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Sample records for chinese kale brassica

  1. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd, E-mail: m.hafez@usim.edu.my; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  2. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  3. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically

  4. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  5. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  6. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  7. 芥蓝高频离体再生体系的建立%Establishment of high-frequency in vitro regeneration system of Chinese kale ( Brassica alboglabra Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐君; 张蜀宁; 侯喜林; 王淑敏; 孙成振

    2011-01-01

    Based on three Chinese kale( Brassica alboglabra Bailey)varieties of' Sharp Leaf Chinses Kale' ,' Middle Flower Chinese Kale' and' Late-Flower Chinese Kale', we established a high frequency in vitro regeneration system through examining genotype, explant type,different hormones combinations and thidiazuron (TDZ)pretreatment on shoot regeneration effect.The results showed that the' Middle Flower Chinese Kale' held the most powerful regenerative capacity.The descending orders of regeneration rates from different types of explants were: hypocotyl, petiole with cotyledons, cotyledon;the optimum hormone combination of getting highfrequency shoot regeneration was 0.2 mg·L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA) and 6 mg·L-1 benzyladenine(6-BA).Hypocotyls with 0.5 mg·L-1 TDZ soaking 30 min pretreatment vaccinated medium containing 0.2 mg·L-1 NAA ,6 mg·L-1 6-BA ,8 g· L-1 agar+30 g· L-1 sucrose was suitable recipe for getting the highest rate of adventitious shoot regeneration,reaching 98.5%.%以'尖叶芥蓝'、'中花粗心芥蓝'和'迟花芥蓝'3个品种为材料,研究苯基噻二唑脲(TDZ)预处理、不同激素配比、基因型和外植体类型对不定芽再生的影响,建立芥蓝离体高频再生体系.结果表明:3个品种中,'中花粗心芥蓝'再生能力最强;不同外植体类型中再生率由大到小依次为:下胚轴、带柄子叶、子叶块;不定芽再生的最佳激素组合为0.2 mg·L-1NAA+6 mg·L-16-BA;以此激素组合为基础,下胚轴经0.5 mg·L-1TDZ浸泡30 min预处理接种在分化培养基(MS+0.2 mg·L-1NAA+6 mg·L-16-BA+8 g·L-1琼脂+30 g·L-1蔗糖)上不定芽再生率最高,达98.5%.

  8. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xiao LA; Ping FANG; Yi-bo TENG; Ya-juan LI; Xian-yong LIN

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassioa alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height,stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem,11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L,elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios.Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.

  9. Analysis of Sulforaphane in Chinese kale(Brassica albograbra L. H. Bailey) by HPLC%芥蓝花薹中莱菔硫烷含量的 HPLC 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占省; 刘玉梅; 方智远; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 张扬勇; 李凌云; 孙培田

    2016-01-01

    以23份芥蓝纯合自交系和21份杂交 F1为试材,采用反相高效液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)测定花薹中莱菔硫烷含量,分析芥蓝花薹中莱菔硫烷含量的变化规律。结果表明:44份芥蓝材料花薹中莱菔硫烷含量变异范围为46.89~419.45 mg·kg-1(DW),供试材料间莱菔硫烷含量差异达显著水平。获得了1份莱菔硫烷含量较高的 F1材料 A86,含量为419.45 mg·kg-1(DW);3份莱菔硫烷含量较高的高代纯合自交系材料 A1、A17和 A53,含量分别为298.50、354.19、361.06 mg·kg-1(DW),可用于芥蓝抗癌新品种的选育和利用。%Forty four lines of Chinese kale(Brassica albograbra L.H.Bailey)including 23 high inbred lines and 21 F1 generations were used to detect the sulforaphane contents in flower stalk of Chinese kale by RP-HPLC,and to analyze the changing rule in sulforaphane contents.The results showed that the changing range of sulforaphane contents in 44 Chinese kale was 46.89-419.45 mg·kg-1(DW),and there were significant differences between sulforaphane contents of the testing lines.Four lines were detected with higher sulforaphane contents,among them one line was F1 generation A86 with 419.45 mg·kg-1(DW)sulforaphane content,the other 3 were inbred lines A1,A17 and A53.Their sulforaphane contents were 298.50 mg·kg-1(DW),354.19 mg·kg-1(DW),361.06 mg·kg-1(DW),respectively.They could be used for breeding of Chinese kale in anti-cancer and marketing promotion.

  10. Growth and Quality of Chinese Kale Grown Under Different LEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintong XlN; Houcheng LlU; Shiwei SONG; Riyuan CHEN; Guangwen SUN

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of light quality on growth and quality of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey). [Method] Chinese kale was grown in hydroponic under three different Light Emitting Diode (LEDs) conditions [red:blue=8:1 (8R1B), red:blue=6:3 (6R3B) and red:green:blue=6:2:1 (6R2G1B), 12 h light, 50 μmol/(m2·s)]. Then its growth and quality indices including root and shoot fresh weight and dry weight, concentrations of soluble protein, vita-min C, nitrate, soluble phenols, flavonoids, soluble sugar, free amino acids, and ac-tivity of nitrate reductase were measured. [Result] There was no significant differ-ence in plant height, diameter of flower stalk and leaf number among three LED treatments. The fresh weight of shoot, root and plant in 8R1B and 6R2G1B was significantly higher than in 6R3B. The dry weight of shoot and plant in 8R1B was significantly higher than in 6R3B. The concentrations of vitamin C, soluble protein and soluble sugar in flower stalk of 6R3B treatment were significantly higher than those in 8R1B and 6R2G1B, while there was no remarkable difference in concen-trations of reducing sugar, soluble phenol, flavonoids and free amino acid among the three treatments. The nitrate concentration in flower stalk of 6R3B was signifi-cantly lower than in the other two treatments, and the activity of nitrate reductase in 6R3B was significantly higher than in the other two treatments. [Conclusion] The LED treatment of red:blue=6:3 was more suitable for the growth of Chinese kale.

  11. Perennial kales: collection rationalization and genetic relatedness to other Brassica oleracea crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Bas, N.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial kale is a rare leafy vegetable and forage crop that is mainly vegetatively propagated and therefore expensive to conserve ex situ. A genebank collection of 47 perennial kales and 34 reference samples from the main Brassica oleracea crop types were characterized with seven microsatellite ma

  12. Ultra-microstructure of Epicuticular Wax on Waxless Mutant of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey)%无蜡质芥蓝突变型叶表面蜡质超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 苏同兵; 卢桂香; 孙雷; 张凤兰; 何洪巨; 于拴仓; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 赵学志; 汪维红

    2015-01-01

    以亮叶无蜡质紫色芥蓝突变型紫。中花芥蓝和多蜡质紫色芥蓝野生型为试材,对芥蓝叶片发育过程中最外层的表面蜡质进行系统地观察,并对无蜡质突变型紫。中花芥蓝、多蜡质野生型芥蓝和普通绿色芥蓝(CK)的干物质量、VC、可溶性糖、粗纤维、蛋白质、花青苷等主要营养成分含量进行测定分析。结果表明:在叶片发育过程中,多蜡质野生型芥蓝的叶面蜡质明显多于无蜡质突变型紫。中花芥蓝;野生型芥蓝和紫。中花芥蓝叶片背面的蜡质均明显多于叶片腹面;野生型芥蓝叶片背面的蜡质退化速度明显慢于叶片腹面。无蜡质突变型紫。中花芥蓝的VC含量高于野生型芥蓝,而粗纤维(DW)含量低于野生型芥蓝,说明紫。中花芥蓝有利于改良现有芥蓝的营养品质,有望育成高VC含量、高花青苷含量、以生食为主的芥蓝品种。芥蓝叶片的无蜡质性状对多蜡质表现为隐性遗传,紫色对绿色表现为显性遗传。%Epicuticular waxes of leaves at 4 developing stages in Chinese kale(Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey)waxless mutant named‘Zi.zhonghuajielan’and wild type(WT)were observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM).Meanwhile,crude weight,VC,soluble sugar,crude fiber,protein and anthocyanins were measured. The results showed that epicuticular waxes at 4 growth periods of wild type were apparently higher than those of mutant. Epicuticular waxes at leaf abaxial of mutant and WT were higher than those of leaf adaxial.Epicuticular waxes at leaf abaxial of WT degenerated slowly than those of leaf adaxial. VC in waxless mutant was higher than that of WT,and dry weight of crude weight in waxless mutant was lower than that of WT. Thus,waxless mutant in Chinese kale can supply higher nutrition of VC and anthocyanins.Gene controlled wax biosynthesis in Chinese kale waxless mutant was recessive,while gene or genes controlled

  13. 埃塞俄比亚芥与芥蓝杂交获得异源三倍体及其细胞学研究%Synthesis and Cytological Studies of Allotriploid Interspecies between Brassica carinata and Chinese Kale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗双霞; 张成合; 陈雪平; 申二巧; 申书兴

    2013-01-01

    以埃塞饿比亚芥(2n =4x=BBCC=34)和芥蓝(2n =2x=CC=18)为材料,通过相互杂交获得了异源三倍体(2n=3x =BCC =26).该异源三倍体生长势较强;叶色等介于双亲之间;株型、花型和花大小偏向于埃塞俄比亚芥;花色与芥蓝的相同,为白花.减数分裂观察表明:在终变期,一般形成9个二价体和8个单价体(9Ⅱ+8 I),且B、C两组染色体表现出一定程度的分群现象;中期I,CC基因组的9个二价体排列在赤道板上,而B组的8个单价体游离在赤道板周围;后期Ⅰ分到两极的染色体以13/13和12/14占多数,偶见落后的染色体.该BCC异源三倍体的获得为创建CC+B染色体的异附加系和研究B、C基因组间的亲缘关系奠定了基础.%The allotriploid interspecies ( BCC) were obtained by reciprocal crosses between Brassica carinata (2n=4x = BBCC =34) and Chinese kale (2n=2x = CC =18). The interspecies displayed a stronger growth than that of parents and intermediated to the leaf color of their parents. The plant type .flower shape, and flower color tended to parent B. Carinata and the white flower color was the same as that of Chinese kale. Meiosis observation of the allotriploid showed that 9 bivalents and 8 univalents (9 Ⅱ + 8 Ⅰ ) were formed at diakinesis stage and the two kind of chromosomes (B and C) tended to separate into two groups. At metaphase Ⅰ stage,9 bivalents of CC genome arranged on equatorial plane and 8 univalents of B genome distributed around the equatorial plane. While at anaphase Ⅰ stage,the distributions of chromosomes with 13/13 or 12/14 were in the majority, including occasionally backward chromosomes. Obtaining of this allotriploid ( BCC) provided an important material for production of CC + B alien addition lines and study of chromosome homology between B and C genomes.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert;

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  15. Composition and antioxidant activity of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala raw and cooked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Bodziarczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Cabbage vegetables, like Brassica group, are perceived as very valuable food products. They have a very good nutritive value, high antioxidant activity and pro-healthy potential. Especially, kale (Brassica oleraceaL. var.acephala is characterized by good nutritional and pro-healthy properties, but this vegetable is not popular in Poland. The aim of this work was to assess the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of kale variety Winterbor F1 and investigation of cooking process on selected characteristics. Material and methods. The chemical composition and antioxidant activity were determined in leaves of kale Winterbor F1 variety after three subsequent years of growing. In one season, analyses were performed on raw and cooked leaves. Results. The investigated kale was characterized by high average contents of: β-carotene (6.40 mg/100 g f.m., vitamin C (62.27 mg/100 g f.m., alimentary fiber (8.39 g/100 g f.m. and ash (2.11 g/100 g f.m.. The average amounts of nitrites (III and (V were 3.36 mg NaNO2/kg f.m. and 1206.4 mg NaNO3/kg f.m., respectively. The investigated kale contained polyphenolic compounds at average level of 574.9 mg of chlorogenic acid/100 g f.m., and its antioxidant activity measured as ABTS radical scavenging ability was 33.22 μM Trolox/g of fresh vegetable. It was observed a significant lowering of antioxidant compounds as a result of cooking. The losses of vitamin C were at about 89%, polyphenols at the level of 56%, in calculation on dry mass of the product. The highest stability was shown in the case of beta-carotene, for which the losses were at about 5%. Antioxidant activity of cooked vegetable lowered and reached the level of 38%. There were also some losses observed in macro-components from 13% for zinc to 47% for sodium. The contents of harmful nitrites and nitrates in calculation on dry mass were significantly lower as a result of cooking, by 67% and 78%, respectively. Conclusion. Winterbor F1

  16. Cytological observation of the microspore development of Chinese kale and false pakchoi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijun LI; Yanrong ZHANG; Chunyan LI; Weiping LONG; Wengjia LU; Fuguang HAN

    2009-01-01

    The development process and morphology of the microspores in Chinese kale and false pakchoi were observed by using the whole stain-clearing technique. The results showed that the morphological characteristics of microspores were not only extremely similar, but were also in their development processes. The microspores at tetrad stage showed an arrangement of tetrahedral type, and after being released and passing through two mitoses, they developed gradually to form rotundly-shaped mature pollen grains containing three nuclei, one bigger aliment-ation nucleus and two smaller similar-sized generative nuclei. Determination of bud sizes at four typical micro-spore developmental stages revealed that the bud size had a stable heredity at each development stage of the micro-spores. The ratio of the bud length at the late uninucleate stage to the largest bud length differed little between Chinese kale and false pakchoi, ranging from 0.37 to 0.45 with an average of 0.41, though there was significant difference among their cultivars. It was concluded that the length of buds at late uninucleate stage can be estimated for undetermined cultivars of these two Brassica crops by multiplying the largest bud length with the following coefficient or regression equation: Y = 0.3898X + 0.1503, where X is the length of the largest bud.

  17. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Acephala).

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fernandes; Ferreres, F.; Oliveira, J; Valentão, P.; Pereira, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica group are the most commonly grown and consumed worldwide. Food plants with apparent cancer and cardiovascular di sease-preventing properties include several varieties of Brassica oleraceae. The majority of the herbivorous insect species are specialized feeders, for which the behavioral decision to accept a plant as food or oviposition substrate is mainly related with sensory information. Pieris insects (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores...

  18. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  19. SRAP Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Chinese Kale Germplasm%芥蓝种质资源遗传多样性的SRAP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 陈汉才; 张艳; 郭凤仪; 李向阳; 刘振翔; 张桂权

    2011-01-01

    调查56份芥蓝种质的植物学性状,并利用SRAP标记分析其遗传多样性.结果表明,从312对引物中筛选出24对引物,共扩增出稳定清晰的条带747条,其中多态性条带147条,多态性位点比例为19.6%.基于SRAP扩增结果,应用NTSYSpc2.1构建聚类树状图谱,供试材料间的遗传相似系数的变化范围是0.524~0.884,在相似系数为0.66的水平上,可将56份芥蓝分为6大类.由于芥蓝原产华南地区,其遗传多样性要小于芸薹属其它蔬菜.%The morphological characteristics of 56 Chinese kale accessions were investigated and the DNA polymorphism was analyzed by sequence related amplified polymorphism(SRAP)markers. A total of 747 bands were amplified using 24 primers selected from 312 primers, of whichl47 were polymorphic, The polymorphic percentage was 19.6% . Among these germplasm the genetic similarity was ranged from 0.524 to 0.884 by software NTSYSpc2.1 based on SRAP results, Cluster analysis showed that 56 Chinese kale germplasm were divided into six groups on genetic similarity of 0.66. Because Chinese kale was from south China, the genetic diversity of Chinese kale was smaller than other Brassica vegetables.

  20. Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.; Stuiver, C.Elisabeth E.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.,) to gaseous H2S resulted in a decreased sulfate uptake by the roots. At 0.2 mu l l(-1) H2S, a level sufficient to meet the sulfur need of plants for growth, the sulfate uptake was maximally decreased by 50% after 3 or 4 days of exposure. Higher levels up

  1. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Chorfi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty lightweight calves (206.4±3.2 kg were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture management intensive pasture; (Haylage timothy haylage; and (Kale 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP, albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with 323.6±4.2 kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance.

  2. 一个支持芥蓝起源于中国的分子证据%A Molecular Evidence Supporting Chinese Kale Origined in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅; 陈琛; 王庆彪; 庄木; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 张扬勇; 方智远

    2011-01-01

    有关芥蓝的起源存在地中海沿岸起源说和中国南方起源说,本试验利用EST-SSR分子标记技术对包括8份芥蓝在内的38份甘蓝类材料进行遗传多样性分析.通过引物筛选,选取61对EST-SSR引物扩增38份材料,共获得174条多态性好、稳定、清晰的条带,应用NTSYSpc2.11软件计算材料间的遗传相似性系数和UPGMA聚类分析.在相似系数为0.62处,所有甘蓝类材料分为三大类群:欧洲西北部沿海地区类群、地中海沿岸类群、中国华南地区类群,支持芥蓝起源于中国南方的观点,并且本试验选用的芥蓝按照叶形和叶面分为两类.%Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Baily ) was considered to be originated from Mediterranean coast or South China. In order to obtain the molecular evidence of the Chinese kale origination, EST-SSR markers were used to study the genetic diversity of Brassica oleracea. 38 samples were examined with 61 primer pairs of EST-SSR and amplified 174 fragments that were polymorphic, stable and clear. The genetic similarity coefficients were calculated by software NTSYSpc2.11 based on EST-SSR results. One detailed phylogenetic tree was generated by UPGMA clustering. All the samples were clustered into 3 groups on coefficient of 0.62, the group of Northwest Europe Coast, the group of Mediterranean Coast, and the group of South China, respectively. It suggested that Chinese kale was originated in South China. Chinese kale was clustered into 2 groups based on leaf shape and leaf surface in this study.

  3. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Chinese Kale Germplasm Resources by RAPD Markers%基于RAPD标记的芥蓝种质资源遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文文; 刘厚诚; 陈日远; 宋世威; 孙光闻

    2011-01-01

    调查了44份芥蓝种质的植物学性状,并利用RAPD分子标记分析了其遗传多样性.结果从150条随机引物中筛选出20个引物,20个引物共扩增出177条谱带,其中多态谱带105条,平均每个引物扩增出8.9条谱带和5-3条多态性谱,多态性比率为59.32%.基于RAPD标记,利用NTSYS-pc2.11构建了聚类树状图谱,遗传距离为0.70时,44份芥蓝资源可聚成6大类群.芥蓝种质存在着一定的遗传多样性,但原产华南而且主要产区也在华南,遗传多样性要小于芸薹属其他蔬菜.%The morphological characteristics of 44 Chinese kale accessions were investigated and the DNA polymorphism was analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. 20 primers selected from 150 primers amplified a total of 177 bands, of which 105 were polymorphic, with an average of 8.9 bands and 5.3 polymorphic fragments per primer. The polymorphic percentage was 59.32%. The dendrogram based on RAPD data was constructed by NTSYS-pc2.11. Cluster analysis showed that 44 Chinese kale accessions could be divided into six groups at the level of D=0.70. Because Chinese kale was from south China and the main area was in south China, the genetic diversity of Chinese kale was smaller than other Brassica vegetables.

  4. Control of Chinese-kale damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum by antifungal metabolites of Trichoderma virens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiradej Chamswarng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven strains of Trichoderma virens were isolated from Chinese-kale planting soil in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Efficacy of those isolates to inhibit mycelial growth and overgrow on mycelia ofPythium aphanidermatum, a causal agent of damping-off on Chinese-kale, were determined by a dual culture test. All strains significantly inhibited growth and overgrew on mycelia of P. aphanidermatum on potato dextrose agar (PDA as compared with the control. Strains T-NST-01, T-NST-05 and T-NST-07 gave high values of inhibition by 85.5, 82.5 and 78.5%, respectively. For efficacy to overgrow on mycelia of pathogen test, strains T-NST-05, T-NST-07 and T-NST-01 provided 48.3, 47.0 and 46.1% of mycelial overgrowth, respectively. Antifungal metabolites were extracted from three promising strains and tested against mycelial growth and sporangium production of P. aphanidermatum. The results showed that 1,000 mg/L of all metabolites completely inhibited mycelial growth and sporangium production. Under laboratory condition, all metabolites (1,000 mg/L significantly increased the number of Chinese-kale seedling germination, especially the metabolites from T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 provided germination of 92.5 and 87.5%, respectively. Under glasshouse conditions, Chinese-kale seedlings treated with 1,000 mg/L of metabolites from strains T-NST-01 and T-NST-07 survived by 90.5 and 87.5%, respectively, while the control 1 (sterile water and control 2 (2% methanol had 19.0 and 18.5% of survived seedlings, respectively. In P. aphanidermatum viability test, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum treated with antifungal metabolites from three strains of T. virens showed no visible growth, while the control with 2% methanol or sterile water, mycelia of P. aphanidermatum rapidly grew and covered whole surface of PDA in of the Petri dish within 4 days.

  5. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of Myzus persicae (Hemíptera: Aphididae raised on Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala (kale and Raphanus sativus L. (radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peppe Fernanda Borja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variability generated by phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting evolutionary patterns in insect-plant systems. Given sufficient variation for plasticity, host race formation can be favored and maintained, even simpatrically. The plasticity of size and performance (assessed by the lifetime fitness index r m of six clones of Myzus persicae was tested, with replicates allowed to develop on two hosts, kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala and radish (Raphanus sativus. The clones showed significant variability in their plasticity. Reaction norms varied through generations and negative genetic correlation, although not significant, tend to increase with the duration of host use. The lack of plasticity in lifetime fitness among generalist clones occurred as an after-effect of the highly plastic determinants. Significant morphological plasticity in host used was observed, but no variation in the plastic responses (GxE interaction was detected. Strong selection for a larger size occurred among individuals reared on radish, the most unfavorable host. Morphological plasticity in general body size (in a multivariate sense was not linear related to fitness plasticity. These observations suggest that a high potential for the evolution of host divergence favors host race formation.

  7. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk....../kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced...... increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest...

  8. Expression of ascorbate peroxidase gene of Chinese kale in E.coli%大肠杆菌中芥蓝抗坏血酸过氧化物酶基因的高效表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄加保; 唐蕾; 华子安; 毛忠贵

    2013-01-01

    将芥蓝抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(Apx)在大肠杆菌中高效表达.以芸薹属植物apx保守区基因序列为基础,利用PCR,RACE技术从芥蓝中扩增得到全长为753 bp的芥蓝apx编码基因,用DNAMAN V6软件分析该基因氨基酸组成,计算出蛋白分子质量约为27.6 kDa.通过构建重组质粒pET-28a-apx,转化大肠杆菌E.coliBL21,实现了芥蓝Apx的可溶性表达.通过单因素实验优化诱导表达条件,结果表明:0.2 mmol/L IPTG,23℃诱导培养10 h为最佳诱导条件.采用Ni2+亲和层析,纯化了重组蛋白,并得到重组酶最适反应条件为pH6.5和40℃.为进一步研究Apx的生理特性和功能打下基础.%In order to express ascorbate peroxidase (Apx) gene of Chinese kale in E.coli,we amplified apx coding sequence of Chinese kale by means of PCR and RACE based on the conserved sequence of ascorbate peroxidase gene in Brassica.Analyzed and calculated by DNAMAN V6,the molecular weight of recombinant protein was approximately 27.6 kDa.We constructed recombinant plasmid pET-28a-apx and transformed it into E.coli BL21.The Apx was expressed successfully in E.coli BL21 with the soluble form.The results from single-factor experiment showed that the optimal condition for Apx expression was induction at 23 ℃ for 10 hours with the addition of 0.2 mmol/L IPTG.The recombinant protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography and the best reaction condition for the enzyme was at pH6.5 and 40 ℃.The results provided the basis for the physiological and functional research of ℃hinese kale Apx.

  9. Studies on Main Nutritional Components of Chinese Kale Among Different Organs%芥蓝不同器官主要营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勃; 方莉; 刘娜; 闫会转; 张雅君; 施倩倩; 汪俏梅

    2011-01-01

    The variation of the contents of soluble solids, reducing sugars, soluble proteins,chlorophyll, carotenoids, vitamin C, and total phenols, as well as antioxidant capacities and glucosinolate profiles among different organs were investigated using Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey) of typical varieties as material.The results showed that the contents of nutrients exhibited remarkable differences among different organs.In general, the highest contents of total phenols, vitamin C and soluble solids were found in inflorescences, and the significant differences existed between inflorescences and other organs.The contents of chlorophyll, carotenoids, soluble proteins and antioxidant capacities in leaves were remarkably higher than those in other organs.The roots contained markedly higher concentrations of glucosinolates, especially gluconasturtiin and glucoerucin, than those in other organs.Great differences in the nutrition value of bolting stem, the edible part of Chinese kale were observed among different varieties.JL-02 had the highest amounts of total phenols and antioxidant capacities.The significantly higher level of glucoraphanin and total glucosinolates was found in Dengfengzhongchi.%选择典型的芥蓝品种为材料,分析不同器官可溶性固形物、还原糖、可溶性蛋白、叶绿素、类胡萝卜素,维生素C和总多酚含量,以及抗氧化能力、芥予油苷组分和含量的差异.结果表明:芥蓝不同器官间营养成分的含量差异显著,总体上花序中的总多酚、维生素C和可溶性固形物含量显著高于其它器官;叶片中的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、可溶性蛋白和抗氧化能力均显著高于其它器官;根系中的芥子油苷,特别是苯乙基芥子油苷和4-甲基硫丁基芥子油苷的含量均显著高于其它器官.芥蓝不同品种间产品器官花薹的营养价值差异显著,如'JL-02'的总多酚含量和抗氧化能力明显高于其它品种,'登峰中迟'的4-甲基硫氧

  10. 基于 SSR 分子标记的芥蓝遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity of Chinese Kale Based on SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 卢桂香; 张娜; 于拴仓; 张凤兰; 隋光磊; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 汪维红; 苏同兵

    2014-01-01

    Classification and genetic diversity of local varieties in Chinese kale were studied before .With the extending of Chinese kale hybrids ,they can show higher heterosis and better benefit .Therefore study on genetic di-versity of inbred lines is important now .In this research ,98 Chinese kale inbred lines were analyzed by 15 polymor-phic SSR markers which were selected from 55 pairs of primers locating on 9 chromosomes of cabbage .65 polymor-phic bands were detected by these 15 pairs of primers .UPGMA method was used to determine genetic diversities of 98 Chinese kale inbred lines .They were initially clustered intoⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ groups with coefficient 0.71.Re-sults can be used to breed Chinese kale including selection and match of parents ,identification of hybrids and pro-tection of resources .%芥蓝的研究多集中在分类、常规种资源遗传多样性等方面。随着芥蓝杂交种的问世,杂交种的优势越来越突出,市场效果明显,因此,对芥蓝自交系的遗传多样性等研究尤为重要。选取分布在甘蓝9条染色体上的55对SSR引物,从中筛选出多态性好、分布均匀的15条SSR引物对98份芥蓝自交系进行分析,共得到65个多态性带型。采用UPGMA方法构建了一张聚类图,在相似系数为0.71时,将98份芥蓝自交系初步分为1,2,3,4,5组。研究结果为芥蓝育种中的亲本选配、杂交种鉴定和资源保护等提供了依据。在试配芥蓝新组合时,应选择遗传距离较远的自交系作为重点材料,后代的杂种优势会更显著。

  11. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in leafy kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) landraces, cultivars and wild populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, G.;

    2011-01-01

    AFLP markers were used to characterize diversity and asses the genetic structure among 17 accessions of kale landraces, cultivars and wild populations from Europe. The range of average gene diversity in accessions was 0.11–0.27. Several landraces showed higher levels of diversity than the wild...... populations and one cultivar had the lowest diversity measures. The landraces that were most genetically diverse were from areas where kales are known to be extensively grown, suggesting in situ conservation in these areas as a supplement to storage of seeds in gene banks. An analysis of molecular variance...... the relationship among them is due to seed dispersal through human interactions. Our results indicate that a kale population found in a natural habitat in Denmark was probably not truly wild but most likely an escape from a cultivated Danish kale that had subsequently become naturalized....

  12. 芥蓝菜薹不同节间芥子油苷组分及含量分析%Composition and content of glucosinolates in different sections of bolting stems of Chinese kale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    腊贵晓; 刘国顺; 杨俞娟

    2011-01-01

    The composition and content of glucosinolates ( GSs) in different bolting stem sections ( Bol-ting stem was divided into four sections from the bottom to top) of three Chinese kale ( Brassica albo-glabra L. ) cultivars (CH, CHCT and QNYQ) were analyzed by HPLC and identified by LC-MS. E-leven kinds of GSs were identified including seven aliphatic GSs ( glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoraphanin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin and glucoerucin) and four indolyl GSs (4-hydroxyglucobrassi-cin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrassincin) , except for that in QNYQ, there was no glucoerucin in the first section and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin in the first and second section of bolting stems identified. In the three Chinese kale cultivars, total GS content, total aliphatic GS content and total indolyl GS content were all achieved in the top section of bolting stems in Chinese kale, however, the change trend of different GS in bolting stem sections were not consistent.%采用高效液相色谱及液相色谱-质谱联用法,以芥蓝(Brassica alboglabra L.)3个品种‘中花’、‘澄海粗条,和'全年油青’为材料,对菜薹不同节间(菜薹从膨大处到顶端依次平分为4节)芥子油苷组分和含量进行了鉴定和分析.结果表明,除4-甲硫基丁基芥子油苷在全年油青菜薹的第1节中没有检测到、4-羟基-3-吲哚甲基芥子油苷在全年油青菜薹的第1节位和第2节位中没有检测到外,在3个芥蓝品种菜薹的其它节均检测到11种芥子油苷,包括7种脂肪族芥子油苷(3-甲基亚硫酰丙基芥子油苷、2-羟基-3-丁烯基芥子油苷、2-丙烯基芥子油苷、4-甲基亚硫酰丁基芥子油苷、5-甲基亚硫酰戊基芥子油苷、3-丁烯基芥子油苷和4-甲硫基丁基芥子油苷)和4种吲哚族芥子油苷(4-羟基-3-甲基吲哚芥子油苷、3-吲哚甲基芥子油苷、4-甲氧基-3-吲哚甲基芥子油苷和1-甲氧基-3-吲哚甲基芥子油苷).在3个芥蓝品种

  13. 芥蓝新品种'夏翠芥蓝'%A New Chinese Kale Cultivar'Xiacui Jielan'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 陈汉才; 宋钊; 张艳; 曹健; 陈琼贤

    2011-01-01

    '夏翠芥蓝'是利用自交不亲和系配制的杂交一代芥蓝新品种.早熟,品质优,商品性好;叶片椭圆形,叶长18.5 cm,叶宽18.1 cm;菜薹长17~20 cm,薹粗2.0~2.5 cm,单薹质量110~150g;耐涝性和抗病性较强,适应性较广.广州地区适播期8月-10月上旬.%‘Xiacui Jielan' is an early-maturing cultivar which crossed by self-incompatibility system and Chinese kale. It is good in quality. The leaves are oval, 18.5 cm in length and 18.1 cm in width. Main sprouts are 17 to 20 cm, 2.0 to 2.5 cm in thick, with 110 - 150 g in single sprout weight. ‘Xiacui Jielan' showed waterlogging tolerance, strong disease resistance and adaptability. It is suitable for producing in August to early October in Guangzhou Province.

  14. Genetic Background Screen of Inter-specific Hybrids between SSR Marker Assisted Chinese Kale and Rapeseed%SSR标记辅助芥蓝×甘蓝型油菜种间杂交后代的遗传背景筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海龙; 方智远; 杨丽梅; 刘玉梅; 庄木; 李占省; 吕红豪; 张扬勇

    2015-01-01

    To screen the genetic background and increase the back-cross breeding efficiency of the interspecific hybrids and their back-cross offsprings between Chinese kale(Brassica oleracea var.alboglabra, CC,2n=2x=18) and rapeseed(Brassica napus,AACC),the F1 inter-specific hybrids and their BC1 backcross offsprings between Ogu-CMS Chinese kale and rapaseed were obtained through hand pollination combined with embryo rescue technology. A total of 220 SSR primers were used to detect polymorphisms between the parents, in which 51 pairs of SSR primers showed polymorphism. 33 pairs of primers were selected to analyze the genetic background of 3 F1 plants and 35 BC1 plants,with even distribution on 9 chromosomes and stable amplifications. The results of analysis by software NTSYSpc2.11a showed that the similarity coefficients between F1 plants and rapeseed was 0.74,which indicated that the genetic background of F1 plants was closer to rapeseed than to Chinese kale,while the similarity coefficients between BC1 plants and Chinese kale varied from 0.26-0.65,with big genetic background differences among BC1 plants.In all 35 BC1 plants,the genetic background of individual 14Y1 was the closest to Chinese kale,which was further confirmed by morphological observation.Thus,the individual 14Y1 could be used as donor plant for further backcross.%为筛选芥蓝×甘蓝型油菜种间杂交后代的遗传背景,加速回交转育进程,采用蕾期授粉结合胚挽救手段进行远缘杂交,获得芥蓝和甘蓝型油菜的种间杂种F1和BC1群体。利用已有的220对SSR引物对双亲进行多态性筛选,获得多态性引物51对。挑选均匀分布在甘蓝9条染色体上、扩增稳定、条带清晰的33对多态性SSR引物,对3株F1单株和35株BC1单株进行遗传背景筛选。NTSYSpc2.11a分析结果表明:F1植株的遗传背景与亲本甘蓝型油菜更为接近,遗传相似系数为0.74;而BC1植株的遗传背景差异较大,与亲本

  15. SSR标记辅助芥蓝×甘蓝型油菜种间杂交后代的遗传背景筛选%Genetic Background Screen of Inter-specific Hybrids between SSR Marker Assisted Chinese Kale and Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海龙; 方智远; 杨丽梅; 刘玉梅; 庄木; 李占省; 吕红豪; 张扬勇

    2015-01-01

    To screen the genetic background and increase the back-cross breeding efficiency of the interspecific hybrids and their back-cross offsprings between Chinese kale(Brassica oleracea var.alboglabra, CC,2n=2x=18) and rapeseed(Brassica napus,AACC),the F1 inter-specific hybrids and their BC1 backcross offsprings between Ogu-CMS Chinese kale and rapaseed were obtained through hand pollination combined with embryo rescue technology. A total of 220 SSR primers were used to detect polymorphisms between the parents, in which 51 pairs of SSR primers showed polymorphism. 33 pairs of primers were selected to analyze the genetic background of 3 F1 plants and 35 BC1 plants,with even distribution on 9 chromosomes and stable amplifications. The results of analysis by software NTSYSpc2.11a showed that the similarity coefficients between F1 plants and rapeseed was 0.74,which indicated that the genetic background of F1 plants was closer to rapeseed than to Chinese kale,while the similarity coefficients between BC1 plants and Chinese kale varied from 0.26-0.65,with big genetic background differences among BC1 plants.In all 35 BC1 plants,the genetic background of individual 14Y1 was the closest to Chinese kale,which was further confirmed by morphological observation.Thus,the individual 14Y1 could be used as donor plant for further backcross.%为筛选芥蓝×甘蓝型油菜种间杂交后代的遗传背景,加速回交转育进程,采用蕾期授粉结合胚挽救手段进行远缘杂交,获得芥蓝和甘蓝型油菜的种间杂种F1和BC1群体。利用已有的220对SSR引物对双亲进行多态性筛选,获得多态性引物51对。挑选均匀分布在甘蓝9条染色体上、扩增稳定、条带清晰的33对多态性SSR引物,对3株F1单株和35株BC1单株进行遗传背景筛选。NTSYSpc2.11a分析结果表明:F1植株的遗传背景与亲本甘蓝型油菜更为接近,遗传相似系数为0.74;而BC1植株的遗传背景差异较大,与亲本

  16. A New Chinese Kale F1Hybrid-‘Jinlyu’%芥蓝新品种金绿的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 刘振翔; 刘自珠; 郑岩松; 张华; 邹集文; 李光光; 黄红弟

    2014-01-01

    金绿是利用雄性不育系S6-3-2A为母本,自交系G028-3-3为父本配制成的芥蓝一代杂种,早中熟,播种至初收61 d(天),长势强,植株健壮,直立较紧凑;叶片卵圆形,深绿色,叶柄较短,薹叶较小,薹色绿,菜薹紧实匀条,抽薹整齐,花球大,齐口花,质爽脆味甜,纤维少,商品综合性状好,品质优。主薹高23.5 cm,横径2.3 cm,质量165 g。抗逆性强,对霜霉病和软腐病的抗性比对照绿宝强。每667 m2产量为1 030~2 000 kg。适宜全国各地种植。%‘Jinlyu’ is a Chinese kale F1 hybrid developed by crossing male sterile line S6-3-2A as female parent,and inbred line G028-3-3 as male parent. ‘Jinlyu’ is an early-medium maturing cultivar. It takes 61 days from sowing to first harvest. The plant has strong growth vigor,erect and compact plant type. Its leaf blades are of oval round shape with dark green color. The leaf stalk is short. Its head is large in size. It tastes crspy and sweet with less fiber. It has good commercial characteristics and superior guality. Its major sprout is 23.5 cm in height,2.3 cm in diameter,and about 165.0 g in weight. ‘Jinlyu’ grows vigorously and is highly resistant to stress. Its resistance to downy mildeu and soft rot is better than the contrast ‘Lyubao’. It can yield 15.5-30.0 t·hm-2. It is suitable to be planted all over the China.

