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Sample records for chinese hook snout

  1. Habitat-specific locomotor variation among Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens along a river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jian Fu

    Full Text Available The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens, varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR, maximum metabolic rate (MMR, cost of transport (COT and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not U(crit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens.

  2. Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

  3. Chemical composition of decomposing stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiqun; XU Zhihong; BOYD Sue; WILLIAMS David

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of stumps in successive rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) plantations was studied using a chronosequence approach. The results showed that decomposition rate constant of Chinese fir stump was 0.02695 as calculated from Olson's model. The N content of stump increased during the first two-year decomposition. When the dead stump C/N ratio was 463.2 ± 27.3, the stumps started to release N. The pattern of P release was similar to that for N. However, K content of stumps showed a consistent declining trend over time during the whole decomposition. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with cross polarization and magic-angle spinning (13C CPMAS-NMR) was used to analyse organic carbon (C) components in decomposing stumps. The 13C CPMAS-NMR spectra of stumps displayed that stump was dominated by cellulose and hemicellulose. The spectra also showed the accumulation of intensity in alkyl C, aromatic C, and carboxyl C spectral regions, which was expected as the labile cellulose and hemicellulose components in O-alkyl C spectral region were selectively decomposed first.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    , and a noncoding control region. We use these data and homologous sequence data from multiple other ostariophysan fishes in a phylogenetic evaluation to test hypothesis pertaining to codon usage pattern of O. bidens mitochondrial protein genes as well as to re-examine the ostariophysan phylogeny. The mitochondrial...... and Otophysi and results in a robust estimate of the otophysan phylogeny....

  5. Stability of soil organic carbon changes in successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian; WANG Silong; FENG Zongwei; WANG Qingkui

    2009-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) under forests in the global carbon cycle depends on the stability of the soil carbon and its availability to soil microbial biomass. We investigated the effects of successive rotations of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) plantations on the stability of SOC and its availability to microbes by adopting the two-step hydrolysis with H2SO4 and density fractionation. The results showed that successive rotations of Chinese fir decreased the quantity of total SOC, recalcitrant fraction, and carbohydrates in Labile Pool I (LPI), and microbial properties evidently, especially at 0-10 cm horizon. However, cellulose included in Labile Pool II (LP II) and the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio increased in successive rotations of Chinese fir. The non-cellulose of carbohydrates included in LPI maybe highly available to soil microbial biomass. Hence the availability of SOC to microbial biomass declined over the successive rotations. Although there was no significant change in recalcitrance of SOC over the successive rotations of Chinese fir, the percentage of heavy fraction to total SOC increased, suggesting that the degree of physical protection for SOC increased and SOC became more stable over the successive rotations. The degradation of SOC quality in successive rotation soils may be attributed to worse environmental conditions resulted from disturbance that related to "slash and burn" site preparation. Being highly correlated with soil microbial properties, the cellulose/total carbohydrates ratio as an effective indicator of changes in availability of SOC to microbial biomass brought by management practices in forest soils.

  6. Ion Flux in Roots of Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) under Aluminum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir is a tall, fast-growing species that is unique to southern China. In Chinese fir plantations, successive plantings have led to a decline in soil fertility, and aluminum toxicity is thought to be one of the main reasons for this decline. In this study, Non-invasive Micro-test Technology was used to study the effect of aluminum stress on the absorption of 4 different ions in the roots of the Chinese fir clone FS01. The results are as follows: with increased aluminum concentration an...

  7. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of tripchlorolide, an extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, on dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Cheng, Xiao-Xin; Liang, Xi-Bin; Wang, Xin-Hong; Xue, Bing; He, Qi-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Min; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the immunosuppressant FK506 produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether tripchlorolide, an immunosuppressive extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, could exert similar neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of FK506. It was found that tripchlorolide promoted axonal elongation and protected dopaminergic neurons from a neurotoxic lesion induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) at concentrations of as low as 10(-12) to 10(-8) M. In situ hybridization study revealed that tripchlorolide stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. In vivo administration of tripchlorolide (1 microg/kg, ip) for 28 days effectively attenuated the rotational behavior challenged by D-amphetamine in the model rats by transection of the medial forebrain bundle. In addition, tripchlorolide treatment (0.5 or 1 microg/kg/day for 28 days) increased the survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta by 50 and 67%, respectively. Moreover, tripchlorolide markedly prevented the decrease in amount of dopamine in the striatum of model rats. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that tripchlorolide acts as a neuroprotective molecule that rescues MPP+ or axotomy-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, which may imply its therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease. The underlying mechanism may be relevant to its neurotrophic effect and its efficacy in stimulating the expression of BDNF.

  8. Transcriptome characteristics and six alternative expressed genes positively correlated with the phase transition of annual cambial activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook, a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22 gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in

  9. DNA Sampling Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DNA Sampling Hook is a significant improvement on a method of obtaining a tissue sample from a live fish in situ from an aquatic environment. A tissue sample...

  10. Getting Hooked on Physics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, M.; McCauley, V.

    2016-12-01

    A number of papers in this journal have dealt with the idea of using hooks in physics instruction. A hook, as the name suggests, engages students in learning by triggering their attention and interest. Hooks can be any type of pedagogical approach—a question, a demonstration, a puzzle or video. They are generally short and center on the most interesting aspects of a topic. Here we focus on using Conceptual Change (CC) teacher-led demonstrations as the pedagogical hook approach. Conceptual Change is an instructional method mentioned by a number of authors to stimulate interest among learners. This is where an educator presents an issue or topic that has associated misconceptions. As the teacher explains the truth behind the concept, cognitive conflict occurs and the students' initial perceptions are challenged and ideas start to change. However, the instruction used in association with the demonstrations must provide intelligible, plausible, relevant explanations so that students are convinced by the new ideas. The gap between prior knowledge and new knowledge has the potential to provide a strong stimulus for augmenting interest, engagement, and attention among students. Thus, CC can act as a hook in itself.

  11. Hooked on Cyberspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese psychologists outline criteria for Internet addiction Day after day you are glued to your computer screen.You cannot get enough of online games,net shop-ping or cyber surfing.Your social life dete-riorates,and so does your health.Chancesare that you are addicted to the Internet and you need counseling.

  12. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lussanet, Marc H E; Muller, M

    2007-06-22

    Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus acus in detail. We found capture times of as little as 4-6ms for C. scutatus and 6-8ms for S. acus. We then hypothesized that the long snout of pipefishes is optimal for such fast feeding. To test this, we implemented in a mathematical model the following considerations. To reach the prey as fast as possible, a low moment of inertia increases the head's angular speed, whereas a long snout decreases the angle over which the head must be turned. The model accurately predicted the snout lengths of a number of pipefishes. We found that the optimal snout length, with which a prey will be reached fastest, is inversely related to its cross-section. In spite of the small cross-section, the development of a long snout can be an evolutionary advantage because this reduces the time to approach the prey.

  13. Hooke, Robert (1635-1703)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Scientist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England, educated at Christ Church College, Oxford where he met Boyle and was employed by him to construct his air pump, became professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. Discovered Hooke's law of elasticity. Worked on optics, simple harmonic motion and elasticity in strings. Published a monograph called Micrographia, containing beautiful pict...

  14. Instability of hooks during bacterial flagellar swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh, Mehdi; Fu, Henry C.; Henry Fu Team

    2016-11-01

    In bacteria, a flexible hook transmits torque from the rotary motor at the cell body to the flagellum. Previously, the hook has been modeled as a Kirchhoff rod between the cell body and rotating flagellum. To study effects of the hook's flexibility on the bacteria's swimming speed and trajectory for wide range hook stiffnesses and flagellum configurations, we develop an efficient simplified spring model for the hook by linearizing the Kirchhoff rod. We treat the hydrodynamics of the cell body and helical flagellum using resistance matrices calculated by the method of regularized Stokeslets. We investigate flagellar and swimming dynamics for a range of hook flexibilities and flagellar orientations relative to the cell body and compare the results to models without hook flexibility. We investigate in detail parameters corresponding to E. coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Generally, the flagellum changes orientation relative to the cell body, undergoing an orbit with the period of the motor rotation. We find that as the hook stiffness decreases, steady-state orbits of the flagellum first become unstable before the hook buckles, which may suggest a new mechanism of flick initiation in run-reverse-flick motility. We also find that for some parameter ranges, there are multiple stable steady state orbits, which may have implications for the tumbling and turning of bacteria.

  15. Designing physics video hooks for science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, M.; McCauley, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an insight into the design structure of physics video hooks that were developed by the Science Education Resource design team in the school of education (SOE) in National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway). A hook, is an instructional technique used to stimulate student attention (Hunter 1994, Lemov 2010), interest (Jewett 2013) and engagement (McCrory 2011, Riendeau 2013). The physics video hooks followed a design framework that is illustrated below by breaking down the centre of gravity (COG) hook. Various design principles and elements embedded within the COG hook are presented with examples and the time they occur within the video. The intention of this article is that the design can be replicated and modified to aid teachers and designers in the development of a multitude of classroom based multimedia resources.

  16. Hooked!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Engagement in interactive experiences is a complex, multi-dimensional concept that can be determined by a variety of factors which are dependent on user preferences and media content. However, one fundamental requirement of any interactive experience is the desire to continue the experience, and ...

  17. Analysis of voluntary opening Ottobock Hook and Hosmer Hook for upper limb prosthetics: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Nur Afiqah; Abd Razak, Nasrul Anuar Bin; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2016-11-19

    There are a number of prosthetic terminal devices which offer functional restoration to individuals with upper limb deficiencies. Hosmer and Ottobock are major commercial hook providers for prosthetic terminal devices. The concern of this paper is to analyse the voluntary opening (VO) Ottobock model 10A18 and Hosmer model 99P hooks (one band) during opening operation and to find out favourable features in the design. Two tests were conducted to analyse the performance of both hooks. The first test used a simple bench tool to investigate cable excursion and hook opening angle and the second test used force sensor to find out the force supplied at a different hook opening angle. The study found that the average cable excursion for both hooks is approximately 30% less than the hook's opening span with the force at the hook's tip section being inversely proportional to the force at the lateral section. Ottobock 10A18 has a better control for grasping larger objects, while Hosmer 99P has the highest average force at the tip section but yet less efficient in generating adequate force for activities of daily living. Favourable features identified are low cable excursion per hook opening span and balance lateral to hook tip pinch force.

  18. AKNA: Another AT-hook transcription factor"hooking-up"with inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alison R Moliterno; Linda MS Resar

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies highlight a key role for AT-hook transcription factors as master regulators of fundamental cellular processes involved in development,immune function,cancer,diabetes and other human diseases [1,2].The high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins are an important family of AT-hook chromatin remodeling proteins that orchestrate transcriptional complexes to regulate gene expression [ 1 ].Recent studies have uncovered links between HMG AT-hook transcription factors and inflammation [1-8].

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey...

  20. Oscillating Rim Hook Tableaux and Colored Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, William Y C

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the question of finding a type B analogue of the bijection between oscillating tableaux and matchings, we find a correspondence between oscillating m-rim hook tableaux and m-colored matchings, where m is a positive integer. An oscillating m-rim hook tableau is defined as a sequence $(\\lambda^0,\\lambda^1,...,\\lambda^{2n})$ of Young diagrams starting with the empty shape and ending with the empty shape such that $\\lambda^{i}$ is obtained from $\\lambda^{i-1}$ by adding an m-rim hook or by deleting an m-rim hook. Our bijection relies on the generalized Schensted algorithm due to White. An oscillating 2-rim hook tableau is also called an oscillating domino tableau. When we restrict our attention to two column oscillating domino tableaux of length 2n, we are led to a bijection between such tableaux and noncrossing 2-colored matchings on $\\{1, 2,..., 2n\\}$, which are counted by the product $C_nC_{n+1}$ of two consecutive Catalan numbers. A 2-colored matching is noncrossing if there are no two arcs of th...

  1. 2011 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge DMC Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. Dewberry...

  2. Double-hook retractor for microlumbar discectomy and foraminotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to achieve better results in microlumbar discectomy and foraminotomy, a double-hook retractor has been designed to retract lumbar paraspinal muscles away from the spinous process. A double-hook retractor obviates the limitations of single-hook systems.

  3. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  4. Feeding habits of the deep-snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle in a temperate coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Frederico; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2007-03-01

    Feeding habits of Syngnathus typhle were determined based on monthly sampling during experimental fishing in a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, South Portugal) from April 2001 to May 2002. The gut contents of 856 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as with some complementary indices and measures (vacuity, fullness and relative importance). In this study, this species fed mainly on Copepoda, Mysidacea, small caridean grass shrimps (Hippolytidae and Palaemonidae) and small fishes (Gobiidae) and to a lesser degree on other small invertebrates. No significant differences were found between the diets of males and females. However, significant differences in the fullness indexes of both sexes were observed during the reproductive period. Significant differences in the diet among seasons were also verified but no seasonal trends were discovered. Snout length showed a linear increase with growth while mouth area and total length displayed an allometric relation. Mouth shape varied between an ellipse and an almost perfect circle. The increase in mouth area and snout length as S. typhle grows contributed to the observed ontogenic diet shift with specimens smaller than 10 cm feeding almost exclusively on Copepoda, medium sized specimens feeding mainly on Hippolytidae and Mysidacea, while larger specimens preyed on Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae and Gobiidae. Prey size generally increased with size of S. typhle.

  5. Ontogeny expression of ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, H-C; Feng, K; Zhang, G-R; Wei, K-J; Zou, G-W; Wang, W-M

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) all have important roles in the regulation of feeding in fish and mammals. To better understand the role of the three peptides in appetite regulation in the early developmental stages of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), partial cDNA sequences of ghrelin, NPY and CCK genes were cloned. And then, real-time quantitative PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect and quantify the mRNA expressions of these genes from zygotes to larvae of 50 days after hatching (DAH). Ghrelin, NPY and CCK were all expressed throughout the embryonic and larval development stages, and the expression levels were higher in larval stages than in embryonic stages. Ghrelin and NPY mRNA expressions were upregulated at 1, 3, 5 DAH, while CCK mRNA expression was reduced significantly at 3 DAH. The mRNA expression levels of three genes in larvae varied significantly until 30 DAH. In adult fish, all three peptides were detected to be expressed in brain and several peripheral tissues. Ghrelin mRNA was mainly expressed in the intestine, whereas NPY and CCK mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. Taken together, these results indicate that ghrelin, NPY and CCK may have roles in early development and participate in the regulation of feeding of larvae in blunt snout bream and will be helpful for further investigation into feed intake regulation in adults of this species.

  6. Mechanics of snout expansion in suction-feeding seahorses: musculoskeletal force transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Leysen, Heleen; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Seahorses and other syngnathid fishes rely on a widening of the snout to create the buccal volume increase needed to suck prey into the mouth. This snout widening is caused by abduction of the suspensoria, the long and flat bones outlining the lateral sides of the mouth cavity. However, it remains unknown how seahorses can generate a forceful abduction of the suspensoria. To understand how force is transmitted to the suspensoria via the hyoid and the lower jaw, we performed mathematical simulations with models based on computerized tomography scans of Hippocampus reidi. Our results show that the hinge joint between the left and right hyoid bars, as observed in H. reidi, allows for an efficient force transmission to the suspensorium from a wide range of hyoid angles, including the extremely retracted hyoid orientations observed in vivo for syngnathids. Apart from the hyoid retraction force by the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles, force generated in the opposite direction on the hyoid by the mandibulohyoid ligament also has an important contribution to suspensorium abduction torque. Forces on the lower jaw contribute only approximately 10% of the total suspensorium torque. In particular, when dynamical aspects of hyoid retraction are included in the model, a steep increase is shown in suspensorium abduction torque at highly retracted hyoid positions, when the linkages to the lower jaw counteract further hyoid rotation in the sagittal plane. A delayed strain in these linkages allows syngnathids to postpone suction generation until the end of cranial rotation, a fundamental difference from non-syngnathiform fishes.

  7. Surgical pearl: phlebectomy hook Norplant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, M; Tope, W D

    1997-11-01

    Removal of Norplant contraceptive implants may be rendered difficult by the size of the capsules and variations in insertion technique. In the standard removal technique, a single transverse incision is made close to and below the distal ends of the capsules, and a mosquito forceps is used for extraction. Described, in this article, is a simple technique for the isolation and removal of Norplant with a Ramelot phlebectomy hook. After anesthesia with 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 of epinephrine, a 5 mm horizontal stab incision with a Number 11 blade is made at the base of the implants. Using digital palpation for stabilization, each capsule is captured with the Ramelot hook and delivered through the incision. After the implant is grasped with a mosquito forceps, gentle traction and an oscillating motion dislodge the implant from the surrounding fibrous tissue. Incision sites are closed with plain gut sutures. Complications associated with this procedure include broken capsules, cutaneous infection, and contusion.

  8. cptnHook - Summer Student Project Report

    CERN Document Server

    Asimakopoulou, Eleni - Myrto

    2015-01-01

    The present is a report of the work that was conducted during my 8-week summer school internship at CERN. The project was centered on the development of an instrumentation tool for the usage of mathematical functions in a scientific application. More specifically, $\\textbf{cptnHook}$ addresses a current issue that arises from the the extensive use of very time-consuming mathematical functions (such as transcendental functions) that results in them accounting for a big portion of their run-time. It is believed that the problem can be addressed with ad-hoc approximations of mathematical functions, for which a clear overview of the usage of the functions in the program is required. $\\textbf{cptnHook}$ approaches this problem by providing a measurement of the use of mathematical functions in a program by hooking into the machine code and probing the arguments of the functions, without modifying the application's source code. The outputs of the tool are provided in ROOT format for further on analysis.

  9. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  10. Systematization, description and territory of the middle and rostral cerebral arteries in broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: Information on the arterial vascularization of the broad-snouted caimans’ brain (Caiman latirostris), a specie from the Brazilian fauna, is inexistent and the literature consulted yielded only one description about the development of embryonic circulation and post-birth cerebrovascular alterations in the brain of three caymans. The objective of this study was to describe and systematize the cerebral arterial vascularization of this reptile, by providing a standard irrigation model...

  11. Personality as a predictor of hooking up among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gute, Gary; Eshbaugh, Elaine M

    2008-01-01

    Hookups--casual sexual encounters that may or may not include intercourse - are common on college campuses. Previous research has suggested that these casual sexual encounters may have serious health-related consequences. Understanding the relationships among multiple predictors of hooking up is important if high-risk prevention programming among college students is to be effective. This study considers each of the Big Five personality traits as predictors of hooking-up behaviors in a sample of Midwestern undergraduates (N = 247). Fifty-six percent of women and 63% of men reported engaging in a hookup. In general, Extraversion was positively associated with hooking up behaviors; Conscientiousness was negatively associated with hooking up. Relationships between personality and hooking up were significant while controlling for alcohol use. Implications for prevention programming on college campuses are discussed.

  12. Structural insights into bacterial flagellar hooks similarities and specificities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Ho; Barker, Clive S.; Bulieris, Paula V.; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2016-01-01

    Across bacteria, the protein that makes the flagellar hook, FlgE, has a high variability in amino acid residue composition and sequence length. We hereby present the structure of two fragments of FlgE protein from Campylobacter jejuni and from Caulobacter crescentus, which were obtained by X-ray crystallography, and a high-resolution model of the hook from Caulobacter. By comparing these new structures of FlgE proteins, we show that bacterial hook can be divided in two distinct parts. The first part comprises domains that are found in all FlgE proteins and that will make the basic structure of the hook that is common to all flagellated bacteria. The second part, hyper-variable both in size and structure, will be bacteria dependent. To have a better understanding of the C. jejuni hook, we show that a special strain of Salmonella enterica, which was designed to encode a gene of flgE that has the extra domains found in FlgE from C. jejuni, is fully motile. It seems that no matter the size of the hook protein, the hook will always have a structure made of 11 protofilaments. PMID:27759043

  13. Induction of gynogenesis in red crucian carp using spermatozoa of blunt snout bream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuandong; LIU Yun; TAO Min; LIU Shaojun; ZHANG Chun; DUAN Wei; SHEN Jiamin; WANG Jing; ZENG Chen; LONG Yu

    2007-01-01

    Gynogenetic diploid was induced in red crucian carp (RCC) ( Carassius auratus Red Variety) eggs using UV-irradiated spermatozoa from blunt snout bream (B) (Megalobrama amblycephala ) or from mirror carp (C) (Cyprinus carpio. L). Spermatozoa were genetically inactivated by an appropriate UV dosage, and then the maternal DNA was duplicated with cold shock at 0-4 ℃. When using the spermatozoa of B, the fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival at first feeding were 52.6 ± 3.0 %, 23.6 ± 4.1 % and 15.7 ± 3.4 %, respectively, and the survival at first feeding was significantly higher than that ( 11.3 ± 2.2 % ) when using the spermatozoa of C (Cyprinus carpio. L). According to the morphological characteristics, the chromosome number and the degree of gonadal development, gynogenetic RCC could be distinguished from the control hybrids of RCC♀ × B ♂ . The individuals with red body color, 100 chromosomes and normal gonadal development were successful gynogenetic RCC, while the individuals with 124 or 148 chromosomes and delayed gonadal development were hybrids of (RCC × B). The triploid hybrids (RCC × B) (2 years old) were sterile, but the tetraploid hybrids (RCC × B) were sexually mature age of two. In the present study, compared to the spermatozoa of C, the advantages of spermatozoa of B as the activation source were that could increase the survival at first feeding of gynogenetic individuals and simplify the confirmation of gynogenetic status, which suggested that the spermof B was an effective activation source for inducing gynogenesis in crucian carp.

  14. Fish-hook injuries: a risk for fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inchingolo Angelo M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fishing is one of the best known and practiced human activities. However, you should remember that, when casting the hook from the riverbank or grasping it to add bait, fishermen run a real risk of injury if the hook punctures the skin. Briefly we describe a case where a young, 32-year-old fisherman who was reeling the hook back to shore when it hit him in the face and embedded itself in his upper eyelid. Upon examination, the eye was found to be unharmed and the hook was removed through a small incision and the aid of a local anesthetic. In the light of this case report, we think it a good idea to advise our friends and patients who we know to be fishermen to wear some form of eye protection as a precaution.

  15. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : January - April 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  16. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : January - April 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  17. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  18. Prime Hook National Wildife Refuge Annual Narrative 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Prescribed Fire Plan: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  20. Post-hooking survival of loggerheads in the NED

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We deployed pop-off archival transmitting tags on 15 loggerhead turtles that had been hooked in the U.S. pelagic longline fishery and on 10 loggerheads that had been...

  1. Pollution Prevention Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  2. General wilderness correspondence [Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of correspondence pertaining to the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Wilderness proposal. Many of the letters concern mosquito...

  3. Kolmanda aastatuhande piraadid / kommenteerinud Peter Chalk ja Gordan Van Hook

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Piraatlusest Somaalia piirkonnas ja rahvusvahelistest dokumentidest piraatluse vastu võitlemiseks 21. sajandil. Kommenteerivad uurimiskeskuse RAND Corporation vanempoliitanalüütik Peter Chalk ja transpordikompanii Maersk Line innovatsiooni ja arenduse vanemdirektor Gordan Van Hook

  4. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  5. Narrative Report: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Narrative Report: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. Narrative report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: January - December, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Prime Hook NWR Marsh Restoration Project Summary & Monitoring Plan 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This living document provides a condensed explanation of wetland management history and a large-scale tidal marsh restoration project at Prime Hook NWR in Delaware....

  10. Annual Narrative Report: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. Water Management Program Report 1981 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1980 water management program at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen plan for 1981....

  12. Water Management Program Report 1979 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1978 water management program at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen plan for 1979....

  13. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  14. Prime Hook National Wildife Refuge Annual Narrative 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  15. Introduction Management Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a detailed outline of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge that includes information on the following topics: Location, History of the Refuge,...

  16. Fishery Management Plan, Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fishing Plan for Bombay Hook. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory authorities, a statement of...

  17. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Fiscal Year 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  19. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  20. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  1. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  2. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : January - December, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  4. Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given.

  5. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  6. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  7. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  8. Interim Land Use Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued grazing of cattle on grasslands and marsh acquired by the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge will be designed to retard the development of undesirable...

  9. Topology of the elliptical billiard with the Hooke's potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnović Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Fomenko graphs, we present a topological description of the elliptical billiard with Hooke's potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174020: Geometry and Topology of Manifolds and Integrable Dynamical Systems

  10. Fire Management Plan: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  11. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  12. Introduction Management Plan Background Information Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  13. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  14. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  15. Wildlife Inventory Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge was established for the preservation of the waterfowl resource. The refuge is still managed principally for the benefit of ducks...

  16. Water Management Plan: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this...

  17. Narrative report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: January - December, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Narrative report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: January - December, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides information about problems,...

  20. A Quarter Active Suspension System Based Ground-Hook Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Turnip Arjon

    2016-01-01

    An alternative design technique for active suspension system of vehicle using a developved ground-hook damping system as a reference is proposed. The controller parameters are determined using Lyapunov method and can be tuned to precisely achieve the type of desired response which given by reference model. The simulation result show that the designed active suspension system based ground-hook reference model is able to significantly improve the ride comfort and the road holding compared with ...

  1. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-04

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis.

  2. Abundance and local range of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Alligatoridae in the northwest of Santa Catarina Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walfrido Moraes Tomás

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the distribution and relative abundance of the broad-snouted caiman on Santa Catarina Island. The study estimated the relative abundance of caiman along the rivers at Estação Ecológica de Carijós, in addition to evaluating the occurrence of this species in the entire area of the Ratones River plain on the northwestern portion of the island. The mean relative abundance obtained by nocturnal counts was 0.25 (±0.07 caiman/km surveyed. There was a weak correlation between the number of caimans and the air temperature. Based on interviews with the local community and nocturnal surveys of caimans in rivers and reservoirs surrounding the protected area, we concluded that the range occupied by caimans covered the entire area of the Ratones river plain, inhabiting natural habitats (rivers, mangroves, swamps as well as artificial habitats (reservoirs and water channels. Although this study provides basic information about the broad-snouted caiman population on this part of the island, it is aimed mainly at providing guidance for future research.

  3. Ecological adaptations of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychajło Czernećkyj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the blooming ecology and the flower morphology of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. (Gesneriaceae cultivated in laboratories and outdoors have been carried out. The life span of flowers and morphological changes in successive phases of the blooming period have been observed. The H. glabra flowers are protandrous and the stamens translocate during the flowering process. The macro- and microstructure of calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium and nectaries have been analyzed. The size, shape and viability of pollen grains have been designated and their number per stamen head has been calculated. The location of nectaries in H. glabra flowers has suggested that they stem from the 5th stamen during phylogenesis. It has been proved that the nectaries are provided by numerous vascular bundles and that the nectar is secreted by stomata. The stomatal field comprises 2/5 of nectary height and is situated on the abaxial side of the apix part. The average number of stomata is 63.2 per 1 mm2. The average amount of nectar produced by 10 flowers in their fourth day of life reached 223.7 mg. The sugar concentration was 32.7%. Numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes have been noticed on the surface of calyx, corolla and gynoecium, which indicate the xeromorphic adaptation of the flower. It has been observed that the numbers of glandular and non-glandular trichomes per unit of the external surface of corolla are similar. Outdoors the secretion produced by calyx and corolla glands was willingly collected by wasps. It seems that such features of H. glabra flowers as position, shape and colour of corolla, the abundance of the nectar and pollen produced are connected with their adaptation to pollination by humming-birds in the species natural environment.

