In the history of Chinese Anti-Japanese War literature, there are a number of works that borrow experience and writing techniques from foreign novels, while only a section has and reveals the Chinese grandeur. Niu Quande & Radish, a novel produced at the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War, is one of those early successful novels. Yao Xueyin, the author, consciously and actively pursue the national aesthetic style with Chinese style and Chinese grandeur, and has attributed in a favorable way to the nationalization and popularization of the art of Anti-Japanese War.%在我国抗战文学史上,学习国外小说创作经验、写作手法完成的作品不少,土生土长全靠自我摸索,形成中国作风、体现中国气派的作品不多,抗战初期的小说《牛全德与红萝卜》是较早取得成功的一部作品。作者姚雪垠有意识地自觉追求具有中国作风和中国气派的民族美学风格,在抗战小说艺术的民族化、大众化方面,作出了有益的探讨。

  16. Between Sovereignties: Chinese Minor Settler Literature Across the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Taking as its subject Chinese immigrant-settler literature across the Pacific, this study introduces the concept of minor settler to describe settlers who are marginalized within settler society, as later-coming immigrants, racialized minority, or colonized peoples. Maintaining that their experiences of settlement differ from those of dominant settlers, and also foregrounding their role and responsibility as settlers perpetuating Indigenous dispossession, this dissertation is motivated by two...

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine, Food Therapy, and Hypertension Control: A Narrative Review of Chinese Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.

  18. Improve nursing in evidence-based practice: How Chinese nurses' read and comprehend scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Fei Huang

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: The survey of the current status of literature education among Chinese nurses suggests that providing protected time, training for critical thinking, and incentive mechanisms will help improve nurses' engagement in literature and create a culture of academic inquiry.

  19. [Process and key points of clinical literature evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The clinical literature evaluation of the post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine is a comprehensive evaluation by the comprehensive gain, analysis of the drug, literature of drug efficacy, safety, economy, based on the literature evidence and is part of the evaluation of evidence-based medicine. The literature evaluation in the post-marketing Chinese medicine clinical evaluation is in the foundation and the key position. Through the literature evaluation, it can fully grasp the information, grasp listed drug variety of traditional Chinese medicines second development orientation, make clear further clinical indications, perfect the medicines, etc. This paper discusses the main steps and emphasis of the clinical literature evaluation. Emphasizing security literature evaluation should attach importance to the security of a comprehensive collection drug information. Safety assessment should notice traditional Chinese medicine validity evaluation in improving syndrome, improveing the living quality of patients with special advantage. The economics literature evaluation should pay attention to reliability, sensitivity and practicability of the conclusion.

  20. Chinese Migration to Russia as Revealed by Narratives in Chinese Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Rabogoshvili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a seminal analysis of the electronic resources in the Chinese cyberspace devoted to the labour migration of Chinese people to Russia. The author focuses on the online narratives and media stories published on three types of electronic resources – government websites of the northeast provinces of the PRC, online reports by the Chinese news agencies, and postings on bulletin board systems (BBSs in order to find answers to the following research questions: 1. What is the role of Chinese migrants’ narratives circulated via different electronic resources on the Internet in the reproduction of the state-regulated imagination of Russia? 2. To what extent have different types of electronic resources (government websites, news agency websites, BBSs been used to renegotiate this imagination? The research has revealed that the websites of PRC government bodies tend to convey a rather consolidated understanding of Russia as a destination country, frequently publishing the narratives of successful migrants online. The mass media reports tend to provide regular coverage of a broader range of themes related to migration, including those related to the legal and economic vulnerability of Chinese labour migrants in Russia. The semi-anonymous and non-official character of the bulletin board system in turn has allowed its participants to make enquiries about or engage in the discussions of aspects of migration that would never be covered or described in detail by official sources such as government websites.

  1. [Chinese medicine adverse reactions' literature statistical analysis in recent five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2011-10-01

    Since the state food and drug administration (SFDA) issued the first edition of adverse drug reaction(ADR) information in November, 2001, it has 32 edition, reported the drug 66 species of adverse reactions, involving the variety of 12 traditional Chinese medicines, it was effectively reminds all social concern of adverse drug reaction. For statistical analysis in recent years reported adverse drug reaction of prepared Chinese medicine, collected 462 literatures from 2005-09 CNKI Chinese journal full-text database of medicine health directory. In all the collections, about 94 literatures are closely related to adverse drug reaction report of prepared Chinese medicine. But there are only 7 references could identify traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine correctly in 72 literatures with the value of statistical analysis. That means only 8.9% of literatures can correctly identify western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. So it proved that TCM workers' knowledge of ADR remains to be greatly improved.

  2. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness in Chinese Agricultural Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products, in relation to the rest of the world, based on the index of revealed comparative advantage, using lots of data during period of 1980 to 2000. The index is useful in identifying the demarcation between comparative advantage and comparative disadvantage, though a problem exits when using it. China is shown to have a comparative advantage in a range of agricultural products, including edible vegetables and tea. This complements the findings of those studies that have used price and cost based on approaches in identifying competitiveness in agricultural products. Results indicated that the RCA values had been weakening over the 21-year period. These have vastly different implication for the future reform in China's agriculture.

  3. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  4. Treatment of cholecystitis with Chinese herbal medicines: A systematic review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Dong; Guan-Liang Wang; Xing Liu; Jia Liu; De-Zeng Zhu; Chang-Quan Ling

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the literature on the use of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of cholecystitis.METHODS:The literature on treatment of cholecystitis with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) was analyzed based on the principles and methods described by evidence-based medicine (EBM).Eight databases including MEDLINE,EMbase,Cochrane Central (CCTR),four Chinese databases (China Biological Medicine Database,Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Database of Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals,Database of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology) and Chinese Clinical Registry Center,were searched.Full text articles or abstracts concerning TCM treatment of cholecystitis were selected,categorized according to study design,the strength of evidence,the first author's hospital type,and analyzed statistically.RESULTS:A search of the literature published from 1977 through 2009 yielded 1468 articles in Chinese and 9 in other languages; and 93.92% of the articles focused on clinical studies.No article was of level I evidence,and 9.26% were of level Ⅱ evidence.The literature cited by Science Citation Index (SCI),MEDLINE and core Chinese medical journals accounted for 0.41%,0.68% and 7.29%,respectively.Typically,the articles featured in case reports of illness,examined from the perspective of EBM,were weak in both quality and evidence level,which inconsistently conflicted with the fact that most of the papers were by authors from Level-3 hospitals,the highest possible level evaluated based on their comprehensive quality and academic authenticity in China.CONCLUSION:The published literature on TCM treatment of cholecystitis is of low quality and based on low evidence,and cognitive medicine may functions as a useful supplementary framework for the evaluation.

  5. Researches on Tic Disorder in Chinese Ancient Literatures%抽动障碍古代文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮铭; 吴敏

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the name, causes, pathology and the treatment of the tic disorders in ancient Chinese literatures through the database of Ancient Chinese Literature on Pediatric, and reveals the previous treatment for the disease by statistics for medication. It supplies the theoretical basis for clinical treatment.%通过查阅《中医儿科古代文献数据库》中与抽动障碍疾病相关的古代文献,综述抽动障碍的病名、病因病机以及治法;并通过对治疗药物的统计,揭示了历代医家对该病认识的总体规律,为临床治疗抽动障碍提供理论基础.

  6. On The Prehistory Of Chinese-Western Comparative Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓彤; 曹薇

    2010-01-01

    @@ The earlist prehistory of western comparative literature can be traced back to the Ancient Rome, as the literature of that period (in ancient Latin) intentionally imitated the Ancient Greek literature(in ancient Greek), like the Virgil's Aeneid was an imitation of Homeric epic, so the writers and theorists of Ancient Rome always compare the differences and similarities of the two periods、 nationalities and languages that reflected in literature.

  7. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  8. Dermatoglyphics from all Chinese ethnic groups reveal geographic patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Guo Zhang

    Full Text Available Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.

  9. Writing on Boundaries: The Split Subject in Chinese Canadian Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaobo

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual grasp of the corpus of work produced by Chinese Canadian writers and a framework for analysing its tropes and interpreting their political resonance. It defines the Chinese Canadian work as a three-phase counterhegemonic discourse: Writing back into a forbidden past; negotiating into the present; writing on boundaries. For the ambivalent, split diasporic subject to negotiate into the present from the forbidden past is to reinscribe itself as a locus of crisis, a non-identity, a doubling, a third term. Writing on boundaries can be read as a strategy of decolonization deployed by the subaltern in striving for self-vindication and self-fulfilment.

  10. Trauma and truth: representations of madness in Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Birgit

    2011-12-01

    With only a few exceptions, the literary theme of madness has long been a domain of Western cultural studies. Much of Western writing represents madness as an inquiry into the deepest recesses of the mind, while the comparatively scarce Chinese tradition is generally defined by madness as a voice of social truth. This paper looks at five works of twentieth-century Chinese fiction that draw on socio-somatic aspects of madness to reflect upon social truths, suggesting that the inner voice of subjectivity is perhaps not the only true voice of the self.

  11. Chinese students studying at Australian universities with specific reference to nursing students: a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Carol Chunfeng; Andre, Kate; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2015-04-01

    To report the current knowledge on the Chinese nursing students' learning at Australian universities. The intent is to provide educators and researchers with a background to the contexts, the methodologies, the emphases of various relevant studies, and to provide recommendations for future research. Attracting international students has become an important part of Australian universities' business and contributes to their cultural diversity. Teaching international students has received considerable attention in the educational research literature. Experiences of international students can vary greatly depending on their country of origin. This paper critically reviews current literature relating to issues for Chinese students and in particular, Chinese nursing students, the biggest single group of international nursing students at Australian universities Narrative literature review. A comprehensive search of seven electronic databases for literature between 2003 and 2014 helped to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that addressed issues of Asian international students with English as a second language (ESL) (included nursing students) studying in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the United States and China. Pertinent websites were also searched. The reference lists and bibliographies of retrieved articles were hand- searched to identify other relevant studies. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The majority of existing literature claimed that there is a range of challenges confronting international students including Chinese nursing students, in assimilation into their host country. These include issues with English language proficiency, cultural barriers, social problems, different learning styles, academic demands, perceived racism, homesickness, lack of assertiveness and financial problems. There is limited research about the Chinese students' study in Australia. In particular, the learning experience of Chinese nursing students

  12. A Case of Mutual Exclusion: Portrayals by Immigrant and American-Born Chinese of Each Other in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Marlon K.

    1984-01-01

    Examines literary works by first-generation Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans. Reports that each group has been critical in its portrayals of the other, especially when some direct interaction between the two groups is depicted. Asserts that this literature has shown how ethnocentrism has divided the Chinese in America. (KH)

  13. Coloring Crude Drug on Old Chinese Literatures about Herbalogical Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    水野,瑞夫/清水,孝重/井上,健夫; ミズノ,ミズオ/シミズ,タカシゲ/イノウエ,タケオ; MIZUNO,MIZUO/SHIMIZU,TAKASHIGE/INOUE,TAKEO

    1995-01-01

    Chinese literature about herbalogical medicine contains not only plants but also animals and other natural resources. In China, after publishing "Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (神農本草経) " herbaloglcal medicine had developed and Li Shi Zhen (李時珍) made a comprehensive compilation of this field. We report in this paper, the lists of coloring crude drugs and their explanation about coloring with the source of literature.

  14. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key terms--"migratory,"…

  15. "Migratory Literature": A "Third Place" for Intercultural Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Trevor; Wang, Yongyang

    2010-01-01

    This paper, drawing upon multidisciplinary studies such as critical and cultural studies, literary criticism, intercultural communication and second language acquisition, suggests a specific literary genre--"migratory literature"--to support intercultural competence for learners of Chinese. We begin by elucidating key…

  16. Literature Review of the Reasons of Chinese Master Students ’Language Choices in UK Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the challenges that international students face during their study in a foreign country, language has been more and more of concern. The aim of this literature review is to know the reasons of Chinese master students’language choices in UK universities. In this paper the reasons of language choices, and the gaps between previous and present research are discussed.

  17. Revealing the hidden health costs embodied in Chinese exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Peng, Liqun; Guan, Dabo; Kan, Haidong; Huo, Hong; Lin, Jintai; Brauer, Michael; Martin, Randall V; He, Kebin

    2015-04-07

    China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution. The results show that export-related emissions elevated the annual mean population weighted PM2.5 by 8.3 μg/m(3) (15% of the total) in 2007, causing 157,000 deaths and accounting for 12% of the total mortality attributable to PM2.5-related air pollution. Compared to the eastern coastal provinces, the inner regions experience much larger export-related health losses relative to their economic production gains, owing to huge inter-regional disparities in export structures and technology levels. A shift away from emission-intensive production structure and export patterns, especially in inner regions, could significantly help improve national exports while alleviating the inter-regional cost-benefit inequality. Our results provide the first quantification of health consequences from air pollution related to Chinese exports. The proposed policy recommendations, based on health burden, economic production gains, and emission analysis, would be helpful to develop more sustainable and effective national and regional export strategies.

  18. Revealing the Hidden Health Costs Embodied in Chinese Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Guan, D.; Lin, J.

    2015-12-01

    China emits a considerable amount of air pollutants when producing goods for export. Previous efforts have emphasized the magnitude of export-related emissions; however, their health consequences on the Chinese population have not been quantified. Here, we present an interdisciplinary study to estimate the health impact of export-related air pollution. The results show that export-related emissions elevated the annual mean population weighted PM2.5 by 8.3mg/m3 (15% of the total) in 2007, causing 157,000 deaths and accounting for 12% of the total mortality attributable to PM2.5-related air pollution. Compared to the eastern coastal provinces, the inner regions experience much larger export-related health losses relative to their economic production gains, owing to huge inter-regional disparities in export structures and technology levels. A shift away from emission-intensive production structure and export patterns, especially in inner regions, could significantly help improve national exports while alleviating the inter-regional cost-benefit inequality. Our results provide the first quantification of health consequences from air pollution related to Chinese exports. The proposed policy recommendations, based on health burden, economic production gains and emission analysis, would be helpful to develop more sustainable and effective national and regional export strategies.

  19. ERPs reveal sub-lexical processing in Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Mo, Deyuan; Tsang, Yiu-Kei; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-04-18

    The present study used ERPs and a lexical decision task to explore the roles of position-general and position-specific radicals and their relative time courses in processing Chinese characters. Two types of radical frequency were manipulated: the number of characters containing a specific radical irrespective of position (i.e., radical frequency or RF) and the number of characters containing a specific radical at a particular position (i.e., position-specific radical frequency or PRF). The PRF effect was found to be associated with P150, P200, and N400, whereas the RF effect was associated with P200. These results suggest that both position-general and position-specific radicals could influence character processing, but the effect of position-specific radicals appeared earlier and lasted longer than that of position-general radicals. These findings are interpreted in terms of the specific orthographic properties of the sub-lexical components of Chinese characters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel D Nijhof

    Full Text Available When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing, and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods.

  1. Simulating fiction: individual differences in literature comprehension revealed with FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Annabel D; Willems, Roel M

    2015-01-01

    When we read literary fiction, we are transported to fictional places, and we feel and think along with the characters. Despite the importance of narrative in adult life and during development, the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying fiction comprehension are unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how individuals differently employ neural networks important for understanding others' beliefs and intentions (mentalizing), and for sensori-motor simulation while listening to excerpts from literary novels. Localizer tasks were used to localize both the cortical motor network and the mentalizing network in participants after they listened to excerpts from literary novels. Results show that participants who had high activation in anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC; part of the mentalizing network) when listening to mentalizing content of literary fiction, had lower motor cortex activity when they listened to action-related content of the story, and vice versa. This qualifies how people differ in their engagement with fiction: some people are mostly drawn into a story by mentalizing about the thoughts and beliefs of others, whereas others engage in literature by simulating more concrete events such as actions. This study provides on-line neural evidence for the existence of qualitatively different styles of moving into literary worlds, and adds to a growing body of literature showing the potential to study narrative comprehension with neuroimaging methods.

  2. Analysis of the Differences between Chinese and Western Culture from Love Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Meng

    2016-01-01

    Love is an eternal theme of world literature. Both the ancient and the modern literature tend to take marriage and love as their paramount theme;however, there is rarely any research sorting out these themes from the perspective of cultural differ-ence. Being engaged in exploring the love literature, this paper intends to make a comparison with Chinese and western perspec-tives of love and analyzes the embodied culture essences and differences from the comparative researches on their literary status, attitudes towards love, and the choice of themes.

  3. An Eminent Specialist in Both Chinese Literature and Comparative Literature—An Interview with Prof.Stephen Owen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Interviewee:Stephen Owen,James Bryant Conant University Professor and a member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences(1991-),is working at Harvard University as Professor of Comparative Literature in the Dept.of Comparative Literature and Professor of Chinese Literature in the Dept.of Asian Studies.

  4. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  5. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries.

  6. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, M.; Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Wietmarschen, H. van; Wijk, R. van; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal

  7. Harnessing the wealth of Chinese scientific literature: schistosomiasis research and control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Tippi K

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economy of China continues to boom and so have its biomedical research and related publishing activities. Several so-called neglected tropical diseases that are most common in the developing world are still rampant or even emerging in some parts of China. The purpose of this article is to document the significant research potential from the Chinese biomedical bibliographic databases. The research contributions from China in the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis provide an excellent illustration. We searched two widely used databases, namely China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and VIP Information (VIP. Employing the keyword "Schistosoma" ( and covering the period 1990–2006, we obtained 10,244 hits in the CNKI database and 5,975 in VIP. We examined 10 Chinese biomedical journals that published the highest number of original research articles on schistosomiasis for issues including languages and open access. Although most of the journals are published in Chinese, English abstracts are usually available. Open access to full articles was available in China Tropical Medicine in 2005/2006 and is granted by the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases since 2003; none of the other journals examined offered open access. We reviewed (i the discovery and development of antischistosomal drugs, (ii the progress made with molluscicides and (iii environmental management for schistosomiasis control in China over the past 20 years. In conclusion, significant research is published in the Chinese literature, which is relevant for local control measures and global scientific knowledge. Open access should be encouraged and language barriers removed so the wealth of Chinese research can be more fully appreciated by the scientific community.

  8. Literature review and analysis of the application of health outcome assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Pei-wu Li; Qian-wen Li; Nelson Xie; Jing-wei Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:To evaluate the application of health assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:According to a pre-defined search strategy,a comprehensive literature search for all articles published in China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted.The resulting articles that met the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used for analysis.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine have been used in fundamental and theoretical research,and 14 of these were also used in 29 clinical trials that were randomized controlled trials,or descriptive or cross-sectional studies.In 2 152 Chinese medicine-based studies that used instruments in their methodology,more than 150 questionnaires were identified.Among the identified questionnaires,51 were used in more than 10 articles (0.5%).Most of these instruments were developed in Western countries and few studies (4%) used the instrument as the primary evidence for their conclusions.CONCLUSION:Usage of instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,current limitations include selection rationale,result interpretation and standardization,which must be addressed accordingly.

  9. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  10. Critical evaluation of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in Chinese patients: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang LL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LiLi Zhang,1 JiTao Li,2–4 YanJie Zhao,5 Yun’Ai Su,2–4 Tianmei Si2–4 1Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, 2National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, 3Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, 5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Paliperidone (9-hydroxyrisperidone, the major active metabolite of risperidone, has been introduced as a novel atypical antipsychotic agent in many countries. It is available both as an oral extended-release (ER formulation and as a long-acting injection (paliperidone palmitate, PP, which have been approved for treating schizophrenia in the People’s Republic of China since 2009 and 2012, respectively. This systematic review summarizes the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of paliperidone in the treatment of schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on the databases covering international and Chinese core journals, published from January 1, 2008, to May 22, 2015. Results: A total of 122 publications were retrieved, of which 63 studies were identified for inclusion; most studies were related to paliperidone ER (n=53, nine were related to PP, and one study was related to both agents. Paliperidone ER demonstrated at least comparable efficacy with active comparators, including risperidone, olanzapine, ziprasidone, or aripiprazole, and was found to be superior with respect to the onset of action and improvement in the Personal and Social Performance Scale score. Paliperidone ER appeared to be associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndromes; the most common treatment-emergent adverse events were extrapyramidal symptoms, akathisia, insomnia, and somnolence. Results from interventional and observational studies showed that PP

  11. Pulmonary-bronchus myelolipoma and review on extra-adrenal myelolipomas in Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-ting; ZHAO Shi-jun; LIN Dong-mei

    2012-01-01

    Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are extremely rare,especially in bronchus and lung.Up to now,only nine cases of intra pulmonary lesions have been reported all over the world.Here we describe a new discovered pulmonary-bronchus myelolipoma in a 53-year-old man,which is different from the previously reported ones.And we mainly comment on the pathology and diagnosis,comparing with the findings of the extra-adrenal cases reported in Chinese literature.

  12. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas:A review of 553 cases in Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To sum up the clinical and pathological characte- ristics of solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) and the experience with it.METHODS: A total of 553 SPT patients reported in Chinese literature between January 1996 and January 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: The mean age of the 553 SPT patients included in this review was 27.2 years, and the male to female ratio was 1:8.37. Their symptoms were non-specific, and nearly one third of the patients were asymptomatic. Computed tomography...

  13. Literature review and analysis of the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-bin Liu; Zheng-kun Hou; Yun-ying Yang; Zheng-zheng Zhang; Di Xie; Nelson Xie; Hong Thach Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the development of health outcomes assessment instruments in Chinese medicine.METHODS:A comprehensive literature search for all published articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database,Chongqing VIP Database and WANFANG Data was conducted.The studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to extract information according to a predesigned assessment instrument.RESULTS:A total of 97 instruments for health outcome assessment in Chinese medicine were identified.Of these questionnaires,7 were generic,12 were condition-specific and 78 were disease-specific.All instruments were suitable for adults,children,and both men and women.These instruments aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life,signs and symptoms as well as patient satisfaction and doctor-reported outcome.However,the descriptions were poorly constructed for some of the most basic parameters,such as the domains and items,administrative mode,response options,memory recall periods,burden evaluation,format,copyright,content validity,and other properties.CONCLUSION:The instrument development for health outcomes assessment in Chinese medicine is increasing rapidly; however,there are many limitations in current methodologies and standards,and further studies are needed.

  14. Button battery intake as foreign body in Chinese children: review of case reports and the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenjing; Wen, Guangyi; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-06-01

    Button batteries have been recognized as one of the dangerous foreign bodies to children for more than 30 years, but few related studies have been published to give more concern in China. We reported 6 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children. The Chinese literature on button battery as foreign body in children was reviewed. The interval between the accidental ingestion and battery removal ranged from 6 hours to 3 days. Two patients had no sequela, 3 patients had tracheoesophageal fistulas, and 1 patient had nasal septal perforation. Twenty-eight articles about button battery as foreign body in children were obtained by Chinese-language literature searches including 25 case reports, 2 health education articles, and 1 imaging article. In total, 172 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children were identified, 23 and 10 of the 159 cases involving nasal button battery lodgment developed nasal septal perforation and nasal adhesion, respectively. Tracheoesophageal fistula was identified in 4 of the 12 ingestion cases. One case of button battery intake was in external auditory canal. A small number of children with button battery as foreign body were reported in China, which is 1 of the biggest countries with large population of children.

  15. Chinese Pop Literature Studies in the First Half of the 20th Century%20世纪上半叶的俗文学文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠元

    2012-01-01

    20世纪上半叶,众多学者对俗文学文献进行收藏、整理、校勘研究等工作。这些工作不仅仅为俗文学研究提供了丰富的史料,同时也在显现这些被长久遮蔽、遗忘的文学历史时解答了众多文学史的谜团,恢复了中国文学的全真面目。它在提高俗文学历史地位的同时,在推动俗文学学科建设的过程中起到了地基性作用。%In the first half of the 20th century, many scholars collected and studied literature of Chinese pop literature. Their work provided plenty of research materials and solved many mysteries long neglected in the literary history. By revealing the true face of Chinese literature, it has improve the statue of pop literature and laid a solid foundation for the establishment of pop literature as a discipline.

  16. Terms referring to psoriasis vulgaris in the classical Chinese medicine literature: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Claire Shuiqing; May, Brian; Yan, Yuhong; Yu, Jason Jingjie; Yao, Danni; Chang, Suyueh; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a modern medical term. In the classical Chinese medicine (CM) literature, this disorder could be classified under a diversity of terms. In order to explore how psoriasis vulgaris was conceptualized and managed throughout Chinese medical history, we undertook a systematic longitudinal analysis of descriptions in the classical CM literature of skin disorders consistent with psoriasis vulgaris. Candidate search terms were identified from 33 contemporary CM books as relevant to psoriasis vulgaris. Thirteen terms were used to search the Zhong Hua Yi Dian--'Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine', 4th edition, a digital collection of over 1000 medical books. Search results were entered in a spreadsheet, citations that were consistent with psoriasis vulgaris were identified based on: (i) a description of the features of psoriasis vulgaris and (ii) judgment by two clinicians regarding relevance to psoriasis vulgaris. Analysis focused on the use of terms by historical period (Chinese dynasty) and whether the terms were specific for psoriasis vulgaris 608 citations dating from 363 to 1947AD were included. The two criteria for determining inclusion of citations were combined to select the pool of citations most relevant to psoriasis vulgaris. Sixty citations from eight search terms were found in this pool. Among the eight terms, Bai Bi, She Shi and Bi Feng consistently identified citations that were likely to be psoriasis. The earliest was from 1368AD (Ming dynasty). The remaining five terms yielded inconsistent results. Citations of disorders consistent with psoriasis vulgaris appear prior to 1368-1644AD (Ming dynasty), but the terms used were not specific for psoriasis. Bai Bi, She Shi and Bi Feng are the terms most consistently used to refer to psoriasis vulgaris. They first appeared in 1368-1644AD (Ming dynasty) and Bai bi remains in use. Regarding the other terms, certain citations may have referred to psoriasis vulgaris, but in other cases

  17. HeoSeuk’s Thought for the Chinese Literature-Geography:Centering on Chinese Literature Travelas%许世旭文学地理学学理探讨-以《中国文学纪行》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴南用

    2015-01-01

    HeoSeuk (1934—2010) is not only a distinguished Korean scholar of Chinese literature but also a poet and prose writer who has created so many works by making use of Korean and Chinese. I regarded HeoSeuk’s main writing Chinese Literature Travelas a subject of study. I researched the conception, implication, category, structure and influence of the Chinese literature-geography which HeoSeuk has. Furthermore, I researched the opinion of the Chinese literature-geography which means it combines the literature with geography. When HeoSeuk wrote the Chinese history of literature book, he put great emphasis on the human geography and physical geography of Chinese writer and literary work. Fundamentally, he insisted the close association between geography and literature. He mainly studied the ethnic style and local cultural features of the Chinese literature. Consequently, HeoSeuk’s thought for the Chinese literature-geography had an excellent and unusual meaning. In addition, he contributed the new research viewpoint and criticism methodology to the sinology academic world of Korea.We could understand the international exchange between the Chinese literature and cultural geography through HeoSeuk’s cultural translation of the Chinese Literature-Geography Travelas.%许世旭先生(1934—2010)是韩国十分著名的中国文学研究家,也是用韩语、汉语双重语言来创作的诗人、散文家。文章以许世旭先生的主要著作《中国文学纪行》为研究对象,探讨他对中国文学地理概念的定义、含义、范畴、结构、影响等方面观点和对文学与地理互相结合的文学地理学的观念。在阐述几部中国文学史著作时,他非常重视中国文人和作品中的人文地理和自然地理。他坚持认为地理与文学之间存在密切关系,主要研究中国文学中的民族风格和地域文化特色。总而言之,许世旭先生对文学地理学有独到见解,而且为韩国的

  18. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom RM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rianne M Blom,1 Nienke C Vulink,1 Sija J van der Wal,1 Takashi Nakamae,1–3 Zhonglin Tan,1,4 Eske M Derks,1 Damiaan Denys1,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 3Department of Neural Computation for Decision-Making, ATR Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Hangzhou Mental Health Center, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: Body integrity identity disorder (BIID is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the Chinese literature for the treatment of achalasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan Wang; You-Ming Li; Lan Li; Chao-Hui Yu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of different approaches in the treatment of achalasia in China.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of Chinese literature by searching the Chinese Biomedical Database and Chinese scientific Journals database (up to March 2008). All cohort studies (controlled or uncontrolled) in which the patients were observed for more than a year were reviewed in detail. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for controlled trials. The efficacy in uncontrolled trials was assessed by a pooled estimate of response rate with individual studies weighted in proportion to the sample size.RESULTS: Seven controlled trials compared the effect of botulinum toxin injection (BoTx) with pneumatic dilation (PD). PD was superior to BoTx [65.2% vs 45.3%; RR 1.47 (95% CI 1.23-1.77), P <0.0001], and had a lower clinical relapse rate (BoTx 30.2% vs PD 10%, RR 0.32 (0.16-0.65), P=0.001). Heller myotomy (HM) had superior remission rate compared to PD [HM 94.0% vs PD 64.1%, RR 1.48 (1.15-1.99), P=0.002]. In uncontrolled trials, the effectiveness of PD was 86.6% (23.9%) vs 94.8% (10.6%) for HM. The main complications of PD were perforation and gastroesophageal reflux disease.CONCLUSION: HM is the most effective long-term treatment for patients with achalasia in China. In the future, controlled clinical trials on the treatment of achalasia should focus on comparing laparoscopic myotomy with or without antireflux procedure, including different partial and total fundoplication techniques.

  20. The influence of culture on the oral health-related beliefs and behaviours of elderly chinese immigrants: a meta-synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, André; MacEntee, Michael I; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, Ross; Graf, Peter; Hornby, Kathryn; Kobayashi, Karen; Wong, Sabrina T

    2013-03-01

    Neglect of the mouth can lead to impairment, disability, and discomfort; as a result, it can have a negative impact on quality of life in old age. Some minority groups in North America shoulder a disproportionate burden of dental impairment compared to people of European origins, possibly because of different cultural beliefs and a distrust of Western oral healthcare. This paper explores these factors in elderly Chinese immigrants through a meta-synthesis of selected literature that reveals a dynamic interplay of traditional Chinese beliefs about oral health, immigration, and structural factors mediating access to Western dentistry. It also identifies several conceptual issues and gaps in knowledge, offers avenues of research including the cross-cultural application of two recent models of oral health, and discusses various strategies for improving access to dental services for minority populations.

  1. 刘若愚《中国文学理论》的技巧观%On the Skills View of Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺根民

    2012-01-01

    In view of western culture and the world literature, Liu Ruoyu's Chinese Literature Theories explored the systematized thoughts of the art of Chinese poetry. The skills of bearing the meaning in the speech reveal the Taoism of the human social law. The thought of Liu's poetic skills increased Chinese influence on the field of the world literary.%参以西学文化,立足世界文学视野来探究中国诗学的技巧观,刘若愚《中国文学理论》发掘了中国诗学的系统化思想。以言语为意义承载的技巧,跃升为揭示人类社会规律的道,刘若愚中国诗学的技巧之思,加重了世界文论领域的中国声音。

  2. Representing Divorce, Reforming Interiority: Narratives of Gender, Class and Family in Post-Reform Chinese Literature and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This project stands at the juncture of modern Chinese literature, post-socialist studies, cultural history of divorce, and critical studies about global middle-class cultures. Employing analytical tools mainly from literary studies, cultural studies and feminist theories, I examine stories, novels, films and TV dramas about divorce produced…

  3. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family. PMID:28275379

  4. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family.

  5. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-09-14

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as "DongChong XiaCao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats.

  6. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo-Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010. Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control

  7. Molluscicidal efficacies of different formulations of niclosamide: result of meta-analysis of Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Li, Wei; Sun, Le-Ping; Wu, Feng; Yang, Kun; Huang, Yi-Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-09-07

    The control efforts on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, cannot be easily excluded from the integrated approach of schistosomiasis control in China. Application of chemical compounds, molluscicides, in snail habitats is a common method for snail control in addition to environmental modification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the molluscicidal effects of the currently recommended 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder and a new 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder developed by Chinese researchers. Literature was searched from three Chinese databases, i.e. Chinese Biomedical Database, VIP Database and Wanfang Database, on field mollusciciding trials of niclosamide in China (from January 1, 1990 to April 1, 2010). Molluscicidal effects on reduction of snail population of the 50% or 4% niclosamide formulations in field trial were evaluated 3 days, 7 days or 15 days post-application. Out of 90 publications, 20 papers were eventually selected for analysis. Publication bias and heterogeneity tests indicated that no publication bias existed but heterogeneity between studies was present. Meta-analysis in a random effect model showed that the snail mortality of 3, 7 and 15 days after spraying the 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder were 77% [95%CI: 0.68-0.86], 83% [95%CI: 0.77-0.89], and 88% [95%CI: 0.82-0.92], respectively. For the 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder, the snail mortality after 3, 7 and 15 days were 81% [95%CI: 0.65-0.93], 90% [95%CI: 0.83-0.95] and 94% [95%CI: 0.91-0.97], respectively. Both are good enough to be used as molluscicides integrated with a schistosomiasis control programme. The 4% niclosamide ethanolamine salt powder can be applied in the field without water supply as the surrogate of the current widely used 50% niclosamide ethanolamine salt wettable powder. However, to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievement gained, it is

  8. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  9. Traditional Chinese Medicine Zheng in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: A Literature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zheng, which is also called a syndrome or pattern, is the basic unit and a key concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM theory. Zheng can be considered a further stratification of patients when it is integrated with biomedical diagnoses in clinical practice to achieve higher efficacies. In an era of evidence-based medicine, confronted with the vast and increasing volume of TCM data, there is an urgent need to explore these resources effectively using techniques of knowledge discovery in databases. The application of effective data mining in the analysis of multiple extensively integrated databases can supply new information about TCM Zheng research. In this paper, we screened the published literature on TCM Zheng-related studies in the SinoMed and PubMed databases with a novel data mining approach to obtain an overview of the Zheng research landscape in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of TCM Zheng in the era of evidence-based medicine. In our results, contrast was found in Zheng in different studies, and several determinants of Zheng were identified. The data described in this paper can be used to assess Zheng research studies based on the title and certain characteristics of the abstract. These findings will benefit modern TCM Zheng-related studies and guide future Zheng study efforts.

  10. Rethinking of Sima Changfeng's History of New Chinese Literature%司马长风《中国新文学史》再探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 韦群芳

    2011-01-01

    After the Cultural Revolution,a new pattern in the writing of history of modern Chinese literature was gradually formed under the great influence of Sima Changfeng's History of New Chinese Literature,especially its unique framework,timeline setting and criteria for value judgment.Even today,we can still learn from its distinctive and enthusiastic modes of narration,as well as its exuberant language.At the watershed in the writing of history of modern Chinese literature,reviewing and analyzing this masterpiece may reveal the nature of the past and enlighten the present.%司马长风的《中国新文学史》对中国现代文学史的编写产生了较大的影响,其独特的编写体例、分期方式及价值评判方式直接或间接地促进"文革"后中国现代文学史编写新格局的形成。《中国新文学史》充满活力的写史语言、富于个性和激情的叙述方式时至今日仍有较大的借鉴价值。在当前中国现代文学史编写面临转向的关头,回顾与梳理这部史著意在正本清源、启示当前。

  11. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  12. 论中国古典文学中的正义叙事%Narrative of Justice in Classical Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑双

    2015-01-01

    关于文学的社会功能,中国古代文论有“诗缘情”和“诗言志”两种传统,其中,“诗言志”生发叙事传统,赋予文学以载道的使命,体现了对正义价值的追求,并使得中国古典文学具有正义叙事的脉络。该正义叙事具有鲜明的民族特征:受“诗缘情”诗歌传统影响,正义叙事和诗性叙事呈交叉和弥合状态;受儒家礼制渗透,中国古典文学具有鲜明的道德教化功用,正义叙事背后是内在伦理秩序的构建;正义叙事反映了我们民族特有的审美文化和独特的语境,中国的阴阳二元思想与起源于结构主义的现代叙事理论有某些相似处。解读正义叙事对理解我们民族的哲学思想和文学叙事理论有重要的方法论意义。%As to the social function of literature, there are two kinds of poetry in classical Chinese lit-erature:Shiyuanqing 诗缘情 ( poetry expressing emotions) and Shiyanzhi 诗言志 ( poetry expressing lofty aspirations) . The latter, from which our narrative tradition originated, endows literature with the mission to convey truth and introduces narrative of justice into classical Chinese literature, revealing our pursuit of justice. Justice narrative shows distinctive national characteristics. Under the influence of Shiyuanqing, it is closely connected with poetic justice. Due to Confucian ritual theory, the func-tion of moralization is greatly emphasized in classical Chinese literature. Hence, what is behind justice narrative is the construction of our internal ethical order. Also, justice narrative reflects our unique aesthetic taste and cultural context. Chinese yin-yang theory is kind of similar to modern narrative the-ory originating from structuralism. Interpreting justice narrative is of methodological significance for understanding our philosophy and theory of literary narrative.

  13. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: a report of six cases and a review of the Chinese literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jifang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Goals The main purpose of this study is to broaden the clinicopathological spectrum and increase recognition of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS through analysis of the clinical and pathological features of 50 cases. Methods The clinicopathological features of total 50 cases of FDCS were analyzed including a review of 44 cases reported in Chinese literature before October 2009 and six original cases from the pathology files conducted by the authors. Results The youngest patient came under observation in this study is only seven years old. Including the cases contributed by the authors, our literary review indicated that male dominated the tumor cases (M: F = 3: 2. 28 cases (56% present with this disease in extranodal sites. Tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for the follicular dendritic cell markers CD21 (47/49, CD35 (43/45, CD23 (20/23 and CD68 (23/25. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was performed in 10 cases. Nevertheless, EBV expression was absent in all these cases. The follow-up analysis of all cases shows that 26 (81.2% patients were alive and disease free; 6 (18.8% patients were alive with recurrent disease or metastasis; and nobody had died of this disease at the time of last follow-up. Conclusions The diagnosis of the FDCS is based on the findings of morphology and immunohistochemistry. The FDCS occurred in China should be viewed and treated as a low-grade sarcoma, and the role of the EBV in the pathogenesis of this tumor is still uncertain. There is a possibility that the tumor might be racial or geographic correlated, because most cases were reported from Eastern Asia area; it's particular the case of the liver or spleen tumor.

  14. Toward Sublime:the Comparison of Sea Poems in Chinese and English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单健; 翟静

    2014-01-01

    This essay briefly discusses different reflections of western and Chinese philosophy towards sea in poems. By the com-parison of the evaluation of sea in Chinese and English poems, this essay reaches the conclusion that both cultures have sublime understanding towards sea.

  15. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A; Yang, Huan-Yi; Liu, Tong-Jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-Qing

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.

  16. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-hua; Wu, Tao; Sadiq, Faizan A.; Yang, Huan-yi; Liu, Tong-jie; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB still remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). All samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies. PMID:27704748

  17. Comprehensive resistome analysis reveals the prevalence of NDM and MCR-1 in Chinese poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Rongmin; Li, Jiyun; Wu, Zuowei; Yin, Wenjuan; Schwarz, Stefan; Tyrrell, Jonathan M; Zheng, Yongjun; Wang, Shaolin; Shen, Zhangqi; Liu, Zhihai; Liu, Jianye; Lei, Lei; Li, Mei; Zhang, Qidi; Wu, Congming; Zhang, Qijing; Wu, Yongning; Walsh, Timothy R; Shen, Jianzhong

    2017-02-06

    By 2030, the global population will be 8.5 billion, placing pressure on international poultry production, of which China is a key producer(1). From April 2017, China will implement the withdrawal of colistin as a growth promoter, removing over 8,000 tonnes per year from the Chinese farming sector(2). To understand the impact of banning colistin and the epidemiology of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (using blaNDM and mcr-1 as marker genes), we sampled poultry, dogs, sewage, wild birds and flies. Here, we show that mcr-1, but not blaNDM, is prevalent in hatcheries, but blaNDM quickly contaminates flocks through dogs, flies and wild birds. We also screened samples directly for resistance genes to understand the true breadth and depth of the environmental and animal resistome. Direct sample testing for blaNDM and mcr-1 in hatcheries, commercial farms, a slaughterhouse and supermarkets revealed considerably higher levels of positive samples than the blaNDM- and mcr-1-positive E. coli, indicating a substantial segment of unseen resistome-a phenomenon we have termed the 'phantom resistome'. Whole-genome sequencing identified common blaNDM-positive E. coli shared among farms, flies, dogs and farmers, providing direct evidence of carbapenem-resistant E. coli transmission and environmental contamination.

  18. Exophthalmos Revealing a Krukenberg Tumor: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fetohi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krukenberg tumor is a well-known ovarian metastasis, usually of signet ring cell carcinoma in female patients. In the literature, there are a few documented cases of ocular metastasis in patients with Krukenberg tumor. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 35-year-old single Moroccan woman. She presented chronic pelvic pain, hematemesis and blurring of vision in the left eye. Clinical examination showed a pelvic mass and an exophthalmos with a divergent strabismus in the left eye. Pelvic and abdominal ultrasound showed a right tissular ovarian mass. Computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an ovarian tumor and bone metastasis. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a hypertrophy of the left inferior rectus muscle behind the exophthalmos. Stomach endoscopy revealed an ulcerated and protruded mass of the antro-fundic junction. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry showed an infiltration of the gastric mucosa by atypically isolated signet ring cells similar to the tumor cells found in the ovarian histopathological exams. Discussion: Krukenberg tumor is an uncommon metastatic tumor of the ovary. This article provides an overview of the major pathological manifestations of Krukenberg tumor, patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory features of the disease, prognostic factors, and current knowledge about its pathogenesis.

  19. Exophthalmos Revealing a Krukenberg Tumor: A Case Presentation and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetohi, Mohamed; Errarhay, Sanaa; Bazine, Aziz; Namad, Tarikq

    2016-01-01

    Background Krukenberg tumor is a well-known ovarian metastasis, usually of signet ring cell carcinoma in female patients. In the literature, there are a few documented cases of ocular metastasis in patients with Krukenberg tumor. Case Presentation We report the case of a 35-year-old single Moroccan woman. She presented chronic pelvic pain, hematemesis and blurring of vision in the left eye. Clinical examination showed a pelvic mass and an exophthalmos with a divergent strabismus in the left eye. Pelvic and abdominal ultrasound showed a right tissular ovarian mass. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed an ovarian tumor and bone metastasis. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hypertrophy of the left inferior rectus muscle behind the exophthalmos. Stomach endoscopy revealed an ulcerated and protruded mass of the antro-fundic junction. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry showed an infiltration of the gastric mucosa by atypically isolated signet ring cells similar to the tumor cells found in the ovarian histopathological exams. Discussion Krukenberg tumor is an uncommon metastatic tumor of the ovary. This article provides an overview of the major pathological manifestations of Krukenberg tumor, patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory features of the disease, prognostic factors, and current knowledge about its pathogenesis. PMID:27721760

  20. 中国文学的历史星空%Historical Starry Sky in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The paper explains that Chinese literature has developed the trends during the four thousand years to from the Chinese cultural context. The ancient articles, Spring and Autumn period writings, Han Fu—the arti-cles in Han Dynasty, Pian Yong—the articles in Wei and Jin Dynasty, the poems in Tang and Song Dynasty, Yuan verse and traditional opera in Yuan Dynasty, novels in the Ming and Qing Dynasty, and with many litera-ti and masterpieces together make up various bright stars Chinese literature history.%阐明中华文学经四千年的演变潮流,形成中国文脉。上古文存、春秋笔墨、两汉散赋、魏晋骈咏、唐宋诗词、元曲杂剧、明清小说,历代文人佳作汇集,构成了中国文学历史上,繁星满天,璀璨夺目。

  1. On the Chinese Version of the Term "Chinese American Literature" and Its Definition%论Chinese American Literature的中文译名及其界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王理行; 郭英剑

    2001-01-01

    本文论述了Chinese American Literature的中文译名及其界定问题,认为,其中文译名应为"美国华裔文学",对它的界定是:"有中国血统的美国公民用英语创作的文学作品".

  2. 幼儿国学教育点滴谈%View on Ancient Chinese Literature Search Education on Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾艳

    2014-01-01

    “Ancient Chinese Literature Search education should educated from baby”has become a social common voice. From an early age children learn Ancient Chinese Literature Search classic can not only cultivate children elegant personality, inspire children’s intelligence, the development of children’s memory and understanding, but also let the children become more confident, creative, but also more filial piety. Using various ways,meanstry to combine Ancient Chinese Literature Search classical education with kindergarten day activities, harmonious family, love friends, all-round development of children’s heart are expected to cultivated.%“国学教育要从娃娃抓起”已经成为社会大众普遍的呼声。从小让孩子学习国学经典不仅能培养孩子优雅的人格,启迪孩子的智慧,开发儿童的记忆力和理解力,还能让孩子变得更加自信、有创造力,同时也更懂得孝顺。利用各种方式、手段,尝试将国学经典教育融入到幼儿园的一日活动中,培养具有尊长尊师、好学重道、和睦家庭、友爱朋友等身心全面发展的幼儿。

  3. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  4. 普实克论中国文学的抒情传统∗%Prek’s Research on Lyric Tradition of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云

    2015-01-01

    在普实克看来,中国现代文学的抒情性特征既受到欧洲浪漫主义文学的直接影响,也是中国古典文学抒情传统的现代发展。西方浪漫主义抒情传统注重自我情感的抒发,中国古典文学抒情传统具有强烈的现实关怀,是一种感时忧国的思想情感。中国现代文学的抒情性融合了中西抒情传统,内涵更为复杂。由此,普实克不仅细致分析了中国文学抒情传统与欧洲浪漫主义抒情传统的不同,展示了中国文学抒情传统的独特性,而且深刻把握了中国现代抒情文学发生的根本动力。%In Prek’s opinion,modern Chinese lyrical literature was mainly affected by European roman-ticism and Chinese classical lyrical tradition.Western romantic lyric tradition was focused on self-expres-sion,while,Chinese classical literature had a strong realistic concern about the time and the nation.Modern Chinese literature had more complex connotation with western lyric tradition and Chinese lyric tradition blending in.Prek precisely analyzed differences between the lyrical tradition of Chinese literature and Western romanticism.His research demonstrates the uniqueness of Chinese lyric tradition and the main driving force of modern Chinese lyrical literature.

  5. Genetic analysis of Chinese families reveals a novel truncation allele of the retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang; Hu; Xiang-Yun; Zeng; Lin-Lin; Liu; Yao-Ling; Luo; Yi-Ping; Jiang; Hui; Wang; Jing; Xie; Cheng-Quan; Hu; Lin; Gan; Liang; Huang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To make comprehensive molecular diagnosis for retinitis pigmentosa(RP) patients in a consanguineous Han Chinese family using next generation sequencing based Capture-NGS screen technology.METHODS:A five-generation Han Chinese family diagnosed as non-syndromic X-linked recessive RP(XLRP) was recruited, including four affected males, four obligate female carriers and eleven unaffected family members. Capture-NGS was performed using a custom designed capture panel covers 163 known retinal disease genes including 47 RP genes, followed by the validation of detected mutation using Sanger sequencing in all recruited family members.RESULTS:Capture-NGS in one affected 47-year-old male reveals a novel mutation, c.24172418insG:p.E806 fs,in exon ORF15 of RP GTPase regulator(RPGR) gene results in a frameshift change that results in a premature stop codon and a truncated protein product. The mutation was further validated in three of four affected males and two of four female carriers but not in the other unaffected family members.CONCLUSION:We have identified a novel mutation,c.24172418insG:p.E806 fs, in a Han Chinese family with XLRP. Our findings expand the mutation spectrum of RPGR and the phenotypic spectrum of XLRP in Han Chinese families, and confirms Capture-NGS could be aneffective and economic approach for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP.

  6. College Chinese language and literature:from Theory to Practice%大学语文:从理论到实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔚; 何二元

    2014-01-01

    This paper first reviews the whole process of Chinese language and literature from conducting research, writing the monograph, compiling textbooks to classroom teaching. The author explores the theory of College Chinese Language and Literature from the perspective of higher education of mother language and proposes that the compiling of College Chinese Language and Literature textbooks should be based on theories and the textbooks must be tested through teaching practice. This paper presents a summary of the experiences and achievements of College Chinese Language and Literature in the form of both theory and practice, hoping to offer references for the national Chinese Language and Literature teachers.%本文回顾了作者课题研究、撰写专著、教材编写、课堂实践的完整过程,从母语高等教育的高度探讨了大学语文学科理论,提出大学语文教材编写必须有理论开路、实践检验的观点,全面总结了大学语文从理论到实践所取得的经验与成果,希望能给全国大学语文同行们提供参考。

  7. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiankang; Han, Li; Liu, Juntian; Yu, Mengyun

    2017-01-01

    Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research.

  8. Evaluation in Moves: An Integrated Analysis of Chinese MA Thesis Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate communicative purpose of literature reviews is to convince the reader of the worthiness of the writer's research, which is realized stage by stage and evaluation plays an important role in achieving this end. However, concerns about evaluation demonstration in novice academic writers' literature reviews have been repeatedly voiced in…

  9. Evidence-based practice method of integrative Chinese and Western medicine based on literature retrieval through PICO question and complementary and alternative medicine topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiu-feng; Ni, Qing; Wei, Jun-ping; Xu, Hao

    2010-12-01

    An evidence-based practice method according to literature retrieval through PICO (Patients, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) questions and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) topics, which can obtain helpful evidence for guiding clinical practice, was introduced with a practical example in this paper. The knowledge of diseases and Western medicine treatment can be acquired by literature retrieval through PICO question, while searching by CAM topics may provide evidence for Chinese medicine (CM). Thus the author held that literature retrieval through both PICO question and CAM topics was an ideal evidence-based practice method for integrative Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM). However, since the standard in CM evidence hierarchy is still under study, the value of the CAM thematic retrieval method remains very limited. In the future, studies on the definition and hierarchy of CM evidences and the herb-drug interaction between Western and Chinese medicine during a combination therapy should be strengthened to improve the status of ICWM evidence-based practice.