  17. Discrepancy and Cluster Analysis of Nitrate Content in Different Cultivars of Chinese Kale%不同芥蓝品种硝酸盐含量的差异及聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋世威; 廖国秀; 刘厚诚; 孙光闻; 陈日远

    2012-01-01

    在水培条件下研究27个芥蓝品种的生物量及硝酸盐含量.结果表明,芥蓝的生物量与成熟期成显著的正相关性,晚熟品种的生物量大,早熟品种的生物量较小.芥蓝不同品种间硝酸盐含量差异显著,薹茎和叶片都易积累硝酸盐,总体上薹茎硝酸盐含量高于叶片.聚类分析将27个芥蓝品种划分为硝酸盐含量低、中、高3个类群,硝酸盐含量低的类群(9个品种)生物量小,硝酸盐含量高的类群(5个品种)生物量大,硝酸盐含量中等的类群(13个品种)生物量中等.芥蓝丰富的硝酸盐积累类型及其与生物量的密切相关性,为低硝酸盐品种选育及分子机理研究奠定了基础.%Biomass and nitrate content in 27 cultivars of Chinese kale were studied under hydroponie conditions. The results showed that, the hiomass and maturity stage of Chinese kale had significant positive correlation. Late maturity cultivars acquired large biomass, and early maturity cultivars acquired small biomass. There was significant difference of nitrate content in different Chinese kale cultivars. Nitrate was easily accumulated in both flower stalks and leaves, and generally the nitrate content in flower stalks was higher than that in leaves. 27 cultivars of Chinese kale could be divided into 3 groups of low, medium and high nitrate content according to cluster analysis. The group of low nitrate content (9 cultivars) had lower biomass, and the group of high nitrate content (5 cultivars) had higher biomass, while the group of medium nitrate content (13 cultivars) had the medium biomass. Chinese kale had abundant genotypes in nitrate accumulation, and nitrate content had close relationship with biomass. Thi3 provided the foundation for low nitrate breeding and molecular mechanism study of Chinese kale.

  18. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...... ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich...... and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  19. Study on stability of peroxidase in Chinese kale leaves%芥蓝叶片过氧化物酶稳定性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王趁趁; 丁超; 唐蕾; 王海鸥; 毛忠贵

    2012-01-01

    Peroxidase(POD) has a variety of physiological functions and application.POD in Chinese kale leaves was extracted and stabilizers were added in order to improve the stability of POD.The effects of temperature,pH,sugars(glucose,sucrose,trehalose),polyols(glycerol,sorbitol),salts(calcium chloride,magnesium sulfate),proteins(albumin,glutin) on the stability of POD were studied.Results indicated that the optimal pH of kale POD was 5.6,and the optimal temperature was 55℃.1% glycerol,1g/L sorbitol,1g/L trehalose,1g/L calcium chloride,1g/L magnesium sulfate and 1g/L glutin could enhance the stability of POD.Among them,calcium chloride and glutin were most effective,and the stabilities of POD were improved by 28% and 26% respectively.The addition of stabilizers could improve kale POD stability effectively.%过氧化物酶(POD)具有多种生理功能和应用价值。以提高芥蓝叶片POD稳定性为目的,从幼苗的叶片中提取POD,考察温度、pH对酶活性的影响;以及添加糖类(葡萄糖、蔗糖、海藻糖)、多元醇类(甘油、山梨醇)、无机盐类(氯化钙、硫酸镁)和蛋白质类(白蛋白、明胶)对提高POD稳定性的作用。结果表明:芥蓝POD的最适pH为5.6,最适温度为55℃,体积分数为1%的甘油、1g/L山梨醇、1g/L海藻糖以及1g/L氯化钙、1g/L硫酸镁和1g/L明胶能够提高POD的稳定性,其中氯化钙和明胶的效果最为明显,与对照比较分别提高了28%和26%。添加保护剂能够有效地提高芥蓝POD的稳定性。

  20. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  1. Cluster Analysis on Yield and Quality Characters of Different Chinese Kale Varieties%不同芥蓝品种产量及品质性状聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋世威; 廖国秀; 刘厚诚; 孙光闻; 陈日远

    2011-01-01

    采用系统聚类法对27个芥蓝商品品种的形态、产量及品质性状进行聚类分析.结果表明,27个芥蓝品种在形态和产量性状上分为4个类群,第Ⅱ类群又可分为3个亚群,其中Ⅱ-1亚群的3个品种的株型和产量表现优良.27个芥蓝品种在品质性状上分为4个类群,第Ⅰ类群又可分为2个亚群,其中Ⅰ-1亚群的10个品种的品质综合表现优良.芥蓝各品种在熟性、形态、产量和品质等方面差异明显,在实际中需根据生产目标选择适宜的品种.%Cluster analysis on plant morphology, yield and quality characters of 27 commercial Chinese kale varieties was made. The results showed that, 27 Chinese kale varieties were divided into 4 groups according to morphology and yield characters. Croup II could further be divided into 3 subgroups, among which 3 varieties in II -1 subgroup performed well on plant morphology and yield characters. 27 Chinese kale varieties were divided into 4 groups.according to quality characters. Croup I could further be divided into 2 subgroups, among which 10 varieties in I -1 subgroup performed well on integrated quality characters. The maturity, morphology, yield and quab'ty of Chinese kale varieties were obviously different, thus suitable varieties should be chosen according to production aims in practice.

  2. Studies on Changes of Reactive Oxygen Species and Glucosinolates in Chinese Kale Infected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum%芥蓝感染核盘菌过程中活性氧和芥子油苷的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙勃; 汪炳良; 闫会转; 沈望舒; 张芬; 刘娜; 汪俏梅

    2012-01-01

    The changes in the levels of disease symptoms,water content,relative electrical conductivity,reactive oxygen species(ROS)and glucosinolates were investigated during the course of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection of Chinese kale(Brassica albograbra Bailey).The results showed that,during the infection,brown lesions appeared from the infection sites,and gradually expanded to the entire leaves.The relative water content decreased gradually,while the relative electrical conductivity increased,and ROS(hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion)accumulated steadily.The contents of glucobrassicin,4-methoxyglucobrassicin,neoglucobrassicin and sinigrin increased at the beginning and then decreased,but the contents of gluconapin and progoitrin declined.These results suggested that glucosinolates,especially indole glucosinolates might be involved in the defense of Chinese kale against S.sclerotiorum.%分析了核盘菌侵染芥蓝过程中,芥蓝的发病症状、含水量、电导率、活性氧和芥子油苷的变化。结果表明,在侵染过程中,侵染部位产生褐色病斑,并逐渐扩大到全叶。叶片含水量逐渐下降,电导率不断上升,活性氧(过氧化氢和超氧阴离子)大量累积,吲哚-3-甲基芥子油苷、4-甲氧基-吲哚-3-甲基芥子油苷、1-甲氧基-吲哚-3-甲基芥子油苷和烯丙基芥子油苷含量先上升后下降,3-丁烯基芥子油苷和2-羟基-3-丁烯基芥子油苷含量逐渐下降。研究表明芥子油苷,特别是吲哚类芥子油苷可能参与芥蓝对核盘菌侵染的防卫反应。

  3. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  4. A New Chinese Kale Cultivar 'Qiusheng Jielan'%芥蓝新品种‘秋盛芥蓝’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 陈汉才; 张艳; 宋钊

    2011-01-01

    ‘秋盛芥蓝’是利用自交不亲和系配制的杂交一代芥蓝新品种。中早熟,品质优,商品性好;叶片圆形,叶长20cm,叶宽21cm,菜薹长15cm,薹粗2.2~2.8cm,单薹质量120~180g;耐涝性和抗病性较强,适应性较广。广州地区适播期为8—11月下旬。%'Qiusheng Jielan'Chinese kale is a middle-early maturing cultivar which crossed by self-incompatibility system.It has good quality.The leaves are round,20 cm in length and 21 cm in width.Main sprouts are 15 cm long,2.2 cm to 2.8 cm in thick.The single sprout weight is 120-180 g'.Qiusheng Jielan'showed waterlogging tolerance,strong disease resistance and adaptability.It is suitable for producing in Guangzhou area in August to late November.

  5. Comparison of Middle-late Maturing Chinese Kale Cutivars%中迟熟芥蓝品种比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锦乾; 黄爱政; 陈仕军

    2013-01-01

    为了筛选出适合江门市种植和消费习惯的优良芥蓝品种,于2012年冬季对引进的6个中迟熟芥蓝品种进行了比较试验。研究结果表明,中花芥蓝产量最高,晚熟;秋盛芥蓝早熟性好,产量居第二,且两个品种均株型美观,生长整齐,纤维少,品质优,抗性好,适合在江门地区种植及推广。%In order to screen out the suitable cultivars meeting the cultivation and consumption habits of Jiangmen market, we carried out the comparative test of six introduced middle-late maturing Chinese kale cultivars in the winter of 2012. The results showed that the late-maturing cultivar Zhonghua possessed highest yield, while the middle-maturing cultivar Qiusheng took the second place, and those two cultivars grew tidily, with excellent plant type, less fiber, better quality and stronger resistance, thus they were suitable for cultivation and promotion in Jiangmen.

  6. 芥蓝新品种‘秋盛芥蓝’的选育%A New Chinese Kale Cultivar ‘Qiusheng Jielan'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 陈汉才; 张艳; 宋钊

    2011-01-01

    ‘秋盛芥蓝’是利用自交不亲和系配制的杂交一代芥蓝新品种.中早熟,品质优,商品性好;叶片圆形,叶长20 cm,宽21 cm,菜薹长15 cm,薹粗2.2~2.8 cm,单薹重120~180g;耐涝性和抗病性较强;适应性较广,广州地区适播期8~11月下旬.%Qiusheng Jielan Chinese kale is a medium-early maturing cultivar which was crossed by the self-incompatibility system. It has good quality. The leaves are round, 20 cm in length and 21 cm in width. Main sprouts are 15 cm long, 2.2 to 2.8 cm thick. The single sprout weight is 120~ 180 g. ' Qiusheng Jielan' showed waterlogging tolerance, strong disease resistance and adaptability. It is suitable for producing in Guangzhou area in August to late November.

  7. 羽衣甘蓝种子主要品质性状的表现及其相关性%Performance and Correlation of Main Quality Traits in Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala) Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐章林; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    148 lines of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) from germplasm resource and advanced generation were selected randomly to analyze the characteristics and correlation of oil, protein, glucosinolates and seven fatty acid compositions in mature seed. The results showed that the average contents of oil and protein were 29.48% and 45.13% respectively, with a total content of oil plus protein was 74.61%. Maximum variation was observed on glucosinolates with a coefficient of variation reached 31.72% . Among .seven fatty acid compositions, the contents of oleic and erucic acids were the highest, followed by linoleic, palmitic d stearic acids were the lowest in mature seed. Except glucosinolates and stearic acid, the rest 9 traits presented a jingle-peak normal distribution. Correlation analysis indicated that significant or very significant correlations were ex stent among the quality traits and this was similar to that of three types of rapeseed ( B. napus L. , B. campestris L. i nd B. juncea Coss. ) . There were some excellent germplasm resources in kale which could be utilized directly in bleeding of high quality rapeseed.%随机挑选148份羽衣甘蓝种质资源和高世代材料,分析了成熟种子的含油量、蛋白质、硫苷和7种主要脂肪酸成分的表现特征及其相关性.结果表明:羽表甘蓝成熟种子平均含油量为29.48%,平均蛋白质含量为45.13%,含油量和蛋白质总量为74.61%.硫苷含量的变幅最大,变异系数为31.72%.7种主要脂肪酸成分中,油酸和芥酸的含量较高,其次为亚油酸,棕榈酸和硬脂酸的含量较低.除硫苷含量和硬脂酸含量外,其余9个性状的表现均呈单峰正态分布.相关性分析表明,大多数性状间都具有显著或极显著的相关性,这与对甘蓝型、白菜型和芥菜型3种类型油菜的研究结果相一致.在羽衣甘蓝中存在一些优异的种质资源,通过筛选可以在油菜优质育种中加以利用.

  8. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  9. Reproductive fitness of outcrossed hybrids between transgenic broccoli (brassica oleracea) carrying the ipt transgene and conventional varieties of kale, broccoli and cauliflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens are potential carriers for genetically modified crops to transfer genetic materials horizontally to other plants. For phanerogams, pollen viability and cross-compatibility are critical factors for successful outcross hybridization. To evaluate this possibility, this project investigated pollen viability and pod setting rate by comparing broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Planck) and broccoli transformed with the isopentenyl transferase (ipt) gene. Both served as pollen donors and four other varieties as pollen receptors to determine outcross rates. For pollen viability, F1 progeny was higher (p?0.05) for the cross of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue significantly by FDA (fluorescein diacetate) assay. Higher successful hybrids were observed for transgenic ipt broccoli with Fu Yue, Li Syue and Green King. As pollen properties, number and grain diameter were significantly larger (p?0.05) in hybrid combinations of transgenic ipt broccoli with Li Syue and Green King significantly (p?0.05). The pod setting rates were higher while transgenic ipt broccoli served as donor plant. These results analyzing pollen properties between transgenic crops with possible outcross candidates would serve as one of those critical strategies for evaluating environmental biosafety issues for transgenic crops. (author)

  10. 不同灌溉上限对芥蓝生长及农艺性状的影响%Effect of Different Irrigation Upper Limit on Growth and Agronomic Traits of Chinese Kale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹健; 张白鸽; 陈琼贤; 宋钊

    2015-01-01

    用相同灌溉频率、不同灌溉上限研究土壤含水量对芥蓝生长及农艺性状的影响。结果表明:增加土壤水分显著提早芥蓝生育期,水分亏缺使生长受到抑制,同时引起不同器官的生长速度及其性状差异;土壤水分亏缺显著影响芥蓝的叶长、叶宽、叶面积,以第8叶位左右叶片影响较大;根和茎的性状总体上随着土壤水分的增加而逐步增加,基茎长与土壤含水量之间呈极显著线性相关;生物产量、菜薹产量和薹叶比总体上随着土壤水分增加逐步提高,土壤水分较多使经济系数下降,菜薹产量、薹叶比和薹粗均有所下降。通过调节土壤水分能控制芥蓝生长和农艺性状,提高菜薹产量和品质。%The influence of different soil moisture on the growth and agronomic traits of Chinese kale is studied by employing the same irrigation frequency while different amount treatments .The results show that increasing soil moisture greatly accelerates the com‐modity maturity of Chinese kale ,but lack of water largely lags developmental period and induces discrepancy on the growth and de‐velopmental speed of each organ and relevant traits ;the size and area of leaf are significantly affected by soil water shortage and a‐round the 8th leaf is the most susceptible one ;in general ,the traits of root and stem of Chinese kale gradually increase with an in‐crease of soil moisture ,while a remarkable positive linear correlation is observed between base-stem length and soil moisture ;the bi‐omass ,yield and stem-leaf ratio increase with an increase of soil moisture ,but excessive water induces reduction of economic coeffi‐cient and yield ,as well as stem-leaf ratio ,stem thickness .Thus adjusting soil moisture can control the growth and agronomic traits of Chinese kale to improve yield and quality .

  11. Effects of Iron Form on Growth and Quality of Hydroponic Chinese Kale%不同铁源对水培芥蓝生长及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蔚; 王坚; 宋世威; 刘厚诚; 孙光闻; 陈日远

    2015-01-01

    The effects of iron forms on growth and quality of Chinese kale cultivated in nutrient solution were studied to look for a best iron source for hydroponics. Five iron forms were selected:EDTA-Fe, FeC6 H5 O7 ,FeCl3 ,FeSO4 and Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 . The results showed that iron forms significantly influenced the growth and quality of Chinese kale. Compared with the treatment of inorganic iron [ FeCl3 , FeSO4 and Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 ] ,the organic iron ( EDTA-Fe, FeC6 H5 O7 ) significantly improved the dry weight, content of chlorophyll and vitamin C ( leaf ) . The results also indicated that for the treatment with EDTA-Fe, the growth and quality of Chineses kale,the iron absorptive amount were higher than the other treatments,but the content of the nitrate was lower than the other treatments. Therefore, the effect of organic iron on growth and quality was better than that of inorganic iron for Chinese kale planted in the nutrient solution. And EDTA-Fe showed to be the most suitable type of iron because of its significant improvement for the growth and quality of Chinese kale.%在微量元素通用配方的基础上设置EDTA-Fe、FeC6H5O7、FeCl3、FeSO4、Fe2(SO4)35种不同铁源处理,进行芥蓝水培试验,研究不同铁源对水培芥蓝生长及品质的影响,为选择水培芥蓝最适铁源提供依据。结果表明,不同铁源供铁显著影响芥蓝的生长和品质。有机铁源( EDTA -Fe、FeC6 H5 O7)处理的芥蓝全株干质量、叶绿素含量、可溶性糖含量、薹叶维生素C含量显著高于无机铁源[ FeCl3、FeSO4、Fe2( SO4)3]。 EDTA-Fe处理的芥蓝生长与品质指标及全铁总吸收量均高于其他处理,而硝酸盐含量显著低于其他处理。因此,有机铁源对水培芥蓝生长和品质的影响优于无机铁源,EDTA-Fe作为水培铁源能够显著促进植株生长,提高产量和品质,是水培芥蓝的优质铁源。

  12. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Edward KUNICKI; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    B rassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased conte...

  13. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice. PMID:24502217

  14. 芥蓝新品种金绿的选育%A New Chinese Kale F1Hybrid-‘Jinlyu’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 刘振翔; 刘自珠; 郑岩松; 张华; 邹集文; 李光光; 黄红弟

    2014-01-01

    金绿是利用雄性不育系S6-3-2A为母本,自交系G028-3-3为父本配制成的芥蓝一代杂种,早中熟,播种至初收61 d(天),长势强,植株健壮,直立较紧凑;叶片卵圆形,深绿色,叶柄较短,薹叶较小,薹色绿,菜薹紧实匀条,抽薹整齐,花球大,齐口花,质爽脆味甜,纤维少,商品综合性状好,品质优。主薹高23.5 cm,横径2.3 cm,质量165 g。抗逆性强,对霜霉病和软腐病的抗性比对照绿宝强。每667 m2产量为1 030~2 000 kg。适宜全国各地种植。%‘Jinlyu’ is a Chinese kale F1 hybrid developed by crossing male sterile line S6-3-2A as female parent,and inbred line G028-3-3 as male parent. ‘Jinlyu’ is an early-medium maturing cultivar. It takes 61 days from sowing to first harvest. The plant has strong growth vigor,erect and compact plant type. Its leaf blades are of oval round shape with dark green color. The leaf stalk is short. Its head is large in size. It tastes crspy and sweet with less fiber. It has good commercial characteristics and superior guality. Its major sprout is 23.5 cm in height,2.3 cm in diameter,and about 165.0 g in weight. ‘Jinlyu’ grows vigorously and is highly resistant to stress. Its resistance to downy mildeu and soft rot is better than the contrast ‘Lyubao’. It can yield 15.5-30.0 t·hm-2. It is suitable to be planted all over the China.

  15. Thermal-induced changes of kale's antioxidant activity analyzed by HPLC-UV/Vis-online-TEAC detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, Michaela; Weckmüller, Annika; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Krumbein, Angelika; Kroh, Lothar W

    2013-06-01

    Generally, boiling of vegetables is assumed leading to lower nutritional values because of leaching effects and activity loss of bioactive compounds. Kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) reveals a great diversity of flavonoids, which have been shown to be good antioxidants. As Brassica vegetables are mainly consumed cooked, the influence of boiling on kale's flavonoids and their antioxidant activity was investigated. Therefore, three kale cultivars were cooked at 100°C for 2 and 4h prior to analysis. The total phenolic content (TPC) and the total antioxidant activity (TEAC assay and EPR spectrometry) of each cultivar were determined and revealed no change, independent of cooking time, although kale samples visually altered. Using the HPLC-UV/Vis-online-TEAC approach, distinct changes in composition and antioxidant activity of the flavonoids were detectable. Thus, it was observable, that the antioxidant activities of the reaction products compensated the "loss" of the antioxidant activity of the original compounds of the uncooked material.

  16. EFFECTS OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT AND METALAXYL TREATMENT ON THE YIELD OF SOME FORAGE BRASSICA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Aziz; KOCH, D.W.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Three forage Brassica species were evaluated for their growth and adaptability to the Rocky Mountain region. Brassicas were grown in fields infested with a Phytophthora disease previoıısly observed on kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) Metalaxyl treatmıent did not affect Brassica yields signifıcantly. Although pest problems were detected, Brassica crops tolerated low temperatures and produced excellent yields ( up to 9.90 Mg/ha). The Phytophthora isolates from Brassica, which were identif...

  17. Effect of 1-MCP Treatment on Postharvest Quality of Chinese Kale%1-甲基环丙烯处理对中花芥蓝低温保鲜品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄水生; 范海碧; 张昭其; 黄雪梅

    2012-01-01

    A trial was carried out to determine the effect of 1-MCP treatment on postharvest quality of Chinese Kale(Brassiea dboglokra bailey)stored in 10℃ with PE bag packaging. The results showed that the total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, soluble protein content in leaf of Chinese Kale was 25, 2 and 5 times that of the stem respectively, while the soluble sugar content of the stem was 4.5 times that of the leaf. After 20 d storage, the leaves turned yellow and the buds bloomed and dropped, with the nutrient quality declining. It was found that the contents of chlorophyll and ascorbic acid reduced more significantly than those of soluble sugar and soluble protein, and that all nutrient contents in the leaf declined more significantly than those in the stem. 1-MCP (1.0 μL/L)treatment maintained the postharvest quality of Chinese Kale effectly, with the leaf remained green, buds opened partially and the weight loss retarded. 1-MCP treatment significantly postponed the decrease of all nutrient contents in both the leaf and the stem.%研究不同1-MCP(0.1、1.0、10.0 μL/L)浓度处理结合聚乙烯袋包装和低温贮藏(10℃)对中花芥蓝采后营养品质的保鲜效果.结果表明:叶片中的叶绿素、维生素C、可溶性蛋白含量分别是茎薹的25、2、5倍,而茎薹中的可溶性糖含量是叶片的4.5倍.贮藏20d后,芥蓝叶片黄化,花臂开放并脱落;芥蓝在贮藏过程中,叶绿素和维生素C含量的下降比可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量明显,叶片营养成分的下降比茎薹明显.1-MCP( 1.0μL/L)处理可有效保持芥蓝的营养品质,贮藏20d后叶片基本保持绿色、花蕾部分开放,失重率显著减少,且叶片和茎薹各营养成分的下降显著减慢.

  18. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  19. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents. PMID:26776015

  20. Quality and Productivity of the Mass of the New Fooder Kale Progenies (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC and Seed Production of the Cultivar "Maksimirski visoki" at Different Dates of Transplanting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Štafa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available By applying diallel crossings of 10 parental lines of fodder kale in 1977, 1978 and 1979, and then by selfing until the F-6 generation, new progenies of giant fodder kale with very good agronomic properties were developed and were tested in comparison with the check, Grüner Angeliter. The progeny named Maksimirski visoki was registered in 1987 as the first Croatian variety of giant fodder kale. It is characterized by higher percentage of leaves in the mass, dry matter, energy (starch value and proteins as compared to check. Therefore, higher yield of dry matter, energy (starch value and protein can be achived in comparison with the check. Seed yields of Maksimirski visoki produced in Istria varied depending on the date of transplanting, quality of transplants, soil type and fertilizers applied. From the first date of transplanting (in LiŽnjan, on September 15, 1992 on heavy, deep soil 2.722 kg/ha was produced. From the second date of transplanting (September 22 2.494 kg/ha, and from the third date (on September 29 1344 kg/ha was produced. The lowest seed yield was produced from the fourth date of transplanting (October 6, only 1.175 kg/ha. On the shallow, porous soil with lots of skeleton (Vodnjan yield of 925 kg/ha was obtained from plants transplanted on September 25, while 468 kg/ha was obtained from those transplanted on September 30. On the deep, heavier and more fertile soil (LiŽnjan average yield of 1934 kg/ha of seed was produced with 99.48 % purity, 94 % germination and 92.0 % germination energy. However, on the shallower, porous and dry soil (Vodnjan average of 696 kg/ha of seed was produced with 98.88 % purity, 90.5 % germination and 89 % germination energy.

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  3. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  4. Factors affecting uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg-1 dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg-1 dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10-2 to 1.1x10-2 when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of 131I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3±4.4)x10-2

  5. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  6. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Migliozzi; Dil Thavarajah; Pushparajah Thavarajah; Powell Smith

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-co...

  7. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  8. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  9. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.R Lucca; L. H. P. NÓBREGA; Alves, L. F. A.; C. T. A. CRUZ-SILVA; F. P. PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.). T...

  10. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  11. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26505345

  12. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980

  13. 羽衣甘蓝DH群体遗传多样性分析%Genetic Diversity Analysis of Doubled Haploid Population in Ornamental Kale (Brassica oleracea var.acephala)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴希刚; 包满珠

    2013-01-01

    46 DH lines and 41 DH lines from two DH (doubled haploid) populations derived from micro-spore culture of ' Red Nagoya' and P3 genotype (F1 of Q2704 × Q4606) in Brassica oleracea var. acephala were selected for genetic diversity analysis by ISSR with nine polymorphic primers. The 81. 73% and 79. 31% of total amplified loci, for 104 and 87 polymorphic loci whose length ranged from 100 to 2 000 bp, were detected among two DH populations respectively. The effective numbers of alleles per amplified locus of the two DH populations were 1.225 3 and 1.468 9, respectively. The average values of the allelic polymorphism information content of the two DH populations were 0.258 9 and 0.409 4, respectively. Cluster analysis based on the ISSR showed that the ranges of the similar coefficients among 46 DH lines derived from ' Red Nagoya' and 41 DH lines derived from P3 were 0. 61 -0. 97 and 0. 56 -0. 91 respectively. The former population could be classified into five groups at 0. 78 , and the latter population could be classified into five groups at 0. 75. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of the DH populations derived from microspore culture was very diverse , the genetic diversity of the DH populations from different genotypes showed distinct difference.%由羽衣甘蓝基因型“名古屋-红”和基因型P3(Q2704×Q4606的F1代)通过小孢子培养获得的2个DH群体中分别抽取46个DH系和41个DH系作为试验材料,利用ISSR标记分别对2个DH群体进行遗传多样性分析.9个ISSR引物分别扩增出104和87个多态性位点,其中多态性位点各占总扩增位点的81.73%和79.31%,大小在100 ~2 000 bp;每个位点的有效等位基因数分别为1.225 3和1.468 9;平均多样性指数PIC分别为0.258 9和0.4094.对ISSR结果进行聚类分析,2个DH群体各DH系间相似系数范围分别为0.61 ~0.97和0.56 ~0.91,在相似性系数为0.78处可将46个“名古屋-红”的DH系分成5组,在相似性系数0.75

  14. Transformation of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis) by Agrobacterium Micro-Injection into Flower Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ji-yong; HE Yu-ke; CAO Jia-shu

    2003-01-01

    We obtained two lines of Chinese head cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) selfed progenies containing both an anti-sense gene of BcpLH and a gene for resistance to kanamycin by micro-injecting buds of their primary transformants (T0) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. 31 positive plants resistant to kanamycien were recovered. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in two transgenic plants. One (DHZ-13-1) exhibits the characteristics of out-toward rosette and cauline leaves, and nested flower model in which secondary complete flower developed from the base of the primary ovary and the third flower from the ovary in the secondary flower, and so on, while another(DHZ-6-1) has no phenotype change. ABA and IAA affected the root growth of progeny of DHZ-13-1, but 6-BA was insensitive to hypocotyl growth during its seedling development.

  15. Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Gan; Pan, Yun-Yu; Christie, Peter; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.). PMID:27450258

  16. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Migliozzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  17. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems. PMID:26569296

  18. Kale Juice Improves Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors in Hypercjlolesterolemiic Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SOO YEON KIM; SUN YOON; SOO MI KWON; KYE SOOK PARK; YANG CHA LEE-KIM

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of 3-month kale(Brassica oleracea acephala)iuice supplementation on coronary artery disease risk factors among hypercholesterolemic men.Methods Thkty-two men with hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL)were recruited after annual health examinations among the faculty and staff at university.The subijects consumed 150 mL of kale iuice per day for a 12-week intervention period.Dietary and anthropomeu-ic assessments were performed and blood samples were collected to evaluate biochemical profdes before and after supplementation.Results Serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol,and HDL-to LDL-cholesterol ratio were significantly increased by 27%(P<0.0001)and 52%(P<0.0001),respectively.The LDL-cholesterol concentration and the atherogenic index were significantly reduced by 1O%(P=0.O007)and 24.2%(P<0.0001),respectively without affecting body mass index,waist and hip circumferences,or nutrient intakes after three months of supplementation.While there was no difference in the concentration of malondialdehvde,significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity(P=0.0005)were accompanied by a significant increase in the serom selenium level(P=0.0132).It was also foand that the responses of these risk factors to kale inice administration were dependent on smoking status.Conelusion Regular meals supplementation with kale juice can favorably influence serum lipid profiles and antioxidant systems.and hence contribute to reduce the risks of coronary artery disease in male subjects with hyperlipidemia.

  19. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  20. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I.; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard GF; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting ge...

  1. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation in three Brassica rapa genotypes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K.; Zhang, N.; Severing, E.I.; Nijveen, H.; Cheng, F; Visser, R.G.F.; Wang, X.; De, Ridder, G.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results - To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resultin...

  2. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  3. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  4. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  5. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Incidence of the major Brassica pests in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartea, M E; Padilla, G; Vilar, M; Velasco, P

    2009-04-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. acephala group) crops are common in northwestern Spain, where they are severely damaged by different insect pests. The damage notably affects the value of this crop because it is freshly consumed and fresh processed. The objective of this work was to determine the abundance and relative importance of the main Lepidoptera pests of Brassica crops for 6 yr at five localities in northwestern Spain and to relate the seasonal changes of larval populations and environmental conditions. Pheromone traps were used as a method of monitoring adults. Larval populations were monitored on kales by counting the larvae for several years and locations at different sample dates. Five species were found: Mamestra brassicae (L.); imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (L.); Pieris brassicae (L.); diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella (L.); and Autographa gamma L. Proportions of each insect fluctuated over the years and in the different locations. M. brassicae was the most abundant (48.5% of the total of Lepidoptera species) followed by P. xyllostella (25%) and P. rapae (15%). The use of pheromone traps combined with plant sampling permitted the detection of two generations of M. brassicae. However, adult counts were not correlated to the number of larvae on plants. PMID:19449659

  7. Construction of random sheared fosmid library from Chinese cabbage and its use for Brassica rapa genome sequencing project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Ho Park; Beom-Seok Park; Jin-A Kim; Joon Ki Hong; Mina Jin; Young-Joo Seol; Jeong-Hwan Mun

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the Multinational Genome Sequencing Project of Brassica rapa, linkage group R9 and R3 were sequenced using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by BAC strategy. The current physical contigs are expected to cover approximately 90% euchromatins of both chromosomes. As the project progresses, BAC selection for sequence extension becomes more limited because BAC libraries are restriction enzyme-specific. To support the project, a random sheared fosmid library was constructed. The library consists of 97536 clones with average insert size of approximately 40 kb corresponding to seven genome equivalents, assuming a Chinese cabbage genome size of 550 Mb. The library was screened with primers designed at the end of sequences of nine points of scaffold gaps where BAC clones cannot be selected to extend the physical contigs. The selected positive clones were end-sequenced to check the overlap between the fosmid clones and the adjacent BAC clones.Nine fosmid clones were selected and fully sequenced. The sequences revealed two completed gap filling and seven sequence extensions, which can be used for further selection of BAC clones confirming that the fosmid library will facilitate the sequence completion of B. rapa.