  4. Interdependence of the Rad50 hook and globular domain functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Marcel; Kochańczyk, Tomasz; Tous, Cristina; Aguilera, Andrés; Krężel, Artur; Petrini, John H J

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Rad50 contains a conserved Zn2+ coordination domain (the Rad50 hook) that functions as a homodimerization interface. Hook ablation phenocopies Rad50 deficiency in all respects. Here we focused on rad50 mutations flanking the Zn2+-coordinating hook cysteines. These mutants impaired hook-mediated dimerization, but recombination between sister chromatids was largely unaffected. This may reflect that cohesin-mediated sister chromatid interactions are sufficient for double strand break repair. However, Mre11 complex functions specified by the globular domain, including Tel1 (ATM) activation, nonhomologous end-joining, and DNA double strand break end resection were affected, suggesting that dimerization exerts a broad influence on Mre11 complex function. These phenotypes were suppressed by mutations within the coiled coil and globular ATPase domain, suggesting a model in which conformational changes in the hook and globular domains are transmitted via the extended coils of Rad50. We propose that transmission of spatial information in this manner underlies the regulation of Mre11 complex functions. PMID:25601756

  5. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    numbers of illegal migrants move directly from China into large Chinese communities in Guatemala, Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica . In those countries...done from Russian boats and because the entrenched Russian “ poaching mafia” is an integral part of harvesting rare fish and sea products by Chinese...Megan Saunders, “Triads Sink Hooks into Reef Fish ,” The Australian [Sydney], 17 February 2003, 5. 35 Faligot, 305-06. 36 Faligot, 306. 37 Faligot, 306

  6. Exotic Newton-Hooke group, noncommutative plane and superconformal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Pedro D

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have studied some systems with exotic symmetries, which are a peculiarity in 2+1 space-time dimensions. Coded in the exotic structure appears noncommutative coordinates and a phases structure. This kind of systems has attracted attention from different areas of physics independently. Among them we can mention: theory of ray representations of Lie groups, anyons physics, some condensed matter systems, for instance the quantum Hall effect, planar gauge and gravitation theories, noncommutative field theory, noncommutative geometry and noncommutative quantum mechanics. We will focus our study in some topics on exotic nonrelativistic symmetries, such as the exotic Newton-Hooke group, the relation between the systems of exotic Newton-Hooke and the noncommutative Landau problem and the symmetries of noncommutative Landau problem, its conformal and supersymmetric extensions. The exotic Newton-Hooke group correspond to the nonrelativistic limit of the de Sitter groups, and has as a particular case (f...

  7. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  8. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  9. A Quarter Active Suspension System Based Ground-Hook Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turnip Arjon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design technique for active suspension system of vehicle using a developved ground-hook damping system as a reference is proposed. The controller parameters are determined using Lyapunov method and can be tuned to precisely achieve the type of desired response which given by reference model. The simulation result show that the designed active suspension system based ground-hook reference model is able to significantly improve the ride comfort and the road holding compared with semi-active suspension.

  10. The Clavicular Hook Plate: Consequences in Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasenan, Jeevan; Badhe, Sachin; Cresswell, Timothy; De Beer, Joe

    2007-10-01

    The small fragment AO clavicular hook plate is indicated for certain fractures of the lateral end of clavicle and for symptomatic acromio-clavicular joint dislocations where there is rupture of the stabilizing ligaments. The complex anatomy and biomechanics of the acromio-clavicular joint can lead to complications that result in damage to the joint itself or acromial erosion. In addition, the rotator cuff complex is at risk of injury when inserting the plate. We report three cases where patients who underwent hook plate fixation subsequently required removal of the implant due to complications previously unreported in current literature.

  11. Apical root resorption in maxillary incisors when employing micro-implant and J-hook headgear anchorage: a 4-month radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhu; Chen, Wenjing; Smales, Roger J; Peng, Hui; Hu, Xiaokun; Yin, Lu

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated, over a 4-month study period, the amount of apical root resorption occurring in maxillary central incisors following their retraction when employing either micro-implant or J-hook headgear anchorage. The prospective randomised clinical trial was conducted in Orthodontic Clinic, College of Stomatology, China from 2008-2009. Subjects are patients requiring fixed appliances on waiting list (n=20). In female Han Chinese patients aged from 16-26 years, standardized periapical radiographs from 10 randomly assigned patients with maxillary protrusions comprising the micro-implant group, and from 10 similar patients comprising the J-hook headgear group, were assessed for maxillary central incisor apical root resorption. Measurements before and after orthodontic therapy were also obtained from lateral cephalometric radiographs to calculate incisor horizontal retraction and vertical intrusion distances. Estimated retraction force vectors were calculated in horizontal and vertical directions for both treatment groups. Data analysis employed t-tests and the Pearson correlation test, with α=0.05 for statistical significance. The results showed that when compared with the J-hook group, significantly more apical root resorption shortening of the maxillary central incisors was observed in the micro-implant group (1.27 mm difference, 95% CI=0.70-1.84, Presorption shortening and maxillary central incisor retraction than when intermittent J-hook retraction was employed. The employment of continuous duration orthodontic forces presents a risk for increased apical root resorption that requires careful radiographic monitoring.

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 genes in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Feng, Ke; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 are widespread in fish and extremely important components of the host innate immune system. In this study, full-length cDNAs of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were cloned and sequenced from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The open reading frames (ORF) of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 genes encode putative peptides of 94 and 92 amino acids, which possess eight and four conserved cysteine residues, respectively. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences show that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 of blunt snout bream share considerable similarity with those of grass carp. The mRNA expressions of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were detectable at different early developmental stages of blunt snout bream and varied with embryonic and larval growth. LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels in the liver and midgut, respectively. Bacterial challenge experiments showed that the levels of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the liver, spleen, gill and brain of juvenile blunt snout bream. These results indicate that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 may play important roles in early development of embryos and fry, and may contribute to the defense against the pathogenic bacterial invasion. This study will further our understanding of the function of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleosts.

  13. Genetic diversity of and differentiation among five populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala revealed by SRAP markers: implications for conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ji

    Full Text Available The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian and one genetic strain ('Pujiang No. 1' of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h and Shannon's information index (I values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>'Pujiang No. 1'>Yuni Lake. Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations, Nanxian and 'Pujiang No. 1' (cultured population and genetically selected strain, and Yuni Lake (natural population. Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%, than within populations (44.51%. This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish.

  14. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.;

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  15. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.;

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assume that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  16. Galanthus elwesii Hook. f. in de provincie Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Galanthus elwesii Hook. f. was first found in the Netherlands in 1941. Up to now only two country seats are known where G. elwesii is still growing, one of them being in the province of Utrecht. This paper deals with the occurrence of four new localities in the province of Utrecht, where O. elwesii

  17. Usefulness of Kent retractor and lifting hook for Nuss procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Okazaki, Tadaharu; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-11-01

    Although the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum has been widely employed, a variety of complications have been reported. The most dangerous complication is cardiac injury from the insertion of the introducer. To eliminate these complications, we present a sternum elevating technique using a Kent retractor and a lifting hook.

  18. Ureteral stent retrieval using the crochet hook technique in females.

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    Takashi Kawahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We developed a method for ureteral stent removal in female patients that requires no cystoscopy or fluoroscopic guidance using a crochet hook. In addition, we also investigated the success rate, complications and pain associated with this procedure. METHODS: A total of 40 female patients (56 stents underwent the removal of ureteral stents. All procedures were carried out with the patients either under anesthesia, conscious sedation, or analgesic suppositories as deemed appropriate for each procedure including Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL, Ureteroscopy (URS, Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL, and ureteral stent removal. At the time of these procedures, fluoroscopy and/or cystoscopy were prepared, but they were not used unless we failed to successfully remove the ureteral stent using the crochet hook. In addition, matched controls (comprising 50 stents which were removed by standard ureteral stent removal using cystoscopy were used for comparison purposes. RESULTS: A total of 47 of the 56 stents (83.9% were successfully removed. In addition, 47 of 52 (90.4% were successfully removed except for two migrated stents and two heavily encrusted stents which could not be removed using cystoscopy. Ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique was unsuccessful in nine patients, including two encrustations and two migrations. Concerning pain, ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique showed a lower visual analogue pain scale (VAPS score than for the standard technique using cystoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteral stent removal using a crochet hook is considered to be easy, safe, and cost effective. This technique is also easy to learn and is therefore considered to be suitable for use on an outpatient basis.

  19. Modeling the Hook Depth Distribution of Pelagic Longlining in the Equatorial Area of Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Liming; LI Jie; GAO Panfeng; ZHOU Ji; XU Liuxiong

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the equatorial area of Indian Ocean for a better understanding of the dynamics of hook depth distribution of pelagic longline fishery.We determined the relationship between hook depth and vertical shear of current coefficiency,wind speed,hook position code,sine of wind angle,sine of angle of attack and weight of messenger weight.We identified the hook depth models by the analysis of covariance with a general linear model.The results showed that the wind effect on the hook depth can be ignored from October to November in the survey area; the surface current effect on the hook depth can be ignored; the equatorial undercurrent is the key factor for the hook depth in Indian Ocean; and there is a negative correlation between the hook depth and vertical shear of current and angle of attack.It was also found that the deeper the hook was set,the higher hook depth shoaling was.The proposed model improves the accuracy of the prediction of hook depth,which can be used to estimate the vertical distribution of pelagic fish in water column.

  20. Review: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012 Buchbesprechung: Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Faye Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 pagesBesprechung der Monographie:Derek Hook, A Critical Psychology of the Postcolonial: The Mind of Apartheid, London: Routledge, 2012, ISBN 978-0-415-58757-0, 251 Seiten

  1. The extended AT-hook is a novel RNA binding motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filarsky, Michael; Zillner, Karina; Araya, Ingrid; Villar-Garea, Ana; Merkl, Rainer; Längst, Gernot; Németh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The AT-hook has been defined as a DNA binding peptide motif that contains a glycine-arginine-proline (G-R-P) tripeptide core flanked by basic amino acids. Recent reports documented variations in the sequence of AT-hooks and revealed RNA binding activity of some canonical AT-hooks, suggesting a higher structural and functional variability of this protein domain than previously anticipated. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of the extended AT-hook peptide motif (eAT-hook), in which basic amino acids appear symmetrical mainly at a distance of 12-15 amino acids from the G-R-P core. We identified 80 human and 60 mouse eAT-hook proteins and biochemically characterized the eAT-hooks of Tip5/BAZ2A, PTOV1 and GPBP1. Microscale thermophoresis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the nucleic acid binding features of this peptide motif, and show that eAT-hooks bind RNA with one order of magnitude higher affinity than DNA. In addition, cellular localization studies suggest a role for the N-terminal eAT-hook of PTOV1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In summary, our findings classify the eAT-hook as a novel nucleic acid binding motif, which potentially mediates various RNA-dependent cellular processes.

  2. Hook or hatchet – Lover 's Lane, love scene epilogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Myth of a couple who escape death in a chance encounter with the psychopath with a hook instead of a hand, is one of the ten classic urban legends that have been brought to public attention by folklorists during the sixth and seventh decade of the twentieth century. Eminent Anglo-American folklorists dedicated entire papers, or significant portion in their works to this tale, as a contribution to the study of urban legends as a folk genre. In this essay, the legend of the hook is closely linked with the boyfriend's' death legend, its hermetic interpretation, and contextualization in the social reality of sexual relations at the time in which it occurs.

  3. ELASTO-PLASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF HOOK'S JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan ATICI

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, stress analysis has been done in Hooke's joint by the finite element method. In finite element meshing, isoparametric quadrilateral elements with four nodes has been chosen and Lagrange polynomial has been used as the interpolation function. The special computer program has been written for the automatic mesh generation. In addition the other program has been developed to solve the finite element problems. Elastoplastic stress analysis is done to calculate the residual stresses in hooke's joint. Elasto-plastic stress values are calculated under loading from 400 daN to 1000 daN with increment of 100 daN. In this analysis "The initial stress method" is used.

  4. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Based on RNA-Seq Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG, as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon bias. Six GO (Gene ontology categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects.

  5. The effect of exposure to a high-fat diet on microRNA expression in the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingdong Zhang

    Full Text Available Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream.

  6. A Comparative Study of Hooks in the Ya Rns Produced by Different Spinning Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Anindya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of hooks’ characteristics of ring, rotor, air-jet and open-end friction spun yarns. Hook types and their extent, spinning in-coefficient and mean fibre extent in the yarns produced on different spinning technologies are investigated. The results show that the hook extents for open-end friction spun yarn are the highest followed by rotor, ring and air-jet spun yarns. Ring and air-jet spun yarns have higher percentage and extent of trailing hook as compared with leading hook, whereas, rotor and friction spun yarns show the reverse trend.

  7. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhart, Marcela; Ferreyra, Hebe; Mattiello, Rosana; Caffer, María Inés; Terragno, Raquel; Schettino, Adriana; Prado, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Presence of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from a ranching facility in the Argentine Chaco. Crocodilian ranching programs are based on captive breeding of wild-harvested eggs and release of excess hatchlings into the wild. Samples for bacterial isolation were collected from 102 captive (35 C. yacare and 67 C. latirostris) and seven free-ranging caiman (four C. yacare and three C. latirositris) between 2001 and 2005 and from three artificially incubated C. yacare wild eggs. Two Salmonella spp. of known zoonotic potential, S. infantis and S. nottingham, were isolated from captive caiman in 2001 and 2002, respectively. This is the first report for S. nottingham in reptiles and of S. infantis in caiman. Salmonella spp. prevalence varied significantly between years, with a 77% prevalence peak in 2002. Although the cause of this increase was not confirmed, we found no correlation with the type of enclosure, caiman species, or body weight. Deteriorated physical condition of caiman hatchlings due to dietary changes in 2002 could have influenced Salmonella spp. shedding. However, external sources such as food, water, or enclosures could not be ruled out. Pathogenic Salmonella spp. present a risk for human infection. Inadvertent introduction of Salmonella spp. or other bacteria into the environment when caiman are released could pose a threat to wild caiman populations. Prophylactic measures to detect and decrease Salmonella spp. presence in caiman ranching facilities are recommended to reduce risk to humans and make caiman-ranching a sound conservation strategy for crocodilian species.

  8. Research on Change of Rhizosphere Soil Properties of Chinese fir Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This article emphatically reviews the difference of soil biological activities, biochemical activities and soil chemical properties between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil of first rotation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb) Hook) plantation. It also reviews their dynamic patterns during Chinese fir plantation development. The results show that the contents of organic and inorganic nutrients in the rhizosphere soil of young, half-mature and near-mature Chinese fir of first-rotation ...

  9. Hook Phenomenon: Intermittent distal ureteral obstruction following reimplantation

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    M. Mehdizadeh "

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: To evaluate the child with intermittent ureteral obstruction following antireflux surgery and to introduce a new imaging technique for diagnosis of the socalled “hook” phenomenon, the most serious complication of antireflux surgery. Patients and Methods: Twenty-five children with a history of antireflux surgery who were referred for either persistent urinary tract infection (UTI or progressive hydronephrosis were included in the study. All the children with signs and symptoms of voiding dysfunction or persistent reflux were excluded. A new imaging technique was devised to evaluate these patients for the presence of “hook phenomenon”, in which a renal ultrasound was performed both on a full bladder and after voiding. If dilatation of the urinary tract was detected on full bladder, and this dilatation decreased dramatically following micturition, then a catheter was passed into the bladder and was filled with normal saline (based on the estimated bladder capacity in order to avoid over-distension. An intravenous urogram and saline cystogram were performed simultaneously. After 20 minutes, 2 abdominal radiographs were obtained on full and emptied bladder, both. Results: On the intravenous urogram, some children showed typical “J- hook-shaped” ureters. In all the cases marked hydronephrosis was noted, with no contrast material seen entering the bladder on the 20 minute radiogram. Upon evacuation of the bladder, both ureters promptly drained into the bladder and the”J-hooking” of the ureters and hydronephrosis resolved. Conclusion: "J- hook phenomenon” is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis and hydroureter following ureteral re-implantation is intermittent ureteral obstruction from creation of the new ureteral hiatus at an inappropriate site. This complication is frequently misdiagnosed as irreversible uretero-vesical junction obstruction from ischemia or fibrosis. Once the diagnosis of “J- hook

  10. Robert Hooke: early respiratory physiologist, polymath, and mechanical genius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the first human low-pressure chamber and described his experiences when the pressure was reduced to the equivalent of an altitude of ∼2,400 m. Using artificial ventilation in an animal preparation, he demonstrated that movement of the lung was not essential for life. His book Micrographia describing early studies with a microscope remains a classic. He produced an exquisite drawing of the head of a fly, showing the elaborate compound eye. There is also a detailed drawing of a flea, and Hooke noted how the long, many-jointed legs enable the insect to jump so high. For 40 years, he was the curator of experiments for the newly founded Royal Society in London and contributed greatly to its intellectual ferment. His mechanical inventions covered an enormous range, including the watch spring, the wheel barometer, and the universal joint. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, he designed many of the new buildings in conjunction with Christopher Wren. Unfortunately, Hooke had an abrasive personality, which was partly responsible for a lack of recognition of his work for many years. However, during the last 25 years, there has been renewed interest, and he is now recognized as a brilliant scientist and innovator.

  11. The influence of hook type, angler experience, and fish size on injury rates and the duration of capture in an Alaskan catch-and-release rainbow trout fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and "J" hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking scar locations, bleeding intensity, angler experience, and fish size were recorded for all captured fish. Approximately 62% of fish captured experienced at least one new hooking injury, and 29% of fish had at least one past hooking injury. Small fish sustained higher new injury and bleeding rates, but large fish had higher past injury rates. Injury rates were higher for barbed J hooks, barbed J hooks took longer to remove, and fish caught by spin-fishing were injured more frequently than fish caught by fly-fishing. Fewer fly-fishing-caught fish were injured using circle hooks, and circle hooks tended to hook fish in only one location, generally in the jaw. Barbed J hooks were more efficient at landing fish, and J hooks were more efficient at landing fish than circle hooks. Novice anglers injured proportionally more fish than experienced anglers, primarily during hook removal. Landing time was positively correlated with fish size, and experienced anglers took longer to land fish than novices because they captured larger fish. These results suggest that a reduction in hooking injuries may be achieved by using circle hooks as an alternative to J hooks and barbless J hooks to reduce injury and handling time, yet catch efficiency for both methods would be reduced. Although fish captured with barbless J hooks and circle hooks had fewer injuries, it is important to note that each hook type also caused significant injury, and angler education is recommended to promote proper hook removal techniques.

  12. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

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    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  13. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

  14. Biosystematics of Begonia squamulosa Hook. f. and affiliated species in section Tetraphila A.DC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This study deals with the systematics of plants belonging to a part of Begonia section Tetraphila that occur in tropical Africa. Six taxa are recognized and accorded the rank of species. The names of three of these taxa, viz.: B. elaeagnifolia Hook.f., B. longipetiolata Gilg and B. squamulosa Hook.f

  15. 77 FR 76510 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ...-4311-K9-S3] Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Final Comprehensive Conservation... conservation plan (CCP) and environmental impact statement (EIS) for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR... should be consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal...

  16. 77 FR 47435 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... conservation plan and draft environmental impact statement (draft CCP/EIS) for Prime Hook National...

  17. Hooking tomorrow's geoscientists: Authentic field inquiry as a compelling pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstrom, Erica

    2015-04-01

    Engaging high school students in the geosciences without providing them with opportunities to directly explore, understand, and question the natural world is like trying to catch a fish without a hook. How can educators hope to inspire youth to pursue a career in the geosciences when the subject is first introduced to teenagers within the confines of a classroom? Regardless of the content and activities employed by the teacher, the synthetic classroom setting is unable to recreate the organic richness of an authentic outdoor learning environment. A new course offering at Rutland High School in Rutland, Vermont, USA shifts away from the traditional classroom based pedagogy by focusing the learning on exploring the temporal changes occurring in the region's geologic features. Numerous visits to local quarries, outcrops, overlooks, and universities guide the course curriculum. Students use their new understandings and personal observations to complete a culminating independent investigation. This alternate learning model is made possible through collaboration with local universities, businesses, and government agencies. If the geosciences is to remain competitive in the recruitment of exemplary STEM candidates, than the focus of high school earth science programs must be considered. This course offers one alternative to improve engagement and understanding of the geoscience standards. While not the only option, it offers one possibility for hooking students on geosciences.

  18. Extracapsular hip fractures: fixation with a twin hook or a lag screw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, O; Ceder, L; Lunsjö, K; Hauggaard, A

    2000-01-01

    The twin hook, which has 2 oppositely directed apical hooks, is an alternative to the lag screw for use with a 'dynamic plate' in the fixation of trochanteric hip fractures. In this prospective study lasting 1 year, 102 consecutive patients with trochanteric hip fractures were treated by 19 surgeons with either a twin hook or a lag screw combined with a conventional sliding hip screw plate or a Medoff sliding plate. Seven intraoperative errors were made with the twin hook but postoperative migration did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Postoperative fixation failures were equally distributed between the 2 groups. The twin hook provides adequate fixation, which is comparable to that produced by a lag screw.

  19. "Update Your Fairy-tale"--A Media Analysis of Hook-up Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee M. Shelby

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available "Hooking-up" with friends and acquaintances consists of a variety of sexual activities that range from kissing to intercourse. Rising in popularity, an estimated two-thirds of college students have engaged in at least one “hook-up.” This research explores the context and significance of popular media representations of “hooking-up,” attending to what shared meanings they convey to audience members. This paper presents qualitative analysis of 2011 United States, mainstream, romantic comedies featuring "hooking-up" as their primary narratives. Key findings include a positive portrayal of women’s sexual agency, a reification of men’s sex drive discourse, and the presentation of "hooking-up" as an alternative to relationship development.

  20. Robert Hooke, inventor of the vacuum pump and the first altitude chamber (1671).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Viktor

    2006-08-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703), an assistant researcher to Robert Boyle (1627-1691), invented the first functional British air pump. Applying it to scientific research, Hooke operated the world's first hypobaric chamber in 1671, using it for self-experimentation. He recorded the first physiological observations in an artificial altitude-equivalent environment up to 2400 m. Though Hooke's experiment showed some methodological insufficiencies, his imaginative experimental techniques were remarkable for their time and were indicative of the lively intellectual atmosphere of the Royal Society and the significant contributions of Hooke, who was a member. Two centuries passed before the French physiologist Paul Bert (1830-1886) conducted his famous laboratory-supported investigations of high altitude physiology. Bert played a decisive role in the discovery of the causes of decompression sickness; a contribution Hooke could not make due to the technical deficiencies of the 17th century.

  1. A novel approach for removing the hook effect artefact from Electrical Bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia, R.; Seoane, F.; Gil-Pita, R.

    2010-04-01

    Very often in Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements the presence of stray capacitances creates a measurement artefact commonly known as Hook Effect. Such an artefact creates a hook-alike deviation of the EBI data noticeable when representing the measurement on the impedance plane. Such Hook Effect is noticeable at high frequencies but it also causes a data deviation at lower measurement frequencies. In order to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the influence of the Hook Effect must be removed. An established method to compensate the hook effect is the well known Td compensation, which consists on multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(ω) by a complex exponential in the form of exp[jωTd]. Such a method cannot correct entirely the Hook Effect since the hook-alike deviation occurs a broad frequency range in both magnitude and phase of the measured impedance, and by using a scalar value for Td. First a scalar only modifies the phase of the measured impedance and second, a single value can truly corrects the Hook Effect only at a single frequency. In addition, the process to select a value for the scalar Td by an iterative process with the aim to obtain the best Cole fitting lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work the Td compensation method is revisited and a modified approach for correcting the Hook Effect including a novel method for selecting the correcting values is proposed. The initial validation results confirm that the proposed method entirely corrects the Hook Effect at all frequencies.

  2. A biomechanical study on fixation stability with twin hook or lag screw in artificial cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, O; Tanner, K E; Ceder, L; Ryd, L

    2002-01-01

    The twin hook has been developed as an alternative to the conventional lag screw to be combined with a barrelled side-plate in the treatment of trochanteric hip fractures. With two oppositely directed apical hooks introduced into the subchondral bone of the femoral head, the twin hook provides different stabilising properties to the lag screw. The femoral head purchase of the twin hook and the lag screw were compared in a biomechanical study using artificial cancellous bone, and responses to axial and torsional loading was determined. A distinct yield point in load and torque was noted for the lag screw, representing failure of the laminas supporting the threads. For the twin hook, gradual increase of load and torque occurred during impaction of the bone supporting the hooks. The peak loads and torques were higher for the lag screw, but were similar for both devices after 8 mm deformation. The stiffness was higher for the lag screw, but in counter-clockwise rotation the stiffness for the lag screw was negligible. The twin hook appeared to provide fixation stability comparable to that offered by the lag screw, but with conceivable advantages in terms of a deformation response involving bone impaction and gradually increasing stability.

  3. Complete structure of the bacterial flagellar hook reveals extensive set of stabilizing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, Hideyuki; Barker, Clive S.; Yoon, Young-Ho; Wolf, Matthias; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar hook is a tubular helical structure made by the polymerization of multiple copies of a protein, FlgE. Here we report the structure of the hook from Campylobacter jejuni by cryo-electron microscopy at a resolution of 3.5 Å. On the basis of this structure, we show that the hook is stabilized by intricate inter-molecular interactions between FlgE molecules. Extra domains in FlgE, found only in Campylobacter and in related bacteria, bring more stability and robustness to the hook. Functional experiments suggest that Campylobacter requires an unusually strong hook to swim without its flagella being torn off. This structure reveals details of the quaternary organization of the hook that consists of 11 protofilaments. Previous study of the flagellar filament of Campylobacter by electron microscopy showed its quaternary structure made of seven protofilaments. Therefore, this study puts in evidence the difference between the quaternary structures of a bacterial filament and its hook. PMID:27811912

  4. Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

    2014-08-01

    Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks.

  5. Efficiency of voluntary opening hand and hook prosthetic devices: 24 years of development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Gerwin; Bongers, Raoul M; Van der Sluis, Corry K; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative data on the mechanical performance of upper-limb prostheses are very important in prostheses development and selection. The primary goal of this study was to objectively evaluate the mechanical performance of adult-size voluntary opening (VO) prosthetic terminal devices and select the best tested device. A second goal was to see whether VO devices have improved in the last two decades. Nine devices (four hooks and five hands) were quantitatively tested (Hosmer model 5XA hook, Hosmer Sierra 2 Load VO hook, RSL Steeper Carbon Gripper, Otto Bock model 10A60 hook, Becker Imperial hand, Hosmer Sierra VO hand, Hosmer Soft VO hand, RSL Steeper VO hand, Otto Bock VO hand). We measured the pinch forces, activation forces, cable displacements, mass, and opening span and calculated the work and hysteresis. We compared the results with data from 1987. Hooks required lower activation forces and delivered higher pinch forces than hands. The activation forces of several devices were very high. The pinch forces of all tested hands were too low. The Hosmer model 5XA hook with three bands was the best tested hook. The Hosmer Sierra VO hand was the best tested hand. We found no improvements in VO devices compared with the data from 1987.

  6. Ultrastructure and oil secretion in Hiptage sericea Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arumugasamy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The oil secreting glands of Hiptage sericea Hook. consist of three regions: epithelial, sub-epithelial and sub-glandular. In early stages, the oil secreting cells are characterized by the presence of plastids with starch grains and electron translucent vesicles, mitochondria, rER, polysomes, small vacuoles, numerous lipid bodies and well-defined nucleus with nucleolus. Later, the accumulation of plastoglobuli and inclusion bodies occur in the matrix of the plastid. Tubular, smooth endoplasmic reticulum begins to appear in the cytoplasm. With the onset of secretion, the osmiophilic contents of plastids which appear as electron dense, round droplets move-into cytoplasm and often occur in the region of the plasmalemma invaginations. However, in matured glands the lipid bodies disappear from the cytoplasm. The size of the vacuoles increases and are filled with electron opaque substance. Similar substances are also found in the sub-cuticular spaces as well as outside the cuticle.

  7. New steroidal saponin from Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karmella L Apaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn., Polygonaceae (cadena de amor, is a herbal remedy for pain and gout-like symptoms in the Philippines. The methanol extract of A. leptopus have shown strong inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase. Objective: To isolate and identify the compound responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action. Materials and Methods: A bioassay-guided isolation scheme using an in vitro assay for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase was employed. The structure was established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Results: The isolated compound was determined to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine with an IC50 of 1.79 μg/mL. Conclusion: The isolated compound may represent a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

  8. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  9. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible.

  10. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fengying; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Ziqiang; Ji, Yusi; He, Wenrong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Mingzhe; Guo, Hongwei

    2012-05-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil, which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil. Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process. Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we showed that GA(3) enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature, and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature, which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway. Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development. We further found that GA(3) induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner, whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Additionally, DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression. Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant, supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development. Taken together, our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions.

  11. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengying An; Xing Zhang; Ziqiang Zhu; Yusi Ji; Wenrong He; Zhiqiang Jiang; Mingzhe Li; Hongwei Guo

    2012-01-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil,which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil.Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process.Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development,although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown.Here we showed that GA3 enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature,and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature,which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway.Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1),a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development.We further found that GA3 induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner,whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter.Additionally,DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression.Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid,a polar auxin transport inhibitor,repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant,supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development.Taken together,our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions.