  10. A study revealing the key aroma compounds of steamed bread made by Chinese traditional sourdough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-hua ZHANG; Tao WU; Faizan A SADIQ; Huan-yi YANG; Tong-jie LIU; Hui RUAN; Guo-qing HE

    2016-01-01

    Aroma of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is one of the important parameters that determines the overall quality attributes and consumer acceptance. However, the aroma profile of CSB stil remains poorly understood, mainly because of relying on only a single method for aroma extraction in previous studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the volatile aroma compounds of five different samples of CSB using three different aroma extraction methods, namely solid-phase microextraction (SPME), simultaneous distilation–extraction (SDE), and purge and trap (P&T). Al samples showed a unique aroma profile, which could be attributed to their unique microbial consortia. (E)-2-Nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were the most prevalent aromatic compounds revealed by SDE, which have not been reported previously, while ethanol and acetic acid proved to be the most dominant compounds by both SPME and P&T. Our approach of combining three different aroma extraction methods provided better insights into the aroma profile of CSB, which had remained largely unknown in previous studies.%中文概要题目:传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质的研究目的:通过同时蒸馏萃取(SDE)、顶空固相微萃取(SPME)及吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气相色谱-嗅闻-质谱(GC-O-MS)技术对传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味成分进行分析,并初步探讨特征风味形成机理。创新点:首次采用不同风味物质分析技术探索传统酸面团制备的馒头关键风味成分。方法:采用同时SDE、SPME及P&T方法,对不同传统酸面团制备的馒头特征风味物质进行分析。结论:SDE结果显示,反式-2-壬烯醛和反式-2,4-癸二烯醛为传统酸面团馒头中关键风味成分。SPME和P&T 方法表明乙醇和醋酸是关键风味物质。因此,需要结合不同技术方法,全面分析传统酸面团制备的馒头中特征风味成分。

  11. Indoor air pollutants, ventilation rate determinants and potential control strategies in Chinese dwellings: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Jun; Cao, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiang; Su, Xing

    2017-05-15

    After nearly twenty years of rapid modernization and urbanization in China, huge achievements have transformed the daily lives of the Chinese people. However, unprecedented environmental consequences in both indoor and outdoor environments have accompanied this progress and have triggered public awareness and demands for improved living standards, especially in residential environments. Indoor pollution data measured for >7000 dwellings (approximately 1/3 were newly decorated and were tested for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements, while the rest were tested for particles, phthalates and other semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon) in China within the last ten years were reviewed, summarized and compared with indoor concentration recommendations based on sensory or health end-points. Ubiquitous pollutants that exceed the concentration recommendations, including particulate matter, formaldehyde, benzene and other VOCs, moisture/mold, inorganic gases and radon, were found, indicating a common indoor air quality (IAQ) issue in Chinese dwellings. With very little prevention, oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to those pollutants at unhealthy concentration levels is almost inevitable. CO2, VOCs, humidity and radon can serve as ventilation determinants, each with different ventilation demands and strategies, at typical occupant densities in China; and particle reduction should be a prerequisite for determining ventilation requirements. Two directional ventilation modes would have profound impacts on improving IAQ for Chinese residences are: 1) natural (or window) ventilation with an air cleaner and 2) mechanical ventilation with an air filtration unit, these two modes were reviewed and compared for their applicability and advantages and disadvantages for reducing human exposure to indoor air pollutants. In general, mode 2 can more reliably ensure good IAQ for occupants; while mode 1 is more applicable due to its low

  12. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been...... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages....... This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details...

  13. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been st...... of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production....... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  14. A perceptual learning deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia as revealed by visual texture discrimination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengke; Cheng-Lai, Alice; Song, Yan; Cutting, Laurie; Jiang, Yuzheng; Lin, Ou; Meng, Xiangzhi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-08-01

    Learning to read involves discriminating between different written forms and establishing connections with phonology and semantics. This process may be partially built upon visual perceptual learning, during which the ability to process the attributes of visual stimuli progressively improves with practice. The present study investigated to what extent Chinese children with developmental dyslexia have deficits in perceptual learning by using a texture discrimination task, in which participants were asked to discriminate the orientation of target bars. Experiment l demonstrated that, when all of the participants started with the same initial stimulus-to-mask onset asynchrony (SOA) at 300 ms, the threshold SOA, adjusted according to response accuracy for reaching 80% accuracy, did not show a decrement over 5 days of training for children with dyslexia, whereas this threshold SOA steadily decreased over the training for the control group. Experiment 2 used an adaptive procedure to determine the threshold SOA for each participant during training. Results showed that both the group of dyslexia and the control group attained perceptual learning over the sessions in 5 days, although the threshold SOAs were significantly higher for the group of dyslexia than for the control group; moreover, over individual participants, the threshold SOA negatively correlated with their performance in Chinese character recognition. These findings suggest that deficits in visual perceptual processing and learning might, in part, underpin difficulty in reading Chinese.

  15. Writers' Chronicle of Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代文学作家表谱文献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏绪

    2015-01-01

    Tables, chronicles and biographies are generally used in studying the lives of modern Chinese literary writers, and have become an important genre in this field. The chronological table is mainly adopted for listing the writers' activities, publications, translations and literary events. In summary, there is no strict difference between tables and chronicles in studies of documents of modern Chinese literature.%表、谱、传在中国现代文学史的作家生平研究中,被普遍采用,成为中国现代文学文献的重要类型.中国现代文学文献对于表这一历史体裁的采用,主要是年经事纬体的年表,用以编写作家个人的生平活动年表,著译系年和整个现代文学史大事年表等.中国现代文学文献学中的年谱与年表之间并无严格的区别.

  16. A further look at porcine chromosome 7 reveals VRTN variants associated with vertebral number in Chinese and Western pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Fan

    Full Text Available The number of vertebrae is an economically important trait that affects carcass length and meat production in pigs. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL for thoracic vertebral number has been repeatedly identified on pig chromosome (SSC 7. To dissect the genetic basis of the major locus, we herein genotyped a large sample of animals from 3 experimental populations of Chinese and Western origins using 60K DNA chips. Genome-wide association studies consistently identified the locus across the 3 populations and mapped the locus to a 947-Kb region on SSC7. An identical-by-descent sharing assay refined the locus to a 100-Kb segment that harbors only two genes including VRTN and SYNDIG1L. Of them, VRNT has been proposed as a strong candidate of the major locus in Western modern breeds. Further, we resequenced the VRTN gene using DNA samples of 35 parental animals with known QTL genotypes by progeny testing. Concordance tests revealed 4 candidate causal variants as their genotypes showed the perfect segregation with QTL genotypes of the tested animals. An integrative analysis of evolutional constraints and functional elements supported two VRTN variants in a complete linkage disequilibrium phase as the most likely causal mutations. The promising variants significantly affect the number of thoracic vertebrae (one vertebra in large scale outbred animals, and are segregating at rather high frequencies in Western pigs and at relatively low frequencies in a number of Chinese breeds. Altogether, we show that VRTN variants are significantly associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in both Chinese and Western pigs. The finding advances our understanding of the genetic architecture of the vertebral number in pigs. Furthermore, our finding is of economical importance as it provides a robust breeding tool for the improvement of vertebral number and meat production in both Chinese indigenous pigs and Western present-day commercial pigs.

  17. A further look at porcine chromosome 7 reveals VRTN variants associated with vertebral number in Chinese and Western pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yin; Xing, Yuyun; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ai, Huashui; Ouyang, Zixuan; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Ming; Li, Pinghua; Chen, Yijie; Gao, Jun; Li, Lin; Huang, Lusheng; Ren, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The number of vertebrae is an economically important trait that affects carcass length and meat production in pigs. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for thoracic vertebral number has been repeatedly identified on pig chromosome (SSC) 7. To dissect the genetic basis of the major locus, we herein genotyped a large sample of animals from 3 experimental populations of Chinese and Western origins using 60K DNA chips. Genome-wide association studies consistently identified the locus across the 3 populations and mapped the locus to a 947-Kb region on SSC7. An identical-by-descent sharing assay refined the locus to a 100-Kb segment that harbors only two genes including VRTN and SYNDIG1L. Of them, VRNT has been proposed as a strong candidate of the major locus in Western modern breeds. Further, we resequenced the VRTN gene using DNA samples of 35 parental animals with known QTL genotypes by progeny testing. Concordance tests revealed 4 candidate causal variants as their genotypes showed the perfect segregation with QTL genotypes of the tested animals. An integrative analysis of evolutional constraints and functional elements supported two VRTN variants in a complete linkage disequilibrium phase as the most likely causal mutations. The promising variants significantly affect the number of thoracic vertebrae (one vertebra) in large scale outbred animals, and are segregating at rather high frequencies in Western pigs and at relatively low frequencies in a number of Chinese breeds. Altogether, we show that VRTN variants are significantly associated with the number of thoracic vertebrae in both Chinese and Western pigs. The finding advances our understanding of the genetic architecture of the vertebral number in pigs. Furthermore, our finding is of economical importance as it provides a robust breeding tool for the improvement of vertebral number and meat production in both Chinese indigenous pigs and Western present-day commercial pigs.

  18. Transcriptome profiling of the eyestalk of precocious juvenile Chinese mitten crab reveals putative neuropeptides and differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Muzi; Li, Xuguang; Lu, Quanping; Li, Yuehua; Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianlin

    2015-09-15

    Chinese mitten crabs that reach maturity 1 year earlier than normal crabs are known as precocious juvenile crabs. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precocity of the Chinese mitten crab are poorly understood. To identify the genes that may be involved in the control of precocity in Chinese mitten crab, we measured the expression profile of eyestalk genes in precocious and normally developed juvenile crabs using high-throughput sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. We obtained 56,446,284 raw reads from the precocious crabs and 58,029,476 raw reads from the normally developed juvenile crabs. Reads from the two libraries were combined into a single data set. De novo assembly of the combined read set yielded 78,777 unigenes with an average length of 1563 bp. A total of 41,405 unigenes with predicted ORFs were selected for functional annotation. Among these genes, we identified three neuropeptide genes belonging to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family and two neuropeptide genes encoding the chromatophorotropic hormones. Transcriptome comparison between the two libraries revealed 42 genes that exhibited significant differential expression, of which 29 genes were up-regulated and 13 genes were down-regulated in the precocious crabs. To confirm the sequencing data, six differentially expressed genes with functional annotations were selected and validated by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, we obtained the comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk tissues of precocious juvenile crabs. The sequencing results may provide new insights into the biomolecular basis of precocity in the Chinese mitten crab.

  19. Portal venous gas and thrombosis in a Chinese patient with fulminant Crohn's colitis: A case report with literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Siu-Man Ng; Raymond Ying-Chang Yiu; Janet Fung-Yee Lee; Jimmy Chak-Man Li; Ka-Lau Leung

    2006-01-01

    Ever since its earliest reports, portal venous gas (PVG)has been associated with numerous intraabdominal catastrophes and has served as an indication for urgent surgical exploration. It is traditionally regarded to be an ominous finding of impending death, with highest mortality reported in patients with underlying bowel ischemia. Today, computed tomography has demonstrated a wider range of clinical conditions associated with PVG, some of which are 'benign' and do not necessarily require surgery, unless when there are signs of intraabdominal catastrophe or systemic toxicity. One of these 'benign' conditions is Crohn's disease. The present report describes a 19-year-old Chinese boy with Crohn's pancolitis who presented with septic shock associated with PVG and portal vein thrombosis, and was successfully managed surgically. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PVG and portal vein thrombosis associated with Crohn's disease in a Chinese patient. In addition, we have also reviewed the reports of another 18 Crohn's patients with PVG previously described in the English literature. Specific predisposing factors for PVG were identified in 8 patients, including barium enema,colonoscopy, blunt abdominal trauma, and enterovenous fistula. The patients who developed PVG following barium enema and blunt trauma were all asymptomatic and no specific treatment was necessary. Eleven patients (58%)who presented with signs of intraabdominal catastrophe or systemic toxicity required either immediate or eventual surgery. The overall mortality rate among the 19 patients was only 11%. The present literature review has shown that the finding of PVG associated with Crohn's disease does not always mandate surgical intervention. It is the clinical features and the related complications that ultimately determine the treatment approaches. The overall outcome of PVG associated with Crohn's disease has been favourable.

  20. Group Work Education in Social Work: A Review of the Literature Reveals Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the growing concerns in the literature that traditional group work education in social work is not providing the foundational knowledge, skills, evidence-based practice, professional uses of self, and adherence to practice standards necessary for effective group practice. An exploration of the best available evidence on group…

  1. The Bent Branches---Chinese Online Literature Viewed from Nationalist Angle%“压弯的树枝”--民族主义视野下的中国网络文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡疆锋

    2014-01-01

    In the process of much mentioned historical context and globalization, Chinese online literature nurtures a complicated and rich mindset of a powerful nation, concerning Chinese territory, national sovereignty, national dignity, cultural identity, foreign policy, and other heated topics, which results in the cause-and-effect relationship with the new nationalism. Online literature reveals the difficult problems in Chinese society and tries to solve them, and clearly depicts the Chinese youth's search for their identity with complicated national consciousness, rational, feverish, nihilistic, cynical, and so on. The negative and harmful trends of contemporary nationalism manifested in online literature should be pointed out and discarded.%在架空的历史语境和全球化境遇中,中国网络文学建构出了复杂而丰富的大国想象,涉及中国领土、国家地位、民族尊严、文化认同、外交政策等热点问题,与新一轮的民族主义形成了互为因果的关系。网络文学揭示出并试图“解决”中国社会中许多尚未解决的难题,清晰勾勒出了当代中国青年在理性、狂热、虚无、犬儒等复杂的民族意识中寻找认同之路的印迹。网络文学中所体现出的当代民族主义中的一些不良倾向应该引起警惕并加以摒弃。

  2. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  3. On Nationality of Chinese and——Western MythologIcal Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤涛; 童玥

    2015-01-01

    Mythology, which explains how the world comes into being, is formed at the early times of human being, when human being knows nothing about their origin; Knowing national characteristics of mythological literature of both China and the western world and their root causes, it can not only benefit our research on literary works, but also does good for our understanding their natinal traits.

  4. Effects of Translation Literature on the Development of Chinese Language%翻译文学对汉语演变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董利晓

    2014-01-01

    The development of Chinese is an ongoing process and translation literatures have always been an essential and exter-nal drive in the evolvement of Chinese. Translation activities have exerted many effects on the Chinese language. Some acknowl-edged effects of translation on Chinese vocabulary, grammar and syntax will be examined.%汉语的发展演变是一个持续不断的漫长过程,而翻译文学在汉语的演变中一直起着外在助推力的作用。丰富的翻译活动和翻译文学对汉语的发展产生了深远的影响,涉及词汇、语法和句法等方面。

  5. Use of geolocators reveals previously unknown Chinese and Korean scaly-sided merganser wintering sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soloveyva, Diana; Afanasiev, Vsevolod; Fox, James W.

    2012-01-01

    areas in successive years, suggesting winter fidelity to catchments if not specific sites. A single female from the adjacent Avvakumovka catchment wintered on saltwater in Korea, at least 1300 km east of Chinese wintering birds. Most sea duck species (Tribe Mergini) form pairs away from breeding areas......, suggesting that this high level of winter dispersal amongst close-nesting females is a potential mechanism to maintain gene flow in this threatened species that has specialist habitat requirements. Hence, female scaly-sided mergansers disperse widely from breeding areas, but show fidelity to nesting areas...

  6. The Relationships between Chinese Higher Education Students' Epistemic Beliefs and Their Judgmental Standards of Searching for Literature Online: Undergraduate versus Graduate Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Yu, Yue-Yue; Wu, Jui-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Chinese higher education students' epistemic beliefs and their judgmental standards of searching for literature online. Data were collected from 449 higher education students (152 college students and 297 graduate students) in Beijing via two self-reported questionnaires: one…

  7. The 2nd Convention of Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics & International Symposium on Literatures in English(June 15-16,2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange,the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics(CAAP)will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies,

  8. An erosional hiatus in Chinese loess sequences revealed by closely spaced optical dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Huayu; Thomas Stevens; YI Shuangwen; SUN Xuefeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese loess deposits are some of the best continental records of palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes in the late Cenozoic. Many investigations have shown that the long-time climate variations recorded by the loess-paleosol sequences can be correlated with global environmental changes. However, there are still some foundational questions concerning loess deposition that are not well answered, casting uncertainty on many previous conclusions, especially high-resolu- tion palaeoclimatic records. In this study, three typical loess-paleosol sections spanning the last glacial cycle were closely sampled for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and palaeoclimate interpretation along a northwest-southeast transect in Chinese Loess Plateau. Results show that there is a 4-5 ka hiatus in the typical loess deposits, and as a consequence suggests that the loess record is not continuous over millennial time scales. As such, previous conclusions on climatic and environmental changes at millennial-centennial time scale, reconstructed through the loess record, should be reinvestigated. The erosional hiatus may be forced by a period with strengthened East Asian winter monsoon and the less vegetation cover in the investigated sites.

  9. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang; Nagarajan, Harish; Yerganian, George; O'Brien, Edward; Bordbar, Aarash; Roth, Anne M; Rosenbloom, Jeffrey; Bian, Chao; Xie, Min; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Ning; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Latif, Haythem; Forster, Jochen; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Famili, Iman; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2013-08-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages. This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production.

  10. The origin of Chinese domestic horses revealed with novel mtDNA variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunzhou; Zhu, Qiyun; Liu, Shuqin; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wu, Changxin

    2017-01-01

    The origin of domestic horses in China was a controversial issue and several hypotheses including autochthonous domestication, introduction from other areas, and multiple-origins from both introduction and local wild horse introgression have been proposed, but none of them have been fully supported by DNA data. In the present study, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of 714 Chinese indigenous horses were analyzed. The results showed that Chinese domestic horses harbor some novel mtDNA haplogroups and suggested that local domestication events may have occurred, but they are not the dominant haplogroups and the geographical distributions of the novel mtDNA haplogroups were rather restricted. Conclusively, our results support the hypothesis that the domestic horses in China originated from both the introduced horses from outside of China and the local wild horses' introgression into the domestic populations. Results of genetic diversity analysis suggested a possibility that the introduced horses entered China through northern regions from the Eurasian steppe. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker's processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

  12. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  13. 从中国文化资源重新定义文学%Redefine Literature through Chinese Culture: On the Development of Chinese Literature and World Literature in the A~e of Globalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张法

    2012-01-01

    西方对文学的定义是:文学是虚构,是与现实不同的艺术,体现为诗歌、小说、剧本。这一定义由西方向全球扩张而成为世界性的定义;同时,又在全球化的电子主潮中让文学被边缘化了。但在全球化时代不同文化汇通中,文学实际上最能显示一个文化的特质。如何让文学走出边缘化,而把文化的特质显示出来,就成为一个重要课题。在这一点上,中国古代文化关于文学的定义具有重要的意义。中国古代资源把文学定义为语言之美。任何文体,只要有语言之美,就可以成为文学。这一定义不但让人们重新思考文学和文学的各种类型,以扩大文学的类型,而且使人们有一种新的眼光去理解文学与文化的关系。更重要的是,让文学的品质在全球化时代的各种互动中得到提升。%The definition of literature in the West is that literature is fictive which is different from the reality but a kind of art, and which embodies in three forms, poetry, fiction and drama. This definition become a general thought with the process of expansion of Western culture aroud the world. When e-culture gets its main position in the age of globalization, literature is been peripherized. However literature can presents charateristic of culture in the age of globalization when the various different cultures communicate togather, so it is important to make literature give play to strong points. At this point, the definition of literature from ancient China is able to play its role. It defines literature as the beauty of language. Any form maken from words has light of beauty, it can be called literature. This definition makes us rethink literature, rethink what kind of form can be called literature and geves us a new vision to understand the relation between literature and culture. Impotantly the role of literature will be promoted into a carract position.

  14. The optical imaging of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy in a Chinese young man and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyan; Hu, Yuedong

    2017-09-01

    We report a case of idiopathic paracentral acute middle maculopathy with typical optical imaging and clinical features. A 26-year-old Chinese policeman presented with a 20-day history of paracentral scotoma in the left eye after early wake-up and long-time working in front of computer the day before. He experienced sudden-onset strong flash in his left eye. Paracentral scotoma appeared in his left eye after 6hours of rest. The general history was negative. His best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 OU. Anterior segment, dilated fundus examination, papillary evaluation and intraocular pressure were normal. Fuorescein angiography and blue light fundus autofluorescence showed no significant abnormality. In multicolor photography, the lesion was visible on the monochromic infrared/blue reflectance images and not clear in green reflectance. The 10 degree visual field examination revealed superior paracentral relative scotoma. Multifocal electroretinogram revealed reduced response in central area in the left eye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed that hyperreflective plaque was present at the IPL/INL/OPL level with hyperreflective point at the GCL. The plaque became thinner 3 months later and diminished 6 months later with obviously atrophied INL. In the 3 months follow-up, transverse scan revealed that there was a well-demarcated hypo-refractive lesion in IPL and hyper-refractive lesion in INL. OCTA revealed the deceased flow signal intensity of focal deep capillaries. En face OCT imaging of the left eye revealed a relative well-defined, hypo-refractive lesion and non-flow area localized at the level of the deep capillary plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Analysis on scraping therapy literatures in Chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) from 2002 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong-rong, Jiang; Gui-hua, Xu; Hua, Chen; Jie, Li

    2013-04-01

    In order to figure out the current situation and development of scraping therapy, and provide references for further researches. With "scroping therapy" as key word, the inclusive literatures in CNKI from 2002 to 2012 were retrieved and they were analyzed with the bibliometric method. Totaly 420 valid articles were acquined. The article number was increasing yearly and clinical trial was the main researching type. The articles were published in 147 different journals, of which 36.7% were source journals. The articles were mainly from areas with dominating TCM cultural atmosphere, specific folk medicine and prosperous economy. In recent 10 years, although the development of scraping therapy can be seen, the researching depth and width is not enough. In the future, the key point and direction of the research should focus on basic research of action mechanism and standardization of clinical trials in scraping therapy.

  16. Bilateral ureteral obstruction revealing a benign prostatic hypertrophy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyach, Omar; Ahsaini, Mustapha; Kharbach, Youssef; Bounoual, Mohammed; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; El Ammari, Jalal Eddine; Mellas, Soufiane; Fassi, Mohammed El Jamal; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2014-02-11

    Prostatic hyperplasia is the most frequent tumor in men older than 50 years of age. Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy is a rare condition most often due to vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we report a case of a patient with bilateral hydronephrosis with distal ureter obstruction caused by detrusor hypertrophy due to prostatic hyperplasia, our analysis of the clinical data and a review of the relevant published literature. We report a case of a 65-year-old Berber man with clinically significant storage, bladder-emptying symptoms and bilateral low back pain with renal biologic failure and bilateral ureterohydronephrosis, distal ureteral stenosis, detrusor hypertrophy and prostate hyperplasia without significant post-void residual urine volume visualized by abdominal sonography. The patient underwent bilateral JJ stent insertion with transurethral resection of the prostate. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery without any obvious complications. At his 3-month follow-up examination, the JJ stent was removed and the patient had comfortable urination without renal failure. This is an extremely rare condition that has important diagnostic considerations because of the possibility of comorbid severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure.

  17. Biofuels: Network Analysis of the Literature Reveals Key Environmental and Economic Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences. Doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects. To assess the coverage of scientific research, we analyzed over 1600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 that addressed 23 biofuels-related topics within four thematic areas: environment and human well-being, economics, technology, and geography. Greenhouse gases, fuel production, and feedstock production were well-represented in the literature, while trade, biodiversity, and human health were not. Gaps were especially striking across topics in the Southern Hemisphere, where the greatest potential socio-economic benefits, as well as environmental damages, may co-occur. There was strong asymmetry in the connectedness of research topics; greenhouse gases articles were twice as often connected to other topics as biodiversity articles. This could undermine the ability of scientific and economic analyses to adequately evaluate impacts and avoid significant unintended consequences. At the least, our review suggests caution in this developing industry and the need to pursue more interdisciplinary research to assess complex trade-offs and feedbacks inherent to an industry with wide-reaching potential impacts. PMID:22229835

  18. Biofuels: network analysis of the literature reveals key environmental and economic unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Caroline E; Clark, Christopher M; Leduc, Stephen D; Bierwagen, Britta G; Lin, Brenda B; Mehl, Adrea; Tobias, David A

    2012-02-07

    Despite rapid growth in biofuel production worldwide, it is uncertain whether decision-makers possess sufficient information to fully evaluate the impacts of the industry and avoid unintended consequences. Doing so requires rigorous peer-reviewed data and analyses across the entire range of direct and indirect effects. To assess the coverage of scientific research, we analyzed over 1600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2009 that addressed 23 biofuels-related topics within four thematic areas: environment and human well-being, economics, technology, and geography. Greenhouse gases, fuel production, and feedstock production were well-represented in the literature, while trade, biodiversity, and human health were not. Gaps were especially striking across topics in the Southern Hemisphere, where the greatest potential socio-economic benefits, as well as environmental damages, may co-occur. There was strong asymmetry in the connectedness of research topics; greenhouse gases articles were twice as often connected to other topics as biodiversity articles. This could undermine the ability of scientific and economic analyses to adequately evaluate impacts and avoid significant unintended consequences. At the least, our review suggests caution in this developing industry and the need to pursue more interdisciplinary research to assess complex trade-offs and feedbacks inherent to an industry with wide-reaching potential impacts.

  19. A Proposed Theoretical Model for Exploring the Ecological Ideologies Re-vealed in the Online Chinese Resort Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑟

    2013-01-01

      Responding to the increasingly heated discussion of environmental issues and the mounting concern about ecological degradation, the present thesis is to try formulating a comprehensive and specific theoretical model for exploring the ecological ideologies revealed in the online Chinese resort profiles. In this model, Fairclough’s three-dimensional model draws upon the Subsystem of Appraisal Theory—Attitude as the specific analytical framework and the ecological philosophy in the scope of ecocriticism as the specific explanatory tool for the exploration of ecological ideologies in these texts. Thus, the present thesis finds a point where CDA, Appraisal Theory and Ecocriticism work together to conduct a discourse analysis, which not only broadens the theoretical scope of each, but makes these theories better serve the practical course of environment protection.

  20. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up...... to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO......Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied...

  1. IgE Myeloma: the First Report of Chinese Case and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOUJian; JIANGHua; HUHuixian; HEJin

    2004-01-01

    To report a case of IgE myeloma and to compare its clinical features with those reported in the literature. Methods: M-component in serum and urine was determined using celluloseacetate membrane electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis and quantification of immunoglobulins. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of IgE and its light chain. Results: A monoclonal peak was detected by cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis. The monoclonal band showed on immunofixation electrophoresis the following reactive patterns: positive for A antisera and negative for κ, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD antisera. The serum immunoglobulin concentrations were: IgG 21.6 g/L, IgA1.2 g/L, IgM 2.64 g/L, κ 7.49 g/L, λ 16.0 g/L, κ/A 0.47. The results of immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic expression of IgE immunoglobulin and A light chain in the tumor tissue. Conclusion: This is the first case of IgE multiple myeloma reported in China.

  2. Genetic diversity in Chinese modern wheat varieties revealed by microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Chenyang; WANG; Lanfen; ZHANG; Xueyong; YOU; Guangxia; DONG; Yushen; JIA; Jizeng; LIU; Xu; SHANG; Xunwu; LIU; Sancai; CAO; Yongsheng

    2006-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 1680 modern varieties in Chinese candidate core collections was analyzed at 78 SSR loci by fluorescence detection system. A total of 1336 alleles were detected, of which 1253 alleles could be annotated into 71 loci. For these 71 loci, the alleles ranged from 4 to 44 with an average of 17.6, and the PIC values changed from 0.19 to 0.89 with an average of 0.69. (1) In the three genomes of wheat, the average genetic richness was B>A>D, and the genetic diversity indexes were B>D>A. (2) Among the seven homoeologous groups, the average genetic richness was 2=7>3>4>6>5>1, and the genetic diversity indexes were 7>3>2>4>6>5>1. As a whole, group 7 possessed the highest genetic diversity, while groups 1 and 5 were the lowest. (3) In the 21 wheat chromosomes, 7A, 3B and 2D possessed much higher genetic diversity, while 2A, 1B, 4D, 5D and 1D were the lowest. (4) The highest average genetic diversity index existed in varieties bred in the 1950s, and then it declined continually. However, the change tendency of genetic diversity among decades was not greatly sharp. This was further illustrated by changes of the average genetic distance between varieties. In the 1950s it was the largest (0.731). Since the 1960s, it has decreased gradually (0.711, 0.706, 0.696, 0.695). The genetic base of modern varieties is becoming narrower and narrower. This should be given enough attention by breeders and policy makers.

  3. Management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report and review of the Chinese literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Da-ren; Feng, Cheng-cheng; Zhou, Chuan-biao; Zhan, Chen-ni; Que, Ri-sheng; Chen, Li

    2014-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a common malignancy. The general treatments are thyroidectomy of the affected lobe along with lymphadenectomy. However, bone metastasis is rare in DTC compared with other malignancies and the management of metastasis foci is still controversial. Here we present a case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with the 6th cervical vertebra body metastasis successfully treated by total thyroidectomy, cervical corpectomy, and internal fixation, followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy. Eleven additional patients diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis collected from Chinese literature between January 1996 and December 2013 were also reviewed. The mean age of the 12 patients at presentation was (53.9±9.2) years (rang, 42-72 years) and the male to female ratio was 1:2. Nine cases received total/near-total thyroidectomy or lobectomy while the other three patients refused for personal reasons. The interventions for bone metastasis were one-stage operation (9/12), I(131) adjuvant therapy (3/12), chemotherapy (1/12), and no intervention (1/12). During the follow-up, two patients died of metastatic carcinoma recurrence, one died of multiple organ metastasis, and one with an unknown reason. We conclude that the management of thyroid carcinoma with bone metastasis needs multidisciplinary cooperation. Surgical resection is still the first choice for cure, while the combined one-stage operation on the primary and metastatic sites followed by hormone replacement therapy and radioiodine therapy is an applicable treatment.

  4. 20世纪90年代马华报纸与文学的互动、互塑%The Interaction between the Chinese Newspaper and Chinese Literature in Malaysia in 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王列耀

    2015-01-01

    The obvious characteristics of the 1990s'Chinese literary world in Malaysian is the limited literature space and the important role of the newspaper supplement. The Chinese newspaper was not only a publishing space,but also a living room and a development surrounding. But the development of Chinese literature didn't absolutely rely on the Chinese newspaper;the real relation of them was interaction with a common goal.%20世纪90年代马来西亚华文文坛的显著特征是文学园地稀少、报纸副刊作用极为重要.华文报纸不仅提供了华文文学的发表园地,也提供了华文文学的生长园地及发展氛围;但马华文学与报纸的真正关系是共谋中的互动,而不是依附之.

  5. 形象学视角下美国华裔文学的汉译问题%On the Chinese Translation Issues of Chinese American Literature in the Perspective of Imagologie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 张景华

    2012-01-01

    美国华裔文学的创作及汉译都承载着中美跨文化交流的使命,充当着中美人民相互了解的媒介。汉译者在做好传递美国华裔文学作品中民族形象的同时,应注意加深了解美国文化,努力减少翻译过程中产生的变异,以促进中美文化交流。%The creation and Chinese transaltion of Chinese American literature is carried by the mission of intercultural communication between China and America and the media of mutual understanding between the people of two countries. The Chinese translators are not only supposed to make a good transmission of the national iamge in the works of Chinese American literature but also pay more attention to the further understanding of American culture with the effort to decrease the variation in the course of translation for the promotion of the cultural communication.

  6. Analysis of SOD1 mutations in a Chinese population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case-control study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, QianQian; Zhou, QingQing; Chen, YongPing; Ou, RuWei; Cao, Bei; Xu, YaQian; Yang, Jing; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Although the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene has been identified in both familial ALS (FALS) and sporadic ALS (SALS), it has rarely been studied in Chinese patients with ALS, and there are few studies with large samples. This study sought to assess the prevalence of SOD1 mutations in Chinese ALS patients. We screened a cohort of 499 ALS patients (487 SALS and 12 FALS) from the Department of Neurology at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University and analyzed all coding exons of SOD1 by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we reviewed the mutation frequencies of common ALS causative genes in Chinese populations. Eight missense mutations in SOD1 were found in 8 ALS individuals: two novel mutations (p.G73D and p.V120F) and six previously reported mutations. The frequencies of SOD1 mutations were 1.03% (5/487) in SALS and 25% (3/12) in FALS from Southwest China. A literature review indicated that the mutation rates of major ALS causative genes were 53.55% in FALS and 6.29% in SALS. In Chinese SALS and FALS, the highest mutation frequency was in the SOD1 gene. Our results suggest that SOD1 mutation is the most common cause of ALS in Chinese populations and that the mutation spectrum of ALS varies among different ethnic populations. PMID:28291249

  7. 简析中国残疾人文学的价值与意义*%A Discussion on the Value and Signiifcance of the Chinese Disabled Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管恩森; 仵从巨

    2013-01-01

    Chinese disabled literature is an important part of the disabled career in China, and it is also the indispensable content of the culture construction in China. Therefore, it is with unique value in contemporary Chinese literature. This thesis gave a comprehensive discussion of social value, literary value, art value and academic value of the Chinese disabled literature, and put forward the suggestion of carrying out the academic thoughts and some related subjects of Chinese disabled literary study.%中国残疾人文学创作是中国残疾人事业的重要组成部分,也是中国文化建设不可或缺的重要内容之一,因而在中国当代文学创作中具有较为独特的价值,包括社会价值、文学价值、艺术价值和学术价值,残疾人文学在创作形式、主题与影响等诸多层面均在中国当代文学景观中具有鲜明的艺术特色,可以从中外残疾人文学研究、比较文学跨学科研究的视阈出发,围绕“经验与想象性”、“主题与开掘性”、“写作与工具性”、“特性与国际性”等内涵,紧扣残疾人文学中的“疾病”隐喻,深入开展对中国残疾人文学的学术研究。

  8. Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia: A New Branch of Chinese Overseas Literature%海外华人文学的新支:东南亚回族华人文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建军

    2016-01-01

    Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is literature branch active in Singapore and Malaysia , which has not yet attracted researchers attention .From 1950s to date, it could be divided into three stages .The formation of the Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is related to the Chinese Hui Muslims ' migration and the develop-ment of the Chinese literature .Studying on it will be helpful for comprehending the relations between Chinese Overseas lit -erature and Islamic culture , which mainly covered the themes crossing with Zhenghe , female and authors ' creativeness .%东南亚回族华人文学是海外华人文学中尚未引起研究者重视的一支. 东南亚回族华人文学活跃于新加坡和马来西亚,从20世纪50年代至今,大致可分为三个发展阶段,出现了戴小华等一批作家. 东南亚回族华人文学的形成与回族华人的移民活动和东南亚华人文学的发展有关,对其进行研究,有助于学界思考东南亚华人文学与伊斯兰文化的关系. 东南亚回族华人文学的特色在于郑和题材创作、女性题材创作,以及作家创作的跨越性.

  9. Marxism and Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2011-01-01

    马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四”后三个30年我国文艺界在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。%This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development of Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art.

  10. Marxismand Chinese New Literature and Art%马克思主义与中国新文艺(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炯

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between Marxism and the development oi Chinese new literature and art. By reviewing the historical and cultural changes brought about by the Communist Party of China through putting Marxism into practice in three "thirty years" after "May Fourth", and exploring the interaction between theory and practice of literature and art, as well as related controversy in the process of historical development, this paper analyzes the basic understanding of contemporary Chinese Marxist literary theory on the basic law of literature and art and the law of socialist literature and art._%马克思主义与中国新文艺的发展有密切的关系,回顾“五四“后三个30年我国在中国共产党的领导下运用马克思主义于实践所导致的历史和文艺的变化,以及在历史发展过程中文艺理论与文艺实践的互动和有关争论,应深刻总结了90年来中国马克思主义文艺理论所达到的关于文艺基本规律和社会主义文艺规律的认识。

  11. Systems-Pharmacology Dissection of Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Saffron Formula Reveals Multi-scale Treatment Strategy for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as “the world’s first killer” of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a “CVDs pathway” consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334

  12. Bioenergetic modeling reveals that Chinese green tree vipers select postprandial temperatures in laboratory thermal gradients that maximize net energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tein-Shun; Lee, How-Jing; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2009-11-01

    With bioenergetic modeling, we tested the hypothesis that reptiles maximize net energy gain by postprandial thermal selection. Previous studies have shown that Chinese green tree vipers (Trimeresurus s. stejnegeri) have postprandial thermophily (mean preferred temperature T(p) for males =27.8 degrees C) in a linear thigmothermal gradient when seclusion sites and water existed. With some published empirical models of digestion associated factors for this snake, we calculated the average rate (E(net)) and efficiency (K(net)) of net energy gain from possible combinations of meal size, activity level, and feeding frequency at each temperature. The simulations consistently revealed that E(net) maximizes at the T(p) of these snakes. Although the K(net) peaks at a lower temperature than E(net), the value of K(net) remains high (>=0.85 in ratio to maximum) at the peak temperature of E(net). This suggested that the demands of both E(net) and K(net) can be attained by postprandial thermal selection in this snake. In conclusion, the data support our prediction that postprandial thermal selection may maximize net energy gain.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of sexually dimorphic Chinese white wax scale insects reveals key differences in developmental programs and transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pu; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Feng, Ying; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela, represents one of the most dramatic examples of sexual dimorphism in any insect species. In this study, we showed that although E. pela males display complete metamorphosis similar to holometabolous insects, the species forms the sister group to Acyrthosiphon pisum and cluster with hemimetabolous insects. The gene expression profile and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the two sexes engaged in distinct developmental programs. In particular, female development appeared to prioritize the expression of genes related to cellular, metabolic, and developmental processes and to anatomical structure formation in nymphs. By contrast, male nymphal development is characterized by the significant down-regulation of genes involved in chitin, the respiratory system, and neurons. The wing and appendage morphogenesis, anatomical and tissue structure morphogenesis programs activated after male nymphal development. Transcription factors (that convey juvenile hormone or ecdysone signals, and Hox genes) and DNA methyltransferase were also differentially expressed between females and males. These results may indicate the roles that these differentially expressed genes play in regulating sexual dimorphism through orchestrating complex genetic programs. This differential expression was particularly prominent for processes linked to female development and wing development in males.

  14. Liyue Culture and the Evolution of Chinese Verse Literature%礼乐文化与中国韵文学的嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安裴智

    2015-01-01

    “礼乐文化”是中华文化一大特点,是“礼教”、“乐教”、“诗教”的三位一体,以“乐”致“礼”、以“诗”传“教”的特点,促成了中国韵文学的发达。“诗”与“乐”是调节文人心态、让其回归“明德”高境界、从而养成君子人格的重要媒介,通过“乐”的艺术形式,达至“礼”的道德境界,这是古代“礼乐文化”长盛不衰的原因,也是中国韵文学在世界文坛独标一帜之内因。韵文学是理境情趣与格律声调和谐相融、带有音乐属性、可以吟唱的文学。中国韵文学最主要的文体形式是诗、词、曲。而长期的韵文学研究,片面地将“曲”肢解为散曲(清曲),而将以元杂剧、明清传奇为代表的剧曲排斥在曲体文学之外,从而割裂了中国韵文学的完整性。作为昆曲文学脚本的明清传奇,不仅是中国曲体文学的最后一次辉煌,也是曲体文学发展的最高范式,是中国古代韵文学的晚期杰作。%“(rites-music) Culture”, comprising of “( propriety education )”, “( music education )”, and“(poetry education)”, is a major characteristic of Chinese culture. With“yue (music)”to advocate “ (propriety)”, and with “(poetry)” to spread “(Confucian teaching) ”, “Culture”contributed to the boom of Chinese verse literature. “ ” and “ ” are the important medium for literary individuals to adjust their state of mind to bring it back to“mingde (original state of human mind) ”, and nurture the gentleman personality. People attempted to get to the ideal moral state of “li” through the artistic form of“ ”, which kept the ancient “Culture” prosperous, and was also the internal reason that made Chinese verse literature a unique literary form worldwide. The verse literature, a perfect blend of content (ideas, scenes, emotion, taste, etc.) and rhythmic qualities of language (like

  15. Changes of the usage of"motivation" and related concepts within Chinese literature of human resources for health%卫生人力资源研究中"激励"及相关基本概念的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明吉; 侯志远; 严非

    2015-01-01

    After introduction into Chinese academy, and in the application in health care domain, the usage of"motivation" and related concepts has been changed. The changes were partly due to pragmatic utility, and caused confusion in the application of motivation theory in Chinese human resource for health. Both English and Chinese lit-erature was reviewed and systematic literature review was applied. We analyzed the different definitions of "motiva-tion" in English, and how they were used and understand in Chinese academia in history. "Motivation" was divided into three Chinese concepts, representing the process of motivation, inner driver of motivation and psychological state of being motivated. The other usage changes include willful exchange of"incentive" and"motivation";"motivation"being used more as a means to motivate than a motivational process;the result of motivation as an aroused psychologi-cal state not seriously defined. Systematic literature review revealed the distribution of various motivation topics in Chinese literature and supported the abovementioned arguments. These changes of usage could cause barriers to re-search of human resource for health in China. It is recommended that usage of"motivation" should be clarified in ac-ademia in China and the process of motivation rather than motivation as a managerial means deserves more attention.%中文激励理论在卫生服务领域的应用过程中,中文激励理论的基本概念与英文原有理论的概念用法有所变化. 这些基本概念的变化有其应用方面的适宜性,但也造成了对卫生人力资源管理应用和未来理论发展的困扰. 本文使用了理论分析、文献评阅的方法,探讨了英文motivation的多个概念、中文激励理论的历史文本,系统评阅了2000年以来卫生服务领域的中文激励相关文献. 结果发现,英文motivation的三种定义分化为激励、动机、积极性三个中文词汇. 存在的概念变异是:刺激( incentive )

  16. 《古代汉语》①敦煌文献选录献疑%Questioning on the Selection of Dunhuang Literature inOld Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚泽军; 华海燕

    2015-01-01

    Compared withOld Chinesecompiled by Wang Li andOld Chinese compared by Ge Xiliang, the Old Chinese compiled by Dong Zhiqiao and Yang Lin is creative in many aspects. But as to the selected Dunhuang Literature, there are some places worth questioning in terms of the transcription of master copy, misprinting of common words and articles and the interpretation of words.%董志翘、杨琳先生主编的《古代汉语》较之王力《古代汉语》、郭锡良《古代汉语》有诸多创新,但其选录的敦煌文献在遵从底本,俗字、讹文的誊录,词语的注释等方面还有值得商榷的地方。

  17. 汉译《圣经》的文学价值%The Literature Value of Bible's Chinese Version

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海鹰

    2011-01-01

    Being classics of Christian, Bible takes far-reaching effect on world culture and literature. Bible in Chinese has exerted a great influence upon China's politics, philosophy, literature, language, art, culture and other areas. It is not only mental resources for modern Chinese literature but also valuable inspiration for writers' creation.%《圣经》作为基督教经典对世界文化和文学的影响极为深远。《圣经》的汉译,对中国的政治、哲学、文学、语言、艺术、文化等领域的影响极其广泛。特别是从对中国现代文学的贡献和影响来看,汉译《圣经》既是中国现代文学的精神资源,又是现代文学家创作灵感的聚宝盆。

  18. Pharmaceuticals and the Environment (PiE): Evolution and impact of the published literature revealed by bibliometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolution and impact of the published literature surrounding the transdisciplinary, multifaceted topic of pharmaceuticals as contaminants in the environment is examined for the first time in an historical context. The preponderance of literature cited in this examination repr...

  19. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Coghlan

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica. Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety

  20. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C; White, Nicole E; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  1. Multi-omic profiling -of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Daniel; Seresht, Ali Kazemi; Engmark, Mikael; Magdenoska, Olivera; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied to study the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in a panel of CHO-K1 cells under growth-limited and unlimited conditions in batch and chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization of the EPO-producing cells included global transcriptome analysis, targeted metabolome analysis, including intracellular pools of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) , adenine nucleotide phosphates (ANP), and extracellular concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. Potential impact of EPO expression on the protein secretory pathway was assessed at multiple stages using quantitative PCR (qPCR), reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blots (WB), and global gene expression analysis to assess EPO gene copy numbers, EPO gene expression, intracellular EPO retention, and differentially expressed genes functionally related to secretory protein processing, respectively. We found no evidence supporting the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO productivity.

  2. CONTEMPORARYFOREIGN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence Bue; Marshall Brown; Alfred Hornung; James Phelan; Elizabeth Schultz; David Attwell

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Foreign Literature ( CFL,CN32-1087/I,ISSN 1001-1757 ),originated in 1980,is a journal of articles and reviews on contemporary literature except that of China.Peer-reviewed and published quarterly,in January,April,July and October,by the Institute of Foreign Literature,Nanjing University and the Yilin Press,CFL is indexed in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI).

  3. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  4. 中国古代文论的审美主体间性特征研究%Research on the Aesthetic Intersubjectivity Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙根

    2015-01-01

    当前的世界,是全球化的思潮逐渐蔓延的时代,同时,现代性的思潮危机也是我们必须反思的内容,在两者相互碰撞的时代危机之下,我们可以从审美主体间性这一全新的角度来对中国古代文论进行全新的考察。我们认为,中国古代文论的审美主体间性主要体现在浑融的艺术感知性、双向对举的艺术张力以及艺类渗透的文本融合性。中国古代文论的这种审美主体间性是与西方文论有着截然不同的特质的,是具有中国特色的古典文论,它对世界美学都会产生极为重要的影响,而且也应该成为世界美学中的重要组成部分。%The current world is the era in which the current of globalization is gradually spreading, while at the same time, the crisis of modernity of thought is what we must reflect on. Under the age of crisis in which the contents of the two colliding, we can carry out a new study on Chinese Ancient Literature from a new perspective of aesthetic intersubjectivity. The writer believes that the aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature is mainly reflected in the artistic perception of oneness, two-way artistic tension and text fusion of art class penetration. The aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature has distinct traits compared with western literary theory, which is classical literary theory with Chinese characteristics and is an important part and will have a very important impact on aesthetics in the world.

  5. On ZHU Zi-qing's Appreciation Theories of Chinese Classic Literature%朱自清古典文学欣赏理论初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方大卫

    2009-01-01

    欣赏中国古典文学作品离不开吟诵,要在吟诵的基础上了解,在培养欣赏力的同时培养判断力.欣赏也是想象、感受和理解的过程,更是一个再创造的过程.这是朱自清对古典文学欣赏理论的系统总结.这一欣赏理论,不仅内涵丰富,而且还有自己的特色.%The appreciation of Chinese classic literature works cannot be separated from the intonation of them. Comprehension is acquired on the basis of the intonation, and thus the appreciation as well as the judgment is cultivated. The appreciation is a course of imagination, perception and comprehension, and furthermore a course of recreation. This is a systematic conclusion of ZHU Zi-qing's theory of appreciation of Chinese classic literature works. The theory is rich in content with its own traits.

  6. Diffusion of Tang Dynasty Literature and Traditional Chinese Medicinal Culture%唐代文学与#医药文化的传播

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雨; 韩静

    2016-01-01

    有唐一代,是中国文学的繁荣时期,可谓诗文众体皆备。唐传奇的创作与发展,使得中国小说走向成熟。由于经济与文化的繁荣,唐代的医学也获得了进一步的发展,中国医学在医经、医方、本草、针灸等方面都达到了空前的高度。在唐代,文人通医的现象已相当普遍,他们创作了大量与医药相关的文学作品。优美的语言、艺术的思维,既丰富了中医药的文化内涵,又从更广泛的层面促进了中医药文化的普及与传播。%ABSTRACT:As a prosperous period of literature,Tang Dynasty boasts its colorful poems and proses,which drives the maturity of Chinese novel.Economic and cultural prosperity also promotes the further development of Chinese medicine of Tang Dynasty,making it reach an unprecedented height in medical classics,medical prescriptions,ma-teria medica,acupuncture and moxibustion.During the Tang Dynasty,a great number of literary works concerning medicine have been composed by many literati who master a great deal of medicine.Such works with beautiful lan-guage and thinking pattern have enriched the cultural connotation of traditional Chinese medicine and promoted the popularization and dissemination of traditional Chinese medicinal culture in a broad way.

  7. Advertising Aesthetic Creation Referenced to Chinese Ancient Literature%论广告创作对中国古代文学的审美借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜婷婷

    2014-01-01

    当今我国广告业的发展面临着摆脱西方模式、创作具有中国美学特色作品的挑战。中国古代文学是中国传统文化的重要组成部分,又与中国古典美学相表里,可为之提供借鉴,具体可在以下三个方面入手:寻求情感切入点,凸显“在心为志,发言为诗”的表现之美;注重意境创造,展现“温柔敦厚”的含蓄之美;引用和借鉴古诗文,彰显“文抽丽锦”“拍按香檀”的形式之美。%The development of advertising industry in China is facing challenges that break away from the Western model, possessing chinese aesthetics features in works. Chinese ancient literature is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, associated with Chinese classical aesthetics, which can provide reference for them. There are the following three aspects: seeking emotional point that can outstand performance beauty of“ the heart as ambition , speak as the poem";paying attention to the artistic conception creation that can show implicit beauty of"gentle and sincere”; quoting and referencing the ancient poetry that can highlight form beauty of "the pumping Lijin""shoot at Xiang Tan".

  8. Ideal Sentenments in Romantic Modern Chinese Literature%中国现代浪漫主义文学中的理想情愫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜仁

    2011-01-01

    Ideals are an indispensable motive in the development course of modern Chinese literature and they are prominently deconstrated in romantic literature.They promoted the development of romantic literature and at the same time restricted its improvement.This article makes a research of it on the basis of the works writen by Lu Xun,Guo Moruo,Yu Dafu,Jiang Guangci,Fei Ming and Shen Congwen.Facts show that the personal ideals and those of the society are always in the controdictory unity of opposites and in the unity of opposites various possibilities in romantic literature were reduced.%中国现代文学的发展过程中,理想是一个不可缺少的动因,而在浪漫主义文学中表现得尤为突出,它促进了浪漫主义文学的发展,但也制约了它的进一步提高。本文选取鲁迅、郭沫若、郁达夫、蒋光慈、废名和沈从文六人的作品进行考察,事实表明作家的个人理想和社会理想总是处于矛盾的对立统一中,在对立统一中演绎了现代浪漫主义文学的诸种可能。

  9. Urine metabolomics combined with the personalized diagnosis guided by Chinese medicine reveals subtypes of pre-diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, H.; Pasman, W.; Rubingh, C.; Wopereis, S.; Tienstra, M.; Schroen, J.; Wang, M.; Verheij, E.; Greef, J. van der

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continuously increases globally. A personalized strategy applied in the pre-diabetic stage is vital for diabetic prevention and management. The personalized diagnosis of Chinese Medicine (CM) may help to stratify the diabetics. Metabolomics is regarded as a

  10. Epidemiology of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients: a single-center experience and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Linlin; Xie, Zelin; Guo, Yuwen; Sun, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Zhu, Yichen; Tian, Ye

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the incidence and types of post-transplant malignancy in Chinese renal transplant recipients and the risk factors associated with malignancy. Data from 3,462 patients who underwent renal transplantation at Beijing Friendship Hospital were combined with data from 26 previous reports describing malignancy rates in 27,170 Chinese renal transplant recipients. Between 1974 and 2014, 179/3,462 (5.17 %) patients who underwent renal transplantation at our center developed malignancy. The most common site of malignancy was the urinary system, and the most common type was urothelial transitional cell carcinoma. Combined data from our center and previous reports showed malignancy in 671 (2.19 %) Chinese renal transplant recipients. The ten most common malignancies were urothelial transitional cell carcinoma (n = 283), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 68), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 63), renal cell carcinoma (n = 42), lymphoma (n = 42), lung cancer (n = 28), breast cancer (n = 19), skin cancer (n = 18), Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 12), and cervical cancer (n = 10). The incidence of post-transplant malignancy in renal transplant recipients was lower in China than the reported rates in other countries, and the most common sites of malignancy were the urinary and digestive system. The relative frequency of malignancy sites differed between northern and southern China. Renal transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppressive therapy should receive careful follow-up, including annual or biannual screening for malignancy in high-risk individuals.