  8. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-01-01

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage. PMID:27173304

  9. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Yi; Arif Hasan Khan Robin; Kiwoung Yang; Jong-In Park; Jong-Goo Kang; Tae-Jin Yang; Ill-Sup Nou

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among t...

  11. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. (kale and several materials of Pieris brassicae L., a common pest of Brassica cultures using a cellular model with hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells under quiescent conditions and subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and glutathione was determined by the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-oxidized glutathione (GSSG reductase recycling assay. The phenolic composition of the extracts was also established by HPLC-DAD. They presented acylated and non acylated flavonoid glycosides, some of them sulfated, and hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides. All extracts were cytotoxic by themselves at high concentrations and failed to protect V79 cells against H2O2 acute toxicity. No relationship between phenolic composition and cytotoxicity of the extracts was found. Rather, a significant increase in glutathione was observed in cells exposed to kale extract, which contained the highest amount and variety of flavonoids. It can be concluded that although flavonoids-rich extracts have the ability to increase cellular antioxidant defenses, the use of extracts of kale and P. brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed.

  12. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  13. Pollen-mediated gene flow in Chinese commercial fields of glufosinate-resistant canola (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li; ZHOU BiWen; GUO XueLan; DONG CaiHua; HU XiaoJia; HOU MingSheng; LIU ShengYi

    2008-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues surrounding transgenic oilseed rape cultivation is the potential impact of GM genes entering neighboring non-GM oilseed rape plants, related weeds or closely related wild relatives. Following the principle of a case-by-case for transgenic crop safety assessment, we designed experiments to study pollen-mediated gene flow from herbicide-resistant transgenic oilseed rape to Chinese commercial varieties. The pollen dispersal was detected as the progeny of recipient plants that were identified as glufosinate resistant. The results indicated that pollen dispersal occurred up to 2000 m and its rate sharply decreased as the distance from the pollen source increased. However, the rate of long-distance pollen dispersal from 33 to 2000 m was less than 0.015% and did not present a gradual decrease, indicating the randomization of dispersal and pollination. Most pollen dispersed within a 4.5 m area around the transgenic pollen source plot, with a maximum of 1.19% at the sampling site of 1.4 m. Wind direction significantly affected the direction and the distance of pollen dispersal, resulting in the more and farther dispersal in southwest direction. However, the number of potentially pollinating bees was not correlated with direction and distance from the pollen source plot, suggesting that bee density and distribution would not contribute to the differences in pollen dispersal among different directions. This paper is the first report on research in a large-scale experiment of pollen-mediated gene flow under the China's environmental conditions and provided scientific evidence for the effective commercialization of transgenic oilseed rape and its safe management. Our results also provided important data on pollen spatial distribution pattern.

  14. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  15. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  17. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Atmospheric H2S as sulphur source for Brassica oleracea : Consequences for the activity of the enzymes of the assimilatory sulphate reduction pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; Stulen, I.; Suter, M; Brunold, C; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    Short-term exposure of Brassica oleracea L. (curly kale) to atmospheric H2S levels (0.2-0.8 muL .L-1), which an sufficient to meet the plants sulphur requirement, resulted in a decrease in the activity of adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase (APR) in the shoot. The reduction in APR activity was ma

  19. Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolate (GSL profiles and concentrations in various tissues (seeds, sprouts, mature root, and shoot were determined and compared across nine Brassica species, including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, baemuchae, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, and kale. The compositions and concentrations of individual GSLs varied among crops, tissues, and growth stages. Seeds had highest total GSL concentrations in most of crops, whereas shoots had the lowest GSL concentrations. Aliphatic GSL concentrations were the highest in seeds, followed by that in sprouts, shoots, and roots. Indole GSL concentration was the highest in the root or shoot tissues in most of the crops. In contrast, aromatic GSL concentrations were highest in roots. Of the nine crops examined, broccoli exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in seeds (110.76 µmol·g−1 and sprouts (162.19 µmol·g−1, whereas leaf mustard exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in shoots (61.76 µmol·g−1 and roots (73.61 µmol·g−1. The lowest GSL concentrations were observed in radish across all tissues examined.

  20. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on

  1. Determinants of the place of sell and price of kale for Kiambu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Kale is a major source of cash for many households in Kenya. A study of households in Kiambu district revealed that kale made the highest contribution to household income among the crops. The farmers of Kiambu sell their kale either in Nairobi, at farm gate, or at the local market and fetch differen

  2. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  3. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  4. Pengaruh pemupukan terhadap akumulasi timbal pada kubis (Brassica oleracea L.) dan sawi putih (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silviana, Ernita

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals accumulation in growing plant is influenced by the soil composition, water, air and planting sites, fertilization and crop types. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) are plants that is able to absorb toxic metals. This study aimed to determine the effect of dosage of NPK fertilizer and organic fertilizer on metal lead accumulation in cabbage and chinese cabbage. This research was carried out in plastic house in Simpang Tiga Redelong highlands...

  5. Atmospheric H2S as sulfur source for Brassica oleracea : kinetics of H2S uptake and activity of O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase as affected by sulfur nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, CEE; De Kok, LJ

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea) showed saturation kinetics with respect to the atmospheric concentration. The kinetics are largely determined by the rate of metabolism of the absorbed H,S into cysteine, catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol)lyase, and ca

  6. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  7. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  8. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution. PMID:26709726

  9. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Swedish Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ) Analyzed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; Stine Tuevesson; Bo Gertsson

    2003-01-01

    We have compared genetic diversity of 24 Chinese weak-winter, Swedish winter and spring B.napus accessions by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). By cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on 125 polymorphism bands amplified with 20 primers, the 24 accessions were divided into three groups. Six Swedish winter lines and eight Chinese weak-winter lines were in the group Ⅰ and the group Ⅱ were two Chinese weakwinter lines Xiangyou15 and Bao81. The third group contained eight Swedish spring lines. Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCO) showed similar groupings to cluster analysis. Results from cluster analysis and PCO analysis showed very clearly that Chinese weak-winter, Swedish spring and winter accessions were distinguished from each other and Chinese weak-winter accessions in this study were genetically closer to Swedish winter accessions than to Swedish spring accessions. The Chinese weak-winter accessions had larger diversity than Swedish spring or winter accessions did. This study indicated that ISSR is a suitable and effective tool to evaluate genetic diversity among rapeseed germplasm.

  10. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  11. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  12. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin WANG; Wan-Zhi YE; Jia-Shu CAO; Xiao-Lin YU; Xun XIANG; Gang LU

    2005-01-01

    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function,whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG)gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only fulllength cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and largesized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.

  14. Heterotic patterns in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using exotic germplasm for Chinese semi-winter hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lunwen; Chen Lunlin; Mei Jiaqin; Li Maoteng; Martin Frauen; Christian Jung; Qian Wei; Meng Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese semi-winter rapeseed,genetically differing from winter and spring rapeseed,has been consid-ered to possess strong potential as parent in winter and spring rapeseed hybrid breeding programs. However,no de-tailed researches have been documented whether winter and spring rapeseed lines have potential for Chinese semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding. The objectives of this study are to estimate the potential of winter and spring rapeseed for semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding,and to investigate the association of general combining ability (GCA) with adaptation of parental lines by combining with the data in our previous studies. Four winter and four spring male sterile lines were crossed with 14 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed lines to develop 112 hybrids,which were evaluated together with their parents for seed yield under three environments in China. The exotic parental lines were not adapted to local environment as demonstrated by late flowering,low seed weight and poor seed yield per se. However,the hybrids,especially derived from winter rapeseed exhibited strong heterosis for seed yield,indicating that winter rapeseed germplasm has a great potential for rapeseed hybrid breeding in China. Our data suggested a strong association of GCA with their adaptation ability of parental lines,since high to middle cor-relations were found for local parental lines and low correlations for exotic parental lines under spring,winter and semi-winter eco-growth environments. The hybrid breeding program using exotic germplasm in rapeseed was dis-cussed.

  15. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  16. Brassica chinensis (L.) transformation of male steriliry from non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS%以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系向乌塌菜作物转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南海龙

    2014-01-01

    试验根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系为不育源,向乌塌菜作物中转育,并对细胞核雄性不育基因转育机制进行系统研究。获得如下结果:设计遗传转育模式,完成乌塌菜4个世代雄性不育的转育工作,获得含有乌塌菜基因型的甲型“两用系”、临时保持系和雄性不育系。%In this experiment, based on the multiple allele inheritance hypothesis of Chinese cabbage, male steriliry of non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS was transferred to Brassica chinensis (L.). The experiment has been systematically investigated the transformation mechanism of genetic male sterility. Results showed that four male sterile generations of Brassica chinensis (L.) could be achieved according to the inheritance transformation mode.

  17. A novel class of heat-responsive small RNAs derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marjo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small

  18. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wang, Wei [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of {sup 14}C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides.

  19. Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci abundance on Brassica oleracea var. acephala Abundância de Bemisia tabaci, Brevicoryne brassicae e Thrips tabaci em Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Kale Brassica oleracea var. acephala is attacked by whitefly Bemisia tabaci, aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and Thrips tabaci. One of the main reasons for extensive insecticide application is the lack of information about factors that control insect population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, organic compound leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, sunlight and median temperature on the abundance of whitefly, aphid, and thrips in kale genotype "Talo Roxo". The beating tray method, direct counting and magnifying lens were used to estimate the number of these pests, predators and parasitoids. Median temperature, sunlight and relative humidity correlated to the amount of leaf nonacosane, which in turn was associated with aphids population increase. A tendency in the reduction of aphids and thrips populations with increase in total rainfall was observed. The whitefly can be a harmful pest in kale producing regions of higher temperature and smaller rainfall. In regions which present moderate temperature, where there is a high incidence of aphids, genotype with low leaf wax content should be chosen. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp., can control agents of the aphids population in kale.A couve, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, é atacada por mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci, pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae e tripes Thrips tabaci. Uma das principais razões para o uso intensivo de inseticidas é a falta de informação sobre os fatores que controlam a população de insetos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre predadores e parasitóides, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis foliares de nitrogênio e de potássio, pluviosidade total, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na abundância da mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em couve genótipo Talo Roxo. Foi usado o método da batida em bandeja

  20. Detecção de Pseudomonas viridiflava em sementes importadas de couve chinesa (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) Detection of Pseudomonas viridiflava in imported chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Wolf Maciel; Irene Maria Gatti de Almeida; Harllen Sandro Alves Silva; Lucas Mateus Sivero Rodrigues; Luís Otávio Saggion Beriam

    2010-01-01

    A ocorrência de Pseudomonas viridiflava é descrita em sementes de couve chinesa (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) importadas do Japão. Do ponto de vista epidemiológico, a detecção dessa bactéria é de extrema importância. Embora já existam, em nosso país, relatos desse patógeno nas culturas de alface, alho, cebola, cenoura, feijão e mandioca, sua presença em sementes de couve chinesa pode se constituir num risco potencial para outras espécies de brássicas aqui cultivadas.A natural occurrence of ...

  1. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

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    P. S. R. LUCCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.. The treatments were: fennel, anise, cloves extracts at 10%; fennel, anise, cloves oils at 1% and control with distilled water. The mortality tests were carried out with aphids in laboratory, with three replications, after 1, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. During laboratory trials , it was found out that fennel oil at 1% showed the best rate of mortality on aphid nymphs (70% at 72 h, followed by clove extract at 10% with 37% mortality. Tests in pots were only carried out only with cloves extracts at 10% and fennel oil at 1% treatment, in which such efficiency was alsoindicated on aphid nymphs.

  2. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  3. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertiliser on Growth and Yield of Brassica Oleraceae var. Acephala D.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale (Brassica oleraceae var. Acephala D.C.) cultivar, collard green was planted in the field between October 1997 and March 1998 in the experimental plots at Maseno University college in Western Kenya. The experiment was set up to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser on growth and yield of kale. The kale seedlings were first raised in a nursery and transplanted 8 weeks after sowing. The treatments included farm yard manure (150 kg N.ha-1, 8kgP.ha-1), Tithonia Diversifolia (Tithonia) Leaf biomass incorporated in combination with Diammonium phosphate (DAP) (150kgN.ha-1 and 30kgP.ha-1), TSithonia leaf biomass incorporated, DAP in combination with Urea, DAP in combination with calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) at the rate of 150kgP.ha-1 and the control. Non-destructive measurements on plant height, leaf number and stem thickness were taken regularly commencing 6 weeks after transplanting. Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given area and leaf number per plant. Both organic and inorganic sources of fertiliser significantly increased growth and leaf yield of kale. In all parameters measured farm yard manure gave the best response. Tithonia leaf biomass incorporated in the soil either on its own or in combination with DAP gave leaf yields comparable increasing, organic sources which are locally available to the farmer can be alternative sources of fertiliser without compromising the yields

  4. Carotenoids, polyphenols and micronutrient profiles of Brassica oleraceae and plum varieties and their contribution to measures of total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulmann, Anouk; Jonville, Marie-Caroline; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2014-07-15

    The consumption of phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols within whole fruits and vegetables has been associated with decreased incidence of various inflammation and oxidative stress related chronic diseases, which may be due to direct antioxidant effects, or indirect mechanisms such as affecting signal transduction/gene expression. Within the present study, we investigated the antioxidant composition of two major groups of vegetables and fruits, Brassica oleraceae and prunus spp., and estimated their contribution to antioxidant capacity. For this purpose, 17 plum and 27 Brassica varieties were collected in Luxembourg, and analysed for their individual polyphenol and carotenoid profile, vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals/trace elements, and their correlation with markers of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, ABTS, Folin-Ciocalteu). Total carotenoid and polyphenol content varied considerably between the different Brassica and plum varieties, with highest concentrations in the variety Kale (13.3 ± 0.58 mg/100g wet weight) and Cherry plum (1.96 ± 0.28 mg/100g) for carotenoids; and Kale (27.0 ± 0.91 mg/100g) and Kirks plum (185 ± 14 mg/100g) for polyphenols. In developed multiple linear-regression-models for Brassica, flavonoids, anthocyanins, lutein and vitamin C were found to be the best predictors of antioxidant capacity as assessed by FRAP (R(2)=0.832) and flavonoids, neochlorogenic acid and vitamin C as assessed by ABTS (R(2)=0.831); while for plums these were selenium, total sugars, chlorogenic acid and vitamin C (R(2)=0.853), and selenium, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids for FRAP (R(2)=0.711). When considering Brassica and plum consumption in Luxembourg, it is estimated that both contribute to an antioxidant intake equivalent to 26 and 6 mg per day of ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. PMID:24594181

  5. The Influence of Exometabolites of Fungus Botrytis Cinerеa on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage’s Callus Tissue (Brassica Pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN THI VUONG; Kalashnikova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently vegetable crop loss from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during storage and cultivation is a large proportion, sometimes even 100%. Substantial damage to the culture of Chinese cabbage causes gray rot.The objects of the study were the seeds of Chinese cabbage three genotypes, which are not resistant to botrytis: grade Khibinskaya, grade Ljubasha and hybrid Nika F1. Callus tissue obtained from different segments isolated from 7 -day-old sterile seedlings. Pure culture of Botryti...

  6. Levantamento da intensidade da alternariose e da podridão negra em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina Survey of the intensity of Alternaria black spot and black rot on brassica species under organic farming systems in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A M Peruch

    2006-12-01

    organic farming systems with different brassicas. High prevalence of the diseases was registered in both states, except on Chinese cabbage in Santa Catarina. Prevalence of Alternaria black spot was 100% on broccoli fields in Pernambuco, as well as on cauliflower in both states, while the black rot reached that level on broccoli and cauliflower fields in Santa Catarina. On the average of the different brassica species, the diseases were more prevalent in Pernambuco than in Santa Catarina. However, when the severity averages of each disease were considered, no significant differences were observed between the two states, although the climatic conditions were highly different. The Alternaria black spot severity varied among the brassica species in Pernambuco, being lower on kale. In Santa Catarina no significant differences were observed among the brassicas species. In relation to the black rot, only in Santa Catarina was there a difference in the disease severity, with the lowest level on Chinese cabbage. No significant correlations were observed either between severity levels of Alternaria black spot and black rot, neither between disease severity and total number of plants or plant age.

  7. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  8. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.

  9. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the con

  10. Effect of Sludge on the Seed Germination Rate of Chinese Lettuce( Lactuca sativa var.ramose), Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis ) and Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum )%污泥对白菜·生菜和番茄种子发芽率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开强

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the effect of urban sewage sludge on the germination rate of Lactuca sativa var. ramose, Brassica pekinensis and Lycopersicon esculenium. [ Method] A pot experiment is conducted to measure the effect of sludge application quantity on germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato. [ Result] With the increase of sludge application quantity, the seed germination rate of Chinese lettuce , cabbage and tomato decreased. [ Conclusion] Germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato is obviously inhibited by sludge.%[目的]研究城市生活污水厂污泥对生菜(Lactuca satuva car.ramose)、白菜(Brassica pekinensis)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)种子发芽率的影响.[方法]通过盆栽试验,测量污泥施用量对生菜、白菜和番茄的种子发芽率的影响.[结果]随着污泥施用量的增加,生菜、白菜和番茄种子发芽率降低.[结论]污泥对生菜、白菜和番茄的发芽率有明显的抑制作用.

  11. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced "Defense Lignin" Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen Infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3'-Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S)monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All three monomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced "defense lignin" were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be Induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that "defense lignin" was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.

  12. Brassicas limited in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Mr P

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.

  13. The Effects of Temperature on Flower Bud Differentiation,Yield and Quality Formation in Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey)%苗期温度对芥蓝花芽分化、产量与品质形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨暹; 杨运英

    2002-01-01

    以中花芥蓝为材料,设置4个不同的温度处理研究了苗期温度对芥蓝的生长发育、菜薹形成与品质的影响. 结果表明,苗期温度与芥蓝的生长发育关系密切,低温可促进花芽分化,随着温度的升高,花芽分化逐渐推迟,分化时的叶位也逐渐升高. 适宜的低温可促进植株生长,提高菜薹产量与品质.

  14. Determination of n+1 Gamete Transmission Rate of Trisomics and Location of Gene Controlling 2n Gamete Formation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-He Zhang; Xiao-Feng Li; Shu-Xing Shen; He Yuan; Shu-Xin Xuan

    2009-01-01

    A set of trisomics of Chinese cabbage was used for determining the n+1 gamete transmission rate and locating the gene controlling 2n gamete formation on the corresponding chromosome. The results showed that the transmission rates of extra chromosomes in different trisomica varied from 0% to 15.38% by male gametes and from 0% to 17.39% by female gametes. Of the nine F2 populations derived from the hybridizations between each triaomic and Bp058 (2n gamete material), only Tri-4×Bp058 showed that the segregation ratio of plants without 2n gamete formation to plants with 2n gamete formation was 10.38:1, which fitted the expected segregation ratio of the trisomics (AAa) based on the 7.37% of n+1 gamete transmission through female and 5.88% through male. In other populations the segregation ratios varied from 2.48:1 to 3.72:1, which fitted the expected 3:1 segregation ratio of the bisomice (Aa). These results suggested that the gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage Bp058 was located on chromosome 4. Further trisomic analysis based on the chromosome segregation and the incomplete stochastic chromatid segregation indicated that the gene locus was tightly linked to the centromere.

  15. The Influence of Exometabolites of Fungus Botrytis Cinerеa on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage’s Callus Tissue (Brassica Pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NGUYEN THI VUONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently vegetable crop loss from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during storage and cultivation is a large proportion, sometimes even 100%. Substantial damage to the culture of Chinese cabbage causes gray rot.The objects of the study were the seeds of Chinese cabbage three genotypes, which are not resistant to botrytis: grade Khibinskaya, grade Ljubasha and hybrid Nika F1. Callus tissue obtained from different segments isolated from 7 -day-old sterile seedlings. Pure culture of Botrytis cinerea was represented by three isolates: JC/F, HP/F, KM/Hrf. Callus tissue were cultured in a nutrient medium containing the pathogen exometabolites, which concentration was at 5, 10, 15, 20 %. Toxicity of culture filtrate was evaluated in terms of the growth of callus tissue. For this purpose callus tissue was weighed at the beginning and then at the end of the passage.We found in this study that the presence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea isolates JC/F, HP/F, KM/Hrf in low concentration (5 % in a nutrient medium does not lead to a substantial reduction in the growth of the callus tissue of all three genotypes studied. In this case, the growth of the callus tissue is decreased by 15-20 % compared with control. Consequently, this concentration of culture filtrate does not create the toxic effect on the growth of callus cells. When the concentration of the fungus’ culture filtrate in the culture medium is increased, the growth of the callus tissue is reduced by an average of 23 - 49 % compared with the control depended on the genotype. Maximum reduction in growth of callus tissue noted for hybrid Nika F1, for which the index was reduced 60 % (at 20% culture filtrate in compare with the control. It was also shown that the most non-aggressive isolate is JC/f, and the most aggressive - isolate KM/Hrf.

  16. 定向转育卵圆生态型大白菜雄性不育系的研究%Directional Breeding of An Oval-ecotype Male Sterile Line of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭翀; 郭瑛琪; 岳艳玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探究大白菜定向转育卵圆生态型雄性不育系的方法。[方法]以大白菜核不育"复等位基因遗传假说"为理论依据,以甲型两用系‘AB12’为不育供体品系,以卵圆生态型可育品系‘06048’为待转育品系,采用杂交、回交、兄妹交和测交的方法,按照定向转育方案将核不育基因定向转育。[结果]各世代育性分离比率与理论相一致,成功育成了一种不育株率100%的具有‘06048’园艺性状的新核不育系,实现了核不育基因和园艺特性的同时转育。[结论]该研究成果验证此定向转育方案是可行的,进一步为基因型为 msms的其他园艺性状的大白菜定向转育提供理论基础,也可以推广应用到整个芸薹属其它经济作物中,极大的拓宽了优良核不育基因的实际应用范围。%Objective] The study aimed to explore the method for directional breeding of a male-sterile line in oval-ecotype Chinese cabbage. [Method] Based on "Multiple Al ele Hypothesis of Genic Male Sterile Chinese Cabbage", an inbred line ‘06048’ of oval ecotype was used as the receptor, and male fertile plant of ‘AB12’ was used as the donor line. Crossing, backcross, selfing, testcross and sibling were ap-plied to transfer the multiple al eles under the directional genetic model. [Result] Segregation ratio of every generation was consistent with theoretical value. A new male sterile line with 100% male sterility and ‘06048’ horticultural traits was ob-tained successful y, which accomplished the transfer of male sterile multiple al ele and horticultural characters of receptor line at the same time. [Conclusion] The re-search verifies that the model of directional transfer is feasible, provides a theoreti-cal basis for the directional transfer of Chinese cabbage with other horticultural traits whose genotype is msms. The model can also be applied to other Brassica crops, to generate genetic male sterile lines

  17. Effects of photoperiod, growth temperature and cold acclimatisation on glucosinolates, sugars and fatty acids in kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Rødven, Rolf; Hansen, Espen; Mølmann, Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    Curly kale is a robust, cold tolerant plant with a high content of health-promoting compounds, grown at a range of latitudes. To assess the effects of temperature, photoperiod and cold acclimatisation on levels of glucosinolates, fatty acids and soluble sugars in kale, an experiment was set up under controlled conditions. Treatments consisted of combinations of the temperatures 15/9 or 21/15 °C, and photoperiods of 12 or 24h, followed by a cold acclimatisation period. Levels of glucosinolates and fatty acid types in leaves were affected by growth conditions and cold acclimatisation, being generally highest before acclimatisation. The effects of growth temperature and photoperiod on freezing tolerance were most pronounced in plants grown without cold acclimatisation. The results indicate that cold acclimatisation can increase the content of soluble sugar and can thereby improve the taste, whilst the content of unsaturated fatty and glucosinolates acids may decrease.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products. - Highlights: ► We examined the effects of irradiation of fresh vegetable juices (ashitaba and kale) for industrial application. ► Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level. ► Ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. ► Content of flavonoids did not change whereas that of polyphenols increased. ► There was no change in sensory properties after irradiation.

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.

  20. 鸡毛菜(Brassica rapa L.Chinensis Group.)的颜色变化动力学及两种货架期预测方法%Colour kinetic change and shelf life prediction of Chinese small cabbage(Brassica rapa L.Chinensis Group.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利平; 谢晶; 何蓉; 施建兵; 蔡青文

    2013-01-01

    实验测定了贮藏在278、283、288、293K四个温度下的鸡毛菜的颜色参数L*、-a*、b*、ΔE、h*和感官评价,并对L*和ΔE进行了动力学分析.结果表明,在实验温度范围内,鸡毛菜储藏的温度越低,颜色参数变化越慢.动力学分析显示,零级动力学比一级动力学更适合表现鸡毛菜L*和ΔE的变化规律.研究还采用Arrhenius方程对颜色变化速率常数k和温度T进行非线性拟合,得到L*和ΔE活化能Ea分别为82.09kJ/mol和100.26kJ/mol.最后得到依赖于时间、温度和颜色指标的鸡毛菜货架期预测方程(R2>0.95),从中根据不同的L*和ΔE终点可得到对应的货架期.就本研究而言,假定L*增加12%为终点时,鸡毛菜在四个温度下的预测货架期分别为11.8、5.5、2.6、1.3d.同时,Arrhenius方程与依赖于感官终点的动态颜色终点拟合方程结合预测的货架期曲线与感官寿命曲线则能得到更好的契合(两者绝对差值小于0.6d),两者结合能得到较为全面的货架期预测参数.%Color parameters L*,a*,b*,ΔE,h* and sensory evaluation of Chinese small cabbage stored at 278,283,288 and 293K,respectively,were determined in this experiment,then kinetic analysis of L* and ΔE were also studied.Results showed that the lower the temperature Brassica Lapa L.Chinensis Group.stored,slower color parameters changes in the temperature range concerned.Kinetic analyses indicated that zero-order law was more appropriate than first-order reaction kinetics to describe L* and ΔE change.Nonlinear fitting of reaction rate k and temperature T based on Arrhenius function was also studied,from which active energy Ea of L* and ΔE were 82.09kJ/mol and 100.26kJ/mol,respectively.Finally,the shelf life prediction function of Chinese small cabbage based on time,temperature and color index was obtained(R2>0.95),from which corresponding predicted shelf life could be calculated based on different ends of L* and ΔE.As for this research

  1. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  2. 大白菜BrTCP24基因的克隆与功能分析%Cloning and Functional Analysis of BrTCP24 Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 谭婷婷; 张一卉; 李景娟; 李化银; 李利斌; 刘立锋; 高建伟

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for negative control of the leaf heading growth of Chinese cabbage,which can be help to speed up breeding progress of the small heading Chinese cabbage varieties that meet the current market demands.Here,a full-length TCP cDNA named BrTCP24,which belongs to the second subgroups of TCP domain family,was isolated from leaves of Chinese cabbage inbred line Fushanbaotou (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis).The full-length cDNA of BrTCP24 consisted of 1 221 nucleotides,and was predicted to code a 406-amino acid polypeptide.In addition,there were no introns in BrTCP24 gene.The phylogenetic analysis about BrTCP24 and TCP families in Arabidopsis was carried out using the software of MEGA4.0.The result indicated that BrTCP24 gene and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 gene would belong to the same branch,which suggested they had closely genetic relationship.The alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 indicated that there was 55.15% identity between them.Additionally,these two proteins contained conserved TCP domain and had 91.53% identity in this domain.These results suggested that BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 would have similar biological functions.The semiquantitive RT-PCR indicated that BrTCP24 gene was expressed in roots,dwarf stems,rosette leaves,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers examined in Chinese cabbage.Among them,rosette leaves had the highest mRNA level,followed by roots,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers,while dwarf stems had the lowest mRNA level.Interestingly,the expression level of BrTCP24 didn't effect by 5 μmol NAA treatment in 12 h period.To test the function of BrTCP24,we then engineered Arabidopsis plants that would over-express BrTCP24 ectopically,driven by CaMV 35S promoter,and obtained 17 transgenic lines by Kanamycin and PCR screening.Using RT-PCR method,we randomly detected 5 transgenic lines and found all of them could express

  3. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description....

  4. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Song, Hyunpa; Lim, Sangyong; Yun, Hyejeong; Chung, Jinwoo

    2007-07-01

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10 6 cfu/ml, and about 10 2 cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D10 values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63±0.05 and 1.52±0.05 kGy, respectively. The D10 value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65±0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on the radiation-resistant bacteria and polyphenol oxidase activity in fresh kale juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr; Song, Hyunpa [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangyong [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hyejeong [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwoo [Team of Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Sinjeongdong 1266, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    Gamma radiation was performed to prolong the shelf life of natural kale juice. The total aerobic bacteria in fresh kale juice, prepared by a general kitchen process, was detected in the range of 10{sup 6} cfu/ml, and about 10{sup 2} cfu/ml of the bacteria survived in the juice in spite of gamma irradiation treatment with a dose of 5 kGy. Two typical radiation-resistant bacteria, Bacillus megaterium and Exiguobacterium acetylicum were isolated and identified from the 5 kGy-irradiated kale juices. The D {sub 10} values of the vegetative cell and endospore of the B. megaterium in peptone water were 0.63{+-}0.05 and 1.52{+-}0.05 kGy, respectively. The D {sub 10} value of the E. acetylicum was calculated as 0.65{+-}0.06 kGy. In the inoculation test, the growth of the surviving B. megaterium and E. acetylicum in the 3-5 kGy-irradiated kale juice retarded and/or decreased significantly during a 3 d post-irradiation storage period. However, there were no significant differences in the residual polyphenol oxidase activity and browning index between the nonirradiated control and the gamma irradiated kale juice during a post-irradiation period.

  6. Seleção e produção de sementes em hortaliças: com referência especial ao gênero Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Brieger

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary work with vegetables was described and special reference was-made to the group Brassica oleracea. a Plants flowering easily in Piracicaba and probably in the whole State of São Paulo. To this group belongs the lettuce, endive, chichory, carrot, radish, kale, brocoli and cauliflower. b Plants where special treatment is necessary for flowering, as cabbage. c Plants that did not flower up to this moment, as Svisschard beet and beet. Three main factors contribute for the seedless condition in the group cabbage : lack of flowering, anormalities of the flowers and self-sterility. The preliminary experiments in controling these factors seem to indicate the possibility of seed production in this group. The systematics of the two species Brassica oleracea (Europe and Brassica juncea (Oriental Asia was discussed. The economical differences in the group Brassica oleracea are controled by Mendelian factors with complicate types of interaction. It is not necessary to look for special places in the State of São Paulo for vegetable experiments but the possibility of better results in the future, with appropriate conditions, is emphasized.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea ge...

  8. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10 were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR, unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  9. β-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority over kales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiye, Shadrack O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Shiundu, Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in β-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for β-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. β-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative β-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a β-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the β-carotene. As much as 280 μRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through β-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post-cooking, kales had statistically comparable β-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of β-carotene content. Measures to prevent β-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high β-carotene content. PMID:27222406

  10. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  11. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs. PMID:26205053

  12. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  13. 芥蓝栽培技术%Cultivation of Chinese Kale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙中华

    2011-01-01

    @@ 芥蓝十字花科芸薹属一年生或二年生草本植物,以肥嫩的花薹和嫩叶为食用部分.芥蓝起源于中国(瓦维洛夫,1935),原产地在中国的南部(中国科学院华南植物研究所,1956),据文字记载,其在中国已有至少900年的栽培历史.

  14. Compared Analysis of CBL1 Genes from Chinese Cabbage, Cabbage and Brassica nigra%大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥 CBL1基因的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化银; 姜常松; 张一卉; 高建伟; 李利斌; 曹齐卫

    2014-01-01

    CBL1基因在植物非生物逆境应答及发育过程中具有重要功能。本试验在解析大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥CBL1的基础上,对它们进行了系统地比较分析,为进一步研究CBL1基因在芸薹属植物中的分子进化和功能奠定基础。%CBL1 gene plays pivotal roles in abiotic stress response, growth and development of plant.In this study, systematic comparison was conducted based on the analysis of CBL1 genes from Chinse cabbage, cabbage and Brassica nigra.It would establish foundations for further research on molecular evolution and function of Brassica CBL1 genes.

  15. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gssat) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  16. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  17. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates. PMID:27446170

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  19. Novel Gram-Scale Production of Enantiopure R-Sulforaphane from Tuscan Black Kale Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Rosalinda De Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity ≈ 95%, weight basis has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147 in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal.

  20. Tijdstip van MH-bespuiting in uien en effect van stikstof op kale uien : proeven 2007/2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den L.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 zijn in Lelystad, als vervolg op de literatuurstudie “Het optreden van spruitvorming en kale uien tijdens de bewaring” twee veldproeven uitgevoerd: 1) een proef waarin bij twee rassen en bij twee verschillende stikstofbemestingsniveaus op verschillende momenten met MH is gespoten. Tegelijker

  1. Paving the way for genetic improvement of zinc accumulation in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Brassica rapa L. comprises several vegetable crops, some of which are among the most important vegetables in China, serving as one of the main resources of mineral nutrition for Chinese people. However, the knowledge on the genetics of micronutrient accumulation, including Zn, Fe and Mn, is lacking

  2. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the ...

  3. Development of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Insertion/Deletion (InDel) Markers in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.pekinesis) and Analysis of Their Transferability%大白菜简单序列重复(SSR)和插入/缺失(InDel)标记的开发及通用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪泽会; 卢有飞; 郭晓芹; 惠麦侠; 张鲁刚; 张明科

    2012-01-01

    为探讨大白菜基因组序列中SSR位点的分布规律并开发SSR引物,利用SSRHunter软件对大白菜A10(16899818~17299817)的DNA序列进行简单序列重复(SSR)位点查找,共得到394个SSRs,平均每1.02 kb出现1个SSR.二核苷酸和三核苷酸重复是最主要的SSR类型,分别占79.44%和18.78%.为了提高SSR标记开发的准确性和通用性,对检索得到的含SSR位点的序列进行了同源比对,选取符合条件的15条SSR序列并设计引物;依据Blast过程中发现的在SSR位点不存在差异而在其侧翼序列中存在插入/缺失(InDel)差异的序列,设计了19条InDel引物.用34对SSR及InDel引物在6个大白菜(Brassica rapa ssp.pekinesis)材料中进行多态性研究,发现28对引物能扩增出理想的PCR产物,有效扩增率为82.35%,其中27对引物具有多态性,多态性比率为79.41%.为验证SSR引物的真实性,随机对4对SSR引物的部分白菜扩增片段进行了测序,发现100%的片段具有相应的SSR位点.28对SSR和InDel引物在甘蓝(B.oleracea)、油菜(B.napus)和萝卜(Raphanus sativus)品种的有效扩增率分别为85.71%、100%和77.78%,说明新开发的SSR和InDel标记具有较好的多态性和通用性.利用6对引物分析了48份十字花科种质的遗传多样性,结果表明48份材料被明显地区分成白菜和甘蓝组、萝卜组、油菜组3大类群,与传统分类一致.大白菜SSR和InDel标记的开发对于十字花科种质亲缘关系及遗传多样性分析具有重要的应用价值.%In order to analyze the SSR distribution in genomic sequence of Brassica rapa and develop new SSR markers, the DNA sequences of Chinese cabbage A10 (16899818~17299817) were screened using SSRHunter software and 394 Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were mined with an average distance of 1.02 kb. Dinucleotide and trin ucleotide repeat SSRs were the dominant types, accounting for 79.44% and 18.78%, respectively, of the SSR obtained. In order to

  4. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Mithila, J.; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A h...