  12. Immunosuppressant discovery from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f: the novel triptolide analog (5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei TANG; Jian-ping ZUO

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese traditional herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TwHF) has been widely used in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.Over the past few decades,great efforts have been made to explore modern preparations of TwHF with higher efficacy,solubility,and lower toxicity.In this study,we reviewed several examples both of naturally occurring compounds and their derivatives in TwHF,and summarized the preclinical evaluations with regard to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.All of the candidate compounds described herein have been or are currently in clinical trials.Although some studies encountered problems,the data still provided valuable references for future studies.(5R)-5-hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8,Leitengshu) is a novel triptolide derivative with potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities developed at Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica.Indeed,a Phase Ⅰ clinical trial for this compound has been completed in rheumatoid arthritis patients.The results will provide the basis for the further exploration of this ancient herb and encourage the research and development of valuable traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Identification and characterization of genic microsatellites in Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook (Taxodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic resources for conventional breeding programs are extremely limited for coniferous trees, and existing simple sequence repeat markers are usually identified through the laborious process of hybridization screening. Therefore, this study aimed to identify gene-based microsatellites in the Chinese fir, Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook by screening transcript data. We identified 5200 microsatellites. Trinucleotide motifs were most common (47.94% and were followed by tetranucleotide motifs (24.92%. The AG/CT motif (43.93% was the most abundant dinucleotide repeat, whereas AAG/CTT (25.07% was the most common trinucleotide repeat. A total of 411 microsatellite primer pairs were designed and 97 polymorphic loci were identified by 8 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus (Na in these polymorphic loci ranged from 2 to 5 (mean, 2.640, the Ho values were 0.000-1.000 (mean, 0.479, and the HE values were 0.125-0.775 (mean, 0.462. The polymorphic information content (PIC values were 0.110-0.715 (mean, 0.383. Seventy-two of the 97 polymorphic markers (74.23% were present within genes with predicted functions. In addition, in genetic diversity and segregation analyses of 16 genotypes, only 5.88% of the polymorphic loci displayed segregation distortion at the p<0.05 level. Transferable amplification of a randomly selected set of 30 genic microsatellites showed that transferability decreased with increasing evolutionary distance between C. lanceolata and target conifers. Thus, these 97 genic markers will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization, genome mapping and marker-assisted breeding in C. lanceolata, and evolutionary genetic analysis in Taxodiaceae.

  14. Male germ cell apoptosis and epigenetic histone modification induced by Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.

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    Ji Xiong

    Full Text Available Multiglycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (GTW, a Chinese herb-derived medicine used as a remedy for rheumatoid arthritis, are considered to be a reversible anti-fertility drug affecting the mammalian spermatids. However, the mechanism behind this effect is still unknown. To study the possible mechanism behind the impact of GTW on spermatogenesis, we administered 4 groups of 4-week-old male mice with different doses of GTW. We found a dose-dependent decrease in the number of germ cells after 40 days of GTW treatment, and an increase in apoptotic cells from the low-dose to the high-dose group. During this same period the dimethylated level of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2 in GTW-treated testes germ cells declined. Additionally, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs from 6-day-old mice were isolated to evaluate the possible effect of GTW or triptolide on development of SSCs. We found a significantly higher incidence of apoptosis and lower dimethylation level of H3K9me2 in the SSCs of GTW or triptolide treatment than in controls. Thus, these data suggest that the GTW-induced apoptosis might be responsible for the fertility impairment in mice. This damage could be traced back to the early stages of spermatogenesis. GTW also affected the epigenetic modification of H3K9 in spermatogenesis. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that triptolide and dimethylated or trimethylated H3K9 might have similar interaction mechanisms with EED (embryonic ectoderm development. These candidate activation mechanisms provide the first glimpse into the pathway of GTW-induced gonad toxicity, which is crucial for further research and clinical application.

  15. A Comprehensive Plan to Resolve Resource Problems at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  16. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  18. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : September, October, November and December 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  19. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  20. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  1. Effects of Proposed Water Control Structure at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is studying the feasibility of constructing a water control structure on the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  2. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Oil and Hazardous Materials Pollution Contingency Plan Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify and correct unsafe...

  4. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  8. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : September, October, November and December 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  9. Improved Visual Hook Capturing and Tracking for Precision Hoisting of Tower Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain safe operation of the tower crane, it is important to monitor the activities of the hook system. Visual monitoring and image recognition are the optimum methods for crane hook tracking and precision hoisting. High real-time performance and low computation requirements are required for tower crane hook capturing and tracking system which is implemented on the embedded Advanced RISC Machines (ARM processor or Microcontrol Unit (MCU. Using the lift rope of a tower crane as the target object, a new high-performance hook tracking method suitble for ARM processor or MCU applications is presented. The features of the lifting process are analyzed, and an improved progressive probabilistic Hough transform (IPPHT algorithm is proposed which canreduce capturing time by up to 80%. Combining color histogram with a binary search algorithm, an adaptive zooming method for precise hoisting is presented. Using this method the optimum zoom scale can be achieved within a few iterations.

  10. Initial narrative report: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  11. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This program describes the results of the marsh and water level management actions of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in 1993 and outlines the planned strategies...

  12. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 77% of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 8818 acres consists of wetlands types, both salt and fresh marsh, and brackish and fresh water. Water...

  13. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  14. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  15. Environmental Assessment of a Banding Site at Turkle Pond, Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One of the most significant management problems at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is the pre-season banding of waterfowl, due to a lack of suitable sites for...

  16. Cropland and Grassland Management Plan Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A major wildlife objective for the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is the production of food for Canada geese during the fall migration, winter and spring...

  17. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  18. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  19. Comprehensive Plan to Resolve Resource Problems at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In October of 1981, Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge completed a questionnaire that helped to define possible threats and conflicts to the refuge. Through this...

  20. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  1. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  2. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  3. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  4. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : September, October, November and December 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  5. 2011 Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) Lidar: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint collected LiDAR for over 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge in Kent County, Delaware. The nominal pulse spacing for this...

  6. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with Refuge highlights...

  7. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  8. Response of Greater Snow Geese to Hunting at Bombay Hook NWR and Related Wetland Changes.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Wintering snow goose populations have increased dramatically in the vicinity of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge during the last 20 years. Peak populations have...

  9. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the results of Prime Hook's 1994 Water Management. Program and delineates plans for 1995. 1994 marked the third year that asynchronous...

  10. Cultural Resources Survey for Additional Work at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A cultural resources survey was conducted at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, during the late summer of 1981. This work concentrated on the...

  11. Comprehensive Conservation Plan for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge March 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  12. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Establishment of a Trapping Program at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Prior to ownership of the Prime Hook marshes by the Fish and Wildlife Service, records show as many as 25,000 muskrats were harvested annually. Deterioration of the...

  14. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  15. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  16. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of Prime Hook's water management program is to increase the carrying capacity of the refuge's marshes by maximizing the annual production of diverse...

  17. Fire Management Plan for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Fiscal Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — If habitat conditions permit, prescribed burning will be used for management in eight areas totaling 1685 acres at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in the fiscal...

  18. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 1996 annual water management program and describes plans for 1997. The main objective of...

  19. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 77% of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 8818 acres consists of wetlands types, both salt and fresh marsh, and brackish and fresh water. Water...

  20. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1986 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  2. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1987 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  3. 77 FR 32131 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal...

  4. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines current and past water management efforts at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It starts with the history of water management, including the...

  5. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  7. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  8. The Trail Inventory of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  9. Environmental Assessment Rehabilitation and Maintenance of Wetlands Unit 3 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For management purposes, Prime Hook is divided into four units using highways which transect the refuge. This proposal concerns the rehabilitation of wetlands...

  10. Summary of recreational hook and line caught sea turtles documented by the NOAA Galveston Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database is a summary of sea turtles that are hook and line captured by recreational anglers in the region covered by the NOAA Galveston Laboratory through its...

  11. Assessment of Fishery Resources at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baseline information on the abundance, distribution and species diversity of fishes and general water quality parameters at the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge...

  12. Visitor and community survey results for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Completion report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a summary of results for the community and visitor surveys conducted at Prime Hook NWR from the fall of 2004 through fall of 2005. The purpose...

  13. Annual Marsh and Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the results of the 2002 marsh and water level management actions and summarizes the planned strategies for calendar year 2003 at Prime Hook...

  14. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1985 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1984 water management program for Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen...

  15. Annual Marsh and Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This program describes the results of the marsh and water level management actions of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge in 1999 and outlines the planned strategies...

  16. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Arthroscopic evaluation for omalgia patients undergoing the clavicular hook plate fixation of distal clavicle fractures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomic changes in the shoulder joints responsible for omalgia after the clavicular hook plate fixation under arthroscope. Methods Arthroscopic examination was carried out for 12 omalgia patients who underwent clavicular hook plate fixation due to distal clavicle fractures. Functional outcome of shoulder was measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before and after the withdrawal of the fixation plate. Results The rot...

  1. Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The

  2. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustina Mazzella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In darkness, the dicot seedlings produces an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIE 3/EIN3 like 1-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1 pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1 --both required for hook formation in darkness--, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth.

  3. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes responding to fasting and refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Ping, Hai-Chao; Wei, Kai-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Shi, Ze-Chao; Yang, Rui-Bin; Zou, Gui-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-11-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala Yih, 1955) is an endemic freshwater fish in China for which the endocrine mechanism of regulation of feeding has never been examined. Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) play important roles in the regulation of fish feeding. In this study, full-length cDNAs of ghrelin, NPY and CCK were cloned and analyzed from blunt snout bream. Both the ghrelin and NPY genes of blunt snout bream had the same amino acid sequences as grass carp, and CCK also shared considerable similarity with that of grass carp. The three genes were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels of ghrelin in the hindgut, NPY in the hypothalamus and CCK in the pituitary, respectively. Starvation challenge experiments showed that the expression levels of ghrelin and NPY mRNA increased in brain and intestine after starvation, and the expression levels of CCK decreased after starvation. Refeeding could bring the expression levels of the three genes back to the control levels. These results indicated that the feeding behavior of blunt snout bream was regulated by the potential correlative actions of ghrelin, NPY and CCK, which contributed to the defense against starvation. This study will further our understanding of the function of ghrelin, NPY and CCK and the molecular mechanism of feeding regulation in teleosts.

  4. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  5. Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp,blunt snout bream,and their polyploid progeny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

    2009-01-01

    The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.),blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala),and their triploid and tetraploid progeny.The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids.The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the tetraploid hybrid and the maternal red crucian carp (99%) than between the tetraploid hybrid and the paternal blunt snout bream (97%).The nucleotide identity between the triploid hybrids and each parent (95%) was lower than that between the parents (98%).The protein identity between the tetraploid hybrid and each parent (100%) was higher than that between the triploid hybrid and each parent (97%).Our results suggest that interspecific hybridization generates a shock to the HMG1 gene in triploid hybrids,causing divergence of nucleotides.The HMG1 protein of the tetraploid hybrids was consistent with that of its parents,which reduced the barrier of cross incompatibility between alleles,providing the basis for the bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids forming a new polyploid species in nature.The secondary and tertiary structures of the HMG1 protein contain eight helices,three switches,two DNA-binding domains in the N-terminus,and a long acidic tail in the C-terminus.Together,these data suggest that the HMG1 protein plays a role of protein-DNA interactions,facilitating various DNA-dependent activities in the nucleus.We also investigated the phylogeny of fish,amphibian,reptilian,bird,and mammalian HMG1 proteins.Our results suggest that HMG1 is an ancestral protein that has been highly conserved.These data provide clues as to how interspecific hybridization may form polyploid hybrids.

  6. Quantum Hooke's law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a "super pressing" state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.

  7. Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

  8. Hooked flare ribbons and flux-rope related QSL footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jie; Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We studied the magnetic topology of active region 12158 on 2014 September 10 and compared it with the observations before and early in the flare which begins at 17:21 UT (SOL2014-09-10T17:45:00). Our results show that the sigmoidal structure and flare ribbons of this active region observed by SDO/AIA can be well reproduced from a Grad-Rubin non linear force free field extrapolation method. Various inverse-S and -J shaped magnetic field lines, that surround a coronal flux rope, coincide with the sigmoid as observed in different extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, including its multi-threaded curved ends. Also, the observed distribution of surface currents in the magnetic polarity where it was not prescribed is well reproduced. This validates our numerical implementation and set-up of the Grad-Rubin method. The modeled double inverse-J shaped Quasi-Separatrix Layer (QSL) footprints match the observed flare ribbons during the rising phase of the flare, including their hooked parts. The spiral-like shape of the latt...

  9. Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Sandra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports.

  10. Clavicle hook plate fixation for displaced lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II): a functional outcome study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Controversy exists with the use of the acromioclavicular hook plate for the treatment of lateral-third clavicle fractures (Neer type II). This is thought to stem from problems associated with the hook plate causing impingement symptoms, which can cause long-term limitation of movement and pain. Our aim was to evaluate the functional outcomes of patients with lateral-third clavicle fractures treated with the hook plate.

  11. Dielectric properties of copper-ethanolamine treated Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jin-zhen; Yu Li-li; You Xiao-di; Kamdem D. Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In order to clarify the interaction between copper and wood substances in wood treated with copper containing water-borne wood preservatives,the dielectric constant ε'and dielectric loss factorε" of untreated wood and wood treated with four concentration levels of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) solutions were determined within a temperature range from-100 to 40℃ and a frequency range from 100 to 1 MHz. Three dielectric relaxation processes were observed in the ε" spectrum;among them R-I is based on the reorientation of methylol groups in the amorphous region of wood cell walls and R-Ⅱis related to wood extractives. R-Ⅲ appeared in Cu-EA treated wood,and its magnitude decreases with the concentration of Cu-EA solutions used in this experiment. This relaxation process was considered to be based on the reorientation of copper-ethanolamine-wood complexes in wood cell walls. At low copper retention, the hydrogen in the complex Can form hydrogen bonding with adjacent hydroxyl groups,which results in a strong bonding state between copper and wood;at high copper retention, the numerous copper-ethanolamine complexes not only hinder them from forming hydrogen bonding with adjacent wood molecules due to steric hindrance,but also weaken the interaction between wood molecules themselves,which corresponds to reducing ε" values of both R-I and R-Ⅲ processes. The results explain the fact of increasing copper leaching in wood treated with high concentration copper-based water-borne preservatives.

  12. Maglev self-excited vibration suppression with a virtual sky-hooked damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金辉; 李杰; 周丹峰; 王连春

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of self-excited vibration, which degrades the stability of the levitation control, decreases the ride comfort, and restricts the construction cost of maglev system. Firstly, a minimum model containing a flexible bridge and a single levitation unit is presented. Based on the simplified model, the principle underlying the self-excited vibration is explored. After investigations about the energy transmission between the levitation system and bridge, it is concluded that the increment of modal damping can dissipate the accumulated energy by the bridge and the self-excited vibration may be avoided. To enlarge the equivalent modal damping of bridge, the sky-hooked damper is adopted. Furthermore, to avoid the hardware addition of real sky-hooked damper, considering the fact that the electromagnet itself is an excellent actuator that is capable of providing sufficiently fast and large force acting on the bridge to emulate the influence of the real sky-hooked damper, the technique of the virtual sky-hooked damper is proposed. The principle underlying the virtual sky-hooked damper by electromagnet is explored and the vertical velocity of bridge is estimated. Finally, numerical and experimental results illustrating the stability improvement of the vehicle-bridge interaction system are provided.

  13. The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, fellows of the Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Howard

    2004-05-01

    The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In Micrographia (1665), Hooke presented the first published depiction of a microganism, the microfungus Mucor. Later, Leeuwenhoek observed and described microscopic protozoa and bacteria. These important revelations were made possible by the ingenuity of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in fabricating and using simple microscopes that magnified objects from about 25-fold to 250-fold. After a lapse of more than 150 years, microscopy became the backbone of our understanding of the roles of microbes in the causation of infectious diseases and the recycling of chemical elements in the biosphere.

  14. CRAFTING THE MICROWORLD: HOW ROBERT HOOKE CONSTRUCTED KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SMALL THINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ian

    2016-03-20

    This paper investigates the way in which Robert Hooke constructed his microscopical observations. His Micrographia is justifiably famous for its detailed engravings, which communicated Hooke's observations of tiny nature to his readers, but less attention has been paid to how he went about making the observations themselves. In this paper I explore the relationship between the materiality of his instrument and the epistemic images he produced. Behind the pictures lies an array of hidden materials, and the craft knowledge it took to manipulate them. By investigating the often counter-theoretical and conflicting practices of his ingenious microscope use, I demonstrate the way in which Hooke crafted the microworld for his readers, giving insight into how early modern microscopy was understood by its practitioners and audience.

  15. Repositioning of premaxilla in bilateral cleft lip and palate using a "J-hook headgear".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Defne; Enacar, Ayhan

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this clinical approach is to present the successful treatment of the severely protruded and extruded premaxilla with high-pull J-hook headgear. Two patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate deformity and a protruding and extruding premaxilla causing a deep bite were treated with high-pull J-hook headgear and fixed orthodontic appliances. The lateral cephalometric measurements before and after orthodontic treatment were evaluated with Ricketts analysis. The premaxillae of the two patients were repositioned, correcting the deep overbite and overjet and a well-functioning occlusion was attained. The repositioning of an inferiorly positioned and protruded premaxilla with J-hook headgear is an alternative treatment approach compared to other treatment modalities.

  16. The mediatization of public sex cultures in the case of the hook-up app Grindr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Møller

    The mediatization of public sex cultures in the case of the hook-up app Grindr Along with the normalisation of geo-locative dating and hook-up practices in mainstream publics – through apps like Tinder, Bumble and Happn – imaginations of sexual privacy and indeed publicness seem to be changing...... as the life practices in which they become integral, are addressed. It is argued that mediatization processes mold public sex cultures and non-monogamous relationships in similar ways. Conversely I argue that hook-up apps are simultaneously molded by the cultural systems that they enter. The nudging towards...... certain actions in the affordance structure is taken up or pushed against in ways that reflect the users’ biographically anchored value systems. Theoretically the paper draws on both cultural and material perspectives on mediatization (Lundby, 2014). André Jansson’s division of mediatization into three...

  17. Biomechanical and clinical study on screw hook fixation after direct repair of lumbar spondylolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; LIU Fan; SHI Hong-guang; FAN Jian; ZHAO Wei-dong; WANG You-hua; CAI Yu-hui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biomechanical effect and clinical results of hook screw fixation after direct repair of lumbar spondylous defects in the pars interarticularis.Methods: L2-L6 spines of 8 fresh-frozen and thawed calf cadavers were used for mechanical testing. Bilateral spondylous defects were created in the L4 vertebra. The intervertebral rotation ranges between L4 and Ls were scanned and computerized in various states of motion, such as flexion/extension, lateral bending and torsional loadings applied on the intact spine and the spondylous spine when the spondylous spine was fixed with modified Scott's fixation, hook screw fixation and Buck's fixation sequentially and respectively. Between July 2002 and February 2004, 14 young male patients (aged 15-31 years)suffering from symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis were treated with TSRH hook screw fixation after direct repair of the defects. MacNab criteria1 were used to assess their preand post-operative status.Results: Each fixation technique could significantly increase the intervertebral rotational stiffness and made the stiffness return to nearly the intact level. Hook screw technique provided more rotational stability than the others. Hook screw and Buck's techniques provided more flexion/extension stability than modified Scott's technique.Neither complication nor instrumental failure was observed in this study. The mean follow-up period was 21 months.All the patients except one acquired union during the follow-up period. Thirteen patients had a "good" or "excellent" result according to MacNab criteria.Conclusions: Hook screw fixation shows biomechanical advantages and is safe and effective for young patients with lumbar spondylolysis.

  18. Simultaneous Multiple Preoperative Localizations of Small Pulmonary Lesions Using a Short Hook Wire and Suture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro, E-mail: iguchi@ba2.so-net.ne.jp; Hiraki, Takao, E-mail: takaoh@tc4.so-net.ne.jp; Gobara, Hideo, E-mail: gobara@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu, E-mail: hirofujiwar@gmail.com; Matsui, Yusuke, E-mail: wckyh140@yahoo.co.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sugimoto, Seiichiro, E-mail: sei1675sugi@yahoo.co.jp; Toyooka, Shinichi, E-mail: shintoyooka@gmail.com; Oto, Takahiro, E-mail: yellowpeachoto@hotmail.com; Miyoshi, Shinichiro, E-mail: smiyoshi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of General Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu, E-mail: susumu@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate simultaneous multiple hook wire placement outcomes before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).Materials and MethodsThirty-eight procedures were performed on 35 patients (13 men and 22 women; mean age, 59.9 years) with 80 lung lesions (mean diameter 7.9 mm) who underwent simultaneous multiple hook wire placements for preoperative localizations. The primary endpoints were technical success, complications, procedure duration, and VATS outcome; secondary endpoints included comparisons between technical success rates, complication rates, and procedure durations of the 238 single-placement procedures performed. Complications were also evaluated.ResultsIn 35 procedures including 74 lesions, multiple hook wire placements were technically successful; in the remaining three procedures, the second target placement was aborted because of massive pneumothorax after the first placement. Although complications occurred in 34 procedures, no grade 3 or above adverse event was observed. The mean procedure duration was 36.4 ± 11.8 min. Three hook wires dislodged during patient transport to the surgical suite. Seventy-four successfully marked lesions were resected. Six lesions without hook wires were successfully resected after detection by palpation with an additional mini-thoracotomy or using subtle pleural changes as a guide. The complication rates and procedure durations of multiple-placement procedures were significantly higher (P = 0.04) and longer (P < 0.001) than those in the single-placement group, respectively, while the technical success rate was not significantly different (P = 0.051).ConclusionsSimultaneous multiple hook wire placements before VATS were clinically feasible, but increased the complication rate and lengthened the procedure time.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomic Information of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook with Sibling Species from the Genera Cryptomeria D. Don, Taiwania Hayata, and Calocedrus Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Shi, Jisen

    2016-07-07

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook) is an important coniferous tree species for timber production, which accounts for ~40% of log supply from plantations in southern China. Chloroplast genetic engineering is an exciting field to engineer several valuable tree traits. In this study, we revisited the published complete Chinese fir (NC_021437) and four other coniferous species chloroplast genome sequence in Taxodiaceae. Comparison of their chloroplast genomes revealed three unique inversions found in the downstream of the gene clusters and evolutionary divergence were found, although overall the chloroplast genomic structure of the Cupressaceae linage was conserved. We also investigated the phylogenetic position of Chinese fir among conifers by examining gene functions, selection forces, substitution rates, and the full chloroplast genome sequence. Consistent with previous molecular systematics analysis, the results provided a well-supported phylogeny framework for the Cupressaceae that strongly confirms the "basal" position of Cunninghamia lanceolata. The structure of the Cunninghamia lanceolata chloroplast genome showed a partial lack of one IR copy, rearrangements clearly occurred and slight evolutionary divergence appeared among the cp genome of C. lanceolata, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Taiwania flousiana, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica. The information from sequence divergence and length variation of genes could be further considered for bioengineering research.

  20. The hooked element in the pes of turtles (Testudines): a global approach to exploring primary and secondary homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G; Werneburg, Ingmar; Lyson, Tyler R

    2013-11-01

    The hooked element in the pes of turtles was historically identified by most palaeontologists and embryologists as a modified fifth metatarsal, and often used as evidence to unite turtles with other reptiles with a hooked element. Some recent embryological studies, however, revealed that this element might represent an enlarged fifth distal tarsal. We herein provide extensive new myological and developmental observations on the hooked element of turtles, and re-evaluate its primary and secondary homology using all available lines of evidence. Digital count and timing of development are uninformative. However, extensive myological, embryological and topological data are consistent with the hypothesis that the hooked element of turtles represents a fusion of the fifth distal tarsal with the fifth metatarsal, but that the fifth distal tarsal dominates the hooked element in pleurodiran turtles, whereas the fifth metatarsal dominates the hooked element of cryptodiran turtles. The term 'ansulate bone' is proposed to refer to hooked elements that result from the fusion of these two bones. The available phylogenetic and fossil data are currently insufficient to clarify the secondary homology of hooked elements within Reptilia.

  1. Subsurface macro-inclusions and solidified hook character in aluminum-killed deep-drawing steel slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xuan Deng; Lin-ping Li; Xin-hua Wang; Yun-qing Ji; Chen-xi Ji; Guo-sen Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface macro-inclusions and hooks are detrimental to the surface quality of deep-drawing steel sheets. However, little is known about the relationship between macro-inclusions and hooks. Thus, in this work, two ultralow carbon (ULC) steel slabs and two low carbon (LC) aluminum-killed steel slabs were sampled to study the relationship between hooks and subsurface macro-inclusions, which were detected on the cross-sections of steel samples with an area of 56058 mm2 using an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy-disper-sive X-ray spectroscopy system. Results show that subsurface inclusions larger than 200 μm were almost entrapped by hook structures, whereas the location of other inclusions smaller than 200μm had no obvious dependence on the location of solidified hooks. Furthermore, the number density (ND) of subsurface inclusions larger than 200μm decreased from 0.02 to 0 cm-2 in ULC steel as the mean hook depth decreased from 1.57 to 1.01 mm. Similar trends were also observed in LC steel. In addition, the detected inclusions larger than 200μm were concentrated in the region near the slab center (3/8 width-5/8 width), where hook depths were also larger than those at any other locations. Therefore, minimizing the hook depth is an effective way to reduce inclusion-induced sliver defects in deep-drawing steels.

  2. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers..., shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other persons...

  3. A Novel Diterpenoid,11—O—β—D—glucopyranosylneo—triptophenolide, from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongZhao; GuangZhongYANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    A new diterpenoid was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the dried root bark of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. It is the first example of abietane diterpenoid glycoside isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f.Its structure was identified to be 11-0-β-D-glucopyranosyl-neotriptophenolide based on spectral methods.

  4. Computed Tomography Guided Hook-wire Precise Localization and Minimally Invasive Resection of Pulmonary Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong WANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass nodule is the technical difficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT-guided Hook-wire precise localization in resection of pulmonary nodules by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of GGOs through a minimally invasive approach. Methods CT-guided Hook-wire precise localization and wedge resection was done on 25 cases with 26 pulmonary nodules by VATS from May 2013 to June 2015. The efficacy of localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization. Results All the 26 pulmonary nodules (6 solid nodules and 20 GGOs of 25 patients (10 males and 15 females were preoperatively detected and localized with Hook-wire under CT guidance. Nodule diameters ranged from 5 mm-20 mm (mean: 8 mm. The distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-30 mm (mean: 14 mm. All resections of lesions guided by the Hook-wire were successfully performed by VATS (success rate: 100%. The mean procedure time for the CT-guided Hook-wire localization was 10 min (range: 5 min-10 min. The mean procedure time for VATS wedge resection was 20 min (range: 15 min-40 min. The mean hospital time was 4 d (range: 3 d-6 d. The major complication of CT-guided Hook-wire localization was mild pneumothorax in 4 patients, but no one needed chest tube drainage. Wedge resection was performed successfully in all cases. The dislocation of Hook-wire was found in only one patient during the operation, but the lesion was still successfully resected under VATS. Results of pathological examination of 16 mGGOs revealed 8 primary lung cancers and 8 nonspecific chronic inflammations. Results of pathological examination of 4 pGGOs revealed 1 primary lung cancers, 1 atypical adenomatous

  5. The ′hook effect′ on serum prolactin estimation in a patient with macroprolactinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnikrishnan A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of antigen in an immunoassay system impair antigen-antibody binding, resulting in low antigen determination. This is called the ′high dose hook effect′. We report this phenomenon in a patient with a large macroprolactinoma. In this patient, the correct estimate of serum prolactin (PRL was obtained only after appropriate dilution of serum. We suggest that in order to avoid the high dose hook effect, the serum PRL be estimated in appropriate dilution in all patients with large pituitary tumours. This is particularly important when the clinical suspicion of high PRL is strong, as in women with amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea and men with long standing hypogonadism.

  6. Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

    2011-01-01

    The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

  7. Anterior cruciate ligament rupture secondary to a 'heel hook': a dangerous martial arts technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph F; Devitt, Brian M; Moran, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The 'heel hook' is a type of knee lock used in some forms of martial arts to stress the knee and cause opponent to concede defeat. While the knee is in a flexed and valgus disposition, an internal rotation force is applied to the tibia. Reports are lacking on serious knee trauma as a result of this technique. We report the case of a 32-year-old Mixed Martial Arts exponent who sustained complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture and an medial collateral ligament injury from the use of a 'heel hook'.

  8. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  9. Histological and immunohistochemical study of the thyroid gland of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.18444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Machado-Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, is widely distributed in countries of South America. In Brazil it is considered an endangered species because of natural habitat destruction and illegal hunting.  In reptiles, the thyroid gland plays an integral part in ecdysis, reproduction, tail regeneration, growth, endocrine function and metabolism rate. The aim of the present study was to characterize the thyroid gland morphology of C. latirostris, based on histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. The thyroid glands were fixed in Bouin's fluid and serial cross sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Mallory’s trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue (AB pH 1.5 and 2.5. The immunohistochemical technique for 5-HT-IR cells was used. The thyroid gland has a dense irregular connective tissue forms a capsule enveloping the gland. There are several follicular acini of varying size lined by simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium in the thyroid gland. The follicles are connected by interfollicular connective tissue which contains blood vessels. We observed the presence of lymph nodes around the entire gland. There was a positive PAS reaction and negative AB reaction in the colloid. 5-HT-IR cells were detected around the follicle cells. No striking morphological differences were observed between C. latirostris and other domesticated mammals.