  11. 论世界语理想与弱小民族文学%The ideal of Esperanto and the translation of the literatures of minor nationalities into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳辉

    2007-01-01

    Esperanto movement presents a specific language and cultural phenomenon in the history of intercultural communication,which once exerted an extensive influence on modern Chinese culture.As an artificial intemational auxiliary language with a tinge of idealism,Esperanto has displayed complex cultural functions of translingual practices.In the 20th century,Esperanto was used in China as a medium to translate foreign literatures.mostly those from minor nationalities in central and eastern Europe.in which the contradiction between the cosmopolitism and antagonism of minor nationalities is reflected,and the inherent tension of modemity of the Chinese literature is exposed,which is worth noting for those engaged in the studies of the relations between Chinese and foreign literatures.

  12. A case report of collagenous gastritis in a young Chinese woman and literatures review%胶原性胃炎一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贺军; 金珠; 林三仁; 丁士刚; 白鹏; 崔荣丽; 韩亚京; 张颖; 尚惠茹

    2010-01-01

    Objective Collagenous gastritis is a rare entity, characterized by the deposition of a subepithelial collagen band with an inflammatory infiltrate in the mucosa.This report describes the first case of collagenous gastritis occurring in a young Chinese woman and reviews the literatures.Methods The patient underwent the gastroscopy screening, and the biopsy specimens were treated with HE staining, Masson staining, Congo red staining and Warthin-Starry staining.Patients' clinical data was discussed and followed up.Results A twenty-year-old girl had intermittent epigastric pain for 4 years, abdominal distention, hiccup and weight loss for two months.The gastric endoscopy revealed diffuse white nodular appearance of the mucosa in angular incisure and antrum.Pathologic examination of the gastric biopsies from the antrum and angular showed a subepithelial collagen deposition with moderate infiltrates of lymphoplasma cells and eosinophils of the lamina propria.The collagen band measured up to 120.3 μm (mean 43.8 μm).Prednisone 20 mg/d for 4 weeks led to clinical remission and weight gain.Conclusion There are about 40 cases in literatures to date, and the cause and pathogenesis of collagenous gastritis remain unknown.According to the clinical and pathological characteristics, the patient in this article is the subtype of collagenous gastritis that occurring in children and young adults.Specific therapy has not been established, the gluten-free diet and glucocorticosteroid may be helpful to relieve symptoms in collagenous gastritis patients.%目的 胶原性胃炎(coHagenous gastritis,CG)临床少见,现报道一例CG并进行文献复习.方法 患者行胃镜检查,活检组织切片分别行HE染色、Masson染色、刚果红染色及Warthin-Starry染色;分析病例临床资料并进行随访.结果 1例20岁女性患者主因无规律上腹痛4年,伴腹胀、呃逆、体重明显下降2个月就诊.胃镜检查于角切迹及窦部可见白色结节(活检).病理

  13. 2000-2014年CNKI中关于光催化研究的文献分析%Bibliometric Analysis of Literature on the Research of Photocatalysis from 2000 to 2014 in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贝贝; 徐航

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalysis, an excellent pollutant disposal technology, shows great promise for future use. Base on the principle and method of bibliometric analysis of literature, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastruture ( CNKI) database with the theme of “photocatalysis” from 2000 to 2014 was searched. Making a detail analysis, such as the growth, the fund, the areas of literature, and so on, the research of photocatalysis technology and the general situation were revealed, along with its future trend.%光催化是一种非常有应用前景的污染物处理技术。基于文献分析计量学的原理与方法,以“光催化”为检索词,年限从2000-2014年期间,对CNKI数据库国内公开发表的有关光催化的研究文章进行检索。针对文献增长情况、文献基金、文献地区等方面进行了详细的分析,揭示出该项技术的研究概况和未来发展趋势。

  14. On the Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature Criticism%中国现当代文学批评观批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丕智

    2011-01-01

    The modern and contemporary Chinese literature criticism underwent such an inflexion progress: from the criticism of evolution theory to the criticism of classes and to the diversification literature criticism. This literature criticism method, which has pioneering theorization level, has important historical milestone meaning. But this literature criticism, which seriously leaned the nonfiction' social position, is reversal and vicarious on the basic relation of literature and society. It leads to a series of biased error and needs to seriously discriminate and criticize.%中国现当代文学批评观经历了从进化论文学批评观下的多元化批评,到以现实主义模式独尊的阶级(政治)论文学批评观,再到以社会政治为主导的多元并存的文学批评观的曲折变化历程。这一具有开创性的理论化层次的文学批评道路,有着历史历程碑的重要意义。但这种严重倾斜到非文学的社会立场之上的文学批评观,在文学与社会的基本关系上是颠倒、错位的,导致了一系列批评观念的偏误,需进行严肃的辨析和批判。

  15. Pushkin and Chinese Literature Review of 20th Century%普希金与20世纪中国文论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季水河

    2000-01-01

    普希金文学理论传入中国60多年了。60多年来,普希金文学理论对中国文学理论界产生了三个方面的重要影响:一是对中国文学理论中人民性、民族性理论的影响,二是对中国文学理论中文学批评观念的影响,三是对中国文学理论中典型人物复杂性格理论的影响。%It has been over 60 years since the literature theory of Pushkin was first introduced into China. Since then, his theory has caused important influences on the field of Chinese literature theory in three ways as followes:The influence on the theory of affinity to the people and nationality; The influence on literature criticism ideology;And the influence on the theory of complicated disposition of typical character.

  16. 中国古代文学编辑活动的特点%The Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature Editing Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达科

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学编辑活动的特点十分突出。它在编、刊、售三位一体的格局中起着重要的主导作用,与收藏、访书、宣传、娱情互为因果、多元一体,与文学风气乃至文化思潮关联互动、相互呼应。这些特点为当今信息化社会的文学活动提供了许多启迪性因素和可资借鉴的文化资源。%The characteristics of Chinese ancient literature editing activities was very outstanding. It played an important leading role in the trinity situation of of edition, printing and saling, and became cause each other and pluralism with collection, visiting books, propaganda, entertainment, association interactions and mutual e- cho with Literature ethos even cultural ideological trend. These characteristics provided many enlightenment sexual factors and culture resources that can be referenced for the literature activities in the current information society.

  17. Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by Y chromosome haplogroup O3a1c-002611

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Chao WANG; Shi YAN; Zhen-Dong QIN; Yan LU; Qi-Liang DING; Lan-Hai WEI; Shi-Lin LI

    2013-01-01

    Y chromosome haplogroup O3-M122 is the most prevalent haplogroup in East Asia,and provides an ideal tool for dissecting primary dispersals of the East Asians.Most of the sub-haplogroups of O3-M122 have been sufficiently investigated except for O3al c-002611,despite its great prevalence and huge population,especially in Han Chinese.In this study,we identified 508 individuals with haplogroup O3 a 1 c-002611 out of 7801 males from 117 East and Southeast Asian populations,typed at two newly discovered downstream Y-SNP markers and ten commonly used Y-STRs.Defined by SNPs IMS-JST002611 (in short,002611),F11,and F238,three lineages internal to haplogroup O3alc-002611 have distinct geographical distributions.Furthermore,Y-STR diversity shows a general south-tonorth decline,which is consistent with the prehistorically northward migration of the other O3-M122 lineages.The northward migration ofhaplogroup O3alc-002611 started about 13 thousand years ago (KYA).The expansions of subclades F11 and F238 in ancient Han Chinese began about 5 and 7 KYA immediately after the separation between the ancestors of the Han Chinese and Tibeto-Burman.

  18. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, Stimulates Proliferation, Differentiation and Gene Expression of Cultured Osteosarcoma Cells: Genomic Approach to Reveal Specific Gene Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy C. Y. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat ailments in women, contains Radix Astragali (Huangqi; RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui; RAS. When DBT was applied onto cultured MG-63 cells, an increase of cell proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cell were revealed: both of these effects were significantly higher in DBT than RA or RAS extract. To search for the biological markers that are specifically regulated by DBT, DNA microarray was used to reveal the gene expression profiling of DBT in MG-63 cells as compared to that of RA- or RAS-treated cells. Amongst 883 DBT-regulated genes, 403 of them are specifically regulated by DBT treatment, including CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9. The signaling cascade of this DBT-regulated gene expression was also elucidated in cultured MG-63 cells. The current results reveal the potential usage of this herbal decoction in treating osteoporosis and suggest the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoction that requires a well-defined formulation. The DBT-regulated genes in the culture could serve as biological responsive markers for quality assurance of the herbal preparation.

  19. Assessing the Quality of Research Supervision in Mainland Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of research supervision in mainland Chinese higher education by critiquing the related literature. It provides an evaluative overview of the Chinese graduate supervisor-student relationship after presenting the supervision system that is at work. The study has revealed that despite the general satisfaction felt…

  20. A Literature Review on Acculturation of Chinese Immigrants%中国移民的文化适应研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 祝春兰; 马亮; 张利

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing number of literature researches on the acculturation of Chinese immigrant groups in the last decad. The existent researches involve parent-child relationship and parenting styles, identity and satisfaction, physical and mental health, view of values and acculturation, as well as the interactions of mental mechanism. The author, therefore, concludes that further researches are needed in the areas of Chinese cultural history and views of values to profoundly indicate the Chinese immigrants’ acculturated characteristics.%近十几年来,对中国移民群体文化适应的研究在数量上呈现出明显增长的趋势。已有的与中国移民文化适应有关的研究涉及到与亲子关系和教养方式、身份认同与满意感、身心健康水平、价值观念等因素与文化适应的关系,也对文化适应与这些因素相互作用的心理机制进行了探讨。今后的研究应进一步从中国文化历史和价值观的大背景下分析中国移民文化适应的特点,将这一研究主题推向深入。

  1. 中国古代悲秋文学中的生命意识%Life Consciousness in Ancient Chinese Sentimental Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪萍

    2001-01-01

    与西方在宗教安慰中消除对死亡的恐惧不同,中国古代文人士子以建功立业达到对死亡的超越。悲秋文学以人生价值实现过程中的苦难为核心,以忧惧生命短暂为外在形式表达了古代文人的生命观,反映了中国文化天人合一的宇宙观和伦理价值观念对文人生命意识的深刻影响。%In the west, people's fear toward death can be erased with religious comfort. Yet it is quite different from that in ancient Chinese works. The men of letters surpassed death with the meritorious deeds performed. Sentimental literature focused upon the tribulation experienced in the process of value accomplishment. The extrinsic form of the works is the scholars' worry and apprehension about life's transience. Those works reflect the universe outlook of unique combination between heaven and human in Chinese culture. The moral values' great influence upon scholars' life conscious-ness is also mirrored out.

  2. 中国现代文学史编撰中的一个盲区%A Blind Zone in the Historiography of M odern Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树勤

    2001-01-01

    There is a blind zone in the history writing of m odern Chinese literature.That is the absence of feminity.This absence,caused by many factors,exists in two forms:the obvious one and the hidden one.It is a cult ural injustice which should be subverted.%女性缺席现象构成了中国现代文学史编 撰中的一个盲区,这种缺席呈现为显形缺席与隐形缺席两种形态,其产生具有多方面原因 ,是应该受到颠覆的文化的不公正。

  3. Literature Analysis on Distribution Regularity of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes in Wilson's Disease%Wilson病中医证候文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王共强; 王伟; 薛本春; 胡文彬; 胡纪源; 韩咏竹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution regularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in an attempt to provide a basis for the standardization of TCM syndromes in Wilson’s disease (WD). Methods The TCM literatures about WD were collected from Chinese Biomedical Literature online Database, Chinese Journal Full Text Database, and Chinese Technology Journal Database from 1979 to 2010. The 736 cases from 21 literatures in line with inclusion criteria were analyzed by frequency analysis and cluster analysis using SPSS 19. 0 software. Results There was 13 TCM syndrome types in WD, the top four types included liver-gallbladder damp-heat, liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-wind stirring, and phlegm-damp accumulation in collaterals. Cluster analysis results were slightly different from the frequencies of TCM syndromes in literatures. Among syndrome factors, viscera factors included liver, kidney, bile and spleen, successively; nature factors included damp-heat, yin deficiency, endogenous wind, and phlegmdamp, successively. Conclusion Liver-gallbladder damp-heat, liver-kidney yin deficiency, liver-wind stirring, and phlegm-damp accumulation in collaterals were the common TCM syndrome types of WD, especially liver-gallbladder damp-heat. Excess syndrome factors were mainly characterized as damp-heat, and phlegm-turbid; deficiency syndrome factors were mainly characterized as yin deficiency and endogenous wind.%目的 探讨Wilson病(Wilson's disease,WD)中医证候分布规律,为WD中医证候规范化研究提供依据.方法 从中国生物医学文献网络版数据库、中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊数据库中检索1979-2010年间有关WD的中医药文献,对符合纳入标准的21篇文献中736例患者证候分布情况运用SPSS 19.0软件进行频数分析和聚类分析.结果 WD共出现13个中医证型,频数前4位依次为肝胆湿热、肝肾阴虚、肝风内动、痰湿阻络.聚类分析结果与中医证型频数分

  4. 20世纪中国文学中的 "风水" 叙事%The Feng Shui Narration in the 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旋波

    2015-01-01

    近代以来, 作为中国传统文化一脉的风水观因其缺乏 "真确的知识" 而受到摒弃和批判, 五四以来风水一直受到科学理性、 唯物主义主导的文学思潮的攻伐. 随后, 20世纪中国社会及文化思潮发生了巨大的变迁,风水在文学中的境遇也因时而易, 这不但反映了时代思潮的嬗变, 还纠结着20世纪纷繁复杂的政治、 哲学及美学取向. 尤其是随着90年代中国文化语境的变迁, 风水文化逐渐浮现出其反思现代性的 "复魅" 特质.%In modern times, Feng Shui, which has been inherent to traditional Chinese culture, has been denounced and defamed as lack of scientific and truthful knowledge, and has long been criticized by the rational and materialistic school of literature since the May Fourth Movement. In the 20th century, as the Chinese society and ideology is undergoing dramatic changes, Feng Shui varies from time to time in literature, which reflects not only the transformation of ideology but also the complication of politics, philosophy and aesthetics. Particularly in the 1990s, as the cultural environment in China has greatly changed, the culture of Feng Shui tends to be charged with the nature of "revitalizing the enchantment of the world", i. e. reflections upon modernism.

  5. 商科院校中国现当代文学教学的新视域%The New Horizon of Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature Teaching in Business Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭文忠; 杨虹

    2015-01-01

    To include business literature in Chinese modern and contemporary literature teaching practice, break the teaching rule, play to the commercial literature's unique role actively in talent training business, and establish their own position through the dialogue with business will help the Chinese modern and contemporary literature teaching business to coruscate new vitality.%将商业文学纳入到中国现当代文学的教学实践中,打破教学陈规,积极发挥商业文学在商科院校人才培养中的独特作用,并在与商业的对话中重新确立自己的地位,有助于商科院校中国现当代文学课程教学重新焕发出勃勃生机.

  6. 20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型阐释%20th Century Chinese Literature Gun Yu Archetypical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜杰

    2014-01-01

    Gun Yu myth as a prototype in the literature as a hero mythology, it is perhaps the epitome of human to the hero worship, accumulate at the bottom of the pioneers of the original consciousness. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype is not simply repeat the Gun Yu myth, not just confined to a single, forever hero model, but with the development of history and the cultural background of the different age is rich, the constantly changing, constantly displacement deformation, from hero to ordinary mortals. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype become forces so as to express its own cultural codes, not only reflects the profound connotation of culture and history of the works, but also let us in the same original thinking mode of the experience of different cultures, and more direct, more profound understanding prototype this is both abstract and concrete, is both varied and genetic stability of human culture and literature.%鲧禹神话作为原型在文学中被塑造成英雄神话,它凝结了人类对英雄的崇拜,积淀在原始先民的意识底层。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型并不是对鲧禹神话的简单重复,也不仅局限在单一的、永远不变的英雄模式,而是随着历史发展和不同时代文化背景被不断丰富、变化,不断置换变形,从英雄走向普通凡人。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型成为各种力量借以表达自身的文化符码,既体现出了作品的深厚的文化底蕴和历史内涵,又能让我们在相同的原始思维的模式下体验不同的文化,也能更直接、更深刻地认识原型这一既抽象又具体,既多变又稳定的人类文化与文学基因。

  7. Rethinking about the Starting Point of Modern Chinese Literature%关于中国现代文学起点问题的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敏

    2014-01-01

    From the 1950s ,Chinese modern literature discipline established to the early 1980s ,“political-ness”had always been the subject of measuring the modern literature .In the mid and late 1980s ,academic world gradually observed the political philosophy’s repression and shelter towards many literary phenome-na and essence .Therefore ,academic world advocated dating back to literature ,and suggested using “mo-dernity” to rethink literature .With the reflection on the literature of “modernity” in the 1990s ,and the proposition of “ no late Qing Dynasty ,no May 4th movement”and“starting point of the first year of the republic of China” ,and“May 4th”as the starting point of modern literature status were constantly ques-tioned by some scholars .Accordingly ,the starting point of modern Chinese literature continuously pushed forward .But the“May 4th” with its particularity and significance ,had its irreplaceable reason .Thus if the position of “May 4th” could not be increased ,we must clear the boundary tablets and the important position of “May 4th”in the modern literature development .%自20世纪50年代中国现代文学学科建立起到20世纪80年代前期,“政治性”一直是估衡现代文学的主题词。进入80年代中期后,学界逐渐体察到政治理念对于诸多文学现象及文学本质的压抑与遮蔽,于是纷纷倡导回到文学自身,并主张用“现代性”重新考量文学。而随着20世纪90年代学界对文学“现代性”的全面反思,以及“没有晚晴,何来‘五四’”“民国元年起点说”等命题的提出,“五四”作为现代文学的起点地位,不断遭到一些学者的质疑。与此相应,中国现代文学的起点呈现出不断向前推移之势。但“五四”以其特殊性和重要意义,有其不可替代的理由。因此在不能拔高“五四”地位的同时,必须要明晰“五四”在整个现代文学发展流脉中的界碑性和重要位置。

  8. The "Chinese" Image in German Expressionism Literature%德国表现主义文学中的“中国人”形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2012-01-01

    Imagology explores the ways different nations observe and express each other through the study on literature.The "image" in imagology not only refers to foreign characters and sceneries,but also refers to the feelings,notions and statements about other countries in the literature works.In China,more and more attention of comparative culture researchers is being drawn by this emerging subject.In recent years,researches on expression of "Chinese" image in foreign countries have been gradually on the rise in China.With the help of imagology theories,this essay takes some noted Chinese novels by German expressionist writers Alfred Dblin,Albert Ehrenstein and Franz Kafka as examples,conducts an analysis and interpretation of the "Chinese" image.%形象学(Imagologie)通过对文学的研究来了解民族与民族之间是怎样互相观察、互相表述的。形象学中的"形象",不仅仅指异国的人物、景物,也可以指作品中关于异国的情感、观念和言辞。这一新兴学科正越来越多地吸引着我国比较文化研究者的目光。近年来,国内关于"中国形象"的异域表述的研究也逐渐兴起。选取德国表现主义作家阿尔弗雷德.德布林(Alfred D?blin,1878———1957)、阿尔伯特.埃伦施泰因(Albert Eh-renstein,1886-1950)、弗兰茨.卡夫卡(Franz Kafka,1883-1924)的著名中国小说为例,借助形象学的理论,进行"中国人"形象的分析和阐释。

  9. 从想象力因素看第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品%Chinese Contemporary Writers' Imagination:Analysis Based on the Works of 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余梦

    2015-01-01

    Imagination is an eternal component of literature and is essential for its existence. Analysis of the imaginativeness of the works awarded the 8th Mao Dun Literature Prize reveals the strong tendency of representation: the framework of imaginativeness is based on historical facts with the secular social circumstances as the background, and the content is more likely to be realistic and the inner emotions are intense. A further investigation reveals that the description is too realistic with very limited transcendence, the sense of beauty is relatively shown in moral aspect,and at the same time,it also has the feature such as "plain narration" and"retentive representation",which lead to exquisite and couching descriptions deficient of alienation and skipping. Finally, suggestions are put forward on ways to improve the imaginativeness of Chinese contemporary writers.%想象力是文学存在的永恒命题,其重要性不言而喻. 第八届茅盾文学奖获奖作品所蕴含的想象力存在明显的再现倾向:想象的时间总是指向过去,背景偏爱世俗的社会情境,内容写实且内在情理感性色彩偏浓.进一步体现在:形象性过于写实,超越性深受限制,美感中道德意味相对凝重,同时存在"平实性叙事""滞留性再现",导致行文虽细腻感人但缺乏应有的异化和跳跃. 针对当代作家想象力的现状,蕴藉性表达、多元时空叙述不失为提升当代作家想象力的有益参考.

  10. Interethnic Dialogue between Malaysian Chinese Literature and Malay Literature in Allegory Writing%马华文学与马来文学的跨族对话:从国族寓言的角度探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽丽

    2015-01-01

    马来西亚的华文文学以及马来文学是同一国家属性但不同语种的文学系统. 它们之间不仅跨民族跨语言,而且有各自特殊的文化历史背景. 从国族寓言切入,探讨马华文学与马来文学两个系统之间的跨文化对话,有助于考察双方文本如何结构多元背景的族群关系、文化属性以及其间的张力.%The multi-culture in Malaysia provides an environment for the co-existence of different literary systems. These differ-ent literary systems not only cross ethnic and language, but also have their special cultural and historical backgrounds. A study on the interethnic dialogue between Malaysian Chinese literature and Malay literature from the perspective of allegorical writing is expected to show us a full picture of the ethic structure, cultural affiliation and tension between two ethic groups in the context of multi culture.

  11. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liao, Zhuan; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-10-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are the largest population in the world. Critical care medicine in China is developing rapidly and has achieved great advances in recent 20 years. The research contribution in critical care medicine among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)--is unknown. Articles published in 18 journals on critical care medicine originating from ML, TW, and HK from 1999 to 2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Science Citation Index Expanded. Quantity and quality analyses were conducted for the total numbers of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were 932 articles from ML (268), TW (506), and HK (158) from 1999 to 2008. The annual total numbers of articles of the three regions increased gradually from 1999 to 2008 (from 57 to 157). From 2002 onward, the number of articles published from ML exceeded that from HK, but TW still has the dominance in both annual and total number of articles published compared with ML and HK. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (1676.67) was higher than that from ML (708.25) and HK (449.51). TW had the highest average IF of 3.31 followed by HK of 2.85 and ML of 2.64. HK had the highest average citations of each article of 10.73, followed by TW of 6.74 and ML of 5.34. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions. The total numbers of articles in China increased markedly from 1999 to 2008. TW published the most number of articles, clinical trials, and randomised controlled trials among the three regions. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions.

  12. Scientific publications on systematic review and meta-analysis from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the English literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiping; Wu, Qiong; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2012-03-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are playing an increasingly important role in clinical research and practice. This study aimed to measure the scientific production of systematic review and meta-analysis from the three major regions of China: the Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW). English articles on systematic review and meta-analysis from ML, HK, and TW from 2001 to 2010 were retrieved from the PubMed database. The total number of articles, impact factors (IF), and articles published in high-impact journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons among the three regions. There were 1 587 published articles from ML (1 292), HK (203), and TW (92) during the past ten years. The annual total numbers of articles in the three regions increased significantly from 2001 to 2010 (from 13 to 677). The number of articles from ML has exceeded that from TW since 2001, and surpassed that from HK in 2003. The accumulated IF of articles from ML (3 488.24) was higher than those from HK (493.16) and TW (216.39). HK had the highest average IF of 3.31, followed by ML of 2.90 and TW of 2.85. Researchers from HK published a larger proportion of papers in high-impact journals than those from ML and TW. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was the most popular journal in China. Chinese authors have been very active to enhance the systematic review and meta-analysis research over the past ten years, especially in ML. The gap between ML and the other two regions has been narrowed. But there is still considerable room for Chinese authors to improve their studies on systematic review and meta-analysis.

  13. Mathematics and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2016-01-01

    In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.

  14. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese liquor is one of the world's best-known distilled spirits and is the largest spirit category by sales. The unique and traditional solid-state fermentation technology used to produce Chinese liquor has been in continuous use for several thousand years. The diverse and dynamic microbial community in a liquor starter is the main contributor to liquor brewing. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. In this study, metatranscriptomics was used to comprehensively explore the active microbial community members and key transcripts with significant functions in the liquor starter production process. Fungi were found to be the most abundant and active community members. A total of 932 carbohydrate-active enzymes, including highly expressed auxiliary activity family 9 and 10 proteins, were identified at 62°C under aerobic conditions. Some potential thermostable enzymes were identified at 50, 62, and 25°C (mature stage. Increased content and overexpressed key enzymes involved in glycolysis and starch, pyruvate and ethanol metabolism were detected at 50 and 62°C. The key enzymes of the citrate cycle were up-regulated at 62°C, and their abundant derivatives are crucial for flavor generation. Here, the metabolism and functional enzymes of the active microbial communities in NF liquor starter were studied, which could pave the way to initiate improvements in liquor quality and to discover microbes that produce novel enzymes or high-value added products.

  15. Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chang, Erik C; Chen, Sinead H Y; Lin, Yi-Chen; Wu, Denise H

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of orthographic representations to reading and writing has been intensively investigated in the literature. However, the distinction between neuronal correlates of the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic (graphemic) buffer has rarely been examined in alphabetic languages and never been explored in non-alphabetic languages. To determine whether the neural networks associated with the orthographic lexicon and buffer of logographic materials are comparable to those reported in the literature, the present fMRI experiment manipulated frequency and the stroke number of Chinese characters in the tasks of form judgment and stroke judgment, which emphasized the processing of character recognition and writing, respectively. It was found that the left fusiform gyrus exhibited higher activation when encountering low-frequency than high-frequency characters in both tasks, which suggested this region to be the locus of the orthographic lexicon that represents the knowledge of character forms. On the other hand, the activations in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and in the left angular gyrus were parametrically modulated by the stroke number of target characters only in the stroke judgment task, which suggested these regions to be the locus of the orthographic buffer that represents the processing of stroke sequence in writing. These results provide the first evidence for the functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and buffer in reading and writing Chinese characters. They also demonstrate the critical roles of the left fusiform area and the frontoparietal network to the long-term and short-term representations of orthographic knowledge, respectively, across different orthographies.

  16. Review on Researches in Pre-modern Chinese Narrative Literature in the Perspective of Narration%叙事学视域下中国近世叙事文学研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明贵

    2012-01-01

    叙事学为中国古典叙事文学研究提供了全新的视角。借鉴西方叙事学理论和方法解析中国近世叙事文本,是促成中国近世叙事文学文本意义再生的有效手段。本文结合研究者的理论愿景与操作手段,对叙事学视域下中国近世叙事文学的研究成果作了初步梳理,并认为在叙事学视域下开展中国近世叙事文学研究必须坚持两个原则,一是尊重中国近世叙事文学在文化思维和话语表述方面的特殊性,二是确保叙事学理论对文本的“有效介入”。%The narratology provides a new perspective for Chinese classical narrative literature study. Learn from Western narrative theory and methods to resolve the pre-modem Chinese narrative text, is an effective means to contribute the meaning regeneration of the Pre-modern Chinese narrative text. In this paper, the writer according to the researcher's theoretical vision and operational means, accomplished a preliminary neaten for research result in pre-modem Chinese narrative literature study under the narrative perspective, and believes pre-modem Chinese narrative literature study under the Narrative perspective must stick to two principles, one is value the particularity of pre-modern Chinese narrative literature's cultural thought pattern and language expressing, the other is to ensure the effective intervention between narrative theory and text.

  17. On Chinese Contemporary Literature Creation Limitations from Snail House%从《蜗居》看中国当代文学创作的局限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛涛

    2011-01-01

    The Snail House TV version is very faithful to the original novel. The banning of TV series Snail House not only reflects the non - ecological characteristic of the contemporary cultural context, but also exposes the structural lack of the whole contemporary literary creation : 1. realism makes Snail House follow the emotional logic and life logic character on the characterization and plot structure , not like the contemporary urban novels which write the urban marginal group with civilization disease on the modernism or post - modernism cultural position ; the Snail House reflects that contemporary literature has forgotten the" May 4"literature realism ; 2. the tragic of Snail House grips the ordinary people in the real life, which is different from "17 years" literature and the post - cuhural revolution literature which is the historicization of tragedy ; it is also different from the pioneer literature , feminism literature, root- searching literature which culturalzed and philosophized tragedy ; Snail House makes tragedy reflect the universality of Scheler sense , also breaks the ideology myth that the contemporary Chinese literature does not have real tragedy. 3. the strong practical critical spirit of the Snail House reflects the predicament in the Chinese realistic contemporary literature creation, and realism has been an ideological strategies, and makes the" real life" in the contemporary literature lost. Therefore, the development of Chinese contemporary literature does not have the ecological significance of the "bush style", and more like a beautiful and pale "penning art".%《蜗居》的电视版非常忠实于小说原作。电视剧《蜗居》的被禁不仅折射出了当代文化语境的非生态性,更暴露了整个当代文学创作的结构性匮乏:一是,写实性使《蜗居》在塑造人物、构置情节上遵循人物的情感逻辑和生活逻辑,而非当代都市小说那样在现代主义或后现代

  18. Rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma revealed by metastatic anal fistula. The visible part of the iceberg: a report of two cases with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjelloun El

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colonic adenocarcinoma revealed by metastatic anorectal fistula is rare, with few cases in the literature. Such lesions can be taken for the more common manifestation of a benign perianal abscess or fistula. Once diagnosed, the management of such conditions remains controversial. We herein report two cases with perianal fistula that were subsequently found to have developed perianal adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Further colonic investigation revealed a rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma. Histology and immunohistochemical staining was identical in both primary and metastatic tumors. Preoperative chemoradiation with further rectal low anterior resection and local excision of metastatic anal fistula was performed. There is no recurrence after 3 years of follow-up.

  19. 中西乌托邦文学流变研究%On the Transmission of Chinese and Western Utopia Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 李赫

    2011-01-01

    As one kind of imagination, reposing and the expression of human's future and ideal society, utopia and I literature seem to have a natural connection. Since the birth of human society, utopian writing has a long history in Eastern and Western literature. Although the Chinese and Western utopia literature's development way and the cultural moral character are different, their starting point and standpoint both stem from the sincere attention to the human contemporary life and the relentless thinking to human ultimate fate.%作为人类对未来和理想社会的一种想象、寄托与表达,乌托邦和文学似乎有着天然的联系,自从人类社会诞生以来,乌托邦创作便在东西方文学宝库中层出不穷,源远流长。中西方乌托邦文学的发展路径和文化品格不尽相同,但其出发点和立足点都是源于对人类当下生活的深切关注和对人类终极命运的的不懈思考。

  20. Song of Youth: Youth Narratives and Representations of Young People in Contemporary Chinese Literature, Film, and Popular Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The challenge for contemporary literary scholars comes down to the question of how useful a cultural product is in describing and configuring the contemporary cultural scene, for example, the impact of literature, film, and TV in the globalizing era. Many scholars, in order to capture this diversified post-socialist cultural phenomenon, explore as many genres of art as they can in their research. However, identifying the common feature of post-socialist diversity in China still remains a ques...

  1. Extensive diversification of MHC in Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC) reveals novel splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Zhong-yuan; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Jiang-di; Liao, Xiang-yong; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2014-02-01

    A series of MHC alleles (including 26 class IA, 27 class IIA, and 17 class IIB) were identified from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Anda-MHC). These genes are similar to classical MHC molecules in terms of characteristic domains, functional residues, deduced tertiary structures and genetic diversity. The majority of variation between alleles is found in the putative peptide-binding region (PBR), which is driven by positive Darwinian selection. The coexistence of two isoforms in MHC IA, IIA, and IIB alleles are shown: one full-length transcript and one novel splice variant. Despite lake of the external domains, these variants exhibit similar subcellular localization with the full-length transcripts. Moreover, the expression of MHC isoforms are up-regulated upon in vivo and in vitro stimulation with Andrias davidianus ranavirus (ADRV), suggesting their potential roles in the immune response. The results provide insights into understanding MHC variation and function in this ancient and endangered urodele amphibian.

  2. Mutation Analysis of 16 Mucolipidosis II and III Alpha/Beta Chinese Children Revealed Genotype-Phenotype Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Weimin; Shi, Huiping; Yao, Fengxia; Wei, Min; Qiu, Zhengqing

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis II and III alpha/beta are autosomal recessive diseases caused by mutations in the GNPTAB gene which encodes the α and β subunits of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. Clinically, mucolipidosis II (MLII) is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, and other systemic involvement. In contrast, MLIII alpha/beta is a much milder disorder, the symptoms of which include progressive joint stiffness, short stature, and scoliosis. To study the relationship between the genotypes and phenotypes of the MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients, we analyzed the GNPTAB gene in 16 Chinese MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients. We collected and analyzed the patients’ available clinical data and all showed clinical features typical of MLII or MLIII alpha/beta. Moreover, the activity of several lysosomal enzymes was measured in the plasma and finally the GNPTAB gene was sequenced. We detected 30 mutant alleles out of 32 alleles in our patients. These include 10 new mutations (c.99delC, c.118-1G>A, c.523_524delAAinsG, c.1212C>G, c.2213C>A, c.2345C>T, c.2356C>T, c.2455G>T, c.2821dupA, and c.3136-2A>G) and 5 previously reported mutations (c.1071G>A, c.1090C>T, c.2715+1G>A, c.2550_2554delGAAA, and c.3613C>T). The most frequent mutation was the splicing mutation c.2715+1G>A, which accounted for 28% of the mutations. The majority of the mutations reported in the Chinese patients (57%) were located on exon 13 or in its intronic flanking regions. PMID:27662472

  3. telemetric data reveals ecolgoically adaptive behavior of captive raised chinese giant salamanders when reintroduced into their native habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    little is known about the ecology of the chinese giant salamander (andrias davidianus),a critically endangered species.such information is needed to make informed decisions concerning the conservation and management of this species.four a.davidianus raised in a pool were released into their native habitat on 04 may 2005 and were subsequently radio-tracked for approximately 155-168 days.following their release,the giant salamanders traveled upstream in search of suitable micro-habitats,and settled after 10 days.later,a devastating summer flash flood destroyed the salamanders' dens,triggering another bout of habitat searching by the animals.eventually,the salamanders settled in different sections of the stream where they remained until the end of the study.on average,each habitat searching endeavor took 7.5 days,during which a giant salamander explored a 310 m stretch of stream with a surface area of about 1157 m2 and occupied 3.5 temporary dwellings.each giant salamander spent an average of 144.5 days in semi-permanent micro-habitats,and occupied territories that had a mean size of 34.75 m2.our results indicate that the chinese giant salamander responds to habitat disturbance by seeking new habitats upstream,both water temperature and water level affect the salamander's habitat searching activity,and the size of the salamander's semi-permanent territory is influenced by the size of the pool containing the animal's den.

  4. A systematic review of the literature reveals trends and gaps in integrated pest management studies conducted in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stephen L

    2017-03-20

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a broad-based approach for addressing pests that negatively affect human and environmental health and economic profitability. Weeds, insects, and disease-causing pathogens (diseases) are the pests most often associated with IPM. A systematic review, widely used in other scientific disciplines, was employed to determine the most commonly studied IPM topics and summarize the reasons for these trends and the gaps. In a field synopsis of the literature, 1,679 relevant published papers were identified and categorized into one of the following five broad areas: IPM and organic (organic), climate change and pests (climate), rural and urban IPM (rural and urban), next generation education (education), and advanced production systems (technology). Papers were examined in greater detail for at least one of the three main pests in a systematic review. A majority (85%) of IPM papers have been in the area of rural and urban IPM, primarily addressing agriculture (78%). Professionals, land owners, and the general public were the focus of a majority (95%) of IPM papers on education. Technology is an increasing area of focus in the literature. Over the past 40 years, IPM papers have primarily (75%) addressed insects and been limited mostly to rural and urban settings. Climate change, technology, and education specific to pest management studies are increasingly being published and will help broaden the focus that could result in increased adoption and development of IPM.

  5. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in incompatible interaction between infected non-heading Chinese cabbage and Hyaloperonospora parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Liu, Shi-Tuo; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Dao-Yun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying; Hu, Chun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is one of the main green leafy vegetables in the world, especially in China, with significant economic value. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a fungal pathogen responsible for causing downy mildew disease in Chinese cabbage, which greatly affects its production. The objective of this study was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during incompatible interactions between non-heading Chinese cabbage and H. parasitica using complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP). We obtained 129 reliable differential transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in a resistant line 'Suzhou Qing'. Among them, 121 upregulated TDFs displayed an expression peak at 24-48 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fifteen genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 13 genes (86.7%) revealed by the cDNA-AFLP. We identified four TDFs related to fungal resistance among the 15 TDFs. Furthermore, comparative analysis of four TDFs between resistant line 'Suzhou Qing' and susceptible line 'Aijiao Huang' showed that transcript levels of TDF14 (BcLIK1_A01) peaked at 48 h.p.i. and 25.1-fold increased in the resistant line compared with the susceptible line. Similarly, transcript levels of the other three genes, TDF42 (BcCAT3_A07), TDF75 (BcAAE3_A06) and TDF88 (BcAMT2_A05) peaked at 24, 48 and 24 h.p.i. with 25.1-, 100- and 15.8-fold increases, respectively. The results suggested that the resistance genes tended to transcribe at higher levels in the resistance line than in the susceptible line, which may provide resistance against pathogen infections. The present study might facilitate elucidating the molecular basis of the infection process and identifying candidate genes for resistance improvement of susceptible cultivars.

  6. External Context Construction of Chinese Enterprises and a Literature Review%中国企业外部情境架构构建与研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敬勤; 刘畅

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes a grounded analysis based on 405 articles published in nine domestic leading journals in the management research fields from 2003 to 2013 and related to Chinese enterprises’external context factors.From a perspective of research breadth,it re-fines external context factors of Chinese enterprises through existing literature.Then it cate-gorizes them through PEST framework,analyzes main and minor context factors paid atten-tion to in contextualized research,and integrates the relationship among related factors.It re-views the status and characteristics of existing domestic contextualized research from the perspectives of research depth and methodology.%本文通过对2003-2013年间发表于国内9种权威管理类期刊中涉及中国企业外部情境因素的405篇文献进行了扎根分析。文章在研究广度层面提炼出已有研究成果中受关注的中国企业外部情境因素,并根据 PEST 框架进行归类,分析了各领域情境化研究中受关注的主、次要情境因素,整合相关因素间的关系。文章从研究深度及研究方法两个层面梳理了我国外部情境化研究的发展现状及特征。

  7. 水芹的本草考证%Textual study on Oenanthe javanica documented in ancient Chinese medicinal literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正明; 杨新波; 曹文斌

    2001-01-01

    Object To obtain a deeper understanding of the origin andvarieties of Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. for therapeutic use. Methods Literatures documented through generations of practical experiences were retrieved with simultaneous field study and laboratory identification of chemical constituents and pharmacological actions for comparison. Results The growth pattern and its therapeutic efficacy in different indications as recorded in the ancient literatures were found to be basically identical to that obtained by modern scientific research. Conclusion Only Oenanthe javanica (BL.) DC. of the Umbelliferae family can be considered as the orthodox product for therapeutic use.%目的 通过对水芹的本草学研究,考证其基源及药用品种。方法 查阅有关历代文献,实地考察和应用现代科学技术对水芹的化学成分和药理作用等进行研究。结果 表明历代本草文献中所记载水芹的生长特征及其功能主治与现代研究结果基本一致。结论 水芹基源仅伞形科水芹属植物水芹Oenanthejavanica(B1.)DC.为药用正品。

  8. Ancient DNA reveals that the genetic structure of the northern Han Chinese was shaped prior to 3,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Li, Hong-Jie; Cui, Ying-Qiu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be divided into two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site which is located in the Central Plain and dates back to a key transitional period during the rise of the Han Chinese (approximately 3,000 years ago). We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago in the Central Plain area.

  9. Scientific publication in orthopedics journals from Chinese authors: a survey of 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chenglong; Chu, Jianjun; Yang, Cheng; Kong, Jinhai; Sun, Zhengwang; Xiao, Hui; Liu, Tielong; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-08-01

    In the scientific community, a scientist's productivity is usually measured by his scientific output. The productivity of a group, an institution or, on a larger scale, a country can be assessed in similar manner. This study aims to show the contribution of Chinese authors to orthopedics research, from three major regions, namely Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Articles published in 63 orthopedics journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong from 2003 to 2012 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Journal Citation Report. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted for the total number of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trails, case reports, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were totally 3473 articles from Mainland China (1859), Taiwan (1111), and Hong Kong (503) from 2003 to 2012, showing gradual increase from 2003 to 2012. From 2006 onward, the number of published articles from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong and exceeded that from Taiwan in 2008. The accumulated IF of articles from Mainland China (3746.21) was higher than that from Taiwan (2466.74) and that from Hong Kong (1089.35). However, Taiwan witnessed the highest mean IF (2.22), followed by Hong Kong (2.17), and Mainland China (2.02). Hong Kong displayed the highest mean citations of each article (9.35), followed by Taiwan (9.12), and Mainland China (5.71). By contract, Spine was the most popular journal to choose in these three regions. The total number of orthopedics articles in China increased markedly from 2003 to 2012. Of the three regions, Mainland China published the most articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trails, and case reports. In general, Spine was the most popular journal to choose in the three regions.

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pythium Insidiosum Corneal Ulcer in a Chinese Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Liu, Hongshan; Chen, Xiaolian; Wu, Jiaochan; He, Miao; Zhong, Xingwu

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 7 Final Diagnosis: Pythium insidiosum Symptoms: Painful vision loss • red eye Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Application of multiple antifungal medicines followed by the penetrating keratoplasty Specialty: Ophthalmology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pythium insidiosum keratitis is a rare but sight-threatening disease with a high morbidity rate. It can be mis-diagnosed as fungal keratitis in clinic settings. We report a case of severe Pythium insidiosum keratitis in a Chinese child, treated with combined approaches. Case Report: A 7-year-old boy from Hainan province in the south of China developed a suppurative corneal ulcer after being in a forest. A mass of hyphae was detected by confocal imaging in vivo, fungal smear test, and histochemical examination. Treatment with Natamycin, fluconazole, and Voriconazole for 1 month was unsuccessful, and a penetrating keratoplasty with anterior vitrectomy was performed. The infection reappeared 1 day after surgery, immediately after which anterior chamber irrigation with 0.02% Fluconazole and amphotericin B solution was performed. Finally, the globe was saved and there was no further recurrent infection. A cultured mycelial organism, which was hard to identify by biomorphology, was confirmed by PCR to be Pythium insidiosum. The zoospores were observed in water environments. The imaging characteristics of P. insidiosum in confocal microscopy are described herein. Conclusions: This is the first case of Pythium insidiosum keratitis reported in China. It can be misdiagnosed as fungal keratitis in the clinic. Improving the awareness of clinicians, promoting early diagnosis, and a multidisciplinary approach, especially early surgery, improve the prognosis. PMID:28025573

  11. Generational differences of the frontline nursing workforce in relation to job satisfaction: what does the literature reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of registered nurses has been found to be associated with retention, organizational commitment, workforce safety, and cost savings to health care organizations. Satisfaction of the workforce is vital because nursing turnover can be detrimental for a labor force that is growing older. However, the summation of the most important variables that are linked to job satisfaction has been difficult to discern in part because the workforce includes 3 main generations (ie, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) with unique work values that drive their job satisfiers. This article provides a review of existing literature to examine the differences in variables that are linked to job satisfaction that exist between the generational cohorts. Differences in stress sources, need for work-life balance, and compensation are discussed. The knowledge about generationally driven variables that influence job satisfaction can help managers develop strategies to maintain a diverse nursing workforce.

  12. [Hemorrhagic shock revealing multiple digestive microaneurysms in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: Case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anquetil, C; Stavris, C; Chanson, N; Lambert, M; Hachulla, E; Launay, D; Hatron, P Y

    2017-01-01

    The vascular disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) result from various mechanisms and presentations (inflammatory disease or vasculitis, atherosclerosis). We report on a 34-year-old man with cutaneous, articular, neurological and nephrologic SLE. He presented with catastrophic haemorrhage on microaneurysm rupture of the left hepatic artery. After blood transfusions and immunosuppressive treatments, his condition improves. Uncommon complication in SLE patients, digestive vasculitis with microaneurysms may occur as in polyarteritis nodosa. In the literature, we identified 10 additional cases of hepatic microaneurysms in SLE patients. The main issue is an earlier diagnosis in order to give appropriate treatment and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Chinese literature review of etiology distribution of adult patients with fever of unknown origin from 1979 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xing-yu; He, Quan-ying

    2013-12-01

    To review the etiology of 10 201 adult patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) in China from 1979 to 2012, and to compare the reasons between the South and the North of China, and to illustrate the change in different periods. Literatures containing key word "fever of unknown origin" were selected in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database from 1979 to 2012. Articles were excluded if patient population were less than 100. Diagnostic criteria of FUO were confirmed by the standard of Petersdorf and Beeson in 1961. Totally 43 literatures including 10 201 patients were enrolled in this study. The period of the literatures were divided into the early, middle and later period, and the regions were partitioned into the South and the North. A total of 42 articles (including 9787 patients) provided the gender information with 5063 men and 4724 women. The etiologies of 10 201 FUO patients included infectious diseases (53.5%), rheumatic diseases (20.1%) and tumor (12.0%). The positive diagnostic rate was 91.8%. Tuberculosis (23.8%) was the most common reason in infectious diseases. Adult Still's disease (7.0%) was the most common cause of FUO among rheumatic diseases. Lymphoma (3.4%) was the most common tumor in FUO patients. Besides, drug-induced fever (1.7%) should also be considered. In the recent 30 years, the proportion of FUO caused by infectious diseases had decreased, rheumatic diseases and other reason had increased (P < 0.05). The proportion of tumor in middle period was significantly higher than that in the early and later period (P < 0.05). The negative diagnostic rate had increased (all P < 0.05). The proportion of infectious diseases in North China was significantly lower than that in the South (P < 0.05). The proportion of other reason was significantly higher in the North (P < 0.05). In the recent 30 years, the most common cause of FUO was still infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis.

  14. Holocene vegetation cover in Qin'an area of western Chinese Loess Plateau revealed by n-alkane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG YanXia; CHEN FaHu; AN ChengBang; XIE ShuCheng; HUANG XianYu

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have found that wetlands prevailed in western Chinese Loess Plateau and pine pollen could reach up to 80% in Qin'an area of the plateau during middle Holocene.It was then deduced that forest vegetation covered Qin'an area in a warm and wet climate during middle Holocene.The proxies of molecule biomarkers from two Holocene sections,a swamp-alluvial loess section and a typical loess-paleosol section are used to reconstruct regional vegetation history.It is found that the heavy-molecular-weight(HMW)homologues of the n-alkanes in all samples exhibit a pronounced odd-over-even predominance,maximizing at C31 and the abundance of the nC27-alkanes is the lowest in nC27,nC29,nC31,i.e.C27<C29<C31,a typical grass n-alkanes model.The results are the same as those of model surface soil samples under grass cover but different from both forest cover and modern pine leaves,which yield preferentially nC29-alkanes peak.It could be jnferred that the area was dominated by grass cover but not forest cover during whole Holocene epoch.The study shows that combining both molecule biomarkers and pollen analysis can avoid the disadvantage of pollen analysis in reconstruction of regional vegetation cover.

  15. Multigenic control of pod shattering resistance in Chinese rapeseed germplasm revealed by genome-wide association and linkage analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to pod shatter in unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH and inter-mated (IF2 crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering and R2 (prone to pod shattering accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02 and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09 and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06 could be repeatedly detected across environments in diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs.

  16. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-06-02

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis.

  17. Genetic diversity and haplotypic structure of Chinese Kazak ethnic group revealed by 19 STRs on the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Shun; Meng, Hao-Tian; Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Chen, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Chen, Jing; Guo, Yu-Xin; Dong, Qian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2017-02-05

    X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) have been widely used in forensic practices involving complicated ties of kinship over the past years, and also play an increasingly important role in population genetics. To study the genetic polymorphisms of 19 STR loci on X chromosome in Chinese Kazak ethnic group, we investigated the allelic and haplotypic frequencies of the 19 loci in 300 (149 males and 151 females) unrelated healthy individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China after having evaluated the forensic application value of these loci in forensic sciences, and then compared the population distinctions between the Kazak group and other reference groups. We observed a total of 240 alleles at these X-STR loci with the corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0017 to 0.5917. In the study, the highest polymorphism was found at DXS10135 locus. The combined power of discrimination in females was 0.999999999999999999999985 and in males 0.999999999999968. The present study indicates that the 19 X-STR loci are very useful for both forensic identification cases and kinship analyses involving a female offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome editing reveals dmrt1 as an essential male sex-determining gene in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhongkai; Liu, Yun; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Fan; Wang, Na; Shao, Changwei; Dong, Zhongdian; Li, Yangzhen; Yang, Yingming; Hu, Mengzhu; Li, Hailong; Gao, Fengtao; Wei, Zhanfei; Meng, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wei, Min; Zhu, Ying; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Schartl, Manfred; Chen, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Chinese tongue sole is a marine fish with ZW sex determination. Genome sequencing suggested that the Z-linked dmrt1 is a putative male determination gene, but direct genetic evidence is still lacking. Here we show that TALEN of dmrt1 efficiently induced mutations of this gene. The ZZ dmrt1 mutant fish developed ovary-like testis, and the spermatogenesis was disrupted. The female-related genes foxl2 and cyp19a1a were significantly increased in the gonad of the ZZ dmrt1 mutant. Conversely, the male-related genes Sox9a and Amh were significantly decreased. The dmrt1 deficient ZZ fish grew much faster than ZZ male control. Notably, we obtained an intersex ZW fish with a testis on one side and an ovary on the other side. This fish was chimeric for a dmrt1 mutation in the ovary, and wild-type dmrt1 in the testis. Our data provide the first functional evidence that dmrt1 is a male determining gene in tongue sole. PMID:28205594

  19. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas H; Liu, Xiaoying; Ulusarac, Ozlem; Ponnuru, Kimberly D; Schnepp, Stephanie L

    2011-02-18

    An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always) innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  20. Colonic perforation resulting from ingested chicken bone revealing previously undiagnosed colonic adenocarcinoma: report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulusarac Ozlem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 86 year old male with a four-day history of nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms was found on colonoscopy to have evidence of sigmoid colon obstruction and possible perforation. Emergent operative exploration revealed diffuse peritonitis, sigmoid perforation, adjacent dense adhesions, and a foreign body protruding through the perforated area. Pathologic examination showed the foreign body to be a sliver of bone consistent with chicken bone and the sigmoid subacute perforation to be associated distally with a circumferential ulcerated obstructing mass, microscopically seen to be transmurally infiltrating adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell type. There was extensive acute and organizing peritonitis, 100% Escherichia coli was cultured from peritoneal fluid, and the patient died two days postoperatively with sepsis and hypotension. This appears to be the fifth reported case of colonic perforation resulting from foreign body perforation due to previously undiagnosed adenocarcinoma. The four previously reported cases were all deeply invasive adenocarcinoma of sigmoid colon, and the foreign bodies included three chicken/poultry bones and a metallic staple. These five cases are highly unusual examples of a potentially lethal malignant neoplasm being clinically revealed by a usually (but not always innocuous event, the ingestion of a small foreign body.