  5. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and salicylic acid (SA treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200, CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914 and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286, ST5b, ST5c, AOP2, FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350 and GSL-OH (Bol033373 was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  6. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  7. Resistivity and Seismic Surface Wave Tomography Results for the Nevşehir Kale Region: Cappadocia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Nart; Çakır, Özcan; Erduran, Murat; Arif Kutlu, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    The Nevşehir Kale region located in the middle of Cappadocia with approximately cone shape is investigated for existence of an underground city using the geophysical methods of electrical resistivity and seismic surface wave tomography together. Underground cities are generally known to exist in Cappadocia. The current study has obtained important clues that there may be another one under the Nevşehir Kale region. Two-dimensional resistivity and seismic profiles approximately 4-km long surrounding the Nevşehir Kale are measured to determine the distribution of electrical resistivities and seismic velocities under the profiles. Several high resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m are discovered to associate with a systematic void structure beneath the region. Because of the high resolution resistivity measurement system currently employed we were able to isolate the void structure from the embedding structure. Low seismic velocity zones associated with the high resistivity depths are also discovered. Using three-dimensional visualization techniques we show the extension of the void structure under the measured profiles.

  8. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fert

  9. Modification of Leaf Glucosinolate Contents in Brassica oleracea by Divergent Selection and Effect on Expression of Genes Controlling Glucosinolate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Cartea, María E

    2016-01-01

    Modification of the content of secondary metabolites opens the possibility of obtaining vegetables enriched in these compounds related to plant defense and human health. We report the first results of a divergent selection for glucosinolate (GSL) content of the three major GSL in leaves: sinigrin (SIN), glucoiberin (GIB), and glucobrassicin (GBS) in order to develop six kale genotypes (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with high (HSIN, HIGIB, HGBS) and low (LSIN, LGIB, LGBS) content. The aims were to determine if the three divergent selections were successful in leaves, how each divergent selection affected the content of the same GSLs in flower buds and seeds and to determine which genes would be involved in the modification of the content of the three GSL studied. The content of SIN and GIB after three cycles of divergent selection increased 52.5% and 77.68%, and decreased 51.9% and 45.33%, respectively. The divergent selection for GBS content was only successful and significant for decreasing the concentration, with a reduction of 39.04%. Mass selection is an efficient way of modifying the concentration of individual GSLs. Divergent selections realized in leaves had a side effect in the GSL contents of flower buds and seeds due to the novo synthesis in these organs and/or translocation from leaves. The results obtained suggest that modification in the SIN and GIB concentration by selection is related to the GSL-ALK locus. We suggest that this locus could be related with the indirect response found in the GBS concentration. Meantime, variations in the CYP81F2 gene expression could be the responsible of the variations in GBS content. The genotypes obtained in this study can be used as valuable materials for undertaking basic studies about the biological effects of the major GSLs present in kales. PMID:27471510

  10. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Jian Wu; Xiaowu Wang

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica olera...

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of Brassica rapa Near-Isogenic Lines Carrying Clubroot-Resistant and -Susceptible Alleles in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Early Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Pang, Wenxing; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2) and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2) Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1875, and 2103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 h after inoculation (hai). Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins), PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection. PMID:26779217

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica rapa near-isogenic lines carrying clubroot-resistant and –susceptible alleles in response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during early infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2 and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2 Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1,875 and 2,103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 hours after inoculation (hai. Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins, PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection.

  13. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-11-13

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  14. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops. PMID:26519408

  15. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  16. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation ...

  17. Avaliação de biossólido de águas servidas domiciliares como adubo em couve Evaluation of biosolid fed by municipal waste-water sludge as a fertilizer in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Eiras Moreira da Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o biossólido e proveniente da estação de tratamento de águas servidas domiciliares, como adubo no cultivo da couve (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala, grupo Georgia. O trabalho foi em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos de adubação, esterco bovino, biossólido e uréia, com quatro repetições. Amostras de solo de cada tratamento foram analisadas quanto a parâmetros químicos, microbiológicos e parasitológicos. Os níveis de metais pesados encontravam-se abaixo dos permitidos pela legislação internacional. Após 54 dias da incorporação do biossólido ao solo, os coliformes fecais eram praticamente nulos e, a partir dos 60 dias, não foram mais encontradas amostras positivas com ovos de helmintos, apesar do alto grau de contaminação inicial. As plantas adubadas com biossólido, na maior dose, comparadas ao esterco, apresentaram maior produtividade e menores teores de N total nas folhas. O biossólido foi classificado como B, pela concentração de coliformes fecais apresentada, tornando-o impróprio para aplicação em culturas de contato primário como as hortaliças. Os resultados indicam a importância de selecionar indicadores de sanidade que permitam o uso seguro deste adubo.This work aimed to evaluate the biosolid from the municipal waste-water treatment, as fetilizer in kale (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala, group Georgia. The experiment was in a randomized complete block design with three fertilization treatments, cattle manure, biosolid and urea, and four replications. Soil samples from each treatment were chemically, microbiologically and parasitologically analyzed. The heavy metal levels were below those recommended by the international legislation. After 45 days of incorporation of the biosolid into the soil, the fecal coliforms were almost undetectable. After 60 days, none of the samples showed the presence of eggs of parasitic worms, despite the high initial

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  19. Efeito da temperatura sobre a severidade de Plasmodiophora brassicae Effect of temperature on Plasmodiophora brassicae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dias Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura é um dos parâmetros importantes para que ocorra a infecção, processo primordial para que haja doença, visando-se verificar a influência deste parâmetro sobre a severidade de Plasmodiophora brassicae em plantas de couve chinesa Pak choi, montou-se testes de infecção em temperaturas variando de 5 em 5ºC, indo de 10 a 40ºC, e observou-se uma redução da severidade da doença nas mudas de 28 dias de idade, nas temperaturas acima de 30ºC, verificando-se que nas temperaturas de 20 a 25ºC a ocorrência da condição ótima para o desenvolvimento da doença.Temperature is an important parameter for infection and plant desease development. In order to determine the influence of temperature on the severity of clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae in Pak choi Chinese cabbage plants, infection tests were carried out under temperatures set at 5ºC increments, from 10 to 40ºC. A reduction in severity of the disease was observed during the analysis of results in 28-day-old seedlings, at temperatures above 30ºC. The optimal temperature for disease development and crop growth were from 20 to 25ºC. It was observed that at this temperature range inoculated seedling presented 26% less dry matter than noninoculated seedlings, thus demonstrating a direct effect of clubroot on plant dry matter accumulation.

  20. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  1. Crisis social, cuestión nacional y violencia urbana. La misteriosa Kale Borroka en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Ferret

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proponemos en este artículo regresar sobre el fenómeno de la Kale Borroka presentando un nuevo régimen de comprensión de esta violencia callejera que se desarro- lla desde principios de la década de los 90 en el País Vasco. El razonamiento se desglosa en un juego de 5 hipótesis que son otros tantos problemas sociológicos generales pudiendo servir de matriz de comparación con otras formas de violencia urbana vigentes particularmente en Francia.

  2. Crisis social, cuestión nacional y violencia urbana. La misteriosa Kale Borroka en España

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Ferret

    2012-01-01

    Proponemos en este artículo regresar sobre el fenómeno de la Kale Borroka presentando un nuevo régimen de comprensión de esta violencia callejera que se desarro- lla desde principios de la década de los 90 en el País Vasco. El razonamiento se desglosa en un juego de 5 hipótesis que son otros tantos problemas sociológicos generales pudiendo servir de matriz de comparación con otras formas de violencia urbana vigentes particularmente en Francia.

  3. 抑制差减杂交法研究复等位基因遗传的大白菜核雄性不育分子机制%The Molecular-mechanism Research of Genic Multiple-allele Inherited Male-sterile in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀瑞琴; 宋倩; 辛喜凤; 周雪; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    AB01, the two-type line of multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Chinensis ) was bred by our research group, the technology system of this material had been build, but its sterile molecular mechanism was not clear yet. In this research, sterility and fertility cDNA libraries including 27 differentially expressed clones were constructed using the fertile and sterile buds of AB01 by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). According to BLAST screening and functional annotation, 25 ESTs were homology to known sequence of the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI). The 25 genes, with homology to known proteins, could be divided into 4 groups (7 flowers developing-felated genes, 5 lipid metabolism, 3 energy metabolism genes, 3 chloroplast related genes and 7 encode the unclassified proteins). The results suggested the molecular mechanism of genic multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage was related with lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and photosynthesis progress.%AB01是本课题组培育的复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜甲型“两用系”,目前已建立了一套该材料的应用技术体系,但其不育分子机制尚不明确.本研究以AB01的不育株和可育株为材料,利用抑制差减杂交技术构建了正反抑制差减cDNA文库,并通过测序及生物信息学手段寻找育性相关基因,以此来推断该材料的不育分子机制.研究共找到27个差异表达基因,其中25个基因在NCBI数据库中均有同源序列,这些基因中7个与花发育相关,5个与脂类代谢相关,3个与活性氧及能量代谢相关,3个与光合作用及叶绿体合成相关,其余7个为功能未知基因.由此推测复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜不育的发生与脂类、能量代谢及光合作用有关.

  4. 茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸诱导的大白菜叶片与根系硫苷含量系统性变化研究%Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang ZANG; Jia-li GE; Ling-hui HUANG; Fei GAO; Xi-shan LV; Wei-wei ZHENG; Seung-beom HONG; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2015-01-01

      结论:茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸处理后,大白菜根系比叶片积累更多的硫苷,吲哚族硫苷比其他种类的硫苷积累更快;茉莉酸甲酯诱导硫苷合成的效果好于水杨酸,而且诱导时间更长;茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸在诱导大白菜根系硫苷合成过程中具有反协同效应。%Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Re-gardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. Al three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that ac-cumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elici-tation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA-and MeJA-mediated systemic response sys-tems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on

  5. Study on the Relationship Between the Ploidy Level of Microspore-Derived Plants and the Number of Chloroplast in Stomatal Guard Cells in Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Su-xia; LIU Yu-mei; FANG Zhi-yuan; YANG Li-mei; ZHUANG Mu; ZHANG Yang-yong; SUN Pei-tian

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the ploidy level of microspore-derived plants and chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells was studied in cabbage, broccoli, and Chinese kale. In the experiment, distribution statistics analysis and t-test were used to perform statistical analysis on chloroplast number of different ploidy level in those stomatal guard cells mentioned above, and morphology identifying and chromosome counting were used to test accuracy of counting chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells. The chloroplast average number in stomatal guard cells was very similar among the different leaf positions on the same plant and among the different locations in the same leaf, while the chloroplast number varied significantly among the different ploidy stoma in the same variety. All the distributions of the chloroplast number in different ploidy stoma were normal distribution fitted. A correlation has been established between ploidy and chloroplast number in the stomatal guard cells. In every single stoma of microspore-derived plants, the chloroplast number for a haploid should not be more than 10, diploids 11 to 15, and polyploids more than 15. The accuracy of this method for identification of different ploidy plants was 93.93%. Furthermore, the accuracy of this method was reliable and did not vary with the plants growth conditions. Therefore, the chromosome ploidy of plants derived from microspore culture in cabbage, broccoli, and Chinese kale can be identified by simply counting the chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells.

  6. 接种蚯蚓及植物促生根际细菌对甘蓝生长·营养元素吸收的影响%Effects of Inoculation of Earthworms and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Growth of Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴福勇; 毕银丽; 毛艳丽

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为阐明混合接种蚯蚓及植物促生根际细菌技术在蔬菜生产中的作用.[方法]采用室内盆栽试验的方法,研究接种蚯蚓、植物促生根际细菌(固氮细菌和钾活化细菌)对甘蓝生长的影响以及甘蓝对氮和钾的吸收.[结果]7种接种方式均明显促进了甘蓝根上部分的生长,其中混合接种蚯蚓、固氮细菌和钾活化细菌处理下甘蓝根上部分生物量最大.5种接种方式(接种蚯蚓、双接蚯蚓和固氮细菌、双接蚯蚓和钾活化细菌、双接钾活化细菌和固氮细菌以及混合接种)下甘蓝地上部分氮的吸收量在0.05水平显著高于对照.[结论 混合接种方式是一种有潜力的生物技术,可以用来减少蔬菜生产中化肥的施用量.%[ Objective ] The research aimed to clarify the roles of mixed inoculation of earthworm and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria ( PGPR) on the growth of vegetables. [ Method ] A serials of pot trials were conducted to investigate the single, dual or triple inoculation of earthworms or PGPR, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria ( NFB) ( Azotobacter chroococcum PDSN-5) and potassium-solubilizing bacteria (KSB) (Bacillus mucilaginous PDSK-1) , on the growth of Chinese kale (Brassica juncea) and on uptake of N and K in the plant. [ Result] All of the seven inoculation treatments apparently increased the shoot growth of B. Juncea. The highest shoot biomass was recorded in the triple inoculation of earthworm, NFB and KSB. All of the seven inoculation treatments significantly increased N uptake in shoot of B. Juncea. [ Conclusion ] The triple inoculation may be a promising approach for reducing the need for chemical fertilizers in growing vegetables.

  7. Influence of diet with kale on lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde levels in blood serum of laboratory rats over intoxication with paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sikora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organism’s lipid peroxidation is one of the most often examined and known physiological process evoked by free radicals. It concerns oxidation reaction of unsaturated fatty acid and/or other lipids leading to lipid oxidation products (LOP, which as a result of further changes generate among others the malondialdehyde molecules. The aim of the work was an estimation if raw or cooked kale addition to rat’s diet infl uences antioxidant defense effi ciency in their organisms in comparison to rats fed with standard AIN-93G diet. Material and methods. The experiment was conducted with 36 Wistar strain, male rats over 21 days. The rats were divided into 3 groups (each 12 stuck which were fed with: standard diet AIN-93G (2 groups, AIN-93G diet with 10% addition of raw kale (2 groups, and AIN-93G with 10% addition of cooked lyophilised kale. The total content of polyphenols (FC method and antioxidant activity (ABTS+• were previously determined in raw and then in cooked kale. On the 20th day of experiment, half of rats (6 stuck of each kind of the diet were injected intraperitoneally by the solution of paraquat (PQ in physiological salt to evoke the oxidative stress. The next day animals were stunned and blood from their hearts was sampled. In the obtained serum, the levels of lipid oxidation products (LOP and malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed. Results. It was observed that in blood serum of rats fed with modifi ed diet with raw and cooked lyophilised kale addition the lipid oxides level was lower in comparison to control group fed with standard diet (p < 0.05. It was found that intoxication with paraquat caused growth of MDA and LOP levels in blood serum of all rats in comparison to not intoxicated groups but that growth was the lowest in group fed diet with cooked kale addition. Conclusion. Diet with kale, both raw and cooked, effi ciently inhibited the lipid peroxidation process in rats’ organisms, ongoing during natural metabolism

  8. Ornamental Characteristics and Gardening Applications of Kale(Brassica oleracea var.acephala)%羽衣甘蓝的观赏特性及园林应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华渊; 李莹莹

    2011-01-01

    羽衣甘蓝具有明显的观赏特性和很高的园林应用价值,是我国华东地带深秋、冬季及早春重要的花坛材料.文章从株型、叶型、叶色、花序等方面分析了羽衣甘蓝的观赏特性,并探讨了其园林应用形式.

  9. Landscaping Application and the Potting Seedling Technique of Kale%羽衣甘蓝的园林应用及其穴盘育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2015-01-01

    羽衣甘蓝,是食用甘蓝的园艺变种,耐寒性强,为优良的冬春季室内外装饰用草花。穴盘育苗作为一种现代育苗技术,有助于羽衣甘蓝大规模的育苗和应用。羽衣甘蓝可用于花坛、花台、花境及盆栽。其穴盘育苗需选择128或200穴的穴盘用于播种,需配备遮阳网、水帘和施肥供水设施。播种基质可选用园土、腐叶土、炭化糠灰、泥炭、珍珠岩、蛭石等,并注意基质的消毒和种子播种前的处理,以提高成苗率。%Kale was the horticultural variety of edible cabbage,which has been widely used in production and application in landscape architec-ture,it was an excellent indoor and outdoor decorative variety in winter,and it has important landscaping application value.The potting seed-ling technique as a new modernization of technology is helpful to the mass production and application of kale.In this paper,the landscaping application form of kale and the potting seedling technique must be studied and summarized,so as to realize the specialization,commercializa-tion,mechanization and high benefit of the production of kale,provide a reference basis for further enhance of the landscaping application val-ue of kale.

  10. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  11. Phytotoxicity and Accumulation of Oxytetracycline from Soil in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis var. chinensis) with Different Growing Stages%土霉素对不同生长期青菜生长的影响及其在青菜地上部分的积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋桐; 鲍陈燕; 顾国平; 章明奎

    2014-01-01

    为了解土霉素对不同生长期青菜生长的影响及不同生长期青菜对土壤中抗生素吸收能力的差异,用盆栽土培试验研究土壤中土霉素(污染水平为0~30 mg/kg之间)对不同生长期青菜生长状况及其对土壤中土霉素吸收的影响。结果表明,在研究的土霉素污染范围内,土霉素污染水平对青菜种子发芽率、营养生长盛期和成熟期的生长影响不明显;但当土霉素污染水平在10、30 mg/kg时对青菜幼苗期根系伸展、地上部茎高及生物量产生显著的影响。在土霉素添加20天后的青菜地上部分中积累的土霉素含量以在营养生长盛期和出苗-幼苗期施用土霉素者为较高;而对于生长60天后收获的青菜的地上部分土霉素残留含量则随土霉素添加时间至收获时间间隔变短而增加,并随土壤中土霉素污染水平的增加而增加。结果认为,青菜生长在前期比后期更易受抗生素污染的毒害,而对于收获的青菜中积累的抗生素含量在后期受抗生素污染者比前期抗生素污染者更易积累。%In order to understand the phytotoxicity and accumulation of oxytetracycline from soil in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis var chinensis) at different growing stages, a pot soil culture experiment was conducted to study the toxicological effects of oxytetracycline pollution (at concentrations ranging from 0 to 30 mg/kg) on the growth of Chinese cabbage and uptake of oxytetracycline by the plant. The results showed that soil oxytetracycline pollution with concentrations of<30 mg/kg had no significant effects on seed germination and plant growth of Chinese cabbage at the vegetative and mature growing stages of the crop. However, at pollution levels of 10 and 30 mg/kg, oxytetracycline had significant effects on root elongation, shoot length, and biomass of vegetable seeding. Accumulations of oxytetracycline in aboveground compartment of the plant at 20 days

  12. Kilop Cretaceous Hardground (Kale, Gümüshane, NE Turkey):description and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Muhsin; Tasli, Kemal

    2002-06-01

    A hardground surface is well exposed in the Kilop area of Kale (Gümüshane, NE Turkey) which forms part of the Eastern Pontides. Here, the hardground is underlain by shallow water Lower Cretaceous limestones, and overlain by Upper Cretaceous red limestones/marls which contains a planktonic microfauna including Globotruncanidae. In the field, the recognition of the hardground is based on the presence of extensive burrows (especially vertical burrows), the encrusting rudistid bivalve Requienia, neptunian-dykes with infills of pelagic sediments and synsedimentary faults. Skolithos and Thalassinoides-type burrows are present. Some burrow walls show iron hydroxide-staining. The extensive burrowing occurred prior to lithification. On the other hand, the neptunian-dykes and synsedimentary faults, which cut the hard ground, occurred after the lithification. These features indicate the progressive hardening of the substrate. The burrowed limestone consists of an intrabioclastic peloidal grainstone which was deposited in an intertidal to shallow, subtidal, moderate to relatively high energy environment. The peloidal limestone shows little or no evidence of submarine cementation, characterized by only scarce relics of isopachous cement rims of bladed calcite spar. The grainstone cement is composed predominantly of blocky calcite and overgrowth calcite cements on the echinoid-fragments. The origin of this cement is controversial. Biostratigraphic analysis of the limestones demonstrates that there is a marked stratigraphic gap (hiatus), spanning the Aptian to the Santonian, in the Cretaceous of the Kilop area. The formation of the Kilop Hardground is related to the break-up and subsidence of the Eastern Pontides carbonate platform during the formation of the Black Sea backarc basin. Hardground development was initiated in a shallow marine environment of slow sedimentation and with moderate to high energy indicating slow subsidence. Later, the hardground subsided abruptly, as

  13. 花心大白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding of Genetic Male Sterile Line in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.Pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 王昊; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    以白菜核基因雄性不育系(Msms)为不育源,以花心大白菜宫古花蕊Y02(MsfMsf)为轮回亲本,采用连续回交,杂交和自交的转育方法,成功地将不育基因转入到可育品系YO2中,育成了不育度和不育株率均为100%,植物学性状与Y02相近的新核不育系GMS4.%A multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage was used as the source of male sterility, backcrossing, crossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line Y02. The new male sterile line GMS4, which contained similar botanical characters with Y02 and the sterility frequency and sterility degree were all 100%, was obtained successfully.

  14. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...

  16. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  17. Respostas fisiológicas de folhas de couve minimamente processadas Physiological response of kale leaves minimally processed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto G. Carnelossi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a taxa respiratória, a produção de etileno de folhas de couve intactas e minimamente processadas, e a influência do horário de colheita, do resfriamento rápido e da temperatura de sanitização sobre a conservação do produto minimamente processado. Folhas de couve totalmente desenvolvidas foram colhidas às sete e às 14 horas, na horta da UFV, entre 1996 e 2000. O processamento foi realizado logo após a colheita e após a refrigeração (6±1ºC por 8 h. Amostras (200 g foram acondicionadas em embalagens de poliolefina multicamada, armazenadas a 5±2ºC por 15 dias e foram avaliadas quanto aos teores de vitamina C e atividade de polifenoloxidase (PPO. A taxa respiratória e produção de etileno foram determinadas em folhas intactas e minimamente processadas colocadas em bandejas plásticas e frascos de vidros hermeticamente fechados, e armazenadas durante 24 horas a 1; 5; 10 e 25ºC. A taxa respiratória e a evolução de etileno das folhas de couve inteira aumentaram imediatamente após destacamento da planta mãe. O fatiamento aumentou a taxa respiratória da folha em aproximadamente duas vezes. O aumento da temperatura influenciou significativamente (PThe respiratory rate and ethylene production were evaluated in whole and minimally processed kale leaves and, the influence of harvest time, of fast cooling and sanitization temperature on the conservation of the minimally processed product. Totally developed kale leaves were harvested at 7 and 14 o'clock in the field, during the years 1996 and 2000. Processing was carried out soon after harvest and subsequent refrigeration (6±1ºC for 8 h. Samples (200 g were conditioned in multilayer poliolefina packing, stored at 5±2ºC for 15 days and evaluate for vitamin C and polifenoloxidase (PPO activity. The respiratory rate and production of ethylene were determined in whole leaves as well as in minimally processed ones, packed in plastic trays and glass jars hermetically

  18. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  19. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  20. Modeling the Growth of Epiphytic Bacteria on Kale Treated by Thermosonication Combined with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Stored under Dynamic Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    The growth of epiphytic bacteria (aerobic mesophilic bacteria or Pseudomonas spp.) on kale was modeled isothermally and validated under dynamic storage temperatures. Each bacterial count on kale stored at isothermal conditions (4 to 25 °C) was recorded. The results show that maximum growth rate (μmax ) of both epiphytic bacteria increased and lag time (λ) decreased with increasing temperature (P 0.97), whereas lower R(2) > 0.86 and R(2) > 0.87 was observed for the λ and Nmax , respectively. The overall predictions of both epiphytic bacterial growths under nonisothermal conditions with temperature abuse of 15 °C agreed with the observed data, whereas those with temperature abuse of 25 °C were greatly overestimated. The appropriate parameter q0 (physiological state of cells), therefore, was adjusted by a trial and error to fit the model. This study demonstrates that the developed model was able to predict accurately epiphytic bacterial growth on kale stored under nonisothermal conditions particularly those with low temperature abuse of 15 °C.

  1. Detection of Tocopherol in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazim Hussain; Zahra Jabeen; LI Yuan-long; CHEN Ming-xun; LI Zhi-lan; GUO Wan-li; Imran Haider Shamsi; CHEN Xiao-yang; JIANG Li-xi

    2013-01-01

    The variation among Chinese genotypes of Brassica napus L. for seed tocopherols content and their analysis using gas chromatography has not been comprehensively reported till to date. In the present study, the tocopherol contents of four Chinese genotypes of Brassica napus L., namely, Gaoyou 605, Zhejiang 619, Zheshuang 758, and Zheshuang 72, were evaluated using three modified sample preparation protocols (P1, P2, and P3) for tocopherol extraction. These methods were distinguished as follows. Protocol one (P1) included the evaporation of solvent after extraction without silylation. Protocol two (P2) followed the direct supernatant collection after overnight extraction without drying and silylation. Protocol three (P3) included trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Genotypic comparison of tocopherol and its isoforms revealed that Gaoyou 605 was dominant over the other genotypes with (140.5±10.5), (316.2± 9.2), and (559.1± 24.3)μg g-1 of seed mealα-,γ-, and total (T-) tocopherol, respectively, and a 0.44±0.04α-toγ-tocopherol ratio. The comparison of the sample preparation protocols, on the other hand, suggests that P3 is the most suitable method for the tocopherol extraction from Brassica oilseeds and for the analysis of tocopherols using gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Trimethylsilylation is the key step differentiating P3 from P1 and P2. Variations detected in tocopherol contents among the Chinese rapeseed (B. napus) genotypes signify the need to quantify a wide range of rapeseed germplasm for seed tocopherol dynamics in short and crop improvement in long.

  2. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  3. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after ger

  4. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  5. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L. Using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 曹家树; 陈杭

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica 'qisihai'. The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci, 36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups (LGs) and 2 small groups, covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM. The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits, QTL analysis, and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  6. Efeito da aplicação de extratos aquosos em couve na alimentação de largatas de Ascia monuste orseis Effect of aqueous vegetal extratcts application on larva feeding behavior of Ascia monuste orseis at kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de extratos aquosos de amêndoas de Azadirachta indica e frutos de Sapindus saponaria, aplicados em discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala nas concentrações de 0,0117% e 1,0342% (p/v, respectivamente, foram estudados sobre a alimentação das lagartas de Ascia monuste orseis. Avaliou-se a atratividade e o consumo de área foliar de lagartas de primeiro e terceiro ínstar durante 24 horas, em condições de laboratório (T = 25 ± 2ºC, UR = 60 ± 10% e fotofase = 12 horas. Nos testes com e sem chance de escolha, para lagartas de primeiro ínstar e teste sem chance de escolha para lagartas de terceiro ínstar, não houve diferença quanto à atratividade das lagartas. No teste com chance de escolha para lagartas de terceiro ínstar, houve menor atratividade das lagartas pelos discos de folhas tratadas com S. saponaria, diferindo da testemunha. No decorrer de 24 horas de avaliações, pode-se observar 58,3% de lagartas atraídas na testemunha, não diferindo de A. indica e diferindo de S. saponaria, com 39,3% e 2,4% das lagartas atraídas, respectivamente. Quanto ao consumo de área foliar, o extrato de S. saponaria diminuiu o consumo de lagartas, em todos os testes realizados. Quando não tinham opção de escolha para se alimentar de folhas sem os extratos, as lagartas consumiram as folhas tratadas nas concentrações testadas, porém em menor quantidade. Os extratos testados neste experimento demonstram ter efeitos sobre a alimentação das lagartas de A. monuste orseis, possivelmente com propriedades deterrentes e/ou supressoras de alimentação.The effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica almonds and of Sapindus saponaria fruits, applied on disks of kale leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala at concentrations of 0.0117% and 1.0342% (w/v, respectively, were studied on larval feeding behavior of Ascia monuste orseis. Data on leaves attractiveness and consumption at first and third larval instar were

  7. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    L. (leaves, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (leaves e branches, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (leaves, Sapindus saponaria L. (leaves, S. saponaria (fruits, Solanum cernuum Vell. (leaves, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (bark, Symphytum officinale L. (leaves, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (leaves, T. catigua (branches, Trichilia pallida Sw. (leaves e T. pallida (branches, was evaluated in relation to oviposition preference of Plutella xylostella. Disks of kale leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, cultivar Georgia were immersed in each extract at a concentration of 10% (weight/volume for one minute, and afterwards, divided in four equal parts, and two parts were placed alternately with other two parts treated with distilled water, in each cage. The counting of the eggs was made after 24 hours. The results showed deterrent effect on oviposition of the pest, except for the extract of S. adstringens, which didn't differed from the water treated control. The extracts of E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (fruits and T. pallida (leaves were the most efficient, presenting 100% of deterrence.

  8. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  9. Aplicação de esterco bovino e uréia na couve e seus reflexos nos teores de nitrato e na qualidade Cattle manure and urea use on kale and their influence on the quality and nitrate content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina P. Zago

    1999-11-01

    . Devido aos menores teores de nitrato encontrados na couve adubada exclusivamente com esterco, conclui-se que este adubo proporcionou um produto de melhor qualidade para consumo.High levels of nitrate in food is undesirable, as it may be easily converted to nitrite, which is a well known carcinogenic compound that can also interfere with hemoglobin activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different forms of N-fertilizer (cattle manure, urea and a mixture of both on the N-NO3- concentration observed on leaf tissues of kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala. A field experiment was conducted from March until August 1995, at the Embrapa-Agrobiology Research Center. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design, with six treatments: cattle manure addition (20 t/ha, urea addition (900 kg/ha, mixtures of cattle manure (20 t/ha with increasing urea levels (225, 450 and 900 kg/ha and a control. A total of four replicates was used. The distance between plants in a row and between single rows was 0.6 m, and 0.8 m was the distance between double rows. A total of 24 plots with 9.6 m² each was used. Plants growing solely on cattle manure showed lower nitrate contents on leaf blades than those receiving additional urea (17.6 mg/g F. M. and 303 mg/g F. M., respectively. Petiole N-NO3- contents for all treatments were three times higher than the ones observed in leaf blades (1830 and 561 mg/g F. M., respectively. According to WHO, the Daily Acceptable Intake (DAI for an adult weighting 65 kg is 53.3 mg of N-NO3-, which represents the maximum quantity this compound that can be swallowed daily, through food and water. From the results obtained, the DAI would be reached after consumption of 2.67 kg of kale (leaf blade cultivated under cattle manure fertilization, or just 0.18 kg of kale cultivated under cattle manure and urea (111 kg/ha fertilization, which approximates to the urea dosage recommended in the "Manual de Adubação de Rio de Janeiro". As

  10. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Graora; Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Wolfgang Büchs; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić; Tanja Gotlin-Čuljak

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.). It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction....

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  12. Evaluation of the toxicity of selenium from hydroponically produced selenium-enriched kale sprout in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantiratikul, Anut; Borisuth, Lalita; Chinrasri, Orawan; Saenthaweesuk, Nattanan; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee; Thosaikham, Witphon; Sriart, Noppong; Chantiratikul, Piyanete

    2016-05-01

    Hydroponically produced Se-enriched kale sprouts (HPSeKS) are studied for their use as an alternative dietary Se supplement for poultry. The study experimented with different levels and sources of Se to determine toxicity and how the toxicity may affect productive performance, Se concentration in egg and tissues, and physiological responses of laying hens. One-hundred and twenty hens, 59 weeks of age, were divided into 5 groups. Each group consisted of 4 replicates and each replicate had 6 birds according to a 2×2+1 Augmented Factorial Experiment in a Completely Randomized Design. The experiment was conducted over a 4 week period, and 5 dietary treatments (T) were used: T1 basal diet, T2 and T3 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from sodium selenite (SS), T4 and T5 basal diet plus 5 and 10mg Se/kg from HPSeKS, respectively. The results make clear that Se from HPSeKS, at 5-10mg/kg, did not affect (P>0.05) feed intake and egg production; however, Se bioavailability decreased (Phens fed Se from SS were lower (Phens fed Se from HPSeKS. The findings demonstrate that dietary Se from HPSeKS at 5-10mg/kg is not considered a toxic level for laying hens. The toxicity of Se from HPSeKS was less than the toxicity of Se from SS. PMID:26964695

  13. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitizing Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1964-01-01

    The nomenclature of the perfect and imperfect stages of Mycosphaerella brassicicola (Duby) Lind. and Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & De Not. is discussed. The imperfect stages of these two parasites of Brassica spp. are often confused. Mycosphaerella brassicicola has a spermagonial stage with

  14. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  15. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry......Arabidopsis, Brassica napus, Myrosinase, Myrosinase Binding Protein, Glucosinolates, Myrosin Cell, Immunocytochemistry...

  16. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  17. Identification and evolutionary genomics of novel LTR retrotransposons in Brassica

    OpenAIRE

    NOUROZ, FAISAL; NOREEN, SHUMAILA; HESLOP-HARRISON, JOHN SEYMOUR

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Retrotransposons (REs) are the most abundant and diverse elements identified from eukaryotic genomes. Using computational and molecular methods, 262 intact LTR retrotransposons were identified from Brassica genomes by dot plot analysis and data mining. The Copia superfamily was dominant (206 elements) over Gypsy (56), with estimated intact copies of ~1596 Copia and 540 Gypsy and ~7540 Copia and 780 Gypsy from Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea whole genomes, respectively. Canonical...

  18. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pingxia; Liu Bo; Sun Silong; Fang Lu; Wu Jian; Liu Shengyi; Cheng Feng; Hua Wei; Wang Xiaowu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. D...