  10. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other... Materials—Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests may...

  11. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other....060-3a Materials—Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for...

  12. Morphometric Analysis of Larval Rostellar Hooks in Taenia multiceps of Sheep in Iran and Its Association with Mitochondrial Gene Variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rostami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present study were morphometric characterization of rostellar hooks of Taenia multiceps and to investigate the association of hook length variation and the variability within two mitochondrial genes of sheep isolates of the parasite.Up to 4500 sheep brains were examined for the presence of C. cerebralis. Biometric characters based on the larval rostellar hook size were measured for each individual isolate. Representative mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA gene sequences for each of the isolates were obtained from NCBI GenBank. Morphometric and genetic data were analyzed using cluster analysis, Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and random effects model.One hundred and fourteen sheep (2.5% were found infected with the coenuri. The minimum and maximum number of scoleces per cyst was 40 and 550 respectively. Each scolex contained 22-27 hooks arranged in two rows of large and small hooks. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 158.9 and 112.1 μm, respectively. Using ICC, statistically significant clusters of different hook sizes were identified within the isolates. The length of the large and small hooks was significantly associated with the variability in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.Taenia multiceps, is a relatively important zoonotic infection in Iranian sheep with the prevalence rate of 2.5%. Hook length analysis revealed statistically significant difference among individual isolates. Associations between the rostellar hook length and variability in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA was documented.

  13. Tracks in the Sand: Hooke's Pendulum "Cum Grano Salis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Vukota; Babovic, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke's…

  14. Linfadenectomia no câncer gástrico com hook laparotômico

    OpenAIRE

    André Rossetti Portela; Mário Gissoni de Carvalho; José de Alencar Gonçalves de Macedo

    2013-01-01

    O câncer gástrico é uma neoplasia frequente e de tratamento cirúrgico. Gastrectomia com linfadenectomia D2 é o procedimento padrão com intuito curativo. Os autores relatam o uso do hook laparotômico como alternativa técnica para linfadenectomia.

  15. An Effective Method for Protecting Native API Hook Attacks in User-mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many modern malware developers is taking the advantage of Application Programming Interface (API hook technique to take the control of the victim computer which making it difficult to detect their presence. Because of the sophistication of rootkit tools, a remote attacker can use native API to compromise any computer which can later be used for many illegal activities such as sniffing network lines, capturing passwords, sending spam and DDoS attack, etc. Thus to protect end-system by identifying and preventing native API malicious code hooking is a challenging problem to the defenders. Today, many different malware-analysis tools incur specific features against malwares but manual and error-prone. In this study, we proposed a behavior-based monitoring detection system to effectively deal native API hooks in user-mode. Unlike other malware identification techniques, our approach involved dynamically analyzing the behavior of native API call hooking malwares. Comparing our experimental evaluation results with existing tools show better performance with no false positive.

  16. Cheating, Hooking Up, and Attention to Romantic Alternatives among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Pappas, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    While numerous studies have emphasized more situational factors related to cheating, hooking up, and attention to romantic alternatives (e.g., alcohol use, need fulfillment, opportunity), the present findings support Finkel el al.'s (2012) argument for greater attentiveness to personal factors intrinsic to the individual that may influence…

  17. Annual Hunting Program for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1987-88

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of the 1986-87 hunting season and lays out estimates for the 1987-88 season at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. It details the...

  18. 78 FR 60018 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOOKED FOR REEL; Invitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel HOOKED... address the waiver criteria given in Sec. 388.4 of MARAD's regulations at 46 CFR part 388. Privacy...

  19. Differential growth at the apical hook: all roads lead to auxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad eAbbas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The apical hook is a developmentally regulated structure that appears in dicotyledonous seedlings when seeds germinate buried in the soil. It protects the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage while the seedling is pushing upwards seeking for light, and it is formed by differential cell expansion between both sides of the upper part of the hypocotyl. Its apparent simplicity and the fact that it is dispensable when seedlings are grown in vitro have converted the apical hook in one of the favorite experimental models to study the regulation of differential growth. The involvement of hormones –especially auxin– in this process was manifest already in the early studies. Remarkably, a gradient of this hormone across the hook curvature is instrumental to complete its development, similar to what has been proposed for other processes involving the bending of an organ, such as tropic responses. In agreement with this, other hormones –mainly gibberellins and ethylene–, and the light, regulate in a timely and interconnected manner the auxin gradient to promote hook development and its opening, respectively. Here, we review the latest findings in the field, paying special attention to the molecular mechanisms for the cross-regulation between the different hormone signaling pathways that underlie this developmental process.

  20. 76 FR 26751 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in...), consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and...

  1. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Gallenmüller

    Full Text Available Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots. Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar. In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1 a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2 occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3 failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm² and (4 failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species.

  2. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species).

  3. OPTIMAL DIETARY PYRIDOXINE REQUIREMENT OF JUVENILE BLUNT SNOUT BREAM, MEGALOBRAMA AMBLYCEPHALA%团头鲂幼鱼吡哆醇适宜需求量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 李向飞; 张微微; 徐维娜; 刘文斌

    2013-01-01

    试验采用单因素试验设计,以饲料中吡哆醇浓度为影响因素,研究了团头鲂幼鱼的适宜吡哆醇需求量。试验共配置了7组等氮等能的半纯化饲料,其吡哆醇的实际含量分别为0、1.04、1.99、4.07、5.91、7.96和9.22 mg/kg。选用840尾[均重:(6.81±0.17) g]团头鲂幼鱼,随机分为7组,每组4重复,每重复30尾鱼,日投饵3次,养殖期为8周。结果表明,当饲料中吡哆醇含量由0升高至5.91 mg/kg时,团头鲂的增重率、特定生长率、饲料利用率、成活率、蛋白效率比和氮保留率均得到显著改善(P0.05)。饲料中的吡哆醇含量显著影响团头鲂的肝体比(P0.05)。当饲料吡哆醇含量由0升高至5.91 mg/kg时,肝脏谷草转氨酶和谷丙转氨酶活性以及吡哆醇含量均显著升高(P0.05)。以肝脏中的谷丙和谷草转氨酶活性以及吡哆醇含量为评价指标,拟合折线模型得到团头鲂幼鱼的适宜吡哆醇的需求量为4.17-5.02 mg/kg。%This study was conducted to determine the optimal dietary pyridoxine requirement of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Eight hundred and forty fishes [average initial weight:(6.81±0.17) g] were fed with seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing different pyridoxine levels (0, 1.04, 1.99, 4.07, 5.91, 7.96 and 9.22 mg/kg) 3 times daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Each diet was tested in four replicates, and each replicate had 30 fishes. Weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and nitrogen retention efficiency (NRE) were all increased significantly (P0.05). No significant difference (P>0.05) was observed both in condition factor and dressout percentage among all the treatments, while hepatosomatic index was significantly (P0.05) with further increase of pyridoxine levels. On the basis of the broken-line analysis of hepatic GOT and GPT activities and liver

  4. SHP2 positively regulates TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition modulated by its novel interacting protein Hook1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuomin; Wang, Linrun; Zhao, Qingwei; Liu, Yu; He, Lingjuan; Xu, Qinqin; Sun, Xu; Teng, Li; Cheng, Hongqiang; Ke, Yuehai

    2014-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential process for embryogenesis. It also plays a critical role in the initiation of tumor metastasis. Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein-tyrosine phosphatase and is mutated in many tumors. However, its functional role in tumor metastasis remains largely unknown. We found that TGFβ1-induced EMT in lung epithelial A549 cells was partially blocked when SHP2 was decreased by transfected siRNA. The constitutively active form (E76V) promoted EMT while the phosphatase-dead mutation (C459S) and the SHP2 inhibitor PHPS1 blocked EMT, which further demonstrated that the phosphatase activity of SHP2 was required for promoting TGFβ1-induced EMT. Using the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain of SHP2 as bait, we identified a novel SHP2-interacting protein Hook1. Hook1 was down-regulated during EMT in A549 cells. Overexpression of Hook1 inhibited EMT while knockdown of Hook1 promoted EMT. Moreover, both the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain and N-terminal SH2 domain of SHP2 directly interacted with Hook1. Down-regulation of Hook1 increased SHP2 activity. These results suggested that Hook1 was an endogenous negative regulator of SHP2 phosphatase activity. Our data showed that the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 was involved in the process of EMT and Hook1 repressed EMT by regulating the activation of SHP2. SHP2-Hook1 complex may play important roles in tumor metastases by regulating EMT in cancer cells.

  5. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids.

  6. Effects of berberine on the growth and immune performance in response to ammonia stress and high-fat dietary in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Qing; Liu, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Man; Dai, Yong-Jun; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Xu, Wei-Na

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days. The result showed the growth performance, immune parameters including plasm acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, lysozyme (LYZ) activities and alternative complement C3 and C4 contents were suppressed in fish fed with high-fat diets but improved in berberine diets compared with control (normal diet). Hepatopancreas oxidative status, the malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and lipid peroxide (LPO) were increased significantly (P Berberine could slow the progression of the oxidative stress induced by high-fat through increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and total sulfydryl (T-SH) levels of fish. And the hepatocyte apoptosis in the high-fat group could also be alleviated by berberine. After the ammonia stress test, the accumulative mortality was extremely (P berberine compared to other groups. It was concluded berberine as a functional feed additive significantly inhibited the progression of oxidative stress, reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the immunity of fish fed with high-fat diet.

  7. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Bombay Hook NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  8. Hooked on the nicotine addiction thesis: a response to DiFranza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Reuven; Frenk, Hanan

    2013-11-18

    DiFranza's rebuttal to our critique of the "Hooked on Nicotine" research program misconstrues our arguments beyond recognition. The grossest misrepresentation of our critique by DiFranza is that we devise (by thwarting science) to rescue "the conventional wisdom" of the "threshold model of nicotine addiction." In fact, the difference between our positions lies elsewhere: We believe that nicotine is not an addictive drug and that its contribution to the smoking habit is secondary; DiFranza believes that nicotine is so powerfully addictive that novice smokers can lose autonomy over their smoking behavior after one cigarette or even following a single puff. Our review aimed to critically examine the empirical basis of this extreme version of the nicotine "addiction" model. In this brief commentary we illustrate how the commitment to the nicotine "addiction" theory has biased the methodology and the interpretation of the data in "Hooked on Nicotine" research program.

  9. Effects of dietary pantothenic acid on growth, intestinal function, anti-oxidative status and fatty acids synthesis of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qian

    dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg(-1.

  10. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson: A review of its ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim eJantan; Waqas eAhmad; SYED NASIR ABBAS eBUKHARI

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute towards improving its prospect as a ...

  11. Fruit and seed discoveries in Stichoneuron membranaceum Hook. f. (Stemonaceae: an endemic to Indo-Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Majumdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stichoneuron membranaceum Hook. f. is an endemic species of Indo-Myanmar hotspot whose fruit and seed remained unknown to science since 1850, until they were collected from Tripura, Northeast India. Based on these gatherings, this study is the first report about the development and morphological features of fruit and seed. Earlier historical collections of this species were discussed. Its preferred habitat, possible pollinating agents and seed dispersal mechanism were also investigated.

  12. Comparison of safety and efficiency of microendoscopic discectomy with automatic nerve retractor and with nerve hook

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, He-Ping; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Du, Zhi-Cai; Wu, Yi-Min; Li, Shu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the safety and efficiency of two techniques in microendoscopic discectomy (MED) for lumbar disc herniation. The two techniques are MED with automatic nerve retractor and MED with nerve hook which had been widely used for many years. The former involves a newly developed MED device which contains three parts to protect nerve roots during operation. Four hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent MED treatments between October 2010 and September 2015 were recruited and rand...

  13. Exposure of the mitral valve using flexible self-retaining retractors and an atrial hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Toshihiko; Yasuoka, Takashi; Inoue, Kazushige; Ikuta, Takeshi; Bito, Yasuyuki

    2007-10-01

    We hereby present our technique for using the self-retaining flexible arm retractor and its attachments for mitral valve exposure. The Aortic Valve Assistant, which was developed for aortic valve exposure, is also very useful for exposure of the inferior wall of the left atrium. Our modified atrial hook provides excellent exposure of the anterior mitral annulus. Extensive dissection and the combined use of the flexible arm and attachments allows us comfortable access for mitral valve operations.

  14. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  15. Selectivity of hook type on hooking species for the tuna longline fishery in the Southern and Central Indian Ocean%印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓钓钩钩型对钓获对象的选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 陈锦淘; 许柳雄; 李攀

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data collected from the fishing ground of tuna longliners in the Southern-central Indian Ocean during September 2008 to April 2009, the present study compares and analyzes the catchability and selectivity to hooking species for 3 hook types(traditional tuna hook, "J"-type hook and circle hook).The results show that (1) for traditional tuna hook, the proportion of bigeye tuna( Thunnus obesus, BET)and blue shark( Prionace glauca,BLS)is higher than other species in the catch composition and "J"-type hook and circle hook have a similar hooking proportion for the above two species, however, for albacore ( Thunnus alalunga, ALB), the traditional tuna hook has the highest hooking proportion and followed by "J"-type hook and circle hook.(2) the traditional tuna hook has the highest survival rate and the "J"-type is lowest for BET, the survival rate of "J"-type hook is slightly higher than that of circle hook and the traditional tuna hook is the lowest for ALB, the survival rate of circle hook is highest and followed by traditional tuna hook and "J"-type hook for BLS.(3) the average fork length(FL) of ALB for "J"-type hook is slightly larger than that of traditional tuna hook and circle hook, traditional tuna hook is larger than circle hook and "J"-type hook for BET and "J"-type is larger than circle hook and traditional tuna hook for BLS.(4) significant difference has not been found for the FL distribution of ALB, BET and BLS for 3 hook types.%基于2008年9月至2009年4月在印度洋中南部水域金枪鱼延绳钓渔场收集的数据,研究分析和比较了3种钓钩钩型(传统金枪鱼钩、"J"形钩和圆形钩)的渔获效益及对钓捕对象的选择性.结果表明:(1)从渔获种类上看,大眼金枪鱼和大青鲨金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,"J"形钩和圆形钩的钓获比例相当;而长鳍金枪鱼则为金枪鱼钩钓获比例最高,其次为"J"形钩和圆形钩.(2)大眼金枪鱼存活率以金枪鱼钩最高,"J"形钩最低;长鳍

  16. Mouse sperm acquire a new structure on the apical hook during epididymal maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Wen Lin; Tzu-Han Hsu; Pauline H Yen

    2013-01-01

    Spermatozoa emerging from the testis undergo a maturation process in the epididymis during which they change morphologically,biochemically and physiologically to gain motility and the ability to fertilize ova.We examined mouse epididymal sperm with immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy (EM) and identified a previously unknown structure on the apical hook.The structure has a coiled configuration around 11 nm in thickness and is present at the tip of each corner of the triangular-rod shaped perforatorium.Surveying sperm isolated from various regions of the epididymis indicated that mouse sperm acquire the hook rim (HR) structure during its passage through the proximal two-thirds of the caput epididymidis.The structure withstands vigorous sonication and harsh chemical treatments and remains intact after the acrosome reaction.Its location and sturdiness suggest a function in protecting the apical hook from mechanical wear during fertilization.Our EM images of epididymal sperm also revealed additional novel structures as well as lateral asymmetry of the sperm head,indicating that mouse sperm head has a structure more complex than previously recognized.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  18. "Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krohn Knut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics

  19. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  20. Lateral malleolus hook plate for comminuted Weber A and B fractures: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of managing the comminuted fracture of lateral malleolus is to restore length, rotation and alignment which might be more challenging with extensive comminution around the area of the distal tip. The common osteosynthesis techniques such as the one-third tubular plate, tension band wiring, K-wires, screws, or intramedullary nail may be insufficient in cases with a comminuted lateral malleolus. The anatomical hook plate is an alternative implant in such cases. We present our results of the comminuted lateral malleolar fractures (Weber A, B, managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with an anatomical hook plate of lateral malleolus (Königsee Implant Company, Germany. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of comminuted fracture of distal lateral malleolus between 2008 and 2010. There were 12 males and 8 females, right side was involved in 18 patients and left in 2. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 18-75 years. The fractures were categorized by Denis-Weber classification type A (n=1, B1 (n=1, B2 (n=13 and B3 (n=5. Nineteen cases were of closed injury and one of open injury (Gustilo Anderson type II. These patients underwent ORIF with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. Followup including radiographs and clinical examinations were performed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle hindfoot scores were documented at followups. Results: The mean followup was 21.4 months (range 16-27 months. The average AOFAS score was 94.3 (range 78-100 points. A stable anatomic reduction and bony union were obtained in all the cases. The average time was 3.1 months (range 2.5-4 months. Four cases had complications like posttraumatic osteoarthritis, hardware impingement and superficial wound infection. Conclusion: A reasonably good stability can be obtained in distal most comminuted fractures of lateral malleolus with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. We believe this

  1. The effects of different substrates on flowering of kohleria (Kohleria amabilis Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Hetman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the effects of different substrates on flowering of Kohleria amabilis Hook. belonging to Gesneriaceae family. Substrates used were: white peat, white peat + bark (1:1, white peat +perlite (1:1, white peat + sand (1:1, coir, low-bog peat, low-bog peat + bark (1:1. Substrates caused effects on flowering of a kohleria. The best of them occured low-bog peat + bark (1:1. Plants bloomed the earliest, for the longest time and plentyfully. Moreover they were hight and nicely leafy. The least useful was white peat.

  2. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  3. Two New Phorbol-Type Diterpene Esters from Synadenium grantii Hook F. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phorbol-type diterpene esters has been isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Synadenium grantii Hook F. and identified as 3,4,12,13-tetraacetylphorbol-20-phenylacetate and 4-deoxyphor bol-12,13-ditiglate for which the trivial names Synagrantol A & B respectively, were adopted. Furthermore, two known triterpenes were isolated. The structures of all isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy including 1H and 13C NMR, HSQC and HMBC techniques. The cytotoxicity as well as the antiparasitic activity of the chloroform extract was performed and proved to be active.

  4. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  5. THE EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOK WORM IN GOLDEN HAMSTER, MESOCRICETUS AURATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khazan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  6. Combined NIR/MIR analysis: a novel method for the classification of complex substances such as Illicium verum Hook. F. and its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Mei, Minghua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-09-15

    A novel combined near- and mid-infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopic method has been researched and developed for the analysis of complex substances such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Illicium verum Hook. F. (IVHF), and its noxious adulterant, Iuicium lanceolatum A.C. Smith (ILACS). Three types of spectral matrix were submitted for classification with the use of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method. The data were pretreated with either the successive projections algorithm (SPA) or the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) method. The SPA method performed somewhat better, principally because it required less spectral features for its pretreatment model. Thus, NIR or MIR matrix as well as the combined NIR/MIR one, were pretreated by the SPA method, and then analysed by LDA. This approach enabled the prediction and classification of the IVHF, ILACS and mixed samples. The MIR spectral data produced somewhat better classification rates than the NIR data. However, the best results were obtained from the combined NIR/MIR data matrix with 95-100% correct classifications for calibration, validation and prediction. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the three types of spectral data supported the results obtained with the LDA classification method.

  7. [Surgical technique of displacement and retraction of the heart with a pigtail shaped hook and Tentacles Heart Positioner].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yoshiei; Mochizuki, Y; Yamada, Y; Eda, K; Shibasaki, I; Inoue, Y; Miyoshi, S

    2007-07-01

    We describe a novel heart retracting system with Tentacles Heart Positioner (Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). The heart retracting system is composed of a pigtail shaped hook attached to a flexible Universal Stabilizer Arm (Estech, Minneapolis). After Tentacles suction device is applied on the surface of the heart, the retracting system is fixed on the sternal retracter so that the hook can hang and support the retracting tubes of the sucker. By regulating the shape of the Universal Stabilizer Arm and the position of the hook, the retracting system can lift the heart sufficiently and maintain the optimal position of the heart during OPCAB procedure. Together with Tentacles Heart Positioner, the heart retracting system provides excellent exposure of target coronary arteries with minimal effect on hemodynamics.

  8. Studies on Electrolyte Conductivity and Activity of Dehydrogenase of Chinese Fir and Masson Pine Bare-Root Seedling under Water and Cold Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Fangyuan; Xu Xizeng; Guo Xinbao

    2003-01-01

    The electrolyte conductivity and activity of dehydrogenase of bare-root seedlings of both Chinese fir (Cunningha-mia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) under freezing and desiccation treatments were studied.The results showed that needle electrolyte conductivity of both species increase significantly after freezing treatment and there are nosignificant differences in needle electrolyte conductivity between the two species. The dehydrogenase activity (ARD) of fine roots ofboth Chinese fir and Masson pine was negatively correlated with increasing freezing and desiccation. The results suggest that bothelectrolyte conductivity and dehydrogenase activity could be used as quick indicators of Chinese fir and Masson pine bare-root seed-ling quality.

  9. Transfissural Route Used for Preoperative Localization of Small Pulmonary Lesions with a Short Hook Wire and Suture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro, E-mail: iguchi@ba2.so-net.ne.jp; Hiraki, Takao, E-mail: takaoh@tc4.so-net.ne.jp; Gobara, Hideo, E-mail: gobara@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu, E-mail: hirofujiwar@gmail.com; Matsui, Yusuke, E-mail: wckyh140@yahoo.co.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sugimoto, Seiichiro, E-mail: sei1675sugi@yahoo.co.jp; Toyooka, Shinichi, E-mail: shintoyooka@gmail.com; Oto, Takahiro, E-mail: yellowpeachoto@hotmail.com; Miyoshi, Shinichiro, E-mail: smiyoshi@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of General Thoracic Surgery (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu, E-mail: susumu@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    PurposeWe retrospectively evaluated the results of the transfissural route for preoperative localization with a short hook wire and suture system for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).MethodsEleven patients with 11 tumors underwent CT-guided transfissural placement of a hook wire before VATS. This route was selected for all patients, because the distance between the tumor and interlobar fissure was much shorter than the required distance traversed using the conventional approach. Complications were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0.ResultsThe hook wire was successfully placed using the transfissural route in all but one case. Of these ten successful placements, two tumors needed a second puncture for optimal placement, because the CT scan showed that the first hook wire was not properly placed in the lung. In one patient, we did not attempt replacement after the first placement was incorrect. In ten successful procedures, the mean distance traversed in the parenchyma of the unaffected lung lobe was 27.9 mm. The distance between the pleura and placed hook wire was significantly shorter than the estimated distance between the pleura and hook wire using the conventional route (mean 16.3 vs. 40.9 mm; P = 0.0002). Grade 1 adverse events occurred (11 pneumothoraxes and 4 pulmonary hemorrhages). No grade 2 or higher adverse event was observed.ConclusionsThe transfissural route used for preoperative localization before VATS is useful for selected patients because this route may allow for more limited lung parenchyma resection.

  10. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other... Materials—Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. (a) Specifications. Dee ring and snap lock assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests may...

  11. Hook removal from a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta):Report of a tricky surgery under difficult conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Pedro Barreiros

    2015-01-01

    A sub adult Caretta caretta was found on the 23rd August, 2014 ca. 16 nautical miles south off S. Miguel Island, Azores (Northeast Atlantic), with a large pelagic trawl hook inside its mouth. The individual was kept in a basin of sea water and sent by boat to Terceira Island following instructions by the Azores Regional Government via the Environmental Authority in order to be examined by the author and, if possible, undergo the necessary hook removal procedures. In this note, we describe the surgical procedures and how the turtle was evaluated both pre- and post-surgery.

  12. Hook removal from a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta: Report of a tricky surgery under difficult conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Barreiros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A sub adult Caretta caretta was found on the 23rd August, 2014 ca. 16 nautical miles south off S. Miguel Island, Azores (Northeast Atlantic, with a large pelagic trawl hook inside its mouth. The individual was kept in a basin of sea water and sent by boat to Terceira Island following instructions by the Azores Regional Government via the Environmental Authority in order to be examined by the author and, if possible, undergo the necessary hook removal procedures. In this note, we describe the surgical procedures and how the turtle was evaluated both pre- and post-surgery.

  13. A survey of small RNA population during FR-induced apical hook opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Photomorphogenesis is a mechanism employed by plants to regulate their architecture and developmental program in response to light conditions. As they emerge into light for the first time, dark-grown seedlings employ a rapid and finely-controlled photomorphogenic signaling network. Small RNAs have increasingly been revealed to play an important role in regulating multiple aspects of plant development, by modulating the stability of mRNAs. The rapid alteration of the mRNA transcriptome is a known hallmark of the de-etiolation response, thus we investigated the small RNA transcriptome during this process in specific seedling tissues. Here we describe a survey of the small RNA expression profile in four tissues of etiolated soybean seedlings, the cotyledons, hypocotyl and the convex and concave sides of the apical hook. We also investigate how this profile responds to a one-hour far-red light treatment. Our data suggests that miRNAs show a different global profile between these tissues and treatments, suggesting a possible role for tissue- and treatment-specific expression in the differential morphology of the seedling on de-etiolation. Further evidence for the role of miRNA in light-regulated development is given by the de-etiolation responses of a hypomorphic ago1 mutant, which displays reduced and delayed photomorphogenic responses in apical hook and cotyledon angle to far-red light.

  14. The CptnHook Profiler - A tool to investigate usage patterns of mathematical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Innocente, V.

    2016-10-01

    Transcendental mathematical functions are one of the main hot-spots of scientific applications. The usage of highly optimised, general purpose mathematical libraries can mitigate this issue. On the other hand, a more comprehensive solution is represented by the replacement of the generic mathematical functions by specific implementations targeting particular subdomains only. CptnHook is a tool that helps achieving this goal allowing to monitor the input values of mathematical functions used in a given application, categorised according to the stacktraces leading to their invocations. In this contribution we describe the design of CptnHook, the data format of its profile and how it is possible to perform measurements without instrumenting the users code and imposing the need of recompilation. We demonstrate that this approach scales on production workflows of LHC experiments and characterise a set of real life measurements, showing where opportunities for improvement lie and how the tool can be used for advanced debugging. We also illustrate how elegant summaries of the measurements can be produced and how ROOT based analysis of the profiles can be performed.

  15. Drosophila Hook-Related Protein (Girdin) Is Essential for Sensory Dendrite Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Andrew; Polyanovsky, Andrey; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2015-08-01

    The dendrite of the sensory neuron is surrounded by support cells and is composed of two specialized compartments: the inner segment and the sensory cilium. How the sensory dendrite is formed and maintained is not well understood. Hook-related proteins (HkRP) like Girdin, DAPLE, and Gipie are actin-binding proteins, implicated in actin organization and in cell motility. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster single member of the Hook-related protein family, Girdin, is essential for sensory dendrite formation and function. Mutations in girdin were identified during a screen for fly mutants with no mechanosensory function. Physiological, morphological, and ultrastructural studies of girdin mutant flies indicate that the mechanosensory neurons innervating external sensory organs (bristles) initially form a ciliated dendrite that degenerates shortly after, followed by the clustering of their cell bodies. Importantly, we observed that Girdin is expressed transiently during dendrite morphogenesis in three previously unidentified actin-based structures surrounding the inner segment tip and the sensory cilium. These actin structures are largely missing in girdin mutant. Defects in cilia are observed in other sensory organs such as those mediating olfaction and taste, suggesting that Girdin has a general role in forming sensory dendrites in Drosophila. These suggest that Girdin functions temporarily within the sensory organ and that this function is essential for the formation of the sensory dendrites via actin structures.

  16. US-guided preoperative hook-wire localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Hye Jung; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Ju; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Ha; Park, Ho Yong [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of US-guided preoperative wire localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. US-guided preoperative wire localization was performed upon 45 nonpalpable breast lesions including 14 nonpalpable masses, 11 nonpalpable masses with microcalcifications, 11 ductal lesions, 9 with microcalcifications. No local anesthesia was performed during the localization procedure. Under the US-guidance, the needle with the hook-wire was inserted into the lesion until the hook of the wire reached 1 cm beyond the posterior margin of the lesion. Precise wire positioning was confirmed by mammography. Specimen radiography or specimen ultrasonography was performed in all cases. US-guided preoperative wire localization was successfully achieved in all cases. The time required for US-guided wire localization was less than five minutes. All lesions were successfully removed by surgical excision. Successful removal was confirmed by specimen radiography or specimen ultrasonography, gross findings of the specimen and consistency between radiographic and pathologic findings. The histologic diagnosis of 45 lesions were 7 ductal carcinoma in situ, 8 invasive ductal carcinoma, 6 fibroadenoma, 8 intraductal papilloma, 2 atypical ductal hyperplasia, and 14 fibrocystic changes. No complications were occurred during and after the procedure. US-guided preoperative wire localization for excisional biopsy is simple, safe, and accurate method in the histologic diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions detectable with ultrasonography.