  1. Analysis of clinical research literature about treated plague by using traditional Chinese medicine%中医药治疗瘟疫的临床文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐; 张华敏; 曹洪欣

    2011-01-01

    目的通过对中医药治疗瘟疫临床文献进行分析,提出当今瘟疫临床研究的特点,同时分析其中存在的问题.方法 以文献中某一类瘟疫的辨治方法作为数据的主要来源,围绕病因-症状-病位-病性-方剂-药物等信息,建立某一类瘟疫中医辨治的数据库,对数据库文献进行分析.结果 瘟疫临床研究特点主要表现为:①不同邪气所致瘟疫具有不同的病机特点和演变规律;②当代瘟疫病名以西医病名为主,形成了辨病与辨证相结合的新模式;③给药途径的多样化有利于中药治疗突发传染性疾病.结论 瘟疫研究缺少既体现个体化诊疗,又能把握临床规律的中医临床研究文献.应根据新发瘟疫的病因病机特点和演变规律,研究和丰富中医瘟疫理论,指导临床实践.%Objective To analyze the problems of treating plague by TCM and find out the characteristics of clinical research of contemporary plague by the analysis of clinical research literature on the treatment of plague by TCM. Methods Differential treatment methods of one kind of plague in the literature as the main source of the data and the information that the pathogenesis-symptom-location of disease-nature of disease-prescriptions-drugs were taken to build the data base of the syndrome differentiation and treatment of certain kind of plague. Results Analyzed with literatures,the characteristics of plague clinical research showed: Different pathogenesis characteristics and evolution of plague were caused by diff① erent evils. ②Contemporary plague was named by western disease name. A new model which disease differentiation combined with syndrome differentiation has been formed. ③The diversification of administration promoted the treatment of emergent communicable disease with Chinese medicine. Conclusion The plague research lacked such research literature which could both reflect individualized diagnosis and embody the clinical rules

  2. Association analysis revealed one susceptibility locus for vitiligo with immune-related diseases in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Yao, Weiyi; Pan, Qian; Tang, Xianfa; Zhao, Suli; Wang, Wenjun; Zhu, Zhengwei; Gao, Jinping; Sheng, Yujun; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zuo, Xianbo; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Anping

    2015-07-01

    Generalized vitiligo is an autoimmune disease characterized by melanocyte loss, which results in patchy depigmentation of skin and hair, and is associated with an elevated risk of other immune-related diseases. However, there is no reported study on the associations between immune susceptibility polymorphisms and the risk of vitiligo with immune-related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential influence of 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 18q21.31 (rs10503019), 4p16.1 (rs11940117), 3q28 (rs1464510), 14q12 (rs2273844), 12q13.2 (rs2456973), 16q12.2 (rs3213758), 10q25.3 (rs4353229), 3q13.33 (rs59374417), and 10p15.1 (rs706779 and rs7090530) on vitiligo with immune-related diseases in the Chinese Han population. All SNPs were genotyped in 552 patients with vitiligo-associated immune-related diseases and 1656 controls using the Sequenom MassArray system. Data were analyzed with PLINK 1.07 software. The C allele of rs2456973 at 12q13.2 was observed to be significantly associated with vitiligo-associated immune-related diseases (autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases) (P = 0.0028, odds ratio (OR) = 1.27). In subphenotype analysis, the rs2456973 C allele was also significantly associated with early-onset vitiligo by comparing with controls (P = 0.0001) and in the case-only analysis (P = 0.0114). We confirmed that 12q13.2 was an important candidate locus for vitiligo with immune-related diseases (autoimmune diseases and allergic diseases) and affected disease phenotypes with early onset.

  3. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  4. Revealing topics and their evolution in biomedical literature using Bio-DTM: a case study of ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ai, Ni; Liao, Jie; Shao, Xin; Liu, Yufeng; Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Valuable scientific results on biomedicine are very rich, but they are widely scattered in the literature. Topic modeling enables researchers to discover themes from an unstructured collection of documents without any prior annotations or labels. In this paper, taking ginseng as an example, biological dynamic topic model (Bio-DTM) was proposed to conduct a retrospective study and interpret the temporal evolution of the research of ginseng. The system of Bio-DTM mainly includes four components, documents pre-processing, bio-dictionary construction, dynamic topic models, topics analysis and visualization. Scientific articles pertaining to ginseng were retrieved through text mining from PubMed. The bio-dictionary integrates MedTerms medical dictionary, the second edition of side effect resource, a dictionary of biology and HGNC database of human gene names (HGNC). A dynamic topic model, a text mining technique, was used to emphasize on capturing the development trends of topics in a sequentially collected documents. Besides the contents of topics taken on, the evolution of topics was visualized over time using ThemeRiver. From the topic 9, ginseng was used in dietary supplements and complementary and integrative health practices, and became very popular since the early twentieth century. Topic 6 reminded that the planting of ginseng is a major area of research and symbiosis and allelopathy of ginseng became a research hotspot in 2007. In addition, the Bio-DTM model gave an insight into the main pharmacologic effects of ginseng, such as anti-metabolic disorder effect, cardioprotective effect, anti-cancer effect, hepatoprotective effect, anti-thrombotic effect and neuroprotective effect. The Bio-DTM model not only discovers what ginseng's research involving in but also displays how these topics evolving over time. This approach can be applied to the biomedical field to conduct a retrospective study and guide future studies.

  5. 论中国古典诗学中“文学经典意识”的发展脉络%On Development Way of Literature Classic Awareness in Chinese Classic Poetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫霞

    2012-01-01

    Literature classic awareness is people's cognition of the literature classics and the creation of literature classics.In Chinese classic poetics,literature classic awareness has experienced a process of development.It has tight relation with the literature concept conscious or not and with the art spirit independent or not.The earliest form of the literature classic awareness is culture classic consciousness.The second stage is the literature classic awareness of Confucian school.The third stage is the literature classic awareness built on the pure literature concepts.The different implication of the literature classic awareness in different development stage also has an important effect on Chinese classic poetics.%"文学经典意识"是人们关于文学经典及如何创作出文学经典的认识。在中国古典诗学中,文学经典意识的发展有一个过程,它与文学观念的自觉、艺术精神的独立与否是相伴相行的。文学经典意识的最早形态应是文化经典意识,接着是汉以来的经学式的文学经典意识,再发展到以纯粹文学观念为基础的文学经典意识。文学观念发展的不同阶段,人们所具有的"文学经典意识"的内涵也有不同,这又深刻影响了中国古典诗学的建构。

  6. On the Relationship between Apocryphal Sutras and the Ancient Chinese Literature%疑伪经与中国古代文学关系之检讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小荣

    2012-01-01

    在国际汉学领域之佛教文学研究中,学人对重要的单部疑伪经或同类型的疑伪经较为关注,故相关成果也相对突出,但对疑伪经总体性质的认识却较有欠缺。有鉴于此,有必要从宏观角度来讨论疑伪经与中国古代文学之关系。它主要表现在四大层面:一者从文学史言,疑伪经本身就是古代宗教文学不可分割的组成部分之一;二者从思想史言,疑伪经是印度佛教中国化最直接的文本体现;三者从欣赏趣味言,疑伪经塑造的人物形象更符合中土民众的审美心理;四者从影响言,疑伪经既为后世作家提供了大量的文学创作素材,进而形成固定的母题,同时,又促成了某些佛教法会仪式的形成与流播。当然,中土固有的文学作品,也对疑伪经的撰作产生过相当的影响。%In the academic circle of internaitonal sinology, shcolars pay more attention to single Apocry- phal or Apocryphals of same kind in terms of Buddhist literature. Therefore, it is productive in this field of re- search with abundant achievements. However, there lacks recognition concerning the overall quality of all A- pocryphals. This article discussed relationship between Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras and ancient Chinese litera- ture from a macro point of view. It is mainly manifested in the four levels: ( 1 ) from ancient Chinese literary history, the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras itself is an integral part of the ancient religious literature; (2) from the history of ideas, the Apocryphal Sutras reflects the most direct Indian Buddhism's process in China; (3) from the Chinese people's appreciating tastes, the characters shaped by the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras have more national aesthetic psychology than those original Buddhist scriptures; (4) from the impacts, the Bud- dhist apocryphal sutras have not only provided a great deal of literary creation materials, thus forming a fixed motif, but also led to

  7. Value Guidance of Religion in Contemporary Chinese Literature%宗教在当代文学中的价值引领

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懿红

    2011-01-01

    The values of contemporary Chinese works of fiction on religious theme lie in many aspects. Firstly, these works criticize the political party's ideology and completely renew our values. For example, The Plain of White Deer, Heavenly Principles and Human Desire and The Spirit on the Highway all break fresh ground with criticisms to the ruling ideology from their new religious angle, while The History of the Soul exposes the extreme emotions of monotheism. Secondly,these works show ultimate concern, which is a new tendency of contemporary Chinese literature and deepens its cultural implications. In Bei Cun's "sacred writings", Fan Wen's Trilogy of Tibet, Zhao Defa's Holdthe Palms Together and Xue Mo's Incantation of Western Xia Dynasty, the writers search the way to sublimate the spirit and are all converted to religion, they also care about the universal values of religions and their future. In the other hand, these works of fiction also expose some problems,such as the narrow religious exclusivism,the conflict between universal values of religions and concepts about country, nation,religious sects, law and morality,the paradox of religious highest authority and human beings' decision-making power, the balance between religion thoughts and aesthetic nature of literature. In addition,ecological concern is also an important orientation of values in respect of contemporary Chinese works of fiction on religious theme.%从宗教视角质疑造成多次民族灾难的党派意识形态,是宗教题材小说强有力的价值追问,带来价值观念的全面更新,《白鹿原》、《天理暨人欲》、《公路上的灵魂》等作品对正统意识形态的质疑与批判因宗教视角而别开生面,《心灵史》则暴露出一神教的偏激狭隘.宗教在文学中的另一价值追求是终极关怀,宗教题材小说对终极价值的深入探索,是当代文学的新趋势,深化了当代文学的思想文化内涵.在北村“神性写作”、范稳“

  8. 中医药科技文献增长规律研究%Research on the Growth Law of Traditional Chinese Medicine Scientific Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳芬; 梁茂新

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the growth law of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) scientific literature.Curvilinear regression analysis is used to analyze data from TCM journals and published papers of four TCM colleges. The result of regression hypothesis test showed that the exponential model is appropriate. It is concluded that the growth of data from TCM journals and published papers were accorded with the exponential growth in Price law.The growth rate b and cumulative total of published papers are proposed as reference indexes to evaluate the level of TCM scientific research.%目的:对中医药科技文献增长规律进行研究.方法:对中医药类期刊数据和4所中医院校发表论文的数据进行曲线回归分析.结果:由回归分析假设检验的结果,表明建立指数模型是合适的.结论:中医药类期刊数据和发表论文数据均符合普赖斯提出的科技文献指数增长规律,并且提出增长率b和累积发表论文总量可作为评价中医各单位科研水平的参考指标.

  9. 宗教文学·中国宗教文学史·魏晋南北朝道教文学史——关于“中国宗教文学史”的理论思考与实践构想%Religious Literature,History of Chinese Religious Literature and the History of Daoist Literature of Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵益

    2012-01-01

    In modern Chinese humane studies,from the concepts,theories to practices,there are many problems in the studies on religious literature.The most important one is that most scholars concentrated efforts on the relations between religion and literature by instead of the religious literature itself.Both Chinese religion and religious literature have their special properties which the study of history of Chinese religious literature must devote its mind to.As one typical problem,the history of Daoist literature of Wei,Jin,Northern and Southern Dynasties could embody the important principles and meanings of the studies on the history of Chinese religious literature.%在中国现当代学术语境中,"宗教文学"的研究从概念、问题、理论到具体实践都存在较多的问题,最主要的表现是研究者往往致力于宗教与文学关系的探讨,而忽视了宗教文学本身的研究。中国宗教和宗教文学都具有独特的自性,"中国宗教文学史"的建构必须符合这种对象属性,而"宗教性"的内涵标准和"大文学"的文体观念,正是构建民族本位宗教文学研究的重要原则之一。作为中国宗教文学史重要阶段的"魏晋南北朝道教文学史",尤其可以体现此一原则的价值和意义。

  10. Applying Literature to ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟悦

    2007-01-01

    Literature is no longer a frightening word to English language learner. Interactive teaching methods and attractive activities can help motivating Chinese university English learners. This essay will first elaborate the reasons to use literature in ELT ( English Language Teaching) class and how to apply literature to ELT class.

  11. Fever of unknown origin revealed to be primary splenic lymphoma: A rare case report with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pan-Ge; Cheng, Bei; Wang, Jin-Feng; He, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Fever is a common clinical presentation of a number of diseases. A sustained unexplained fever >38.3°C lasting for >3 weeks without an established diagnosis despite intensive diagnostic evaluation is referred to as fever of unknown origin (FUO). FUO remains a clinical challenge for physicians, as it may be attributed to a wide range of disorders, mainly infections, malignancies, non-infectious inflammatory diseases and miscellaneous diseases. We herein report the case of a 59-year-old male patient who presented with prolonged unexplained fever and was found to have a diffusely enlarged hypermetabolic spleen, as shown on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography examination. Following splenectomy, histopathological examination revealed primary splenic lymphoma (PSL) of B-cell origin. The patient received 6 courses of systemic chemotherapy with rituximab, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-ECHOP regimen) and responded well to treatment. Thus, in patients with FUO and splenomegaly, the possibility of PSL should be taken into consideration.

  12. Transient global amnesia as a revealing sign of giant transtentorial meningioma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Eduard B; Carron, Romain; Gay, Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    Since 1974, only 14 papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals have linked transient global amnesia (TGA) to a brain tumor. Among these, two described the entity of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA), whereas most reports lacked the functional investigations that might differentiate the two conditions. Only six cases have linked TGA or TEA to a meningioma, and none of them were transtentorial. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with one episode of TGA as a sole symptom of a giant transtentorial meningioma in the right hemisphere. A sudden attack of TGA with a rather typical clinical presentation--anterograde amnesia with selective retrograde features that lasted for a few hours, with stereotypic questions, no associated symptoms or neurological impairment, and no recurrence--occurred while she was at home; this was witnessed by her husband. The neurological examination was unremarkable, with the exception of a slight left homonymous superior quadrantonopia. Brain imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) showed a huge meningioma originating from the right tentorium, extending from the cerebellar hemisphere to the midst of the temporal lobe. An electroencephalogram did not reveal temporal spikes. The tumor was completely excised, and she has remained asymptomatic for 6 months. Although TGA is generally a functional entity, without an organic substrate to prompt surgical sanction, a full investigation may be warranted to rule out the possibility of a silent intracranial tumor.

  13. On the History of Critics on Chinese Juvenile Literature Theory%试论《中国儿童文学理论批评史》的学术价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金禾

    2001-01-01

    The History of Critics on Chinese Juvenile Literature Theory, Written by Professor Fang Wei-ping, is the first systematical work on the history of critics on Chinese juvenile literature theory in the world, This paper makes an jective and precise comment on its theoritical contributions, academic characteristics and historical data value.%方卫平教授《中国儿童文学理论批评史》是富有开创性的国内第一部系统论述中国儿童文学理论批评发展史的学术著作。本文对该书的理论贡献、学术特征,以及史料价值作了较为客观、确切的评论。

  14. Genetic diversity of the endangered Chinese endemic herb Primulina tabacum (Gesneriaceae) revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaowei; Huang, Yelin; Wu, Lin; Zhou, Renchao; Deng, Shulin; Wu, Darong; Wang, Bosun; Su, Guohua; Tang, Tian; Shi, Suhua

    2006-05-01

    Primulina tabacum Hance, is a critically endangered perennial endemic to limestone area in South China. Genetic variability within and among four extant populations of this species was assessed using AFLP markers. We expected a low genetic diversity level of this narrowly distributed species, but our results revealed that a high level of genetic diversity remains, both at population level (55.5% of markers polymorphic, H (E) = 0.220, I (S) = 0.321), and at species level (P = 85.6% of markers polymorphic, H (E) = 0.339, I (S) = 0.495), probably resulting from its refugial history and/or breeding system. High levels of genetic differentiation among populations was apparent based on Nei's genetic diversity analysis (G (st)=0.350). The restricted gene flow between populations is a potential reason for the high genetic differentiation. The population genetic diversity of P. tabacum revealed here has clear implications for conservation and management. To maintain present levels of genetic diversity, in situ conservation of all populations is necessary.

  15. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zeng, Yanfei; He, Caiyun; Duan, Aiguo; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'). De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs) and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  16. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Rao

    Full Text Available Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs. Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  17. The dilemma of the development of Chinese language and literature in the network environment%网络环境下汉语言文学发展困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华坚

    2016-01-01

    随着社会的发展,科技的进步,互联网出现。互联网的出现对传统的汉语言文学来说是一项挑战,也是机遇。本文以互联网为切入点,具体分析了汉语言文学专业在发展的过程中可能面临的问题,并找出了解决的路径。%With thedevelopment of society,the progress of science and technology,the Internet appears. The emergence of the Internet is a challenge to the traditional Chinese language and literature,and it is also an opportunity for the Chinese language and literature.In this paper,the Internet as the breakthrough point,the specific analysis of the Chinese language and literature in the course of the development of the problem may be faced,and find a solution to the path.

  18. The Significance of Thematology to Methodological Innovation of Research on Chinese Narrative Literature%主题学对中国叙事文学研究方法创新的借鉴意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2011-01-01

    Thematology, originated from the mid-19th century, has maintained a close relationship with Chinese narrative literature. Great results have been achieved in the application of thematology to Chinese narrative literature research since the 20th century. The introduction of thematology has important impact upon the perspective and horizon of Chinese narrative literature research in terms of document collation and cultural analysis.%源于19世纪中叶的主题学产生不久便和中国叙事文学研究结下了不解之缘,20世纪以来主题学应用于中国叙事文学研究取得的丰硕的成果。主题学的引入,在研究角度、研究视域等方面对中国叙事文学产生了重要的意义。主题学对中国叙事文学在文献整理和文化分析等方面都产生了方法论层面的影响。

  19. 从中文文学期刊的特色谈其风格演变及发展变化%On the Style Changing and Development from Analyzing the Characters on Chinese Literature Periodicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振津

    2012-01-01

    在图书馆的藏书中,中文期刊占有很大比重,其中中文文学期刊又占据期刊榜首。探究其发展规律,为到馆的读者更好服务有着很深的意义。中文文学期刊在动乱结束后,曾迎来繁荣发展的大时代,满足了当时人们对其的渴望,中文文学期刊在当时为数不多的大众文化产品的中占有相当的地位。而今社会是信息产业的多样化,数字化,视觉化的多元时代,中文文学期刊受到不小冲击,为了寻求出路,必须走出低谷。从自身改变中寻求新的发展.探求发展变化中的规律,这些发展主要表现在多元化的包装,文学期刊与影视互动。为影视作品提供创作蓝本等等.为中文文学期刊适应当今社会发展奠定了基础。%Of the library storage, Chinese journal has a large proportion, while, Chinese literature periodicals is the top of the list. Studying its developing trend will significantly help service readers. After ten years of turmoil, Chinese lit journal faced an era of growing fruitfully, satisfying people's desire. Among the few public cultural products, Chinese lit journal played an important role. However, nowadays, there is an era of information industry with diversified, digital and visualized characters, Chinese lit journal suffers strikes, in order to find way out of trouble, literature periodicals must explore the developing trend and look for new development from self-changing. The new developments includes diversified package, interaction between literature periodicals and movie and providing chief source to films and television programs, making basis for Chinese literature periodicals adapting to social development today.

  20. A Mountain Held in a Mustard Seed: Preface to A Brief History of Chinese Literature%敢纳须弥芥子中——《中国文学简史》前言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑞峰

    2011-01-01

    Looking back on the history of Chinese literature, one cannot help being amazed at its distinctive Chinese colors and the many great works that marked its progress: the features reflected by the works made up the literary heritage, which in turn made the history of Chinese literature. A review of Chinese literary historiography commits us to the expectation that the writing of the "macro history of literature" in the future should be based not only on independent personality, original conception and distinctive horizon of academic research, but also on a wider and more comprehensive new system of research. This means it is neces- sary to carry out the study in two ways : the "vertical" way which probes into the historical evolution of Chinese literature, and the "horizontal" way which addresses the correlation between Chinese literature and that of other countries.%追溯中国文学的历史流程,不能不瞩目于其鲜明的民族特色和千汇万状的优秀作品:作品映现出特色,特色凝固成传统,传统又沉淀为历史。追溯中国文学史的编写进程,则不能不期望:未来的“大文学史”除了应当兼有独立的学术品格、独特的学术构想和独到的学术视野外,还应当具备涵盖面更广、包容性更强的全新体系。这就必须从纵横两方面加以拓展——“纵”能思贯古今,勾勒出文学兴衰因革的轨迹;“横”能视通中外,映现出文学源流正变的脉络。

  1. Bibliometric analysis of Chinese literatures about hemophilia care research%血友病护理研究中文文献计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 段志光

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To know about the research status of Chinese literatures in the field of hemophilia care,so as to provide references for targetedly improving hemophilia care research in China.Methods:Chinese literatures about hemophilia care research were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI),China ac-ademic journal network publication database and Wanfang Data knowledge service platform,and were analyzed in statistical methods.Results:422 researchers published 207 papers totally,31.401% by sole authors.Coopera-tive research was limited in the same organization,lack of cross regional and interdisciplinary integration.Most researchers and institutions were from provincial hemophilia treatment centers,and six institutions of Hemo-philia Treatment Centers Collaborative Network of China were the main research forces.5.314% of the papers had been funded primarily by provincial、civic and school foundations.Nursing research had been published on 43 kinds of journals,44.186% of them were nursing journals.Research hotspots focused on the field of “bleeding”,“comprehensive care”and “home care”.Conclusion:The overall strength of domestic hemophilia care research was weaker and should increase investment in policy support and scientific research of hemophilia care research, strengthen domestic and international exchanges and cooperation,promote interdisciplinary research,and accel-erate the setting of hemophilia nurse positions in our country.%[目的]了解血友病护理领域中文文献的研究状况,为有针对性地提高我国血友病护理研究提供参考依据。[方法]采用文献计量学方法,检索中国知网(CNKI)和万方数据知识服务平台,对国内血友病护理研究中文文献进行统计分析。[结果]422名研究人员共发文207篇,31.401%为独著,合作研究局限在同一机构,缺乏跨地区及学科间的交叉融合;血友病护理研究人员及机构多来自省级血友病诊疗中心,以中

  2. Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Jiao; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yan-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Shan; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps' enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching.

  3. Chinese Medicine and Prescription Analysis on Chronic Constipation Based on Clinical and Patent Literature%中医临床及专利文献中的慢性便秘方药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文林; 谢松; 曾莉; 潘苏华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the general situation of studies on Chinese medicine and prescription for prevention and treatment of chronic constipation from journal and patent literature. Methods: Taking the Chinese biomedical literature database, Chinese periodical database of traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese patent database as retrieval source, the literatures concerning about TCM for prevention and treatment of chronic constipation from 1980 to July 2011 were retrieved. Results: 877 effective literatures from January 1980 to July 2011, including "Chinese medicine" and "chronic constipation" in abstract or full text, 465 Chinese medicine and 338 prescription were analysised. Some medicine such as Chinses Angelica, Chinese rhubarb and Hemp seed in Chinese medicine or Cannabis pill, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, Zengye Chengqi Decoction, etc, were in high frequency. Conclusion: the traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of chronic constipation in Yin nourishing liquid increasing, replenishing qi and blood, liver qi, invigorating spleen, promoting blood circulation and Removing Blood Stasis Decoction for warming kidney were effective, some classical or famous prescription were widely used in clinical%目的:统计中医临床及专利文献中的常用治疗慢性便秘的中药及复方,为中药防治慢性便秘的新药开发提供参考.方法:以中国生物医学文献数据库、中国中医药期刊文献数据库及中国专利数据库为检索对象,对相关文献阅读、分析后统计有效方药.结果:3个数据库中共纳入1979年1月-2011年6月间在全文或摘要字段中含有“中药”、“便秘”、“脾约”的877篇有效文献,统计单味中药465种,经方或名方338个.(制)大黄、当归、火麻仁、白术、(制)甘草等在单味药中频次较高,麻子仁丸、补中益气汤、增液承气汤、大承气汤等基本方在复方中出现频次较高.结论:中药防治慢性便秘以滋阴增液、

  4. 中西方文学中的人文精神比较分析%A Comparative Study of Humanistic Spirit Construction in Chinese and Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晓洁

    2014-01-01

    Humanistic spirit is,in essence,a concern and thinking about people.Humanistic concern in modern society is manifested in many fields,among which is the literary creation,as it is the external expression of human subjective conscious-ness and a solidified form of human independent thinking.This paper explores the construction of the humanistic spirit in Chi-nese and Western literature in terms of the origin and development;then,it analyzes their differences in the focus and expression to better understand and develop the connotation of humanistic spirit.%现代社会对于人文精神的关注表现在多个领域之中,人文精神归根到底就是有关于人的关注和思考,在笔者看来与人文精神表达最为密切的莫过于文学创作中对于人的关注,文学创作本身就是人类主观意识的外在表达,是人独立思考的固化形式。本文即是在探寻中西方文学中对于人文精神构建基础的分析之上,从中西方文学的起源和发展轨迹中对中西方文学中的人文精神进行探究,分析其人文精神侧重和表达的不同之处,以更好地理解和发展人文精神的内涵。

  5. In vitro Quinolones Susceptibility Analysis of Chinese Mycoplasma bovis Isolates and their Phylogenetic Scenarios based upon QRDRs of DNA Topoisomerases Revealing a Unique Transition in ParC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Mustafa1,2,3, Jingjing Qi1,2, Xiaoliang Ba1,2, Yingyu Chen1,4, Changmin Hu1,2, Xiaole Liu1,2, Lingling Tu5, Qingjie Peng5, Huanchun Chen1,2 and Aizhen Guo1,2*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis can cause different systemic problems in cattle, and recently has been resulted in huge economic losses in China. In vitro susceptibilities of 26 twice sub-cultured Chinese M. bovis field isolates were determined at physiological pH including PG45 through broth micro-dilution method. Except Huanggang isolate, all isolates and PG45 were in the sensitive range for levofloxacin, lomefloxacin and ciprofloxacin, whereas, for norfloxacin and nalidixic acid, they had shown intermediate resistant and complete resistant patterns, respectively. The multiple sequence analysis revealed point mutations in QRDRs of gyrA and parC genes of Huanggang isolate resulting in amino acid substitutions at positions 83 (S-F in GyrA (E. coli numbering and 80 (S-I in ParC proteins, the latter is reported for first time in M. bovis. Conclusively, fluoroquinolones are the potential veterinary therapeutic agents for mycoplasmosis in China and resistance to these agents comes through point mutations in QRDRs of gyrA and parC genes with ParC and GyrA mutation orientation.

  6. LEC12 and LEC29 gain-of-function Chinese hamster ovary mutants reveal mechanisms for regulating VIM-2 antigen synthesis and E-selectin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Santosh K; Potvin, Barry; Stanley, Pamela

    2004-11-26

    LEC12 and LEC29 are two gain-of-function Chinese hamster ovary glycosylation mutants that express the Fut9 gene encoding alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase IX (alpha(1,3) Fuc-TIX). Both mutants express the Lewis X (Le(X)) determinant Galbeta(1,4)[Fucalpha(1,3)]GlcNAc, and LEC12, but not LEC29 cells, also express the VIM-2 antigen SAalpha(2,3)-Galbeta(1,4)GlcNAcbeta(1,3)Galbeta(1,4)[Fucalpha(1,3)]GlcNAc. Here we show that LEC29 cells transfected with a Fut9 cDNA express VIM-2, and thus LEC29 cells synthesize appropriate acceptors to generate the VIM-2 epitope. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that LEC12 has 10- to 20-fold less Fut9 gene transcripts than LEC29. However, Western analysis revealed that LEC12 has approximately 20 times more Fut9 protein than LEC29. The latter finding was consistent with our previous observation that LEC12 has approximately 40 times more in vitro alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity than LEC29. The basis for the difference in Fut9 protein levels was found to lie in sequence differences in the 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTR) of LEC12 and LEC29 Fut9 gene transcripts. Whereas reporter assays with the respective 5'-UTR regions linked to luciferase did not indicate a reduced translation efficiency caused by the LEC29 5'-UTR, transfected full-length LEC29 Fut9 cDNA or in vitro-synthesized full-length LEC29 Fut9 RNA gave less Fut9 protein than similar constructs with a LEC12 5'-UTR. This difference appears to be largely responsible for the reduced alpha(1,3)Fuc-TIX activity and lack of VIM-2 expression of LEC29 cells. This could be of physiological relevance, because LEC29 and parent Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing a Fut9 cDNA were able to bind mouse E-selectin, although they did not express sialyl-Le(X).

  7. 米兰·昆德拉的存在哲思对中国当代文学的影响%The Influence of Milan Kundera's Philosophical Thoughts of Existence on Chinese Contemporary literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张容

    2011-01-01

    The Czech-born French writer, Milan Kundera, is one of the foreign writers, who was much focused in China during the late twentieth century,and his works have an extensive influence on Chinese contemporary litera- ture.Milan Kundera's philosophical thinking of existence affects the history narrates, the performance and the theme of Chinese contemporary literature,and provides some new enlightenments for Chinese contemporary literature.%法籍捷克裔作家米兰·昆德拉是二十世纪后期备受中国关注的外国作家之一,其创作广泛地影响了中国当代文学的实践。昆德拉对存在的思考与探询对中国当代文学的史学叙事、表现深度和题材广度都产生了深远的影响,为中国当代文学的发展提供了有益的借鉴。

  8. On Chinese Feature of Mao Zedong′s People Oriented Literature Ideology%论毛泽东文艺思想以人民为本位的中国特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝评

    2001-01-01

    The entire Mao Zedong′s literature ideology is solely based on the mind of the people,the way Mao worked it never breaks the frame of people related literature. His ideology is actually people-oriented literature ideology in terms of Chinese feature.%毛泽东文艺思想的整个内容,都建立在人民的一元论基点之上;其全部运思,都凝定在文艺与人民关系的一元化框架之内。这一文艺思想,如果就其中国特色而言,乃是一种以人民为本位的文艺思想。

  9. Insight of Anthropology and Writing of the History of Chinese Literature --An Interpretation on "Redrawing the Map of Chinese Literature" Advocated by Yang Yi%人类学眼光与中国文学史的书写——对杨义“重绘中国文学地图”的一种解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永前

    2011-01-01

    In the theory and practice of "redrawing the map of Chinese literature", Yang Yi's review of the relationship between the native and the west, the periphery and the center, as well as the writing and the oral, has a rich connotation of anthropology. It is both an awareness of the defects in the studies on Chinese literature and a response to the trend of literary anthropology, which has a huge influence on the writing of the history of Chinese literature. The integrated literature concept advocated by Yang Yi makes it possible for the researches of Chinese literature to return to the native paradigm.%在“重绘中国文学地图”的命题与实践中,杨义对“本土与西方”、“边缘与中心”、“书写与口传”、“汉族文学与少数民族文学”等多重关系的重新审视,显示出丰富的人类学内涵。这既是对当下中国文学研究中诸种缺失的自觉省察,也是对方兴未艾的文学人类学思潮的一种回应,在今后的中国文学史写作中具有重要的示范意义。杨义所倡导的“大文学观”,使得中国文学研究在经历了百年“失语”之后,有了回归本土范式的可能。

  10. Impact of anthropogenic emission on air quality over a megacity – revealed from an intensive atmospheric campaign during the Chinese Spring Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Spring Festival is one of the most important traditional festivals in China. The peak transport in the Spring Festival season (spring travel rush provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impact of human activity on air quality in the Chinese megacities. Emission sources are varied and fluctuate greatly before, during and after the Festival. Increased vehicular emissions during the "spring travel rush" before the 2009 Festival resulted in high level pollutants of NOx (270 μg m−3, CO (2572 μg m−3, black carbon (BC (8.5 μg m−3 and extremely low single scattering albedo of 0.76 in Shanghai, indicating strong, fresh combustion. Organics contributed most to PM2.5, followed by NO3, NH4+, and SO42−. During the Chinese Lunar New Year's Eve and Day, widespread usage of fireworks caused heavy pollution of extremely high aerosol concentration, scattering coefficient, SO2, and NOx. Due to the "spring travel rush" after the festival, anthropogenic emissions gradually climbed and mirrored corresponding increases in the aerosol components and gaseous pollutants. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ accounted for a dominant fraction of 74% in PM2.5 due to an increase in human activity. There was a greater demand for energy as vast numbers of people using public transportation or driving their own vehicles returned home after the Festival. Factories and constructions sites were operating again.

    The potential source contribution function (PSCF analysis illustrated the possible source areas for air pollutants of Shanghai. The effects of regional and long-range transport were both revealed. Five major sources, i.e. natural sources, vehicular emissions, burning of fireworks, industrial

  11. Strategy Study on Chinese Classical Literature Teaching Reform%中国古典文学作品教学改革策略探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍伟

    2015-01-01

    古典文学作品在大学语文课程教学中存在着与市场经济环境格格不入、教学方式有待改进、学生的学习态度有待矫正三个问题,提出了寻找古典文学作品与现实的契合点、革新教学方式、端正学生学习态度等三种改革策略,以期在教学实践中增强古典文学作品的教学效果,提升大学生的人文素养。%This paper introduce three problems in teaching classical Chinese literary works of college Chinese education. Firstly,the contradiction between classical Chinese literary works and the market economy;secondly,the irrational teaching methods of classical Chinese literary works; finally,the students' learning classical Chinese literary works attitude should be corrected. In order to resolve these questions,I provide three solutions. Doing more to marry classical Chinese literary works with realistic demand; Reforming the teaching methods; let the students have a good learning attitude. These strategies in order to enhance the teaching effect in teaching practice and improve college students' Humanistic qualities.

  12. 先秦天人观与中国文学刍议%The Relationship between the Concept of Heaven and Mankind in Pre-Qin and Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根云

    2015-01-01

    In the Pre-Qin period, although Confucianism and Taoism looking at the meaning of Heaven have emphasize partic-ularly on, but their starting point is Heaven and mankind, nature and humanity is similar interlinked, should be unified.It made a profound impact on Chinese literature in past dynasties.Confucian thought of“interactions Between Heaven and Mankind” emphasi-zing on moral identity between mankind and nature, enriched the writer's imagination, arouse the creative inspiration, took effect on the formation of the tradition of expressing ambition with the help of all things.Taoist thought of“people should follow the nature”emphasizing that in front of the noble Heaven, a man's wisdom and act is unnecessary, sparked the praise for natural beauty, the pursuit of unadorned style, longing for the state of “void and silence” in literary creation.%先秦时,儒、道二家考察“天”的涵义时,集中表现为“天人合一”的观念,它对中国历代文学都产生了深远影响。儒家的“天人感应”思想强调自然与人在道德上的同一性,这丰富了作家的想象力,激发了创作灵感,对托物言志、因物喻志传统的形成有决定作用。道家的“以天待人”思想强调在崇高的“天”面前,人的智慧与作为是多余的,应依循自然,这引发了文学创作对自然美的推崇,对朴素无华的艺术风格的追求和对艺术感知、构思时的“虚静”境界的神往。

  13. Chinese Characters in Korean Modern Literature:Take Potato and Farmer for Example%韩国现代文学中的华人形象:以《土豆》和《农民》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林大根

    2012-01-01

    金东仁的《土豆》(1925)和李泰俊的《农民》(1939)是韩国现代文学中描绘华人形象的代表作品。《土豆》中的“王掌柜”是首次出现在韩国现代文学作品中的华人形象,也是当时朝鲜社会剧增的华人的典型代表。然而,该形象被描写成非道德的、反社会的人物,而促使这一形象生成的中心媒介就是“金钱”。透过该人物形象,可以窥视到20世纪二十年代中期朝鲜社会对华人的看法。《农民》中的华人形象是聚集韩中矛盾焦点的主人公。但是,评价以万宝山事件为背景出现的这些华人形象时,需要了解当时韩中之间的民族矛盾是由日本的殖民政策和舆论炒作所造成的,只有对这些深层次的原因进行分析,才能以正确的逻辑进行思考。但是,以万宝山事件为背景进行叙述的小说《农民》并没有抓住这点,只以朝鲜人取得水路开垦的胜利而收尾,并把与朝鲜人对峙的华人集团塑造成暴力团体,可以说,这是创作过于疏懒的结果。这种试图将超越意识形态的问题集中在民族层面的文学形象化,对后来朝鲜对华(人)的认识产生了不小的影响。因此,有必要从批判的视角来解读这部作品。%This paper aims to analyze Potato(1925) by Kim Dong In and Farmer(1939) by Lee Tae Jun as the representatives of describing Chinese characters in Korean modern literature. "Wangseobang" in Potato is a representative of Chinese, who had sharply increased in number at that time of Joseon society and also the first Chinese figure in Korean modern literature. This mod- el of Chinese was often described as being immoral as well as antisocial, and the money is the root of the character. We can see the public perception of Chinese from 1920 to the middle of 1930 through the character. The Chinese figures in Farmer intensively show conflicts between Korean and Chinese. However

  14. 100 Years of Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2010-01-01

    @@ This year marks the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Department of Chinese Language and Literature (DOCLL) of Peking University. On March 31, 1910, the Imperial Capital University (the predecessor of today's Peking University) was estab-lished, with a Chinese literature school as an independent teaching unit.

  15. 100 Years of Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Department of Chinese Language and Literature (DOCLL) of Peking University. On March 31,1910,the Imperial Capital University (the predecessor of today’s Peking University) was established,with a Chinese literature school as an independent teaching unit.

  16. 科技文献组织与揭示的基本框架%Research on Organization and Reveal Basic Framework of Technology Litera-ture Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾明静; 王青

    2014-01-01

    Article give a metadata framework that is the conversion from MARC to RDA (Resource Description and Access) base on the conceptual framework of FRBR, break the cataloging rules system that in accordance with type of literature description, build unified, general and basic framework; and extract the basic information that need revealed from it, form elements set that minimize the granularity, make bibliographic framework of different carriers and different types of literature highly continuity and uniformity. From the operational point, this framework continue to use theystem and cataloging stafis, the existing system is able to deal with the association based on the design mechanisms, this framework is foundation for select the RDA in future.%本文基于FRBR概念模型的思想,提出一种基于MARC元数据揭示方法向资源描述与检索(RDA)转换的元数据框架,打破依照文献类型逐章描述各自著录规则的体系,构建统一通用基本框架,从基本框架提取所需揭示的基本信息形成著录单元细分的元素集,使得不同载体不同文献类型的著录框架具有高度的连贯性和一致性。本框架还可以继续沿用现有系统和编目人员,通过对框架的设计机制让系统处理关联关系,为将来选择RDA做好准备,奠定基础。

  17. Review of the Relationship between Chinese Martial Arts Films and Chivalrous Literature%中国武侠电影和侠文学的关系研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兴阳

    2016-01-01

    当前学界对武侠电影的研究相对透彻,对侠客、武侠小说、武侠文化等的研究较为成熟,但按照散文、小说、诗歌、戏曲的分类标准对武侠文本加以梳理并研究的则非常之少,中国武侠电影对侠文学的改编、借鉴、促进和武侠文学对武侠电影的影响研究也不很多。目前对中国武侠电影和侠文学关系的研究,还存在诸多问题有待解决。%At present ,the research on martial arts films is comparatively thorough ,and the research on knight-errant ,martial arts novels and martial arts is relatively mature .But in accordance with prose ,fic-tion ,poetry ,drama ,martial arts text to be carding ,classification and research is very rare .The study of the adaptation ,reference ,promotion of Chinese martial arts films on chivalrous literature and the influ-ence of martial arts literature on martial arts films is lacking .At present ,there are still many problems to be solved in the study of the relationship between Chinese martial arts films and chivalrous literature .

  18. Review on Literature of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Recurrent Oral Ulceration%寒热中药外用治疗口腔溃疡的文献回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟华强; 王双艳; 张硕峰; 高明超; 马长华

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过文献查阅及整理,对寒热中药外用治疗口腔溃疡进行回顾与思考.方法:以CNKI,VIP数据库为依据,以口腔溃疡、中药外用、复方、临床研究、药理研究等为关键词,查阅数据库中近10年的相关文献,对单味药及复方中药治疗口腔溃疡的情况进行整理和分析.结果:外用治疗口腔溃疡的寒凉中药包括草珊瑚、青黛、白及、枯矾;温热中药包括细辛、吴茱萸、丁香、蜈蚣.复方中药主要有溃疡散、冰硼散、双黄连粉等,其方法以局部涂抹、穴位贴敷为主.结论:从寒热药性角度,对中药外用治疗口腔溃疡的文献进行系统分析,将为临床治疗口腔溃疡提供参考.%Objective: Through the revision and collation of literature, we think about the traditional Chinese medicine which could cure the Recurrent Oral Ulcer by external using. Method:We used CNKI and VIP database, based on the oral ulcer, external treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine, compound, clinical research, pharmacological research as the key words in order to access the nearly 10 years of related literatures,then we collect and analysis the single herbs and compounds traditional Chinese medicine which could treatment for recurrent oral ulcer. Result: The single herbs which could external using for recurrent oral ulcer include warm herbs such as Sarcandra glabra, Indigo Naturalis, Rhizoma Platantherae Chloranthae, aridi and cold herbs such as Asarum, Evodia, Flos Caryophylli, Scolopendra. The compounds include Ulcers scattered, Bingpeng San, Shuanghuanglian powder and so on. They are mainly to be local daubed and acupoint sticking applide. Conclusion: From the Angle of the cold - heat nature of traditional Chinese medicine, we referred to the related literatures and reviewed the traditional Chinese medicine which could cure the Recurrent Oral Ulcer by external using, in order to provide reference for the clinical treatment of oral ulcers.

  19. Darwinism:Variation of Propagation and Misreading in Modern Chinese Literature History%进化论:传播的“变异”与现代文学史编写中的“误读”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2012-01-01

      Yan Fu ignored the complexity of evolutionary process ,paid little attention to "alienation"and "degradation"and mistranslated Darwinism ,which provides ideological weapon for literary revolution and contributes to the transformation of Chinese literature in 20th century .The theory of evolution is not a value judgment standard so using the theory of evolution to judge the development of Chinese literature in the 20th century is a mistake that .To rational cognitive development and change of modern Chinese litera-ture ,misreading must be gotten rid of .%  严复对进化论的“误译”忽略了进化过程的复杂性,漠视了“异化”、“退化”等现象的存在。进化论为“文学革命”提供了思想武器和方法支撑,促成了中国文学在20世纪之交的转型。进化论不是一种价值评判标准,以之评判20世纪中国文学的发展是写史走入的误区。只有摆脱“误读”的影响,疏离“新”、“旧”二字价值判断上的应用,才能合理认知中国现代文学的发展与变革。

  20. On the basic ideas of the applied talents training of Chinese language and literature specialty%探讨汉语言文学专业应用型人才培养的基本思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈润生

    2013-01-01

      随着高等教育的普及,大学本科教育已从精英教育转变为大众教育了。传统学科——汉语言文学专业应用型人才的培养就成了一个值得关注的问题。本文旨在通过研究地方高校汉语言文学专业在对应用型人才的培养过程中所存在的问题,从人才培养目标的正确定位、课程结构的优化、教学方法的改革、实践环节的强化等四个方面探索汉语言文学专业应用型人才培养的基本思路。%With the popularization of higher education, bachelor's degree education from elite education to mass education. Traditional subject--Chinese language and literature specialty talents training became a concern. This paper aims to study the problems of the local college of Chinese language and literature specialty in the process of training applied talents, from the proper positioning of personnel training goal, the optimization of the curriculum structure, the reform of teaching methods, practice and so on four aspects to explore the basic ideas of the applied talents training of Chinese language and literature specialty.

  1. 中美青少年文学教育的比较研究%A comparative study of Chinese and American youth literature education in the movie background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陕倩倩

    2016-01-01

    通过对电影背后的中美青少年文学进行比较研究可知,电影背后的中美青少年文学虽然具备一定的共同点,但是在具体的人生观、价值观、文化关注点和兴趣点上还存在一定的差异。因此,正确了解电影背后中美青少年文学特点,对掌握中美青少年文学发展脉络和加深对中美青少年文学的理解具有重要的促进作用。%The study shows that the film behind the American adolescent literature, film behind the American adolescent literature although have certain things in common, but in specific life concept, values, cultural concerns and interests point still exist some differences. Therefore, understanding behind the movie American adolescent literature characteristics, to grasp the American adolescent literature development context and enhance mutual understanding of Chinese and American young adult literature has an important role in promoting.

  2. 近五年中医药治疗骨质疏松文献分析%A late 5-year literature analysis of osteoporosis treatment using traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭新; 刘芳; 叶竹; 邓伟民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze and evaluate the clinical research literatures concerning traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of osteoporosis in CNKI during last 5 years (form 2005.01 to 2009.12),and to learn the general situation of the treatment of osteoporosis with traditional Chinese medicine from the aspect of syndrome differentiation, drug use, and the result. Methods Using osteoporosis as a key word, and traditional Chinese medicine, herbs, clinical study as pairs of key words to extend, literature searching was performed from the Chinese periodical full text database. Literatures of experimental animal study, reviews,and pathogenesis of the disease were excluded. The quality of the research was evaluated from the basic elements of clinical research literature, including the quality of the literature ( randomized, double-blinded,controlled), the content of the literature (syndrome differentiation, treatment method, formulas of herbs),and the metrology of the literature (year distribution, area distribution, journal distribution ). The general situation of osteoporosis treatment with traditional Chinese medicine was summarized. Results The number of literatures of clinical research of osteoporosis treatment with traditional Chinese medicine increased year by year. The treatment was mainly with tonifying method and with promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis. The medicine was mainly made up as traditional Chinese patent medicines and simple preparations convenient to use, with good efficacy. The regional distribution of the study was uneven. No research was reported in some region so far. High quality clinical studies were less. Conclusion The treatment of osteoporosis with traditional Chinese medicine was mainly with reinforcing kidney to strengthen spleen and with promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis. The clinical studies about the effect traditional Chinese medicine on pathogenesis and therapeutics of osteoporosis need to

  3. Application of Text Mining Technology in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Research%文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洪涛

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨文本挖掘技术在中医药文献研究中的应用成果.方法:对近年来文本挖掘技术应用于中医药研究的文献进行综述,总结文本挖掘技术在中医药中的应用成果.结果:文本挖掘技术能以线性和非线性方式解析数据,且能进行高层次的知识整合,又善于处理模糊和非量化数据.未来文本挖掘有可能整合中医药数据、蛋白质及代谢组学数据,分析组合中药活性成分,为新药发现和组合药物形成构建研发平台.结论:利用文本挖掘技术对中医药进行研究分析是一种很有前景的方法.%Objective:To investigate the application progress of text mining technology on traditional Chinese medicine literature research.Methods:Achievements of the application of text mining technology in TCM were summarized through literature review of the application of text mining technology in traditional chinese medicine in recent years.Results:Text mining technology can parse the data in the linear and nonlinear manner,with a high level of integration of knowledge.It is also good at dealing with fuzzy and not quantitative data.Text mining technology is likely to integrate traditional Chinese medicine data,protein and metabolomics data,analysis of combination traditional Chinese medicine active ingredients,which builds development platform for the new drug discovery and the form of combination drugs.Conclusion:Using text mining technology for research and analysis of traditional Chinese medicine is a promising method

  4. 越南读者接受中国80后文学的情况%On the Situation of Vietnamese Readers' Acceptance of Chinese Literature Created by Writers Born after 1980

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文晓

    2012-01-01

    Chinese literature created by writers born after 1980 has been spread in Vietnam in recent years, which has been greeted and supported by young readers but received cold attitudes from Vietnamese critics. This literary phenomenon has imposed great influence on young Vietnamese psychological life and aesthetic hobby. However, the fact that the numbers of these literary works created by writers born after 1980 overweigh their quality results in the misunderstanding in many people that Chinese contemporary literature is just so-so.%最近几年来中国80后文学匆匆地进入到越南,它们受到年轻读者的欢迎和支持,但越南文学批评界的态度却很冷淡,同时有不同的看法。这种文学现象的出现对越南年轻人心理生活和审美爱好产生了很大影响。中国80后文学作品进入越南的数量比有艺术质量的文学作品进入越南的数量要多,这让不少人误解“中国当代文学只是如此”。

  5. 数字媒体时代下的中国儿童文学发展面向省思%Reflections on the Development of Chinese Children ’ s Literature in the Age of Digital Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿羽

    2015-01-01

    中国儿童文学兴起于五四新文化运动时期,伴随着中国现代社会的进步一路而行,其先后经历了多种社会思潮的影响并发生了有别于西方儿童文学的本土化转变。基于计算机技术的数字媒体改变了人类生活的整体面貌,一涌而出的视觉符号在深刻影响中国儿童文学发展环境的同时,也改变了儿童的阅读习惯。我国目前正处于经济转型期,有关儿童的社会问题日益明显,这些状况无疑是数字媒体时代下中国儿童文学理论思考的一个重要面向所在。%Chinese children ’ s literature originated from the New Culture Movement , developing along with the pro-gress of modern society .It has undergone the influence of many social thoughts before being localized .Computer-based digital media technology has changed the whole situation of human life .Artificial visual symbols and sounds are overwhelming Chinese children’s literature, which has profoundly changed children ’s reading habits.China is currently in a period of economic transition .Social problems about children have become increasingly prominent . Research on this situation is not only the direction of Chinese children ’ s literary theory,but also the destiny of this discipline in the digital media age .

  6. 得失参半的创新之作--《剑桥中国文学史》评议%Success Equals Failure in an Innovated Book-A Review about The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽宝

    2015-01-01

    《剑桥中国文学史》旨在打破以往文学史写作中的习惯性范畴,开创新的文学史范式。其中最引人注目的是它特殊的“文学文化史”的书写姿态,立足于在文化史的背景下考察中国文学的发展进程。这种书写策略为我们认识文学史提供了新的视角与方法,但并没有在全书中得到全面的贯彻。《剑桥中国文学史》的文学史分期方式也引人注目,某些基于文学文化史立场的分期方式显得新颖别致。全书的文学史分期方式并没有统一的标准,也存在着按世纪、朝代为文学史分期的现象。由于全书的编者热衷于探求“过去的文学”原貌,在实践中往往对某些重要作家作品叙述较少,而对次要的文学现象评价过高。这种迥异于时流的评价可新人耳目,但有些评价是出于臆测,并没有坚实的依据。%The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History aims at creating a new pattern about the writing of Chinese literature history by removing familiar categories in the field.The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History is famous for its special view of the history of literature culture.The writ-ers believe that the real original appearance of literature is clear when we research literature by the hand of whole history of culture.Some problems in literature could be removed with the view of cul-ture,which is not reflected completely in the whole book.The divisions of literature history are also eye-attracting,some are reasonable based the view of culture history.Other kinds of division of histo-ry carry on changeless criterion as before.The book aims to seek the original appearance of literature happened as announced.Some famous writers in history are not take high while common ones are over praised.So,some evaluations in the book are not valid.