  19. Biocontrole de Listeria monocytogenes por Pediococcus acidilactici em couve minimamente processada Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes by Pediococcus acidilactici in fresh-cut kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Altimiras Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou um sistema de biocontrole para inibição de Listeria monocytogenes em couve minimamente processada, objetivando sua segurança durante estocagem sob refrigeração e em condições de abuso de temperatura. O potencial inibitório de bactérias láticas tolerantes ao sal e psicrotróficas contaminantes naturais da couve e Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 9649 e Lactobacillus casei CCT 1465 foram avaliadas contra L. monocytogenes. O isolado de couve identificado como P. acidilactici CCA3 inibiu L. monocytogenes a 10 e 15 °C em ágar MRS e foi selecionado como possível agente de biocontrole. O número de L. monocytogenes na couve minimamente processada aumentou 3,7 e 4,7 ciclos logarítmicos a 5 e 10 °C, respectivamente, após 20 dias de armazenamento e 4,6 ciclos logarítmicos após oito dias a 15 °C. Entretanto, quando 10(8 UFC.g-1 de P. acidilactici CCA3 foram inoculados no produto processado, o crescimento de L. monocytogenes reduziu 2,3 ciclos logarítmicos sob temperatura abusiva de 15 °C. A acidez titulável e as características sensoriais da couve não foram alteradas pela presença de CCA3 ao longo do período de vida útil. Estes resultados sugerem o potencial de aplicação dos bioconservantes na couve minimamente processada, que necessitam estar associados à refrigeração e sanitização para garantir segurança.This study evaluated a biological control system for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed kale focusing on its freshness under refrigeration and extreme temperatures. The inhibitory potential of salt and cold tolerant lactic bacteria from natural microflora of kale, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 9649, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei CCT 1465 strains were evaluated against L. monocytogenes. Pediococcus acidilactici CCA3 isolated from kale exhibited a large inhibition zone of L. monocytogenes at 10 and 15 °C in MRS agar and was

  20. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  1. Anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ning; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Bo; Zheng, Shuning; Liang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthocyanins are a group of flavonoid compounds. As a group of important secondary metabolites, they perform several key biological functions in plants. Anthocyanins also play beneficial health roles as potentially protective factors against cancer and heart disease. To elucidate the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Brassica rapa, we conducted comparative genomic analyses between Arabidopsis thaliana and B. rapa on a genome-wide level. Results In total, we identified 73 genes in...

  2. Genetic variation in glucosinolate content within Brassica rapa vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    He, H.; Ping, L; Bonnema, G.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) were analyzed in 56 accessions of Brassica rapa grown in the greenhouse. Eight different glucosinolates were identified in the Brassica rapa group. They are the aliphatic glucosinolates progoitrin (PRO), gluconapin (NAP), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), the indolyl glucosinolates 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin (4OH), glucobrassicin (GBC), 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (4ME), neoglucobrassicin (NEO) and the aromatic glucosinolate gluconasturtiin (NAS). Gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, progoit...

  3. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  4. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Characterization and Marker Development in the Sequenced Brassica Crop Species

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2013-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of the...

  5. Effects of inoculum potential on screening for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in greenhouse trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Robak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, including growth medium, inoculum density, and inoculum storage affected the reaction of resistant and susceptible Brassicas to Plasmodiophora brassicae in the greenhouse. A high level of disease was achieved using Peat-litte mix R and a commercial greenhouse mix. There was litte difference in disease incidence when spore suspensions were pipeted into planting holes or when seedlings were dipped into spore suspensions. Seedlings transplanted from sand or Petri dishes gave higher levels of disease than direct seeding. Two-year frozen storage of clubs reduced the inoculum potential to a level unable to define resistance. Inoculum levels of 103-7 spores per ml from fresh clubs, or 105-7 spores per ml from clubs frozen for 2 or 4 years, produced 90% club incidence of susceptible cauliflower and Chinese cabbage, A concentration of only 106-8 spores per ml from fresh clubs was required for maximum disease expression in a cauliflower line partially resistant to clubroot.

  6. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH, we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2,031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  7. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  8. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pingxia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42. It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE, B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org.

  9. Field evaluation of leaf blight-resistant plant introductions of Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa and elucidation of inheritance of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf blight disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. One ...

  10. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L.using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 陈杭; 等

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis cv.aijiaohang” and ssp.rapifera cv.,”'isihai”.The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci,36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups(LGs) and 2 small groups,covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM.The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits.QTL analysis,and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  11. Availability of phosphorus from ground phosphate rocks for rape (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of phosphorus from the ground phosphate rock, which is provided by Kaiyang mining plant, Guizhou Province of China, is investigated in pot experiment with acid red soil for rape (Brassica napus L. No. 13 Xingyou, Chinese Olive Group) by 32P indirect labelling method. The results show that the yield increased significantly by applying ground phosphate rock (GPR) and the efficiency of GPR is equal to 17.1% of that from calcium superphosphate. It is calculated as that the fertilizer efficiency of 1 kg of calcium superphosphate is the same as that of 8.53 kg ground phosphate rock in Guizhou Province of China. The effect on the grain yield is evaluated by pot and field microplot experiments, and it is found that the main effect is to increase the pod number. The fertilizer efficiency in field experiment is the same as that in pot experiment. (9 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.)

  12. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  13. Copper exposure interferes with the regulation of the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tseng, Mei Hwei; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Koralewska, Aleksandra; Posthumus, Freek S.; Venema, Jan Henk; Parmar, Saroj; Schat, Henk; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to enhanced Cu(2+) concentrations (1-10 mu M) resulted in leaf chlorosis, a loss of photosynthetic capacity and lower biomass production at >= 5 mu M. The decrease in pigment content was likely not the consequence of degradation, but due to hindered

  14. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  15. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianli; Liu, Bo; Wu, Jian; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in leaf adaxial-abaxial (ad-ab) polarity are one of the main factors that influence leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite to the formation of a leafy head. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating their genetic variation may facilitate elucidation of the mechanisms underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. Comparative genomic analysis of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT). We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima's D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to those in non-heading accessions, indicating that they underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature, which is associated with formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26904064

  16. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leaf adaxial–abaxial (ad-ab polarity are one of the main factors that are responsible for leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, to form a leafy head, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating its genetic variations will facilitate in elucidating the mechanism underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. In the present study we conducted comparative genomic analysis of the identification of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT. We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima’s D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to that in non-heading accessions, indicating that these underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature that is associated in the formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage.

  17. Yield performance of brassica varieties under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study was conducted to evaluate crop growth and seed yield performance of Brassica varieties under Rainfed conditions. The varieties, included in the study, were BSA, Zafar-2000, Pakola, Con.1, Con.2, Abaseen, Rainbow, SPS-5, Bard-1, and KJ-119. KJ-119 (2500.0 KG/HA) among Brassica juncea L. varieties and Abaseen (2425.9 kg/ha) among Brassica napusL. Varieties produced with maximum seed yield as compared to rest of varieties. Significantly, minimum seed yield was observed in check variety BSA. The significant difference in seed yield of Brassica varieties, Abaseen and KJ 119, was attributed to improve yield components over other varieties. Maximum pods per plant and seeds per pod led these varieties to attain maximum yield. Inspite of weather variations existence during years 2007-09,the same varieties produced with maximum seed yield. (author)

  18. BrassicaTED - a public database for utilization of miniature transposable elements in Brassica species

    OpenAIRE

    Murukarthick, Jayakodi; Sampath, Perumal; Lee, Sang Choon; Choi, Beom-Soon; Senthil, Natesan; Liu, Shengyi; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background MITE, TRIM and SINEs are miniature form transposable elements (mTEs) that are ubiquitous and dispersed throughout entire plant genomes. Tens of thousands of members cause insertion polymorphism at both the inter- and intra- species level. Therefore, mTEs are valuable targets and resources for development of markers that can be utilized for breeding, genetic diversity and genome evolution studies. Taking advantage of the completely sequenced genomes of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea,...

  19. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  20. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Daniel J Kliebenstein

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse gro...

  1. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  2. Healthy food trends -- kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cup onion (chopped) ½ carrot (chopped) 1 teaspoon thyme (ground) 2 garlic cloves (minced) 2 cups water ... are tender -- about 5 to 8 minutes. Add thyme and garlic. Sauté for one more minute. Add ...

  3. Effects of Composite Exogenous Substances on Reducing the Phytotoxicity of Two Herbicides in Chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa chinensis)%复合外源活性物质对小白菜除草剂毒害的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运红; 刘兰英; 余金龙; 吴礼树; 和爱玲; 孙克刚

    2014-01-01

    以小白菜(Brassica rapa chinensis)为材料,研究了复合外源活性物质对两种除草剂(草甘膦和2,4-D)药害的缓解效果.结果表明,草甘膦和2,4-D胁迫后,小白菜叶片分别出现黄斑或卷叶现象,产量也有不同程度降低;而施用复合外源活性物质后其药害症状得到不同程度缓解,且二者均以稀释800倍液处理(WY800)的效果最佳,谷胱甘肽含量和抗氧化酶活性也均有不同程度提高.该结果说明该复合外源活性物质可一定程度缓解草甘膦和2,4-D在小白菜上产生的药害.

  4. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  5. The high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs profiling in wide hybridisation and allopolyploidisation between Brassica rapa and Brassica nigra

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Awais Ghani; Junxing Li; Linli Rao; Muhammad Ammar Raza; Liwen Cao; Ningning Yu; Xiaoxia Zou; Liping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in maintaining the genome reconstruction and stability in the plant. However, little is known regarding the role of small RNAs during the process of wide hybridisation and chromosome doubling. Therefore, the changes in the small RNAs were assessed during the formation of an allodiploid (genome: AB) and its allotetraploid (genome: AABB) between Brassica rapa (♀) and Brassica nigra (♂) in the present study. Here, the experimental methods described in details, R...

  6. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  7. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  8. Selection for pathogen resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid in vitro systems of Brassica napus, i.e. mesophyll protoplast and microspores, were cultivated on media containing culture filtrates or concentrated toxins (Sirodesmins) of the pathogenic fungus Phoma lingam. Several toxin tolerant clones were selected. After colchicine treatment, seeds were obtained from about 50% of the regenerants. Stem infection tests carried out on seed born plantlets in the greenhouse with pycnidiospores of Phoma indicated reduced susceptibility towards the pathogen in protoplast derived clones of the rapeseed cultivar ''Andor''. Microspore derived clones of the rapeseed cultivar ''JL344'', containing the natural Phoma resistance of the cultivar ''Jet Neuf'', showed no significant improvement in the degree of resistance in the selection procedure. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  10. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  11. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicit...

  12. Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Chinese Kale via Isolated Microspore Culture%芥蓝游离小孢子培养初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杭军; 王晓武; 汪炳良

    2004-01-01

    以芥蓝的5个基因型为试材,对游离小孢子培养诱导胚状体发生及植株再生进行了初步探讨.结果表明:供体基因型对成功诱导胚状体发生至关重要;振荡培养明显有利于胚状体的发育;改良MS和B5培养基对诱导植株再生没有差别.

  13. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Jiang; Lina Yao; Youjian Yu; Meiling Lv; Ying Miao; Jiashu Cao

    2014-01-01

    PECTATE LYASE‐LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense‐RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10‐4,‐5, and‐6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense‐RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non‐germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture.

  14. Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Isolated Microspore Culture of Kale (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Acephala DC.)%羽衣甘蓝的小孢子胚诱导和植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凤英; 冯辉; 王超楠

    2005-01-01

    以羽衣甘蓝10个品种的游离小孢子培养,研究其胚状体及其再生植株诱导方法的结果表明,琼脂糖和活性炭对诱导胚状体发生及发育有促进作用;改良MS培养基中添加0.01%的活性炭可促进植株再生;确定1/2MS+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1是优化生根的培养基;小孢子再生植株成活率可达74.6%.

  15. A sequence-based genetic linkage map as a reference for Brassica rapa pseudochromosome assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Feng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop and a model plant for studies concerning polyploidization and the evolution of extreme morphology. The multinational B. rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP was launched in 2003. In 2008, next generation sequencing technology was used to sequence the B. rapa genome. Several maps concerning B. rapa pseudochromosome assembly have been published but their coverage of the genome is incomplete, anchoring approximately 73.6% of the scaffolds on to chromosomes. Therefore, a new genetic map to aid pseudochromosome assembly is required. Results This study concerns the construction of a reference genetic linkage map for Brassica rapa, forming the backbone for anchoring sequence scaffolds of the B. rapa genome resulting from recent sequencing efforts. One hundred and nineteen doubled haploid (DH lines derived from microspore cultures of an F1 cross between a Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis DH line (Z16 and a rapid cycling inbred line (L144 were used to construct the linkage map. PCR-based insertion/deletion (InDel markers were developed by re-sequencing the two parental lines. The map comprises a total of 507 markers including 415 InDels and 92 SSRs. Alignment and orientation using SSR markers in common with existing B. rapa linkage maps allowed ten linkage groups to be identified, designated A01-A10. The total length of the linkage map was 1234.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.43 cM between adjacent marker loci. The lengths of linkage groups ranged from 71.5 cM to 188.5 cM for A08 and A09, respectively. Using the developed linkage map, 152 scaffolds were anchored on to the chromosomes, encompassing more than 82.9% of the B. rapa genome. Taken together with the previously available linkage maps, 183 scaffolds were anchored on to the chromosomes and the total coverage of the genome was 88.9%. Conclusions The development of this linkage map is vital for the integration of genome

  16. GDSL esterase/lipase genes in Brassica rapa L.: genome-wide identification and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Yi, Hankuil; Han, Ching-Tack; Nou, Ill-Sup; Hur, Yoonkang

    2016-04-01

    GDSL esterase/lipase proteins (GELPs), a very large subfamily of lipolytic enzymes, have been identified in microbes and many plants, but only a few have been characterized with respect to their roles in growth, development, and stress responses. In Brassica crops, as in many other species, genome-wide systematic analysis and functional studies of these genes are still lacking. As a first step to study their function in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage), we comprehensively identified all GELP genes in the genome. We found a total of 121 Brassica rapa GDSL esterase/lipase protein genes (BrGELPs), forming three clades in the phylogenetic analysis (two major and one minor), with an asymmetrical chromosomal distribution. Most BrGELPs possess four strictly conserved residues (Ser-Gly-Asn-His) in four separate conserved regions, along with short conserved and clade-specific blocks, suggesting functional diversification of these proteins. Detailed expression profiling revealed that BrGELPs were expressed in various tissues, including floral organs, implying that BrGELPs play diverse roles in various tissues and during development. Ten percent of BrGELPs were specifically expressed in fertile buds, rather than male-sterile buds, implying their involvement in pollen development. Analyses of EXL6 (extracellular lipase 6) expression and its co-expressed genes in both B. rapa and Arabidopsis, as well as knockdown of this gene in Arabidopsis, revealed that this gene plays an important role in pollen development in both species. The data described in this study will facilitate future investigations of other BrGELP functions. PMID:26423069

  17. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  18. Linkage of morphological markers in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological markers play a pivotal role in selection of desirable traits in all plant breeding programs. The genetic linkage maps provide the basic information about the nature and place of genes on genetic maps. Two plant introduction (PI) germplasm of Brassica napus i.e. PI409024 and PI 535850 were inter specifically hybridized to 366 and 1203 lines of B. campestris. The hybrids i.e. 409024 x 1203 and crusher x 1203 were grown to produce F1 generation. The F1 populations were evaluated for genetic nature of four morphological qualitative traits like plant color, flower color, leaf shape and leaf pubescence at the KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar. In F1 generation dark green plant color (C), dark yellow flower color (Y), entire leaf shape (E1) and non-hairiness of leaf (h) were expressed as dominant traits. In F2 generation the hybrids segregated and were classified into their respective phenotypic classes. Linkages were detected between Y and H, and E1 and H, pairs of loci. The recombination frequency between Y and H loci was 17.7+- 10.3 cM, and between E1 and H was 32.3 +- 9.9 cM. (author)

  19. Induced polyploidization in Brassica campestris L. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G; Dwivedi, K

    2014-01-01

    Present experimental design has been made up to obtain crop with higher ploidy level via synthetic polyploidization. Since ploidy manipulation is generally associated with the obtainment of some increased enviable traits of the crop and also provides them greater adaptability to unfavorable or harsh circumstances as compared to its diploids counterparts. Thus, herein present research autotetraploids of Brassica campestris L. have been lucratively achieved by the application of colchicine. Two methods of treatment were utilized i.e. seed treatment and seedling treatment. No polyploidy could be obtained through seed treatment while seedling treatment responded well towards polyploidy. However, the status of autotetraploidy has been confirmed by cytomorphological investigations of treated plants as against its diploids counterparts. For the purpose, morphological parameters such as increased stomata size, pollen diameter, flower size, reproductive organs whereas reduction in plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, stomata frequency, number of flowers/inflorescence etc. were appraised. Further, cytological observations were made that had clearly revealed the doubling of genome in the autotetraploids as compared to diploids. Meanwhile, pollen fertility and size of pollen grains were evaluated as well. PMID:24818510

  20. Reasoned opinion on the modification of maximum residue levels (MRLs for fipronil following the withdrawal of the authorised uses on kale and head cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request of the European Commission for a scientific opinion on the modification of MRLs for the active substance fipronil. The European Commission requested EFSA to recalculate the MRLs for fipronil in animal commodities which were recommended by EFSA in its previous reasoned opinion on the review of the existing MRLs for fipronil according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, and to update EFSA’s conclusion on the safety of all proposed MRLs. For this assessment EFSA was also requested to take into account the existing emergency authorisation of fipronil on potatoes as granted in Germany and the recent withdrawal of fipronil authorisations in Europe on head cabbage and kale. MRL proposals were derived by EFSA according to different scenarios, as requested by the European Commission, and a consumer risk assessment was carried out for each scenario. Regardless of the scenario presented, no information required by the regulatory framework was found to be missing and no risk to consumers was identified.

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource. PMID:27173238

  2. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  3. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa ssp.chinensis and Transferability Among Related Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite marker is a valuable tool for several purposes, such as mapping, fingerprinting,and breeding.In the present study, an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)-PCR technique was applied for developing SSR markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa). A total of 190 SSRs were obtained. Among these, AG or CT (54.7%) was the most frequent repeat, followed by AC or GT (31.6%) of the microsatellites. The average number of the SSRs length array was 16 and 10 times, respectively. Based on the determined SSR sequences, 143 SSR primer pairs were designed to evaluate their transferabilities among the related species of Brassica. The number of alleles produced per marker averaged 2.91, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0 to 0.863 with an average of 0.540. Monomorphism was observed in 16 primer pairs. The transferability percentage in CC genome was higher than in BB genome. More loci occurred in the BBCC genome. This result supported the hypothesis that BB genome was divergent from A and C genomes, and AA and CC genomes were relatively close. The polymorphic primers can be exploited for further evolution, fingerprinting, and variety identification.

  4. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson-Darling (A-D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding. PMID:27512396

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson–Darling (A–D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Provides Insight into the Genetic Control of Plant Height in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengming; Wang, Benqi; Yan, Lei; Hu, Kaining; Liu, Sheng; Zhou, Yongming; Guan, Chunyun; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Jiana; Zhang, Jiefu; Chen, Song; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Yi, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Plant height is a key morphological trait of rapeseed. In this study, we measured plant height of a rapeseed population across six environments. This population contains 476 inbred lines representing the major Chinese rapeseed genepool and 44 lines from other countries. The 60K Brassica Infinium® SNP array was utilized to genotype the association panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed via three methods, including a robust, novel, nonparametric Anderson–Darling (A–D) test. Consequently, 68 loci were identified as significantly associated with plant height (P 0.1), we found plausible candidates orthologous to the documented Arabidopsis genes involved in height regulation. One significant association found by GWAS colocalized with the established height locus BnRGA in rapeseed. Our results provide insights into the genetic basis of plant height in rapeseed and may facilitate marker-based breeding. PMID:27512396

  8. Preservação do inóculo de Plasmodiophora brassicae utilizando o método de congelamento Preservation of Plasmodiophora brassicae inoculum using the freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Sodário Cruz

    2009-02-01

    brassica species naturally infected by P. brassicae, showing typical clubroot symptoms, sampled in the same farm, located in the Pardinho County, State of São Paulo, were collected during different seasons and were immediately frozen at approximately 20ºC. The treatments were divided as follows: T1: clubroots frozen for 389 days (arugula; T2: clubroots frozen for 242 days (broccoli; T3: clubroots frozen for 21 days (Chinese cabbage, and T4: control (without inoculum. The pathogenicity tests were conducted under greenhouse conditions (25±2ºC. Each plant of the susceptible variety of Chinese cabbage (Pak choi was inoculated with 2mL of a spore suspension of each treatment at a concentration of 10(7 spores.mL-1. Each treatment consisted of six replicates distributed in random blocks. The roots of plants were washed and evaluated five weeks after inoculation. There were significant differences between treatments. The frozen materials preserved their infective traits over a period of 21 to 242 days, demonstrating that the freezing method could be an option to preserve the resistance structures of this pathogen.

  9. Reduction of duplication in a Brassica oleracea germplasm collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Boukema, I.W.; Visser, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the number of accessions in the Brassica oleracea collection of the Centre for Genetic Resources The Netherlands (CGN) groups of accessions were bulked. Accessions in a group were selections from the same landrace or old variety, and were chosen, with the help of crop experts, on the basis

  10. Metabolomic changes of Brassica rapa under biotic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel-Farid Ali, Ibrahim Bayoumi

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown by this thesis that plant metabolomics is a promising tool for studying the interaction between B. rapa and pathogenic fungi. It gives a picture of the plant metabolites during the interaction. Brassica rapa has many defense related compounds such as glucosinolates, IAA, phenylprop

  11. EVALUATION OF TURNIP (Brassica rapa) FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Aziz; KOCH, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa) was evaluated for its growth and adaptability to Wyoming. Forage yields ranged from 3.64 to 7.73 Mg/ha at two locations over a two year period. It is concluded that turnip could be grown as a forage crop in Wyoming.

  12. Quantitative trait loci for glucosinolate accumulation in Brassica rapa leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, P.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; He, Hongju; Hanhart, C.J.; Pino del Carpio, D.; Verkerk, R.; Custers, J.B.M.; Koornneef, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products have been recognized for their effects on plant defense, human health, flavor and taste of cruciferous vegetables. Despite this importance, little is known about the regulation of the biosynthesis and degradation in Brassica rapa. Here, the identification

  13. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  14. Isolate Dependency of Brassica rapa Resistance QTLs to Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Kwon, Soon-Tae; Chen, Fang; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Generalist necrotrophic pathogens including Botrytis cinerea cause significant yield and financial losses on Brassica crops. However, there is little knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the complex interactions encoded by both host and pathogen genomes in this interaction. This potentially includes multiple layers of plant defense and pathogen virulence mechanisms that could complicate in breeding broad spectrum resistance within Brassica species. Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a diverse group of defense metabolites that play a key role in interaction between Brassica and biotic attackers. In this study, we utilized a collection of diverse B. cinerea isolates to investigate resistance within the Brassica rapa R500 × IMB211 recombinant inbred line population. We tested variation on lesion development and glucosinolate accumulation in parental lines and all population lines. We then mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for both resistances to B. cinerea and defense metabolites in this population. Phenotypic analysis and QTL mapping demonstrate that the genetic basis of resistance to B. cinerea in B. rapa is isolate specific and polygenic with transgressive segregation that both parents contribute resistance alleles. QTLs controlling defensive GSLs are highly dependent on pathogen infection. An overlap of two QTLs identified between resistance to B. cinerea and defense metabolites also showed isolate specific effects. This work suggests that directly searching for resistance loci may not be the best approach at improving resistance in B. rapa to necrotrophic pathogen. PMID:26925079

  15. Phytotoxicity assay for seed production using Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although pesticide drift can affect crop yield adversely, current plant testing protocols emphasize only the potential impacts on vegetative plant growth. The present study was conducted to determine whether a plant species with a short life cycle, such as Brassica rapa L. Wiscon...

  16. Genetic variability among advanced lines of brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic variability for morphological and biochemical traits among six advanced lines (F10:11) of brassica was studied at The University of Agriculture Peshawar during crop season of 2012-13. These lines were developed through interspecific hybridization. Significant differences at (p=0.01) for plant height, main, pods main raceme-1, pod length, seed yield plant-1 and protein content at (p=0.05) for 100-seed weight, oil content were recorded. The advanced line, AUP-05 produced the maximum seed yield plant-1 (19.73 g), protein content (24.56%), 100-seed weight (0.64 g). Advanced line AUP-04 had the highest erucic acid (50.31%), linolenic acid (10.60%) and was late maturing (179.33). Advanced line AUP-06 produced the high oil content (48.82%). Advanced line AUP-03 produced comparatively longer main raceme (69.32 cm). Environmental variance was smaller than genotypic variance for majority of the traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation ranged from 2.45 to 25.67% and 2.50 to 27.68%, respectively. Heritability was high for majority of the traits. The maximum heritability was recorded for plant height (0.61), main raceme length (0.81), pods main raceme-1 (0.74), seed yield plant-1 (0.86) and protein content (0.77). Moderate heritability was observed for oil (0.58) contents. Heritability for 100-seed weight (0.30) was the lowest. These lines may be released as new improved varieties for specific parameters. (author)

  17. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  18. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  19. Characterization of the centromere and pericentromere retrotransposons in Brassica rapa and their distribution in related Brassica species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.B.; Yang, T.J.; Hwang, Y.J.; Kim, J.S.; Park, J.Y.; Kwon, S.J.; Kim, J.A.; Choi, B.S.; Lim, M.H.; Jin, M.; Kim, H.I.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Bancroft, I.; Lim, Y.P.; Park, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of the major repeats in the centromeric and peri-centromeric heterochromatin of Brassica rapa. The analysis involved the characterization of 88 629 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) end sequences and the complete sequences of two BAC clones. We

  20. The Best Method for Extracting and Concentration Detecting of Proteins Used for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis from Flowering Buds of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)%适合双向电泳的大白菜花蕾蛋白提取及浓度测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪; 冯辉; 冀瑞琴

    2013-01-01

    Extracting high-quality flower bud proteins is the prerequisite in studying of the floral-organ Proteome in Chinese cabbage. In this experiment, the flower buds of Chinese cabbage A/B line AB01 were used to extract the whole protein by using the following six methods (TCA acetone precipitation method, Tris-HC1 method, Phenol modified method, Trizol precipitation method, Tris-acetone-phenol method and Urea-thiourea extraction method). The 2-DE maps were generated by the two-dimensional electrophoresis approach as well. The best methods for flower bud protein extraction and concentration determination were selected by analyzing and comparing the protein spots in 2-DE maps. The results showed that the protein spots in the 2-DE maps generated by TCA-acetone precipitation were clear and even distributed, therefore the TCA-acetone precipitation method was recommended as an ideal methods for extracting the flower bud protein, while the Protein Assay kit should be more accurate to detect the protein concentration based on comparing the maps generated by the two-dimensional electrophoresis protein quantitative kit and Bradford method.%  高质量提取大白菜花蕾蛋白是大白菜花器官蛋白质组学研究的关键步骤。本试验以大白菜AB01可育花蕾为材料,采用TCA丙酮沉淀法、Tris-HC1法、酚改良法、Trizol沉淀法、Tris-丙酮-酚法和尿素-硫脲提取法等六种方法分别提取花蕾全蛋白,通过Bradford法和双向电泳蛋白定量试剂盒测定蛋白浓度,经双向电泳分离后得到2-DE图谱,经分析、比较图谱蛋白点的情况,找到花蕾全蛋白的最佳提取方法和浓度测定方法。结果显示:TCA丙酮沉淀法得到的2-DE图谱,蛋白点分布均匀、清晰,是一种较为理想的花蕾蛋白提取方法;采用蛋白定量试剂盒测定蛋白浓度更加准确。

  1. 羽衣甘蓝日光温室切花栽培管理技术%Cultivation Managerment Technology of Kale Cut flower in Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰; 付红梅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 切花羽衣甘蓝(Brassica oleracea L.var.acephaleaD.C.)又名叶牡丹、彩叶牡丹、花包莱,是原产欧洲的一种二年生草花,是包菜的一个变种.株高80 cm~120 cm,成熟时心叶变成红、紫、白、黄等颜色,有的品种心叶着色的同时还有皱褶,具有较高的观赏价值.

  2. Brassica spp cover crop affects soil microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen nutrient dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marinari, S.; Papp, R.; Marabottini, R.; Moscatelli, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    A general positive effect of Brassica on soil microbial biomass and its activity was observed at all European sites in no tilled soil at both sampling date. Conversely, Brassica under tillage may produce a negative effect on biochemical properties after CC suppression. The effect of Brassica on C and N dynamics differed among the european sites when soil was tilled. These preliminary results establish the bases for the evaluation of the interaction between the pedoclimatic conditions and Bras...

  3. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Amoah Stephen; Perez Amandine; Girin Thomas; Baker David; Stephenson Pauline; King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa) and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea). Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for c...

  4. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fat...

  5. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kaczmarek; Witold Irzykowski; Adam Burzyński; Małgorzata Jędryczka

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) technique has been elabor...

  6. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Eduardo A.S.; Saavedra, Maria J; Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho; Conceição Fernandes; Bennett, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total fla...

  7. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant–pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR.

  8. Shotgun Label-free Proteomic Analysis of Clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Resistance Conferred by the Gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Chu, Mingguang; Lahlali, Rachid; Yu, Fengqun; Peng, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR) genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of Brassica rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 in response to P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified between the resistant (with Rcr1) and susceptible (without Rcr1) samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses are triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well-defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome found to be related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance in other studies. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism was observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the CR mediated by Rcr1. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and CR at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways related to specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of CR. PMID:27462338

  9. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, over the Sea in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    Full Text Available The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  10. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  11. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  12. Embryogenesis of brassica rapa l. under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A.; Ivanenko, G.

    Investigation of reproductive development of higher plants in spaceflight represents scientific interest first of all with the necessity to work out the plant space technologies for creation of controlled life-support systems. In such systems mainly the higher plants are considered to be an important component that makes it necessary to obtain the several generations of higher plants with their full ontogenesis. As a rule, seeds obtained in three species of the higher plants in a series of experiments differ from the control by some parameters (Merkis, Laurinavichius, 1983; Musgrave et al., 1998; 2000; Levinskikh et all. 1999; Stankovich et al., 2002). It was shown, that immature embryos generated in microgravity were at a range of developmental stage, while the ground control embryos had all reached the premature stage of development (Kuang et al., 2003). Besides, the distinctions in a degree of nutrient substances accumulation in them were revealed (Kuang et al., 2000). Therefore, the elucidation of the possible reasons for distortion of plant reproduction in microgravity demands the further research. In this study we examined embryogenesis of higher plant Brassica rapa L. with an application of slow horizontal clinostats, that allows to deprive the plants the opportunity to perceive the gravitational stimulus. Some plants were clinorotated from the moment sowing of seeds; in other series the experiment plants were placed on clinostats after formation of flower buds. Temporal fixation of the material was used in these experiments, which allow to obtain material for studying of consecutive stages of embryogenesis. The development of 2-21 day-old embryos was studied. Comparative embryological analysis has shown a similarity in the main of process of embryo differentiation produced under clinorotation and in the stationary control. At the early stages of embryogenesis, the distortion in suspensor formation was observed more frequently. Embryos generated in

  13. Secondary Metabolism in Brassica Rapa Under Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Darnell, Rebecca; Allen, Joan; Musgrave, Mary; Bisbee, Patricia

    Effect of altered gravity on secondary metabolism is of critical importance not only from the viewpoint of plant evolution, but also of productivity (carbon partition between edible and non-edible parts), plant fitness, as well as culinary and nutraceutical values to human diet. Previous work found that lignin content decreases in microgravity as the need for mechanical support decreases, while the response of other small molecular secondary metabolites to microgravity varies. Our recent ISS experiment showed that 3-butenyl glucosinolate (a predominant glucosinolate in Brassica rapa) increased in stems of B. rapa grown in the microgravity conditions. To further elucidate the role of gravity in plant secondary metabolism, a series of hypergravity (the other end of gravity spectrum) experiments were carried out using the 24-ft centrifuge at Ames Research Center. Thirteen-day-old B. rapa L. (cv. Astroplants) were transferred to the Plant Growth Facility attached to the centrifuge following previous experimental conditions, and subsequently grown for 16 days. Plants were harvested, immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen, and lyophilized prior to analysis for glucosinolates and lignin. In general, glucosinolate concentration was the highest in stems, followed by leaves, then roots. Glucosinolate concentration was significantly lower in stems of the 2-g and 4-g plants - averaging 4.6 and 2.5 ng/g DW, respectively - compared with the stationary control plants, which averaged 7.9 ng/g DW. Similarly, there was a 2.2-fold and 7.5-fold decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate in roots of the 2-g and 4-g plants, respectively, compared with the control (2.6 ng/g DW). There was a significant decrease in 3-butenyl glucosinolate concentration in leaves of the 4-g compared to leaves of the control plants (2.6 and 4.5 ng/g DW, respectively); however, there was no effect of 2-g on leaf glucosinolate concentration. Increasing gravity from 1-g to 2-g to 4-g generally resulted in further

  14. Proteomic and gene expression analyses during bolting-related leaf color change in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Guo, M H; Tang, X B; Jin, D; Fang, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    Bolting and flowering are key processes during the growth and development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis). Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering is of significance for improving production of the vegetable. A leaf-color change from bright green to gray-green has been observed following differentiation of the flowering stem and before bolting in the vegetable, and is considered to be a signal for bolting. Proteomics in meristem tissues of an inbred line (C30) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis during the transition period. We found that some proteins were specifically expressed while others were differentially expressed. Among these, 17 proteins were specifically expressed before the color change, 18 were specifically expressed after the color change, 21 were downregulated during the color change, and 29 were upregulated. Mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS) was used to analyze 17 protein spots, and four proteins (subunit E1 of vacuolar-type H+ transporter ATPase, the large subunit of Rubicon, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and tubulin α-2) were identified. qPCR analysis was conducted to quantify the expression of genes encoding these proteins during the transitional period. The expression of BrVHA-E1, BrSAMS, BrrbcL, and BrTUA6 was significantly different before and after the leaf-color change, suggesting that these genes might be involved in regulating flower differentiation and bolting. PMID:27525926

  15. Construction of Brassica A and C genome-based ordered pan-transcriptomes for use in rapeseed genomic research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhesi He; Feng Cheng; Yi Li,; Xiaowu Wang; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Boulos Chalhoub; Shengyi Liu; Ian Bancroft

    2015-01-01

    This data article reports the establishment of the first pan-transcriptome resources for the Brassica A and C genomes. These were developed using existing coding DNA sequence (CDS) gene models from the now-published Brassica oleracea TO1000 and Brassica napus Darmor-bzh genome sequence assemblies representing the chromosomes of these species, along with preliminary CDS models from an updated Brassica rapa Chiifu genome sequence assembly. The B. rapa genome sequence scaffolds required splittin...