  17. A Segunda Lei da Termodinamica na formulacao da Lei de Hooke

    CERN Document Server

    De Abreu, R

    2002-01-01

    Hooke's Law is analyzed taking the Second Law of Thermodynamics into consideration. It is shown that the energy of a spring isn't always 1/2 k xx - this value is actually the energy of the spring plus the energy of the atmosphere that surrounds it. On a quasi-isentropic aproximation in which the dynamic force is approximately the same as the static force, k is not a constant. Only by considering an ideal spring where k is constant and only on a static regime, can we say the energy is 1/2 k xx. For any dynamic regime of such an ideal spring, the energy of the spring is a function of its temperature and therefore is different from 1/2 k xx. If any given mass is moving attached to an ideal spring, the movement will eventually cease even if such movement occurs in vacuum. The dynamic force is not the static force kx. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential in order to formulate Hooke's Law.

  18. Hook Benefit Evaluation on the Increase of Urban Construction Land and the Decrease of Rural Construction Land in the Suburbs of Chongqing City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the socio-economic statistical data and the land use data of Jingguan Town in the year 2008,hook benefit evaluation index system suitable for the actual situation of research region is determined,based on the systematic analyses of the basic data of current status and the related information of hook in research region.Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is adopted to evaluate the increase of construction land of Jingguan Town before and after the hook.Result shows that the economic,social and ecological benefits of research region have significantly improved after the hook.And the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation index system and evaluation methods established in this research can provide references for the hook benefit evaluation in the suburbs of Chongqing City,China.

  19. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J S A; Mota, R A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Almeida, M C S; Silva, D R; Ferreira, D R A; Azevedo, J C N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca's samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms' participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of 81 Chinese Herb Extracts and Their Correlation with the Characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of 81 chinese herb extracts and their correlation with the characteristics of traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Liang; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO) production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL). Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL), Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. Regression analysis between body and head measurements of Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis in the captive population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu, X. B.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Four body-size and fourteen head-size measurements were taken from each Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis according to the measurements adapted from Verdade. Regression equations between body-size and head-size variables were presented to predict body size from head dimension. The coefficients of determination of captive animals concerning body- and head-size variables can be considered extremely high, which means most of the head-size variables studied can be useful for predicting body length. The result of multivariate allometric analysis indicated that the head elongates as in most other species of crocodilians. The allometric coefficients of snout length (SL and lower ramus (LM were greater than those of other variables of head, which was considered to be possibly correlated to fights and prey. On the contrary, allometric coefficients for the variables of obita (OW, OL and postorbital cranial roof (LCR, were lower than those of other variables.

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography--Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of the Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter)...

  4. Quantum mechanics of many particles defined on twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Daszkiewicz, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    We provide the quantum mechanics of many particles moving in twisted N-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time. In particular, we consider the example of such noncommutative system - the set of M particles moving in Coulomb field of external point-like source and interacting each other also by Coulomb potential.

  5. The effects and mechanism of tripterygium wilfordii Hook Fcombination with irbesartan on urinary podocyte excretion in diabetic nephropathy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) and irbesartan on urinary podocytes in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) patients,and to discuss the mechanism of protective effect of TwHF on DKD.Methods A total of 45

  6. Flavonoids from the Stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Mei Zou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1, was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (2, tangeretin (3, nobiletin (4, 5,6,7,4′-tetramethoxy-flavone (5, sinensetin (6, kaempferol (7, tiliroside (8, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9 and rutin (10. The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. All compounds were isolated from and identified in this species for the first time and compounds 1-6 are new for the genus Croton.

  7. A BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF UNILATERAL HOOKED-SULCATED EXTERNAL FIXATOR ON OSTEOMINED TIBIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德宇; 刘国平; 杜靖远; 饶振玉

    1998-01-01

    Four tibiae removed from 30~40 years males, who died of accidents in less than 12 hour, were osteomized at medium part. Then these tibiae were fixed by an unilateral hooked-sulcated external fixator (UHSEF), and the hone-fixator system was used as a model of external fixatitm of tibial fracture. The axial compression, distraction, torsion, antero-posterior and lateral bending rigidly and the strain of the pins were determined in this system, Based on the results, we found that compared with the configuration of four paralled pins,the rigidity of the fan-like configuratoa didn't decrease significantly if the angle between lateral and medium pins was less than 45°. But the reverse was true when the frame separation increased from 5 to 8 can. What'more, the pin strain decreased if the rigidity of the system was improved. These data provided a theoretical basis of biomechanies for the improvement of UHSEF.

  8. Flavonoids from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guo-An; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Jun-Shan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2010-02-26

    A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1), was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (2), tangeretin (3), nobiletin (4), 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxy-flavone (5), sinensetin (6), kaempferol (7), tiliroside (8), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9) and rutin (10). The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. All compounds were isolated from and identified in this species for the first time and compounds 1-6 are new for the genus Croton.

  9. A viral suppressor protein inhibits host RNA silencing by hooking up with Argonautes

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Hailing

    2010-05-01

    RNA viruses are particularly vulnerable to RNAi-based defenses in the host, and thus have evolved specific proteins, known as viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs), as a counterdefense. In this issue of Genes & Development, Azevedo and colleagues (pp. 904-915) discovered that P38, the VSR of Turnip crinkle virus, uses its glycine/tryptophane (GW) motifs as an ARGONAUTE (AGO) hook to attract and disarm the host\\'s essential effector of RNA silencing. Several GW motif-containing cellular proteins are known to be important partners of AGOs in RNA silencing effector complexes in yeast, plants, and animals. The GW motif appears to be a versatile and effective tool for regulating the activities of RNA silencing pathways, and the use of GW mimicry to compete for and inhibit host AGOs may be a strategy used by many pathogens to counteract host RNAi-based defenses. © 2010 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Strong between-site variation in New Caledonian crows' use of hook-tool-making materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, James J H; Klump, Barbara C; van der Wal, Jessica E M; Sugasawa, Shoko; Rutz, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Functional tool use requires the selection of appropriate raw materials. New Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are known for their extraordinary tool-making behaviour, including the crafting of hooked stick tools from branched vegetation. We describe a surprisingly strong between-site difference in the plant materials used by wild crows to manufacture these tools: crows at one study site use branches of the non-native shrub Desmanthus virgatus, whereas only approximately 7 km away, birds apparently ignore this material in favour of the terminal twigs of an as-yet-unidentified tree species. Although it is likely that differences in local plant communities drive this striking pattern, it remains to be determined how and why crows develop such strong site-specific preferences for certain raw materials.

  11. Wnt and EGF pathways act together to induce C. elegans male hook development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Seah, Adeline; Herman, Michael A; Ferguson, Edwin L; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W

    2009-03-15

    Comparative studies of vulva development between Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematode species have provided some insight into the evolution of patterning networks. However, molecular genetic details are available only in C. elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. To extend our knowledge on the evolution of patterning networks, we studied the C. elegans male hook competence group (HCG), an equivalence group that has similar developmental origins to the vulval precursor cells (VPCs), which generate the vulva in the hermaphrodite. Similar to VPC fate specification, each HCG cell adopts one of three fates (1 degree, 2 degrees, 3 degrees), and 2 degrees HCG fate specification is mediated by LIN-12/Notch. We show that 2 degrees HCG specification depends on the presence of a cell with the 1 degree fate. We also provide evidence that Wnt signaling via the Frizzled-like Wnt receptor LIN-17 acts to specify the 1 degree and 2 degrees HCG fate. A requirement for EGF signaling during 1 degree fate specification is seen only when LIN-17 activity is compromised. In addition, activation of the EGF pathway decreases dependence on LIN-17 and causes ectopic hook development. Our results suggest that WNT plays a more significant role than EGF signaling in specifying HCG fates, whereas in VPC specification EGF signaling is the major inductive signal. Nonetheless, the overall logic is similar in the VPCs and the HCG: EGF and/or WNT induce a 1 degree lineage, and LIN-12/NOTCH induces a 2 degrees lineage. Wnt signaling is also required for execution of the 1 degree and 2 degrees HCG lineages. lin-17 and bar-1/beta-catenin are preferentially expressed in the presumptive 1 degree cell P11.p. The dynamic subcellular localization of BAR-1-GFP in P11.p is concordant with the timing of HCG fate determination.

  12. Scaling of precipitation extremes with temperature in the French Mediterranean region: What explains the hook shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobinski, P.; Alonzo, B.; Bastin, S.; Silva, N. Da; Muller, C.

    2016-04-01

    Expected changes to future extreme precipitation remain a key uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation has been proposed to scale with the precipitable water content in the atmosphere. Assuming constant relative humidity, this implies an increase of precipitation extremes at a rate of about 7% °C-1 globally as indicated by the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Increases faster and slower than Clausius-Clapeyron have also been reported. In this work, we examine the scaling between precipitation extremes and temperature in the present climate using simulations and measurements from surface weather stations collected in the frame of the HyMeX and MED-CORDEX programs in Southern France. Of particular interest are departures from the Clausius-Clapeyron thermodynamic expectation, their spatial and temporal distribution, and their origin. Looking at the scaling of precipitation extreme with temperature, two regimes emerge which form a hook shape: one at low temperatures (cooler than around 15°C) with rates of increase close to the Clausius-Clapeyron rate and one at high temperatures (warmer than about 15°C) with sub-Clausius-Clapeyron rates and most often negative rates. On average, the region of focus does not seem to exhibit super Clausius-Clapeyron behavior except at some stations, in contrast to earlier studies. Many factors can contribute to departure from Clausius-Clapeyron scaling: time and spatial averaging, choice of scaling temperature (surface versus condensation level), and precipitation efficiency and vertical velocity in updrafts that are not necessarily constant with temperature. But most importantly, the dynamical contribution of orography to precipitation in the fall over this area during the so-called "Cevenoles" events, explains the hook shape of the scaling of precipitation extremes.

  13. Comparison of safety and efficiency of microendoscopic discectomy with automatic nerve retractor and with nerve hook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, He-Ping; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Du, Zhi-Cai; Wu, Yi-Min; Li, Shu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the safety and efficiency of two techniques in microendoscopic discectomy (MED) for lumbar disc herniation. The two techniques are MED with automatic nerve retractor and MED with nerve hook which had been widely used for many years. The former involves a newly developed MED device which contains three parts to protect nerve roots during operation. Four hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent MED treatments between October 2010 and September 2015 were recruited and randomized to either intraoperative utilization of automatic nerve retractor (n = 315, group A) or application of nerve hook during surgery (n = 113, group B). Operation time and intraoperative bleeding volume were evaluated. Simultaneously, Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) and muscle strength grading were performed preoperatively, and 1, 2, 3 days, 1, 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. No dramatic difference of pain intensity was observed between the two groups before surgery and 6 months after surgery (P > 0.05). The operation time was shorter in group A (30.30 ± 1.89 min) than that in group B (59.41 ± 3.25 min). Group A (67.83 ± 13.14 ml) experienced a significant decrease in the amount of blood loss volume when compared with group B (100.04 ± 15.10 ml). There were remarkable differences of VAS score and muscle strength grading after postoperative 1, 2, 3 days, 1, 2 weeks and 3 months between both groups (P ≤ 0.05). MED with automatic nerve retractor effectively shortened operation time, decreased the amount of bleeding, down-regulated the incidence of nerve traction injury. PMID:27699062

  14. Comparative study of fourteen alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla hooks and leaves using HPLC-diode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jialin; Gong, Tianxing; Ma, Bin; Zhang, Lin; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare alkaloid profile of Uncaria rhynchophylla hooks and leaves. Ten oxindole alkaloids and four glycosidic indole alkaloids were identified using HPLC-diode array detection (DAD) or LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS method, and a HPLC-UV method for simultaneous quantification of major alkaloids was validated. The hooks are characterized by high levels of four oxindole alkaloids rhynchophylline (R), isorhynchophylline (IR), corynoxeine (C) and isocorynoxeine (IC), while the leaves contained high level of two glycosidic indole alkaloids vincoside lactam (VL) and strictosidine (S). The presented methods have proven its usefulness in chemical characterization of U. rhynchophylla hooks and leaves.

  15. Soil Fertility in Agroforestry System of Chinese Fir and Villous Amomum in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A trial of interplanting and non-interplanting villous amomum (Amomum villosum Lour.) under the canopy of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.) at age 22 was established in Sanming, Fujian of China, and a survey on soil fertility was carried out 10 years after its establishment. Compared with the control (non-interplanting), the properties of soil humus in agroforestry system were ameliorated, with a higher level of humification and resynthesis of organic detritus. The soil microbial population and enzymatic activities were both higher under the influence of villous amomum. Both the nutrient supplying and nutrient conserving capacities of the soil were improved. This agroforestry system exhibited an advantage of improved soil fertility, as well as an accelerated growth of Chinese fir, it was, therefore, a sustainable management system suited for Chinese fir in South China.

  16. Jurassic onychites (hooks from squid-like cephalopods) associated with statolith occurrences in the Wessex Basin, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher; Wilby, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Modern coleoid (squid-like) cephalopods have arms that carry arrays of both suckers and hardened, organic hooks. Fossil arm hooks have been known since the description of Sternberg in 1823, although he identified them as plant remains. During the twentieth century there were a number of brief descriptions of hooks but it was Kulicki & Szaniawski (1972) who described 22 morphotypes from the Jurassic of Poland. These authors gave these 'forms' names using a binomial classification though, with many lacking defined (and figured) holotypes and, in some cases, only one recorded specimen, some of their designations should be regarded as invalid. Some of the morphotypes have, however, been reported from DSDP sites on the Falkland Plateau as well as New Zealand, Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom. It is clear that the hooks must belong to widely distributed members of the Belemnitida and Phragmoteuthida. Exceptional soft-bodied preservation of species such as Belemnotheutis antiquus from the Callovian-Oxfordian of the United Kingdom has allowed the identification of the host animal of some morphotypes, though the majority remain non-attributable. In the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Upper Callovian) of Wiltshire large numbers of hooks (including forms described as Acanthuncus, Arites, Deinuncus, Falcuncus, Longuncus and Paraglycerites) are found associated with an abundance of statoliths (cephalopod 'ear bones') and macrofossil evidence of both belemnites and teuthids, some of which includes exceptional soft-bodied preservation (see Wilby et al., 2004, 2008; Hart et al., in press). Using the abundance of material available to us from the Wessex Basin, we are attempting to identify, where possible, the host animals. If this can be established then it should be possible, using micropalaeontological samples, to determine the stratigraphical and palaeoecological ranges of some of the host macro-fossils, many of which are otherwise rarely preserved. HART, M.B., DE JONGHE

  17. Descrição do padrão de venação foliar em Spathicarpa Hook. (Araceae Description of leaf venation pattern in Spathicarpa Hook. (Araceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Coêlho Milhomens Fonsêca

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo e a caracterização da venação foliar representam uma possibilidade de auxílio no reconhecimento de grupos taxonômicos identificados, predominantemente, com base em caracteres reprodutivos como o gênero Spathicarpa Hook. (Araceae. O presente estudo teve como objetivos: apresentar um método eficiente para diafanização de folhas similares às de Spathicarpa Hook.; descrever o padrão de venação das folhas de Spathicarpa gardneri Schott, Spathicarpa hastifolia Hook., Spathicarpa lanceolata Engl. e Spathicarpa sagittifolia Schott; e testar a utilização da arquitetura foliar de Spathicarpa Hook. como ferramenta taxonômica capaz de fornecer características diagnósticas vegetativas no gênero. Em linhas gerais, a técnica de diafanização consistiu inicialmente em submeter folhas frescas, estocadas em álcool etílico 70% com detergente comercial, ao hidróxido de sódio (5% e hipoclorito de sódio (5% para clareamento e alvejamento, respectivamente. Em seguida, estas passaram por uma bateria de desidratação etanólica crescente (10 a 100% e por uma série com xileno (xileno-etanol 100% 1:1 e xileno. Foram então coradas com safranina e colocadas novamente em xileno-etanol 100% 1:1 para diferenciar. Das quatro espécies estudadas, somente Spathicarpa lanceolata Engl. apresenta características vegetativas diagnósticas, não sendo possível diferenciar, com base na arquitetura foliar, as demais espécies.Characterization of leaf venation can help in the recognition of taxonomic groups that are identified primarily on the basis of reproductive characteristics such as genus Spathicarpa Hook. (Araceae. This study aims to provide an efficient technique for clearing leaves that are similar to those of Spathicarpa Hook., to describe the leaf venation pattern of Spathicarpa gardneri Schott, Spathicarpa hastifolia Hook., Spathicarpa lanceolata Engl. and Spathicarpa sagittifolia Schott, and to test the use of leaf architecture as a

  18. Final Report on Vegetation Community Surveys 2005-2006 and Botanical and Zoological Surveys 2004-2005 for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2004 and 2005 the Delaware Natural Heritage Program took an inventory of plants, animals, vegetation communities of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. This...

  19. Photomonitoring of Delmarva Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus, DFS) on the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 2008.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of this photomonitoring was to determine the status of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Delmarva Fox Squirrel population. The Photomonitor...

  20. Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge Photo-Arrays of Delmarva Fox Squirrel (DFS) and Photomonitoring Summary for the Spring and Summer of 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal of this photomonitoring effort was to determine the status of Prime Hook National Widlife Refuge (PHNWR) Delmarva Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger...

  1. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  2. The limit passage of space curvature in problems of celestial mechanics with the generalized Kepler and Hooke potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozmishcheva, Tatiana

    2016-09-01

    The connection between the problems of celestial mechanics: the Kepler problem, the two-center problem and the two body problem in spaces of constant curvature with the generalized Kepler and Hooke potentials is investigated. The limit passage in the two-center and two body problems in the Lobachevsky space and on a sphere is carried out as λto0 (λ is the curvature of the corresponding space) for the two potentials. The potentials and metrics in spaces under study are written in the gnomonic coordinates. It is shown that as the curvature radius tends to infinity, the generalized gravitational and elastic potentials transform to the Kepler and Hooke forms in the Euclidean space.

  3. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema as well as nickel contact allergy is prevalent among hairdressers. Recently, two female hairdressers were diagnosed with nickel contact allergy-related hand eczema following prolonged skin contact with scissors and crochet hooks used during work. OBJECTIVES: To determine...... the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  4. Hooke's Atom in an Arbitrary External Electric Field: Analytical Solutions of Two-Electron Problem by Path Integral Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Liang; ZHANG Ping; YANG Tao; PAN Xiao-Yin

    2011-01-01

    By using the path integral approach, we investigate the problem of Hooke's atom (two electrons interacting with Coulomb potential in an external harmonic-oscillator potential) in an arbitrary time-dependent electric field. For a certain infinite set of discrete oscillator frequencies, we obtain the analytical solutions. The ground state polarization of the atom is then calculated. The same result is also obtained through linear response theory.

  5. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  6. VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE NON-HOOKE DEFORMATION BEFORE YIELDING IN UNIAXIAL DRAWING OF AMORPHOUS POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-hua Yuan; De-yan Shen; Ren-yuan Qian

    2001-01-01

    Viscoelastic behavior of the non-Hooke deformation of amorphous PET film before yield was investigated in the temperature region 74-80.5 ℃ around the glass transition temperature. The film specimen was drawn to yield point followed by unloading to zero stress, then the residual deformation was held constant, while the subsequent evolution of the stress was recorded. An induction period was found in the course of stress evolution followed by a stress step-increase. The induction period decreases with increasing drawing temperature with an activation energy of 1.10 MJ/mol @ K, which is attributed to the time needed for the relaxation of rubbery deformation through cooperative internal rotations. At temperatures lower than 74℃, there is no stress increase or the induction period becomes too long to be observed. Thus the nature of anelasticity in the non-Hooke region before yielding is attributed to stress induced rubbery deformation. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of Perez' rheological model of a series connected Hooke spring and a Voigt element consisting of a parallel connected elastic spring and a dashpot.``

  7. Hook plate fixation of acute displaced lateral clavicle fractures: mid-term results and a brief literature overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiren Davut

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clavicle hook plate achieves like most other operative techniques, a high percentage of union and a low percentage of complications however concerns about long term complications still exist, particularly the involvement of the acromioclavicular joint. Methods To evaluate the results and long term effects in use of this plate we performed a retrospective analysis with a mean follow up of 65 months (5.4 years of 28 consecutive patients with acute displaced lateral clavicle fractures, treated with the clavicle hook plate. Results Short term functional results in all patients were good to excellent. All but one patient had a united fracture (96%. Nine patients (32% developed impingement symptoms and in 7 patients (25% subacromial osteolysis was found. These findings resolved after plate removal. Twenty-four patients were re-evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 5.4 years. The Constant-Murley score was 97 and the DASH score was 3.5. Four patients (14% developed acromioclavicular joint arthrosis of which one was symptomatic. Three patients (11% had extra articular ossifications of which one was symptomatic. There was no relation between the impingement symptoms, subacromial osteolysis and development of acromioclavicular joint arthrosis or extra articular ossifications. Conclusions The clavicle hook plate is a good primary treatment option for the acute displaced lateral clavicle fracture with few complications. At mid term the results are excellent and no long term complications can be addressed to the use of the plate.

  8. "Hooked on" prescription-type opiates prior to using heroin: results from a survey of syringe exchange clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavy, K Michelle; Banta-Green, Caleb J; Kingston, Susan; Hanrahan, Michael; Merrill, Joseph O; Coffin, Phillip O

    2012-01-01

    The availability and diversion of prescription-type opioids increased dramatically in the first decade of the twenty-first century. One possible consequence of increased prescription opioid use and accessibility is the associated rise in opioid dependence, potentially resulting in heroin addiction. This study aimed to determine how common initial dependence on prescription-type opioids is among heroin injectors; associations with demographic and drug-using characteristics were also examined. Interview data were collected at syringe exchanges in King County, Washington in 2009. Among the respondents who had used heroin in the prior four months, 39% reported being "hooked on" prescription-type opioids first. Regression analysis indicated that younger age, sedative use and no recent crack use were independently associated with self-report of being hooked on prescription-type opioids prior to using heroin. These data quantify the phenomenon of being hooked on prescription-type opioids prior to initiating heroin use. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology, etiology and trajectory of prescription-type opioid and heroin use in the context of continuing widespread availability of prescription-type opioids.

  9. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae),from Chinese waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Ping; WU Renxie; LIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai,Guangxi,China in March 2010.These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes,1830),being the first record of this species from Chinese waters.N.marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics:lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique,maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows,pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fm forked,upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  10. Numerical path integral solution to strong Coulomb correlation in one dimensional Hooke's atom

    CERN Document Server

    Ruokosenmäki, Ilkka; Kylänpää, Ilkka; Rantala, Tapio T

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach based on real time domain Feynman path integrals (RTPI) for electronic structure calculations and quantum dynamics, which includes correlations between particles exactly but within the numerical accuracy. We demonstrate that incoherent propagation by keeping the wave function real is a novel method for finding and simulation of the ground state, similar to Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method, but introducing new useful tools lacking in DMC. We use 1D Hooke's atom, a two-electron system with very strong correlation, as our test case, which we solve with incoherent RTPI (iRTPI) and compare against DMC. This system provides an excellent test case due to exact solutions for some confinements and because in 1D the Coulomb singularity is stronger than in two or three dimensional space. The use of Monte Carlo grid is shown to be efficient for which we determine useful numerical parameters. Furthermore, we discuss another novel approach achieved by combining the strengths of iRTPI and DMC. We...

  11. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on a spike-moss Selaginella inaequalifolia (hook. & grev.) Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varaprasadham Irudayaraj; Janaky M; Marimuthu Johnson; Nallayan Selvan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-cancer spike-mosses for the presence of various bioactivities and to identify the important bioactive chemicals present in Selaginella inaequalifolia (S.inaequalifolia ) (Hook. & Grev.) Spring. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening was done by following the method of Brindha et al. Antimicrobial study was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: Results of preliminary phytochemical screening on five different extracts (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water) of the spike-mossS. inaequalifolia show the presence steroids, triterpenes, phenolic group, tannin, sugars and catechin. Alkaloids, amino acids, anthraquinone and reducing sugar did not show any positive result. Among the five different extracts, ethanol and chloroform extracts show the presence of maximum number (4 each) of compounds. The results on antimicrobial studies show that all the three microbes [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans(C. albicans) ] tested are resistant to the ethanol extract and susceptible to petroleum ether extract. The petroleum ether extract shows maximum inhibition with 45 mm of inhibition zone in C. albicans. The inhibition zone in S. aureus and E. coli are 26 mm and 22 mm respectively. Conclusions: The present study shows S. inaequalifolia having potent antibacterial and anticandidal activities.

  12. Control performance evaluation of railway vehicle MR suspension using fuzzy sky-ground hook control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, S. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, G. S.; Yoo, W. H.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of railway vehicle featured by semi-active suspension system using magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. In order to achieve this goal, a nine degree of freedom of railway vehicle model, which includes car body and bogie, is established. The wheel-set data is loaded from measured value of railway vehicle. The MR damper system is incorporated with the governing equation of motion of the railway vehicle model which includes secondary suspension. To illustrate the effectiveness of the controlled MR dampers on suspension system of railway vehicle, the control law using the sky-ground hook controller is adopted. This controller takes into account for both vibration control of car body and increasing stability of bogie by adopting a weighting parameter between two performance requirements. The parameters appropriately determined by employing a fuzzy algorithm associated with two fuzzy variables: the lateral speed of the car body and the lateral performance of the bogie. Computer simulation results of control performances such as vibration control and stability analysis are presented in time and frequency domains.

  13. Social Media in Gay London: Tinder as an Alternative to Hook-Up Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MacKee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how the mobile app Tinder complements dating practices and the wider app ecosystem gay men use in London. Within the local gay community discourse, Tinder is said to be a site where the gay “nice guys” go, rendering the platform as a socially constructed environment where gay men behave in a diametrically opposed way to the normative hyper-sexualized behavior of widespread gay hook-up apps. The research question, therefore, is whether Tinder is in fact a place where these “nice guys” go and where one would find them. Through an ethnographic methodology conducted both online and offline, a case is built on how initial conceptions about the app cannot be fully studied or interpreted without understanding the place it holds among other social networks. Evidence is presented to support the case that gay users of Tinder do, in fact, curate the portrayal of their digital identity to present a considerably less sexualized persona with the hopes of finding dates or a relationship. This, however, does not mean that users refrain from using other platforms in parallel as a way of exploring different subject positions and motivations. Behavior and normativity on Tinder are largely explained both by context and also by the design of the platform, which imports and displays personal data from other social networks. Findings should be limited to the population and location proposed as the fieldsite.

  14. In Vitro Propagation of R. maddeni Hook. F. an Endangered Rhododendron Species of Sikkim Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar SINGH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for rapid and large scale propagation of an endangered, important Sikkim Himalayan rhododendron (R. maddeni Hook. f. by in vitro culture of cotyledonary nodes from 15 days old seedlings. Several cytokinin types were evaluated for their effect on shoot multiplication from cotyledonary nodes. Maximum numbers of shoot (12.00 �0.58 were observed on the AM containing 7 mg/l 2iP, 0.1 mg/l IAA after eight weeks of culture. Incorporation of 0.1 mg/l IAA in the medium during the first subculture after establishment and initiation of shoot buds significantly improved the shoot elongation. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on same strength AM medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA alone for three weeks. Well-developed complete plantlets were transferred on to specially made plastic cup containing soilrite. The rooted plantlets were hardened and successfully established in greenhouse, the plants were transferred to field site at Pangthang arboretum of the Institute and the �Rare & Threatened Plant Conservation Park� of Zoological Park, Gangtok, Sikkim.