  7. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  8. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  9. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture

  10. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and cultur

  11. 《中国心血管杂志》2007-2011年引文分析%Analysis of cited literature in Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine published from 2007 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段春波; 周白瑜; 谭潇; 石婧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the citation characteristics of literatures in Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine published from 2007 to 2011. Methods According to the information of China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI),articles in Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine published from 2007 to 2011 were surveyed. The quantity,type of languages and self-cite rate etc were analyzed,and the Price's index,half-life of literatures were calculated. Results Of the 712 papers published in the journal from 2007 to 2011,62S papers cited 6601 literatures,with a citation rate of 87.10%. The average number of citations in each paper was 9. 16. The major language of citation was English (80.97% ) ,followed by Chinese and other languages,which were 18. 95% and 0. 08% ,respectively. The self-cite rates of author and periodical were 0. 82% and 1.64% ,respectively. The Price's index was 46. 22% and the half-life of literatures was 4. 20 years. Conclusions The authors of Chinese Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine cite a wide range of literature. The cited literatures of this journal are of good timeliness and high novelty. And the journal is one of the highest academic quality journals in China.%目的 分析《中国心血管杂志》2007-2011年刊载论文的引文情况,评价该杂志作者吸收和利用科技文献的规律和特征.方法 利用中国知识资源总库(China national knowledge internet,CNKI)对《中国心血管杂志》2007-2011年所载论文进行检索,应用文献计量学和引文分析法,对所载论文引文量、引文语种、引文年代分布和自引率等进行分析,并计算文献的半衰期和普赖斯指数.结果 该刊2007-2011年共刊载论文721篇,附有引文的论文628篇,引文率为87.10%;总引文条数6601条,篇均引文量为9.16条.该刊引文语种以英文为主,引文数占引文总数的80.97%( 5345/6601),中文引文数占18.95%( 1251/6601),其他语种占0.08% (5/6601).2007-2011

  12. Analysis of cited literatures in Chinese Journal of Geriatrics published from 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年《中华老年医学杂志》引文分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石婧; 孟丽; 段春波; 于普林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the citation characteristics of literatures in Chinese Journal of Geriatrics published from 2008 to 2012.Methods According to the information from Wanfang database,articles in Chinese Journal of Geriatrics published from 2008 to 2012 were surveyed.The quantity,type of languages and the self-cited rate,etc were analyzed,and the Price's index,half life of literatures were calculated.Results Of the 1567 papers published in the journal from 2008 to 2012,1479 papers cited 16054 literatures,with a citation rate of 94.4%.The average number of citations in each paper was 10.25.The major language of citation was English (73.33%),followed by Chinese (26.67%),and only one citation was in Japanese.The self cited rates of author and periodical were 1.20% and 5.23%,respectively.The Price's index was 45.71% and the half-life of literatures was 4.27 years.Conclusions The authors of Chinese Journal of Geriatrics cite a wide range of literature,and the journal plays an important role in publicizing research achievements of geriatric medicine.However,the average number of citations in each paper,timeliness and novelty of cited literatures,diversity of citation languages need further improving.%目的 分析《中华老年医学杂志》2008 2012年刊载论文的引文情况,评价该杂志作者掌握和利用科技文献的规律和特点. 方法 利用万方数据库对杂志2008-2012年所载论文进行检索,应用文献计量学和引文分析法,对所载论文引文量、引文语种、引文年代分布和自引率等进行分析,并计算文献的半衰期和普赖斯指数. 结果 该刊2008 2012年共1567篇,其中附有参考文献的论文1479篇,引文率为94.4%.共有引用文献16054条,篇均引文数为10.25条/篇.该刊引文语种以英文为主,引文数占引文总数的73.33%(11772/16054),中文引文数占引文总数的26.67%(4281/16054),仅1条为日语语种的引文.2008-2012年该刊作者自引文献193

  13. The Dynamics of Chinese Face Mechanisms and Classroom Behaviour: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxin

    2009-01-01

    Research on cross-cultural psychology, anthropology and sociology reveals that the impact of face on social interactions is both pervasive and powerful in Asia. Face, however, has not gained general acceptance as an important theoretical concept in the literature on Asian (Chinese in particular) classroom behaviour and management. This article…

  14. 归化与执守--美国华人文学中的“金山”意象解读%Naturalisation and Maintainguard:Image Interpretation of “Golden Hill”in American Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚丹; 张文东

    2016-01-01

    A century of “golden hill”heterogeneity culture has attracted further research of chinese-born Ameri-can writers. The writers have used record of actual events and imagine two writing ways to construct the metaphorical regional culture image, and presents the ethnic Chinese in foreign life and psycholog-ical emotional truth. The policy to China of different periods not only affected the pursuit of subjective of Chinese community, also influenced the construction of text space of Chinese writers, through con-structing text space the writers expressed their value judgment were naturalisation or maintainguard by linking with the “golden hill”regional space. This paper selected the “golden hill”city image as the thinking object, through studying the geography and culture of “golden hill”, extracted the connotation of “golden hill” image in American Chinese literature. The state power, diplomatic relations and na-tional identity were the important factors to dominate writers thinking and judgment.%一个世纪以来,“金山”的异质性文化吸引着美国华人作家不断深入探查。在叙事上,作家以纪实和想象两种书写方式来建构带有隐喻性的地域文化意象,并以此呈现华人族裔在异邦生存期间的生活、心理情感真相。而不同时期的对华政策不仅影响着华人群体的主体诉求,也影响着华人作家对文本空间的建构。作家意图通过建构文本空间,来表达出自己与“金山”地域空间的联系是归化还是执守的价值判断。选取“金山”城市意象作为研究对象,通过对“金山”的地理、文化能指内容的考察,提炼出美国华人文学中“金山”意象的所指内涵。而政治上的国家权力、外交关系和文化上的民族认同,是支配作家思考和判断的重要因素。

  15. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...

  16. Dengtuo's Famine Thought Revealed in the Chinese Famine History%从《中国救荒史》看邓拓的救荒思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2012-01-01

    灾荒史是社会史研究的重要内容。提到灾荒研究,就不能不说到邓拓的《中国救荒史》。《中国救荒史》是我国学术史上第一部较为完整、系统、科学地研究中国历代灾荒和救荒的学术著作。书中引述的史料丰富厚实,论述条理清晰,系统完整地展示了我国历代灾荒发生的实际情况和救治举措。这是一部具有相当高学术价值的著作,在学术上的影响深远。%The famine history is one the important part of the social history.As for the study of famines,DengTuo's the Chinese Famine History has always been quoted.The book is the first complete,systematic academic work about Chinese famine history.The historic data supplied in the book are abundant and profound.Deng's book showed us the reality offamine events.The book is of academic value and has a great impact on the development of Chinese academic culture.

  17. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Z

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Wang,1 Lei Yuan,1 Yongchuan Wang,2 Baizhi Yang,1 Xiaohong Dong,1 Zhaowang Gao3 1Department of Urology, Shouguang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shouguang, 2Department of Urology, Weifang Traditional Chinese Hospital, Weifang, 3Department of Urology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for chronic prostatitis (CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes.Methods: An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software.Results: Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001 and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: -1.08, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.81, P<0.00001. Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of -1.39 (95% CI: -1.87 to -0.92, P<0.00001. Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: -0.23, 95% CI: -0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06. The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34 and less than that

  18. The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei-Xi; Sun, Yi-Min; Guan, Rong-Yuan; Luo, Su-Shan; Chen, Chen; An, Yu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Jian-Jun

    2016-10-01

    The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

  19. Bibliometric Analysis of Research Literature on Bemisia tabaci in the Chinese Journal Full-text Database%重大外来入侵害虫烟粉虱核心期刊研究文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新周; 韩群鑫

    2011-01-01

    以《中国期刊全文数据库》作为数据来源,采用文献计量学方法对1990 -2010年烟粉虱研究文献的年份、核心期刊、文献主要产出单位、核心作者群分布情况进行统计分析,在总文献量534篇、第一作者343人中,确定了9位核心作者和8种核心期刊.%The paper took Chinese Journal Full-text Database as the data source, the bibliometric analysis was made on the research literatures of B. Tabaci with bibliometrics method during 1990 - 2010,including the literature number,distribution of publishing years,core authors,research groups and regional distribution. In 534 literatures and 343 first authors, 9 core authors and 8 kinds of core journals were determined.

  20. 国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的文献计量分析%Literature metrology Analysis on Domestic Studies on Chinese Medicine in Treating Cerebral Infarction in the Past Twenty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷亚玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评价国内20年中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究文献发表数量及内容的研究现状,总结规律,指导临床。方法采用文献计量学整理文献年度发表量、发表趋势,总结此领域的治疗方法、分期论治、辨证分型、治则治法及中药运用情况等。结果该领域文献发表数较多且逐年增加,临床随机对照研究文献数呈上升趋势,非随机对照研究文献数呈下降趋势;脑梗死急性期研究最多,且各期辨证用药及干预措施各有侧重;气虚血瘀证、痰瘀阻络证贯穿病程始终,为脑梗死的基本病机;中医药治疗脑梗死方法多样,中药运用细致周到。结论中医药治疗脑梗死的临床研究发展迅速且日趋成熟,治疗中体现出辨证论治的中医特色;但还需进一步提高研究水平,扩大该领域研究范围。%Objective To comprehensively evaluate the quantity,and content of research status, summary of regulation,clinical instruction of the domestic clinical trials on Chinese medicine in treating cere-bral infarction in the past 20 years. Methods Literature metrology was used to analyze the annual publishing amount,publishing trends,so as to summarize treatment methods,stage of governance,syndrome differentia-tion,therapeutic principle and application of traditional Chinese medicine and so on in this area. Results ①Clinical trials published in past20 years on the TCM treatment of cerebral infarction increased and the total number of randomized controlled trials showed increasing trend year by year;the number of randomized con-trolled clinical trials literature on the rise,the number of non -randomized controlled trial literature de-creased;②Acute cerebral infarction took account of the most studies and TCM drugs and interventions were used;③QDBS ,phlegm and blood stasis syndrome had always been throughout the course of cerebral infarc-tion,and ischemic stroke′s basic pathogenesis

  1. Segmenting Chinese Tourists by the Expected Experience at Theme Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Shan Chen; Lucio Lamberti

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiential approach to tourist segmentation aimed at overcoming the limits of both socio-demographic and context-specific approaches widely adopted in the literature and in practice. In this study, segmentation is carried out based upon the expected experiences of Chinese tourists at the Shanghai World Exposition. The segmentation reveals four tourist clusters with different interests in relation to their experiences in visiting the World Exposition. The cluster...

  2. The Perspective of Comparative Literature Parsing the "Moon"Image under the Context of Chinese and Western culture%中西文化语境下月亮的“意”与“象”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 薛虎

    2014-01-01

    The features of poetry is artistic conception ,which is integrated with emotion and image . Therefore ,the image is one of the most important elements of poetry .In the context of different cultures ,"the moon"can show the different national cultural psychology ,connotation and colorful image form .This paper will prase the "moon"image under the context of Chinese and western culture from the perspective of comparative literature and explore the "moon"the different images with the aid of the similarities and differences comparison method .Meanwhile ,it also can promote the communication and integration be-tween Chinese and western culture .%在不同文化语境下,“月亮”这一文学意象展现着不同的民族文化心理、意象内涵和多姿的意象形态。从比较文学角度出发,借助“异同比较法”来重新解析“月亮”意象背后隐藏的深层次的文化语境的差异,意在更好地促进中西文化的交流与融合。

  3. Content Analysis of Chinese Literature Researching the Interaction---Between Popularization of Science and Advertising%中国科普与广告互动研究的文献分析--基于内容分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正; 刘伟峰; 周荣庭

    2015-01-01

    This research quantitatively analyze the Chinese literature which studied in the interaction between popularization of science and advertising with the content analysis,and summed up the development and the present situation of this study. We find that, in Chinese context and background, the research of the interaction between popularization of science and advertising is comparatively deficient, fall behind with the practice of the interaction of popularization of science and advertising. But,it is also found that the research of this question increase with a high rate,and has a bright future.%本文采用内容分析方法对中文语境下有关科普与广告互动的研究文献进行定量分析,从而归纳出中国对于该问题的研究发展与现状。并从中发现中国对于科普与广告的互动研究尚处于起步阶段,研究水平落后于中国当下科普与广告互动的实践。但其研究发展呈高速率增长态势,发展前景较为明朗。

  4. QT Interval Prolongation Associated with Intramuscular Ziprasidone in Chinese Patients: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Literature Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM ziprasidone has been associated with QTc interval prolongations in patients with preexisting risk factors. A 23-year-old male Chinese schizophrenia patient experienced an increase of QTc interval of 83 milliseconds (ms after receiving 20 mg IM ziprasidone (baseline and increased QT/QTc were, respectively, 384/418 and 450/501. This was rated as a probable adverse drug reaction (ADR by the Liverpool ADR causality assessment tool. A systematic review including all types of trials reporting the effect of IM ziprasidone on the QTc interval prolongation identified 19 trials with a total of 1428 patients. Mean QTc change from baseline to end of each study was −3.7 to 12.8 ms after IM ziprasidone. Four randomized trials (3 of 4 published in Chinese were used to calculate a meta-analysis of QTc interval prolongation which showed no significant differences between IM ziprasidone and IM haloperidol groups (risk ratio 0.49 to 4.31, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 19.68, P = 0.06 to 0.41. However, our review included two cases of patients who experienced symptoms probably related to QTc prolongation after IM ziprasidone. Thus, careful screening and close monitoring, including baseline ECG, should be considered in patients receiving IM ziprasidone for the first time.

  5. 中国学者冲突话语研究综述%A Literature Review of Chinese Scholars’Research on Conflict Talk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季海龙

    2014-01-01

    Conflict talk, which is an important issues in discourse analysis, has been studied by western Scholars from different per-spectives. Chinese scholars also probes into conflict talk from the perspective of memetics, relevance theory adoption theory, Rap-port Management Model. By investigating Chinese scholars’study on conflict talk, this paper summers the achievement achieved as well as the gap that needs to be filled.%冲突话语研究是话语分析研究的一个重要课题,国外学者已从各个角度对冲突话语作了研究。国内学者也从模因论、关联理论、顺应理论、和谐理论等角度对冲突话语作了研究。本研究对国内冲突话语研究作了一番梳理,指出了所取得的成就以及需要加强研究的相关侧重点。

  6. Zipf DISTRIBUTION OF WORD USE IN CHINESE LITERATURE%汉语言文学作品中词频的Zipf分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洋; 刘宇凡; 陈清华

    2009-01-01

    A Zipf distribution of word use is found in Dream of the Red Chamber, Selected Works of Mao Tsertung and Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, after word extraction by CSW freeware. This is consistant with empirical researches from English, Spanish, French, Greek, and even the ancient Meroitic and other languages. To research Chinese character and Chinese character N-gram but not words is why debate arose in previous works.%以为对象,利用CSW分词软件进行词语的切分,统计发现这些材料的词频都表现出Zipf分布规律.这个结果与包括英语、西班牙语、法语、希腊语,甚至古代语言Meroitic等在内的很多种语言的实证研究结果是一致的.以往基于字和多元字对而不是用词的研究方法是出现争论的主要原因.

  7. 论怀旧散文在中国现代文学史上的贡献与地位%On the Contributions and Status of Nostalgic Essays in the History of Modern Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明鹃

    2009-01-01

    This paper is to examine the contributions and status of the nostalgic essays in the history of modem Chinese literature. In this paper, three aspects have been discussed in three parts respectively: sincere feelings,strong historical awareness, and breadth of history and the depth of significance.%本文认为,情感的真挚、深具历史意识以及从时空方面拓展了作品的历史广度与意义深度为怀旧散文对现代文学所做出的特殊贡献,也正是以上几点,为怀旧散文在中国现代文学史上确定了其不可替代的以主情为核心特征的文学史地位.

  8. 论20世纪中国女性文学创作中的漂泊意识%On the Wandering Consciousness in Twentieth Century Chinese Female Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2016-01-01

    The literature works by the twentieth century Chinese women writers is an important part of Chinese new literature unique . Throughout the twentieth century Chinese women literature writing ,there has been a refuge for wandering nothing latent consciousness ,which has its different rendering features though each period .If we placed the women writers’ wandering consciousness in the context of the development of Chinese literature ,we can find its unique significance and value individuality .Women writers have obviously difference between mechanisms and manifestations in terms of awareness generated by wandering from male writers .Since the majority of women writers are more sensitive to their ow n sex characteristics , they have been looking for the existence or construction of their ow n culture from the resistance to the patriarchal culture in the process ,in order to explore female’s culture w hich has long been obscured the significance of individual life .It is female cultural construction process that women writers constantly toward self life to explore the depths of life ,spirit and emotion of the landing site ,in order to place their own long wandering soul and look for the cultural value of their ow n existence .%20世纪中国女性作家的文学创作是中国新文学中独具特色的重要组成部分。在20世纪中国女性文学创作中,一直有一种无所归依的漂泊意识,而且各个时期有着不同的呈现特点。如果把女作家的漂泊意识放置在整个20世纪中国文学发展的大背景中去考察,可以发现其独特的意义与个性价值。在漂泊意识产生的机制和表现形态方面,女作家与男作家显然不同。女作家更加敏感于自身的性别特点,在抗拒男权中心文化的过程中,她们一直在寻找或者建构着自己所存在的文化,发掘女性长期以来被男权文化遮蔽了的个体生命意义。女性文化建构的过程是女性作

  9. A Review of Chinese Biographical Literature Studies since the 21st Century%新世纪以来中国传记文学研究回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兰村; 全展

    2012-01-01

    进入新世纪以来,中国传记文学研究在十几年中取得新的实绩,具体体现在:传记文学理论研究取得了重大进展,传记文学理论体系初步建立;传记文学研究中国际对话格局业已形成;传记文学研究队伍壮大,新人辈出;传记研究者对当代传记现状更加关注,力图产生导向作用。%New achievements have been made in biographical literature studies in the past 12 years of the new century : there is a significant development of the theories of biographical literature ; a theoretical system of biographical literature has been formed; the international dialogues on biographical literature studies have emerged paid to ; the research forces have grown rapidly with new scholars springing up; and more attention has been the status quo of biographical literature by researchers with an effort to play the role of guidance.

  10. The Wolf Image in Chinese Literature Shape Evolution and the Reform of the Cultural Connotation%中国文学塑造中狼意象的演变及其文化内涵变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂琴

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese literature,the Wolf image is often full of negative emotions of meaning.The 21st century, the works about Wolf re-examine the basic characteristics of the Wolf image.Carding and draw the outline of the evolution of the Wolf image and its cultural connotation,can more clearly identify the Wolf-image in literature,history,sociology and culture's role in the transformation process,which changes the Wolf image in Chinese culture in a relatively long period of time on the history of the pure culture connotation,has resumed its multiple symbolic meanings.%在中国传统文学中,狼意象往往是充满负性情感的阴险、狡诈的代名词。21世纪以来,关于狼性的文章作品重新审视了狼意象的基本特征。梳理并勾勒狼意象及其文化内涵的演变,可以更为明晰地辨识出“狼”形象在文学、史学、社会学等文化中所扮演角色的变迁历程,从而改变中国文化中狼意象在较长一段历史时间上的单纯文化内涵,使之重新恢复其多元象征意义。

  11. 中国俄罗斯侨民文学中儒释道文化研究%Study on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism Culture in Chinese Russian Immigrant Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳菊; 苗慧

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学是伴随着俄罗斯侨民在中国的定居而产生的。顾名思义,中国俄罗斯侨民文学是俄罗斯的作家以中国社会环境为背景而创作出来的文学作品。泱泱五千年的中华文明史,将博大精深的儒释道文化融于一身,形成了具有独特意蕴的中国传统文化。它不仅影响着整个中华民族的意识形态,同时也对生活在中国半个世纪之久的俄侨作家产生了一定的影响。文章以文本分析形式解读、梳理中国俄侨作品中的中国儒释道文化。%Russian immigrant literature came into being with the settlement of exiled Russians in China. Thus, the so - called Russian immigrant literature in China refers to the literary works written by Russian writers set in the Chinese society. Based on the immemion of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism culture, China with 5,000 years of civilization has developed its own peeullar and profound traditional culture, which not only affects the ideology of the whole Chinese nation, but makes a certain impact on the Russian writers living in China for more than half a century. The paper delves into the Confueianism t Buddhism, and Tanism euhure in the Russian immigrant literary works in China by using text analysis techniques.

  12. 高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才培养研究%Research on Fostering the Applied Talents Majoring in Chinese Language and Literature Education in Normal University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚

    2012-01-01

    The applied talents majoring in Chinese language and literature education are expected to be with noble character, rich knowledge on Chinese language and literature, skillful technique and strong practice abilities. None- theless,while fostering these talents, universities do have some issues such as inaccurate orientation of teaching,irra- tional course structure and imperfect evaluation system and so on. The new reform requires these talents to have an admirable appreciation of literature and a strong ability of expression, reading, writing, and teaching. Thus, we should lay our efforts on constructing a scientific curriculum system and a teaching staff with both and vocational qualifications. In the meanwhile, we should perfect the scientific evaluation practice links. These are effective methods to put emphasis on fostering the applied talents literature education in normal university, and achieve the goal of cultivating the talented guage for the basic education stage.%高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才具有人格高尚、文化底蕴深厚、技能高超、实践能力强等内涵与特征。目前该专业人才培养中存在办学定位不准确、课程结构不合理、评价体系不完善等主要问题。新的改革要求高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业培养的人才应具有较强的文学鉴赏、语言表达、阅读、写作、教学实践等能力。因此,应该采取建立科学的课程体系、建设双师型的教师队伍、构建科学的评价体系、强化实践环节等有效路径,着力加强高师本科院校汉语言文学教育专业应用型人才的培养,从而达到为基础教育阶段输送高素质优秀语文教师的目的。

  13. 英汉语言学学术论文语类结构对比分析——以应用语言学博士论文文献综述语类结构研究为例%Contrastive Analysis of Generic Structure in Academic Papers on English- Chinese Linguistic Study:A Genre Analysis of Literature Reviews in Chinese PhD Dissertations in Applied Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕊娜

    2012-01-01

    Literature Review (LR) as a genre is used to deliberate on prior findings of related topics to establish relations of one's own with the whole academic community by critical evaluation of literatures in order to find out "research gaps" and thus establish one's research territory. With reference to the pioneering study of Kwan (2006) on dissertation LRs, this paper investigates the English LRs of 20 PhD dissertations composed by mainland Chinese student writers, with an aim to reveal their generic structures and move/step configurations. The results show that the Chinese writers largely follow Kwan's structure models and they have an adequate com- mand of discourse conventions and paradigms of international academic communities, as is revealed both in the completeness of three LR components of introduction, body and conclusion; but also in the frequency of occurrence of individual moves and strategies. However, some degree of divergence has been found in the use of move/strategy configurations between Chinese and native scholars, knowing of which will be beneficial for us to be better integrated into the international academic community.%文献综述(LR)主要是详述所研究主题相关的前期成果,通过批判性评价前人研究找出"研究空白",建立自己和整个学术社团的联系,由此构建自己的"研究空间"。该语类在学位论文中必不可少。本文对照Kwan(2006)LR的语类研究,对我国应用语言学20篇博士学位论文LR包含的语步及策略的语类结构和配置模式作了分析。研究结果表明,中国学位论文的LR基本符合Kwan的修辞结构模式,我国学者对于国际学术社团通行的行文惯例掌握较好,不仅表现在LR开头、正文和结尾结构的完整性上,也表现在各语步/策略的分布频率上。但是中西学者在语步/策略配置模式中存在着差异,了解这些有利于我们更好地融入国际学术社团。

  14. 从莫言获奖反思新时期以来中国文学的经典化问题%Reflection on the Canonization of Chinese Literature in the New Era from Mo Yan’s Nobel Prize for Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2014-01-01

    The winning of the Nobel Prize for literature is not only the approval of Mo Yan’s liter-ary creation,but also the recognition of Chineseliterary achievement.Literary works could not become classics without the involvement and promotion of various authorities.In order to reflect on the canon-ization of Chinese literature in the new era,it is necessary to be aware of the characters of the classics and factors of its canonization.Being responsible to the canonization of the Chinese literature,atten-tion from the literary circle and the media may be needed.%2012年诺贝尔文学奖花落中国既是对莫言创作的认可,更是对新时期以来中国文学取得成就的肯定,促使思考其经典化的问题。文学经典的出现不是自发形成的,离不开各种权力话语的参与建构。合理认知经典的特征与生成因素有利于深入思考新时期以来中国文学经典化的诉求。在命名经典责任的驱使下,通过语文学和传播媒介等层面的关注,有助于新时期以来中国文学经典化的落实。

  15. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries.Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  16. Study on the Translation of Religious Culture in Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉荣

    2015-01-01

    The effect of religious culture on literature is everywhere whether in Chinese or Western countries. Therefore,the religious culture or elements in literature should be paid more attentions during the practice of Chinese to English or English to Chinese translation.The translation strategies will be discussed with examples to provide useful and meaningful references for the following researchers and practices.

  17. Research on Evidence-based Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature Retrieval in PubMed%PubMed的循证中医药文献检索研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周满英

    2016-01-01

    文章介绍了利用PubMed数据库检索循证中医药证据时的检索技巧和四种有效而快捷的检索方式,并结合实例分析各方式的检索特点,以期为循证中医药研究人员检索PubMed时提供参考。%This paper introduces the search tips and foureffective andefficientways to usePubMedto retrieveevidenceof evidence -based traditionalChinese medicine, use retrieval case to analyzethe characteristic ofeachway,in order toprovide references to evidence-basedtraditional Chinesemedicineresearchersretrieve inPubMed.

  18. 从古代文学作品看传统体育的历史与精神——《体育古文》前言%The History and Spirits of Traditional Sports Embodied in Traditional Literature Works -preface to Ancient Chinese Literature Works on Sports and Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵逵夫

    2012-01-01

    Many works in ancient Chinese literature (from Pre-Qin to the modern times), ranging in genre from pomes, Ci, Qu, Fu, prose, and novels, made descriptions of the sports and games people engaged in. The types of sports and games mentioned include ball games and Jirang, the game of throwing stuffs into the pot and horsing racing, archery, fencing, Jiao Di, sumo, Martial art, swimming, racing, long-jump, tug of war, skiing, fishing, the I-go, shuttlecock kicking and flying kite. These literature works not only showed vivid pictures of sports activities in different periods, thoughts, emotions and the spiritual states of the participants and the audiences, but also embodied the cultural connotations and the basic spirits of Chinese traditional sports. From these works, professionals in the sports field and sports enthusiasts can get to know the history of Chinese traditional sports and gain better understanding of the cultural connotations of the Chinese traditional sports.%中国古代文学中反映体育活动的作品很多,诗、词、曲、赋、散文、小说各种体裁的都有,时间从先秦至近代,关于体育活动的类型涉及各种球类及击壤、投壶及赛马、射箭、击剑、角抵、相扑、武术、游泳、赛跑、跳远、拔河、滑雪、钓鱼、围棋及妇女儿童的踢毽子、放风筝等。它们不仅生动地反映了古代各个时期一些体育活动进行的场面,参加活动者及观看者的思想情绪、精神状态,而且也反映出中国传统体育的文化内涵和基本精神。从事体育专业工作的人们和体育爱好者可以从中看到一部生动具象的中国古代体育史,同时对中国传统体育的文化内涵有更深的体会。

  19. Trace to the Source of Depression in Traditional Chinese Medicinal Literature%抑郁症中医文献溯源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏利

    2012-01-01

    There is no record in traditional Chinese medicine for depression, most scholar think il as ihe depression of lung-Qi or depression of Liver-Qi. Some disease in traditional Chinese medicine was consider like il, Kiif h as Psychosis, lily disease, hysteria, running piglet, insomnia, forgetfulness and so on. Depressed mood should he considered as the chief manifestations in depression. In ancient times, fhere was a disease just like it. It was in 541 B.C., a doctor named Yihe diagnosis a disease caused Huo-disease for the King of Jin, pathogenesis was inability of kidney to arrest semen and incoordination between kidney and heart.%中医古籍并无“抑郁症”之病名,因此,现代中医学对抑郁症的认识甚不统一.抑郁症之病,抑郁乃其主要临床症状,但多数研究者却将以抑郁为病因的疾病归于抑郁症之中“癫证”、“百合病”、“脏躁”、“奔豚”、“失眠”、“健忘”、“郁证(情志抑郁类)”等中医病证,尽管在其发病过程中出现有类似抑郁症的症状,而其所以出现之病机并未证明与抑郁症发作病机相同中国古代疾病中,与抑郁症主证最相似的疾病之描述,乃公元前541年医和为晋平公诊断之惑疾,其病机为肾不藏精,心肾不交.

  20. The Study of Cultivating Core Competence of Students in Chinese Language and Literature Major in Western colleges: a Case Analysis of Chinese Language and Literature Major of Mianyang Normal University%西部普通高校汉语言文学专业学生核心竞争力培养研究——以绵阳师范学院文学与对外汉语学院为分析个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    资建民; 朱学召

    2012-01-01

    The Western colleges in the level of development lag far behind the development areas in the eastern and central parts of China and face the inherent shortage of educational resources. Thus, taking it as the exploring base, students who are cultivated through the traditional majors of Western colleges have become an important indicator to test the professional development level of the Chinese language and literature in Western colleges. Based on practical experience of fostering students" core competence in Chinese language and literature school of Mianyang Normal University, this paper gives a specific analysis on how to build traditional majors and cultivate students'core competence of professional abilit- under the current new develoning trend.%西部普通高校在发展层次上明显滞后于东部、中部等发达地区,且面临教育资源的先天不足。以此作为探究问题的基点。西部普通高校传统专业培养出的学生,便成为检验西部地方高校汉语言文学专业发展水平的一项重要指标。本文拟结合绵阳师范学院文学院汉语言文学专业在培养学生核心竞争力的实践经验,具体分析怎样才能从根本上建好传统专业,以及如何在新形势下培养学生在专业能力方面的核心竞争力。

  1. 中国药用苔藓植物研究的文献分析(Ⅱ)%Analysis on Literatures of Chinese Medicinal Bryophytes(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国营; 宋培浪; 于美玲; 赵厚涛

    2013-01-01

    为更好地了解我国药用苔藓植物资源的现状,为药用苔藓植物化学成分、药效等深入研究提供依据,按照中国苔藓植物分区,对各分区内40余篇报道药用苔藓植物资源调查的学术论文进行研究分析.结果表明:在中国苔藓植物10个分区中,华北区、云贵区、华东区和华中区是我国药用苔藓植物资源文献报道较多的地区,而横断山区则未见报道;贵州、山东和河北等省份报道较多,江苏、陕西、青海、西藏、海南、广东、澳门、香港和台湾等省区未见有专门报道.%In order to get more attention and understanding about current status of medicinal bryophyte resources,and to provide basic references for further studying on chemical components and pesticide effects of bryophytes,more than 40 literatures,according to the bryological regions of China,were reviewed and analyzed.The results showed that there were more literatures reported in the North China region,Yunnan-Guizhou region,East China region and Central China region,but no literature in the Hengduan Mts region.Among the districts of China,Guizhou,Shandong and Hebei published more papers of medicinal bryophyte resources,but Jiangsu,Shaanxi,Qinghai,Tibet,Hainan,Guandong,Macao and Hongkong had not reported any special literatures.

  2. 《圣经》、中国现代文学与跨文化交流%Bible,Modern Chinese Literature and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立安·高利克[斯洛伐克; 刘燕(译)

    2016-01-01

    After the West European and Chinese cultures met at the end of the 16th and during the two next centuries , there developed a conflict of cultures. For the first time in history , two religiously , philosophically ,and linguistically very different worlds come into contact. The Chinese men of letters reached for the Bible as a source of inspiration or an object of creative and critical only in the time around the May Fourth Movement in 1919. Both Chinese writers who wrote on biblical subjects were influenced by Christianity may be divided into two groups:one is smaller group,consisting of the members which had had good experience with Christianity;and the second one where the impact of the last was chiefly negative. It is a pity that the New Testament lacks something comparable to the mythologem of Jacob ’s ladder ,forming a bridge between the countries where the missionaries came from and the countries where they spread the biblical teaching. Mythological ladders were always constructed in a simple way. The“ladders”of international communication and understanding are necessarily much more complicated and should be constructed according to the different systems and structural entities coming into direct contact with each other.%16世纪末,西欧文化与中国文化这两个在宗教、哲学以及语言等方面截然不同的世界有史以来首次直面相遇,在此后的两个世纪中,却引发了东西文化的持续而激烈的冲突。直到1919年“五四运动”前后,中国作家才把《圣经》视为灵感、创造和批评的源头。受到基督教影响、改写《圣经》题材的中国(男女)作家可划分为两类:一类是对基督教信仰——及其制度——有所体验的人,人数较少;另一类人则对基督教持有消极负面的印象,人数众多。令人遗憾的是,从知识分子的交流与理解来看,《新约》缺少一种与“雅各的梯子”类似的神话,作为

  3. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for chronic prostatitis associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes: a meta-analysis and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Lei; Wang, Yongchuan; Yang, Baizhi; Dong, Xiaohong; Gao, Zhaowang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for chronic prostatitis (CP) associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Methods An electronic search of 13 databases up to May 2016 was screened to identify randomized controlled trials comparing the safety and efficacy of CHM for the treatment of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. Studies reporting on effective rates, adverse events, National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI) scores, and symptom index of Chinese medicine for chronic prostatitis (SI-CM) scores as outcomes were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed by fixed- or random-effect models using the Review Manager software. Results Thirteen articles with the modified Jadad score ≥4 were identified. It was found that CHM was superior to placebo in increasing the efficacy (odds ratio: 6.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–9.48, P<0.00001) and reducing the SI-CM scores (standardized mean difference: −1.08, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.81, P<0.00001). Oral CHMs were significantly more effective than placebo at reducing NIH-CPSI scores, with a mean difference of −1.39 (95% CI: −1.87 to −0.92, P<0.00001). Nevertheless, no significant differences were found between Prostant and placebo (standardized mean difference: −0.23, 95% CI: −0.46 to 0.01, P=0.06). The frequency of adverse events associated with oral CHM was similar to that associated with placebo (risk ratio: 1.36, 95% CI: 0.72–2.55, P=0.34) and less than that associated with Prostant (risk ratio: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.14–2.34, P=0.008). Conclusion Our novel analysis demonstrates that CHM ranks highest in terms of improvement of CP associated with damp-heat and blood-stasis syndromes. While Prostant showed some efficacy in this disorder, it was associated with a smaller reduction in NIH-CPSI scores. In conclusion, CHM monotherapy is safe and

  4. Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine Injections with a Cell Imaging-Based Multiparametric Assay Revealed a Critical Involvement of Mitochondrial Function in Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of herbal medicine products has been a widespread concern due to their complex chemical nature and lack of proper evaluation methods. We have adapted a sensitive and reproducible multiparametric cell-based high-content analysis assay to evaluate the hepatic-safety of four Chinese medicine injections and validated it with classical animal-based toxicity assays. Our results suggested that the reported hepatotoxicity by one of the drugs, Fufangkushen injection, could be attributed at least in part to the interference of mitochondrial function in human HepG2 cells by some of its constituents. This method should be useful for both preclinical screen in a drug discovery program and postclinical evaluation of herbal medicine preparations.

  5. Symbolic Meanings of Daffodils in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文绍

    2007-01-01

    Daffodils are popular among people around the world. The daffodil is made the top ten in flowers in China In English and Chinese literature, it is a popular theme glorified by poets and writers. This essay is to present different symbolic images of daffodils in Chinese and English poems so as to help Chinese readers understand the meaning of daffodils in English literature.

  6. 浅论中国文学中的渔父形象%On the Images of Fishermen in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慎春燕

    2009-01-01

    In Chinese literary world, the frequent emergence of the images of fishermen is a unique scenery phenomenon. The fishermen described by ancient writers were not only the anchorite who were broad-minded, indifferent to fames and relaxed in nature, the anglers who had talent left to rust and bitterly waited for the opportunity for the greatest success, but also great warriors who held their own faith and integrity and were in the pursuit of an ideal life. Many images of fishermen implied many intellectuals' dreams. Through our deeply analysis we can better know the inward world of ancient intellectuals.%频繁出现的渔父意象,是中国文学世界一道独特的风景线.古代文人笔下的渔父纷繁复杂,既有超脱旷达、恬淡自适、乐山爱水的隐逸者,又有怀才不遇、苦等时机、期待一飞冲天的垂钓者,还有坚守人格信念、追求至情至性的侠义者.林林总总的渔父意象,寄寓着无数文人的梦想,勾勒出古代文人复杂矛盾的内心世界.

  7. 关于人名地名音译的研究综述%Literature Review on Transliterating Names of People and Places from Chinese to English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张捷

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to translate names of people and places from English to Chinese. Although some researchers have already worked out a set of transliterated names which have been used widely and conveniently, there is still some disordered use. It is of necessity and emergency to keep the transliterated names consistent. In order to do that, this article aims at reviewing the existing findings.%人名和地名的翻译具有其特殊性和复杂性。目前所使用的译名是学者和研究人员努力研究的成果,这些译名的出现给翻译工作带来很多的便利,但不得不指出译名混乱的情况仍然存在。统一译名具有必要性和迫切性,为了进一步寻求新的音译原则,尝试对相关领域已有研究成果进行综述和总结。

  8. Dialogue Between the History and Present:Thinking about How to Teach Chinese Ancient Literature%历史与现代的对话——中国古代文学教学断想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese ancient literature has both diachronic and synchronic.It is necessary to think about from two aspects in teaching the ancient literature:on the one hand,the literature should be returned to the historical environment and the original ancient culture in order to interpret its true meaning as much as possible.On the other hand,from the perspective of humanistic care and spirit,we should look for meeting point between the ancient civilization and modern life,helping us build ideal personality.The previous aspect is basis and the latter aspect is goal.If we have cognized of the significance of ancient literature,our national spirit can be carried forward.%古代文学既具有历时性,又具有共时性,因此必须从这两个层面去构建其教学:一方面把文学还原在历史的场境中去解读,尽可能还原古代文学以本来面目,解读其真情真意。另一方面从人文关怀的角度,从中寻找古代文明与现代人生的契合点,力求为当代大学生的人格构建提供可资借鉴的东西。前一个层面是基础,后一个层面是目的,在认知古代文学的基础上,架通历史与现代的桥梁,让历史与现代对话,以古鉴今,弘扬民族精神。

  9. On the" Earth" Imagation of Chinese literature in the Twentieth Century%20世纪中国文学的“土地”意象探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴勇

    2012-01-01

    The earth worship has some kind of religious god meaning in the ideology, but leaves the fact that the people take the earth as the centralimage literature ,which loads to the reproduction awe and the parent substance dependence. The earth image of the present contemporary literature resented both continues with the ancient times myth and disobeys the line to be complex meaning. On the one hand it manifests the creation main body to the earth, the motherland, people' s deep love, and on the other hand it illustrious appears the modern industry civilization to the land plundering extrusion. Looking from the subject history angle , it has reflected the realistic society to the literature production content restriction and the promotion.%"土地"崇拜在意识形态上具有某种宗教神祗意味,而以"土地"为中心意象的文学负载出人们对生殖的敬畏和母体的依恋。现当代文学中"土地"意象呈现出与远古神话既相承接又相悖行的复杂意蕴。一方面体现出创作主体对土地、祖国、人民深沉的爱;另一方面又昭显出现代工业文明对土地的掠夺与挤压。从主题史角度上看,"土地"意象流变反映了现实社会对文学生成内容的制约与促进。

  10. [Episodic central nervous system symptoms with reversible white matter involvement in Chinese patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and literatures review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-hua; Gao, Li-guo; Wang, Jing-min; Gao, Zhi-jie; Jiang, Yu-wu; Wang, Shuang; Xiong, Hui; Chang, Xing-zhi; Wu, Ye

    2013-11-01

    To analyze the phenotype and genotype of CMTX1 patients with episodic transient reversible white matter involvement, and delineate the features of brain MRI in the episode and the possible mechanisms. Three Chinese probands and their family members were sequenced in the coding regions of GJB1. With the other 16 reported CMTX1 patients with episodic transient reversible white matter involvement, the clinical feature of the episodic central nervous system symptoms and the genotypes were reviewed. Missense mutations in GJB1 were identified in all 3 probands. In 19 patients with transient reversible white matter involvement, the episodes were manifested as weakness of the limbs, dysarthria, and dysphagia, without disturbance of consciousness or seizures. The episodes lasted for 13 hours (10 min-72 hours) with complete remission in all patients; There were multiple episodes in 9 patients. During the episode, brain MRI showed symmetrical high signals in T2 weighted, Flair and DWI images in periventricular white matter, with predominance in posterior region including splenium of corpus callosum. These changes in imaging were most prominent during or within 1 week after the clinical episode.Significant improvements occurred within 1 month, with complete remission within 4-6 months.No specific locations of mutant amino acids in GJB1 protein were found in these patients with episodic transient reversible white matter involvement. Episodic transient reversible white matter involvement may present in a small number of patients with CMTX1. Transient edema of oligodendrocytes due to the dysfunction of gap junction may be involved in the pathogenesis. There is no correlation between the location of the mutant amino acids in GJB1 and the occurrence of the episodes.

  11. 中国现代文学教学与学生能力培养%On the Teaching of Modern Chinese Literature and the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建玲; 丁东粮

    2011-01-01

    大学教育应该加强对大学生实际能力的培养,这已成为近年来社会的共识。具体到中国现代文学大学课程的教学,最重要的任务就是要培养学生的文学感受能力和分析、理解作品的能力。为实现此目标,教师必须根据低年级大学生的思维特点和知识层次,根据现代文学学科特性和教学内容,寻找行之有效的途径和方法。第一要转变学生的学习心理和学习习惯,让学生走出应试教育思维定式;第二要纠正"文学无用"偏见,肯定文学及文学学习的价值,唤起学生研读文学的热情;第三也是最重要的一点就是通过大量文本阅读和文本鉴赏分析活动,把提高学生素质和能力落到实处;第四强化训练,以练促读、促思,促进综合能力的提高。%University education should focus on the cultivation of students' practical competence,a consensus reached by the public in recent years.In terms of the instruction of modern Chinese literature courses,the most important task lies in fostering the students' ability of literary perception and the ability to analyze and appreciate literary works.Teachers must explore every avenue to accomplish that task in light of the characteristics of thinking and knowledge structure of lower-level college students while taking into account the curriculum features and content of instruction of modern Chinese literature courses.Efforts should be made to 1) transform the students' learning psychology and learning habits and let them break through the exam-oriented stereotype;2) put right the prejudiced conception of "futility of literature",reinstate the value of literature and literature learning,and stimulate the students' enthusiasm for literature learning;3) enhance the students' overall competence and professional quality through enormous amounts of text reading and text appreciation activities;and 4) intensify training activities to give students

  12. Synchronous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the recto sigmoid revealed by and seeding an anal fistula. (A case report and review of the literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridakis, Konstadinos G; Sfakianakis, Elefterios E; Flamourakis, Manthos E; Intzepogazoglou, Dimitra S; Tsagataki, Eleni S; Ximeris, Nikolaos E; Rachmanis, Efstathios K; Gionis, Ioannis G; Kostakis, Giorgos E; Christodoulakis, Manousos S

    2017-01-01

    There are few cases of synchronous rectal adenocarcinoma revealed by an anal fistula. The diagnosis of synchronous mucinous adenocarcinoma of the recto sigmoid and anal canal remains difficult. The chronic anal fistula can be mistaken as the common manifestation of a benign perianal abscess or fistula. We present a rare case of a Greek Caucasian 79year old male patient with anal fistula and a recurrent perianal abscess who subsequently was found to have developed synchronous rectosigmoid and perianal mucinous adenocarcinoma on biopsy. The histological exam revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma in two sites, representing two tumors, cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 20 and negative in cytokeratin 7. The patient underwent "laparoscopic extralevator abdominoperineal excision " with both lesions being resected. There is no recurrence after four years of follow up. This case highlights the importance of high suspicion, further investigation and the need of biopsy in all anal fistulae. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Variations between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars revealed by simultaneous measurements of 820 nm transmission signal and chlorophyll a fluorescence induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Saber; Qu, Mingnan; Xin, Chang-Peng; Li, Ming; Chu, Chengcai; Govindjee; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-04-01

    The difference between the photosynthetic properties of elite and landrace Chinese rice cultivars was studied, using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction (mostly a monitor of Photosystem II activity) and I820 transmission signal (mostly a monitor of Photosystem I activity) to identify potential photosynthetic features differentiating these two groups, which show different degrees of artificial selection and grain yields. A higher fluorescence (related to PSII) IP rise phase and a lower P700(+) (related to PSI) accumulation were observed in the elite cultivars as compared to the landraces. Using these data, together with simulation data from a kinetic model of fluorescence induction, we show that the high IP rise phase and the low P700(+) accumulation can be a result of transient block on electron transfer and traffic jam on the electron acceptor side of PSI under a high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio. Considering that the ferredoxin NADP(+) reductase (FNR) transcript levels of XS134 (a representative elite cultivars) remains unaffected during the first few minutes of light/dark transition compared to Q4145 (a representative landrace cultivars), which shows a strong decline during the same time range, we propose that the FNR of elite cultivars may take more time to be inactivated in darkness. During this time the FNR enzyme can continue to reduce NADP(+) molecules, leading to initially high [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] ratio during OJIP transient. These data suggested a potential artificial selection of FNR during the breeding process of these examined elite rice cultivars.

  14. Biomechanics and hydrodynamics of prey capture in the Chinese giant salamander reveal a high-performance jaw-powered suction feeding mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Egon; Natchev, Nikolay; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Weissenbacher, Anton; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2013-01-01

    During the evolutionary transition from fish to tetrapods, a shift from uni- to bidirectional suction feeding systems followed a reduction in the gill apparatus. Such a shift can still be observed during metamorphosis of salamanders, although many adult salamanders retain their aquatic lifestyle and feed by high-performance suction. Unfortunately, little is known about the interplay between jaws and hyobranchial motions to generate bidirectional suction flows. Here, we study the cranial morphology, as well as kinematic and hydrodynamic aspects related to prey capture in the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). Compared with fish and previously studied amphibians, A. davidianus uses an alternative suction mechanism that mainly relies on accelerating water by separating the ‘plates’ formed by the long and broad upper and lower jaw surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics simulations, based on three-dimensional morphology and kinematical data from high-speed videos, indicate that the viscerocranial elements mainly serve to accommodate the water that was given a sufficient anterior-to-posterior impulse beforehand by powerful jaw separation. We hypothesize that this modified way of generating suction is primitive for salamanders, and that this behaviour could have played an important role in the evolution of terrestrial life in vertebrates by releasing mechanical constraints on the hyobranchial system. PMID:23466557

  15. Likelihood and Bayesian analyses reveal major genes affecting body composition, carcass, meat quality and the number of false teats in a Chinese European pig line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roy Pascale

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses were performed using both maximum likelihood – via a Quasi Newton algorithm – (ML-QN and Bayesian – via Gibbs sampling – (Bayesian-GS approaches in the Chinese European Tiameslan pig line. Major genes were searched for average ultrasonic backfat thickness (ABT, carcass fat (X2 and X4 and lean (X5 depths, days from 20 to 100 kg (D20100, Napole technological yield (NTY, number of false (FTN and good (GTN teats, as well as total teat number (TTN. The discrete nature of FTN was additionally considered using a threshold model under ML methodology. The results obtained with both methods consistently suggested the presence of major genes affecting ABT, X2, NTY, GTN and FTN. Major genes were also suggested for X4 and X5 using ML-QN, but not the Bayesian-GS, approach. The major gene affecting FTN was confirmed using the threshold model. Genetic correlations as well as gene effect and genotype frequency estimates suggested the presence of four different major genes. The first gene would affect fatness traits (ABT, X2 and X4, the second one a leanness trait (X5, the third one NTY and the last one GTN and FTN. Genotype frequencies of breeding animals and their evolution over time were consistent with the selection performed in the Tiameslan line.

  16. Succinyl-proteome profiling of Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb, revealed involvement of succinylation in the glycolysis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; Jiao, Kaili; Guo, Hong; Jiang, Mengyi; Hao, Juan; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2017-08-10

    Lysine succinylation is a ubiquitous and important protein post-translational modification in various eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. However, its functions in Dendrobium officinale, an important traditional Chinese orchid herb with high polysaccharide contents, are largely unknown. In our study, LC-MS/MS was used to identify the peptides that were enriched by immune-purification with a high-efficiency succinyl-lysine antibody. In total, 314 lysine succinylation sites in 207 proteins were identified. A gene ontology analysis showed that these proteins are associated with a wide range of cellular functions, from metabolic processes to stimuli responses. Moreover, two types of conserved succinylation motifs, '***K(suc)******K**' and '****EK(suc)***', were identified. Our data showed that lysine succinylation occurred on five key enzymes in the glycolysis pathway. The numbers of average succinylation sites on these five enzymes in plants were lower than those in bacteria and mammals. Interestingly, two active site amino acids residues, K103 and K225, could be succinylated in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, indicating a potential function of lysine succinylation in the regulation of glycolytic enzyme activities. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction network for the succinylated proteins showed that several functional terms, such as glycolysis, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome, are consisted. Our results provide the first comprehensive view of the succinylome of D. officinale and may accelerate future biological investigations of succinylation in the synthesis of polysaccharides, which are major active ingredients.