  16. Impact of selenium supply on se-methylselenocysteine and glucosinolates accumulation in selenium-biofortified brassica sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica sprouts are widely marketed as functional foods. Here we examined the effects of Se treatment on the accumulation of anticancer compound Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSCys) and glucosinolates in Brassica sprouts. Cultivars from the six most extensively consumed Brassica vegetables (broccoli, ...

  17. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  18. Studies on breeding for quality in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichuan province is the largest rape producing area in China. The current popular rape varieties in China contain high percentages of erucic acid and glucosinolates which have limited the utilization of the oil and cake. Therefore it is necessary to develop good varieties of Brassica napus for the autumn sown rape production areas in China. One new Brassica napus variety with high yield, high oil content, strong lodging resistance and low erucic acid has been developed by the combination of irradiation with crossbreeding in the present programme. At the same time some new mutant lines, that is, two with high protein content, two with ''double low'', three with low linolenic acid, two with high oil content and low erucic acid, one with high oleic and low erucic acid and one with high linoleic acid and low erucic acid, have also been developed. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  19. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis for Bolting Based on a Double Haploid Population of Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yang; Yang-Jun Yu; Feng-Lan Zhang; Zhi-Rong Zou; Xiu-Yun Zhao; De-Shuang Zhang; Jia-Bing Xu

    2007-01-01

    Early bolting of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) during spring cultivation often has detrimental effects on the yield and quality of the harvested products. Breeding late bolting varieties is a major objective of Chinese cabbage breeding programs. in order to analyze the genetic basis of bolting traits, a genetic map of B. rapa was constructed based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), simple sequence repeat (SSR), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and isozyme markers. Marker analysis was carried out on 81 double haploid (DH) lines obtained by mlcrospore culture from F1 progeny of two homozygous parents: B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (BY) (an extra-early bolting Chinese cabbage line) and B. rapa L. ssp. rapifera (MM) (an extra-late bolting European turnip line). A total of 326 markers including 130 AFLPs, 123 SRAPs, 16 SSRs, 43RAPDs and 14 isozymes were used to construct a linkage map with 10 linkage groups covering 882 cM with an average distance of 2.71 cM between loci. The bolting trait of each DH line was evaluated by the bolting index under controlled conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted using multiple QTL model mapping with MapQTL5.0 software. Eight QTLs controlling bolting resistance were identified. These QTLs, accounting for 14.1% to 25.2% of the phenotyplc variation with positive additive effects, were distributed into three linkage groups. These results provide useful information for molecular marker-assisted selection of late bolting traits in Chinese cabbage breeding programs.

  20. The application of AFLP fingerprinting in breeding of Brassica napus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuřínová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    AFLP markers are widely used in breeding in some other crops, but their utilization in breeding of Brassica crops is not so frequent. AFLP markers are used for molecular characterization of particular varieties or genotypes and for evaluation of genetic diversity. The aim of this thesis was the application of this method in breeding of rapeseed and in comparative study of genetic variability of different oil seed rape cultivars of Czech, Czechoslovak and German origin. AFLP is based on select...

  1. Functional innovations of three chronological mesohexaploid Brassica rapa genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungeun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Choi, Jae-Pil; Park, Inkyu; Yang, Kyungbong; Kim, Min Keun; Lee, Young Han; Nou, Ill-Sup; Kim, Dae-Soo; Min, Sung Ran; Park, Sang Un; Kim, HyeRan

    2014-01-01

    Background The Brassicaceae family is an exemplary model for studying plant polyploidy. The Brassicaceae knowledge-base includes the well-annotated Arabidopsis thaliana reference sequence; well-established evidence for three rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD); and the conservation of genomic structure, with 24 conserved genomic blocks (GBs). The recently released Brassica rapa draft genome provides an ideal opportunity to update our knowledge of the conserved genomic structures in Brass...

  2. Progress in Understanding and Sequencing the Genome of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Chang Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jung Sun; Yang, Tae-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2008-01-01

    Brassica rapa, which is closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana, is an important crop and a model plant for studying genome evolution via polyploidization. We report the current understanding of the genome structure of B. rapa and efforts for the whole-genome sequencing of the species. The tribe Brassicaceae, which comprises ca. 240 species, descended from a common hexaploid ancestor with a basic genome similar to that of Arabidopsis. Chromosome rearrangements, including fusions and/or fissio...

  3. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefit...

  4. Resistance to black rot in a Spanish Brassica collection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lema Márquez, Margarita; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Abilleira Ambroa, Rosaura; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), causal agent of black rot, is widely distributed around the world in Brassica crops causing severe yield losses. The seedborne bacteria can survive in crop debris or crucifer weeds, introducing in the plant through hydathodes and wounds. While in warm and humid regions Xcc can cause plant dead, in coastal temperate areas it produces necrotic lesions on leaf margin, which decrease the value of the product on fresh market. In northwestern Spain, blac...

  5. Light microscopical study of endosperm formation in Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    A. A.M. van Lammeren; Kieft, H.; Ma, F; L. H. van Veenendaal

    2014-01-01

    The cellularization of the endosperm of Brassica napus was investigated with light microscopy after embedment in Technovit 7100. The microtubular cytoskeleton was visualized by immunofluorescence techniques after embedment in butyl methyl metacrylate (BMM). The analyses of sectioned seeds, sampled at various developmental stages, revealed that the endosperm has a nuclear phase up to the early heart shaped stage of the embryo. From the heart shaped stage onwards cells and alveoli are formed in...

  6. Pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Popova, A.; Xiao, Y.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. In order to determine what aspect of reproductive development is affected by microgravity, we studied pollination and embryo development in Brassica rapa L. during 16 d in microgravity on the space shuttle (STS-87). Brassica is self-incompatible and requires mechanical transfer of pollen. Short-duration access to microgravity during parabolic flights on the KC-135A aircraft was used initially to confirm that equal numbers of pollen grains could be collected and transferred in the absence of gravity. Brassica was grown in the Plant Growth Facility flight hardware as follows. Three chambers each contained six plants that were 13 d old at launch. As these plants flowered, thin colored tape was used to indicate the date of hand pollination, resulting in silique populations aged 8-15 d postpollination at the end of the 16-d mission. The remaining three chambers contained dry seeds that germinated on orbit to produce 14-d-old plants just beginning to flower at the time of landing. Pollen produced by these plants had comparable viability (93%) with that produced in the 2-d-delayed ground control. Matched-age siliques yielded embryos of equivalent developmental stage in the spaceflight and ground control treatments. Carbohydrate and protein storage reserves in the embryos, assessed by cytochemical localization, were also comparable. In the spaceflight material, growth and development by embryos rescued from siliques 15 d after pollination lagged behind the ground controls by 12 d; however, in the subsequent generation, no differences between the two treatments were found. The results demonstrate that while no stage of reproductive development in Brassica is absolutely dependent upon gravity, lower embryo quality may result following development in microgravity.

  7. Lentinan promotes the root of Brassica CampestrisL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of lentinan on Brassica campestris L (rape. Spraying on the leaves of lentinan B. campestris L. at 0.05×10-6 g ml-1 concentration significantly promoted the root elongation (P<0.05. The results for the first time showed that lentinan could prolongate roots as a new plant hormone.

  8. Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with Brassica parachinensis and Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium uptake potential of Brassica napus cocropped with B. parachinensis or Zea mays plants in split pot (allow the solutes to pass but prevent the interaction of roots between compartments) experiments was evaluated. Plants were grown in split pots filled with soil spiked at 0, 3, 6, 12, 25 and 50 mg Cd/kg soil. Biomass and Cd uptake were detemined after 6 weeks, and rhizospheric soil solutions, extracted using soil probes, were analyzed for pH and water soluble Cd at weekly intervals. Cadmium treatments affected the biomass. Cadmium concentration in the shoots of B. napus was higher when cocropped with B. parachinensis and significantly higher with Z. mays; however, the biomass was negatively affected implying the higher nutrient apportionment to the crop plants than B. napus. Concentration of Cd in B. napus was higher in shoots than in roots as revealed by shoot/root Cd quotient and was always >1; the quotient for B. parachinensis was ∼1 and that of Z. mays was <1, indicating the potential of Brassicaceae members to translocate the Cd to aboveground tissue. Results indicate the feasibility of cocropping method to clean the Cd contaminated soils.

  9. Genetic diversity assessment in brassica germplasm based on morphological attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic diversity of 28 Brassica genotypes was studied using different morphological attributes. Data were recorded on days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), primary branches plant (PBPP), pod length (PL), seed pod (SP), 1000 - seed weight (1000 - SW), yield plant (YPP) and oil (percentage). Three checks (Pakola, CM and TA), were used to check the performance of collected materials with already available brassica varieties. significant statistical differences were observed among the tested genotypes based on the studied morphological traits. Among the tested genotypes, genotype keelboat proved to be superior as compared to other studied genotypes due to maximum level of studied traits like pod length (7.03 cm), seed pod (32.33), 1000 - seed weight (5.38 g), seed yield plant (110.8 g) and oil content (52.9 percentage. The highest level of performance recorded by kalabat in terms of branches plant, pod length (cm), number of seed pod, seed yield plant (g), 1000 - seed weight (g) and oil content (percentage), indicates that this genotype is genetically different and superior than the other studied genotype. Therefore, genotype kalabat can be either used as variety after adaptability trials over a larger area or included in Brassica breeding programmes as a good source of genetic variation. (author)

  10. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  11. Brassica genomics: a complement to, and early beneficiary of, the Arabidopsis sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Lan, Tien-Hung; Amasino, Richard; Osborn, Thomas C; Quiros, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Those studying the genus Brassica will be among the early beneficiaries of the now-completed Arabidopsis sequence. The remarkable morphological diversity of Brassica species and their relatives offers valuable opportunities to advance our knowledge of plant growth and development, and our understanding of rapid phenotypic evolution.

  12. Biased Gene Fractionation and Dominant Gene Expression among the Subgenomes of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, F.; Wu, J.; Fang, L.; Sun, S.; Liu, B.; Lin, K.; Bonnema, A.B.; Wang, Xiaowu

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization, both ancient and recent, is frequent among plants. A ‘‘two-step theory’’ was proposed to explain the meso-triplication of the Brassica ‘‘A’’ genome: Brassica rapa. By accurately partitioning of this genome, we observed that genes in the less fractioned subgenome (LF) were dominantl

  13. Heterodera schachtii nematodes interfere with aphid-plant relations on Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Boer, de W.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Meyer, K.M.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground herbivore species modify plant defense responses differently. Simultaneous attack can lead to non-additive effects on primary and secondary metabolite composition in roots and shoots. We previously found that aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) population growth on Brassica ole

  14. A normalized difference yellowness index for modeling yield of Brassica oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  15. Anthocyanidins and polyphenols in five brassica species microgreens: analysis by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica vegetables are known to contain relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds associated with human health. A comprehensive profiling of polyphenols from five Brassica species microgreens was conducted using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography photo diode array high-resolu...

  16. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  17. Partitioning of K, Cl, S and P during combustion of poplar and brassica energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz-Ramírez, Maryori; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    K-, Cl-, S- and P-release from a herbaceous (brassica) and a short rotation coppice (poplar) cultivated in the Mediterranean region, have been investigated under combustion conditions [500-1100 °C]. Contrary to brassica, Cl- and S-release from poplar were substantial for all temperatures tested...

  18. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  19. Shotgun label-free proteomic analysis of clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae resistance conferred by the gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of B. rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 upon P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs were identified between the resistant and susceptible samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses is triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism were observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the clubroot resistance mediated by this CR gene. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and clubroot resistance at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways for further confirmation of specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of clubroot resistance.

  20. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Delourme Régine; Falentin Cyril; Parkin Isobel AP; Lydiate Derek J; Wang Jun; Carion Pierre WC; King Graham J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide...

  1. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  2. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  3. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  4. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  5. Comparative mapping between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica nigra indicates that Brassica genomes have evolved through extensive genome replication accompanied by chromosome fusions and frequent rearrangements.

    OpenAIRE

    Lagercrantz, U.

    1998-01-01

    Chromosome organization and evolution in the Brassicaceae family was studied using comparative linkage mapping. A total of 160 mapped Arabidopsis thaliana DNA fragments identified 284 homologous loci covering 751 cM in Brassica nigra. The data support that modern diploid Brassica species are descended from a hexaploid ancestor, and that the A. thaliana genome is similar in structure and complexity to those of each of the hypothetical diploid progenitors of the proposed hexaploid. Thus, the Br...

  6. Introduzione di colza (Brassica napus var. oleifera) e carinata (Brassica carinata) in sistemi colturali mediterranei

    OpenAIRE

    Farci, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the production of biomass by means of energy crops has increased over the last 40 years in Europe. In particular, the growing of rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera D.C.) and Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) as oilseed crop for bioenergy production in Southern Europe has gained new concern, following the implementation of policies aimed at increasing the production of locally produced bio-fuels. Experiments presented in this thesis were undertaken to study adap...

  7. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  8. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  9. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  10. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. Efeito do pH do solo em diferentes níveis de concentração de inóculo no controle de Plasmodiophora brassicae Soil pH and inoculum concentration on the control of Plasmodiophora brassicae effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimeris Ruaro

    2010-03-01

    of the most recommended control measures. Whereupon the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil pH in different inoculums concentrations in the control of P. brassicae. Four levels of soil pH were used: 4,3; 5,5; 6,2 and 7,3 and three inoculums concentrations: 1.2 x 10(7, 2.5 x 10(7 5 x 10(7 spores.mL-1 and non-inoculated control. The spores suspension was obtained from Chinese cabbage roots showing galls and it was added to the plant collars when the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis seedlings were transplanted to pots. At 45 days after inoculation the evaluations were performed. The effect of pH on the disease severity was more expressive with the average inoculums (1.2 x 10(7 to 2.5 x 10(7 spores.mL-1 With the higher inoculums concentrations the disease severity was reduced in soil pH 6,2 and 7,3. The best development of the plants assessed by the accumulation of foliar dry phytomass was obtained where the soil presented pH between 6,2 and 7,3 and with the lowest inoculum concentration.

  12. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  13. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  14. Regulation of bolting and identification of the α-tubulin gene family in Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Jin, D; Xu, C; Zhang, L; Guo, M H; Fang, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are important components of eukaryotic cells, and they play vital roles in cell morphogenesis, carrying of signaling molecules, transport of materials, and establishing the cell polarity. During bolting of biennial plants, cell division and elongation are involved, and cell elongation inevitably involves the microtubules arrangement and expression of related genes. So we deduce that it is of great significance to figure out the mechanism of bolting and flowering in which TUA genes are involved. In the present study, bioinformatic methods were used to predict and identify the α-tubulin gene family (BrTUAs) in Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) through the alignment of AtTUA gene sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana with the B. rapa genome database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/) using the basic local alignment search tool. The change in the structure and functions of BrTUAs during the process of evolution, cis-acting elements in the promoter sequences of BrTUAs, and the expression of the identified genes was also analyzed. Twelve members of the α-tubulin gene family were identified from Chinese cabbage. The gene length, intron, exon, and promoter regions were determined to have changed significantly during the genome evolution. Only five of the 12 members were encoded completely and were observed to differ in their spatial and temporal expression. The five BrTUA promoter sequences contained different numbers of cis-elements responsive to light and low-temperature response, cis-elements responsive among which hormonal responses were significantly different. We also report that the BrTUAs were involved in the regulation of the bolting in Chinese cabbage, and propose that this process could be controlled by regulating the expression of BrTUAs. PMID:26909938

  15. Study on the spectral response of Brassica Campestris L. leaf to the copper pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU SuHong; LIU XinHui; HOU Juan; CHI GuangYu; CUI BaoShan

    2008-01-01

    Brassica Campestis L. was cultivated in the soil at the laboratory. The red edge, the visual spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum of Brassica Campestis L. leaf were used to explore the spectral response of Brassica Campestis L. leaf to the copper stress. As the Cu content in the soil gets increased, the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be increased, and the chlorophyll level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be decreased. As a result, the visual spectral reflectance (A1) of Brassica Campestris L. leaf is increased, and the blue-shift (moving towards the shorter waveband) degree (S) of the red edge (the ascending region of the reflectivity at 680-740 nm) gets increased. However, the near-infrared spectral reflectance (A2) decreases. With the correlation coefficient R2 more than 0.95, these parameters of A1,A2 and S can be perfectly used to simulate and predict the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf.

  16. Study on the spectral response of Brassica Campestris L. leaf to the copper pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Brassica Campestis L. was cultivated in the soil at the laboratory. The red edge,the visual spectrum and the near-infrared spectrum of Brassica Campestis L. leaf were used to explore the spectral response of Brassica Campestis L. leaf to the copper stress. As the Cu content in the soil gets increased,the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be increased,and the chlorophyll level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf would be decreased. As a result,the visual spectral reflectance (A1) of Brassica Campestris L. leaf is increased,and the blue-shift (moving towards the shorter waveband) degree (S) of the red edge (the ascending region of the re-flectivity at 680―740 nm) gets increased. However,the near-infrared spectral re-flectance (A2) decreases. With the correlation coefficient R2 more than 0.95,these parameters of A1,A2 and S can be perfectly used to simulate and predict the copper level in Brassica Campestris L. leaf.

  17. Analysis of xylem sap proteins from Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giavalisco Patrick

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance transport in higher land plants is mediated by vascular bundles, consisting of phloem and xylem strands that interconnect all plant organs. While the phloem mainly allocates photoassimilates, the role of the xylem is the transport of water and inorganic nutrients from roots to all aerial plant parts. Only recently it was noticed that in addition to mineral salts, xylem sap contains organic nutrients and even proteins. Although these proteins might have important impact on the performance of above-ground organs, only a few of them have been identified so far and their physiological functions are still unclear. Results We used root-pressure xylem exudate, collected from cut Brassica napus stems, to extract total proteins. These protein preparations were then separated by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE. After individual tryptic digests of the most abundant coomassie-stained protein spots, partial peptide sequence information was deduced from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS fragmentation spectra and subsequently used for protein identifications by database searches. This approach resulted in the identification of 69 proteins. These identifications include different proteins potentially involved in defence-related reactions and cell wall metabolism. Conclusion This study provides a comprehensive overview of the most abundant proteins present in xylem sap of Brassica napus. A number of 69 proteins could be identified from which many previously were not known to be localized to this compartment in any other plant species. Since Brassica napus, a close relative of the fully sequenced model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, was used as the experimental system, our results provide a large number of candidate proteins for directed molecular and biochemical analyses of the physiological functions of the xylem under different environmental and developmental conditions. This approach will allow exploiting

  18. Tracing the transcriptomic changes in synthetic Trigenomic allohexaploids of Brassica using an RNA-Seq approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    Full Text Available Polyploidization has played an important role in plant evolution and speciation, and newly formed allopolyploids have experienced rapid transcriptomic changes. Here, we compared the transcriptomic differences between a synthetic Brassica allohexaploid and its parents using a high-throughput RNA-Seq method. A total of 35,644,409 sequence reads were generated, and 32,642 genes were aligned from the data. Totals of 29,260, 29,060, and 29,697 genes were identified in Brassicarapa, Brassicacarinata, and Brassica allohexaploid, respectively. We compared 7,397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its parents, as well as 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid. We hypothesized that the higher ploidy level as well as secondary polyploidy might have influenced these changes. The majority of the 3,184 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its paternal parent, B. rapa, were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant-pathogen interactions, photosynthesis, and circadian rhythm. Among the 2,233 DEGs between Brassica hexaploid and its maternal parent, B. carinata, several played roles in plant-pathogen interactions, plant hormone signal transduction, ribosomes, limonene and pinene degradation, photosynthesis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. There were more significant differences in gene expression between the allohexaploid and its paternal parent than between it and its maternal parent, possibly partly because of cytoplasmic and maternal effects. Specific functional categories were enriched among the 2,545 nonadditive genes of Brassica hexaploid compared with the additive genes; the categories included response to stimulus, immune system process, cellular process, metabolic process, rhythmic process, and pigmentation. Many transcription factor genes, methyltransferases, and methylation genes showed differential expression between Brassica hexaploid and its parents. Our results demonstrate that the

  19. Anthocyanin content and UVB sensitivity in Brassica rapa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three genotypes of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa that differ in anthocyanin content were grown in the presence and absence of elevated levels of shortwave ultraviolet (UBV, 280-325 nm) radiation. After 41 days, UVB exposure reduced leaf length and plant height of all genotypes. Plants with low levels of anthocyanin experienced a reduction in flower number twice as great as in genotypes with normal or elevated levels of anthocyanins; however, the absence of differences in flower production by genotypes with normal and elevated levels of anthocyanins suggests that factors other than anthocyanin pigmentation contribute to UVB responses in this species. (UK)

  20. A Sequence-Tagged Linkage Map of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Sun; Chung, Tae Young; King, Graham J; Jin, Mina; Yang, Tae-Jin; Jin, Yong-Moon; Kim, Ho-Il; Park, Beom-Seok

    2006-01-01

    A detailed genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa has been constructed containing 545 sequence-tagged loci covering 1287 cM, with an average mapping interval of 2.4 cM. The loci were identified using a combination of 520 RFLP and 25 PCR-based markers. RFLP probes were derived from 359 B. rapa EST clones and amplification products of 11 B. rapa and 26 Arabidopsis. Including 21 SSR markers provided anchors to previously published linkage maps for B. rapa and B. napus and is followed as the refere...

  1. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.

  2. Anthocyanin content and UVB sensitivity in Brassica rapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaper, R.; Frankel, S.; Berenbaum, M.R. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Three genotypes of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa that differ in anthocyanin content were grown in the presence and absence of elevated levels of shortwave ultraviolet (UBV, 280-325 nm) radiation. After 41 days, UVB exposure reduced leaf length and plant height of all genotypes. Plants with low levels of anthocyanin experienced a reduction in flower number twice as great as in genotypes with normal or elevated levels of anthocyanins; however, the absence of differences in flower production by genotypes with normal and elevated levels of anthocyanins suggests that factors other than anthocyanin pigmentation contribute to UVB responses in this species. (UK).

  3. Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium Fertilization Index for Kale Cabbage in Fujian%福建结球甘蓝氮磷钾施肥指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明清; 李娟; 孔庆波; 姚宝全; 沈金泉

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of 59 field experiments of kale cabbage response to N, P and K fertilization in recent years, NPK fertilization indices for head cabbage in Fujian Province were developed. The results showed that there were linear positive correlation between the yield applying balanced fertilization and the yield in blank. The average contribution rate of soil nutrients to yield of head cabbage was 51.0%, the average increased yield of N, P and K applications was 40.4%, 11.6% and 15.0% respectively. The critical indices of alkali -hydrolyzable nitrogen, Olsen-P and available K for high yield of head cabbage was 207 mg/kg, 71 mg/kg and 157 mg/kg respectively. In general, the economic application rates was N 238 kg/hm2, P2O5 70kg/hm2 and K2O 192kg/hm2, and their proportion was 1':0.29: 0.81. Relationship between soil testing value and their fertilization recommendation met with exponent regression equation. The model may be used for fertilization recommendation according to soil testing value and played the role of different application rate in different soil fertility levels.%根据59个氮磷钾肥效试验结果,研究了福建结球甘蓝氮磷钾施肥指标.结果表明,平衡施肥产量与空白区产量呈现线性正相关关系,土壤养分对结球甘蓝产量的平均贡献率为51.0%,施用氮磷钾平均增产40.4%、11.6%和15.0%;土壤速效氮磷钾高产临界指标分别为碱解氮207 mg/kg、Olsen-P 71 mg/kg和速效钾157 mg/kg;平均经济施肥量为N 238 kg/hm2、P2O5 70 kg/hm2和K2O 192 kg/hm2,三要素比例为1∶0.29∶0.81;土壤有效氮磷钾测定值与推荐施肥量之间满足指数回归方程,根据土壤养分测定值可推算结球甘蓝推荐施肥量,起到因土施肥的作用.

  4. Especificidade de hospedeiro nas interações Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brássicas Host specificity in interaction Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel-Wruck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Face às escassas informações acerca da variabilidade patogênica de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar a especificidade patogênica de trinta e três isolados do patógeno, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do exterior, a oito espécies de brássicas, através de inoculação por meio de injeção da suspensão bacteriana nas folhas. Desse total, 12 isolados foram obtidos de couve-comum (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nove de repolho (B. oleracea var. capitata, cinco de couve-flor (B. oleracea var. botrytis, dois de canola (B. napus, um de brócolos (B. oleracea var. italica, um de couve-chinesa (B. chinensis, um de couve-rábano (B. oleracea var. gongylodes e dois de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. A avaliação da patogenicidade dos isolados da bactéria, frente aos hospedeiros em estudo, demonstrou que 14 deles não apresentaram especificidade, originando sintomas em todas as diferentes plantas inoculadas. Os 19 isolados restantes, entretanto, apresentaram relativo grau de especificidade, não causando doença em uma ou mais das plantas inoculadas.Considering the lack of information in literature about the pathogenic variability of Brazilian isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a study was carried out to determine the pathogenic specificity of 33 isolates of this bacterium originated from several regions of Brazil and overseas to eight different Brassica species, through inoculation by means of injection of the bacterial suspension in leaves. From these isolates, 12 were obtained from collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nine from cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata, five from cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis, two from canola (B. napus, one from broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica, one from Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis, one from kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes and two from radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogenicity of the bacterium

  5. Genetic variation in the hTAS2R38 taste receptor and brassica vegetable intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorovic, Nela; Afzal, Shoaib; Tjonneland, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    The human TAS2R38 receptor is believed to be partly responsible for the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), a bitter compound very similar to the bitter glucosinolates found in brassica vegetables. These vegetables and their active compounds have chemo-protective properties. This study...... bitter taste receptor haplotypes were not associated with the daily intake of brassica vegetables in our study, and no association between the haplotypes and any of the other variables tested was found. We have demonstrated that the hTAS2R38 haplotypes are not associated with brassica vegetable intake...

  6. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  7. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  8. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. PMID:26031705

  9. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  10. Benefits of Transgenic Insect Resistance in Brassica Hybrids under Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Sagers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials of transgenic crops may result in unintentional transgene flow to compatible crop, native, and weedy species. Hybridization outside crop fields may create novel forms with potential negative outcomes for wild and weedy plant populations. We report here the outcome of large outdoor mesocosm studies with canola (Brassica napus, transgenic canola, a sexually compatible weed B. rapa, and their hybrids. Brassica rapa was hybridized with canola and canola carrying a transgene for herbivore resistance (Bt Cry1Ac and grown in outdoor mesocosms under varying conditions of competition and insect herbivory. Treatment effects differed significantly among genotypes. Hybrids were larger than all other genotypes, and produced more seeds than the B. rapa parent. Under conditions of heavy herbivory, plants carrying the transgenic resistance were larger and produced more seeds than non-transgenic plants. Pollen derived gene flow from transgenic canola to B. rapa varied between years (5%–22% and was not significantly impacted by herbivory. These results confirm that canola-weed hybrids benefit from transgenic resistance and are aggressive competitors with congeneric crops and ruderals. Because some crop and crop-weed hybrids may be competitively superior, escapees may alter the composition and ecological functions of plant communities near transgenic crop fields.

  11. Microarray expression analysis of the main inflorescence in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    Full Text Available The effect of the number of pods on the main inflorescence (NPMI on seed yield in Brassica napus plants grown at high density is a topic of great economic and scientific interest. Here, we sought to identify patterns of gene expression that determine the NPMI during inflorescence differentiation. We monitored gene expression profiles in the main inflorescence of two B. napus F6 RIL pools, each composed of nine lines with a low or high NPMI, and their parental lines, Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11 and 73290, using a Brassica 90K elements oligonucleotide array. We identified 4,805 genes that were differentially expressed (≥1.5 fold-change between the low- and high-NPMI samples. Of these, 82.8% had been annotated and 17.2% shared no significant homology with any known genes. About 31 enriched GO clusters were identified amongst the differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including those involved in hormone responses, development regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Furthermore, 92.8% of the DEGs mapped to chromosomes that originated from B. rapa and B. oleracea, and 1.6% of the DEGs co-localized with two QTL intervals (PMI10 and PMI11 known to be associated with the NPMI. Overexpression of BnTPI, which co-localized with PMI10, in Arabidopsis suggested that this gene increases the NPMI. This study provides insight into the molecular factors underlying inflorescence architecture, NPMI determination and, consequently, seed yield in B. napus.

  12. Identification of seed-related QTL in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bagheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the genetic variation, and loci involved, for a range of seed-related traits, a new F2 mapping population was developed by crossing Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis L58 (CaiXin with B. rapa ssp. trilocularis R-o-18 (spring oil seed, both rapid flowering and self-compatible. A linkage map was constructed using 97 AFLPs and 21 SSRs, covering a map distance of 757 cM with an average resolution of 6.4 cM, and 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL were detected for nine traits. A strong seed colour QTL (LOD 26 co-localized with QTL for seed size (LOD 7, seed weight (LOD 4.6, seed oil content (LOD 6.6, number of siliques (LOD 3 and number of seeds per silique (LOD 3. There was only a significant positive correlation between seed colour and seed oil content in the yellow coloured classes. Seed coat colour and seed size were controlled by the maternal plant genotype. Plants with more siliques tended to have more, but smaller, seeds and higher seed oil content. Seed colour and seed oil content appeared to be controlled by two closely linked loci in repulsion phase. Thus, it may not always be advantageous to select for yellow-seededness when breeding for high seed oil content in Brassicas.

  13. A proteomic analysis of seed development in Brassica campestri L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Li

    Full Text Available To gain insights into the protein dynamics during seed development, a proteomic study on the developing Brassica campestri L. seeds with embryos in different embryogenesis stages was carried out. The seed proteins at 10, 16, 20, 25 and 35 DAP (days after pollination, respectively, were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identities of 209 spots with altered abundance were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were classified into 16 groups according to their functions. The most abundant proteins were related to primary metabolism, indicating the heavy demand of materials for rapid embryo growth. Besides, the high amount of proteins involved in protein processing and destination indicated importance of protein renewal during seed development. The remaining were those participated in oxidation/detoxification, energy, defense, transcription, protein synthesis, transporter, cell structure, signal transduction, secondary metabolism, transposition, DNA repair, storage and so on. Protein abundance profiles of each functional class were generated and hierarchical cluster analysis established 8 groups of dynamic patterns. Our results revealed novel characters of protein dynamics in seed development in Brassica campestri L. and provided valuable information about the complex process of seed development in plants.

  14. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  15. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  16. Retention of glucosinolates during fermentation of Brassica juncea: a case study on production of sayur asin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, P.Y.; Widianarko, B.; Dekker, M.; Verkerk, R.; Oliviero, T.

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can reduce the concentration of health-promoting glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. The endogenous enzyme myrosinase is hypothesised to mainly responsible for the degradation of glucosinolates during fermentation. In order to retain glucosinolates in the final fermented product, the

  17. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  18. Variation of five major glucosinolate genes in Brassica rapa in relation to Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Qiu, D.; Quiros, F.

    2010-07-01

    Glucosinolates and their derivatives isothiocyanates are important secondary metabolites in the Brassica cea that has biological activity, such as cancer protecting and bio fumigant properties. The putative ortho logs of five major genes in the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, Bra.GSELONG.a, Bra.GSALK.a, Bra.CYP83B1, Bra.SUR1.a and Bra.ST5.a, were cloned from both cDNA and genomic DNA from different subspecies of Brassica rapa. Inter species comparative analysis disclosed high conservation of exon number and size for GS-Elong, GS-Alk, GS-CYP83B1 and GS-ST5a among B. rapa, B. oleracea and A. thaliana. Splice site mutations caused the differences observed for exon numbers and sizes in GS-SUR1 among the three species. However, the exonic sequences were highly conserved for this gene. There were not major differences of intronic sizes among the three species for these genes, except for intron 1 for GS-Elong in two subspecies of B. rapa. The cloning of the putative ortho logs of all these major genes involved in the glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway of B. rapa and sequence analysis provide a useful base for their genetic manipulation and functional analysis. (Author) 31 refs.

  19. Polymorphism Identification and Improved Genome Annotation of Brassica rapa Through Deep RNA Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Devisetty, Upendra Kumar; Covington, Michael F.; An V Tat; Lekkala, Saradadevi; Maloof, Julin N.

    2014-01-01

    The mapping and functional analysis of quantitative traits in Brassica rapa can be greatly improved with the availability of physically positioned, gene-based genetic markers and accurate genome annotation. In this study, deep transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Brassica rapa was undertaken with two objectives: SNP detection and improved transcriptome annotation. We performed SNP detection on two varieties that are parents of a mapping population to aid in development of a marker system...

  20. Identification of Potential microRNAs and Their Targets in Brassica rapa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhandapani, Vignesh; Ramchiary, Nirala; Paul, Parameswari; Kim, Joonki; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeongyeo; Hur, Yoonkang; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered, noncoding, small regulatory RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression. Although many miRNAs are identified and validated in many plant species, they remain largely unknown in Brassica rapa (AA 2n =, 20). B. rapa is an important Brassica crop with wide genetic and morphological diversity resulting in several subspecies that are largely grown for vegetables, oilseeds, and fodder crop production. In this study, we identified 186 miRNAs bel...

  1. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  2. Inferring the Brassica rapa interactome using protein-protein interaction data from Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Jianhua eYang; Kim eOsman; Mudassar eIqbal; Stekel, Dov J; Zewei eLuo; Armstrong, Susan J; Franklin, F. Chris H.

    2013-01-01

    Following successful completion of the Brassica rapa sequencing project, the next step is to investigate functions of individual genes/proteins. For Arabidopsis thaliana, large amounts of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are available from the major PPI databases. It is known that Brassica crop species are closely related to A. thaliana. This provides an opportunity to infer the B. rapa interactome using PPI data available from A. thaliana. In this paper, we present an inferred B. rapa ...

  3. Inferring the Brassica rapa Interactome Using Protein–Protein Interaction Data from Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianhua; Osman, Kim; Iqbal, Mudassar; Stekel, Dov J; Luo, Zewei; Armstrong, Susan J; Franklin, F. Chris H.

    2013-01-01

    Following successful completion of the Brassica rapa sequencing project, the next step is to investigate functions of individual genes/proteins. For Arabidopsis thaliana, large amounts of protein–protein interaction (PPI) data are available from the major PPI databases (DBs). It is known that Brassica crop species are closely related to A. thaliana. This provides an opportunity to infer the B. rapa interactome using PPI data available from A. thaliana. In this paper, we present an inferred B....