  15. Hook Students with the Super Bowl and a Protein Modeling Activity to Teach Genetic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann H. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Biology concepts such as molecular genetics and inheritance patterns to students in K-12 and college is challenging.  The created Super Bowl Activity uses kinesthetic and visual models and a "hook" to engage students in the material.  Through guided inquiry and modeling, this lesson reviews concepts of DNA, mutations, genotype/phenotype, transcription, translation, homozygous/heterozygous, and inheritance patterns while entertaining the students with a story of a football player with sickle cell trait who couldn’t play in the Super Bowl.  The students create a mutated and normal folded hemoglobin protein model based on amino acid chemical character and use them to simulate Mendelian genetics, inheritance patters, and heterozygous advantage.  This lesson can be used by teachers and professors teaching middle/high school Biology courses as well as Undergraduate Introductory and non-major Biology courses.  This teaching model was created to address content areas where students perform poorly on standardized Biology exams and was presented at a series of professional development workshops for secondary and undergraduate Biology teachers.  One Biology instructor utilized it successfully in her Biology course as a review for end of course exams and felt the students were very engaged in the activity and material.

  16. Compressive Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete with End-Hooked Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the compressive behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete with end-hooked steel fibers has been investigated through a uniaxial compression test in which the variables were concrete compressive strength, fiber volumetric ratio, and fiber aspect ratio (length to diameter. In order to minimize the effect of specimen size on fiber distribution, 48 cylinder specimens 150 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height were prepared and then subjected to uniaxial compression. From the test results, it was shown that steel fiber-reinforced concrete (SFRC specimens exhibited ductile behavior after reaching their compressive strength. It was also shown that the strain at the compressive strength generally increased along with an increase in the fiber volumetric ratio and fiber aspect ratio, while the elastic modulus decreased. With consideration for the effect of steel fibers, a model for the stress–strain relationship of SFRC under compression is proposed here. Simple formulae to predict the strain at the compressive strength and the elastic modulus of SFRC were developed as well. The proposed model and formulae will be useful for realistic predictions of the structural behavior of SFRC members or structures.

  17. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  18. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  19. Comparison of compensatory sweating and quality of life following thoracic sympathetic block for palmar hyperhidrosis: electrocautery hook versus titanium clip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei-ge; CHEN Yong-bing; YANG Wen-tao; SHI Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Video-assisted thoracic sympathetic block is an effective,safe,and minimally invasive method fortreatment of primary hyperhidrosis.The purpose of this study was to decide which one of using electrocautery hook and titanium clip is the appropriate procedure for primary palmar hyperhidrosis by assessing the compensatory sweating (CS)and quality of life (QOL) of patients after sympathetic block.Methods Between October 2007 to August 2010,120 patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis were randomly divided into two groups,electrocautery hook group (60 patients) and titanium clip group (60 patients).All patients were treated by sympathetic block at T4 level.The CS was graded based on severity and location; the QOL was classified to 5 different levels based upon the summed total scores (range from 20 to 100) before and after surgery.The variables were compared.Results The postoperative follow-up period was 2 months.All patients were cured.Three patients in electrocautery hook group and 1 patient in titanium clip group had a unilateral pneumothorax on chest X-ray,but none of them was necessary to have chest drainage.Neither perioperative mortality nor serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmia or arrest were observed during the operation.No bradycardia or Horner's syndrome occured.CS was not more common in patients in titanium clip group than in those in electrocautery hook group (P=0.001).Moderate and severe CS was few in all patients,and there was no significant difference between two groups (P=-0.193).Most of the patients feel a notable improvement of the the QOL; nevertheless,there was no significant difference between the groups (P=0.588).Conclusions Both electrocautery hook and titanium clip used for sympathetic block at the T4 level are effective,safe,and minimally invasive for palmar hyperhidrosis.Because of the lower severity of CS and the similar improvements in the QOL after operation,we prefer to use of titanium clip for treating palmar

  20. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  1. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  3. Computed Tomography Guided Hook-wire Precise Localization and Minimally Invasive Resection of Pulmonary Nodules%CT引导下Hook-w ire精确定位并微创切除肺结节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王通; 马少华; 闫天生; 宋金涛; 王可毅; 贺未; 白洁

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的肺小结节尤其是磨玻璃结节(ground glass opacity, GGO)病灶的定位是微创手术切除的难点,报道的方法很多但均有不足。本研究旨在探讨计算机断层扫描(computed tomography, CT)引导下Hook-wire术前定位在胸腔镜下(video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, VATS)肺结节切除术中的临床应用价值,并初步探讨GGOs积极微创手术治疗的必要性和可行性。方法2013年5月-2015年6月共25例患者的26枚肺结节于术前行CT引导下Hook-wire定位,然后施行胸腔镜楔形切除术。统计Hook-wire定位时间、成功率、并发症及楔形切除时间、住院时间等,计算病灶组织学分型中的恶性几率,讨论肺部GGOs积极手术治疗的必要性。结果共25例患者26个结节(男性10例,女性15例,6个实性结节,20个GGOs),病灶直径5 mm-20 mm(平均8 mm),病灶距离胸膜垂直距离5 mm-30 mm(平均14 mm),CT引导下Hook-wire定位成功率为100%。VATS楔形切除术成功率为100%。CT定位时间平均10 min(5 min-15 min),微创切除病灶所需时间平均20 min(15 min-40 min),平均住院时间为4 d(3 d-6 d)。4例患者定位后发生微量气胸,但无需闭式引流处理。术中定位针脱落1例,但仍于胸腔镜下观察到穿刺点脏层胸膜下血肿后,准确定位并成功切除。20个GGOs术后组织学诊断结果为:16个混合性GGOs(mixed GGO, mGGO)中,微浸润腺癌2例,腺癌5例,小细胞肺癌(small cell lung cancer, SCLC)1例,炎性病灶8例;4个纯GGOs(pure GGO, pGGO)中原位腺癌1例,非典型性腺瘤样增生(atypical adenomatoid hyperplasia, AAH)1例,炎性病灶2例。结论 CT引导下Hook-wire肺结节尤其是GGOs术前定位准确率高,相关并发症轻微,是一种安全、有效的方法,能快速确定下一步诊疗方案,值得临床推广;肺部mGGOs是恶性病灶的几率很

  4. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  5. Usefulness of oxidative stress biomarkers evaluated in the snout scraping, serum and Peripheral Blood Cells of Crocodylus moreletii from Southeast Campeche for assessment of the toxic impact of PAHs, metals and total phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul-Caamal, Ricardo; Hernández-López, Abigail; Gonzalez-Jáuregui, Mauricio; Padilla, Sergio E; Girón-Pérez, Manuel Ivan; Vega-López, Armando

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the effects of inorganic and organic pollutants [As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, PAHs (11 compounds) and total phenols] from a panel of biomarkers [O2, H2O2, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl proteins (RCO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and total cytochrome P450 activities] evaluated in the Snout Scraping (SS), Serum (S) and Peripheral Blood Cells (PBC) of the Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) inhabiting the reference locality (Lake Mocu) and polluted locality (Champoton River) using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In male crocodiles from the reference site, only H2O2 in PBC was related to levels of fluoranthene on the Keel of Caudal Scales (KCS), but, in females, no association was detected. In contrast, a sex-linked response was detected in specimens from the polluted locality. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, pyrene, phenanthrene, acenaphthene, Zn, Cu, and Pb in KCS of the female crocodil were related to the oxidative stress biomarkers on PBC, incluing the total CYP450 activity and levels of O2, H2O2 in serum. However, in male crocodiles, the oxidative stress in SS and in the serum (TBARS, RCO, CAT, GPx), and SOD in PBC was related to As, Pb, Cu, Fe, and benzo[a]pyrene water concentrations and to the burdens of As, Fe, Mn, indeno[1,2,3cd]pyrene in KCS. These results confirm the usefulness of minimal or non-invasive methods of evaluating the oxidative stress response for the environmental monitoring program on the wild Morelet's crocodile that is subject to special protection in Mexican guidelines.

  6. Tinospora crispa (L. Hook. f. & Thomson: A review of its ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim eJantan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora crispa (L. Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae, found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute towards improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery. The plant has been used traditionally in the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorders, fever, malaria, diabetes, internal inflammation, fracture, scabies, hypertension, reducing thirst, increasing appetite, cooling down the body temperature and maintaining good health. Phytochemical analyses of T. crispa revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and flavone glycosides, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene glycosides, cis clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids, lactones, sterols, lignans and nucleosides. Studies showed that the crude extracts and isolated compounds of T. crispa possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, antimalarial, cardioprotective and anti-diabetic activities. Most pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts of the plant and the bioactive compounds responsible for the bioactivities have not been well identified. Further investigations are required to transform the experience-based claims on the use of T. crispa in traditional medicine practices into evidence-based information. The plant extract used in pharmacological and biological studies should be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed based on its biomarkers. There should be detail in vitro and in vivo studies on the mechanisms of action of the pure bioactive compounds and more elaborate toxicity study to ensure safety of the plant for human

  7. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson: A Review of Its Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waqas; Jantan, Ibrahim; Bukhari, Syed N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions. This review summarizes the up-to-date reports about the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, toxicology, and clinical trials of the plant. It also provides critical assessment about the present knowledge of the plant which could contribute toward improving its prospect as a source of lead molecules for drug discovery. The plant has been used traditionally in the treatment of jaundice, rheumatism, urinary disorders, fever, malaria, diabetes, internal inflammation, fracture, scabies, hypertension, reducing thirst, increasing appetite, cooling down the body temperature, and maintaining good health. Phytochemical analyses of T. crispa revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and flavone glycosides, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene glycosides, cis clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids, lactones, sterols, lignans, and nucleosides. Studies showed that the crude extracts and isolated compounds of T. crispa possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, antimalarial, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic activities. Most pharmacological studies were based on crude extracts of the plant and the bioactive compounds responsible for the bioactivities have not been well identified. Further investigations are required to transform the experience-based claims on the use of T. crispa in traditional medicine practices into evidence-based information. The plant extract used in pharmacological and biological studies should be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed based on its biomarkers. There should be detail in vitro and in vivo studies on the mechanisms of action of the pure bioactive compounds and more elaborate toxicity study to ensure safety of the plant for human use. More

  8. In vitro plant propagation and crop improvement in Lisianthus (Lisianthus Russelianus Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Pop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania assists at the present time to an increase of production crops for ornamental plants and as a consequence an increased demand of planting material. Thus, improvements of the current multiplication methods are sought after. Lisianthus russelianus Hook. (Eustoma grandiflorum Grise. is a relatively new floral crop to the international market, known for beautiful flowers of various colors and for having a long vase life. This study focused on the development of an efficient protocol for rapid regeneration of this species following known basic and applied aspects of lisianthus biotechnology but exploring new potentials. In the course of experiments conducted, for in vitro multiplication there were used nodal segments (1.5 cm with axillary buds from three F1 hybrids ‘Echo Lavender’, ‘Flamenco White’, ‘Mirage Pastel Pink’ that were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.50 mg 1-1 TDZ, 1.0 mg 1-1 BAP and 0.50 mg 1-1 AIA. The results show that the medium with BAP was most effective for obtaining the highest shoots number compared to medium containing TDZ. For rooting induction, two different concentrations of auxin IBA 0.5 mg 1-1 and 1.5 mg 1-1 were used simultaneously on MS basal medium. The highest roots number occurred when using 1.5 mg 1-1 IBA. Both the number of shoots and rooting regeneration were dependent on the cultivar. The highest shoots number was achieved for ’Mirage Pastel Pink’ hybrid (6.91 on the medium containing 1.0 mg 1-1 BAP and 0.50 mg 1-1 IAA.

  9. Astronomy as an Engaging Hook for Preservice Teachers and Secondary Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; Dickinson, G.; Pierson, J.; Vice, H.; Hemenway, M.; Oehler, K.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy is a powerful hook to excite people's wonder about the universe, fire their imaginations, and engage them in science and mathematics. We employed this allure to help preservice secondary mathematics and science teachers develop the skills to deliver unified multidisciplinary inquiry and project-based instruction to their future students. Simultaneously, high school mathematics students enjoyed applications of the algebra and geometry they had learned in a series of lessons centered on the building and utilization of Dobsonian telescopes during all-day in-school field trips. These lesson elements, both for the preservice teachers and high school students, were refined over several semesters as part of the field experience component of the Project Based Instruction course in the nationally recognized (see e.g., Rising Above the Gathering Storm, 2007, NAP) UTeach program at the University of Texas at Austin (www.uteach.utexas.edu; see also Hooper, E. J. et al. 2003, BAAS, 35, 1304). Preservice teachers who elect the astronomy field experience divide into two groups. The first group prepares to lead high school students through the final stages of constructing a simple Dobsonian telescope based on plans from the San Francisco Sidewalk Astronomers (http://members.aol.com/sfsidewalk/cdobplans.htm). After learning some basic optics (Siegel et al. 2008, Mathematics Teacher, in press; and Siegel et al. 2008, BAAS, Austin meeting, in press), the high school students undertake the most mathematically rich portions of the build, including measuring the focal length of the primary mirror and the placement and alignment of the secondary mirror. Since it is not practical to both build and utilize telescopes in one day, the second group of preservice teachers prepares to return to the "build" high school from the previous semester to engage the students in a variety of lessons using the telescopes. EJH acknowledges support from an NSF AAPF (AST-0104456) at the University

  10. Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Gunnii Hook. As a Novel Source of Antioxidant, Antimutagenic and Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Bugarin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC, antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro. Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8% and α-pinene (14.12% were the major compounds comprising almost 82% of total EO. EO exhibited moderate DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, with IC50 value of 7.19 µL/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against the spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli IC202 oxyR mutant strain, deficient in removing radical oxygen species (ROS. Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in the presence of E. gunnii EO was only slight, up to 12% at the highest concentration tested. However, when the oxidative mutagen was used, EO displayed more significant reduction of mutagenesis (maximum 23% in a concentration dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was tested against the selected strains from ATTC and NCIB collections: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the two Escherichia coli strains from our laboratory collection (SY252 and IB112 using both the disk-diffusion and MIC assays. The greatest sensitivity was shown by M. flavus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli lpcA (MIC = 0.83 mg/mL, while the highest resistance was shown by E. coli (ATTC 25922 and S. epidermidis. This study represents the first report on chemical composition and biological activity of the Eucalyptus gunnii in the South Balkan region and beyond.

  11. False-negative urine human chorionic gonadotropin in molar pregnancy: " The high-dose hook effect" !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Narendra Datti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency situations can have important consequences. These include missing of ectopic pregnancy (the leading cause of first-trimester pregnancy-related maternal death, administration of medications contraindicated in pregnancy, fetal radiation exposure, and medico legal problems. This in turn has led to the dictum to check for pregnancy in all women of child-bearing age group. Urine pregnancy (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] test is the commonly used test to rule out pregnancy and has been reported by Griffey et al. in their study to achieve 100% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity in a clinical setting, resulting in a positive predictive value of 98.3% and a negative predictive value of nearly 100%. However, the sensitivity is influenced not only by the quantity of β hCG but on its variants that vary with different weeks of pregnancy. β hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. In spite of its high sensitivity, in the presence of molar pregnancy that is associated with very high levels of β hCG it fails to detect the antigen (β hCG. This is explained by the phenomenon known as "high-dose hook effect" which further leads to delay in diagnosis and treatment. This can be overcome by dilution of the sample. In such cases, diagnosis will be made by serum β hCG and ultrasound (USG. Here, we present a case of gravida 2 para 1 living 1 with 2΍ months amenorrhea with bleeding p/v and pain abdomen of 20 days duration whose urine β hCG was repeatedly negative and diagnosis was made by serum β hCG and USG.

  12. Plant bioreactors for the antigenic hook-associated flgK protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants engineered with genes encoding for the antigenic proteins of various microorganisms have shown to correctly express the proteins that elicit the production of antibodies in mammalian hosts. In livestock, plant-based vaccines could represent an innovative strategy for oral vaccination, especially to prevent infection by enteric pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate tobacco plants as a seedspecific expression system for the production of the flgK flagellar hook-associated protein from a wild type Salmonella typhimurium strain, as a model of an edible vaccine. The flgK gene is the principal component of bacterial flagella and is recognised as virulence factor by the innate immune system. It was isolated from the Salmonella typhimurium strain by PCR. The encoding sequence of flgK was transferred into a pBI binary vector, under control of soybean basic 7S globulin promoter for the seed-specific. Plant transformation was carried out using recombinant EHA 105 Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transgenic population was obtained made up of independently kanamycin-resistant transgenic plants, which had a similar morphological appearance to the wild-type plants. Molecular analyses of seeds confirmed the integration of the gene and the average expression level of flgK was estimated to be about 0.6 mg per gram of seeds, corresponding to 0.33% of the total amount of soluble protein in tobacco seeds. This study showed that the foreign flgK gene could be stably incorporated into the tobacco plant genome by transcription through the nuclear apparatus of the plant, and that these genes are inherited by the next generation.

  13. Distalization of maxillary molars for Class Ⅱ malocclusion with Chinese Ni-Ti coil-springs appliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yin-zhong; WU Jun-jie; CHEN Xue-peng; QIAN Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the Chinese Ni-Ti coil springs appliance on distalization of maxillary molars and the reciprocal effects on the anchorage teeth. Methods :Twenty four adolescent patients(12 boys,12 girls) with Class Ⅱ malocclusion were selected and the coil springs appliance was used during the treatment. Pre and postdistalization lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed and compared. Results: The average time for the correction of Class Ⅱ molar relationship was 4. 6 months. And the mean distance of molar distalization was 4.4 mm. The Chinese Ni-Ti coil springs also demostrated less tipping and better bodily movement of maxillary molars. Conclusion: This study suggests that the Chinese Ni-Ti coil-springs appliance distalizes the upper molar significantly, while there is no remarkable loss of anchorage because of patients' wearing headgear with J hooks at night and Class Ⅱ elastics in the day time.

  14. Infection kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila in the blunt-snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala%嗜水气单胞菌在浸泡感染团头鲂的组织动态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春云; 谢骏; 习丙文; 梁利国; 夏飞; 潘良坤

    2015-01-01

    利用具有绿色荧光蛋白基因标记的嗜水气单胞菌(WJ-8GFP)对团头鲂(Megalobrama amblycephala)进行浸泡攻毒试验,探究温度对浸泡感染后嗜水气单胞菌在团头鲂各组织分布的影响。实验设立A组(水温25℃), B组(水温32℃), C组(水温25℃),其中 C组为对照组。用菌株 WJ-8GFP对实验组 A、B进行浸泡攻毒,试验组 C不进行攻毒处理,攻毒后分别于2h、4h、8h、12h、24h采集各组鱼血液、脾、肾、鳃、肠道、肌肉,培养法统计分析各组织器官上的荧光细菌数量。实验结果显示,在各取样时间段实验组 A(25℃)和实验组B(32℃)团头鲂各组织在均能检测到荧光嗜水气单胞菌,对照组未检测到嗜水气单胞菌;最高菌量出现在鳃,且鳃上嗜水气单胞菌数量显著大于其他组织(P<0.05),其次是脾、肾;组织内的菌量随时间大体呈现先上升后下降的趋势; B实验组中各组织菌量显著大于 A 实验组(P<0.05)。研究结果表明,鳃是嗜水气单胞菌浸泡感染团头鲂的主要组织器官,与25℃相比较,在水温32℃时团头鲂被嗜水气单胞菌感染的风险更高。%Fish disease has become an increasingly prominent problem in aquaculture development and causes severe economic damage to fisheries. Aeromonas hydrophila is an important fish pathogen that causes hemor-rhaging and septicemia in many cultured fishes. The infection kinetics of A. hydrophila in blunt-snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala were investigated with a strain, A. hydrophila WJ-8, that was transformed with a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (pEGFPuv-Kar). The purpose of this investigation was to fully eluci-date the pathogenesis of septicemia in blunt-snout bream and provide basic data on pathogenic factors of A. hy-drophila. Fish were divided into three experimental groups: group A, water temperature 25℃; group B, water temperature 32℃;and group C (control group), water

  15. Safe on My Phone? Same-Sex Attracted Young People’s Negotiations of Intimacy, Visibility, and Risk on Digital Hook-Up Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kath Albury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on focus group interviews with same-sex attracted Australian men and women aged 18-29, to reflect on their accounts of the perceived risks and opportunities offered by hook-up apps such as Grindr, Blendr, and Hornet. Until recently, scholarly accounts of same-sex attracted men hooking up online have primarily focused on measuring the safety of sexual encounters in relation to HIV and “risky” sexual practices. This article extends previous health-related studies by considering the ways that the exchange of sexually explicit digital self-portraits (or selfies feature within digital sexual negotiations and also exploring same-sex attracted women’s perceptions of safety and risk in relation to dating and hook-up apps and websites. It draws on recent scholarship on Grindr and other geo-locative hook-up apps to explore the material role that mobile phones and apps play in establishing a sense of safety, intimacy, and/or risk within flirtations and sexual interactions and the ways that young people’s “off-label” (or non-sexual uses of hook-up apps might facilitate (and diminish their sense of queer identity and visibility.

  16. Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimo bibliotekų tyrimas Windows API Hooking Libraries Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Radvilavičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Nagrinėjamos bibliotekos, skirtos Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimui. Sekų perėmimas gali būti panaudojamas įvairiose srityse: siekiant išsiaiškinti operacinės sistemos veikimo principus, norint atlikti programos derinimą arba pridėti papildomą funkcionalumą prie jau esamo. Straipsnyje apžvelgiamos Windows API ir pateikiamos trečiųjų šalių priemonės funkcijų sekoms  perimti. Aptariamos jų teikiamos galimybės, panaudojimo specifika. Taip pat atlikti testai, siekiant išsiaiškinti, kuri biblioteka su užduotimis susitvarko greičiausiai. Tyrimui pasirinkti du nemokami gaminiai: Microsoft Detours ir EasyHook bibliotekos.

    Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

    The paper describes methods how to apply Windows API hooking with third party libraries and solutions. In this research were used Windows API function SetWindowsHookEx, Detours and EasyHook libraries. Libraries methods, features and advantages were discussed in this paper. The practical part contains libraries tests. In analysis we tested target program start with hooking library and injected function call.

    Article in Lithuanian

  17. Reducing the Hook Defect of Friction Stir Lap Welded Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Slightly Penetrating into the Lower Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-02-01

    For the purpose of reducing the hook defect in friction stir lap welding joint, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was lap welded by slightly penetrating into the lower sheet. Hook feature, microstructure and mechanical properties of the lap joints were mainly discussed. Results show that using slight penetration, plastic material mainly concentrates above the lap interface, which is beneficial to suppress the primary hook and broaden the stir zone (SZ) width. Simultaneously, a very small secondary hook is formed. The void-like defect, which is formed due to high peak temperature and big temperature gradient along thickness, can be eliminated by decreasing the rotating speed. Microstructures along thickness show much difference due to big temperature gradient. SZ hardness of both the upper and lower sheets is higher than the base material due to finer grains. Bigger lap shear failure load can be obtained using 150 rpm, which is 17.1 KN. Lap joints fracture along the secondary hook and present ductile fracture mode.

  18. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  19. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  20. Research of Hybridization Pollination Technology in Chinese fir%杉木杂交授粉技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林源华

    2015-01-01

    该文从组织实施、雌雄花的特征、亲本选择、套袋隔离、花粉采集与处理、授粉等方面详细介绍了杉木人工控制授粉杂交制种技术.%In this paper,we particularly described the artificial pollination technology of Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook). It contained the aspects of organization and implementation,the characteristics of female and male flowers,parental choice,bagging isolation,pollen collection and pollination,and so on.

  1. The AT-hook DNA binding ability of the Epstein Barr virus EBNA1 protein is necessary for the maintenance of viral genomes in latently infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Adityarup; Sugden, Bill

    2015-10-01

    Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is a human tumor virus that is causally linked to malignancies such as Burkitt׳s lymphoma, and gastric and nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Tethering of EBV genomes to cellular chromosomes is required for the synthesis and persistence of viral plasmids in tumor cells. However, it is not established how EBV genomes are tethered to cellular chromosomes. We test the hypothesis that the viral protein EBNA1 tethers EBV genomes to chromosomes specifically through its N-terminal AT-hook DNA-binding domains by using a small molecule, netropsin, that has been shown to inhibit the AT-hook DNA-binding of EBNA1 in vitro. We show that netropsin forces the loss of EBV genomes from epithelial and lymphoid cells in an AT-hook dependent manner and that EBV-positive lymphoma cells are significantly more inhibited in their growth by netropsin than are corresponding EBV-negative cells.

  2. Role of rod diameter in comparison between only screws versus hooks and screws in posterior instrumentation of thoracic curve in idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamartina, Claudio; Petruzzi, Maria; Macchia, Marcello; Stradiotti, Paola; Zerbi, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    Since the introduction of Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in 1984, the correction techniques in scoliosis surgery have changed from Harrington principles of concave distraction to segmental realignment to a variety of possibilities including the rod rotation manoeuvres, and to segmental approximation via cantilever methods. Additionally, pedicle screw utilization in lumbar curves enhanced correction and stabilization of various deformities, and various studies have strongly supported the clinical advantages of lumbar pedicle screws versus conventional hook instrumentation. Pedicle screw constructs have become increasingly popular in the treatment of patients with spinal deformity. When applied to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, pedicle screw fixation has demonstrated increased corrective ability compared with traditional hook/hybrid instrumentation. In our study, we do a retrospective review of idiopathic scoliosis patients (King 2-Lenke 1 B/C) treated with a selective thoracic posterior fusion using an all-screw construct versus a hybrid (pedicle screws and hooks) construct and, compare the percentage of correction of the scoliotic curves obtained with screws alone and screws and hooks. Special attention was given to the rod diameter and correction technique. Our results show that the percentage of correction of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis is similar when treating the scoliosis with rods and screws alone or with rods, screws and hooks; therefore, we and the majority of authors in the literature do not consider the rod section. This can be an important parameter in the evaluation of the superiority of treatment with screws only or screws and hooks. In our study, even if not of statistical significance, the better thoracic curve correction obtained with the hybrid group should be ascribed to the fact that in this group mostly 6 mm rods were used.

  3. Vergelijking van de fysieke belasting bij het laten zakken van tomatenplanten bij gebruik van verschillende hoge draad haken = Effect of different high wire hooks on the physical load during lowering of tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Looije, A.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The modern way of producing tomatoes involves a high wire system with metal hooks, holding a rope that guides the growing tomato plant. Each rope is to be lowered periodically. The standard working technique requires one-handed lifting of the hook. This is generally experienced to be physically very

  4. Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2004-04-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a group of illnesses with multiple organ involvement. The prototype of this group of disorders is rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that aside from systemic organ involvement mainly presents with progressive destruction of many joints. Both activation and defective apoptosis of immune effector cells like T and B lymphocytes and macrophages play critical roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Current therapy for autoimmune diseases recommends a combination of several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that preserve different immunomodulatory mechanisms. Because of limited success in prevention of RA joint destruction for currently available DMARDs, the development of more effective and less toxic DMARDs has been one of the major goals for pharmaceutical companies. The introduction of leflunomide and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies to the market recently serves as examples. In this context, the experience from ancient Chinese medicine gives an alternative consideration looking for potential DMARDs. Two commonly prescribed Chinese antirheumatic herbs are Tripterygium wilfordii hook f (TWHf) and tetrandrine (Tet) that preserve both anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Importantly, the TWHf- or Tet-mediated immunomodulatory mechanisms are evidently different from the known DMARDs. The synergistic effects have also been demonstrated between these two Chinese antirheumatic herbs and DMARDs like FK506, cyclosporin and possibly chloroquine. Another potential Chinese herb for this consideration is Ginkgo biloba. This review summarizes evidence-based in vivo and in vitro studies on Chinese herbs as immunomodulators and potential DMARDs.

  5. Water status of bare—root seedlings of Chinese fir and Masson pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUFang-yuan; GUOXin-bao; XUXi-zeng

    2003-01-01

    Water relation parameters of bare-root seedlings of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.)and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)were measured and changes of root growth potential as well as field survival rate of both species were studied after the bare-root seedlings were exposed in a sunny field condition.the results showed that masson pine had a lower osmotic potential(-2.07Mpa) at turgor loss point and at full turgor(-1.29Mpa),compared with Chinese fir(-1.80Mpa and -1.08Mpa respectively).The parameter Vp/Vo(63.27%) of Masson pine was higher than that of chinese fir (58.03%).This means that Masson pine has a stronger ability to tolerate desiccation,compared to Chinese fir according to analysis of above water relation parameters.Root growth potential and field survival rate decreased with prolonging duration of exposure.The field survival rate of both species was reduced to less than 40% after the seedling being exposed only two hours.Water potentials of -1.60 Mpa and -1.70 Mpa were suggested to be critical values for Chinese fir and Masson pine respectively in successful reforestation.