  17. 恩格斯的“最高标准”与中国现代文学课程教学%"THE HIGHEST STANDARD" OF ENGELS AND THE TEACHING OF CHINESE MODERN LITERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭正生

    2013-01-01

    In the articles of commenting Karl Grun and Ferdinand Lassalle's works, Engels proposed the basic principle, name-ly the highest standard of praising historical figures and literary works, which is dialectical unity of aesthetic viewpoint and his-torical viewpoint. According to the highest standard, in literary criticism, we should not only pay close attention to the works it-self by taking the aesthetic value(inner element) as standard, but consider the times of the works by taking the historical value (outer element)as standard as well. The core contents of the teaching in Chinese modern literature are the analysis of works, the narration of its history, and the criticism of historical narration. As an important theory of artistic criticism, the highest stan-dard of Engels is very instructive in the teaching of Chinese modern literature history undoubtedly%恩格斯在评价卡尔。格律恩和斐迪南。拉萨尔著作的文章里提出评价历史人物和文艺作品的“最高标准”,即“美学”和“历史”观点的辩证统一。依据“最高标准”,在进行文学批评时,既要关注文艺作品本身,以美学价值(内部因素)为评价尺度;又要考虑文学作品的具体时代,以历史价值(外部因素)为评价标准。中国现代文学课程教学的核心内容是现代作家作品分析、文学史叙事以及现代文学史学史批评。作为文艺批评的重要理论之一,恩格斯的“最高标准”无疑对中国现代文学课程教学具有指导和方法论意义。

  18. 格林童话与中国现代儿童文学的诞生——纪念格林兄弟《儿童与家庭童话集》出版二百周年%Grimms' Fairy Tales and the Emergence of Modern Chinese Children's Literature: In Commemoration of the Bicentennial Anniversary of the Publication of Grimms' Fairy Tales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜荣

    2012-01-01

    More than one hundred years has passed since the first Chinese translation and introduction of Grimms' Fairy Tales, the very classic of western children's literature. This period also witnesses the emerging and development of Chinese children's literature. During the time period from "Eastward Dissemination of Western Learning" in the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the early Chinese translations of Grimms' Fairy Tales motivate the formation of the modern concept of children and children's literature in China, and embody the rich folkloristic and pedagogical value of the original work. The Grimm brothers' work of fairy tales' collecting inspires Chinese writers of children's litera- ture. Grimms' Fairy Tales becomes the maior source of modern Chinese children's literature.%西方儿童文学经典名著格林童话自20世纪初被译介到中国已有一百多年的历史,这一历程也伴随着中国儿童文学的发生与发展。在晚清“西学东渐”至20世纪初期这一时间段中,格林童话的早期汉译对中国现代儿童观和儿童文学观的建立具有历史促进作用,充分体现其丰富的民俗学和教育学价值,格林兄弟的童话收集工作对中国作家的童话收集和创作活动具有启发意义,格林童话成为中国现代儿童文学的重要渊源。

  19. The Influence of Evolution Theory on the Reform of Chinese New Literature From Late-Qing Dynasty to the May 4th Period%晚清至五四:进化论思想对中国新文学变革的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇生

    2014-01-01

    From Late-Qing Dynasty to the May 4th Period, the influence of evolution theory on the reform of Chinese New Lit-erature were briefly discussed as follows: First, as the theoretical resources of the Anti-tradition in Modern China, evolution theory forced the Emergence of Chinese New Literature strongly; Second, through the collapse of chinese traditional HuaYi idea and the ancient and modern concept, evolution theory effected the basic trend of Chinese New Literature directly;At last, because of the in-consistent acceptance on evolution theory and the conflict arising thereform , evolution theory porducted so much research fields of chi-nese morden literature.%进化论思想在晚清至五四中国新文学的变革中所扮演的角色主要体现在:作为近现代中国“积极反传统”的理论资源,有力地促成了新文学的“发生”;瓦解了中国传统的“华夷”和“古今”观念,直接影响了新文学的基本走向;不同个体对进化论思想的不同接受,以及由此产生的矛盾与冲突,酿就了近现代文学研究的诸多领域。

  20. 扩大中国文学版图 建构中国佛教诗学——《中国佛教文学史》编撰刍议%Modest Proposal on the Compilation of A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴光正

    2012-01-01

    中国佛教文学史就是中国佛教徒创作的文学的历史,就是佛教实践即佛教修持与佛教弘传过程中产生的文学的历史,就是用汉语、西域胡语、藏语、蒙古语、傣语等语种写成的大中华佛教文学的历史。"中国佛教文学史"的书写应该禀持民族本位立场和教派史视野,全面清理中国佛教文学的历史进程,并进而提炼民族精神、建构宗教诗学。"中国佛教文学史"的书写特别要关注印度佛教在中国各民族地区的本土化进程以及汉语佛教在东北亚、东南亚地区的本土化进程,在民族互动和国际交流中探讨宗教实践对社会和谐、文明演进的重大贡献。%The history of Chinese Buddhist literature is the history when Chinese Buddhists produce literary works, the history when in the procedure of Buddhism practice and dissemination Chinese Buddhists produce literary accomplishments, and is the history of the Great China Buddhist literature written by Chinese, " Hu language of western region, Tibetan, Mongolian, Dai and other branches of languages. The position of national culture and the sight of sects ought to be kept when writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, and meanwhile the historical course of Buddhist literature is to be straightened all sidedly, helping to extract the national spirit and to construct religious poetics. When writing A History of Chinese Buddhist Literature, two points should be paid close attention that the localization of Indian Buddhism in all localities and all ethnic groups of China and the localization of Buddhism written in Chinese in northeastern Asia, and also that the sig- nificant contribution to the social harmony and the progress in the civilization achievedby, Southeasten Asia, ethnic interaction and international communication investigating religious practices.

  1. The evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in south-central Vietnam reveals multiple clades evolving from Chinese and Cambodian viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tinh Huu; Than, Van Thai; Thanh, Hien Dang; Nguyen, Van Quang; Nguyen, Kim Hue; Nguyen, Duc Tan; Park, Jong-Hwa; Chung, In Sik; Jeong, Dae Gwin; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Wonyong

    2015-10-01

    In Vietnam, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), such as that caused by H5N1 viruses, is the most highly contagious infectious disease that has been affecting domestic poultry in recent years. Vietnam might be an evolutionary hotspot and a potential source of globally pandemic strains. However, few studies have reported viruses circulating in the south-central region of Vietnam. In the present study, 47 H5N1-positive samples were collected from both vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry farms in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during 2013-2014, and their genetic diversity was analyzed. A common sequence motif for HPAI virus was identified at HA-cleavage sites in all samples: either RERRRKR/G (clades 2.3.2.1c and 2.3.2.1a) or REGRRKKR/G (clade 1.1.2). Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes identified three clades of HPAI H5N1: 1.1.2 (n=1), 2.3.2.1a (n=1), and 2.3.2.1c (n=45). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that these Vietnamese clades may have evolved from Chinese and Cambodian virus clades isolated in 2012-2013 but are less closely related to the clades detected from the Tyva Republic, Bulgaria, Mongolia, Japan, and Korea in 2009-2011. Detection of the coexistence of virus clades 2.3.2.1 and the very virulent 1.1.2 in the south-central regions suggests their local importance and highlights concerns regarding their spread, both northwards and southwards, as well as the potential for reassortment. The obtained data highlight the importance of regular identification of viral evolution and the development and use of region-specific vaccines.

  2. 基于灰色聚类方法的慢性心力衰竭中医证型文献分析%Grey Clustering Method Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Literature of Chronic Heart Failure Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宾; 王付; 黄明宜

    2011-01-01

    Objective:CHF syndrome differentiation of the literature was collated and analyzed to explore the CHF syndrome differentiation type of objective laws.Method: Over the past 10 years, CHF Syndromes of literature,theoretical calculations using gray card type data series on gray and clustering.Result: 13 permits will be based,clustering is: Heart Qi and Yin deficiency, yang deficiency of water pan, yin yang dried off, blood stasis, phlegm.Conclusion: CHF traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) Syndrome Differentiation of the objective law, for the further development of CHF TCM diagnostic criteria and evaluation criteria provides efficacy and references.%目的:对慢性心力衰竭(CHF)辨证分型的文献报道进行了整理和分析,探讨CHF中医辨证分型的客观规律.方法:收集近10年CHF辨证分型的文献报道,采用灰色系统理论计算证型数据序列的灰色绝对关联度并进行聚类.结果:将得到的13个证型,聚类为心气阴两虚,阳虚水泛,阴竭阳脱,血瘀,痰阻.结论:探讨CHF中医辨证分型的客观规律,为进一步制定CHF中医证候诊断标准和疗效评价标准提供了参考和依据.

  3. On Niggard Image in Both Chinese and Foreign Literature%论中外文学中的吝啬鬼形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成良臣

    2001-01-01

    在世界文学发展的历史长河中,莎士比亚笔下的夏洛克、莫里哀笔下的阿巴公、巴尔扎克笔下的葛朗台、果戈理笔下的泼留稀金以及吴敬梓笔下的严监生,堪称吝啬鬼的著名典型。他们生长在不同国度、时代和社会环境中,既有突出的共性,也有鲜明的个性。为此,本文进行了深入的比较论析。%In the long process of world literature, the misers Shylock, Hartagon, Eugenie Grandet, Chichikov and Yan Jiansheng depicted by W.Shakespeare, Moliere, A.D.Balzac, H.A.тотоль and Wu Jingzi respectively are good enough to serve as model personalities. Although they lived in different countries, times and social settings, these characters share many similarities of which the present paper is to make a contrast study.

  4. Aesthetic Surprise of Artistic Expression in Chinese Ancient Literature%审美惊奇在中国古代文学中的艺术表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇云

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetic surprise is an appreciation of wonder beauty of literature, art and natural beauty. It is related with ideological content of expression, prefers to the artistic form and artistic expression, but also closely related with the aesthetic psychology and aesthetic experience. With the main identifications as aesthetic psychological effects which appeared as "surprising" "astonishing""touched"and so on, its reason can be roughly analyzed from four aspects:imagery, artistic conception, rhetoric and language.%审美惊奇是对具有奇异之美的文学艺术甚至奇特自然美的一种激赏,它和表现的思想内容有关,偏重于艺术形式、艺术表现,也和审美心理和审美经验密不可分,其主要标识为审美心理效果,体现为“惊人”“惊心动魄”“动心惊耳”等,其原因大致可以从四个方面来分析:语言、修辞、意象、意境。

  5. 膝关节骨性关节炎熏洗方用药规律文献研究%Literature Studies on Medication Regularities of Chinese Medical Fumigation for Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春娥; 董建文; 王文波

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To collect clinical research literatures relevant to treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by Chinese medical fumigation to analyze its characteristics and medicating rules. Methods: The effects, natures, tastes and channel distributions were sorted through and concluded through retrieving clinical literatures of Chinese medical fumigation in the treatment of KOA in recent 15 years. Results:Totally 174 effective references were select-ed, involving 221 herbs;the cumulative frequency of wind-dampness dispelling drugs, blood-activating and stasis-re-moving drugs as well as deficiency tonifying drugs was 80.60%;the highest frequencies of drugs application were Chuanwu, Caowu, Danggui, Honghua and Shenjincao;the cumulative frequency of drugs with warm, flat and cold natures among four properties in TCM was up to 95.48%, and that of pungent, bitter and sweet drugs came to 94.12%;the drug's channel distributions were mainly liver, spleen and kidney. Conclusion:The main medicines for KOA treatment by Chinese medical fumigation are wind-dampness dispelling drugs as well as blood-activating and stasis-removing drugs;treatment mainly focuses on removing pathogenic factors from the perspective of dispelling wind and dampness and dredging collaterals, activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis as well as ex-pelling cold and stopping pain. Meanwhile, the flexible modification of the drugs can be implemented in clinic ac-cording to the syndromes.%目的:收集中药熏洗治疗膝关节骨性关节炎(KOA)的临床研究文献,分析其用药特点和规律。方法:检索近15年中药熏洗治疗KOA的临床文献,对药物及功效、性味及归经进行整理、归纳和分析。结果:有效文献共174篇,涉及221味中药;祛风湿药、活血化瘀药、补虚药的累计频率达到80.60%;药物应用频次以川乌、草乌、当归、红花、伸筋草为最高;四气中温、平、寒类药物的累计频率达到95.48%,

  6. 2005-2012年新疆医科大学科技文献发表情况分析%Analysis of Chinese scientific literatures published during the year of 2005 to 2012 by Xinjiang Medical University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建新; 熊道海; 朱晖; 耿庆玲; 张超; 张玲; 郭立群; 刘奎; 须玉红

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析新疆医科大学2005-2012年科研论文发表情况,为某校在科研管理和学科建设上提供重要的科学依据.方法 运用文献计量学的方法,对收录于CNKI《中国期刊全文数据库》2005-2012年新疆医科大学科技文献,从年度分布、文献刊载期刊、作者情况、学科分类、研究层次等方面进行统计分析.结果 2005-2012年新疆医科大学共发表中文论文18 004篇,其中中文核心期刊4 205篇.2012年发表论文数量是2005年的2.19倍,中文核心文献量是3.94倍,年平均增长速度1.12%.18 004篇论文刊载在1 190种期刊上,期刊平均发文量15篇.新疆刊物所占比例较大(70%).2005-2012年作者人数为7 270人,人均发文2.48篇.合作度为3.55.合著率92.86%.学科分布居前6位的是:肿瘤学、外科学、临床医学、中医学、心血管系统疾病、医学教育与医学边缘学科.研究层次,工程技术(自科)基础与应用基础研究(自科)这两项研究层次占据了发表文献的90%.结论 对揭示某校文献的发表规律,探讨科研的发展趋势,客观地评价科研工作的成就,促进科研工作的不断发展,具有重要的指导意义.%Objective Toanalizethe scientific literatures published during the year of 2005 to 2012 by Xinjiang Medical University for the reference of the scientific administration and discipline constructions.Methods Thesciientific literatures published during the year of 2005 to 2012 by Xinjiang Medical University included in CNKI were statistically analized on the year distribution,journals,authors,disciplines and research levelusing the methods of bibliometrics.Results Totally 18 004 manuscripts were published in Chinese by Xinjiang Medical University from 2005 to 2012,of which 4 205 were from Chinese core journals.The number of manuscripts published in 2012 was 2.19 times as many asthat of 2005,and 3.94 times in case of Chinese core journal with a mean increase of 1.12% per year

  7. 基于中文文献的反恐情报研究分析%Analysis on Counter-terrorism Intelligence Research in China Based on Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘武英; 张薇; 李本先; 白燕琼

    2015-01-01

    目前我国面临着严峻的反恐形势,面对恐怖主义的威胁,反恐方必须加强情报在反恐中的应用。基于文献分析的视角,采用定性分析的方法,对我国反恐情报相关研究的现状进行了分析,总结概括了国内反恐情报研究的相关基础理论、关键要素及情报保障等内容,并对目前的研究现状给予了简要的评析,为我国反恐情报的进一步研究提供借鉴和参考。%China is facing a severe situation of counter-terrorism at present. The application of intelligence in the counter-terrorism must be strengthened. Using qualitative analysis methods, this paper reviews the current situations of the study of terrorism and counter-terror-ism based on the Chinese literature with emphases being put on key issues of counterterrorism intelligence such as its definition and role, key elements and intelligence security. It provides a reference for further research on counter-terrorism intelligence.

  8. On the Teaching of Selected English and American Literature of Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language%对外汉语专业的英美文学选读课教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑晓林

    2011-01-01

    英美文学选读课有助于对外汉语专业的学生全面掌握语言文字的魅力,领略不同文化的精神内涵,肩负起自身的文化使命.笔者通过两年多的教学实践,以教学活动过程为背景,从预热、选材、学习、反思四个阶段,总结出了几点经验.%The course of selected English and American literature can help students whose major are teaching Chinese as a second language to grasp the charm of languages, to know spiritual connotations from different culture,and bear the cultural mission of their own consciously. Through two years' teaching practice, the author summarized several experiences from the whole teaching activities which including preparing materials, choosing textbooks, studying the knowledge, and collecting feedback information from students.

  9. An Exploration of "Copywriter and Planer" Specialty in the Major of Chinese Language and Literatur%汉语言文学专业开设“文案策划”方向的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文武; 刘远军

    2011-01-01

    In order to meet the social needs for employees with practical ability, setting up "Copywriter and Planer" in Chinese language and literature is an urgent need for this traditional major. The new specialty focuses on graduates with humanism, creativity and adaptability. The course system should strengthen students' writing ability and add some practical courses.%适应社会对应周性人才的需求,基于汉语言文学专业开设文案策划方向,是这一传统专业改革的出路之一。文案策划方向应重在培养具有较高人文素质的、有一定创意能力的、具有广泛适应性的应用写作人才。文案策划方向的课程体系要突出对学生应用写作能力的培养,同时还要面向社会实际需求增开体现专业方向的特色课程。

  10. 高校汉语言文学专业开设“专业导论课”刍议%Discussion of"Specialized-Course Introduction"to the Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜吉刚

    2016-01-01

    汉语言文学专业导论课是我国高等院校近年来新开设的一门课程,也是一门实验性、创新性课程。其教学目标一是对学生进行专业启蒙;二是强化学生的专业整体观念。与此相应,其教学内容也主要包括两个基本的方面:专业启蒙性质的内容与强化专业整体性的内容。为了完成教学任务,该门课程宜于采用的基本教学方式主要有课堂讲述、专题讲座与专业见习。%Introduction to specialties of Chinese Language and Literature is a newly developed course in resent years in China's col-leges and universities, and is also considered experimental and innovative. The goal of this course is to give students professional enlightenment and strengthen the overall concept of the specialty. Accordingly, the teaching contents may include relevant contents to the above two aspects. In order to complete the teaching tasks, the following teaching methods are suggested:lecturing, seminars, and professional training.

  11. “行动研究”在大学语文教学中的运用%Application of Action research Theory in Teaching College Chinese Language and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑞艳

    2014-01-01

    Kurt Lewin,the famous psychologist advocated in his theory of Action-research that people should find out questions in the practice of teaching,bring up relevant solutions and put them into effect.This paper aims to discuss the teaching effect of College Chinese Language and Literature through information-col-lecting and scheme-designing by using Action-research Theory.%由勒温提出的“行动研究”教学理论提倡在教学实践中发现问题,提出解决问题的方案并付诸实施。将这一理论应用于大学语文的教学实践中,通过收集信息、设计方案,在教学中取得了良好的效果。进一步的反思将在将来不断进行。

  12. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  13. Aggression of Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia:A systematic literature review%我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琼妮; 周建松

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and analyze literature on episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards and to determine the coping and preventive strategies employed to deal with aggression of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: We used the key words such as "schizophrenia" and "aggression" to collect literature citations, which were published between July 1997 and November 2011, by searching databases such as the Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CJFD). The literature reports of aggression by patients with schizophrenia were surveyed by computer-assisted searches, scanning of reference lists, and manual search of relevant journals. We analyzed the reports of episodes of aggression in psychiatric wards.Results: Prevalence of aggression in psychiatric wards was reported to range from 9.1% (95% CI: 6.3 to 11.9) to 49.6% (95% CI: 41.1 to 58.1), with most reports in the range of 20% to 40% (mean 28.0%). The aggressive behavior often occurred in special groups and typically bore a close relationship with the patient's personal qualities, social environment, or psychiatric symptoms. The aggressive behaviors can be attributed to a lack of standardized assessments and intervention instruments.Conclusion: There is a high risk of aggression in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia, and it is urgent to establish the scientific, standardized, operational systems for assessing and treating the aggression of these patients.%目的:分析我国住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为发生情况,探讨应对和预防精神分裂症患者攻击行为的策略.方法:以精神分裂症和攻击行为等为主题词,运用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库等国内主要文献数据库(1997年1月至2011年11月),同时辅以手工检索,并从参考文献中筛选收集有关精神分裂症患者攻击行为的文献.对符合要求的文献进行分析,总结既往对住院精神分裂症患者攻击行为的研究情况.结果:住院精神分裂症患者攻击

  14. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  15. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  16. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes, and transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yao, Qiuju; Yuan, Yuxiang; Li, Xixiang; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wusheng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa) and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H (+) -ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants from a mi

  17. Potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics in revealing livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese humans without occupational livestock contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4% and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%. The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was nonsusceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188 and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5 were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact.

  18. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  19. 收编文类:中国文学史编写的体例问题--从《剑桥中国文学史》谈起%Incorporating the Literary Genres:The Issue of Stylistic Rules Regarding the Writing and Editing of Chinese Literary Histories:On The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金珅

    2015-01-01

    The writing and editing of Chinese literary histories have since the twentieth century evolved from the orientation by way of literary genres to the axis of times. The tradition of“schools of writing”remains invisible with the modern concept that“each generation has its own literature”with the result that literary genres are included in literary histories focusing on times. The stylistic rules regarding the writing and editing of literary histories in the Republic of China were reconfirmed and solidified after the founding of the People’s Republic of China until The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature was published, which gave rise to a new round of thinking in regard to the stylistic rules about literary histories.%20世纪以来,中国文学史编写经历了由文体导向,转为时代为轴。“文章流别”传统在近代以来“一代有一代文学”的观念下隐匿不现,文体类别被收编在时代为主的文学史中。民国时形成的文学史编写体例在建国后又得到确认和固化,直到《剑桥文学史》出现,又重新引发对文学史体例的新一轮思考。

  20. 中国文学中的两大文学变革运动--古文运动与“五四”新文学运动之比较%The Two Literature Revolution in Chinese History--Comparation of Classical prose Movement in the Tang and Song Dynasties and the literature Movement of May 4th

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鲲

    2016-01-01

    Tang and Song dynasties' Ancient Prose Movement and the New Literature Movement during the May 4th (1919) are the two largest literature revolution in Chinese history. The two movements were not only a literary phenomenon, but were closely associated with signiifcant social transformation and cultural change.The Ancient Prose Movement was an internal adjustment of Chinese civilization, while the New iterature Movement of May 4th was the result of civilization clashes between modern and tradition, China and West world. The movement of May 4th, seemingly a campain of anti–ancient tradition, was actually connected internally with Ancient Prose Movement closely in the aspects of writing style, linguistics, concept and examination system. The relation between two movements can be described as both rebel and inheritance.%唐宋古文运动和“五四”新文学运动,是中国文学史上最大的两次文学变革运动。这两大文学运动都不是单纯的文学现象,而是与当时大幅度的社会转型、文化变迁息息相关。但古文运动是中国文明、文学的内部调整,而“五四”新文学运动则是传统与现代、中国与外国文明大碰撞的产物。“五四”新文学运动,表面上主要反叛古文运动以来的雅文学传统,但此两大文学运动却在文体、语言、文风、文学观念,以及考试制度改革等方面存在很多内在的联系。“五四”新文学运动和古文运动之间,可以说是既反叛又继承的复杂关系。

  1. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  2. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  3. SKILLS TRAINING:AN IMPORTANT ASPECT OF LITERATURE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This article identifies some problems Chinese universities have when they offer English litera-ture as a compulsory course to advanced level English majors.One constructive approach is discussed,andsome suggestions on improving literature teaching are put forward.

  4. Mating type locus of Chinese black truffles reveals heterothallism and the presence of cryptic species within the T. indicum species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Belfiori

    Full Text Available Tuber spp. are filamentous ascomycetes which establish symbiosis with the roots of trees and shrub species. By virtue of this symbiosis they produce hypogeous ascocarps, known as truffles. Filamentous ascomycetes can reproduce by homothallism or heterothallism depending on the structure and organization of their mating type locus. The first mating type locus in a truffle species has been recently characterized in Tuber melanosporum and it has been shown that this fungus, endemic in Europe, is heterothallic. The availability of sequence information for T. melanosporum mating type genes is seminal to cloning their orthologs from other Tuber species and assessing their reproductive mode. Here we report on the organization of the mating type region in T. indicum, the black truffle species present in Asia, which is the closest relative to T. melanosporum and is characterized by an high level of morphological and genetic variability. The present study shows that T. indicum is also heterothallic. Examination of Asiatic black truffles belonging to different genetic classes, sorted according to the sequence polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region, has revealed sequence variations and rearrangements in both coding and non-coding regions of the mating type locus, to suggest the existence of cryptic species within the T. indicum complex. The presence of transposable elements within or linked to the mating type region suggests a role of these elements in generating the genotypic diversity present among T. indicum strains. Overall, comparative analyses of the mating type locus have thus allowed us to tackle taxonomical and phylogenetic issues within black truffles and make inferences about the evolution of T. melanosporum-T. indicum lineage. Our results are not only of fundamental but also of applied relevance as T. indicum produces edible fruit bodies that are imported also into Europe and thus may represent a biological threat for T

  5. Choice and Breakthrough--- A Review on Gu Bin’s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature%选择与突破*--评顾彬《二十世纪中国文学史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽英

    2015-01-01

    顾彬的《二十世纪中国文学史》在一定层面上打破了以往文学史的书写模式,采用文学史博物馆的经典化书写方式,在历史性前提下偏重文学性,具有浓厚的主观色彩。它弱化了文学史流派分支书写体例,淡化了作家流派意识,更着重于作家作品的内在精神联系,并将20世纪知识分子忧郁的精神质素落到现代性层面来阐释。意在表明解除学术霸权,解放文学史家才能使文学史编写符合文学史本身,从而走向“轻松化”和“多元化”。%To some extent, Gu Bin’ s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature has gone beyond the tradi-tional writing mode by adopting the classic one of museum of literary history, i.e.highlighting the subjective views by choosing to be more literary while staying faithful to history.This mode shifts attention from schools of differen writing styles and writer groups to the inner connection across schools.Moreover, it attempts to analyze the melancholy quality of the 20th century intellectuals under modern context, contending that only be getting rid of academic hegemony to liberate literary historians can return compilation of literary histories to history itself to make it an enjoyable, diversified job.

  6. Arguments on Animal ’s Language and New Tales in Chinese Modern Children’s Literature%中国现代儿童文学中的“鸟言兽语”之争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霞; 罗文军; 石盛芳

    2015-01-01

    Arguments on Animal's Language never stopped along with the spread of tales,but the characters and focus of the arguments have constantly changed.In the 1920s Zhou Zuoren and others had a heated dispute a-bout cat like and dog like national characters and in the 1930s themes of tales turned left.They began to focus on the possible communization of Animal's language to the thought of the young people.Through those arguments,in tales which are the major forms of children's literature,animal's language is the most important form that was deep-ly ingrained in the Chinese society.%“鸟言兽语”之争伴随着童话传入中国的进程始终没有停止,但论争的双方和焦点都在不断变化。1920年代周作人等人与保守派论争的焦点集中在国民性“猫化狗化”上;1930年代童话题材开始左转,论争焦点转移到“鸟言兽语”是否“赤化”青少年思想上。通过这些争辩,童话作为儿童文学的主要形式、“鸟言兽语”作为童话的重要形式,这一观念开始深入人心。

  7. Research on Course Reform in Teaching Basic Writing for Department of Chinese Language and Literature%汉语言文学专业《基础写作》课程教学改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛静

    2012-01-01

    目前高校《基础写作》课程的教学从理论到理论,处于一种师生双方均不满意的状况。为了改变这一状况,同时为后续写作课程的学习打下良好的基础,哈尔滨德强商务学院汉语言文学专业根据自身特点对《基础写作》课程进行了改革,即明确教学目标、精选教学内容、选用能激发学生兴趣的教学方法,开辟广阔的基础写作第二课堂,目的是提高授课内容和讲授模式的实用性,切实提高学生的写作水平。%At present,the teaching of Basic Writing course in college is in a state of "from theory to theory",which is not satisfied by both teachers and students.In order to change this situation and lay a good foundation for further studying writing course,the basic writing course has been reformed by the teachers of department of Chinese Language and Literature in Harbin Deqiang Institute of Business.The reform mainly includes definitude the teaching aim,selecting the teaching content,using the teaching method which can stimulate student's interest,and opening up the broad second classroom of basic writing course. The aim is to improve the practicability of teaching content and teaching mode, and then cogently prove students' writing level.

  8. 娜拉与中国“五四”文学女性形象比较研究%A Comparison of Nora and Women Figures in the Literature of the Chinese May 4 th Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵如荃

    2014-01-01

    Nora is a woman figure in the play A Doll’s House by Ibsen.When the play was staged in China in 1918,Nora began to be a spiritual model in the Chinese May 4th Movement,for the model stood for a stereotype of a woman rebel.This article discusses different cultural backgrounds and historical contexts, compares and analyses different rebellious women figures in the literature of the May 4 th Movement,and explores the literary phenomenon in China.%“娜拉”形象出自挪威现实主义戏剧大师易卜生的社会问题剧《玩偶之家》。1918年,《玩偶之家》登上了中国舞台,一时间,“娜拉”成为了中国“五四”时期妇女解放的精神楷模,对中国“五四”文学中叛逆女性形象有着原形意义。立足于不同的社会文化背景和历史语境,通过对“五四”时期中国文学作品中叛逆女性形象的代表类型的分析与比较,再次探究与思考了这一经典文学现象。

  9. The Inspiration of Emerson’s Literary Ethic Thoughts on Chinese Contemporary Literature%爱默生文学伦理思想对中国当代文学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙云

    2011-01-01

    As the spiritual leader of American Renaissance,Emerson’s thoughts have exerted profound influence on culture and literature in both America and the whole world.Emerson has always been kept intense attention in China.Virtually,besides the propositions of independence and politics,Emerson in his works also insists on the ethicality of literary creation and the convergence of literary truth.He refers particularly to the literary function of the inner introspection and the experience of the spiritual exploration.Emerson’s proposition of meshing humanism with social dimension opens up a new perspective for literary research.Emerson’s literary ethical thoughts provide an approach of literary sociology,which has certain reference meanings in Chinese contemporary literature and promotes the exploration of utilizing literary texts to inaugurate new civilization of the times.%爱默生作为美国文艺复兴时期的精神领袖,其思想对美国文化、文学乃至世界文化和文学都产生了深远的影响。爱默生的作品中除了对自立、政治的倡导外,还主张文本创作的伦理性和文学真理的共通性,特别强调了文本对内心的反省和对灵魂的探索的伦理功能。爱默生提倡人本主义和社会维度相契合的观点为文学研究开辟了新的视角。爱默生的文学伦理思想提供了一种文学社会学的方法,对中国当代文学创作具有一定的启示意义,有助于探寻如何利用文本去开创新的时代文明。

  10. Bibliometrics Analysis of Acupuncture Treatment for Chronic Atrophic Gastritis in Chinese Literature%针灸治疗萎缩性胃炎中文文献计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锐; 赵雪; 陈泽林; 郭义; 潘兴芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To use bibliometrics methods to analyze the characteristics of TCM literatures about acupuncture treatment for Chronic Atrophic Gastritis,to summarize the general rule and guide the clinical practice and scientific research. Methods; Establish the inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and search strategy of the literatures. Database includes CNKI (1989-2011.2), VIP (1989-2011.2), CBM (1994-2011.2) , Wan-Fang (1989 - 2011. 2). Conduct bibliometric analysis on the basic information of the documents, context and the methodology characteristics of the literature RCT. Results:The number of included literatures was 109, the overall number of the published article showed a rising trend, focusing on Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibus-tion, Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Journal of clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion; Diagnostic and therapeutic effect criteria of CAG is not unified; the clinical treatment was mainly concentrated on acupuncture point injection, acupuncture and moxibustion, acupuncture and acupuncture and medicine; acu-points concentrate on Zusanli, Wei Shu, Zhong Wan etc;the methodology characteristics of RCT was not integrity. Conclusion: Domestic researchers do related research on the efficacy of CAG by acupuncture and moxibustion. Now it has formed an " information database" and provide a standard for acupuncture treatment for chronic atrophic gastritis and research.%目的:采用文献计量学方法对近20年针灸治疗萎缩性胃炎现代文献特征进行分析,总结规律以指导临床及科研.方法:制定文献的纳入、排除标准以及文献检索策略,数据库包括:中国知网( CNKI,1989 ~2011.2),维普资讯(VIP,1989 ~2011.2)中国生物文献数据库(CBM,1994~2011.2),万方数据库(1989 ~2011.2).对纳入文献的基本信息、文章内容以及RCT文献的方法学特征进行计量学分析.结果:纳入文献109篇,发表数量总体呈上升趋势,集中发表在《中国针灸》、《

  11. Patent Literature Analysis of α - Glucosidase Inhibitor and Development Progress on Its Chinese Medicinal New Drug%α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂专利文献分析及其中药源新药开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚虹

    2012-01-01

    α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂是20世纪70年代后期研究开发的一类新型口服降血糖药物,具有作用温和持久、毒副作用小甚至无毒的优点,是近年来药物治疗糖尿病的研究热点之一.中药是我国特色的药物资源,从中药资源中寻找α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂的研究则是我国新药研究的特色.专利是新药开发产品化过程中标志性的知识产权和技术文献.通过相关中国专利及相关文献分析,综述中药源α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂新药开发的现状.%α-glucosidase inhibitor is a new oral hypoglycemic drug researched and developed in the late 1970s,with mild and persistent effect, little side - effect, even non - toxicity, which is one of the hot points of diabetic pharmacotherapy in recent years. The Chinese herbal medicine as the Chinese characteristics drug resource is becoming the new drug research way,it is our characteristics research to find a - glucosidase inhibitor from Chinese medicine. Patent is the key intellectual property and technical literature in the process of new drug development. By analyzing the relevant Chinese patents and literature, the development status quo of Chinese medicinal new drug of α - glucosidase is reviewed.

  12. An inquiry on dimensions of external technology search and their influence on technological innovations: evidence from Chinese firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    during the period 2000–2009. Our findings reveal that Chinese firms' technological innovation performances are related to external technology search in quite different ways from the ones suggested in the extant literature using evidence from developed countries. We find that Chinese firms searching......A central part of technological innovation for industrial firms involves search for new external knowledge. A well‐established stream of literature on firms' external knowledge search has demonstrated that firms investing in broader search may have a great ability to innovate. In this paper, we...... explore the influences of technology search on firms' technological innovation performance along three distinctive dimensions: technical, geographic, and temporal dimensions, using a unique panel data set containing information on Chinese firms that were active in technology in‐licensing and patenting...

  13. How to Evaluate Yinglian's Influence on Chinese New Literature---A Discussion with Professor Xiao Bairong%如何评价楹联对中国新文学的影响--兼与肖百容先生商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄怀军

    2016-01-01

    As an important genre in traditional Chinese literature, Yinglian or couplets, has an active influence on Chinese New Literature. My suspicion is how to position it. For one hand, Yinglian can not be expanded to Yinglian Culture or Yinglian Tradition optionally so as to overstate its valuation. On the other hand, the influence can not be discussed isolatedly except Metrical poems, Ci Fu and Pianwen in Old Chinese genre. Taking Yinglian's influence on the poemlet after the May 4th Movement as an example could better show how strong it penetrates Chinese New Literature.%作为中国传统的文学体裁之一,楹联的确对中国新文学的形成产生了积极的影响,问题在于如何定位这种影响。既不能将“楹联”随意扩大为“楹联文化”或“楹联传统”,从而夸大楹联对中国新文学的影响;也不能撇开格律诗、词赋和骈文当中的“楹联”式语句,从而孤立地讨论楹联对新文学的影响。以楹联对五四“小诗”的影响为例可更好地说明楹联对中国新文学的影响程度和方式。

  14. Cultivating Morality in Chinese Families--Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lei

    2017-01-01

    This article examines past and present moral education practices in Chinese families. It begins with a brief overview of Confucian thought on moral education and its lasting influence on Chinese moral ethos. It then identifies the types of moral values emphasised by Chinese parents, as well as the kinds of moral education literature they use for…

  15. Challenges Facing Chinese International Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yuerong; Renes, Susan L.; McMurrow, Samantha; Simpson, Joni; Strange, Anthony T.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese international students often find it challenging to adjust to attending college in the United States (US). There is limited research addressing Chinese international college students' adjustment in the US. Drawing on what literature exists combined with research addressing Chinese immigrants' transition and international students'…

  16. 宣示与规定:1949年前后延安文艺丛书的编纂刊行丛书的编纂刊行——以“北方文丛”与“中国人民文艺丛书”的编辑出版为例%Declaration and Establishment: A Review on the Compilation and Delivery of Serials of Yan' an Literature and Art around 1949 -Exemplification by Compilation and Publication of Serials of Northern Literature and Serials of Chinese People' s Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2012-01-01

    During the development of the 20th century Chinese literature, numerous serials of Yan' an literature and art compiled and published in the 1940' s not only declared and completed the construct and historical description of Yan' an literature and art but also "established the orientation of literature and art of new China" and national norm of aesthetics and order of literary genres by a combination of political power and ideological goal. Among these Yan' an publications, the Serials of Northern Literature and Serials of Chinese People' s Literature compiled respectively by Zhou Yang and Zhou Erfu typically represented the editorial conception, selective criteria and ideological goal of current serials of Yan' an literature and art. Through deliberate collection and classified description of literary history, these serials of Yan' an literature and art helped construct resources and norm of Yan' an literature and art and "new people' s literature art", and became the leading academic basis and resources of Yan' an literature and art and the 20th century Chinese literature in compiling historical documents of Yah' an literature and art, iedition investigation, text collation and "sub-text" studies.%在20世纪中国文学发展过程中,40年代编辑出版的多种延安文艺丛书,不仅宣示并完成了延安文艺及其艺术传统的建构与历史叙述,同时又通过与政治权力及意识形态目的的结合,“规定了新中国的文艺的方向”及其国家美学规范与文类秩序。其中,1949年前后由周而复和周扬等分别主编的“北方文丛”与“中国人民文艺丛书”,集中体现出了当时的延安文艺丛书编辑理念、选题准则和意识形态目的等历史特征,以及有意识通过丛书汇集及其“经典化”的文学史叙述,建构延安文艺及其“新的人民的文艺”资源与规范等文化实践功能,并在延安文艺

  17. Chinese Calligraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to introduce secondary or post-secondary students to the ancient art of Chinese calligraphy through step-by-step instructions on writing Chinese characters. Because each character is made up of a series of single brush strokes, it is believed that if students learn to recognize these as components of completed characters, the…

  18. Analysis on Regularity and Features of Using "基于" in Chinese Literature Titles%学术文献题名中"基于"一词的使用规律及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪雪梅; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of certain words or symbols in the titles of literatures can help to understand the behavior of scientists, diffusion laws and relationships between different disciplines. In view of the widespread use of the word " 基于 " in the titles of Chinese academic literatures, this study analyzed the changing laws of the number and the proportion of literatures which used the word "基于". Four disciplines, automation and computer science, physics, sociology and library and information science were taken as examples. The object words of " 基于 " in library and information science were analyzed. The results shows that the number of the word "基于" grows according to S type logic law. At present, the growth rate is slowing down, but it still grows rapidly. The use of the word "基于" can reflect the speed of the knowledge updating and the capability of learning from other disciplines of a discipline. This study found that automation and computer science "likes" to use "基于" most. The object words of "基于" in library and information science includes ontology, knowledge management, Web. Finally, problems of the use of the word "基于" and the limitation of this study were discussed.%统计分析文献题名中某些词或符号的使用情况,可了解学科间的关系、知识扩散规律及科学家的行为."基于"一词在中文学术文献题名中普遍使用,针对这一现象,统计分析了CNKI中国期刊全文数据库中题名使用"基于"一词的文献数量及所占比例的变化规律;以自动化和计算机技术、物理学、图书馆学情报学、社会学四个学科为例分析了"基于"一词使用的学科差异,并以图书馆学情报学为例统计了文献题名中"基于"的对象词.结果发现"基于"一词的使用呈现S型逻辑增长,目前增速虽有所放缓,但增长仍然迅速;"基于"一词的使用与学科的知识更新速度和对其他学科知识技术的借鉴能力相关,自动化和

  19. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  20. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  1. A Grey Literature Classification System Based on the Organizational Structure——for Use by Chinese Association for Science and Technology%一种基于组织架构的灰色文献分类体系——中国科协系统文献分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕瑞花; 乔新歌

    2012-01-01

    Grey literature is produced and widely applied in the researches of science and technology, as an important reference source. Developed countries pay great deal of attentions to the collection of the important grey literature. Different departments of Chinese Association for Science and Technology (CAST) have accumulated a great many of academic conference proceedings and working documents, majority of which belong to the category of grey literature. In order to manage better the grey literature produced by Chinese Association for Science and Technology, a grey literature classification system is proposed based on the organizational structure of CAST, which is divided into four levels. The first and second level categories are constructed according to the organizational structure of CAST, with the first category reflecting the three basic sources of CAST literature, that is, from Chinese Association for Science and Technology, from national societies and from local associations of science and technology, and with the second category reflecting subordinate institutions under the first level. The categories of the third and forth levels are constructed according to the publication types and the publication years of literature, respectively. This classification system may better reflect the achievements made by different departments of the CAST, and facilitate the handling of the literature.%灰色文献常应用于科学研究,是重要的参考资料,发达国家非常重视收集重要的灰色文献.中国科协系统的文献包含大量学术会议论文集和管理性文献,这些文献大部分属于灰色文献.针对中国科协系统的灰色文献管理问题,提出了一种基于组织架构的灰色文献分类体系.此分类体系以科协的组织架构为基础,构建一二级类目,并结合文献的出版形式和出版时间构建三四级类目.研究表明,此分类体系可较好地展示中国科协各机构的工作成果.

  2. Palatine tonsillar metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Ping

    2013-05-25

    Cases of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma metastasized to the palatine tonsil are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 10 cases have thus far been previously documented in the English literature. A 37-year-old Chinese woman presented with a right palatine tonsil swelling and odynophagia 5 months after a surgical resection of rectal adenocarcinoma was performed. The patient underwent a tonsillectomy, and a metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma from a colorectal origin was revealed by immunohistochemical analysis. The manner in which tonsillar metastases are involved remains unknown and should be further studied. Here, we report a new case, briefly summarize these 10 cases and review the literature.

  3. Literature Analysis of Clinic Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine Nursing Technology from 2000 to 2012%2000-2012年国内中医护理技术应用文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩妹; 靳英辉; 李文文; 孟繁洁

    2013-01-01

    目的:通过文献回顾,分析中医护理技术临床应用的现状,拟定干预对策,促进其进一步的推广和发展。方法经计算机检索CNKI、CBM、VIP、万方数据库,收集和整理2000年1月-2012年12月有关中医护理操作类调查文献258篇,根据文献调研结果进行分析。结果根据检索标准对文献进行分析整理,最终纳入调查类文献11篇,分析结果显示:中医护理技术在临床开展百分率超过50%的项目较少,且各医院情况不尽相同;护理人员对中医护理技术的掌握情况也不能与西医护理技术相比;中医护理技术在临床中存在因人力资源紧缺、缺乏相应中医护理操作医嘱、护理人员对其态度积极性较低等诸多问题。结论尽管中医护理技术以其直观安全、收费低廉、创伤小等优点被国内外医患广泛接受,但其目前临床开展情况、护理人员的掌握情况都阻碍了其发展。提示在响应国家号召基础之上,教育培训相关护理人员使其专业化、补充足够的人力完成中医特色护理。%Objective To analyze the present situation of clinical application of TCM nursing technology, to formulate intervention measures and promote its further development. Methods The retrieval was carried out in CNKI , CBM, VIP and Wanfang Database and 258 studies on TCM nursing technology from 2010 to 2012 were collected. Results According to search criteria of literature analysis, finally 11 studies were found and the analysis showed that there were few projects involving clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine nursing technology that amounted to 50% and these projects varied from hospitals to hospitals; nurses ’ grasp of Chinese medicine nursing techniques was not as well as that of western medicine nursing technology. In clinic, shortage of human resources, lack of corresponding nursing operation orders, nurses ’ low motivation were frequently

  4. 分子诊断儿童囊性纤维化二例并中国人囊性纤维化文献复习%Molecular diagnosis of two Chinese cystic fibrosis children and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐保平; 王昊; 赵宇红; 刘军; 姚瑶; 冯雪莉; 申昆玲

    2016-01-01

    databases (CNKI,Wanfang Data) and PubMed from 1975 to 2015.The clinical manifestations and molecular features were analyzed.Result One of the two newly diagnosed cystic fibrosis cases was a 10-year old girl who suffered from reccurent cough with expectoration and associated with cirrhosis.Sweat tests showed increased chloride twice with the lower level of 306.82 mmol/L.The other was an 8-month old boy with reccurent pneumonia from neonate,failure to thrive and fatty diarrhea.Two children had various degrees of bronchiectasis and massive sticky secretion on the bronchoscopy.They had no family history and their parents had no consanguineous marriage.CFTR mutations of c.595C > T and c.2290C > T were found in gene tests.On the database,twenty-one reports involving thirty-six Chinese patients (16 males and 20 females) were retrieved.Together with this group of 2 cases,a total of 38 cases were involved.The age at diagnosis was 4 months to 28 years with a median age of 10 years.All patients had reccurent respiratory infections,twenty-seven cases (71%) had malnutrition,fifteen (39%) had chronic diarrhea,and 16 cases (42%) had other digestive manifestations,including jaundice (4 cases),hepatomegaly (11 cases),ascites (2 cases) and pancreatic atrophy (3 cases).Five cases had a positive family history and six cases had a suspicious family history.Consanguineous marriage was found in three families.Sweat test revealed elevated chloride (52-327 mmol/L) in 28 cases.Eight of the 16 patients who performed pancreatic exocrine function examination showed pancreatic insufficiency.Eighteen of the 20 patients described the image manifestation of bronchiectasis.The age at death of 13 patients (34%) was 4 months to 25 years with a median of 11 years.Twenty-nine rare CFTR mutations were found in 25 tested patients,and c.1766 + 5G > T(5 cases),c.2083dupG and c.2684G > A (3 cases) held the top three mutation patterns.Conclusion Respiratory symptoms and bronchiectasis are the main

  5. 政治身体:土改文学中的身体形象分析%Political Body:An Analysis of the Body Image in Chinese Land-reform Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程娟娟

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese land -reform literature, " upturn" means that numerous peasants gained unprecedented liberation of their body, and the country as a sleeping giant was awaking. In perspective of physiological political body, body is under control of external powers. Cloth is an important sign of "upturn" , while over pursuit of comfort and beauty of cloth would be criticized by revolutionary discourse. In perspective of productive political body, the body needs to undergo constant tests of labor works, so body becomes machines for production and tools for work. The bodies are assigned with different value due to the holder's class identity. Body of landlord suffers violence in public demonstration, and body of peasant enjoys sacred homages due to the scar it has suffered.%在土改文学中,翻身意味着无数个体农民的身体获得了前所未有的解放,同时这也象征着中国这个沉睡的巨人即将醒来。从生理政治身体上看,身体必须受到外在权力的控制,衣服是翻身的重要标志,然而过分追求衣服的美观舒适将会受到革命话语的指责。从生产政治身体来看,身体还需不断接受生产劳动的考验,身体成为了生产的机器和劳动的工具。身体因为阶级的划分而具有了不同的价值,地主的身体在示众的场面中遭受暴力,而农民的身体因为伤疤而具有了神圣的价值。

  6. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.

  7. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  8. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  9. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  10. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily

  11. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医方药的文献研究%Literature Research of Traditional Chinese Medical Prescriptions of Gout in Intermission and Chronic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的方药特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月-2011年6月国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献85[1-82]篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者累计4791例,主要中药(前15味)使用频率结果分别是:牛膝(36.11%)、桑寄生(31.48%)、薏苡仁(30.56%)、土茯苓(26.85%)、苍术(25.93%)、白术(25.93%)、白芥子(25.00%)、当归(24.07%)、黄柏(23.15%)、黄芪(22.22%)、防己(22.22%)、草薢(20.37%)、威灵仙(20.37%)、赤芍(18.52%)、秦艽(16.67%).结论:牛膝、桑寄生、苍白术、薏苡仁及黄芪健脾益肾,泄浊祛湿治病之本;当归、牛膝、苍白术、赤芍、黄柏、白芥子及威灵仙活血化瘀通络,燥湿化痰通痹治病之标.%Objective: To provide a basis for clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) by seeking the TCM prescriptions of gout in intermission and chronic phase. Methods: Domestic relevant literatures were summarized retrospectively based on the interaction by computer search and artificial retrieval from January 1997 to June 2011. Results-. Totally 85 literatures were retrieved to meet the requirements, including 4791 cases of intermission, chronic phase and chronic gouty arthritis. The distributions of major TCM prescriptions (the top 15)were achyranthes root(36. 11% ) ,mis-tletoe( 31. 48% ) , coix seed ( 30. 56% ), smilax Glabra ( 26. 85% ), atractylodes ( 25.93% ) , rhizoma atractylodis (25.93%) ,white mustard seed(25.00% ) ,angelica sinensis(24. 07% ) ,cortex phellodendri(23. 15%) ,radix astragali (22.22% ) ,tetrandra root(22.22%) ,yam rhizome(20. 37% ),clematis root(20. 37% ) ,red peony root(18.52%) ,gen-tiana macrophylla ( 16. 67% ). Conclusions :It is the fundamental treatment of gout by invigorating spleen and nourishing kidney therapy for reducing

  12. Promotional literature translation in stylistics perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰雅

    2009-01-01

    A company Call establish a favorable image to promote itself by promotional literature which has vocative and informative functions.In this espy,the Chinese and English promotional literatures will be discussed in detail from the aspect of stylistic features and relevant translation strategies will also be presented.

  13. 言外之意·传播·受众——浅谈中国古典文学及传播中的“言外之意”%On Implication in Chinese Classical Literature and Media Activities: Implication & Communication & Audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚存

    2011-01-01

    Implication exists not only in Chinese classical literature but also in today's media activities. Studying the implication in the literature from the perspective of the audience theory, the unique charm can be found, providing valuable comparative frame of reference for the implication in the media activities. Implication, which is popular in classical Chinese literature, should be used with caution and placed in the appropriate context in news media activities, avoiding negative impact at the same time.%中国古典文学中的“言外之意”同样存在于当今的新闻传播活动中。从传播活动受众的角度去关照文学中的“言外之意”,可以考察“言外之意”的独特魅力,同时又为新闻传播活动中的“言外之意”提供可贵的对比参照系。在中国古典文学创造中大行其道的“言外之意”在新闻传播活动中应谨慎使用,要在规避消极影响的同时将其置于适当的语境之中。

  14. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka

    2011-01-01

    The Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected Indian rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of HIV infection and AIDS-related research, despite the potential that macaques of Chinese origin is a more relevant model. Ongoing efforts to further characterize the Chinese...... rhesus macaques’ major histocompatibility complex (MHC) for composition and function should facilitate greater utilization of the species. Previous studies have demonstrated that Chinese-origin M. mulatta (Mamu) class I alleles are more polymorphic than their Indian counterparts, perhaps inferring...... a model more representative of human MHC, human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Furthermore, the Chinese rhesus macaque class I allele Mamu-A1*02201, the most frequent allele thus far identified, has recently been characterized and shown to be an HLA-B7 supertype analog, the most frequent supertype in human...

  15. A literature review of epidemiological studies on mutation hot spots of Chinese population with non-syndromic hearing loss%非综合征性聋突变热点的流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海波; 李琼; 李红; 陈瑛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the regional mutation hot spots characteristics, and then to establish a regional genetic screening programs. Method; Molecular epidemiological literatures about Chinese deafness gene GJB2,SLC26A4,mitochondrial DNA mutations from 2006 to the first half of 2011 were retrieved in Wanfang and Pubmed literature database. The primary data of these studies including the number of samples, demographic characteristics, mutation frequencies and so on,were analyzed statiscally. Result:Of 46 papers, 42 were included in this study. The patients all had non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss and lived in 20 regions of China. A total of 18094 were counted and the average mutation frequencies were approximately 42.0%. The mutation frequencies of 235 delC were 16. 34%, 299-300 delAT were 4. 75% in GJB2 gene and IVS7-2A>G were 12. 60% , 2168A>G were 2. 32% in SLC26A4 gene and the mutation frequencies of 1555A>G, 1494C>T in mtDNA were 5. 21 %, 1. 11% respectively. The statistical discrepancy was significant among mutation frequencies in different regions by χ2test(P<0. 05). Conclusion:Molecular epidemiological statistics show that the 6 locus are the mutation hot spots in Chinese people with non-syndromic hearing loss and can be used for genetic screening according to the specific regional mutation characteristics.%目的:了解耳聋基因突变热点在中国患者中的分布特征,以建立针对突变热点的区域性基因筛查方案.方法:运用万方和Pubmed等检索2006-2011年上半年国内报道的中国各地区人群耳聋相关基因GJB2、SLC26A4、mtDNA突变流行病学文献,对文献中的样本量、样本特征、地域分布、突变频率等多个因素进行统计分析.结果:检索到相关文献46篇,纳入该统计分析42篇,研究区域涉及中国20个省、市、自治区和直辖市,调查人群均为非综合征型感音神经性聋患者;样本总量18 094例,GJB2 235 delC突变频率为16.34%,GJB2 299-300 del

  16. The embodiment and the effects of native complex in the literature under the background of different culture of Chinese and Western --William Faulkner and Mo Yan for example%中西不同文化背景下乡土情结在文学中的体现与影响--以威廉·福克纳与莫言为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇

    2013-01-01

    乡土情结影响下的中西方文学在世界文学中占据着举足轻重的地位,乡土情结影响下的中西方文学也因而具有共通之处。在西方文学史威廉·福克纳成功地描绘了美国南方传统世界。深受福克纳影响的莫言则通过独特视角透视展现给世人一个独特的环境--高密东北乡。两者既有相同之处也有不同之处,但唯一可以确定的是那浓的化不开的乡土情结成就了他们的辉煌,也深深影响了世界文学的发展。%Chinese and Western literature play decisive role in the world literature under the influence of Western native complex, Chinese and Western literature have in common. In the literature history of Western, William Faulkner successfully depicts the American southern traditional world. Mo Yan influenced by Faulkner through the unique perspective to show any unique environment--Gaomi northeast township. Both of them have similar and different, but the only certainty is that native complex make their brilliance, also deeply influences the development of the literature of the world.