  4. PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN SAWI HIJAU Brassica juncea L. PADA BERBAGAI DESAIN HIDROPONIK

    OpenAIRE

    Anjeliza, Rispa Yeusy

    2013-01-01

    The research about growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. on a variety of hydroponic design took place at the Laboratory Division of Biotechnology Activities Research Center, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar and runs from January to March 2013. This research aimed to determine which is more effective hydroponic design to optimize growth and production of green mustard Brassica juncea L. This research was based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments hydr...

  5. Respon Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Sawi Pakchoy (Brassica rapa. L) Terhadap Pemberian Pupuk Organik Kascing

    OpenAIRE

    Limbong, Berlian

    2016-01-01

    Berlian Limbong: The Respon of Growth and Production of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.) on the application of organic fertilizers, under supervision by Dr.Ir. Lollie Agustina P. Putri, MSi. and Ir. Emmy Harso Kardhinata, MSc. The aimed of this reaserch was to determine the respon of growth and production of mustard (Brassica rapa L.) on the application of organic fertilizers. The research was conducted on the farm field with ± 25 meters above sea level from Mei to June 2013. Randomized Block ...

  6. Application of in vitro pollination of opened ovaries to obtain Brassica oleracea L. × B. rapa L. hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of experiments concerning: (1) interspecific hybridization of Brassica oleracea × Brassica rapa via application of in vitro placental pollination and (2) embryological analysis of the process of resynthesis of Brassica napus. In order to overcome certain stigma/style barriers, B. rapa pollen was placed in vitro on an opened B. oleracea ovary (with style removed). Pollinated ovaries were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. After 24-d culture, the develo...

  7. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Soo; Lim Myung-Ho; Kim Jin A; Jin Mina; Kim Jung; Baek Seunghoon; Choi Beom-Soon; Kim Hye-Sun; Yang Tae-Jin; Kwon Soo-Jin; Mun Jeong-Hwan; Kim Ho-Il; Kim Hyungtae; Lim Yong; Park Beom-Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones...

  8. Mitochondrial genome sequencing helps show the evolutionary mechanism of mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiyong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are more complex than those of other organisms. Analyses of the mitochondrial genome sequences of at least 11 angiosperm species have showed several common properties; these cannot easily explain, however, how the diverse mitotypes evolved within each genus or species. We analyzed the evolutionary relationships of Brassica mitotypes by sequencing. Results We sequenced the mitotypes of cam (Brassica rapa, ole (B. oleracea, jun (B. juncea, and car (B. carinata and analyzed them together with two previously sequenced mitotypes of B. napus (pol and nap. The sizes of whole single circular genomes of cam, jun, ole, and car are 219,747 bp, 219,766 bp, 360,271 bp, and 232,241 bp, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of ole is largest as a resulting of the duplication of a 141.8 kb segment. The jun mitotype is the result of an inherited cam mitotype, and pol is also derived from the cam mitotype with evolutionary modifications. Genes with known functions are conserved in all mitotypes, but clear variation in open reading frames (ORFs with unknown functions among the six mitotypes was observed. Sequence relationship analysis showed that there has been genome compaction and inheritance in the course of Brassica mitotype evolution. Conclusions We have sequenced four Brassica mitotypes, compared six Brassica mitotypes and suggested a mechanism for mitochondrial genome formation in Brassica, including evolutionary events such as inheritance, duplication, rearrangement, genome compaction, and mutation.

  9. A comparative map viewer integrating genetic maps for Brassica and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Timothy A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genetic maps provide a means to link heritable traits with underlying genome sequence variation. Several genetic maps have been constructed for Brassica species, yet to date, there has been no simple means to compare this information or to associate mapped traits with the genome sequence of the related model plant, Arabidopsis. Description We have developed a comparative genetic map database for the viewing, comparison and analysis of Brassica and Arabidopsis genetic, physical and trait map information. This web-based tool allows users to view and compare genetic and physical maps, search for traits and markers, and compare genetic linkage groups within and between the amphidiploid and diploid Brassica genomes. The inclusion of Arabidopsis data enables comparison between Brassica maps that share no common markers. Analysis of conserved syntenic blocks between Arabidopsis and collated Brassica genetic maps validates the application of this system. This tool is freely available over the internet on http://bioinformatics.pbcbasc.latrobe.edu.au/cmap. Conclusion This database enables users to interrogate the relationship between Brassica genetic maps and the sequenced genome of A. thaliana, permitting the comparison of genetic linkage groups and mapped traits and the rapid identification of candidate genes.

  10. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  11. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  12. Interação tritrófica e influência de produtos químicos e vegetais no complexo: brássicas x traça-das-crucíferas x parasitóides de ovos Tritrofic interaction and influence of insecticides and plant products on the complex: brassica diamondback moth egg parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Thomaz Thuler

    2008-08-01

    - TPC00682; kale - Georgia and Georgia hybrid HS20. They were sprayed using the insecticides - lufenuron (2,52 ml/100L and deltamethrin (32 ml/100L; the vegetal products - neen oil (0,16% and pyroligneous extract (3,0%; and water (check. The cultivars interaction was evaluated with the products, by larvae exposition to the treatments, being analyzed the different phases of development through adults emergence. To evaluate the effect of these products on the parasitoids, P. xylostella, eggs from F2 generation were used. Eggs of this pest were collected from adults fed with brassica leaves that were sprayed with the mentioned products. The insecticides association and vegetable products combined with brassica cultivars became more effective to manage the pest control, especially in the pyroligneous extract x Chato de Quintal interaction. The interaction between the cultivars and products may be harmful to Trichogramma performance being necessary a discerning evaluation to minimize the effect on natural enemies.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of brassica species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two varieties of brassica, i.e., Altex and Torch, were treated with gamma rays and its effects were examined on various morphological characters like seedling height, plant height, leaf area, stem thickness, days to flowering and days to maturity in M1 generation. Various doses used were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 krads and compared with control. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with four replications. A gradual decrease was observed with the increased intensities of radiation. Generally, 10 krads dose produced a stimulatory effect in most of the characters while 25 krads decreased them. In other words, increased intensities decreased the mean values and that detrimental effects on most of the traits were observed during this study

  14. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: villavic@ipen.br; thaisecfnunes@hotmail.com; Alencar, Severino M. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  15. Temperature Distribution Pattern of Brassica chinensis during Vacuum Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature distribution of leafy vegetables is often less uniform than that of other vegetables during the vacuum cooling process, a factor that can cause undesired effects such as frostbite. Brassica chinensis, a type of classical leafy vegetable, was used as a model in this paper to optimize vacuum cooling technology for the whole and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. We found that noticeable temperature differences between the leaf and the petiole occurred, which resulted from their structural difference. Temperature variations of different parts of the leaf were also observed, indicating that cooling rate of leaf margin was quicker than the other parts. Our experiments show that using a moderate volumetric displacement of the chamber (0.033 s−1 is beneficial for obtaining a relative uniform temperature distribution of the leaf part.

  16. Storage lipid biosynthesis in microspore-derived Brassica napus embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erucic acid, a fatty acid which is confined to the neutral lipids in developing seed cotyledons or rape, was chosen as a marker to study triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in a Brassica napus L. cv Reston microspore-derived embryo culture system. Accumulation and changes in acyl composition of TAGs during embryogenesis strongly paralleled that observed during seed development. Homogenates of 29-day cultured embryos were examined for the ability to incorporate erucoyl moieties into storage lipids. In the presence of 14C erucoyl CoA and various acceptors, including glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), 14C erucic acid was rapidly incorporated into the TAG fraction. However, in contrast to studies with 14C oleoyl CoA, there was no measurable radioactivity in any Kennedy Pathway intermediates or within membrane lipid components. Analysis of the radiolabelled TAG species suggested that erucoyl moieties were incorporated into the sn-3 position by a highly active diacylglyercol acyltransferase

  17. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  18. Efficiency of wheat brassica mixtures with different seed rates in rainfed areas of potohar-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed over sole cropping is advantageous under the rainfed conditions in Pakistan. This avoids risk of complete crop failure and may returns higher income. The study aimed to investigate appropriate seed-rates combination for wheat-Brassica as mixed- or intercropped in rainfed conditions. Experiments were conducted at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad Pakistan during winter 2004-05 and 2005-06 using 10 treatments for wheat and Brassica as sole and mixed- or intercropped with 100 and 5 kg ha/sup -1/ for sole crop and 100 kg ha/sup -1/ for wheat with 40, 50, 60, and 70% lower than the recommended for Brassica. Sowing was done in 3rd week of October each year, in lines spaced 30cm. Fertilizer was applied N 48, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ 34 and K/sub 2/O 18 (kg ha/sup -1/). Brassica was manually removed for fodder at flowering. Seed rate (SR) significantly (p<0.05) affected wheat grain yield. Cropping system (CS) significantly (p<0.05) affected grain yield of Brassica. Interactions of CS and SR were also significant (p<0.05) for both species. Planned mean comparison for grain yield was found significant (p<0.05) for wheat and brassica. Grain yield for sole wheat was 4.28t ha/sup -1/ but reported higher in mixed than intercropped. Grain yield of wheat decreased with increase in seed rate of Brassica as intercropped. Higher grain yield (4.39 t ha/sup -1/) of wheat was recorded for seed rates combinations 100:50 (%) as wheat: Brassica intercropped. The land equivalent ratio (LER) for mixed or intercropped system was higher than the sole crop and it increased with increase in the seed rate of Brassica as mixed crop but decreased as intercropped. The high LER was associated to treatment 100:50 (%) seed rates combination for wheat:Brassica as intercropped. Intercropped resulted the greater LER (1.78) than the mixed crop (1.66) and was found most effective for sustainable production in the rainfed areas for a higher net return. (author)

  19. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenhammar, Ann-Charlotte; Gunnarson, Albin; Hansson, Fredrik; Jonsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil(-1)) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g(-1) soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g(-1) soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g(-1) soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of

  20. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1 in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20% showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of

  1. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  2. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. PMID:26986237

  3. Wybrane zagadnienia z biologii grzyba Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. [Some problems in the life-cycle of fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae, Wor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nowicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quickest loss of infectivity of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. resting spores was observed in acid soil. Jnlectivity was ratained longer in neutral and alkaline soils. The infection of cabbage seedlings took place in a broad pH range from 3.3 to 8.1, the optimum soil pH for infection being at 5.3 - 5.7. When the number of spores in the soil increased the infection took place in the infection took place in the broader pH range. The plants which were planted as seedlings in infested soil were infected in a broader pH range than plants which were grown from seeds in infested soil.

  4. A Brassica exon array for whole-transcript gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Love

    Full Text Available Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3' exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E(-5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18, and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html.

  5. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  6. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  7. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.H.A.; Buchet, A.D.G.; Beltranena, E.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Zijlstra, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea c

  8. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Impact on the glucosinolate composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Kopriva, S; Hawkesford, M.J.; Koprivova, A.; De Kok, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of sulfate deprivation and atmospheric H2S and SO2 nutrition on the content and composition of glucosinolates was studied in Brassica juncea and Brasscia rapa. Both species contained a number of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates. The total glucosinolate content was more than 5.5-fold h

  9. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  10. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  11. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  12. BrFLC2 (flowering locus C) as a candidate gene for a vernalization response QTL in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Kulkarni, V.; Liu, Nini; Pino del Carpio, D.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Flowering time is an important agronomic trait, and wide variation exists among Brassica rapa. In Arabidopsis, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays an important role in modulating flowering time and the response to vernalization. Brassica rapa contains several paralogues of FLC at syntenic regions. BrFLC2

  13. Epidemiology of dark leaf spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola and Alternaria brassicae in organic seed production of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Tongeren, van C.A.M.; Groenenboom-de Haas, B.H.; Hoof, van R.A.; Driessen, R.; Heijden, van der L.

    2010-01-01

    In organic seed production of Brassica vegetables, infections by Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae can cause severe losses of yield and seed quality. Four field experiments with or without artificial inoculation with A. brassicicola were conducted in organically managed seed-production crops

  14. A naturally occurring splicing site mutation in the Brassica rapa FLC1 gene is associated with variation in flowering time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.X.; Wu, J.; Sun, R.F.; Zhang, X.W.; Xu, D.H.; Bonnema, A.B.; Wang, X.W.

    2009-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), encoding a MADS-domain transcription factor in Arabidopsis, is a repressor of flowering involved in the vernalization pathway. This provides a good reference for Brassica species. Genomes of Brassica species contain several FLC homologues and several of these colocalize with

  15. Development of Public Immortal Mapping Populations, Molecular Markers and Linkage Maps for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe public immortal mapping populations of self-compatible lines, molecular markers, and linkage maps for Brassica rapa and B. oleracea. We propose that these resources are valuable reference tools for the Brassica community. The B. rapa population consists of 150 recombinant...

  16. Transfer of uranium and radium to Chinese cabbage from soil containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 238U and 226Ra to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt) was investigated from soils contaminated with uranium-mill tailings (UMT) by means of a pot experiment in laboratory-based conditions applying different levels of soil contamination under various growing conditions. Activity concentrations for 226Ra in Chinese cabbage varied from 56-276, 156-502 and 277-877 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 20, 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively, and for 238U from 1.0-2.3 and 2.3-4.7 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively. The results showed increased accumulation of 226Ra and low accumulation of 238U in cabbage leaves in more contaminated soil. (author)

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel pollen predominantly membrane protein gene BcMF12 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianghua; Zhang, Lixin; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-11-01

    A novel membrane protein gene, BcMF12, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends based on a pollen-specific cDNA fragment (DN237936). The cDNA was 1,155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 894 bp capable of encoding a putative polypeptide of 297 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 34.6 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.6. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses revealed that BcMF12 showed high similarities with some membrane protein sequences previously published in the public database and contained six highly conserved transmembrane domains corresponding to six highly hydrophobic regions. This indicates that BcMF12 may be a putative membrane protein. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the transcripts of BcMF12 were abundant in the flower bud, flower and anther, but not detected in the root, stem, leaf and pistil. Moreover, the BcMF12 transcripts were detectable at the late stages of pollen development. Morphological investigations of pollen from the BcMF12 antisense transgenic plants showed that most of pollen grains of transgenic plants were abnormal. These results strongly suggest that BcMF12 is a novel pollen-preferentially membrane protein which play an important role during the pollen development in Chinese cabbage.

  18. 蕾用菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding for the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 冯辉; 王昊

    2011-01-01

    依据大白菜核基因雄性不育"复等位基因遗传"假说,以奶白菜核不育系06sx110为不育源,采用常规有性杂交、回交和自交方法,向"蕾用菜"Y01中转育核不育复等位基因,成功获得"蕾用菜"BC4的甲型两用系、临时保持系和雄性不育系.%According to the multiple-allele hypothesis of male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage, the material of multiple allele inheritance Milk Chinese cabbage (Msms) was used as the source of male sterility, and methods of crossing, backcrossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line of Brassica parachinensis ‘Y01' (MsfMsf). The new male sterile line ‘GMS4', the AB Line and the temporary maintainer line were obtained successfully.

  19. Exploitation of Physical Mapping Technologies for Breeding of Canola Mutants in Oilseed Brassicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant population of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea) consisting of 25,748 M2 mutants developed and screened through non-destructive quality analysis using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for modified fatty acid profile. The genetic stability of mutant lines with desirable fatty acid profile ascertained in the M2:4 population. The DNA molecular polymorphism survey was conducted using DNA extracted from stable mutant lines. A total of 80% of the SSR primers screened yielded amplification products in all the selected lines. The polymorphism for the mutated genetic makeup of selected mutant plants of brassica with respective initial parents were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize the distribution of rDNA probes. With modified fatty acid composition 14 brassica mutant lines of the M2:5 generation were tested for yield performance under replicated yield trials for two consecutive years at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The yield and quality performance of these 14 mutant lines were also evaluated under diversified agro-climatic conditions across the country. All the brassica mutant lines confirmed the genetic stability in modified fatty acid composition and yield potential. (author)

  20. Transcriptional responses of Brassica nigra to feeding by specialist insects of different feeding guilds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colette Broekgaarden; Roeland E. Voorrips; Marcel Dicke; Ben Vosman

    2011-01-01

    Plants show phenotypic changes when challenged with herbivorous insects. The mechanisms underlying these changes include the activation of transcriptional responses, which are dependent on the attacking insect. Most transcriptomic studies on crucifer-insect interactions have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a species that faces low herbivore pressure in nature. Here, we study the transcriptional responses of plants from a wild black mustard (Brassica nigra) population to herbivores of different feeding guilds using an A. thaliana-bused whole-genome microarray that has previously been shown to be suitable for transcriptomic analyses in Brassica. Transcriptional responses of 5. nigra after infestation with either Pieris rapae caterpillars or Brevicoryne brassicae aphids are analyzed and compared. Additionally, the insect-induced expression changes of some individual genes are analyzed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results show that feeding by both insect species results in the accumulation of transcripts encoding proteins involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, defensive proteins and glucosinolates and this is correlated with experimental evidence in the literature on such biochemical effects. Although genes encoding proteins involved in similar processes are regulated by both insects, there was little overlap in the induction or repression of individual genes. Furthermore, P. rapae and B. brassicae seem to affect different phytohormone signaling pathways. In conclusion, our results indicate that B. nigra activates several defense-related genes in response to P. rapae or B. brassicae feeding, but that the response is dependent on the attacking insect species.

  1. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  2. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  3. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Xu, Hao; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects (1) plant volatiles emitted in response to damage by a specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae; (2) the attraction of the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata and (3) the performance of P. brassicae and C. glomerata. Plant volatiles were significantly induced by herbivory in both healthy and mildew-infected plants, but were quantitatively 41% lower for mildew-infected plants compared to healthy plants. Parasitoids strongly preferred Pieris-infested plants to dually-infested (Pieris + mildew) plants, and preferred dually infested plants over only mildew-infected plants. The performance of P. brassicae was unaffected by powdery mildew, but C. glomerata cocoon mass was reduced when parasitized caterpillars developed on mildew-infected plants. Thus, avoidance of mildew-infested plants may be adaptive for C. glomerata parasitoids, whereas P. brassicae caterpillars may suffer less parasitism on mildew-infected plants in nature. From a pest management standpoint, the concurrent presence of multiple plant antagonists can affect the efficiency of specific natural enemies, which may in turn have a negative impact on the regulation of pest populations. PMID:27043839

  4. The effect of Ni on concentration of the most abundant essential cations in several Brassica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from the genus Brassica have the ability to tolerate excessive concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni. Considering the fact that Ni is a very toxic element for living beings we wanted to examine its influence on some species from genus Brassicaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ni on distribution and accumulation of essential macronutrients from the standpoint of food quality and phytoremediation potential. Experiments were performed using winter (W and spring (S varieties of rapeseed (Brassica napus, L., white mustard (Brassica alba, L., black mustard (Brassica nigra, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The seeds were exposed to 10 μM Ni from the beginning of germination. Plants were grown in water cultures, in semi-controlled conditions of a greenhouse, on ½ strength Hoagland solution to which was added Ni in the same concentration as during germination. Concentrations and distribution of Ca, Mg, K in leaf and stem were altered in the presence of increased concentration of Ni. Significant differences were found between the control and Ni-treated plants as well as among the genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31036 i br. TR 31016

  5. Seed-borne viral dsRNA elements in three cultivated Raphanus and Brassica plants suggest three cryptoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Zhang, Qiong; Fu, Runying; Zhu, Xiwu; Li, Chao; Chen, Jishuang

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1970s, several dsRNA viruses, including Radish yellow edge virus, Raphanus sativus virus 1, Raphanus sativus virus 2, and Raphanus sativus virus 3, have been identified and reported as infecting radish. In the present study, in conjunction with a survey of seed-borne viruses in cultivated Brassica and Raphanus using the dsRNA diagnostic method, we discovered 3 novel cryptoviruses that infect Brassica and Raphanus: Raphanus sativus partitivirus 1, which infects radish (Raphanus sativus); Sinapis alba cryptic virus 1, which infects Sinapis alba; and Brassica rapa cryptic virus 1 (BrCV1), which infects Brassica rapa. The genomic organization of these cryptoviruses was analyzed and characterized. BrCV1 might represent the first plant partitivirus found in Gammapartitivirus. Additionally, the evolutionary relationships among all of the partitiviruses reported in Raphanus and Brassica were analyzed. PMID:26974503

  6. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  7. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  8. Sequence and expression variation in SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1): homeolog evolution in Indian Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri, Tanu; Mayee, Pratiksha; Singh, Anandita

    2015-09-01

    Whole genome sequence analyses allow unravelling such evolutionary consequences of meso-triplication event in Brassicaceae (∼14-20 million years ago (MYA)) as differential gene fractionation and diversification in homeologous sub-genomes. This study presents a simple gene-centric approach involving microsynteny and natural genetic variation analysis for understanding SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) homeolog evolution in Brassica. Analysis of microsynteny in Brassica rapa homeologous regions containing SOC1 revealed differential gene fractionation correlating to reported fractionation status of sub-genomes of origin, viz. least fractionated (LF), moderately fractionated 1 (MF1) and most fractionated (MF2), respectively. Screening 18 cultivars of 6 Brassica species led to the identification of 8 genomic and 27 transcript variants of SOC1, including splice-forms. Co-occurrence of both interrupted and intronless SOC1 genes was detected in few Brassica species. In silico analysis characterised Brassica SOC1 as MADS intervening, K-box, C-terminal (MIKC(C)) transcription factor, with highly conserved MADS and I domains relative to K-box and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analyses and multiple sequence alignments depicting shared pattern of silent/non-silent mutations assigned Brassica SOC1 homologs into groups based on shared diploid base genome. In addition, a sub-genome structure in uncharacterised Brassica genomes was inferred. Expression analysis of putative MF2 and LF (Brassica diploid base genome A (AA)) sub-genome-specific SOC1 homeologs of Brassica juncea revealed near identical expression pattern. However, MF2-specific homeolog exhibited significantly higher expression implying regulatory diversification. In conclusion, evidence for polyploidy-induced sequence and regulatory evolution in Brassica SOC1 is being presented wherein differential homeolog expression is implied in functional diversification. PMID:26276216

  9. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  10. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method. PMID:18724699

  11. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method.

  12. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  13. First record of parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  15. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  16. Genetic load and transgenic mitigating genes in transgenic Brassica rapa (field mustard × Brassica napus (oilseed rape hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Suzanne I

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One theoretical explanation for the relatively poor performance of Brassica rapa (weed × Brassica napus (crop transgenic hybrids suggests that hybridization imparts a negative genetic load. Consequently, in hybrids genetic load could overshadow any benefits of fitness enhancing transgenes and become the limiting factor in transgenic hybrid persistence. Two types of genetic load were analyzed in this study: random/linkage-derived genetic load, and directly incorporated genetic load using a transgenic mitigation (TM strategy. In order to measure the effects of random genetic load, hybrid productivity (seed yield and biomass was correlated with crop- and weed-specific AFLP genomic markers. This portion of the study was designed to answer whether or not weed × transgenic crop hybrids possessing more crop genes were less competitive than hybrids containing fewer crop genes. The effects of directly incorporated genetic load (TM were analyzed through transgene persistence data. TM strategies are proposed to decrease transgene persistence if gene flow and subsequent transgene introgression to a wild host were to occur. Results In the absence of interspecific competition, transgenic weed × crop hybrids benefited from having more crop-specific alleles. There was a positive correlation between performance and number of B. napus crop-specific AFLP markers [seed yield vs. marker number (r = 0.54, P = 0.0003 and vegetative dry biomass vs. marker number (r = 0.44, P = 0.005]. However under interspecific competition with wheat or more weed-like conditions (i.e. representing a situation where hybrid plants emerge as volunteer weeds in subsequent cropping systems, there was a positive correlation between the number of B. rapa weed-specific AFLP markers and seed yield (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001, although no such correlation was detected for vegetative biomass. When genetic load was directly incorporated into the hybrid genome, by inserting a

  17. Genetic variability and heritability studies in indigenous brassica rapa accessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indigenous lines serves as an ideal germplasm for varietal development because of having broad genetic base. Current study was planned with an aim to check locally collected Brassica rapa (B. campestris, L.) accessions for genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance. The experiment was conducted at new development farm of The University of Agiculture, Peshawar during the main crop growing season of 2010-11. The experimental material consisted of ten locally collected B. rapa lines which were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Observations on eight quantitative parameters viz. primary branches, silique main raceme-1, main raceme length, silique length, silique width, plant height, seed silique-1, and 100 seed weight were made. Highly significant differences were observed in all traits except silique width, which showed significant variation. The highest heritability coupled with higher genetic advance was noticed in plant height which provided the evidence that this trait was under the control of additive genetic effects, while rest of the traits exhibited variable trends. Hence, it was observed that indigenous accessions have great proportion of genetic variability, which can be manipulated in future breeding programs to fully utilize their genetic potential. (author)

  18. Light microscopical study of endosperm formation in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A.M. van Lammeren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cellularization of the endosperm of Brassica napus was investigated with light microscopy after embedment in Technovit 7100. The microtubular cytoskeleton was visualized by immunofluorescence techniques after embedment in butyl methyl metacrylate (BMM. The analyses of sectioned seeds, sampled at various developmental stages, revealed that the endosperm has a nuclear phase up to the early heart shaped stage of the embryo. From the heart shaped stage onwards cells and alveoli are formed in the endosperm. The cellularization of endosperm was preceded by alveolus formation except in the region surrounding the embryo suspensor and in the chalazal zone of the embryo sac where the nuclear endosperm vacuolated and cell walls were formed all around the nuclei. Alveolus formation only occurred when nuclei had attained a dense distribution in the layer of cytoplasm aligning the wall of the central cell. When nuclei divided within the alveoli, cell plate formation resulted in the formation of mononuclear endosperm cells along the embryo sac wall. When the walls of the alveoli grew towards the centre of the embryo sac, alveoli regularly closed leaving space for enlargement of the remaining alveoli. In this way endosperm cells enlarged going from the periphery to the central area of the embryo sac. The microtubular cytoskeleton was visualized in the nuclear, alveolar and cellular endosperm. The pattern observed, showed that the organization and function of the microtubular arrays was as generally found during endosperm development.

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandini Ravikumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Broccoli is an edible green plant that is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. They are rich in vitamin C, dietary fiber and also contain glucoraphin, sulforaphane, selenium and isothiocyanates. Broccoli is also an excellent source of indole-3-carbinol. These constituents present in broccoli are known to be very popular since they possess several anti-cancer properties and benefits. These anti-carcinogenic compounds have a wide variety of uses and benefits for the treatment of various diseases and disorders. Broccoli is widely used in the treatment of several forms of cancer and also treats other neural disorders. The therapeutic potential of broccoli has been explained under its role in cancer, diabetes and other diseases. In the treatment of cancer, most of the constituents or the phytochemicals of broccoli such as brassinin, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol etc. have been proved to be effectively beneficial. Even selenium plays a very important role in cancer prevention. The antioxidant activity of broccoli is induced by other phytochemicals such as glucosinolates, glucoraphin and sulforaphane. Sulforaphane in broccoli sprouts also has the potential to cure neural disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. It is also used to bring about cure in asthma and diabetic patients. Flavonoids have the effect of reducing the risk of diabetes. Therefore sulforaphane is widely used to treat various diseases and disorders.

  20. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Phytoremediation of aspirin and tetracycline by Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Sonal; Gauba, Pammi

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing release of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, research is in progress for investigating alternative methods for their remediation. Various studies have shown the phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea for metals. The current study was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation potential of B. juncea for two different pharmaceutical drugs i.e. aspirin and tetracycline in in-vitro conditions. The seeds of B. juncea were germinated and grown for a period of 28 and 24 days for aspirin and tetracycline, respectively. The study analyzed the remediation rate of B. juncea for the selected drugs in three different sets of varying concentration along with any phytotoxic effects exerted by the drugs on the seeds. Preliminary results showed that the average remediation rate of aspirin and tetracycline at the end of experiment was approximately 90% and 71%, respectively. As initial drug concentrations were increased in the media, the remediation rate also improved. However, at higher concentrations, the plants showed phytotoxicity as depicted by the decrease in shoot length of the germinated seeds. These preliminary results indicated that B. juncea could tolerate and remediate pharmaceutical drugs such as analgesics and antibiotics. PMID:26696522

  2. THE ELUCIDATION OF STRESS MEMORY INHERITANCE IN BRASSICA RAPA PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy eBilichak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are able to maintain the memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and faithfully propagate it into the next generation. Recent evidence argues for the epigenetic nature of this phenomenon. Small RNAs (smRNAs are one of the vital epigenetic factors because they can both affect gene expression at the place of their generation and maintain non-cell-autonomous gene regulation. Here, we have made an attempt to decipher the contribution of smRNAs to the heat-shock-induced transgenerational inheritance in Brassica rapa plants using sequencing technology. To do this, we have generated comprehensive profiles of a transcriptome and a small RNAome (smRNAome from somatic and reproductive tissues of stressed plants and their untreated progeny. We have demonstrated that the highest tissue-specific alterations in the transcriptome and smRNAome profile are detected in tissues that were not directly exposed to stress, namely, in the endosperm and pollen. Importantly, we have revealed that the progeny of stressed plants exhibit the highest fluctuations at the smRNAome level but not at the transcriptome level. Additionally, we have uncovered the existence of heat-inducible and transgenerationally transmitted tRNA-derived small RNA fragments in plants. Finally, we suggest that miR168 and braAGO1 are involved in the stress-induced transgenerational inheritance in plants.

  3. Marker-aided genetic divergence analysis in Brassica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Arunachalam; Shefali Verma; V. Sujata; K. V. Prabhu

    2005-08-01

    Genetic divergence was evaluated in 31 breeding lines from four Brassica species using Mahalanobis’ $D^{2}$. A new method of grouping using $D^{2}$ values was used to group the 31 lines, based on diagnostic morphological traits (called morphoqts). Isozyme variation of the individual enzymes esterase and glutamate oxaloacetate was quantified by five parameters (called isoqts) developed earlier. Grouping by the same method was also done based on the isoqts, and the grouping by isozymes was compared with that by morphoqts. Overall, there was an agreement of 73% suggesting that isoqts can be used in the choice of parents and also first stage selection of segregants in the laboratory. It was suggested that such an exercise would help to take care of season-bound and field-related problems of breeding. The new isozyme QTs, within lane variance of relative mobility and relative absorption, accounted for about 50% of the total divergence. The utility of the new method and isoqts in cost-effective breeding were highlighted.

  4. Biased Gene Fractionation and Dominant Gene Expression among the Subgenomes of Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Jian Wu; Lu Fang; Silong Sun; Bo Liu; Ke Lin; Guusje Bonnema; Xiaowu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization, both ancient and recent, is frequent among plants. A ‘‘two-step theory’’ was proposed to explain the meso-triplication of the Brassica ‘‘A’’ genome: Brassica rapa. By accurately partitioning of this genome, we observed that genes in the less fractioned subgenome (LF) were dominantly expressed over the genes in more fractioned subgenomes (MFs: MF1 and MF2), while the genes in MF1 were slightly dominantly expressed over the genes in MF2. The results indicated that the dominant...

  5. Genome-wide identification of NBS-encoding resistance genes in Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Yu, Hee-Ju; Park, Soomin; Park, Beom-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-encoding resistance genes are key plant disease-resistance genes and are abundant in plant genomes, comprising up to 2% of all genes. The availability of genome sequences from several plant models enables the identification and cloning of NBS-encoding genes from closely related species based on a comparative genomics approach. In this study, we used the genome sequence of Brassica rapa to identify NBS-encoding genes in the Brassica genome. We identified 92 non-re...

  6. Growth response and ionic relation in two brassica species under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glasshouse study of Brassica campestris and Brassica juncea showed that the growth and the ionic parameters of both the species were significantly (p < 0.0 I) affected due to water stress. Shoot length of both the species decreased consistently with decrease in solute potential (PSI) in the root medium. Relative growth rate and dry mass was higher in B. juncea than B. campestris but leaf area was less. Concentrations of K Ca/sup 2/ P and S generally decreased with gradual increase in water stress B. campestris was more susceptible to water stress than B juncea. (author)

  7. Effects of supplementary lighting by natural light for growth of Brassica chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Chuan; Lee, Hui-Ping; Kao, Shih-Tse; Lu, Ju-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This paper present a model of cultivated chamber with supplementary natural colour light. We investigate the effects of supplementary natural red light and natural blue light on growth of Brassica chinensis under natural white light illumination. After 4 weeks of supplementary colour light treatment, the experiment results shown that the weight of fresh leaf were not affected by supplementary natural blue light. However, those Brassica chinensis were cultivated in the chambers with supplementary natural red light obtained a significant increasing of fresh weight of leaf under both white light illuminate models. The combination of natural white light with supplementary natural red light illumination will be benefits in growth for cultivation and energy saving.

  8. Rübsen (Brassica rapa var. silvestris) als Fangpflanze zur Kontrolle von Schadinsekten in Winterraps

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Alexander; Wedemeyer, Rainer; Saucke, Helmut; Ulber, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that most of the specialized rape pests prefer turnip rape over oilseed rape. In our studies two trap crop strategies were tested under field conditions in central Germany. In the first trial a turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. silvestris) strip was sown along the edges of the oilseed rape (Brassica napus) main crop. In the second trial a seed mixture of 95% oilseed rape and 5% turnip rape was sown and was compared to oilseed rape in pure crop. In both experiments th...

  9. 含腐植酸喷施宝有机水溶肥料降低芥蓝菜吡虫啉农药残留量研究%Research of Penshibao Humic Acid Foliar Fertilizer on Residue and Degradation of Imidacloprid in Kale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤鸣强; 姚源琼; 张仁

    2014-01-01

    含腐植酸喷施宝有机水溶肥料对降低芥蓝菜中吡虫啉农药残留量的降解有显著的促进作用,同时还能提高芥蓝菜中保护酶过氧化酶(P O D)的活性。每666.7 m2添加含腐植酸喷施宝有机水溶肥料20~30 m L,喷药后3天、7天采集芥蓝菜样品检测芥蓝菜中的吡虫啉农药残留量降低20.5%~69.6%;提高P O D活性17.1%~51.8%。检测结果经t测验,其差异均达到极显著水平(P<0.01)。%Penshibao humic acid foliar fertilizer can promote the degradation of imidacloprid residues and enhance the ac-tivity of protective enzyme peroxidase in kale. 20~30 mL Penshibao humic acid foliar fertilizer was used for per 666.7 m2 to testing its effect on residues of imidacloprid in kale. The result showed that compared with the blank, after 3 to 7 days experiment, Penshibao humic acid foliar fertilizer could reduce imidacloprid residues by 20.5%~69.6%, and improve the phenoloxidase activity by 17.1%~51.8%of kale. The difference achieved most signiifcantly level by T-test (P<0.01).