  6. Pharmacognostic Study on the Leaves of Alsophila Spinulosa(Hook.)Tryon%桫椤叶的生药学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁光平; 朱玉梅; 李蒙禹; 王世清

    2013-01-01

    目的 对桫椤叶进行生药学研究,为桫椤叶的开发利用提供参考依据.方法 采用原植物鉴定、显微鉴别和薄层鉴别方法.结果 描述了桫椤叶的性状、粉末显微特征、成分预试以及薄层鉴别结果.结论 该研究为桫椤叶的深入研究和开发利用提供了理论依据和参考.%Alsophila spinulosa (Hook.)Tryon is one of the only existing woody ferns which is extremely scarced. It protected by many countries as an endangered plant. In this paper,the shape properties,microscopical feature,physical and chemical appraise of Alsophila spinulosa were studied by pharmacognosy method, such as their physicochemical characteristics were identified by using thin layer chromatography(TLC). Thus,it can be taken as the establishment of quality standard t pharmacognostic studies and the further utilization of the leaves of Alsophila spinulosa( Hook.) Tryon through the study on their pharmacognostic characteristics.

  7. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 is an AT-hook protein required for the formation of maize ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J

    2011-05-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein-protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche.

  8. BARREN STALK FASTIGIATE1 Is an AT-Hook Protein Required for the Formation of Maize Ears[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Andrea; Malcomber, Simon; Gaines, Craig; Stanfield, Sharon; Whipple, Clinton; Kellogg, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Ears are the seed-bearing inflorescences of maize (Zea mays) plants and represent a crucial component of maize yield. The first step in the formation of ears is the initiation of axillary meristems in the axils of developing leaves. In the classic maize mutant barren stalk fastigiate1 (baf1), first discovered in the 1950s, ears either do not form or, if they do, are partially fused to the main stalk. We positionally cloned Baf1 and found that it encodes a transcriptional regulator containing an AT-hook DNA binding motif. Single coorthologs of Baf1 are found in syntenic regions of brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), rice (Oryza sativa), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), suggesting that the gene is likely present in all cereal species. Protein–protein interaction assays suggest that BAF1 is capable of forming homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the AT-hook family. Another transcriptional regulator required for ear initiation is the basic helix-loop-helix protein BARREN STALK1 (BA1). Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Baf1 is required to reach a threshold level of Ba1 expression for the initiation of maize ears. We propose that Baf1 functions in the demarcation of a boundary region essential for the specification of a stem cell niche. PMID:21540434

  9. The snout of Paulocnus petrifactus (Mammalia, Edentata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1964-01-01

    A specimen of the ground sloth discovered by Mr. P. Stuiver in Curaçao, Paulocnus petrifactus Hooijer (1962), recently dressed from the matrix by Mr. P. H. de Buisonjé, comprises the front part of the mandible and the left half of the rostrum of the skull. It holds the left upper and right lower can

  10. 团头鲂幼鱼饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量%Optimal Dietary α-Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Contents of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚林杰; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 许凡; 刘猛; 刘汉超; 董娇娇; 陈科全; 黄雨薇

    2015-01-01

    在半纯化饲料配方的基础上,分别设计6个α-亚麻酸含量(0.02%、0.55%、1.08%、1.60%、2.13%、2.65%)、6个亚油酸含量(0.86%、1.29%、1.73%、2.16%、2.59%、3.03%),以亚麻籽油、玉米油、棕榈油调节饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的含量,配制等氮等能(粗蛋白质含量为30.09%,粗脂肪含量为6.87%)的12种半纯化试验饲料,探讨团头鲂幼鱼[初始均重为(59.5±0.5) g]饲料中α-亚麻酸、亚油酸的适宜含量。养殖试验分为α-亚麻酸和亚油酸试验2部分,均设6组,每组4个重复,每个重复20尾,养殖周期为85 d。结果表明:在α-亚麻酸试验中,依据回归方程计算得到,在饲料α-亚麻酸含量分别为1.32%、1.33%时,团头鲂幼鱼具有最大的特定生长率和最小的饲料系数;0.02%组的脏体指数显著低于除1.08%组外的其他各组( P0.05);0.02%组血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯含量显著高于0.55%、1.08%组(P0.05);1.29%组血清总胆固醇含量显著高于1.73%组(P0.05)。以特定生长率、饲料系数作为主要评价指标,结合部分血清生化指标和形体指标,得到适合团头鲂幼鱼快速生长、维持鱼体正常健康的饲料中适宜的亚麻酸、亚油酸含量分别为1.32%~1.33%、2.02%~2.03%。%This experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary α-linolenic acid ( LNA) and linoleic acid ( LA ) contents of blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala ) fingerlings [ intial average body weight of (59.5±0.5) g]. The flax seed oil, corn oil and palm oil were used as lipid sources to regulate dieta-ry LNA and LA contents, a total of 6 gradients of LNA content such as 0. 02%, 0. 55%, 1. 08%, 1. 60%, 2.13% and 2. 65%, and 6 gradients of LA content such as 0. 86%, 1. 29%, 1. 73%, 2. 16%, 2. 59% and 3.03% were designed. Twelve isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified experimental diets ( crude protein content was 30.09%, and lipid content was 6.87%) were formulated. The feeding trial included 2

  11. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  12. Stress induced by hooking, net towing, elevated sea water temperature and air in sablefish: Lack of concordance between mortality and physiological measures of stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In a series of laboratory studies designed to simulate bycatch processes, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria were either hooked for up to 24 h or towed in a net for 4 h and then subjected to an abrupt transfer to elevated sea water temperature and air. Mortality did not result from hooking or net towing followed by exposure to air, but increased for both capture methods as fish were exposed to elevated temperatures, reflecting the magnifying effect of elevated temperature on mortality. Hooking and exposure to air resulted in increased plasma cortisol and lactate concentrations, while the combination of hooking and exposure to elevated temperature and air resulted in increased lactate and potassium concentrations. In fish that were towed in a net and exposed to air, cortisol, lactate, potassium and sodium concentrations increased, but when subjected to elevated temperature and air, no further increases occurred above the concentrations induced by net towing and air, suggesting a possible maximum of the physiological stress response. The results suggest that caution should be exercised when using physiological measures to quantify stress induced by capture and exposure to elevated temperature and air, that ultimately result in mortality, since the connections between physiological stress and mortality in bycatch processes remain to be fully understood.

  13. Avulsion of malleoincudal complex with dislocation: A rare ossicular chain injury by using an indigenous claw-like ear hook with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Produl Hazarika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct ear trauma through external auditory canal causing an avulsion injury of malleoincudal complex is a grievous injury that can happen during ear cleaning with indigenous ear hook. One such case of avulsion injury is presented here with its symptomatology, investigation, and management with the review of available literature because of its rarity. Various locally designed indigenous ear hooks are available in street side markets and even online for purchase and used by many without knowing its ill effects on health. Injury caused by these types of hooks may lead to a severe hearing disability, if not properly treated. This presentation is to highlight the fact that indigenous ear hooks; rampantly available online for purchase can cause a potentially major injury leading to hearing disability and thereafter poor quality of life. Reporting and highlighting of such incidents among the ENT community can help increase the public awareness; thereby, eliminating such disastrous consequences. Wikipedia, PubMed, and Google search engine has been used for our data collection and analysis.

  14. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  15. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  16. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  17. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  18. In vitro studies of the anthelmintic activity of Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. (Simaroubaceae Estudos in vitro da atividade anti-helmíntica de Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. (Simaroubaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Saraiva Nunomura

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available 1300 ppm (1.3 g / L, water and ethanol extracts prepared from stems or roots of Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. were lethal (85-90 % mortality in vitro to Haemonchus contortus (Barber Pole Worm larvae, a gastrointestinal nematode parasite found in domestic and wild ruminants. Neosergeolide and isobrucein B were isolated in 0.0083 and 0.0070 % yield from dry, ground P. sprucei stems (0.89 kg. Neosergeolide, isobrucein B and the anthelmintic drug standard levamisole all caused comparable mortality rates (68-77 % in vitro to H. contortus at similar concentrations (81-86 ppm. The anthelmintic activity of P. sprucei infusions (teas, alcohol extracts, and neosergeolide and isobrucein B, has therefore been demonstrated for the first time.Na concentração de 1300 ppm (1.3 g / L, extratos aquosos e etanólicos preparados a partir dos caules ou raízes de Picrolemma sprucei Hook. f. apresentaram letalidade (85-90 % de mortalidade in vitro para Haemonchus contortus, um nematóide parasítico do aparelho gastrointestinal de ruminantes domesticos e silvestres. Neosergeolida e isobruceina B foram isoladas dos caules em rendimentos de 0.0083 and 0.0070 %, respectivamente. Essas últimas e a droga anti-helmíntica levamisole provocaram mortalidade semelhante in vitro (68-77 % em H. contortus em concentrações semelhantes (81-86 ppm. A atividade anti-helmíntica in vitro de infusões e extratos alcoólicos dos caules, bem como da neosergeolida e isobruceina B isoladas de P. sprucei, foi demonstrada pela primeira vez.

  19. A New Technique for Superselective Catheterization of Arteries: Preshaping of a Micro-Guide Wire into a Shepherd's Hook Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jee Hyun; Chung; Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    We wanted to introduce a new technique for superselective catheterization of arteries with preshaping of a micro-guide wire into a shepherd's hook form, and this is useful for superselection of small arteries branching at an acute angle from a large parent artery for the treatment of tumors and hemorrhages. We developed a superselective catheterization technique by using preshaping of a micro-guide wire into a shepherd's hook form. We encountered six patients in our practice for whom we failed to catheterize the small tumor-feeding arteries that branched at an acute angle from wide parent arteries during chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma; the parent arteries were the right inferior phrenic artery (n = 4) and the left gastric artery (n = 1) from the celiac axis with celiac stenosis due to compression by the median arcuate ligament and the proper hepatic artery from the gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) in a patient who had celiac axis occlusion with collateral circulation via the pancreaticoduodenal arcade from the superior mesenteric artery. In these consecutive six patients, we tested the usefulness of this new technique with employing preshaping of a micro-guide wire into a shepherd's hook form for superselective catheterization of targeted vessels. The target arteries were successfully catheterized and satisfactory transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed in all six patients. There were no significant complications such as arterial dissection. We developed a technique that is effective for superselection of vessels with preshaping of micro-guide wire into a shepherd's hook hook form, and we successfully applied it during chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. This technique can be useful for superselection of small arteries that branch from a large parent artery at acute angles for the treatment of tumors and hemorrhages.

  20. Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Pregnancy using Diathermy Hook with Conservation of Ovary: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha K. Gebeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old woman presented with a 7-week history of irregular vaginal bleeding without abdominal pain. She had been using the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD for the last 3 years. A pregnancy test was positive and subsequent serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG was 4992 mIU/mL. A transvaginal ultrasound scan demonstrated an empty uterus with an associated adnexal mass but no free fluid. A right primary ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed a laparoscopy. This was managed laparoscopically using monopolar diathermy hook with conservation of the ovary and minimal blood loss. Ovarian pregnancy is rare, especially in women without the classical risk factors for tubal pregnancy, and efforts should be made to exclude ectopic pregnancy in the absence of abdominal pain in a woman of reproductive age presenting with prolonged and irregular vaginal bleeding. Methods to conserve the ovary are also encouraged in cases of ovarian pregnancy.

  1. Effects of different factors on immature embryo culture, PLBs differentiation and rapid mass multiplication of Coelogyne suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkumlong; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2008-04-01

    In vitro mass production of C. suaveolens (Lindl.) Hook, an endangered orchid with its snowy white flowers having horticultural potential was accomplished through immature seed culture, and subsequent plant regeneration. The developmental stage of the immature seeds and nutrient media significantly influenced the germination frequency. Seeds at 13 months after pollination cultured on 3% sucrose containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 9 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and 15% coconut water exhibited 93% germination after 40 days of culture. Upon subculture, the germinated shoots on MS medium with 9 microM BA, 6 microM NAA, 3% casein hydrolysate and 0.1% activated charcoal (AC) yielded >12 shoots per shoot or bud. Addition of AC favoured the enlargement of pseudobulbs and better rooting. The plantlets transferred to community potting mix after in vitro hardening (8-10 wk) displayed 85% survival.

  2. Near-Origin Structure of the Hooke's Atoms%Near-Origin Structure of the Hooke's Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅

    2012-01-01

    The Hooke's atoms with two or more than two electrons give rise to an interesting quantum mechanical model with valuable practical applications. In this work, we study the electronic properties near the origin of the harmonic potential. It is seen that the spherically averaged density, ~, exhibits an interesting character -- it has only even order terms in its small r expansion. The spherical average of the Hartree potential, ~, and the spherical average of the Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation potential, 9~c, are also shown to have the same property -- all odd order terms in their expansions vanish. F~rthermore, the analysis and results extend also to the case of two-dimensional models. While only models interacting via. the Coulomb potential are primarily considered in the article, the results also extend to models interacting via. other potentials (viz. Van der Waals potential).

  3. The BID Domain of Type IV Secretion Substrates Forms a Conserved Four-Helix Bundle Topped with a Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Frédéric V; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Dranow, David M; Schirmer, Tilman; Phan, Isabelle; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-01-03

    The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook. The conserved hydrophobic core provides a rigid scaffold to a surface that, despite a few conserved exposed residues and similarities in charge distribution, displays significant variability. We propose that the genuine function of BID domains as T4S signal may primarily depend on their rigid structure, while the plasticity of their surface may facilitate adaptation to secondary effector functions.

  4. Dishevelled binds the Discs large 'Hook' domain to activate GukHolder-dependent spindle positioning in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Garcia

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical cell polarity cues and the mitotic spindle ensures proper orientation of cell divisions within complex tissues. Defects in mitotic spindle positioning have been linked to various developmental disorders and have recently emerged as a potential contributor to tumorigenesis. Despite the importance of this process to human health, the molecular mechanisms that regulate spindle orientation are not fully understood. Moreover, it remains unclear how diverse cortical polarity complexes might cooperate to influence spindle positioning. We and others have demonstrated spindle orientation roles for Dishevelled (Dsh, a key regulator of planar cell polarity, and Discs large (Dlg, a conserved apico-basal cell polarity regulator, effects which were previously thought to operate within distinct molecular pathways. Here we identify a novel direct interaction between the Dsh-PDZ domain and the alternatively spliced "I3-insert" of the Dlg-Hook domain, thus establishing a potential convergent Dsh/Dlg pathway. Furthermore, we identify a Dlg sequence motif necessary for the Dsh interaction that shares homology to the site of Dsh binding in the Frizzled receptor. Expression of Dsh enhanced Dlg-mediated spindle positioning similar to deletion of the Hook domain. This Dsh-mediated activation was dependent on the Dlg-binding partner, GukHolder (GukH. These results suggest that Dsh binding may regulate core interdomain conformational dynamics previously described for Dlg. Together, our results identify Dlg as an effector of Dsh signaling and demonstrate a Dsh-mediated mechanism for the activation of Dlg/GukH-dependent spindle positioning. Cooperation between these two evolutionarily-conserved cell polarity pathways could have important implications to both the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis in animals.

  5. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  6. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  7. Clinical Study of Pulmonary Ground Glass Nodules Under CT Guided Hook-wire and Thoracoscopic Resection%肺磨玻璃结节CT引导下Hook-wire定位及胸腔镜下切除的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯为; 廖明; 李金昌; 董雷; 刘大胜; 潘鑫福

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the lung nodules suture of the value of preoperative CT guided positioning.Methods In July 2014 to January 2015,a total of 15 patients,15 smal nodules,vats resection,preoperative al row CT guided Hook-wire positioning. Record CT guided Hook-wire positioning operation time,complications,thoracoscope surgery to the risk of open chest surgery,length of hospital stay,etc. Lesion type organization credits in malignant probability calculation,discuss the lungs<10 mm of GGO actively the necessity of surgical treatment.Results A total of 15 patients with 15 tuberous thoracoscope resection,preoperative CT guided Hook-wire positioning success rate 100%,3 cases of benign lesions(20%),1 case of sclerosing hemangioma,2 cases of inflammatory pseudotumor. 12 cases of lung cancer,intraoperative CT scan is the most common complication occurs when a smal amount of pneumothorax,no needle fal off.Conclusion CT guided Hook-wire positioning for GGO preoperative location provides a very good method.%目的:评价肺小结节胸腔镜术前CT引导下定位的价值。方法2014年7月~2015年1月共15例患者,15个微小结节,行胸腔镜切除术,术前皆行CT引导下Hook-wire定位。记录CT引导下Hook-wire定位操作时间、并发症、胸腔镜手术转为开胸手术的机率、住院时间等,计算病灶组织学分型中的恶性机率,讨论肺部<10 mm的GGO积极手术治疗的必要性。结果共15个患者行15个结节胸腔镜切除术,术前CT引导下Hook-wire定位成功率100%,良性病灶3例(20%):硬化性血管瘤1例,炎性假瘤2例;肺癌12例,术中最常见的并发症是CT扫描时出现少量气胸,并无穿刺针脱落。结论 CT引导下Hook-wire定位为GGO术前定位提供了一个非常好的方法。

  8. Clinical Study of Intra-operative Computed Tomography Guided Localization with A Hook-wire System for Small Ground Glass Opacities in Minimally Invasive Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang CHU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass small nodule is the technical difficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of intraoperative computed tomography (CT-guided localization using a hook-wire system for small ground glass opacity (GGO in minimally invasive resection, as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of small GGOs (<10 mm through a minimally invasive approach. Methods The records of 32 patients with 41 small GGOs who underwent intraoperative CT-guided double-thorn hook wire localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection from October 2009 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS within 10 min after wire localization. The efficacy of intraoperative localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization. Results A total of 32 patients (15 males and 17 females underwent 41 VATS resections, with 2 simultaneous nodule resections performed in 3 patients, 3 lesion resections in 1 patient, and 5 lesions in a patient. Nodule diameters ranged from 2 mm-10 mm (mean: 5 mm. The distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-24 mm (mean: 12.5 mm. All resections of lesions guided by the inserted hook wires were successfully performed by VATS (100% success rate. The mean procedure time for the CT-guided hook wire localization was 8.4 min (range: 4 min-18 min. The mean procedure time for VATS was 32 min (range: 14 min-98 min. The median hospital time was 8 d (range: 5 d-14 d. Results of pathological examination revealed 28 primary lung cancers, 9 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and 4 nonspecific chronic inflammations. No major complication related to the intraoperative hook wire localization and VATS was noted. Conclusion Intraoperative CT-guided hook wire

  9. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  10. Stress fracture of hamate's hook: case report with emphasis to the imaging findings; Fratura de stress do gancho do hamato: relato de caso com enfase aos achados de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo Fontenelle de [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vianna, Evandro Miguelote; Domingues, Romulo; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Clinicas Multimagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Metsavaht, Leonardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: leofcbh@hotmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Stress fractures of the hook of the hamate are related to sports that use devices such as golf clubs, rackets and baseball bats. Because usually there is no history of obvious trauma, the diagnosis necessitates better knowledge of the lesion and high index of suspicion. The authors report a case of stress fracture of the hook of the hamate in a golf player with diagnosis and follow-up done with magnetic resonance and multislice computer tomography. (author)

  11. Content Analysis of Select YouTube Postings: Comparisons of Reactions to the Sandy Hook and Aurora Shootings and Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric D

    2015-11-01

    This study details an innovative and methodical content analysis of 2,207 YouTube comments from four different YouTube videos (e.g., breaking news or memorials) related to the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School and Aurora theater mass shootings and the catastrophic Hurricane Sandy. As expected, YouTube comments associated with the Sandy Hook shootings (particularly those from a memorial video) were especially likely to feature compassion and grief with lessened hostility. This study highlights differing online contexts by which individuals show grief and related emotions following man-made and natural calamities and how-even in an online environment-powerful situational contexts greatly guide behavior.

  12. 筒鞘蛇菰化学成分研究%Study on Chemical Constituents of Balanophora involucrata Hook. f.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海云; 杨尚军; 白少岩

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究筒鞘蛇菰Balanophora involucrata Hook. f.的化学成分。方法采用硅胶柱色谱、ODS反相柱色谱、核磁共振波谱(NMR)和电子轰击质谱(EI-MS)等对该植物石油醚和乙酸乙酯提取部位的化学成分进行分离鉴定。结果共分离鉴定了11个单体化合物,分别为乙酸羽扇豆醇(Ⅰ)、硬脂酸(Ⅱ)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅲ)、胡萝卜苷(Ⅳ)、没食子酸(Ⅴ)、短叶苏木酚酸乙酯(Ⅵ)、圣草酚(Ⅶ)、三叶苷(Ⅷ)、毛蕊异黄酮-7-O-β-D-葡糖苷(Ⅸ)、3',4'-二羟基黄酮-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(Ⅹ)、3-羟基根皮苷(Ⅺ)。结论化合物Ⅴ为首次从该植物中发现,化合物Ⅱ、Ⅵ、Ⅸ、Ⅹ为首次从该属植物中分离得到。%Objective To investigate the chemical compositions of Balanophora involucrate Hook. f.. Methods The compounds were isolated and purified from the plant with silica gel column chromatography, ODS reverse-phase column chromatography, and the chemical constituents were identified on the basis of NMR, EI-MS and other analytical techniques.Results Eleven compounds were isolated and identified as lupeol acetate (Ⅰ), stearic acid (Ⅱ),β-sitosterol (Ⅲ), daucosterol (Ⅳ), gallic acid (Ⅴ), ethyl brevifolin carboxylate (Ⅵ), eriodictyol (Ⅶ), trilobatin (Ⅷ), calycosin-7-O-β-D-glycoside (Ⅸ), 3’,4’-dihydroxy flavonoid-7-O-β-D-glycoside (Ⅹ), 3-hydroxy-phloridzin (Ⅺ). Conclusion CompoundⅤwas isolated from the plant for the first time, compoundsⅡ,Ⅵ,Ⅸ,Ⅹwere isolated from Balanophora for the first time.

  13. Suppression of ϒ{hooked}(1S) at forward rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the inclusive ϒ{hooked}(1S) production in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV carried out at forward rapidity (2.5

  14. Microwave extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. using ionic liquid as the microwave absorption medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yujuan; Sun, Shuo; Wang, Ziming; Cheng, Jianhua; Sun, Yantao; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Yupu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2009-10-01

    Ionic liquid was used as microwave absorption medium and applied to the extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of the Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cuminum cyminum L. by microwave-assisted extraction. The extraction time is less than 15 min at the microwave power of 440 W. The constituents of essential oils obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained by hydrodistillation. There is no obvious difference in the constituents of essential oils obtained by the two methods.

  15. Liverworts of peatlands and tepualia stipularis (hook. & arn.) griseb. swamp forests in isla grande de chiloé (chile): key for identification

    OpenAIRE

    León, Carolina; Oliván, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Bryophytes play a key role in peatland ecosystems; they participate directly in the constitution of peat and in the maintenance of these ecosystems. Nevertheless, the knowledge of this group is highly limited, specifically for liverworts. Therefore, we present a key to determine liverworts, restricted to peatland habitats and swamp forests of Tepualia stipularis (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. of Isla Grande de Chiloé (Chile). This key includes the main reported taxa for these ecosystems and it is...

  16. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  17. CT fluoroscopy-guided preoperative short hook wire placement for small pulmonary lesions: evaluation of safety and identification of risk factors for pneumothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Toshihiro; Hiraki, Takao; Gobara, Hideo; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Matsui, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Susumu [Okayama University Medical School, Departments of Radiology, Okayama (Japan); Miyoshi, Shinichiro [Okayama University Medical School, General Thoracic Surgery, Okayama (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the safety of computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopy-guided short hook wire placement for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and the risk factors for pneumothorax associated with this procedure. We analyzed 267 short hook wire placements for 267 pulmonary lesions (mean diameter, 9.9 mm). Multiple variables related to the patients, lesions, and procedures were assessed to determine the risk factors for pneumothorax. Complications (219 grade 1 and 4 grade 2 adverse events) occurred in 196 procedures. No grade 3 or above adverse events were observed. Univariate analysis revealed increased vital capacity (odds ratio [OR], 1.518; P = 0.021), lower lobe lesion (OR, 2.343; P = 0.001), solid lesion (OR, 1.845; P = 0.014), prone positioning (OR, 1.793; P = 0.021), transfissural approach (OR, 11.941; P = 0.017), and longer procedure time (OR, 1.036; P = 0.038) were significant predictors of pneumothorax. Multivariate analysis revealed only the transfissural approach (OR, 12.171; P = 0.018) and a longer procedure time (OR, 1.048; P = 0.012) as significant independent predictors. Complications related to CT fluoroscopy-guided preoperative short hook wire placement often occurred, but all complications were minor. A transfissural approach and longer procedure time were significant independent predictors of pneumothorax. (orig.)

  18. Using a bioenergetic model to assess growth reduction from catch-and-release fishing and hooking injury in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, J.M.; Margraf, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    A bioenergetic model was used to predict the potential effects of feeding cessation caused by catch-and-release capture and a reduction in feeding efficiency from hooking injuries on rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), growth in southwest Alaska, USA. Simulations indicated that a 1-day feeding cessation for a rainbow trout captured one to two times during summer months resulted in deviations from expected growth of −3% to −15%. To represent debilitating hooking injuries, the proportion of the maximum feeding potential was decreased by 5–50% resulting in deviations from expected growth of −9% to −164%. Simulated growth effects were most prominent from captures during months when salmon eggs and flesh constituted the majority of the trout diet. Simulated growth effects from reduced foraging efficiency were most prominent when hooking injuries occurred early in the fishing season. These simulations suggest that rainbow trout are most vulnerable to decreases in growth when salmon are abundant and spawning and, coincidentally, during the months when most fishing occurs.

  19. 锋钩针钩割肩胛骨内缘浅识%Preliminary Understanding of Spike-hooked Needle Cutting the Medial Border of Scapula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文德; 刘东升

    2016-01-01

    Pricking and cutting treatment with spike-hooked needles often has an immediate effect on diseases with fixed pain points. This article, from anatomic position, point checking method, therapeutic procedures and clinical application, presents the clinical experience of spike-hooked needle cutting the medial border of scapula and shows that spike-hooked needle cutting scapular spine margin can not only treat meridian sinew diseases but also has a marked therapeutic effect on many craniofacial and visceral diseases.%锋钩针点刺钩割治疗有固定痛点的病症多有立竿见影之效。该文从解剖定位、查穴方法、治疗操作、临床应用等方面介绍锋钩针勾割肩胛骨内缘的临床经验,证实锋钩针钩治肩胛骨脊柱缘不仅可以治疗经筋病,而且对诸多头面脏腑疾患同样具有显著的疗效。

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  1. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  2. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  3. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...

  4. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  5. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  6. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  7. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  8. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  9. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  10. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  11. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines.

  12. Ameliorating effect of new constituents from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla on scopolamine-induced memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIN Suk-Chul; LEE Dong-Ung

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To study the chemical constituents and their anti-amnesic effect from the hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla.METHODS:The isolation of compounds was performed by chromatographic techniques and their structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis.Their ameliorating effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo using a Morris water-maze task and passive avoidance task system were evaluated.RESULTS:Activity-guided fractionation of the total extracts resulted in the isolation of four constituents,trans-anethole (1),p-anisaldehyde (2),estragole (3),and 3-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4),which were found for the first time from this plant.CONCLUSION:Compound 1 exhibited a better memory enhancing effect than tacrine,a positive agent,at the same dose in the passive avoidance test and a similar property in the water-maze test,and its action may be mediated,in part,by the acetylcholine enhancing cholinergic nervous system.

  13. SA1 binds directly to DNA through its unique AT-hook to promote sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Kamlesh K; Daniloski, Zharko; Smith, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion relies on cohesin, a complex comprising a tri-partite ring and a peripheral subunit Scc3, which is found as two related isoforms SA1 and SA2 in vertebrates. There is a division of labor between the vertebrate cohesin complexes; SA1-cohesin is required at telomeres and SA2-cohesin at centromeres. Depletion of SA1 has dramatic consequences for telomere function and genome integrity, but the mechanism by which SA1-cohesin mediates cohesion at telomeres is not well understood. Here we dissect the individual contribution of SA1 and the ring subunits to telomere cohesion and show that telomeres rely heavily on SA1 and to a lesser extent on the ring for cohesion. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we show that SA1 is highly enriched at telomeres, is decreased at mitosis when cohesion is resolved, and is increased when cohesion persists. Overexpression of SA1 alone was sufficient to induce cohesion at telomeres, independent of the cohesin ring and dependent on its unique (not found in SA2) N-terminal domain, which we show binds to telomeric DNA through an AT-hook motif. We suggest that a specialized cohesion mechanism may be required to accommodate the high level of DNA replication-associated repair at telomeres.