  17. 中国内观疗法文献分析(1988-2015年)%Analysis of Chinese Naikan Therapy Literature during 1 988 and 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭睿; 毛富强; 靳秀; 苏阳雪

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To summarize and analyze development dynamics and features of Naikan therapy in 27 years. Methods:Taking “Naikan”and “therapy”as search terms.Making topic,keywords and title/keywords search at CNKI,Wanfang medical network and VIP.The literature was between June,1 988 and Septemper,201 5.Screening the literature and making statistic analysis subject to bibliometrics principle.Results:China journal published a total of Naikan therapy and 222 literatures,the research and application of 147 articles(66.2%).Tianjin Medical University (59,26.6%),Soochow University(1 6,7.2%),the mental health center of Shanghai(13,5.9%)was one of the top three author;Mao Fuqiang(42,18.9%),Wang Zucheng(8,3.6%),Huang Xinyin(8,3.6%)was one of the top three communications the author China;the second session of the conference of Naikan therapy(34,1 5.3%),the master degree thesis of Tianjin Medical University(1 6,7.2%),Shanghai Journal of Psychiatry(1 1,5%),China Journal of Health Psychology(10,4.5%),Chinese Journal of behavioral medicine and Brain Science(9,4.1%)was the top five sources;mental health education(28,1 9.1%),schizophrenia(28,1 9.1%),Internet addiction(1 1,7.5%),depression (10,6.8%),alcohol dependence(10,6.8%)was used as one of the top five Field.Conclusion:Naikan therapy in show-ing the number of step growth;Naikan training base in Tianjin,Shanghai and other is published the main force;Graduate Dissertations and scientific journal conference proceedings,research is the primary literature sources;Nai-kan therapy is mainly used in mental health education and mental disorders treatment fields;in the future,we should further expand the core author groups,according to the national conditions to improve the methods,expand the ap-plication field of study,continuously improve the quality of the paper.%目的::总结和分析内观疗法在中国27年的发展动态和特点。方法:以“内观”&“疗法”为搜索词,分别对中国知网(CNKI)、万方医

  18. 新课改背景下高师古代文学课程与教学改革刍议%On Reform of Chinese Ancient Literature Course and Teaching in Normal Colleges under the Background of New Curriculum Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丹

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the new curriculum reform puts forward a series of requirements for teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normM colleges such as the teaching aim, teaching content, teaching concepts and teaching methods. These requirements, however, are not met in the teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normal colle- ges. Under the background of new curriculum reform, to explore the approach for the reform of the Chinese ancient literature in normal colleges, it is suggested to reestablish course system, improve teaching objectives, strengthen literary theory and culture history teaching, change the teaching concept, teaching method, attach importance not only to basic teaching, but also to academic research ability training. Only in this way, earl Chinese ancient literature teaching in normal colleges radiates new vitality to meet the the requirement of new curriculum reform and to realize the training objectives of normal colleges and universities.%新课改的推行对高师古代文学教学提出了教学目标、教材内容、教师教学观念及教学方法上的一系列要求。面对这些要求,高师古代文学教学却无法对接,其现状不尽如人意。因而要在新课改背景下寻求高师古代文学的改革路径,可重新设置课程体系、改进教学目标、增强文论、文化史等内容的教学,改变教学观念、教学方法,既要重视基础教学,也要重视学术研究能力的培养。只有这样,才能使高师古代文学教学焕发新的生机,适应新课改的需求,实现高师院校的培养目标。

  19. Chinese are more loss averse than British

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Tieyuan; Spina, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates how culture might influence loss aversion. Chinese were expected to be more loss averse than British because of cultural differences in regulatory focus. Study 1 reveals that compared with British participants, Chinese participants were less likely to give up gifts they had received in exchange for new gifts. In Study 2, Chinese and British participants imagined buying a computer which either had a high specification and a high price tag (high reference), or a basic...

  20. Representation of Modern Chinese Literature on North Korea Issue:Taking Literature Monthly as a Perspective%中国现代文学对朝鲜问题的表现——以《文艺月刊》为窗口

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2012-01-01

    1930年代中日矛盾加深,《文艺月刊》等关注朝鲜问题,表现朝鲜人民在日本压迫下逐渐觉醒,通过武装游击、组织暗杀等活动积极抗日,同时谴责了与侵略者沆瀣一气的民族败类。《文艺月刊》同情、支持朝鲜民族主义运动,也不回避中朝之间的误会、摩擦,展现中日朝复杂的历史与现实关系,最终以抗日大局为重,宣扬中朝联合抗日。借助对朝鲜问题的关注,《文艺月刊》揭露了日本亡华野心,宣传民族主义,点燃抗日热情,团结一切力量反抗侵略者。%The contradiction between China and Japan became deeper during 1930s;Literature Monthly paid attention on North Korea's issue to show North Korea people gradually awaked under the pressure of Japan,they positively resisted Japanese by armed guerrilla,assassination,and so on,at the same time,they condemned scum of nation who together with the invader.Literature Monthly sympathized and supported North Korea nationalist movements,and did not avoid mistake and conflict between China and North Korea,which showed complicated history and realistic relations among China,Japan,and North Korea.At last,Literature Monthly advocated joint anti-Japanese by China and North Korea to the overall situation.Literature Monthly revealed the wild ambition of Japan on subjugating China through paying attention on North Korea's issue;and then broadcasted nationalism,lighted enthusiasm of anti-Japanese,and united all the forces to resist invader.

  1. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  2. Clinical and genetic features of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome in a Chinese child: case report and literature review%儿童Schwartz-Jampel综合征一例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代丽芳; 方方; 黄昱; 程华; 任长红

    2015-01-01

    儿童Schwartz-Jampel综合征患者.%Objective To investigate the clinical and genetic features of a Chinese girl with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS).Method To analyze the clinical and genetic data of a girl with SchwartzJampel syndrome who was sent to neurology outpatient department of Beijing Children's Hospital in Auguest of 2010.Reports on Schwartz-Jampel syndrome published until July of 2015 were searched and the clinical and genetic characteristics of reported cases were summarized.Result At 8 months after birth, the girl showed myotonia;at 1 year old when she was walking alone she had myotonia of lower limbs, both feet evaginated, walked slowly and was prone to fall.At 2 years of age, she could not climb up stairs, at 3 years she could not jump continuously.At 3 years and 7 months of age when the girl was taken to neurology outpatient department, on examination, she had a dull facial expression, rigid lips and could not fully open her mouth, a micromandible, low-set and prominent ears, systemic muscle rigidity, there were muscular nodes formation on the limbs and gait stiffness.She had high level of creatine kinase and atlanto-axial joint subluxation on cervical CT reconstruction.She also had spontaneous myotonia-like discharges on needle electromyography (NEMG).X-ray of limbs showed metaphyseal dysplasia.The patient was treated with neurologic rehabilitation and carbamazepine.The myotonia at the last follow-up at her 8 years of age was the same as at the onset.On her HSPG2 gene, two novel heterozygous mutations c.10776delT on exon 78 and c.5702-5G > A on intron 45 were found, c.10776delT resulted in the amino acid change on p.Ala3592fsX6 and c.5702-5G > A maybe changed protein splicing.No reports were found among Chinese journals, while 7 reports were found in English literature.The total 34 mutations were known in reviewed reports, which included eleven deletion or insertion, twelve splice site, eight missense, and three nonsense mutations.Four patients had a single mutation.No definite genotype

  3. A study of the Yi’s view of the origin of life revealed in the Yi’s Bimox literature%彝族毕摩文献中的生命孕育观研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡富莲

    2016-01-01

    Numerous volumes of Yi Bimox literature are the first-hand materials for interdiscipli-nary studies of the Yi people’s history and culture from different perspectives.This paper focuses on the study of the Yi’s view of the origin of life revealed in the Yi’s Bimox literature,including their ancestors’understanding of life,the belief in the water-produced life,the pregnancy myth,the sim-ple worship of the female reproduction soul “Gepfi”,the exclusiveness of sexual relations,the empha-sis on the female’s dominant position;the gradual recognition of men’s key role in the process of re-production as well as the symbolic significance of the images of animals and plants to the gradual fetal growth,which reflects the Yi ancestors’careful observation of the process of life and their deep un-derstanding and vivid expression of the implications of life.%卷帙浩瀚的彝族毕摩文献是我们研究彝族历史文化的第一手资料,可从不同学科和不同角度开展系统研究,本文重点研究毕摩文献中的生命孕育观。从目前搜集整理的毕摩文献看,较全面地记录了彝族先民对生命孕育的认识,从生命源于水、感孕神话、单纯崇拜女性生育魂“格菲”,排除两性关系,强调女性的主导地位等,到充分肯定男性在生育过程中的重要作用,以及通过各种动植物形象比喻胎儿在母体内逐月成长等,反映了彝族先民对生命孕育及其过程的细致观察、深入认识与形象阐述。

  4. 干燥综合征中医证候分类临床文献研究%Syndromes clinical literature study of the traditional Chinese medicine to Sjogren's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马武开; 唐芳; 王莹; 姚血明; 钟琴; 安阳; 黄颖; 刘正奇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Discussing syndrome distribution character of Sjogren syndrome in TCM. Methods: The pertinent articles in China National Knowledge Infrastructure Databases(CNKI), VIP Chinese science and technology periodical full papers library and Wanfang database collection of TCM from January 1991 to June 2011 were retrieved. 16 literatures with syndrome differentiation treatment of Sjogren syndrome clinical research were screened out. Results: 16 of a total of 1 316 cases, with deficiency syndrome 671 tases(50.99%), fullness syndrome 215 cases( 16.34%), and the inclusions in 430 cases(32.67%). There were 32 types of syndromes, the frequency was highest in the qi and yin deficiency syndrome 11 times(68.75%), fluid deficiency blood stasis 7 times(43.75%), yin deficiency syndrome of liver and kidney 6 times(37.50%) and internal heat due to yin deficiency 4 times(25.00%). According to the number of patients, qi and yin deficiency 244 cases( 18.54%), fluid deficiency blood stasis 200 cases(15.20%), yin deficient 125 cases(9.50%). Conclusion: Yin deficiency and yin deficiency with fullness were main syndromes in Sjogren syndrome. Yin deficiency was the main syndrome, blood stasis was the pathogenesis. Yin deficiency and blood stasis might be the underlying pathogenesis of Sjogren syndrome.%目的:探讨干燥综合征的中医证候分布特征.方法:对1991年1月-2011年6月中国知网全文数据库(CNKI)、维普中国科技期刊全数文据库(VIP)和万方数据库收集的中医辨证分型治疗干燥综合征的临床研究文献进行检索,筛选出符合研究标准的16篇文献进行证候分布研究.结果:16篇文献共1316例,虚证671例(占50.99%),实证215例(占16.34%),虚实夹杂430例(占32.67%).共有证候类型32种,出现频次最高的是气阴两虚证,11次(68.75%),其次是津亏血瘀7次(43.75%)、肝肾阴虚6次(37.50%)、阴虚内热4次(25.00%).按病例数排列,气阴两虚证244例(18.54%),津亏血瘀证200

  5. 略论“东方情调化翻译”在中医文献英语翻译中的应用%Discussion on Application of "Oriental Translation" in the Chinese Literature in English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 贾成祥

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨“东方情调化翻译”在中医文献英语翻译(中医英译)中的应用.方法:以赛里尔·勃尔撤(Cyril Birch)所译的《牡丹亭》为例,展现出东方情调化翻译方法的作用与效果,继而引出此种方法在中医英译当中的应用.结果:东方情调化翻译方法在近些年的应用中已逐渐被人们所接受与采纳.结论:东方情调化翻译是将中医推向全世界的一种重要的途径.%Objective:To study the application in the English translation of "traditional Chinses medicine of oriental language translation". Methods:To Cyril Birch translation of "peony pavilion" as an example,show the role and effect of oriental language translation, the english translation of traditional chinese medicine extraction method in the applivation of the english translation of traditional chinese medicine. Results:Oriental language translation method in recent years,the application has gradually been accepted and adopted. Conclusion: This is an important way to chinese medicine to the world of traditional chinese medicine of oriental language translation.

  6. Identification and functional analysis of a novel PRKAG2 mutation responsible for Chinese PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome reveal an important role of non-CBS domains in regulating the AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bi-li; Xu, Rong-liang; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Xian-xian; Wu, Hong; Ma, Li-ping; Hu, Jian-qiang; Zhang, Jian-liang; Ye, Zhong; Zheng, Xing; Qin, Yong-wen

    2013-10-01

    PRKAG2 gene encodes the γ2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that acts as a sensor of cellular energy status, and its germline mutations are responsible for PRKAG2 cardiac syndrome (PCS). The majority of missense mutations of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains found in PCS impair the binding activity of PRKAG2 to adenosine derivatives, and therefore lead to PRKAG2 function impairment and AMPK activity alteration, resulting in a familial syndrome of ventricular preexcitation, conduction defects, and cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is unclear about the PRKAG2 mutation in the non-CBS domain. Here, a Chinese family exhibiting the cardiac syndrome associated with a novel heterozygous PRKAG2 mutation (Gly100Ser) mapped to exon 3 encoding a non-CBS domain is described and the function of this novel mutation was investigated in vitro. The PRKAG2 G100S and R302Q mutations were constructed by a two-step polymerase chain reaction and then transfected into CCL13 cells by lentivirus vectors. Wild-type PRKAG2 gene transfection was used as a negative control. PRKAG2 expression was determined by Western blot. Immunofluorescence was used to localize the intracellular PRKAG2 proteins. MTT assay was performed to explore the effect of mutations on cell proliferation. Periodic acid-Schiff staining was used for detecting glycogen accumulation. AMPK concentration was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results showed neither intracellular localization of PRKAG2 nor cell growth was altered. In contrast, PRKAG2 protein expression levels were significantly reduced by this mutation. Furthermore, PRKAG2-mediated activity of AMPK was attenuated, resulting in glycogen metabolism dysregulation. These findings revealed that non-CBS domains of PRKAG2 were essential to the regulation of AMPK activity, similar to CBS. Our study ascribes a crucial regulatory role to the novel PRKAG2 G100S mutation, and reiterates that PCS occurs as a consequence of

  7. On Chinese Translation Errors in the Novel IAmaCat--With examples mainly from IllustratedMasterpiecesTranslatedbyEstablishedTranslators, published by the People's Literature Publishing House%《我是猫》汉译本词语误译--以人民文学出版社《名著名译插图本》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫茁

    2013-01-01

    Natsume Sōseki is one of the modern Japanese literary masters whose works are most translated and influential in China. IAmaCat, the novel which first brought him fame and which is the most representative of all his works, is generally loved by Chinese readers, with 14 different translated editions so far, making it one of the most translated works in China. However, a comparison of different translations of the same novel reveals various translation errors. This paper, while analyzing examples of different versions, mainly focuses on the translation by Mr. You Bingqi and Mr. Hu Xue, published by the People's Literature Publishing House in 1997 in a collection titled IllustratedMasterpiecesTranslatedbyEstablishedTranslators. As an effort to set a standard of some kind, the writer of this article hopes that the paper will draw adequate attention to the study of translation errors in Japanese studies.%日本近代文豪夏目漱石,是在我国译介最多、影响最大的日本作家之一,而其成名作兼代表作《我是猫》更是深受人们的欢迎,迄今已有十四个译本,为其已译作品中译本最多的作品。然而,研读这些译作并核对日文原著,我们发现译文存在多处词语误译现象。本文拟以尤炳圻、胡雪两位先生翻译、人民文学出版社出版的《名著名译插图本》为主要例子,并以其他译本为辅助例子来分析这些误译现象。如果此类误译问题能够引起我们日语工作者的注意并成为误译研究的范例或翻译批评的资料,则笔者之幸莫大焉。

  8. Implications of Some Characters' Names In English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯蓓

    2009-01-01

    With more and more Chinese students having a great liking for English literature than ever before, it is of great importance to fully appreciate the original works in a proper way. Apart from some background information on writers or the works, some hints and clues provided throughout the works are essential to the comprehension of the literature. This paper mainly deals with a widely-used approach which writers prefer to apply while readers tend to ignore, that is, naming of some characters. With a summary of previous literature on the significance of some names, the paper first explores the literal meanings and origins of proper nouns in some English literature, and then discusses the relationships between characters' names and their personality, the plot as well as the theme of the works. Hence comes the conclusion that name implications can help to reveal characters' personality, develop the plot and highlight the theme. Awareness of this will surely exert positive effects on the readers' better understanding of English literature.

  9. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are ...

  10. The Connotation and Content Construction of the Chinese Language and Literature Specialty Students’ Core Competence of Employment in Local Universities%地方高校汉语言文学专业学生就业核心能力的内涵及内容构建--以玉林师范学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海英

    2015-01-01

    大学生的就业核心能力是大学生求职就业获胜的竞争资本,立足于地方高校汉语言文学专业大学生的就业现状,对地方高校汉语言文学专业大学生就业核心能力的内涵及内容构成进行分析和界定,从培养目标的确立、课程体系的构建、实践能力的训练等方面探讨就业核心能力提高的策略。%Chinese Language and Literature Specialty students’ core competence of employment is an asset for them to compete with other candidates in job hunting. The present paper, based on the current employment situation of the Chinese Language and Literature Specialty students, analyzes and defines the connotation and contents of the core competence of employment; then, proposes the strategies for enhancing the core competence of employment from aspects like establishing training goal, constructing the curriculum system and training the practical ability, etc.

  11. A Review of the 14th International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Novel-Drama Literature and Digitalization%第十四届中国古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化国际研讨会综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满新; 燕亢生

    2015-01-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Novel-Opera Literature and Digitalization was held on August 21 to 22, 2015. More than fifty experts and scholars from all over the country, together with those from Japan, Korea, and Malaysia, carried out full discussion and exchange around three aspects:ancient vernacular fiction, classical Chinese novels, and dramas. Many issues were involved, such as versions, origins, authors, digitalization, thematic interpretation, communication, etc. The conference will play a more significant role in promoting further study of ancient Chinese novels, dramas and digitalization, and will be critically important for the study of ancient Chinese novels and subject construction and development of drama.%2015年8月21日至22日,第十四届中国古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化国际研讨会在廊坊成功召开.来自全国各地和日本、韩国、马来西亚的专家学者五十余人,围绕古代白话小说、文言小说、戏曲三个方面进行了充分的讨论与交流,内容涉及版本辨证、故事考源、作者探溯、数字化研究、主题诠解、传播考探等诸多问题.此次会议对今后古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化研究将会起到较大的促进作用,对推动中国古代小说研究、戏曲学科建设和发展也具有重要的意义.

  12. The Problems of and Solutions to Chinese Education for Marketing Communication at Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in Indonesia, more people realize the importance of using Chinese language. Therefore, at Binus University, Mandarin is taught not only in Chinese Literature Department, but also in non-Chinese Literature Department. Because the curriculum is still relatively new, students who have never studied Chinese language find some difficulties. The author through observations in the classroom found some problems that arise during the teaching and learning session. Through this paper, the author hopes to help to solve existing problems, to increase the level of Chinese language knowledge, and help to increase students interest in Chinese language.

  13. [Briefly analysis on academic origins of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Jin, Shi-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Through collecting and collating the development process of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing, the development of modern Chinese medicine dispensing on the basis of experience could be promoted. "Heyaofenji", "Hehe", " Heji" in ancient Chinese medicine, herbal medicine literature and law were collected, and then things were sorted out according to traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory, skills and legal norms. Firstly, "Tang Ye Jing Fa" is the earliest book which marks the rudiment of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing. Secondly, traditional Chinese medicine dispensing theory formed in "Shen Nong's herbal classic". Thirdly, Zhang Zhongjing's "Treatise on Febrile Diseases" marked the formation of Chinese medicine dispensing skills. Lastly, Provisions in Tang Dynasty law marks the development of traditional Chinese medicine dispensing.

  14. Functional analysis of frequently expressed Chinese rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules Mamu-A1*02601 and Mamu-B*08301 reveals HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypic specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southwood, Scott; Solomon, Christopher; Hoof, Ilka;

    2011-01-01

    -binding characteristics with the HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 supertypes, respectively, the next most frequent human supertypes after HLA-B7. These data suggest that Chinese rhesus macaques may indeed be a more representative model of HLA gene diversity and function as compared to the species of Indian origin and therefore a better...

  15. Beardsley on literature, fiction, and nonfiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Yen Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to revive interest in the speech act theory of literature by looking into Monroe C. Beardsley's account in particular. Beardsley's view in this respect has received, surprisingly, less attention than deserved. I first offer a reconstruction of Beardsley's account and then use it to correct some notable misconceptions. Next, I show that the reformulation reveals a hitherto unnoticed discrepancy in Beardsley's position and that this can be explained away by a weak version of intentionalism that Beardsley himself actually tolerates. Finally, I assess the real difficulty of Beardsley's theory and its relevance today.Szu-Yen Lin is a doctoral candidate in philosophy at the University of Auckland. He received his MA in philosophy from National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan. His research areas include aesthetics and philosophy of the arts, in particular the philosophy of literature. He is currently working on the problem of literary interpretation. Apart from being a philosophy researcher, Szu-Yen is also a mystery writer, having published 8 novels and 28 short stories in Chinese, one of which also appeared in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine.

  16. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  17. Governance,Communication and Mood Projection---On the Dialectical Relationship Between Literary Works and History in Chinese Ancient Literature Teaching%统摄沟通观照--古代文学教学中“文”与“史”关系的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓苇

    2016-01-01

    The in-class teaching of ancient Chinese literature has gradually shifted its focus back on lit-erary works analysis,which doesn't mean literary history will be rejected or abolished. The essence of litera-ture education draws the concentration of ancient literature teaching on literary works comprehension and appreciation,while literary history and its methodological significance on teaching and learning should never be underestimated in works-centered teaching activities. In the macroscopic aspect,teaching literature with literary history construction may help students systematically take in literary knowledge. In microscopic as-pect,studying writers and their works under the complex history background may help deepen students' com-prehension and extend their reflection. Only by balancing and integrating literary works and history in ancient literature teaching activity may allow students to grasp the essence and beauty of Chinese ancient literature.%如今高校的中国古代文学教学逐渐向讲授文学作品回归,但并不意味着对文学史的摒弃以至于取消。文学教育的性质,决定了古代文学课程的教学理当立足于文学作品的阅读与理解,但以文学作品为中心的教学活动,亦不可看轻文学史对于文学作品的教与学所具有的方法论上的价值意义。从宏观层面上,教学内容需要有文学史的统摄,便于学生将所学知识条理化、系统化;从微观层面上,将作家作品放在文学纵横交错的历史坐标轴上加以考察,有助于学生理解的深化与融会,延伸与拓展其思考。既重“文”亦不忽视“史”,唯有二者的交相融合,才能使学生真正把握住中国古代文学的思想精髓与艺术特质。

  18. Applied Literature for Healing,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Marie Anderson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study interviews conducted with elite participants serve to reveal the underlying elements that unite the richly diverse emerging field of Applied Literature. The basic interpretative qualitative method included a thematic analysis of data from the interviews yielding numerous common elements that were then distilled into key themes that elucidated the beneficial effects of engaging consciously with literature. These themes included developing a stronger sense of self in balance with an increasing connection with community; providing a safe container to engage challenging and potentially overwhelming issues from a stance of empowered action; and fostering a healing space for creativity. The findings provide grounds for uniting the work being done in a range of helping professions into a cohesive field of Applied Literature, which offers effective tools for healing, transformation and empowerment. Keywords: Applied Literature, Bibliotherapy, Poetry Therapy, Arts in Corrections, Arts in Medicine

  19. Chinese Character Acquisition and Visual Skills in Two Chinese Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride-Chang, Catherine; Chow, Bonnie W. Y.; Zhong, Yiping; Burgess, Stephen; Hayward, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Three different visual skills, along with Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, speeded naming, and syllable deletion skills were tested twice over one school year among 118 Hong Kong and 96 Xiangtan, China kindergartners. Results revealed that a task of Visual Spatial Relationships [Gardner, M. F. (1996). "Test of visual-perceptual skills…

  20. Literature Review(2003 - 2013)on Traditional Chinese Medicine in Syn-drome Differentiation and Treatment of Tinnitus%基于2003年-2013年期刊文献中药治疗耳鸣的辨证分型及用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱旭东; 马瑞鸿; 丁明辉; 叶晶琳; 赵艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析2003年至2013年中药治疗耳鸣的期刊文献,探讨其辨证分型及用药规律。方法检索中国生物医学文献数据库、中文期刊全文数据库、万方数据库、维普数据库中内服中药复方治疗耳鸣的临床研究文献,将收集到的359篇耳鸣中药治疗文献录入到 Microsoft Access 2010数据库中,运用 Microsoft Excel 2010数据表对其中的辨证分型及用药规律进行统计分析。结果纳入文献共计359篇,其涉及证候类型的文献共计354篇。其中耳鸣最常见的8种证型频次从高到低依为肾精亏虚证,气滞血瘀证,肝火上炎证,肝肾亏虚证,中气不足、清阳不升证,风热上扰证,痰热上扰证,气血不足证。对上述8种证型的常用中药进行分析,结果显示无论何种证型,石菖蒲均为中药治疗耳鸣最常用的药物。结论本研究说明中医对于耳鸣的治疗中有辨病用药的趋势,但关于耳鸣的辨病治疗、耳鸣治疗的专药文献研究仍有待深入的研究探讨。%Objective To explore the differentiation and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine on tinnitus by analyzing the literature published during 2003 - 2013. Methods The author collected 359 clinical research literature of tinnitus treatment in TCM from Chinese biomedical literature database,Chinese journal full text database,Wanfang database,VIP database,recorded in Microsoft Access 2010 database,and studied the regular pattern of TCM syndrome differentiation and drug use using Microsoft Excel 2010 data ta-ble. Results 359 papers were involved in this study where 354 involve the discussion of TCM syndrome type of tinnitus. Among them,the most common 8 kinds of TCM syndromes(frequency from high to low)are re-spectively kidney essence deficiency(86),qi stagnation and blood stasis(64),syndrome of liver fire flaring up(62),liver and kidney deficiency syndrome(56),the gas shortage,Qing Yang does not rise certificate (50

  1. A systematic review of genetic skeletal disorders reported in Chinese biomedical journals between 1978 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yazhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available on the prevalence, geographic distribution and mutation spectrum of genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs in China. This study systematically reviewed GSDs as defined in “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders (2010 version” using Chinese biomedical literature published over the past 34 years from 1978 to 2012. In total, 16,099 GSDs have been reported. The most frequently reported disorders were Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, enchondromatosis (Ollier, and osteopoikilosis, accounting for 76.5% (12,312 cases of the total cases. Five groups (group 8, 12, 14, 18, 21 defined by “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders” have not been reported in the Chinese biomedical literature. Gene mutation testing was performed in only a minor portion of the 16,099 cases of GSDs (187 cases, 1.16%. In total, 37 genes for 41 different GSDs were reported in Chinese biomedical literature, including 43 novel mutations. This review revealed a significant imbalance in rare disease identification in terms of geographic regions and hospital levels, suggesting the need to create a national multi-level network to meet the specific challenge of care for rare diseases in China.

  2. Canadian Literature Is Comparative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, E. D.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)

  3. Creative Rewriting and Translation Model of Chinese Literature“Going Global”:on Translations of Chinese Literature by Howard Goldblatt%创造性“改写”与中国文学“走出去”模式--兼论葛浩文的中国文学翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐美娥; 陈娜

    2015-01-01

    目前,我国文化战略的重点是中国文化、文学“走出去”,即如何更好地译介中国文学作品。通过对历史上有良好传播效果的翻译作品来看,几乎都采用了创造性“改写”的译介模式,从而让中国文化形象在异域进行传播。译介中国作品最多的美国汉学家、翻译家葛浩文,在译介中国现当代文学作品时,也采用了创造性“改写”模式———连改带译,其目的就是能让中国文学进入西方视野。创造性“改写”是一种有效的对外译介模式。%Nowadays,China focuses the cultural exchange on Chinese literature“going global”,that is,how to translate Chinese literary works and disseminate them well. Through the analysis of well-disseminated Chinese lit-erary works in history,we can find that the model of creative rewriting was commonly used so that the Chinese ima-ges were embed in western countries. Howard Goldblatt,a contemporary American translator,also uses the similar model in his translated works,aiming to disseminate Chinese Literary works in the western world. Creative rewriting is an effective way of Chinese literature“going global”.

  4. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  5. Common Mistakes in Writing Astronomy Literature in English

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2010-01-01

    We have collected and corrected some common mistakes made by Chinese students in writing astronomy literature in English. Brief explanations of these mistakes are given in Chinese. We plan to update this collection periodically. Comments, suggestions and criticisms are all welcome.

  6. Reflection on the Construction of the Application-oriented Talents Training Mode of Chinese Language and Literature Specialty%关于构建应用型汉语言文学专业人才培养模式的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2015-01-01

    推动新建本科院校向应用型、技术型高校转型是我国高等教育未来改革发展的基本趋势。在学校转型发展背景下,传统的汉语言文学专业也面临着转型之痛。根据自身现实条件,构建新的适应社会发展需要的汉语言文学专业应用型人才培养模式,成为新建本科院校摆脱专业发展现实困境的必由之路。应该对汉语言文学专业的学生,在新闻、文秘、语文教育学等模块化培养方面进行应用型人才培养的模式化改革,并在课程体系设置、强化实践教学、改革考核方法、实行导师制下的学生职业发展规划、以科研带教学等方面进行深入探索。%To promote the newly built undergraduate course colleges and universities to the applied and technical transformation of colleges and universities is the basic trend of China’s higher education reform and development in the future. In the transformation of school development background, the traditional Chinese language and literature profession is faced with the pain of transformation.Therefore, according to the practical conditions, constructing a new training mode for the Chinese language and Literature specialty to meet the requirements of the social development has become the only way to free us from current predicament. This thesis gives a deep thought about the students’ enrollment of Chinese language and Literature Specialty, the mode reform in the News Specialty and the Secretarial Specialty, the Language Pedagogy Modular Specialty for carrying out talents training patterns, as well as strengthening the practice of teaching,reforming assessment methods, and also about how to put the mentoring student career development planning into practice so as to improve the teaching with the scientific research.

  7. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  8. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  9. On the Acceptance of Chinese Literature in Nihon Ryolkl---Based on an Interpretation of the Confucian Allusion “Meng Chang Qi Shan”%《日本灵异记》对中国文学的接受研究--以儒学典故“孟尝七善”考释为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘九令

    2014-01-01

    As the first collection of Buddhism stories in its literature history of Japan,NihonRy-oiki not only absorbs some elements of Buddhist literature but also cites some Confucius allusions of China.Some Confucius allusions are altered into Buddhist stories by using “Bi Fu”to spread Buddhism doctrines.By taking the Confucian allusion “Meng Chang Qi Shan”and the significance of choosing this allusion as examples,this paper mainly attempts to do some research on the ac-ceptance of Chinese literature in NihonRyoiki.%日本文学史上第一部佛教说话集《日本灵异记》在编撰的过程中,不仅袭取了中国佛教文学,而且对中国的儒学典故也加以了利用,并通过比附的手法,将儒学典故这一文学元素改造成为佛教的内容,为宣扬佛教教义服务。文章以“孟尝七善”这一典故的出典及其使用意义为考察对象,揭示《日本灵异记》对中国文学的接受情况。

  10. Motivation, Motivation Intensity, Use of Chinese and Self-Rated Chinese Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an investigation of the relationships between motivation, motivation intensity, use of Chinese outside of class and self-rated competence in Chinese. Analyses of 162 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured interviews revealed the following findings: (1) the participants reported having high integrative…

  11. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  13. Reading Popular Islamic Literature: Continuity And Change In Indonesian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rokib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, literature on Islamic themes has become increasingly popular in Indonesia. It is commonly categorized as Islamic literature identified by Islamic texts and symbols on the book cover and its content. The literary works have been popular as reflected in the record sales figures. Previously, some literary works dealing with Islamic themes failed to gain public attention. Interestingly, those works are not mentioned by people as Islamic literature. This paper aims to discuss some questions on why are some literary works on Islamic theme mentioned as Islamic while others are not? Is there Islamic literature within Indonesian literature? What are the differences between Islamic literature and kitab literature (sastra kitab written by Muslim scholars in the Malay world? By exploring the social context of reader responses toward selected literary works on Islam, this study reveals that the label of Islamic literature is created to confront opposite themes in Indonesian literature. The term Islamic literature remains a problematic and debatable issue related to literature based on Islamic themes in both old and modern Indonesian literature.

  14. Literature Circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)

  15. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  16. Literature Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  17. Chinese midwifery: the history and modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ngai Fen

    2009-06-01

    to investigate how and why Chinese midwife numbers are dwindling, and to help understand the role of midwives in society in general. to critically examine Chinese midwifery in three stages: (1) historical literature overview; (2) identification and reinterpretation of Chinese midwifery and its development; (3) placing issues that have arisen within a sociological context (i.e. the modernisation of obstetric technologies and the meaning of modernity). no books on the history of Chinese midwifery were found. History was classified into three stages: (1) before 1929, a period of an indigenous model; (2) 1929-1996, the highs and lows of the bio-medical model; (3) after 1996, the demise of Chinese midwives. The issues identified were the legitimacy and professionalisation of Chinese midwives, the meaning of modernity and the reasons for the decline of Chinese midwifery. no sufficient evidence-based research was conducted to support the recent changes made to Chinese midwifery. The modernisation of maternity care in China took place amid dramatic social and cultural changes within society. As a consequence, midwifery as a profession in China has been marginalised. The modernisation of maternity care has failed to deliver on personal choice, quality of service and professional diversity. evidence-based research and the state's responsibility are essential to ensure the quality of maternity care and to protect the interests of women. The state's responsibilities include legislation regarding the role of midwives, code of practice, professional standards, responsibility and accountability in order to make midwifery care a true choice for women.

  18. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  19. Smart home for urban Chinese elderly living

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to design a new smart home for urban Chinese elderly people in home living environment. This new smart home design has to be integrated all the ICT solutions which based on a literature review was proposed and also with a functional back-end system for data collection, analysis and storage. The literature review phase of this study was to find out the existing problematic issues and solutions for urban Chinese elderly people in home living, upon comparison of ...

  20. Language Shattered : Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Duoduo

    OpenAIRE

    Crevel, Maghiel van

    1996-01-01

    Language Shattered is both a history of poetry from the People's Republic of China and a case study of the oeuvre of a leading Chinese poet. After the stifling orthodoxy of the 1950s and early 1960s, the terror of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) brought official Chinese literature to a total standstill. At the same time, disillusioned youths were more or less accidentally exposed to a varied body of foreign literature and began writing underground poetry. In the 1980s this poetry scene, n...

  1. 华裔的位置--美国华裔文学中的父权意识、家国召唤及创作语境与期待视野%The Position of Ethnic Chinese:Patriarchal Consciousness, Home-State Calling, Context of Creation and Horizon of Expectation in Chinese American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖画

    2015-01-01

    在美国的族裔政治与文学场域中,华裔族群与华裔文学究竟处于什么位置,往往根据美国当时的国家利益和中美关系而发生变动。辨析华裔作家的父权意识、与家国召唤,探讨华裔文学的创作语境与期待视野,由此勘探华裔族群与华裔文学的位置。%The position of ethnic Chinese and that of their literature in American ethnic politics and literary field shift in accordance with the interests of American state and Sino-American relationships. This paper deals with the above-mentioned positions by expounding on the patriarchal consciousness of Chinese American writers and their calling for home and state in the context of their literary writings and horizon of expectation from their audience.

  2. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  3. 原始与现代——20世纪中西作家对上海的不同想象%Primitive and modern: Two faces of Shanghai in Chinese and Western literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓兰

    2007-01-01

    在中国作家的意识中,20世纪早期的上海是最西化、最现代的城市,但在西方作家的想象中,上海仍是东方情调的、原始、野蛮、未开化的城市.但不论是中国还是西方作家,都把上海表现为混乱无序、自由放纵的道德荒野,而这一特性又与想象中的"异国"密切相关,并与中西正统文化的异质性融为一体,成为中西作家认识上海的支配性因素.%Many Chinese writers deem Shanghai of the early 20th century as the most westernized and the most modern city in China, while in the imagination of their Western counterparts Shanghai is still oriental, primitive, barbarous and uncivilized. Despite such an irreconcilable difference, one point shared by those writers, both at home and abroad, is that Shanghai is a chaotic and unrestrained wilderness in terms of morals, which is closely related to "the imagined image of an alien land and in conformity with the heterogeneity of both Chinese and Western cultures. This unique feature of Shanghai has become a dominant factor shaping the perception of writers from different backgrounds.

  4. Mapping the literature of dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M

    1999-01-01

    Research on the literature of dietetics, apart from the broader field of nutrition, has not been reported in the literature. The purpose of this bibliometric study was to identify the core journals of dietetics and to determine the extent of indexing coverage for these journals. The study was conducted as part of a larger project, the Project for Mapping the Literature of Allied Health, sponsored by the Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association. Citations appearing in three journals between 1995 and 1997 were analyzed by the methodology common to studies in the project. Results revealed that dietetic literature relies heavily on journal literature and on those journals that are from associated health sciences fields. Of the indexing services examined, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica and MEDLINE provided the most complete coverage of the literature. The study's findings have implications for those involved with the literature of dietetics. PMID:10427430

  5. Chinese Scripts:From Oracle Bones to Computer Bytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Last August, a well-prepared exhibition titled "Chinese Scripts: From Oracle Bones to Computer Bytes" opened in Beijing-based Chinese Modern Literature Museum. This exhibition toured Egypt last October as a cultural event in celebration of the opening of China Cultural Center in Egypt. After that, it will be displayed in France, Malta and the Republic of Korea.

  6. Recitation of Chinese and Arabic Poems Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On May 7, the Recitation of Chinese and Arabic Poems jointly sponsored by the China-Arab Friendship Association (CAFA) and the Arab Ambassadors Council in China, and organized by the Arabic Literature Association (ALA) of China, the Chinese Society for Arabic Language Teaching (CSALT), and the Arab Student Union in China, was held in the auditorium of the CPAFFC.

  7. 20世纪中国文学市场化中的“文化审美过滤”∗%“The Evolution of Cultural Aesthetics” in the Marketization of 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万莲姣; 黄宗喜

    2016-01-01

    “20世纪中国文学”是一个相对稳定的研究对象,是在20世纪中国人被动或主动打开国门、使中国融入现代世界或让现代世界融入中国这样一个特殊的时间过渡带上生产出来的文学,有明显的前现代、现代、后现代相杂糅的复合元素。这些复合元素主要是由文学市场化趋势中的“文化审美过滤”中介:1)现代汉语白话新文学运动,2)人类中的另一半———女性开始以主体身份审美化,3)文学生产因编辑出版复制批量化,4)翻译行为现代价值取向化,等等,一一呈现出来的,以至于回观“20世纪中国文学”,我们与其论断它的属性是前现代的、现代的或后现代的,不如说它是现代过渡带的,它已不同于古代中国传统文化,不再气质促狭和辗转反侧在皇室庙堂与民间江湖间、不再品格摇摆在非此即彼的传统二元文化夹缝中,而是显示了创生出“另一个世界,另一个自我”的多元审美的可能,具备了一些有别于古代中国传统文化的“现代中国”思想、情感与美学品质。%“20th Century Chinese Literature”is a considerably fixed subject for research, which has brought with itself obvious blend-ing of the elements relevant to premodernism, modernism and postmodernism, because the time of its production coincides with a spe-cial transitional period in the last century when Chinese opened the door to the world either passively or actively, making it possible for China to be an inseparable part in the modern world or for the modern world to present itself in the Chinese context. These pluralistic elements have been brought forth by the media through which“the evolution of cultural aesthetics” has taken place in the marketization of the literary world—1)the New Literary Movement of Modern Chinese Baihua;2)the presence of subjectivity of women—another half of the human,being in the aesthetic realm;3) the mechanical reproduction of

  8. Alternative Health Care Practitioners in a Chinese American Community: A Preliminary Report of Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jessica Ching-Yi

    This paper provides a brief review of the literature on traditional Chinese medicine in both China and the United States and presents observations from a preliminary study of Chinese practitioners in the Chinatown section of Los Angeles, California. The dualistic health care system in Chinese culture is described as comprising both scholarly and…

  9. Play dance rhyme, reveal the feeling——special performance of Chinese opera school dance%戏舞情韵,彰显中华情——暨中国戏曲学院舞蹈专场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金哲

    2015-01-01

    The paper work in Beijing elementary school aesthetic education development as the theme, the Chinese traditional opera institutes in series for line, aimed at by watching series stage dance, the change and influence on the elementary education.%本文以北京市小学美学育发展工作为主旨,中国戏曲学院所参与演出系列为线,旨在通过观看舞台系列演出试析舞蹈对小学教育所带来的变化及影响.

  10. Literature review :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-03-01

    Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.

  11. Clinical and genetic analysis of two Chinese patients with isovaleric acidemia and review of literature%异戊酸血症2例患儿的临床研究并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付溪; 高洪杰; 吴婷婷; 张文迪; 廖丽红; 罗小平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical features and treatment of isovaleric academia (IVA) patients,and to gain more comprehensive understanding of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase(IVD) mutation in 2 siblings in order to raise awareness to prevent the occurrence of IVA.Methods The clinical history and laboratory test of 2 cases of children with IVA were carried out.The exons and neighboring introns of IVD gene of the whole family were PCR-amplified for DNA sequencing.The literature review of IVA in China was also conducted.Results Organic acid analysis of urine by GC/MS for both siblings showed extremely elevated concentrations of isovaleric glycine.For the older sibling,an acute episode of IVA caused severe metabolic stress and eventually death in the neonatal period.However,the disease was well-controlled for the younger sibling due to timely treatment and follow-up care for 2 years.The DNA sequencing of the IVD gene in the family revealed a novel c.1016G > A(C339Y) heterozygous mutation in mother and both of the siblings.No IVD mutation was detected in father or in any of the 50 cases of healthy controls.According to literature review,15 cases of IVA were reported in recent 15 years in China,including neonatal onset (11 cases),acute episode (12 cases),odor of sweaty feet (12 cases),pancytopenia (9 cases),hyperammonemia (5 cases),hypocalcemia (6 cases),and 6 cases of death were reported.Additionally,5 cases that received treatment of BCAA-free formula milk showed positive outcome.However,only 2 cases were followed up for more than 2 years.Conclusions Two new IVA patients carrying c.1016G > A(C339Y) mutation were reported in China.The mutation may lead to conformational change and functional deficient of the IVD protein.It is also necessary to point out that using direct DNA sequencing can not identify all patients with IVA due to limitations of this technology,and thus clinicians should be aware of the possibility of genetic misdiagnosis.Moreover,there is a trend of

  12. McCune-Albright syndrome with hypophosphatemic rickets in four Chinese patients and literature review%McCune-Albright综合征合并低血磷性佝偻病4例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉军; 姜艳; 邢小平; 李梅; 王鸥; 袁涛; 孟迅吾; 夏维波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of McCune-Albright syndrome with hypophos-phatemic rickets and improve the awareness of the disease .Methods Clinical data of four patients with McCune-Al-bright syndrome and hypophosphatemic rickets were retrospectively analyzed , including clinical manifestations , biochemi-cal parameters , radiographic characteristics , treatment and prognosis .Literature review was also conducted to survey the prevalence and clinical features of the disease .Results The four cases analyzed were all females and presented with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia .The onset of McCune-Albright syndrome with hypophosphatemic rickets was before 10 years old.The common manifestations were bone pain , bone deformities and fragility fractures .Hyperthyroidism appeared in two patients , and peripheral precocious puberty existed in the other two patients .Laboratory assessment showed hypophos-phatemia and increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels in all four patients .Serumβ-CTX and intact FGF23 levels were increased in three and two patients , respectively .Radiographic analysis indicated fibrous dysplasia in all patients , while typical rickets were only seen in three patients .Bone scan showed diffuse increased uptake in affected areas in three pa-tients.Bisphosphonate and supplementation of active vitamin D and phosphorus were proven to be efficacious .Systematic review of literatures revealed that patients with earlier onset of McCune-Albright syndrome and hypophosphatemic rickets suffer from more severe manifestations , lower serum phosphate levels , higher bone turnover markers and FGF 23 levels. Conclusion McCune-Albright syndrome accompanied by hypophosphatemic rickets are relatively rare in clinical prac -tice, in which patients should take examinations in order to screen for hypophosphatemic rickets , therefore avoid the mis-diagnosis and improve patients'prognosis .%目的:总结4例McCune-Albright综合征合并低血磷

  13. 中国现代文学起点探寻--从维新变法看中国现代文学变革的趋势%Starting Point of Modern Chinese Literature---The Tendency Based on Reformation Movement of 1898

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁志龙

    2014-01-01

    Tracing back the starting point of modern Chinese literature,scholars generally believe that it started from May Fourth Literary Revolution,but in recent years scholars at home and abroad,based on various researches,put forward their different opinions.The Reformation Movement of 1898 having distinctive significance at the turn of the century,from the end of 19th century to the 1920s,played a crucial role in literature revolution.Exploring modern factors of the transformation in this period,it isn’t hard to find there is some evidence available to move the starting point of modern literature to the Reformation Movement of 1898, which can further expand the scope of studying modern literature.%中国现代文学的起点,学界普遍认为始于五四文学革命,但是近年来国内外有关学者通过多方面研究,提出了不同的见解。纵观19世纪末至20世纪20年代的历史进程,处在世纪之交的戊戌变法运动有鲜明的时代意义,它的出现对于文学的变革亦起到至关重要的作用。探究这一时期文学变革中所蕴含的现代因素不难发现,将现代文学的起点前移至维新变法是有依据的,并且能更进一步拓展现代文学的研究范围。

  14. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  15. 《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》发表70年来,中国文化发展路径和发展现状研究%A Study of Chinese Cultural Path with Status since Talks at Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art on its 70th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张从容; 李哲

    2016-01-01

    Talks at Yan’an Forum on Literature and Art is the scientific theory of Sinicization of Marxism, and more importantly, that of the Communist Party of China leading Chinese people to carry out cultural construction. Guided by the theory, Chinese culture has been moving forward in the right direction in past 70 years, and has achieved great prosperity. By exploring the development path and status of Chinese culture, it can be seen that Chinese cultural development has always firm socialist culture development under the leadership of the Communist Party of China in past 70 years as the fundamental purpose by adjusting to cultural developing strategies of the era, and by exploring the cultural system reform and by adhering to the cultural development through combining the inherit, learning and innovation with important practical significance for the realization the dream of the China.%《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》是马克思主义中国化的科学理论文献,更是中国共产党领导中国人民开展文化建设的理论纲领。以《讲话》理论为指导,70年来中国文化沿着正确的方向前进,并取得了大发展大繁荣。探寻中国文化的发展路径与发展现状,我们欣喜地看到,70年来中国文化发展始终坚定中国共产党领导下的社会主义文化前进方向;始终把文化为人民作为根本宗旨;并跟随时代的脚步调整文化发展策略,探索文化体制改革;始终坚持继承、借鉴与创新相结合的文化发展道路。《讲话》对实现中华民族的文化强国之梦具有重要的现实启迪意义。

  16. 从中国谋士到日本武士——论日本中世文学中张良形象的变异%From a Chinese Counselor to a Japanese Samurai ——On the Transmutation of ZHANG Liang's Image in Japanese Medieval Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛英杰

    2012-01-01

    The image of the Chinese counselor ZHANG Liang, which formed in the Chinese cultural context of Tao- ism, tended to become a samurai in Japanese medieval literature. In Gunki monogatari, ZHANG Liang gained the characteristic of braveness, an important quality of the samurai class, and literary works which had described ZHANG Liang's braveness appeared in a number of medieval genres such as Y6kyoku, KSwaka bukyoku and OtogizSshi. This transmutation was closely related to the spread of the story that ZHANG Liang accepted a military book on a bridge in Japan. In medieval Japan, the concept of warcraft consisted of strategy and martial art. There- fore, the authors who hadn't read Chinese military books, took the misinterpretation that ZHANG Liang's book was a martial art book as granted and thus formed a new image of ZHANG Liang who was proficient in martial art and fought bravely. Through the allusion of Kurama Tengu and the common syntax to juxtapose ZHANG Liang and FAN Kuai, the Samurai's characteristics of ZHANG Liang became more apparent in Japanese medieval literature.%不同于中国语境中的道家化,谋士张良的形象在日本中世文学中发生了武士化的变异。在军记物语中,张良与武士阶层的重要特征———武勇发生了联系。谣曲、幸若舞曲、御伽草子等文学体裁里均出现了描写张良勇猛品质的作品。这种变异与圯上受书故事在日本的流布密切相关。由于日本中世兵法概念包含用兵之术与武术两层含义,未曾阅读中国古代兵书的作者根据武士阶层对于个人武力的需要,自觉将张良所得兵书定位为武术秘籍,赋予了张良精于武艺、勇猛战斗的武士面貌。通过鞍马天狗传说的典故摄取和樊哙张良相并置的惯用句使用,张良身上的武士因素在中世文学中得以发扬光大。

  17. Countermeasures to Enhance the Teaching Effectiveness of Ancient Chinese Literature in Normal Universities under the Credit System%学分制下增强高师院校中国古代文学史教学实效性的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房厚信

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学史课程作为高等师范院校汉语言文学专业必修的一门专业主干课程,对于培养优秀的中学语文师资具有重要作用。学分制下,由于学年制思想观念、管理制度和客观条件等的障碍性因素制约,致使高师院校中国古代文学史课程教学实效性不强。本文设想从更新教学观念、改进课堂教学,注重过程评价、完善教学评价模式,突出学生主体、强化课外辅导和教学与科研相结合,提高课堂教学效果等四个方面来增强中国古代文学史教学实效性,以实现大学教育和基础教育的有效互动。%As a main course of Chinese literature courses in Normal Colleges and Universities, Chinese Language and Lit- erature compulsory plays an important role in training outstanding secondary school language teachers. Under the credit sys- tem, institutions of Ancient Chinese Literature teaching obstacles constraints of the ideas of the academic year, the manage- ment system and the objeetive conditions, resulting in high teacher effectiveness is not strong. This article envisages to update teaching concepts, improving classroom teaching, focusing on the evaluation of the process, improving the teaching evalua- tion model, and outstanding student body, strengthen the combination of tutoring and teaching and research to improve clas- sroom instruction effects to enhance teaching effectiveness, in order to achieve effective interaction of university education and basic education.