  10. Effect of NH4+-N/NO-3-N Ratios on Growth and Some Physiological Parameters of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LUO Jin-Kui; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The responses of three cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), one of the main vegetable crops in China,to different ratios of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was investigated to find the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrate for maximal growth and to explore ways of decreasing the nitrate content, increasing nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and determining distributions of nitrogen and carbon. Three cultivars of Chinese cabbage were hydroponically grown with three different NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratios (0:100, 25:75 and 50:50). The optimal ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N for maximal growth of Chinese cabbage was 25:75. The increase in the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N significantly decreased nitrate content in various tissues of Chinese cabbage in the order of petiole > leaf blade > root. The highest total nitrogen (N) content was found when the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was 25:75, and N contents in plant tissues were significantly different, mostly being in the order of leaf blade > petiole > root. At the NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratio of 25:75, the biomasses of Chinese cabbage nitrate and total nitrogen contents were lower. Thus, partial replacement of nitrate by ammonium could improve vegetable production by both increasing yields and decreasing nitrate content of the plants.

  11. Identification of QTLs Related to Bolting in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis(syn. Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-wei; XIE Cong-hua; WANG Xiao-wu; WU Jian; ZHAO Jian-jun; SONG Xiao-fei; LI Ying; ZHANG Yan-guo; XU Dong-hui; SUN Ri-fei; YUAN Yu-xiang

    2006-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis was constructed with 186 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers by using a doubled-haploid (DH) population with 183 individuals. The individuals were derived from F1 which was developed by crossing a bolting resistant DH line Y-177-12 and an easy bolting DH line Y195-93a.AFLPs were generated by the use of restriction enzymes EcoR Ⅰ and Mse Ⅰ. The segregation of each marker and linkage was analyzed by using JoinMap version 3.0. Mapped markers were aligned in ten linkage groups which covered 887.8 cM with an average marker interval of 4.47 cM. Markers showing skewed segregation ratio were clustered in six LGs.Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped for bolting resistance by using MAPQTL 4.0 package. Four QTLs explaining from 7.0 to 9.4% of the total variation were detected, all of them increase bolting resistance. These mapped QTLs could be used to develop a marker assisted selection programme for bolting resistance breeding.

  12. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  13. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  14. 白菜型、芥菜型和甘蓝型油菜对低氮低磷胁迫反应的差异%Different adaptability of Brassica rapa,Brassica juncea and Brassica napus in response to low nitrogen or low phosphorus stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田飞; 徐芳森; 石桃雄; 赵尊康; 石磊; 蔡红梅; 马朝芝; 孟金陵

    2012-01-01

    94 samples of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus were grown in fields under normal nutrition (CK),low nitrogen (LN) and low phosphorus (LP) conditions. Several agronomic traits such as seed yield, plant height, primary branch number, seed number per pod, thousand-seed weight,pod number and relative seed yield on LN or LP condition were studied in the mature period, to evaluate the difference of adaptability and yield potential of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus in the response to low nitrogen or low phosphorus stress. Results showed that Brassica napus had higher seed yield under three different nutrient treatments and larger potential for agriculture production than that of the other two types. Brassica rapa , which might have more genes involved in nitrogen or phosphorus utilization, showed the highest nitrogen and phosphorus efficiency. Whereas the nitrogen or phosphorus efficiency of Brassica juncea was in the middle between Brassica rapa and Brassica napus ,and Brassica juncea had some other good traits such as yellow seed, large pod number and strong resistance to insects and diseases. These results suggested that both Brassica rapa and Brassica juncea could help to improve Brassica napus. Under different nutrition conditions,different correlations between seed yield and other traits were found in different types of rapeseeds. The great genetic variations among different cultivars or genotypes suggest that it is possible to select high nitrogen or phosphorus efficient rapeseed in intraspecific or interspecific if the number of samples collected is large enough.%以收集的94份白菜型油菜(Brassica rapa)、芥菜型油菜(Brassica juncea)、甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)为材料,利用大田小区试验,设正常施肥(CK)、低氮(LN)、低磷(LP)3种处理,在成熟期考察籽粒产量、株高、一次分枝数、每角果粒数、千粒重和角果数以及低氮或低磷与正常施肥间的籽粒产量比值(氮

  15. Identification of prior candidate genes for Sclerotinia local resistance in Brassica napus using Arabidopsis cDNA microarray and Brassica-Arabidopsis comparative mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Renhu; ZHAO; Jianwei; XIAO; Yong; MENG; Jinling

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis cDNA arrays were used to screen the local-defense-associated genes in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) at the challenge of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. 61 genes with two-fold expression changes were screened out from the local tissue around the necrosis. Among them, 36 unique genes were up-regulated and 25 unique genes were down-regulated. RT-PCR and Northern blot results were consistent with the array results, suggesting Arabidopsis arrays were useful for transcriptional profiling of B. napus genes. Some of these genes were located in the interval of some QTLs for Sclerotinia resistance in B. napus by Brassica- Arabidopsis comparative mapping. These genes may have priority to be pursued for more intensive research.

  16. Preliminary study of Tl and Cd uptake in the heavy metal accumulating Brassica napus using the Debrecen proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high biomass producing crop plants, Brassica juncea L. and Brassica napus are very promising plant species for phytoremediation. The aim of further research is to help a better understanding of the transport mechanism within roots and roots to shoots of heavy metals, and to find out their distribution and translocation among different cell types in the root of these species. The distribution and concentration of major and trace elements was determined along the roots of Cd and Tl treated as well as control plants of Brassica napus on the ATOMKI proton microprobe. (R.P.)

  17. Class-specific evolution and transcriptional differentiation of 14-3-3 family members in mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby eChandna; Rehna eAugustine; Praveena eKanchupati; Roshan eKumar; Pawan eKumar; Arya, Gulab C.; Naveen Chandra Bisht

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa cont...

  18. Class-Specific Evolution and Transcriptional Differentiation of 14-3-3 Family Members in Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Kanchupati, Praveena; Kumar, Roshan; Kumar, Pawan; Arya, Gulab C.; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2016-01-01

    14-3-3s are highly conserved, multigene family proteins that have been implicated in modulating various biological processes. The presence of inherent polyploidy and genome complexity has limited the identification and characterization of 14-3-3 proteins from globally important Brassica crops. Through data mining of Brassica rapa, the model Brassica genome, we identified 21 members encoding 14-3-3 proteins namely, BraA.GRF14.a to BraA.GRF14.u. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that B. rapa cont...

  19. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Zhang; Tongjin Liu; Xixiang Li; Mengmeng Duan; Jinglei Wang; Yang Qiu; Haiping Wang; Jiangping Song; Di Shen

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization...

  20. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli.

  1. Classificação de cultivares de brássicas com relação à resistência à traça-das-crucíferas e à presença de glucosinolatos Brassicas cultivars classification in relation to resistance to diamondback moth and to the presence of glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Thomaz Thuler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de cultivares de repolho e de couve na biologia da traça-das-crucíferas; analisar a composição química das plantas, em relação aos glucosinolatos e aplicar a análise multivariada na classificação das cultivares. Foram utilizadas as cultivares: de repolho verde Chato-de-quintal e o híbrido Midori; de repolho roxo Roxo precoce e o híbrido Roxo TPC00682; e de couve-manteiga Geórgia (padrão de suscetibilidade e Geórgia híbrido HS20. Foram avaliadas as características biológicas da praga: viabilidade e duração das fases larval e pupal, razão sexual, fecundidade das fêmeas, longevidade dos adultos e duração e viabilidade da fase de ovo, tendo-se calculado o potencial reprodutivo corrigido (PRC. Obtiveram-se as correlações entre os parâmetros pelo método de Pearson, e realizaram-se análises multivariadas de agrupamento e de componentes principais. Em cromatógrafo líquido, avaliaram-se a presença de sinigrina e de outros glucosinolatos nas plantas. A cultivar Geórgia e os híbridos HS20 e Roxo foram classificados como altamente suscetíveis; 'Roxo precoce' e 'Midori' como suscetíveis e, 'Chato-de-quintal' como moderadamente resistente à Plutella xylostella. As análises multivariadas proporcionam melhor classificação das cultivares, em razão do grau de resistência apresentado. Os materiais genéticos avaliados não apresentam a substância secundária sinigrina.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of cabbage and kale cultivars on the diamondback moth biology; to analyze the plant chemical composition in relation to glucosinolates and to apply the multivariate analysis to classify cultivar resistance. Trials were conduct using: green cabbage cultivar Chato-de-quintal and hybrid Midori; purple cabbage Roxo precoce and purple hybrid TPC00682; kale cultivar Georgia (susceptibility standard and hybrid HS20. The pest biological characteristics evaluated were

  2. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  3. Interaction between atmospheric hydrogen sulfide deposition and pedospheric sulfate nutrition in Brassica oleracea L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, LJ; Westerman, S; Stuiver, CEE; Weidner, W; Stulen, I.; Grill, D

    2002-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is able to utilize H2S as sulfur source for growth and it can replace pedospheric sulfate as sulfur source. The foliage forms an active sink for atmospheric H2S, which is directly metabolized into cysteine and subsequently into other organic sulfur compounds. H2S exposure result

  4. Characterization of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses obtained from Adoxophes orana and from Barathra brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurkovicova, M.

    1979-01-01

    ln infectivity experiments some A. orana larvae died after being inoculated with an inoculum containing NW isolated from B. brassicae. The polyhedra formed upon infection occluded single virus particles, whereas the inoculum contained polyhedra with bundles of virus particles. This change could be e

  5. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  6. Production and characterization of asymmetric somatic hybrids between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Weston, B; Keller, W; Webb, J; Gleddie, S

    1993-04-01

    Cell suspension-derived protoplasts of a chlorsulfuron-resistant (GH50) strain of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia were X-irradiated at 60 or 90 krad, to facilitate the elimination of GH50 donor chromosomes in fusion products. Irradiated GH50 protoplasts were fused, with polyethylene glycol, to protoplasts derived from stem epidermal strips of Brassica napus cv Westar. Chlorsulfuron-resistant colonies were selected in vitro and then transferred to shoot and root regeneration medium. Seventeen hybrid lines were regenerated in vitro, and eight were successfully established in the greenhouse, where they flowered. These eight asymmetric hybrids were intermediate in vegetative morphology between Arabidopsis and Brassica. The flowers from these hybrids were male-sterile with abnormal petal and pistil structures. Zymograms for phosphoglucomutase, esterase, and peroxidase showed the presence of all parental isozymes in each of the hybrids tested. Nuclear hybridity was also confirmed for the ribosomal RNA genes using a wheat rDNA probe; however, the chloroplast genome in each of the hybrids was derived solely from the Brassica parent. All selected somatic hybrids were capable of rooting at levels of chlorsulfuron which were inhibitory to unfused Brassica plantlets. The degree of herbicide resistance in the hybrid shoots is presently being evaluated. PMID:24193454

  7. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaczmarek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP technique has been elaborated. The set of three primer pairs was designed using LAMP software. The detection was performed with the GspSSD polymerase, isolated from bacteria Geobacillus sp., with strand displacement activity. DNA extraction from clubbed roots obtained from farmers’ fields of oilseed rape infected by P. brassicae was done using a modified CTAB method. The reaction was performed for 60 min at 62oC. The visual detection was done using CFX96 Real Time PCR Detection System (BioRad or Gerie II Amplicatior (Optigen. The detection with LAMP proved its usefulness; it was easy, fast and accurate and independent of plant age. The detection limit was 5 spores per 1 µl of the spore suspension, so LAMP was less sensitive than quantitative PCR tests reported in the literature. However, the method is cheap and simple, so it is a good alternative, when it comes to practical use and the assessment of numerous samples.

  8. LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

  9. Neglected Landraces of Collard (Brassica oleracea L.) from the Carolinas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common garden crop grown in the coastal plain region of North and South Carolina (United States) is the non-heading, leafy green type of Brassica oleracea L. known as collard (B. oleracea Acephala Group). Predominantly a fall and winter vegetable in this region, collard is often the only green pl...

  10. Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium, and Chloride Nutrition on Cold Tolerance of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  11. Combining ecological and molecular methods to investigate predation of a lepidopteron pest complex of Brassica crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southeast Queensland Brassica crops are attacked by Crocidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in late summer and autumn, and Plutella xylsotella (L) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from late autumn through spring. The impact of endemic predatory and parasitic arthropods on each pest was studie...

  12. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  13. Oviposition behaviour as influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone in the large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnstra, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with a detailed analysis of egglaying behaviour of adult females of the Large White Butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and the way this behaviour is influenced by the oviposition deterring pheromone (ODP) in order to investigate the prospects for field application of this pheromone in ca

  14. Characterization of rDNAs and Tandem Repeats in the Heterochromatin of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.B.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Yang, T.J.; Park, J.Y.; Kwon, S.J.; Kim, J.S.; Lim, M.H.; Kim, J.A.; Jin, M.; Jin, Y.M.; Kim, S.H.; Lim, Y.P.; Bang, J.W.; Kim, H.I.; Park, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the morphology and molecular organization of heterochromatin domains in the interphase nuclei, and mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, of Brassica rapa, using DAPI staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA and pericentromere tandem repeats. We have developed a simple me

  15. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  16. Flowering times in genetically modified Brassica hybrids in the absence of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in days to flowering (DTF) were observed among reciprocal F1 progeny of Brassica napus ‘RaideRR’ with other B. napus and also with weedy B. rapa. Changes in DTF are presented as factors to consider in evaluating the potential of crop to weed gene flow in different geograp...

  17. Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Riviere, P.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Cuenca, M.; Kos, M.; Vosman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurren

  18. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and Brassica seed meal amendment alter soil microbiology and system resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica seed meal amendments and anaerobic soil disinfestation control a spectrum of soil-borne plant pathogens via a diversity of mechanisms. Transformations in microbial community structure and function in certain instances were determinants of disease control and enhanced plant performance. Fo...

  19. The Plasmodiophora brassicae genome reveals insights in its life cycle and ancestry of chitin synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwelm, Arne; Fogelqvist, Johan; Knaust, Andrea; Jülke, Sabine; Lilja, Tua; Bonilla-Rosso, German; Karlsson, Magnus; Shevchenko, Andrej; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Kim, Hong Gi; Park, Ju Young; Lim, Yong Pyo; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Dixelius, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot, a major disease of Brassica oil and vegetable crops worldwide. P. brassicae is a Plasmodiophorid, obligate biotrophic protist in the eukaryotic kingdom of Rhizaria. Here we present the 25.5 Mb genome draft of P. brassicae, developmental stage-specific transcriptomes and a transcriptome of Spongospora subterranea, the Plasmodiophorid causing powdery scab on potato. Like other biotrophic pathogens both Plasmodiophorids are reduced in metabolic pathways. Phytohormones contribute to the gall phenotypes of infected roots. We report a protein (PbGH3) that can modify auxin and jasmonic acid. Plasmodiophorids contain chitin in cell walls of the resilient resting spores. If recognized, chitin can trigger defense responses in plants. Interestingly, chitin-related enzymes of Plasmodiophorids built specific families and the carbohydrate/chitin binding (CBM18) domain is enriched in the Plasmodiophorid secretome. Plasmodiophorids chitin synthases belong to two families, which were present before the split of the eukaryotic Stramenopiles/Alveolates/Rhizaria/Plantae and Metazoa/Fungi/Amoebozoa megagroups, suggesting chitin synthesis to be an ancient feature of eukaryotes. This exemplifies the importance of genomic data from unexplored eukaryotic groups, such as the Plasmodiophorids, to decipher evolutionary relationships and gene diversification of early eukaryotes. PMID:26084520

  20. Genetic diversity in Brassica species and Eruca sativa for yield associated parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Mahwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species are vulnerable to narrow genetic base due to the ignorance of their wild relatives which possess many superior characters. This study was aimed to explore the genetic diversity in five Brassica species from U triangle as well as in their wild relative Eruca sativa. For the complete insight of genetic diversity, four accessions, each from five species of genus Brassica along with one species of Eruca collected from different geographical locations (exotic and indigenous were selected. Six yield associated parameters viz., primary branches plant-1, plant height, main raceme length, silique length, silique width and silique main raceme-1 were studied. Highly significant variations among all species were observed. Mean performance showed that wild relative E. sativa was superior for primary branches plant -1 and plant height, which are the main yield associated traits. In case of Brassica species, B. campestris gave the lengthiest main racemes, B. nigra produced more silique main raceme-1 and B. carinata produced the longest and widest silique.

  1. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  2. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  3. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  4. Cloning and characterization of a pathogen-induced chitinase in Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Bojsen, K.; Collinge, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    A chitinase cDNA clone from rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) was isolated. The cDNA clone, ChB4, represents a previously purified and characterized basic chitinase isozyme. The longest open reading frame in ChB4 encodes a polypeptide of 268 amino acids. This polypeptide consists of a 24...

  5. Gametophytic development of Brassica napus pollen in vitro enables examination of cytoskeleton and nuclear movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, E.; Wedzony, M.; Custers, J.B.M.; Kieft, H.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Isolated microspores and pollen suspension of Brassica napus “Topas” cultured in NLN-13 medium at 18°C follow gametophytic pathway and develop into pollen grains closely resembling pollen formed in planta. This culture system complemented with whole-mount immunocytochemical technology and novel conf

  6. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa : insight into the glucosinolate pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pino Del Carpio, Dunia; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Arends, Danny; Lin, Ke; De Vos, Ric C H; Muth, Dorota; Kodde, Jan; Boutilier, Kim; Bucher, Johan; Wang, Xiaowu; Jansen, Ritsert; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomic

  7. Regulatory network of secondary metabolism in Brassica rapa: insight into the glucosinolate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Pino Del Carpio

    Full Text Available Brassica rapa studies towards metabolic variation have largely been focused on the profiling of the diversity of metabolic compounds in specific crop types or regional varieties, but none aimed to identify genes with regulatory function in metabolite composition. Here we followed a genetical genomics approach to identify regulatory genes for six biosynthetic pathways of health-related phytochemicals, i.e carotenoids, tocopherols, folates, glucosinolates, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Leaves from six weeks-old plants of a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population, consisting of 92 genotypes, were profiled for their secondary metabolite composition, using both targeted and LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics approaches. Furthermore, the same population was profiled for transcript variation using a microarray containing EST sequences mainly derived from three Brassica species: B. napus, B. rapa and B. oleracea. The biochemical pathway analysis was based on the network analyses of both metabolite QTLs (mQTLs and transcript QTLs (eQTLs. Co-localization of mQTLs and eQTLs lead to the identification of candidate regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols and glucosinolates. We subsequently focused on the well-characterized glucosinolate pathway and revealed two hotspots of co-localization of eQTLs with mQTLs in linkage groups A03 and A09. Our results indicate that such a large-scale genetical genomics approach combining transcriptomics and metabolomics data can provide new insights into the genetic regulation of metabolite composition of Brassica vegetables.

  8. Molecular mapping and cloning of genes and QTLs in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Guusje

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter an overview is given of QTL studies performed in the species Brassica rapa. First we provide an overview of the types of molecular markers that have been used in time, and the genetic maps that have been constructed from a broad range of populations, both in terms of population ty

  9. Influence of microgravity on ultrastructure and storage reserves in seeds of Brassica rapa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A.; Xiao, Y.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Successful plant reproduction under spaceflight conditions has been problematic in the past. During a 122 d opportunity on the Mir space station, full life cycles of Brassica rapa L. were completed in microgravity in a series of three experiments in the Svet greenhouse. Ultrastructural and cytochemical analyses of storage reserves in mature dry seeds produced in these experiments were compared with those of seeds produced during a high-fidelity ground control. Additional analyses were performed on developing Brassica embryos, 15 d post pollination, which were produced during a separate experiment on the Shuttle (STS-87). Seeds produced on Mir had less than 20% of the cotyledon cell number found in seeds harvested from the ground control. Cytochemical localization of storage reserves in mature cotyledons showed that starch was retained in the spaceflight material, whereas protein and lipid were the primary storage reserves in ground control seeds. Protein bodies in mature cotyledons produced in space were 44% smaller than those in the ground control seeds. Fifteen days after pollination, cotyledon cells from mature embryos formed in space had large numbers of starch grains, and protein bodies were absent, while in developing ground control seeds at the same stage, protein bodies had already formed and fewer starch grains were evident. These data suggest that both the late stage of seed development and maturation are changed in Brassica by growth in a microgravity environment. While gravity is not absolutely required for any step in the plant life cycle, seed quality in Brassica is compromised by development in microgravity.

  10. PCIB an antiauxin enhances microspore embryogenisis in microspore culture of Brassica juncea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Agarwal, P.; Custers, J.B.M.; Liu, C.M.; Bhojwani, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient protocol to improve microspore embryogenesis is established in an important oleiferous crop, Brassica juncea (Indian mustard). Colchicine was used for enhancing microspore embryogenesis and also to obtain doubled haploid embryos. Colchicine at high concentrations (>10 mg l¿1), for 24

  11. Development of a leafy Brassica rapa fixed line collection for genetic diversity and population structure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, W.; Li, X.; Choi, S.R.; Dhandapani, V.; Im, S.; Park, M.Y.; Jang, C.S.; Yang, M.S.; Ham, I.K.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, W.; Lee, S.S.; Bonnema, A.B.; Park, S.; Piao, Z.; Lim, Y.P.

    2015-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy

  12. Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds to induce resistance against Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Michta, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Boer, de W.J.; Davelaar, E.; Stevens, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds having a low risk profile (LRP) were evaluated for their potential to induce resistance in cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) against Peronospora parasitica, causal organism of downy mildew. The selection of 34 LRP compounds comprised micronutrients, o

  13. A homolog of the RPS2 disease resistance gene is constitutively expressed in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvas Celia C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified disease resistance gene homologs in Brassica oleracea and assessed their expression in lines resistant and susceptible to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc. Two DNA fragments of approximately 2.5 kb (BI-16/RPS2 and Lc201/RPS2 were amplified by PCR from two Brassica lines using primers based on an RPS2 homologous sequence previously described in the Brassica oleracea ecotype B117. The sequences of these fragments shared high similarity (95-98% with RPS2 homologs from various Brassica species. The digestion of these fragments with restriction enzymes revealed polymorphisms at the Xba I restriction sites. The length polymorphisms were used as a co-dominant marker in an F2 population developed to segregate for resistance to Xcc, the causal agent of black rot. Linkage analysis showed no significant association between the marker and quantitative trait loci for black rot. RT-PCR with specific primers yielded an expected 453 bp fragment that corresponded to the RPS2 homologs in both resistant and susceptible lines inoculated with the pathogen, as well as in non-inoculated control plants. These results suggest that these homologs are constitutively expressed in B. oleracea.

  14. A novel methyltransferase from the intracellular pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae methylates salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Geiß, Kathleen; Richter, Franziska; Mithöfer, Axel; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Keenan, Sandi; Bulman, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is characterized by large root galls. Salicylic acid (SA) production is a defence response in plants, and its methyl ester is involved in systemic signalling. Plasmodiophora brassicae seems to suppress plant defence reactions, but information on how this is achieved is scarce. Here, we profile the changes in SA metabolism during Arabidopsis clubroot disease. The accumulation of SA and the emission of methylated SA (methyl salicylate, MeSA) were observed in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis 28 days after inoculation. There is evidence that MeSA is transported from infected roots to the upper plant. Analysis of the mutant Atbsmt1, deficient in the methylation of SA, indicated that the Arabidopsis SA methyltransferase was not responsible for alterations in clubroot symptoms. We found that P. brassicae possesses a methyltransferase (PbBSMT) with homology to plant methyltransferases. The PbBSMT gene is maximally transcribed when SA production is highest. By heterologous expression and enzymatic analyses, we showed that PbBSMT can methylate SA, benzoic and anthranilic acids.

  15. Syntenic gene analysis between Brassica rapa and other Brassicaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eCheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal synteny analysis is important in genome comparison to reveal genomic evolution of related species. Shared synteny describes genomic fragments from different species that originated from an identical ancestor. Syntenic genes are orthologs located in these syntenic fragments, so they often share similar functions. Syntenic gene analysis is very important in Brassicaceae species to share gene annotations and investigate genome evolution.Here we designed and developed a direct and efficient tool, SynOrths, to identify pairwise syntenic genes between genomes of Brassicaceae species. SynOrths determines whether two genes are a conserved syntenic pair based not only on their sequence similarity, but also by the support of homologous flanking genes. Syntenic genes between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa, Arabidopsis lyrata and B. rapa, and Thellungiella parvula and B. rapa were then identified using SynOrths. The occurrence of genome triplication in B. rapa was clearly observed, many genes that were evenly distributed in the genomes of A. thaliana, A. lyrata, and T. parvula had three syntenic copies in B. rapa. Additionally, there were many B. rapa genes that had no syntenic orthologs in A. thaliana, but some of these had syntenic orthologs in A. lyrata or T. parvula. Only 5,851 genes in B. rapa had no syntenic counterparts in any of the other three species. These 5,851 genes could have originated after B. rapa diverged from these species. A tool for syntenic gene analysis between species of Brassicaceae was developed, SynOrths, which could be used to accurately identify syntenic genes in differentiated but closely-related genomes. With this tool, we identified syntenic gene sets between B. rapa and each of A. thaliana, A. lyrata, T. parvula. Syntenic gene analysis is important for not only the gene annotation of newly sequenced Brassicaceae genomes by bridging them to model plant A. thaliana, but also the study of genome evolution in

  16. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L.

  17. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of copper by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Ihsan Elahi; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Gill, Rafaqa Ali; Najeeb, Ullah; Iqbal, Naeem; Ahmad, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Use of organic acids for promoting heavy metals phytoextraction is gaining worldwide attention. The present study investigated the influence of citric acid (CA) in enhancing copper (Cu) uptake by Brassica napus L. seedlings. 6 Weeks old B. napus seedlings were exposed to different levels of copper (Cu, 0, 50 and 100µM) alone or with CA (2.5mM) in a nutrient medium for 40 days. Exposure to elevated Cu levels (50 and 100µM) significantly reduced the growth, biomass production, chlorophyll content, gas exchange attributes and soluble proteins of B. napus seedlings. In addition, Cu toxicity increased the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaf and root tissues of B. napus. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in root and shoot tissues of B. napus were increased in response to lower Cu concentration (50µM) but increased under higher Cu concentration (100µM). Addition of CA into nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu toxicity effects on B. napus seedlings by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CA-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing of stress-induced reactive oxygen species as was evident from lower level of H2O2, MDA and EL in CA-treated plants. Increasing Cu concentration in the nutrient medium significantly increased Cu concentration in in B. napus tissues. Cu uptake was further increased by CA application. These results suggested that CA might be a useful strategy for increasing phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils.

  18. Purification and biochemical characterization of phytocystatin from Brassica alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-05-01

    Phytocystatins belong to the family of cysteine proteinases inhibitors. They are ubiquitously found in plants and carry out various significant physiological functions. These plant derived inhibitors are gaining wide consideration as potential candidate in engineering transgenic crops and in drug designing. Hence it is crucial to identify these inhibitors from various plant sources. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated and purified by a simple two-step procedure using ammonium sulfate saturation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR from Brassica alba seeds (yellow mustard seeds).The protein was purified to homogeneity with 60.3% yield and 180-fold of purification. The molecular mass of the mustard seed cystatin was estimated to be nearly 26,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as well as by gel filtration chromatography. The stokes radius and diffusion coefficient of the mustard cystatin were found to be 23A° and 9.4 × 10(-7)  cm(2) s(-1) respectively. The isolated phytocystatin was found to be stable in the pH range of 6-8 and is thermostable up to 60 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed that the phytocystatin exhibited non-competitive type of inhibition and inhibited papain more efficiently (K(i)  = 3 × 10(-7)  M) than ficin (K(i)  = 6.6 × 10(-7)  M) and bromelain (K(i) = 7.7 × 10(-7)  M respectively). CD spectral analysis shows that it possesses 17.11% alpha helical content. PMID:26748819

  19. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A3 (GA3) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA1 and GA3 were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [2H]GA1 as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA20 and GA1, and the rate of GA19 metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA1 and GA20 were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA20 and GA1 were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA1 biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of [3H]GA20 to [3H] GA1 was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA1 biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A1 and A3

  20. Haplotype hitchhiking promotes trait coselection in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lunwen; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-07-01

    Local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers with significant trait associations can reveal information on selective sweeps and genome diversity associated with important crop traits. Relationships between haplotype and phenotype diversity, coupled with analysis of gene content in conserved haplotype blocks, can provide insight into coselection for nonrelated traits. We performed genome-wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus. A locus on chromosome A01 showed opposite effects on leaf chlorophyll content and seed glucosinolate content, attributed to strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between orthologues of the chlorophyll biosynthesis genes EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEIN and CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE, and the glucosinolate synthesis gene ATP SULFURYLASE 1. Another conserved haplotype block, on chromosome A02, contained a number of chlorophyll-related genes in LD with orthologues of the key glucosinolate biosynthesis genes METHYLTHIOALKYMALATE SYNTHASE-LIKE 1 and 3. Multigene haplogroups were found to have a significantly greater contribution to variation for chlorophyll content than haplotypes for any single gene, suggesting positive effects of additive locus accumulation. Detailed reanalysis of population substructure revealed a clade of ten related accessions exhibiting high leaf chlorophyll and low seed glucosinolate content. These accessions each carried one of the above-mentioned haplotypes from A01 or A02, generally in combination with further chlorophyll-associated haplotypes from chromosomes A05 and/or C05. The phenotypic rather than pleiotropic correlations between leaf chlorophyll content index and seed GSL suggest that LD may have led to inadvertent coselection for these two traits. PMID:26800855

  1. Plant growth regulators enhance gold uptake in Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manoj G; Stirk, Wendy A; Southway, Colin; Papenfus, Heino B; Swart, Pierre A; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Martinka, Michal; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The use of plant growth regulators is well established and they are used in many fields of plant science for enhancing growth. Brassica juncea plants were treated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 microM auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which promotes rooting. The IBA-treated plants were also sprayed with 100 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kin) to increase leaf-foliage. Gold (I) chloride (AuCl) was added to the growth medium of plants to achieve required gold concentration. The solubilizing agent ammonium thiocyanate (1 g kg(-1)) (commonly used in mining industries to solubilize gold) was added to the nutrient solution after six weeks of growth and, two weeks later, plants were harvested. Plant growth regulators improved shoot and root dry biomass of B. juncea plants. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry analysis showed the highest Au uptake for plants treated with 5.0 microM IBA. The average recovery of Au with this treatment was significantly greater than the control treatment by 45.8 mg kg(-1) (155.7%). The other IBA concentrations (2.5 and 7.5 microM) also showed a significant increase in Au uptake compared to the control plants by 14.7 mg kg(-1) (50%) and 42.5 mg kg(-1) (144.5%) respectively. A similar trend of Au accumulation was recorded in the roots of B. juncea plants. This study conducted in solution culture suggests that plant growth regulators can play a significant role in improving phytoextraction of Au.

  2. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  3. BRASSICA NIGRA AND CUMINUM CYMINUM: INHIBITORS OF FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dried seeds of spices namely Brassica nigra (mustard and Cuminum cyminum (cumin were screened independently, in culture media, in their different forms (aqueous extracts, essential oils and powders against some bacterial strains of spoilage and health significance. Test microorganisms included one gram+ve bacterial strain i.e. Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430 and three gram-ve bacterial strains viz. Enterococcus faecalis (MTCC 439, Psuedomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 1688 and Shigella sonnei (MTCC 2957. Spice agar method was opted for screening antibacterial activities of powdered forms of aforementioned spices at their different concentration levels (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0 (% (w/v. B.nigra more effectively inhibited bacterial strains in culture media. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of powdered form of B.nigra were also determined. It was the concentration of spice which arrested the growth of bacterial strain upto 80% level of the total incubation period of 30 days. Agar-well assay was followed for antibacterial screening of aqueous extracts and essential oils of test spices. Aqueous extracts of reference spice samples did not exhibit growth inhibitory zones towards any test bacterial strains. On the other hand, essential oils of B.nigra and C.cyminum showed distinct growth inhibitory zones against all the bacterial strains under observation. Results obtained from agar well assay revealed that essential oil of B.nigra was more potent in inhibiting bacterial strains followed by C. cyminum . It was also noticed that B. cereus (gram+ve was inhibited at lower concentrations of test substances as compared to all the other three gram-ve bacterial strains under investigation.

  4. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M1 and M2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  5. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  6. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L. PMID:24840879

  7. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, S.B. (Univ. of Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada)); Williams, P.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Murofushi, Noboru (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Mander, L.N. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode (ein/ein)) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A{sub 3} (GA{sub 3}) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3} were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using ({sup 2}H)GA{sub 1} as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1}, and the rate of GA{sub 19} metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 20} were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1} were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA{sub 1} biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to ({sup 3}H) GA{sub 1} was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA{sub 1} biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}.

  8. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  9. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  10. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  11. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  12. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  13. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  15. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  16. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  17. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  18. The first generation of a BAC-based physical map of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Brassica includes the most extensively cultivated vegetable crops worldwide. Investigation of the Brassica genome presents excellent challenges to study plant genome evolution and divergence of gene function associated with polyploidy and genome hybridization. A physical map of the B. rapa genome is a fundamental tool for analysis of Brassica "A" genome structure. Integration of a physical map with an existing genetic map by linking genetic markers and BAC clones in the sequencing pipeline provides a crucial resource for the ongoing genome sequencing effort and assembly of whole genome sequences. Results A genome-wide physical map of the B. rapa genome was constructed by the capillary electrophoresis-based fingerprinting of 67,468 Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones using the five restriction enzyme SNaPshot technique. The clones were assembled into contigs by means of FPC v8.5.3. After contig validation and manual editing, the resulting contig assembly consists of 1,428 contigs and is estimated to span 717 Mb in physical length. This map provides 242 anchored contigs on 10 linkage groups to be served as seed points from which to continue bidirectional chromosome extension for genome sequencing. Conclusion The map reported here is the first physical map for Brassica "A" genome based on the High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF technique. This physical map will serve as a fundamental genomic resource for accelerating genome sequencing, assembly of BAC sequences, and comparative genomics between Brassica genomes. The current build of the B. rapa physical map is available at the B. rapa Genome Project website for the user community.

  19. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  20. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.