  18. Status of articles published by the Chinese Journal of AIDS&STD in HIV/AIDS related domestic literature%《中国艾滋病性病》刊载文献在国内发表的艾滋病相关文献中的位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑京婵; 张蕊; 刘霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解《中国艾滋病性病》刊载文献在国内发表艾滋病相关文献中的位置.方法 在CNKI中国知网数据库中,以“艾滋病”为关键词检索文献,下载题录信息后整理分析.结果 2006-2010年国内分别有461、464、462、469、457本杂志发表与“艾滋病”相关的文献,《中国艾滋病性病》的发表篇数(所占比例在6.2%~8.1%之间波动)、被引篇数、被引频次、下载篇数、下载频次始终居于第一位,被引率和下载率处于发表艾滋病相关文献篇数前6名杂志的中上水平.结论 《中国艾滋病性病》杂志在传播性病艾滋病科研成果方面起了重要作用,还存在增加载文数量的发展空间.%Objective To evaluate the status of the articles published by the Chinese Journal of AIDS &. STD in HIV/AIDS related domestic literatures. Method Literatures were searched in China CNKI database by using HIV/AIDS as a key word, and related information was downloaded and analyzed. Results There were totally 461, 464,462,469 and 457 domestic journals which published HIV/AIDS related articles in respective years from 2006 to 2010. The articles published by the Chinese Journal of AIDS &. STD accounted for 6. 2%- 8. 1% of all the related domestic articles, ranking the first in terms of number and frequency of citation and downloading. As for the rate of citation and downloading the journal stays at a high or middle level and is listed among the 6 top HIV/ AIDS related journals. Conclusion The Chinese Journal of AIDS & STD plays a vital role in publicizing STD/AIDS related scientific achievements in this country, but there is much room for its further increasing number of articles.

  19. Chinese medicinal herbs for cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tao; Chen, Jun; Jin, Shuli J; Wang, Yiping

    2013-06-29

    groups. No serious adverse events were reported. This review reveals no strong evidence that the analysed Chinese medicinal herbs have any beneficial effects on asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate cholelithiasis. Definitive conclusions will require much better designed randomised trials to reduce risk of bias and allow detailed assessment of clinical outcomes.

  20. 美国文学中华人男性刻板形象的后殖民解构%The Deconstruction of Chinese Male Stereotypic Image in American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昊

    2014-01-01

    两百年来,美国华人男性为美国的发展做出了巨大的贡献,然而在美国主流文化中,他们被描述成卑劣低下、愚昧无知、狡猾邪恶,难以同化的异教徒,甚至被“女性化”阉割的“他者”刻板形象。%In the past two hundred years,Chinese men have made a great contribution to the development of the USA.Whereas,their contribution is seldom mentioned in American mainstream society and they are depicted as the stereotypic image which is inferior,illit-erate,vicious,unassimilated and “castrated”.This thesis focuses on the deconstruction of the reasons which form this stereotypic im-age.

  1. 从古诗研究转向反思百年文学史研究%From the Research of Classical Chinese Poetry to the Reflection on the Research on the Literature History of One Hundred Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦宝

    2016-01-01

    The view of the literature history of one hundred years was constructed centering on ver-nacular literature put forward by HU Shi and others,civilian literature,etc. Through systematically clarifying the view of the literature history put forward by HU Shi,we can find that many facts of the literary history were distorted or hidden under the control of the view of the literary history,which did not take literature self as the purpose. The academic research of MU Zhai has reflected on the histori-cal view,made a breakthrough,restored the truth of the history of literature,and become a hot topic in recent years. With the aid of the innovation of methodology brought by scholars such as MU Zhai, the transfer of academic fashion of the times may be achieved. The change which MU Zhai’s aca-demic thoughts success in disengaging from the view of the literature history of one hundred years has important significance.%百年来的文学史观是以胡适等人提出的白话文学、平民文学等为核心建构起来的。对胡适文学史观进行系统梳理可以发现,在这一文学史观支配下,扭曲和遮蔽了许多文学史实。这一史观本身并非是以文学本身为旨归的。木斋的学术研究对这一史观进行反思,实现了突破,还原了文学史的真实,成为近年来学界讨论的一个学术热点。借助木斋以及宇文所安等学者带来的方法论革新,有望实现时代学术风尚的转移。木斋的学术思想从百年文学史观中脱离出来并实现转向,具有重要意义。

  2. Analysis on Pharmacologic Action Features of Active Ingredients of Single Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Fatty Liver Based on Literature%基于文献的单味中药有效成分治疗脂肪肝药理作用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟周; 邓焱坤; 胡志希; 许潜; 赖永金; 云波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze pharmacologic action features of single Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fatty liver based on literature; To provide references for clinical treatment of fatty liver.Methods Animal research literature about single Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fatty liver in CNKI, Wanfang database, and VIP from January 2003 to December 2014 was retrieved by computers. The number of single Chinese herbal medicine and the pharmacologic action features of active ingredients (or extracts) were statistically concluded. Results A total of 279 articles were retrieved, including 67 kinds of single Chinese herbal medicine, among which 8 were used to treat AFLD, 45 were used to treat NAFLD, and 14 were used to treat AFLD and NAFLD simultaneously. Pharmacologic action features of the medicine for AFLD mainly included reducing lipid, protecting liver, antioxidation, and anti-inflammation. Pharmacologic action features of the medicine for NAFLD had the effects of improving insulin resistance additionally.Conclusion Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of AFLD and NAFLD shows significant efficacy, having the features of multiple pathways and liver damage resistance, which provide references for clinical treatment of fatty liver.%目的:基于文献统计分析单味中药有效成分治疗脂肪肝的药理作用特点,为进一步研究及临床治疗脂肪肝提供参考。方法计算机检索中国知识资源总库(CNKI)、万方数据库、中文科技期刊数据库(VIP)2003年1月-2014年12月报道的单味中药治疗脂肪肝动物研究文献,统计治疗脂肪肝的中药味数,归纳单味中药有效成分(提取成分、水煎剂)的药理作用特点。结果检出符合标准文献279篇,共涉及药物67味,其中用于治疗酒精性脂肪肝(AFLD)的药物8味,治疗非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)的药物45味,同时治疗AFLD及NAFLD的药物14味;治疗AFLD药理作用以调节血

  3. Exploring Mobile Technologies for Learning Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Compared with computer assisted language learning, mobile devices bring changes to tutorial functions, social computing, and gaming. Participants heavily explored tutorial functions, used mobile devices differently from computers for social computing, and showed interest in gaming. Although participants were enthusiastic about using mobile devices to learn Chinese, the number of applications they used and the variety of activities they engaged in were limited. Findings suggest that the effective incorporation of mobile devices to learn Chinese depends on collaboration and scaffolding

  4. Development of spatial representation of numbers: a study of the SNARC effect in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin; Xu, Jihong; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Using the standard parity judgment task, this study investigated the development of numerical-spatial representation. Participants were 314 healthy right-handed Chinese children (from kindergarteners to sixth graders) and adults. The results revealed that all age groups showed a significant (or marginally significant in the case of first graders) SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, indicating that Chinese children as young as kindergarteners already had developed automatic spatial representations of numbers (or the mental number line). Surprisingly, however, the size of the SNARC effect did not show much developmental change. These results are discussed in the context of the literature on spatial representations of numbers and on cross-cultural differences in early development of number cognition.

  5. Assessment of private and public self-consciousness: a Chinese replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1994-05-01

    The Chinese version of the revised Self-Consciousness Scale (C-SCS) of Scheier and Carver (1985) was administered to 500 Chinese university students. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that three factors (Private Self-consciousness, Public Self-consciousness, and Social Anxiety) were abstracted from the scale, and reliability data also showed that the C-SCS and its three subscales are internally consistent. While the present findings are generally consistent with the conceptualization of Scheier and Carver (1985) and the data reported previously, an integration of the present study and the data in the literature suggests that some of the items and their related rationales in the original and revised Self-Consciousness Scale may require refinement and modification.

  6. Taijiao:a traditional Chinese approach to enhancing fetal growth through maternal physical and mental health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fung-Kei Cheng

    2016-01-01

    abstract Despite the fact that Taijiao (traditional Chinese eugenics) has been part of the Chinese obstetrical culture over the years, there is insufficient scientific evidence for its effectiveness. This literature review analyzes the discourse on Taijiao associated with physical and psychological maternalefetal symbiosis, together with relevant peripheral research outcomes. Taijiao combines maternal health and external environment for benefits in fetal growth through preventive, indirect, and direct measures. Discussing practical im-plications and future research directions, this review reveals a modernized Taijiao to be a holistic, non-invasive pregnancy management system using a multi-disciplinary approach that enhances infantile life quality, reduces negative consequences of pregnancy deficits and child development, and saves public health expenditure.

  7. Germany Readies For Chinese IPOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TARA; TAO

    2007-01-01

    Even the freezing cold of a Beijing winter could not stop Duke Alexander’s China visit last December. As the IPo divisional director of Deutsche Boerse AG, Alexander visited China five times in six months, with the aim of helping the first Chinese enter-prises in history to launch their IPOs on Deutsche Boerse AG. He revealed that “in the first quarter of 2007, the first Chinese enterprise will trade on the Deutsche Boerse AG.”Deutsche Boerse AG’s IPO seminar, held in Beijing, attracted many Chinese entrepreneurs looking into listing their companies in Germany. The vice president of a Beijing investment company said that his company was considering an IPO through either the London AIM or Deutsche Boerse AG. “Deutsche Boerse AG’ sfee for launching an IPO is 20 percent lower than that of AIM, but also involves addressing the requirement that the company must be estab-lished in Germany,” he said. The businessman said he was still undecided on the final destination of his company’s IPO launch. Why have there been no Chinese IPOs on the Deutsche Boerse AG in the past?Why would a Chinese enterprise want to list on the Deutsche Boerse AG? What strategies has Deutsche Boerse AG implemented to compete with other prestigious global stock exchanges? We explored these questions in an exclusive interview with Alexander.

  8. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  9. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  10. On the New Trend of the Contemporary War Literature, a Peace Culture Perspective---Summary of the International Symposium on “The Culture of Peace and War Literature”at the 29th Annual Meeting of Chinese New Literature Society%和平文化视野下当代战争文学发展的新趋向--中国新文学学会第29届年会暨“和平文化与战争文学”国际学术研讨会综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗先海

    2013-01-01

    In terms of the history of Chinese and world literature , war-related topic has been a theme in literary circle . But in today's era of peace , it is of great importance to from a new cultural perspective and theoretical dimension to re -examine the war literature . In order to further promote the theme of contemporary war literature and the prosperity and development of war literature theory and creation , in July 2013 , the twenty-ninth annual meeting of Chinese New Literature Society and International Symposium on “the culture of peace and war literature” was held in Hunan Huaihua . Scholars from Japan , Canada , Malaysia and China mainland , Taiwan and other domestic and foreign experts , attended the meeting , Topics on the culture of peace and war , the theory of literary narrative of war literature research , war and human nature and the Japanese War literature , Taiwan war literature were discussed ardently .%在中国乃至世界文学发展长河中,战争一直就是古老而又常新的文学主题。但在当今和平年代,如何从新的文化视角和理论维度去重新审视战争文学显得十分重要。为进一步推动当代战争文学的主题研讨,促进战争文学理论与创作的繁荣和发展,2013年7月,在湖南怀化召开了中国新文学学会第29届年会暨“和平文化与战争文学”国际学术研讨会。来自日本、加拿大、马来西亚和中国大陆、台湾近180位国内外专家、学者参加了会议,围绕和平文化理论与战争文学叙事、战争文学整体研究、战争与人性以及日本的战争文学、台湾的战争文学等问题展开了热烈的讨论。

  11. Let Us Remember Fengliu instead of Miseries: Dayou Poems and Chinese Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Zheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1953, Chiang Yee, a Chinese American travel writer and artist, began to write and exchange Chinese-language dayou poems with Yang Lien-sheng, a Harvard professor. These poems, seemingly casual, unrestrained, humorous, and sometimes emotional, reflected the sentiments of diaspora poets, their feelings about displacement, profession, language, and home. This article is a study of the cultural and literary significance of these dayou poems. Written during the Cold War era by Chinese scholars, they stand in sharp contrast with mainstream publications in both China and America. They are not merely an instance of Chinese poetic form being practiced overseas; when examined against their sociocultural context, these verses raise significant issues concerning displacement and homeland, career and cultural identity, and “mother tongue” and public expression. They reveal an ethos that diaspora poets have never publicly manifested in their English-language writings. Thus, a study of these dayou poems may deepen our understanding about Asian American literature, lead to a better appreciation of writing in languages other than English, and open up a new, exciting topic within Asian American Studies.

  12. On the Four Phonetic Features of Finals of Northeast Dialect in Qing Dynasty Reflected in the Korean Literatures about Chinese Language%朝鲜汉语文献四种所见韵母的清代东北方音特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹德文

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to probe the phonetic features in Korean language by analyzing the phonetic system of Huayin Qimeng, Huayin Qimeng Yanjie, Ni Ne Guixing and Xue Qing -- four Korean literatures about Chinese language and the findings is that as far as finals are concerned, some phonetic characteristics of northeast dialect in Qing Dynasty are reflected in these literatures. More specifically, entering tones as well as closed end rhyme disappeared, while retroflexed final and light tone was remained, etc.%分析《华音启蒙》、《华音启蒙谚解》、《你呢贵姓》、《学清》四种朝鲜汉语文献的语音系统,就其韵母而论,考证其反映出来的清代汉语东北方言的语音特征。表现为:入声韵消失;闭口尾韵消失;存在儿化韵和轻声等。

  13. Chinese Immigrant Wealth: Heterogeneity in Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius Vallejo, Jody; Aronson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Chinese immigrants are a diverse and growing group whose members provide a unique opportunity to examine within-immigrant group differences in adaptation. In this paper, we move beyond thinking of national-origin groups as homogenous and study variation among Chinese immigrants in wealth ownership, a critical indicator of adaptation that attracts relatively little attention in the immigration literature. We develop an analytical approach that considers national origin, tenure in the U.S., and age to examine heterogeneity in economic adaptation among the immigrant generation. Our results show that variations among Chinese immigrants explain within-group differences in net worth, asset ownership, and debt. These differences also account for important variation between Chinese immigrants, natives, and other immigrant groups and provide important, new insight into the processes that lead to immigrant adaptation and long-term class stability. PMID:27977737

  14. 专业知识嵌入中医药文献检索课的实践及评价%Embedment of professional knowledge into literature retrieval course of traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳玲; 杨继红; 程树英; 张凡

    2014-01-01

    将专业知识嵌入文献检索课程的教学环节中,并在此基础上建立在线教学质量评价系统,让学生学会获取与利用所需文献信息的方法和技巧,了解其专业学科的基本知识。%The online teaching quality assessment system that was established by embedding the professional knowledge into the teaching of literature retrieval course, can help the students master the methods and skills to ac-cess and use the literature information they need and the basic knowledge of subjects in which they major .

  15. Analysis of Ironies in Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆

    2013-01-01

    Irony is a common linguistic device in linguistics and literature by which a listener or reader can understand more than what a speaker or a writer expresses. An ironic utterance conversationally implicates the opposite of what it literally says. Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress is considered as a known book that includes the skillful use of ironies. And this paper tries to analyze the very examples of the use of ironies in the book Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress. And the author hopes that through the analysis, readers can better understand the use of irony in literature and the book Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress.

  16. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  17. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-03-22

    Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a

  18. Major achievements in relation to dyslexia in Chinese characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Gui-feng; JING Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review the major achievements in dyslexia in Chinese characters,hoping to give some clues for future studies.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literature search using PUBMED,and original articles published in main Chinese and international journals.Study selection After reviewing the literature,54 articles were selected that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results The results of studies about the subtypes,cerebral basis,reading processing model,event-related potential (ERP) and saccadic features between English and Chinese dyslexia are different.Conclusions In the last ten years,great progress has been made in the study of dyslexia in Chinese characters.However,there are still many problems and shortcomings which need to be investigated.

  19. 中医药治疗咳嗽变异性哮喘随机对照试验文献质量评价%Evaluation of Literature Quality of Traditional Chinese Medicine for Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小维; 周燕; 钟丹; 陈晓琴; 张太君

    2013-01-01

    目的 系统评价中医药治疗咳嗽变异性哮喘的临床随机对照试验的文献质量.方法 检索2002至2012年有关中医药治疗咳嗽变异性哮喘的RCT文献,按照临床流行病学和循证医学的原则和方法,对方法学,一般情况,疾病诊断及纳入、排除标准,随机方法,盲法,样本含量,疗效判定标准,随访,不良反应及脱落等进行评价.结果 纳入52篇文献,出现16种诊断标准.38篇文献无纳入和排除标准的描述.39篇报道了疗效判断标准.纳入的52篇文献中均描述了随机,但仅仅有3篇文献提到具体的随机方法,所有文献均未对随机序列的产生及具体随机步骤进行说明,均未提及随机隐藏.仅有1篇文献采用单盲法.49篇文献未明确说明应用何种统计方法.5篇文献进行了随访,但均未说明随访的时间和随访方式.4篇文献提及不良反应的观察.所有研究均未报道退出与失访情况.结论 虽然目前关于中医药治疗咳嗽变异性哮喘临床随机对照文献较多,但研究质量和文献总体水平相对较低,这一领域迫切需要设计严谨的高质量随机对照研究.%Objective:To evaluate the literature quality of clinical studies of TCM for cough variant asthma (CVA).Methods:The literatures from 2002 to 2012 were searched by means of electronic retrieval.Some indicators were evaluated according to principles and methods of clincial epidemiology and evidence based medicine including methodology,general condition,criteria for diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic effects.Results:52 literatures were enrolled.There were 16 literatures with diagnostic ctriteria and 38 articles without enroled or excluded criteria.39 literatures mentioned curative standard for therapeutic effects.Only 3 ones mentioned randomization method.All included studies were absence of allocation concealment.1 articles introduced the blinding method.5 literatures had reported follow-up and 4 ones reported adverse

  20. Chinese immigrants in Vancouver: quo vadis?

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Shibao; DeVoretz, Don J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a Vancouver study which examines the settlement and adaptation experience of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The study reveals that non-economic reasons, such as the environment, education and citizenship, constituted the primary motivations for Chinese immigrants to move to Canada. Employment and language facilities were the most frequently cited barriers inhibiting their integration into the Vancouver social and economic spheres. Their poor economic perform...

  1. Health communication with Chinese Americans about type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes and face some health disparities that can be attributed to language barriers, cultural differences, and access to care. The purpose of this article is to review current literature and establish best practices regarding health communication about type 2 diabetes for Chinese Americans. The authors reviewed clinical research literature from January 2000 to April 2011 to assess current knowledge about providing diabetes management guidance to Chinese Americans. To improve health communication and dissemination of health information to Chinese Americans regarding diabetes and diabetes management, research scholars, health care providers, and diabetes educators can analyze current health messages by source, message, audience, channel, and destination characteristics. Extensive research has led to clear guidelines focusing on language-appropriate materials, an understanding of Chinese food beliefs and family practices, and the importance of culturally competent health care providers. However, many Chinese Americans are using Chinese foods and medicinal herbs with little communication between patients and providers about these practices. Although Chinese Americans are not a homogenous group, this article points to a set of cultural considerations that health care providers should address when working with Chinese Americans. By attending to various qualities of health messages, efforts at diabetes prevention and management may be greatly enhanced.

  2. Afriphone Literature as a Prototypical form of African Literature: Insights from Prototype Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Bodomo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available What is the most prototypical form of African literature? Shouldn’t we be using African languages to produce African literary texts, shouldn’t we produce more Afriphone African literature compared to Europhone African literature or Afro-Europhone literature? This issue underlies the reality that the vast majority of African writers presumably think in one language and express themselves (speak, enchant, or write in another. This problematic, crystalized in major debates between Ngugi wa Thiongo and others, on the one hand, and Chinua Achebe and others, on the other hand, has resulted in great challenges as to how we can define or even conceptualize the discipline of African literature. Is it literature written by Africans in African languages for Africans or is it literature written by anybody including non-Africans in non-African languages? Or is it somewhere in-between these two extremes? The paper discusses several positions on this major question in African literature before advancing a novel proposal based on insights and evidence from proto-type theory within Linguistics and the Cognitive Sciences. This proposal leads to a somewhat provocative conclusion about the gradation of African literatures, where African language literatures or Afrophone literatures, comprise the core, proto-typical category in a 21st Century African literature constellation, whereas foreign language and diasporic literatures such as Afro-European literatures, Afro-American literatures, and Afro-Chinese literatures are the hybrid and thus more recessive, peripheral types of African literature. Keywords: Afriphone literature, African language literature, African literature, proto-type theory, linguistics, cognitive Science

  3. Examination of Chinese gambling problems through a socio-historical-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Yu, Alex C H; Rossen, Fiona; Wang, Chong-Wen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  4. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  5. Segmenting Chinese Tourists by the Expected Experience at Theme Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an experiential approach to tourist segmentation aimed at overcoming the limits of both socio-demographic and context-specific approaches widely adopted in the literature and in practice. In this study, segmentation is carried out based upon the expected experiences of Chinese tourists at the Shanghai World Exposition. The segmentation reveals four tourist clusters with different interests in relation to their experiences in visiting the World Exposition. The clusters showed insignificant differences in the demographics but proved to be powerfully discriminant in determining tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty, which affirms the potential of the tourist experience being a segmenting variable. Moreover, thanks to the analysis, an evaluation of the Shanghai World Exposition’s success in terms of visitors’ satisfaction is provided.

  6. Multiple Images of Venus in Chinese Literature and Art .Also On Ye Shuxian's Goddess of Gaotang and Venus%维纳斯在中国文艺中的多重映像——兼议叶舒宪先生的《高唐神女与维纳斯》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊

    2012-01-01

    关乎中西文化中的爱与美主题,我们就不能不提到叶舒宪先生的著作《高唐神女与维纳斯》。书中认为,中国文化中一直存在着被主流儒家遮蔽了的“维纳斯”,她就是宋玉《高唐赋》中的高唐神女及其衍生出的女性文学形象。尽管如此,本论仍对高唐神女的“爱神”“美神”特征表示质疑。笔者认为维纳斯在中国文化中的同类表现形式不止一种,中国文艺中存在着多重映像的维纳斯。再者维纳斯象征着永恒的爱与美,必定在不同的时代和文化中得到丰富的赋值、定型、描塑和创造。因此与其挖掘维纳斯的“中国版”,不如立足本土推陈出新。本论拟从社会性别、女性自觉意识等性别角度去寻找、分析散落在古代中国的维纳斯。%When talking about the issue of love and beauty in the Oriental and Western culture, we have to mention Ye Shuxian' s Goddess of Gaotang and Venus. In this book, Ye argues that there exists a "Venus" covered by the mainstream Confucians in the Chinese culture, which is the Goddess of Gaotang in Song Yu's Gao Tang Fu and the female image in the later literature. However, this paper calls the character of Goddess as "goddess of love" and "goddess of beauty" in question. The author believes that there is more than one expression form of Venus in the Chinese culture, and there exist multiple images of Venus in Chinese literature and art. Moreover, the eternal love and beauty that Venus symbolizes is un- doubtedly enriched, finalized, depicted and created in different ages and culture. Therefore, rather than excavating the Chinese version of Venus, why not make creative efforts based on local conditions? This paper intends to finds out and analyzes Venus scattering in the ancient China from perspectives of social gender and female awareness.

  7. 经济史还原与分析过程中的经济学逻辑--近代中国货币金融研究文献选读之管见%Economic History’s Restoring and Economic Logic in the Course of Economic Analyzing--A Little Insight from Selected Readings about Modern China’s Monetary and Financial Research from Main Chinese Periodical Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱; 倪坤

    2015-01-01

    This article divides some of main Chinese periodical literature into four aspects: currency supply and demand, the financial system, monetary reform and international silver flows. We also make a preliminary review of literature from the angle of economics. We found that there were quite more research achievements on Chinese monetary and financial system than on monetary reform and the international silver flows in the domestic academic circles. So far, the domestic literature on the research of modern Chinese currency and finance has been mainly conducted through the ways of history process descrip-tion and simple analysis of the event causality. However, logical analysis and quantity analysis in the sense of economics or data statistics and estimation are relatively scarce.%本文将部分国内主要中文期刊的文献分为货币供求、金融体系与金融制度、币制改革、国际白银流动四类,并从经济学角度对文献做了初步评述。我们发现,国内学界对近代中国的货币和金融制度方面研究成果颇多,币改和白银国际流动的研究较少。到目前为止,国内文献对近代中国货币金融的研究大都以历史过程描述和对事件因果关系的朴素分析为主,经济学意义上的逻辑分析和数量分析,以及数据统计和估算工作都相对匮乏。

  8. 论曹文轩的文学观%On Cao Wenxuan's View of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪厚玉; 周宁

    2015-01-01

    Cao Wenxuan is one of the most powerful and influential writers in contemporary Chinese literary a-rena, for a series of expositions on literature made by him have been favorably conducive to enriching contemporary Chinese literary criticism theories.This paper aims to systematize and study the origin, formation and change of Cao Wenxuan's literature view and attempts to elucidate the connotation of his literature view with"beauty" and"aes-thetic perception" as its core so as to reveal Cao's idea and individuality in literary creation.%曹文轩是中国当代文坛最具实力与影响的作家之一.特别是他发表的一系列有关文学的论述对丰富当代文学批评理论具有良好的补给作用.论文将着重对曹文轩文学观的渊源、形成及流变进行系统梳理与研究,试图阐释以"美"和"美感"为核心的文学观内涵,从而揭示其独特的创作理念和创作个性.

  9. Metrological Analysis on Literature in Chinese Agricultural Science Field Based on ESI Database%基于ESI数据库中国农业科学领域文献计量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁花侠; 白君礼

    2013-01-01

    Based on United States ESI literature metrological analysis database, the paper metro logically analyzes the global agricultural and China agricultural science literatures in ten years from 2001 to 2011.By analysising the indicators, such as countries and regions, research institutions, journals, scientists, high cited papers, hot papers, the top articles, research frontier, the baseline and etc, the paper is thought to be able to provide important refrence for our country agricultural scientific research.%利用美国ESI文献计量分析数据库对2001年~ 2011年10年来全球农业科学领域和中国农业科学领域的文献进行了计量分析.通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊、科学家、高被引论文、热点论文、顶级论文、研究前沿、基线等各项指标统计分析,为我国农业科学研究提供重要参考.

  10. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  11. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  12. Literatura Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto se volta para as vicissitudes do informante nativo como figura na representação literária. A autora trabalha "com uma oposição binária relativamente antiquada entre filosofia e literatura, segundo a qual a primeira concatena argumentos e a segunda concebe o impossível. Para ambas o informante nativo parece inevitável". Ela examina a posição desse informante à luz do que chama de "axiomática do imperialismo" em Jane Eyre, de Brontë, Wide Sargasso Sea, de Rhys, e Frankenstein, de Shelley, para concluir com uma leitura de "Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha", de Mahasweta Devi.This text picks at the vicissitudes of the native informant as figure in literary representation. Its author works "with rather an old-fashioned binary opposition between philosophy and literature; that the first concatenates arguments and the second figures the impossible. For both the native informant seems unavoidable". She examines the position of such informant, in the light of what she calls the "axiomatics of imperialism" in Brontë's Jane Eyre, in Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea, and in Shelley's Frankenstein, to end up with a reading of Mahasweta Devi's "Pterodactyl, Puran Sahay and Pirtha".

  13. Qingping Straight Sword: The Last Remaining Chinese Sword System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Berwick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following examination of classical Chinese straight sword (jian details the very rare Qingping straight sword system. The study meshes Chinese- and English-sourced research with a revealing interview (conducted by America’s senior Qingping disciples, Reza Momenan and Hon Lee with Lu Junhai—the grandmaster of this unique sword system. The author presents Qingping system as perhaps the only known, complete Chinese sword system surviving from China’s pre-Rebulican era (1911-1949.

  14. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  15. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  16. Rethinking of Two English Versions of Luotuo Xiangzi in Light of World Literature%从世界文学角度重读《骆驼祥子》的两个译本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    《骆驼祥子》的英语重译现象是中国文学外译史上的重要历史个案,也是中国文学成为世界文学的成功典范。文章从达姆罗什的世界文学定义出发,通过比较金译本和葛译本的文本差异,发掘了两个译本的文化折射性、翻译接受性以及阅读的超然性,以论证翻译在中国文学成为世界文学这一过程中的核心作用。对其两个译本的差异和接受过程进行考察,有利于我们认识中国文学“走出去”应采取接受语境为导向的文化推介战术。%The English retranslations of Luotuo Xiangzi is a significant case in the translation history of Chinese literature as well as one of the successful exemplars of Chinese literature circulating in the English world.Employing the definition of world literature by David Damrosch,this paper compares the text differences between Evan King’s translation and that of Howard Glodblatt,and examines the cultural refractivity and acceptability of the texts as world literature,as well as the “detached involvement”in reading,in order to demonstrate the key role of translation in integrating Chinese literature into world literature.The study of the text differences and the acceptance process of the two translations reveals that the target-oriented culture promotion tactics should be employed to introduce Chinese literature to the world.

  17. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  18. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  19. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  20. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  1. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  2. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for treatment of dislipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyun Wu; Jianwei Bei; Jiao Guo

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of dislipidemia is increasing rapidly in China and there has been a growing interest in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of hyperlipidemia both inside and outside China. In this article, lipids regulating effects of 9 herbs or their extracts and 5 herbal formulae which have been published in English-language literature are reviewed. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of these Chinese herbal medicines, few multi-center large-scale clinical trials have been conducted to confirm the efficacy and evaluate their safety.

  4. On the Course Teaching Reform of History of Foreign Literature for the Major of Chinese Language and Literature in Universities%论高校汉语言文学专业外国文学史课程教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秀娟; 席战强

    2015-01-01

    In the era of globalization , the teaching reforms in the course of History of Foreign Literature not only push ahead in fields of teaching tools , but also continue to promote in fields of teaching content .First of all , the reforms need to promote in the comparative literature research areas , such as interdisciplinary , cross-cultural , cross-language;secondly , they should explore the relationship between the literature ’ s origin and inherit;third-ly, classics and famous writers need to be interpreted in all aspects and multilevel way .%全球化时代,高等院校汉语言文学专业的外国文学史课程的教学改革,除了教学手段现代化,更重要的是深化教学内容:第一,跨学科、跨文化、跨语言的比较视阈。第二,探究文学渊源和传承关系。第三,全方位多角度地解读传统文学和经典作家。

  5. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  6. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  7. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  8. Competitiveness of Chinese industries : A comparison with the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, H.A.; Zhang, J.; Mulder, R.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops a two-dimension and multi-variable approach to investigate the competitiveness and dynamics of Chinese industries (products groups). The result reveals the orderly transformation of competitiveness across 97 Chinese industries. In order to determine the position of China’s indust

  9. Dynamics of the global competitiveness of Chinese industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, H.A.; Zhang, J.; Witteloostuijn, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a two-dimensional multi-variable approach, this article investigates the competitiveness and dynamics of Chinese industries from the perspective of the international marketplace. The study reveals the step-by-step transformation of the degree of global competitiveness across 97 Chinese industr

  10. Competitiveness of Chinese industries : A comparison with the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, H.A.; Zhang, J.; Mulder, R.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops a two-dimension and multi-variable approach to investigate the competitiveness and dynamics of Chinese industries (products groups). The result reveals the orderly transformation of competitiveness across 97 Chinese industries. In order to determine the position of China’s indust

  11. The Eastward Spread of Western Cultures and Kuang Yi: on the Historical Origin of Chinese Comparative Literature%西学东渐与“况义”之道——中国比较文学的历史渊源研究之二

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建民; 李红梅

    2011-01-01

    During the Ming and Qing Dynasties western cultures began to spread to China. In order to disseminate Christianity, by the law of Kuang Yi, western missionaries nsed Christian doctrine to explain and rebuild Confucianism from the angel of culture. At the same time, they carried on the bidirectional translation, the explanation and the research work to the East and West culture, which presented a new different characteristic from Ge Yi showing in Buddhism spread to China. The western missionary's work is essentially a cross-cultural and even a cross-civilized comparison. The law and theory of Kuang Yi is also an important source of methodology of Chinese comparative literature, which has important inspiration significance to illustrative study of comparative literature today.%明清之际西学东渐,西方传教士为传播基督教义,采用“况义”之法,从文化层面入手,以基督教教义阐释古代儒家思想,并对东西方文化进行双向的翻译、阐释和研究工作,呈现出与以往佛教东传时的“格义”不同的特色。这一工作从本质上讲具有跨文化乃至跨文明的比较性质,而“况义”之法及其理论,也不失为中国比较文学的重要方法论渊源之一,对于当今比较文学的阐发研究具有重要的启发意义。

  12. IgE骨髓瘤1例报告及文献复习%IgE Myeloma:the First Report of Chinese Case and a Review of the Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯健; HOU Jian; 姜华; JIANG Hua; 胡慧仙; HU Huixian; HE Jin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of IgE myeloma and to compare its clinical features with those reported in the literature. Methods: M-component in serum and urine was determined using celluloseacetate membrane electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis and quantification of immunoglobulins.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of IgE and its light chain. Results: A monoclonal peak was detected by cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis. The monoclonal band showed on immunofixation electrophoresis the following reactive patterns: positive for λ antisera and negative for κ, IgG, IgA, IgM and IgD antisera. The serum immunoglobulin concentrations were: IgG 21.6 g/L, IgA 1.2 g/L, IgM 2.64 g/L, κ 7.49 g/L, λ 16.0 g/L, κ/λ 0.47. The results of immunohistochemistry showed cytoplasmic expression of IgE immunoglobulin and λ light chain in the tumor tissue. Conclusion: This is the first case of IgE multiple myeloma reported in China.

  13. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  14. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  15. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  16. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  17. Parenting Styles and Practices among Chinese Immigrant Mothers with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li; Chen, Tianying; Zheng, Xiao Xian

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how Chinese immigrant mothers in the USA make meaning of their parenting styles and practices in rearing their young children (aged two to six). Twelve Chinese immigrant mothers were interviewed. A key finding reveals that the Chinese immigrant mothers' parenting practices reflected the indigenous concept of jiaoyang in the…

  18. Probe into How to Use the Literature Retrieval & Delivery Platforms to Provide Information Service for Arab Research---Base on the Superstar Duxiu, Bailian and Chinese Discovery%利用文献检索平台为阿拉伯研究提供信息服务的对策探讨--以超星读秀、百链云和中文发现为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红燕; 来泽荣

    2015-01-01

    Since the implementation of the opening strategy of“One Belt and One Road”, the cooperation between Ningxia and Arab countries in the fields of economy and trade, culture, education, and science and technology, etc. is deeper and wider. Under such a background, Ningxia University established Chinese Research Institute of Arab. Based on the Superstar Duxiu, Bailian and Chinese Discovery, this paper probes into how to use the literature retrieval&delivery platforms to provide efficient, multi-channel and comprehensive literature information service for Arab research.%自我国“一带一路”对外开放战略实施以来,宁夏与阿拉伯国家在经贸、文化、教育和科技等领域的合作更加深入和广泛。在此背景下,宁夏大学成立了中国阿拉伯研究院。以超星读秀、百链云和中文发现为例,探讨了如何利用这些文献检索和传递服务平台,为阿拉伯研究提供高效率、多途径和全方位的文献信息服务。

  19. 应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业毕业论文(设计)改革研究——以重庆文理学院为例%A Research on the Reformation of Graduation Thesis and Design of Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature in Applied Undergraduate Colleges——Taking Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长武

    2012-01-01

    The reformation of graduation thesis design of specialty of Chinese language and literature should target on the goal of cultivating of professional talent,and construct a reform model of graduation thesis,which respectively constructs a reform model with scientific research innovation ability,literary creation ability,oral expression ability,professional practice ability as the core of evaluation index of graduation thesis.We should promote the graduation thesis(design) work in the entire process of Chinese literature professional talent training,so as to improve the quality of application talents quality.%汉语言文学专业毕业论文(设计)改革应该从分析专业人才培养目标着手,构建以科研创新能力、文学创作能力、口语表达能力、实践教学能力为核心评价指标的毕业论文(设计)模式,将毕业论文(设计)工作贯穿于汉语言文学专业人才培养的全过程,这样才能达到提高应用型人才培养质量的目的。

  20. Sexual behaviours and associated risks in Chinese young people: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-ming; Guo, Shuai-Jun; Sun, Yu-ying

    2013-11-01

    The earlier and unprotected sexual behaviour of young Chinese, and the consequences of these actions, have become a health concern, posing a challenge to traditional Chinese concepts. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in sexual behaviour and associated risks among adolescents and young people in mainland China over the past three decades. A meta-analysis was undertaken to comprehensively review the sexual behaviour of Chinese young people (aged from 10 to 24 years) over the past 30 years. Relevant data published from 1979 to 2009 in the Chinese literature database were identified and retrieved. Analysis was performed based on set criteria. Seventy-five studies were identified that were published after 1990. Overall, the estimated prevalence of sexual intercourse among young people was 12.6%, with an average age at sexual debut of 19.4 years. The rate of condom use at sexual debut was 37.2%; 53.6% of young people reported not using a condom during the most recent act of sexual intercourse. The rates of unintentional pregnancy and abortion among the sexually active were 15.1% and 10.8%, respectively. Reviewing the data according to decades revealed that the number of young people engaging in sexual intercourse decreased from 14.3% in 1990-1999 to 11.8% in 2000-2009. However, these rates are higher than the prevalence of sexual activity reported before 1990, which, according to sporadic studies, did not exceeded 1%. There have been increases in sexual activity and high-risk sexual behaviour in Chinese young people in the decades since the adoption of the open door policy in China, particularly since the mid-1990s. High-risk sexual behaviours have contributed to certain adverse consequences in adolescents and young people, such as unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmissible infection. Thus, efficacious intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented.

  1. The Research on the Reform of Application of Chinese Language and Literature Specialty in Colleges and Universities in the New Period%新时期高等院校汉语言文学专业的应用性改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党永刚

    2013-01-01

      在网络普及、信息海量、全球化的新时期,作为传统专业代表的汉语言文学专业的应用性改革成为高校专业改革的重要任务之一。本专业的课程设置要突出应用性、时代性、地方性,服务地方社会经济文化的发展;教师必须重视实践型、研究型的教学方式和考试方式;学生必须重视自主、合作、研究型的学习方式。%In the new period of popularity of the network, information, and globalization, the reform of application of the traditional specialty of Chinese language and literature becomes one of the important tasks of reform of specialties in colleges and universities. The courses must highlight the application, time, place settings, and serve the development of local economy and culture; teachers must pay attention to the research-type and practical teaching methods and examination methods; students must pay attention to the independent, cooperative, research-based learning method.

  2. On the Provincial Level Teaching Team-building Practice and Exploration ——to Yan'an University of Contemporary Chinese Literature Teaching Team, for Example%论省级教学团队建设的实践与探索——以延安大学中国现当代文学教学团队为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊虎

    2011-01-01

    Disciplines in colleges and universities, teaching team building, personnel training, teaching reform in the possession of an irreplaceable important role. Yan'an University, Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature teacher and curriculum in teaching team building, management, teaching reform, and so a useful to explore and try, Yan' an University, the brand has become a teaching team and the Shaanxi provincial teaching team has a certain role model and radiation.%教学团队在普通高校学科建设、人才培养、教学改革方面占有无法替代的重要作用。延安大学中国现当代文学教学团队在师资与课程建设、教学管理、教学改革等方面进行了有益的探索和尝试,已经成为延安大学的品牌教学团队和陕西省省级教学团队,在同类院校的专业教学团队中具有一定的示范和辐射作用。

  3. 藏传佛教传记文学《至尊宗喀巴大师传》研究--以两种汉译本为视角%Study on Biographical Literature of Tibetan Buddhism-The Supreme Tsongkhapa:From the Perspective of Its Two Chinese Versions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱萍; 杨学义

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-Qing Dynasty,Zhou Jiaxiang’s The Supreme Tsongkhapa is the representative works of Ti-betan Buddhism of biographical literature,which is a comprehensive record of the master Tsongkhapa’s legendary life.This paper explores the origin and characteristics of the two current common Chinese versions translated by Guo Heqing and Fa Zun Master.It is concluded that as a representative of Tibetan Buddhism of biographical litera-ture,The Supreme Tsongkhapa deserves sufficient attention in academic circles.%清中期周加巷所著《至尊宗喀巴大师传》是藏传佛教传记文学的代表作品,全面记录了宗喀巴大师的传奇一生。梳理了目前常见的有两种汉译本———郭和卿的全译本和法尊法师的摘译本的渊源与特色。认为《至尊宗喀巴大师传》作为藏传佛教传记文学的典范代表,应该受到学术界的足够重视。

  4. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  5. Anthropological Turning and Literary Anthropology——A Summary of the Special Meeting of Literary Anthropology at the Tenth Annual Symposium of Chinese Comparative Literature%人类学转向与文学人类学——第十届中国比较文学年会文学人类学专场会议综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骊

    2012-01-01

    "文学人类学"在中国比较文学第十届学术年会上首次成为专场会议之一。此次专场会议展示了文学人类学研究领域的学术前沿,概括起来有以下三方面:1.关于人类学转向问题的理论研讨;2.对文学人类学元话语和方法论的思考;3.有关文学人类学的个案分析。%"Literary Anthropology" became the special meeting for the first time at the Tenth Annual Symposium of Chinese Comparative Literature.The special meeting showed the academic forefront in the field of literary anthropology study,which could be summed up in the following three aspects:1) the theoretical discussion on anthropological turning;2) Reflections on meta-discourse and methodology of literary anthropology;3) the case analysis on literary anthropology.

  6. Research on the Cultivation of College Students' Professional Core Competence and CVCC Certification Mode--A Case Study of Chinese Language and Literature Major%大学生职业核心能力培养及CVCC认证模式研究--以汉语言文学专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁华

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of college students is the basis for learning, knowledge shift ability and quality, promote the growth of social development and wealth is final, there are the specific abilities of professional special inherent ability of transformation and base pillar on the role of general ability (i.e., vocational core ability). This study is to take the Chinese language and litera-ture in Chongqing University of Science and Technology as an example, the development of professional ability of students to carry out the study of the core competence of college students.%大学生知识学习是基础,知识转变为能力素质、推动社会发展及财富增长才是最后的目的,转化的能力中主要有专业特别固有的特定能力,以及起基础支柱依托作用的通用能力(即职业核心能力)。本研究就是以重庆科技学院汉语言文学专业学生职业能力发展为例,开展大学生职业核心能力研究。

  7. 应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业毕业论文改革探究%A Research on the Reformation of Graduation Thesis of Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature in Applied Undergraduate Colleges ~,Taking Yancheng Institute of Technology as an Example.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋继华

    2012-01-01

    Graduation thesis is an important means of training the students' innovation ability, practical ability and enterprising spirit. Specialty of Chinese Language and Literature in Applied Undergraduate Colleges should adjust the training target accordingly according to the location of running a school and service orientation. We should pay attention to training students' self - learning ability, the ability to retrieve documents, language expression capacity and the use of theoretical knowledge to solve practical problem ability and strengthening the supervision in order to improve the quality of paper.%毕业论文是培养大学生创新能力、实践能力和创业精神的重要手段。应用型本科院校汉语言文学专业毕业论文应结合学校的办学定位、服务面向,对培养目标作出相应调整。在毕业论文选题、写作、答辩等环节注重培养学生的自学能力、文献检索能力、语言表达能力和运用理论知识解决实际问题的能办。加强论文监控,提高论文质量。

  8. Measurement of resilience in Chinese older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Bao, J-M; Huang, X-H; Guo, Q; Smith, G D

    2015-03-01

    Resilience has been identified as a personal construct that may contribute to the process of healthy ageing in older people. To date, no measurement instrument has been tested to evaluate resilience in Chinese older people. To examine the psychometric testing and clinical application of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) in Chinese older people. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Forward and backward translation procedures were used to obtain semantic equivalence of the original English version of the RS. Content validity was examined by identified experts, followed by exploratory factor analysis, item-to-total correlation, Cronbach's α coefficients and test-retest reliability. The 25-item Chinese version of Resilience Scale (RS-CN) was fully completed by 461 Chinese older people. Cronbach's α for the total Chinese version of the Revised Resilience Scale was 0.95, with a range of 0.85-0.89 for the sub-scales. Item-to-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.51 to 0.75 and items were excluded with item-to-total correlations coefficients lower than 0.4. The test-retest reliability of the total scale was 0.80, sub-scale test-retest reliability ranged from 0.61 to 0.620. The exploratory principal component analysis with varimax rotation revealed RS-CN to have a four-factor structure. The RS-CN is a valid and reliable instrument for the measurement of the concept of resilience in Chinese older people. The results of this study provide cross-cultural evidence for the potential application of this scale in Chinese older people. Greater insight into the psychological constructs of resilience in Chinese older people can lead to international comparisons and to the potential development of interventions for this population around the world. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  10. Pentalogy for Translation Strategies of Chinese Diet with Local Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓蕾

    2014-01-01

    The culture of Chinese diet with a long history is extensive and profound.Its distinctive regionality shows different cultural tastes and connotations to people from all over the world. The cultural implication of Chinese diet with local characteristics has been passed down and promoted from generation to generation, receiving the attention and acclaim from foreign guests.The purpose as to make foreign people learn more about Chinese diet is in need of translator’s reasonable and appropriate translation.But the varied translated versions about Chinese diet with local characteristics revealed many inadequacies which are worth reflecting, studying, and putting forward more complete translation strategies.

  11. Pentalogy for Translation Strategies of Chinese Diet with Local Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓蕾

    2014-01-01

    The culture of Chinese diet with a long history is extensive and profound.Its distinctive regionality shows different cultural tastes and connotations to people from all over the world.The cultural implication of Chinese diet with local characteristics has been passed down and promoted from generation to generation, receiving the attention and acclaim from foreign guests.The purpose as to make foreign people learn more about Chinese diet is in need of translator’s reasonable and appropriate translation.But the varied translated versions about Chinese diet with local characteristics revealed many inadequacies which are worth reflecting, studying, and putting forward more complete translation strategies.

  12. REVEALED ALTRUISM

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Friedman, Daniel; Sadiraj, Vjollca

    2009-01-01

    This pap er develops a theory of revealed preferences over oneís own and othersímonetary payo§s. We intro duce ìmore altruistic thanî(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric mo dels. We also intro duce and illustrate ìmore generous thanî (MGT), a partial ordering over opp ortunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Örst mover (FM) cho oses a more or less gen...

  13. 中国文学中地府判官形象演变与文化蕴涵%Image Evolution and Cultural Implication of Judge in Underworld in Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵颖涛

    2011-01-01

    研究了地府判官形象的演变,认为它发轫于唐,盛于唐后,随时代递变呈现出文学的演绎特征。唐代文学家模仿人间官职将判官形象移人冥界官制之中,赋予判官佛教化与中土化的双重文化特征,为文学绘就了特殊的人物图谱。随着冥界观念的成熟与世俗信仰的普及,判官形象渗入多种文学体裁中,日益丰富多彩。后代文学中的判官走向神坛,寄托了士庶的人生期望与运势憧憬,体现出神谱化的文学特征。%The image of judge of underworld originated in the Tang Dynasty, and flourished after the Tang Dynasty, with the alternation of times it showed interpretation of the characteristics of literary. Writers of Tang Dynasty created the bureaucracy of the underworld by imitating the bureaucracy of the real world; they gave the judge the dual cultural identity, which is blend of Buddhism and Sinitic culture, and created a special character in literary. With the maturity of the concept of underworld and the popularity of secular religion, the image of judge appeared in a variety of literary genres. The judge was deified in the literature gradually, on which common people placed their hopes of life expectations and fortune; and it reflected the literary features of theogony.

  14. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  15. Study on Dialect Words in Chinese Neologism-Based on the Research of Beijing, Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi Dialects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓倩; 何宇菲; 李旖旎; 吴文捷

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of dialect words merged with Chinese mandarin, becoming a main source of Chinese new words and contributing to the diversity of Chinese. Targeting this phenomenon, the researchers conducted research on those words. By studying literature, sending out questionnaires, making field trips and observations, this paper analyzes the main factors influencing the dialect words’absorption in Chinese mandarin and the channels involved, summarizes the traits of their formula⁃tion.

  16. 基于CNKI文献的中医治疗癌性腹水用药规律研究%Literature Study of Chinese Medicine in Treating Malignant Ascites Based on CNKI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施俊; 魏品康

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize the herbal medication in treating malignant ascites based on literature. Methods TCM literatures concerning malignant ascites from CNKI (1989.1-2013.3) were retrieved. The herbs and those category, nature, flavor and meridian distribution were summarized by frequency method. The couple herbs were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Fifty-five qualified documents and 56 effective prescriptions were collected. A total of 164 herbs were used (668 frequencies). Six groups of herbs, cumulative relative frequency (CRF) of 61.83%, were used frequently in order as follows:the herbs for promoting diuresis and resolving dampness, invigorating qi, invigorating the blood and removing blood stasis, regulating qi, eliminating heat and toxin, excreting drastically water. The most frequently used herbs (>6 frequencies, CRF 53.74%) had 25 species. The first three places were the herbs for promoting diuresis and resolving dampness (5 species), invigorating qi (4 species), invigorating the blood and removing blood stasis (3 species). These herbs were mostly of warm nature (260 frequencies, 38.92%). The total frequency of herb-nature was 1055 and the sweet (354 frequencies, 33.55%), bitter (284 frequencies, 26.92%) and pungent (268 frequencies, 25.40%) herbs were used more frequently. The total frequency of meridian distribution was 1747 and these herbs were mostly attributed to spleen, lung, liver, and kidney meridians (>200 frequencies). The most frequently used couple-herbs included Poria and Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Astragali and Ramulus Cinnamomi, etc. Conclusion Invigorating qi was emphasized in treating malignant ascites, combined with promoting diuresis. The herbs of the warm and cold nature, the sweet, bitter and pungent flavor, spleen, lung, liver and kidney meridians were most frequently used.%目的:基于文献分析探讨中医治疗癌性腹水的临床用药规律。方法检索1989年1月-2013年3月中国期

  17. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  18. Chinese ethnomusicology to explore fieldwork methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Lihan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main working approach and scope of the national musicians is the field investigation. The exploration of successful experience of the Chinese national music in the fieldwork is very necessary to effectively organize, carry out and complete the fieldwork of the Chinese music. This paper which is combined with the summary of experience, expert consultation and literature reading tries to verify and promote the effective fieldwork method through field investigation, so as to avoid that the national musicians with curiosity give a hurried and cursory glance at the destination and miss the first-hand resources in the field investigation due to lack of effective working approach, which plays a positive role in the inheritance and development of the Chinese national music.

  19. Dreams and disillusionment in the City of Light : Chinese writers and artists travel to Paris, 1920s-1940s

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Angie Christine

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation on Chinese writers and artists that traveled abroad to Paris from the 1920s to 1940s discusses several intersections between modern Chinese literature and visual art and consists of five chapters. The first chapter, an introduction, provides historical background and contextualization of the study abroad movement in China and the significance of dreaming in literature, as well as a comparison of travel writing in the Western and Chinese traditions. The four subsequent chapters...

  20. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."