  14. Optimizing pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters of AA6061 aluminium alloy using Hooke and Jeeves algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. BABU; T. SENTHIL KUMAR; V. BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2008-01-01

    Though the preferred welding process to weld aluminium alloy is frequently constant current gas tungsten arc welding (CCGTAW), it resulted in grain coarsening at the fusion zone and heat affected zone(HAZ). Hence, pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding(PCGTAW) was performed, to yield finer fusion zone grains, which leads to higher strength of AA6061 (Al-Mg-Si) aluminium alloy joints. In order to determine the most influential control factors which will yield minimum fusion zone grain size and maximum tensile strength of the joints, the traditional Hooke and Jeeves pattern search method was used. The experiments were carried out based on central composite design with 31 runs and an algorithm was developed to optimize the fusion zone grain size and the tensile strength of pulsed current gas tungsten arc welded AA6061 aluminium aUoy joints. The results indicate that the peak current (Ip) and base current (IB) are the most significant parameters, to decide the fusion zone grain size and the tensile strength of the AA6061 aluminum alloy joints.

  15. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kristin Perras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncultivated Ca. Altiarchaeum hamiconexum (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks (hami on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal phylum at their N-terminal region (47-44% identity. Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins.

  16. S-layers at second glance? Altiarchaeal grappling hooks (hami) resemble archaeal S-layer proteins in structure and sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perras, Alexandra K; Daum, Bertram; Ziegler, Christine; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Ahmed, Musahid; Wanner, Gerhard; Klingl, Andreas; Leitinger, Gerd; Kolb-Lenz, Dagmar; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Auerbach, Anna; Mora, Maximilian; Probst, Alexander J; Bellack, Annett; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The uncultivated "Candidatus Altiarchaeum hamiconexum" (formerly known as SM1 Euryarchaeon) carries highly specialized nano-grappling hooks ("hami") on its cell surface. Until now little is known about the major protein forming these structured fibrous cell surface appendages, the genes involved or membrane anchoring of these filaments. These aspects were analyzed in depth in this study using environmental transcriptomics combined with imaging methods. Since a laboratory culture of this archaeon is not yet available, natural biofilm samples with high Ca. A. hamiconexum abundance were used for the entire analyses. The filamentous surface appendages spanned both membranes of the cell, which are composed of glycosyl-archaeol. The hami consisted of multiple copies of the same protein, the corresponding gene of which was identified via metagenome-mapped transcriptome analysis. The hamus subunit proteins, which are likely to self-assemble due to their predicted beta sheet topology, revealed no similiarity to known microbial flagella-, archaella-, fimbriae- or pili-proteins, but a high similarity to known S-layer proteins of the archaeal domain at their N-terminal region (44-47% identity). Our results provide new insights into the structure of the unique hami and their major protein and indicate their divergent evolution with S-layer proteins.

  17. Immunoregulatory Effects of Triptergium Wilfordii Hook at Antifertility Dose on Splenic NK Cells Activity in Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐铮; 路秀英; 修贺明; 李彬; 贾太和

    1999-01-01

    Effects of Tripterypium Wilfordii Hook f(TWH)on spermatozoa in the epi-didymis and splenic NK cells activity in male mice were observed using MTT assay and silver impregnation methods.The results showed that the density,viability and motility of the epididymal spermatozoa in the experimental groups treated with TWH were more significantly reduced than those in the control group (P<0.01).The headswelling,head separation from tail in the groups treated with TWH were observed.The inhibition of splenic NK cells activity in mice by TWH was dose-dependent.Inhi-bition by T Ⅱ and TWH at high dose on the NK cells activity was significant(P<0.01 and P<0.05),while inhibitory effects of TWH at intermediate and low doses on the NK cells activity were not observed (P<0.05).It was concluded that TWH at lower antifertility dose did not significantly inhibit the splenic NK cells activity.It might be useful for evaluating the therapeutic effects of TWH in future clinical prac-tice.

  18. Metal-coupled folding as the driving force for the extreme stability of Rad50 zinc hook dimer assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochańczyk, Tomasz; Nowakowski, Michał; Wojewska, Dominika; Kocyła, Anna; Ejchart, Andrzej; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Krężel, Artur

    2016-11-01

    The binding of metal ions at the interface of protein complexes presents a unique and poorly understood mechanism of molecular assembly. A remarkable example is the Rad50 zinc hook domain, which is highly conserved and facilitates the Zn2+-mediated homodimerization of Rad50 proteins. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the structural and thermodynamic effects governing the formation and stability (logK12 = 20.74) of this evolutionarily conserved protein assembly. We have dissected the determinants of the stability contributed by the small β-hairpin of the domain surrounding the zinc binding motif and the coiled-coiled regions using peptides of various lengths from 4 to 45 amino acid residues, alanine substitutions and peptide bond-to-ester perturbations. In the studied series of peptides, an >650 000-fold increase of the formation constant of the dimeric complex arises from favorable enthalpy because of the increased acidity of the cysteine thiols in metal-free form and the structural properties of the dimer. The dependence of the enthalpy on the domain fragment length is partially compensated by the entropic penalty of domain folding, indicating enthalpy-entropy compensation. This study facilitates understanding of the metal-mediated protein-protein interactions in which the metal ion is critical for the tight association of protein subunits.

  19. Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke. Pioneers in mathematical analysis and catastrophe theory from evolvents to quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnol'D, V. I.

    This book is an English translation of the Russian original of 1989. It is based on a college lecture commemorating the tercentenary of Newton's book Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. The author retraces the beginnings of mathematical analysis and theoretical physics in the works of the great scientists of the 17th century, and recounts the history of the discovery of the law of gravitation, discussions Newton had with Hooke and Leibniz, and much more. Some of Huygens' and Newton's ideas, several centuries ahead of their time, were developed only recently. The author follows the link between their inception and the break-throughs in contemporary mathematics and physics. The book provides present-day generalizations of Newton's theorems on the elliptical shape of orbits, attraction of spheres, and on the transcendence of Abelian integrals; it offers a brief review of the theory of regular and chaotic movement in celestial mechanics, including, for example, the problem of ports in the distribution of smaller planets and a discussion of the structure of planetary rings.

  20. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  1. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  2. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  3. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  4. The clinical value of CT guidance Hook-wire positioning thoracoscopic surgery for ground-glass opacity lung nodules%术前CT引导下Hook-wire定位胸腔镜切除肺毛玻璃样结节临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓俊; 仲宁; 陈文

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨CT引导下Hook-wire术前定位肺磨玻璃样结节(GGO)在胸腔镜切除术中的应用。方法:25例肺GGO患者均术前行Hook-wire定位,行胸腔镜肺楔形切除术。根据术中冰冻病理结果决定下一步治疗方式。结果:肺GGO直径为(11.48±3.50)mm,距离壁层胸膜(16.52±5.98)mm。CT引导肺GGO Hook-wire定位均成功,定位时间(15.04±3.38)min,出现微量气胸5例(占20%),均不需放置引流管,1例出现少许肺实质出血(占4.00%),无一例出现定位针脱落,实施胸腔镜肺楔形切除100%,其中12例单纯行胸腔镜肺楔形切除手术时间为(21.67±3.94)min,13例为浸润性腺癌,行胸腔镜肺叶或是肺段切除及淋巴结清扫术,手术时间为(58.84±12.01)min。结论:术前CT引导下Hook-wire定位是一种安全可靠且容易掌握的临床技术,降低了手术时间,并发症少,值得临床推广应用。%Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of guidance Hook-wire positioning for ground-glass opacity before video-assisted thoracoscopic resection.Methods: Preoperative location of 25 patients with ground-glass opacity lung nodules was performed using CT-guided Hook-wire technique. Video assisted tho-racic surgery (VATS) pulmonary wedge resection was adopted. According to the result of intraoperative frozen pathology, the next mode of operation was adopted.Results: GGO diameter (11.48±3.50) mm, diatance from the parietal pleura (16.52±5.98) mm. Twenty ifve patients were successfully located. The mean procedure time for preoperative CT-guided Hook-wire location was (15.04±3.38) min. 5 patients had micro pneumothroax after positioning. The chest tube drainage was not required. One patient had minimal needle tract parenchymal hemor-rhages. No one occured migration and fall out of the hookwire. VATS wedge resection surgery successful rate was 100%. Twelve cases of pure thoracoscopy pulmonary wedge

  5. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  6. Effects of site management treatments on growth of six-year-old, second-rotation Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zongming; FAN Shaohui; LU Jingming; YANG Xujing; WENG Xianquan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of five different site management treatments on the productivity of a six-year-old and secondrotation Chinese fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook.)plantations planted after harvesting a 29-year-old and first-rotation Chinese fir plantation in Xiayang State Forest Farm,Nanping,Fujian Province,were studied.Results showed that the Chinese fir grew best on plots treated with the double slash treatment(BL3),followed by the whole tree harvest(BL1)and the slash burning treatment(SB),and poorest on treatment BL2(normal slash retention)and BL0 (removal of all organic matter aboveground).The site index of the second rotation Chinese fir plantations in BL3 and BL0 treatments increased by 0.56 and 0.27,respectively,compared with the first rotation,and decreased in the rest of the three treatments.Compared with the first rotation,the site index of the second rotation treated with BL1,SB and BL2 treatments decreased by 0.39,0.45 and 0.63,respectively.Differences among the treatments were not statistically significant.

  7. COLOR CHANGE OF CHINESE FIR THROUGH STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown wood color is a current trend and widely appreciated by consumers in the furniture and decoration markets. Heat treatment is one of the most effective methods to darken wood’s appearance. The influence of steam-heat treatment on color change of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. was investigated within the temperature range from 170 to 230 oC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an air-tight chamber within an atmosphere comprising less than 2 percent oxygen. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (△C* decreased gradually, while the color difference (△E* and hue difference (△H* increased with an increase in temperature and length of time. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multi-comparison analysis revealed that the treatment temperature plays a more important role in darkening wood color during the process of steam-heat treatment in comparison with the treatment time. The results suggest that a more desirable wood color can be achieved with the technology of steam-heat treatment.

  8. Application of Hook-wire in the puncture localization of pulmonary simple ground-glass like nodule before thoracoscopic surgery%胸腔镜术前Hook-wire穿刺定位肺部单纯性磨玻璃样结节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶红雨; 黄伟钊; 吴颖猛; 梁毅; 郑俊猛; 姜海明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胸腔镜术前采用hook-wire穿刺定位肺部单纯性磨玻璃样结节的应用价值.方法 39例患者,共41个直径小于2 cm的肺部pGGO病灶,行全胸腔镜下病灶切除术,术前均在DSA Innova CT引导下采用hook-wire对病灶穿刺定位,对临床数据进行回顾性分析,对手指触诊阳性率与病灶临床因素进行相关性分析,比较手指触诊与hook-wire定位的成功率,总结hook-wire定位定位的并发症等.结果 术中触诊12个病灶(29.3%)可触及并明确定位;3个病灶(7.3%)术中发现穿刺针移位;病灶的大小、深浅、病理类型、所在部位以及穿刺定位过程的时间长短,与触诊的阳性率无显著关系,39个(95.1%)病灶可通过hook-wire准确定位,与触诊比较准确性有显著差异(P<0.01);常见并发症为无症状气胸5例(12.8%),血胸2例(5.2%),严重胸痛1例(2.6%).结论 对于小于直径2 cm的肺部pGGO,胸腔镜手术有必要常规进行病灶的定位,其中采用Hook-wire对病灶进行穿刺定位是一项有效、安全的技术.

  9. The influence of humic substance on Cd accumulation of phytostabilizer Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Juan; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou; Zhao, Li

    2016-09-01

    The application of organic amendments into heavy metal contaminated soil is considered as an environmentally friendly technique to promote the potential of phytoremediation. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of humic substances on growth, cadmium (Cd) accumulation and phytostabilization potential of the mining ecotype (ME) and the corresponding non-mining ecotype (NME) of Athyrium wardii (Hook.) grown in Cd-contaminated soils. The addition of the humic substances demonstrated great promotion for the growth and Cd uptake of ME. Both plant biomass and Cd concentration significantly increased with the increasing application of the humic substances up to 100 g kg(-1), beyond which no significant change of underground part biomass and Cd concentrations in underground part of A. wardii was observed. The maximum Cd concentration in underground part of ME was 180 mg kg(-1) when 150 g kg(-1) humic substances were applied. The ME showed greater Cd accumulation capability in underground part (0.47-0.68 mg plant(-1)) than that of NME (0.27-0.45 mg plant(-1)). Increasing bioaccumulation coefficient (BCF) values of A. wardii was observed with increasing application of the humic substances. The BCF values of ME were higher than those of NME. However, the use of the humic substances exhibited little impact on translocation factors (TFs) of ME, and the TF values of ME were less than NME. Furthermore, the application of the humic substances improved the remediation factors (RFs) of A. wardii. The RF values in underground part of ME ranging from 0.73 to 0.91 % were apparently higher than those of NME. These results indicated that the humic substances can be a potential candidate for enhancing the phytostabilization of A. wardii grown in Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. Posterior Fixation with Unilateral Same Segment Pedicle Fixation and Contralateral Hook in Surgical Treatment of Thoracolumbar Burst Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background In surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, most authors try to lower the number of vertebrae involved during the surgery. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of a medium-segment posterior spinal fixation in these patients. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients (18 male, 9 female with mean age of 39.4 ± 15.0 years old in a before-and-after study. The mean follow-up period was 38.4 ± 15.6 months. We involved 2 intact above vertebrae and one intact below vertebra, inserting a pedicular screw at the fractured level and supplemented the construct with contralateral infralaminar hook. Clinical and radiologic characteristics were assessed with American spinal injury association (ASIA scale, oswestry disability index (ODI, visual analogue scale (VAS, and plain radiography. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS version 11.5 software. Results Mean post traumatic kyphosis was + 15.7° ± 3.3° that was changed to - 8.5° ± 4.3° and +1° ± 4.4° at immediate and last visit after surgery, respectively. Mean loss of correction (LOC was 9.5° ± 1.9° (P < 0.001. At the most recent follow-up visit, mean ODI and VAS were 15.0 ± 14.4 and 2.4 ± 2.5, respectively and 24 cases (88.9% declared excellent or good clinical results. At the last follow-up visit, LOC had no significant correlation neither with VAS nor ODI. Conclusions In surgical treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures, a medium-segment posterior spinal fixation, although cannot maintain the radiologic reduction of the fractured vertebrae efficiently, is not only associated with acceptable clinical outcome but also spare one lower intact lumbar segment and therefore recommended.

  11. Biomechanical analysis of a newly developed shape memory alloy hook in a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF in vitro model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wang

    Full Text Available The objective of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the stability provided by a newly developed shape memory alloy hook (SMAH in a cadaveric transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF model.Six human cadaveric spines (L1-S2 were tested in an in vitro flexibility experiment by applying pure moments of ±8 Nm in flexion/extension, left/right lateral bending, and left/right axial rotation. After intact testing, a TLIF was performed at L4-5. Each specimen was tested for the following constructs: unilateral SMAH (USMAH; bilateral SMAH (BSMAH; unilateral pedicle screws and rods (UPS; and bilateral pedicle screws and rods (BPS. The L3-L4, L4-L5, and L5-S1 range of motion (ROM were recorded by a Motion Analysis System.Compared to the other constructs, the BPS provided the most stability. The UPS significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion and lateral bending; the BSMAH significantly reduced the ROM in extension/flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation; and the USMAH significantly reduced the ROM in flexion and left lateral bending compared with the intact spine (p0.05. Stability provided by the USMAH compared with the UPS was not significantly different. ROMs of adjacent segments increased in all fixed constructs (p>0.05.Bilateral SMAH fixation can achieve immediate stability after L4-5 TLIF in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether the SMAH can achieve fusion in vivo and alleviate adjacent segment degeneration.

  12. Phytochemical composition, cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial activity of fractions from Alafia barteri olive (Hook F. Icon-Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of Alafia barteri (Hook F. Icon was dissolved in distilled water and successively partitioned in n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The fractions were evaluated for phytochemical composition, lethality against brine shrimp larvae and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum strain. The obtained results revealed that the roots and leaf extracts of A. barteri exhibited broad spectrum of antiplasmodial activity (IC50 1.5 ± 0.7–6.2 ± 0.80 μg/mL. The aqueous leaf fractions displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 ± 0.7 μg/mL, which is comparable to reference antimalarial drug (IC50 value of 1.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL. The leaf fractions displayed higher activity than the root extracts. The highest minimum lethal concentration (105.2 ± 0.8 ppm was exhibited by the aqueous leaf extract followed closely by the root extract (120.2 ± 1.1 ppm. The leaf extracts contained higher polyphenols (45.3 ± 0.85 mgGAE/g and flavonoids (18.10 ± 0.2 mgCTE/g than the root extracts. The n-hexane and EtOAc extracts/fractions displayed lower activity on brine shrimp larvae.

  13. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  14. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayachandra; Shwetha, R; Chandrashekar, K R

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The aril was extracted with chloroform and ethanol; the kernel was extracted with ethanol and hexane. The extracts were tested against the 3rd-4th instar larvae collected from Bunder area, Mangalore, India, which is a well-known fishing harbour, where several mosquito-borne diseases were reported. All the graded concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) showed significant larval mortality after 24 h of observation. Chloroform extracts of aril showed 100% mortality against both larval forms of A. albopictus and A. stephensi at the concentration of 500 ppm. Among the extracts tested, chloroform extracts of aril and ethanol extracts of kernel exhibited higher toxicity against both A. albopictus (LC(50), 141 ppm and 159 ppm; LC(90), 290 ppm and 342 ppm) and A. stephensi (LC(50), 160 ppm and 162 ppm; LC90, 445 ppm and 458 ppm). Hexane extracts of kernel exhibited least toxicity against A. albopictus (LC50, 239 ppm; LC(90), 484 ppm), whereas ethanol extracts of aril showed the least toxicity against A. stephensi (LC(50), 290; LC(90), 498). A preliminary phytochemical assay revealed the presence of phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenes, resins, and glycolipids in all the extracts. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were absent. The lower LC(50) value of the chloroform extracts of K. attenuata aril indicates its potentiality as a larvicide against A. albopictus and A. stephensi mosquito larvae.

  15. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  16. 杉木+黄山木兰混交林生物量分配格局%Biomass and Distribution Rate of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils Mixed Stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祖树

    2011-01-01

    Based on the investigation of growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest and Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand(control),the different organs biomass of above ground and root distribution rate were studied by authors.The results showed that the growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and total biomass of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were better than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand.As far as the biomass distribution rate were concerned,different organs' biomass distribution were showed strunk〉leaf〉branch,strunk and leaf biomass distribution rate in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand,and branch biomass distribution rate in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand was higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest;The biomass of different diameter class of stump root,big root and middle root in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were higher than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand,and biomass of different diameter class of minor root and fine root in Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook and Magnolia cylindrical Wils mixed forest were smaller than that of Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.)Hook pure stand.%在调查杉木+黄山木兰混交林及杉木纯林(对照)生长量的基础上,进一步分析了杉木+黄山木兰混交林及杉木纯林地上部分各器官及各径级根生物量分配格局。研究结果表明:杉木+黄山木兰混交林中杉木的生长及林分总生物量的积累均优于杉木纯林。从生物量分配上看,杉木+黄山木兰混交林中杉木及纯林中杉木其地上部分各器官的分配均表现

  17. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  18. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  19. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  20. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  1. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  2. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  3. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  4. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  5. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  6. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  7. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  8. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  9. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  10. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  11. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  12. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  13. 榆次猫儿岭战国熊鸟纹青铜带钩的文化内涵%Culture Connotation of Warring States Bronze Belt Hook with Bear and Bird Decoration of Maoerling Yuci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康艳

    2012-01-01

    Unearthed in Maoerling ancient tomb, Yuci District, Jinzhong City, bronze Belt-hook with bear and bird decoration is the competitive product, because of the unique decoration, beautiful design and fine craft. This bronze belt-hook imitated the shape of bear and bird respectively in hook body and head. And a high relief way was adopted to display the shape of bird and bear. The designer perfectly decorated a piece of bronze belt hook with bares and birds, employed muhiply artistic techniques, for example, imitation, freehand brushwork, pattenaing and so on, which showed the imagination and creativity of the designer and meanwhile invested the hook with colorful culture connotation.%晋中市榆次区猫儿岭战国古墓出土的熊鸟纹青铜带钩以其独特的装饰、秀美的造型和精湛的工艺而成为艺术精品。此带钧钩体肖熊形,钩首模拟鸟形;采用高浮雕形式,结合模拟、写意、图案化等多种手法完美地将熊、鸟饰于一件器物之上,体现了设计者丰富的想象力和创造力,同时也赋予其丰富的文化内涵。

  14. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  15. XBAT35, a Novel Arabidopsis RING E3 Ligase Exhibiting Dual Targeting of Its Splice Isoforms,Is Involved in Ethylene-Mediated Regulation of Apical Hook Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofia D.Carvalho; Rita Saraiva; Teresa M.Maia; Isabel A.Abreu; Paula Duque

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis XBAT35 is one of five structurally related ankyrin repeat-containing Really interesting New Gene (RING) E3 ligases involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation,which plays key roles in a wide range of cellular processes.Here,we show that the XBAT35 gene undergoes alternative splicing,generating two transcripts that are constitutively expressed in all plant tissues.The two splice variants derive from an exon skipping event that excludes an in-frame segment from the XBAT35 precursor mRNA,giving rise to two protein isoforms that differ solely in the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS).Transient expression assays indicate that the isoform lacking the NLS localizes in the cytoplasm of plant cells,whereas the other is targeted to the nucleus,accumulating in nuclear speckles.Both isoforms are functional E3 ligases,as assessed by in vitro ubiquitination assays.Two insertion mutant alleles and RNA-interference (RNAi) silencing lines for XBAT35 display no evident phenotypes under normal growth conditions,but exhibit hypersensitivity to the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) during apical hook exaggeration in the dark,which is rescued by an inhibitor of ethylene perception.Independent expression of each XBAT35 splice variant in the mutant background indicates that the two isoforms may differentially contribute to apical hook formation but are both functional in this ethylene-mediated response.Thus,XBAT35 defines a novel player in ethylene signaling involved in negatively regulating apical hook curvature,with alternative splicing controlling dual targeting of this E3 ubiquitin ligase to the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments.

  16. THE EFFECT OF DEPTH OF HOOKS, SET AND SOAK TIME TO THE CATCH PER UNIT OF EFFORT OF TUNA IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares and bigeye (T. obesus tuna have been intensively exploited by longline fleets since 1980’s, however, a large proportion of zero catch per set of target species still accurred. Zero catch data contributed significantly to the low catch per unit of effort (CPUE compared to other countries at the same fishing area. Therefore, understanding the factors contributed to the CPUE of tuna is essential, in order to improve longline fishing efficiency. A total of 2.115 set-by-set data were obtained from Indonesian Scientific Observer Program. The onboard observations were carried out at commercial tuna longline operated in Eastern Indian Ocean from August 2005 to December 2014. Several analytical approaches were conducted in this paper. First, General Linear Model (GLM was applied in order to model the relationship between CPUE with all the variables involved. Second, boxplot diagram, polynomial and linear regression were applied to fit the relationship between CPUE with set time, soak time and depth (represented by hook position respectively. The result showed that, there was no significant relationship between set time and CPUE of bigeye and yellowfin tuna. Soak time was positively related with CPUE of yellowfin and affect adversely on bigeye. Depth also have significant relationship with CPUE of tuna, where catch of yellowfin decreased linearly with hook depth, whereas catch of bigeye was performed the opposite. Improvement in tuna longline fishery in eastern Indian Ocean can be achieved through implementation of the specific soak time and hook depth for each target species, i.e. yellowfin and bigeye tuna.

  17. CT 引导下 Hook -wire 定位肺磨玻璃样结节在胸腔镜术前的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方坤; 黎海亮; 胡鸿涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨胸腔镜术前行 CT 引导下 Hook -wire 定位肺磨玻璃样结节(ground -glass opacity,GGO)的应用。方法回顾性分析郑州大学附属肿瘤医院2010年1月至2010年12月治疗的15例肺部 GGO 行胸腔镜下楔形切除术的患者临床资料。所有病例均于胸腔镜术前行 CT 引导下 Hook -wire 定位。统计 Hook -wire 定位成功率、定位相关并发症及病理诊断结果。结果术前 CT 引导下定位肺部 GGO 成功率100.0%,无症状性气胸和出血各2例(13.3%),术中发现针体移位转为开胸手术者1例(6.67%),病理结果中原发性肺癌 13 例(鳞癌8例,腺癌5例),转移瘤(来源于黑色素瘤)1例,炎性假瘤 1例。结论胸腔镜术前行定位穿刺对于直径小于20 mm 的肺部 GGO 是非常必要的,CT 引导下Hook -wire 定位肺部 GGO 是一种安全、有效、并发症少的技术。

  18. Reactions of Standing Bipeds on Moving Platforms to Keep Their Balance May Increase the Amplitude of Oscillations of Platforms Satisfying Hooke's Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo H Goldsztein

    Full Text Available Consider a person standing on a platform that oscillates laterally, i.e. to the right and left of the person. Assume the platform satisfies Hooke's law. As the platform moves, the person reacts and moves its body attempting to keep its balance. We develop a simple model to study this phenomenon and show that the person, while attempting to keep its balance, may do positive work on the platform and increase the amplitude of its oscillations. The studies in this article are motivated by the oscillations in pedestrian bridges that are sometimes observed when large crowds cross them.

  19. Tolerance study for the components of the probe-type and hook-type Higher Order Mode couplers for the HL-LHC 800 MHz harmonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    A superconducting 800 MHz second harmonic RF system is one of the considered options as a Landau damping mechanism for HiLumi LHC. The Higher Order Mode (HOM) coupler designs require tight manufacturing tolerances in order to operate at the design specifications. The project consists of defining the mechanical tolerances for the different components of both the probe-type and hook-type HOM coupler. With the use of electromagnetic field simulation software it is possible to identify the critical components of the HOM coupler and to quantify their respective tolerances. The obtained results are discussed in this paper.

  20. Triptolide, a Chinese herbal extract, protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-mediated damage through inhibition of microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Lu, Xiu-Zhi; Liang, Xi-Bin; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Xue, Bing; Liu, Xian-Yu; Niu, Dong-Bin; Han, Ji-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2004-03-01

    Mounting lines of evidence have suggested that brain inflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Triptolide is one of the major active components of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which possesses potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. We found that triptolide concentration-dependently attenuated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in primary mesencephalic neuron/glia mixed culture. Triptolide also blocked LPS-induced activation of microglia and excessive production of TNFalpha and NO. Our data suggests that triptolide may protect dopaminergic neurons from LPS-induced injury and its efficiency in inhibiting microglia activation may underlie the mechanism.

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook Unit, Gateway National Recreation Area, New Jersey, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area in New Jersey, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  2. Conservation of an important montane bamboo Thamnocalamus falconeri, Hook.f. ex Munro through axillary bud proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meena Bakshi; Chandrakant Tiwari; Sajad Razvi

    2015-01-01

    Thamnocalamus falconeri, Hook.f. ex Munro., an important bamboo species belonging to the family Po-aceae, locally known as Ringal, occurs in the hills of Ut-tarakhand, India. This species has been traditionally exploited by local communities to support their livelihoods. Increasing needs of the hill villages impose unsustainable pressure on natural stands of Ringal in the Uttarakhand hills and forests have been degraded. The long history of excessive cutting of Ringal from natural forests and the lack of replanting threaten villager livelihoods. Replanting is required to conserve the species. We propose a protocol for generation of planting material through axillary bud proliferation for multiplication and conservation of this species. We collected offsets/rhizomes from a natural stand of T. falconeri in the Chopta Mandal areas (Chamoli dis-trict, India). These were planted at sites of varied elevation and fresh single nodal segments were collected from them as explants. Different sterilization treatments were assessed to combat contamination. Among these, treatment of 0.1%HgCl2 followed by 5% NaOCl, proved best. Among two cytokinin treatments, viz. BAP and Kinetin, singly or in combination, BAP alone (5 mg L-1) proved superior and resulted in 100% bud break. BAP-supplemented MS media yielded maximum vigorous shoot formation (90%) and maximum number of shoots (8.9). Subculturing of shoots on the same medium with similar BAP treatment (5 mg L-1 BAP) enabled continuous production of healthy shoots at similar frequency. Maximum rooting (100%) was recorded on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L-1 IBA. Micropropagated plants were hard-ened and acclimatized in soil mixture (2:1:1) and then transplanted to field sites (Magra, Uttarakhand, 1,834 m). Eight to ten months after field transplantation we recorded 100% survival of transplanted material. This microprop-agation protocol could be used successfully for raising a stock of genetically homogenous plant

  3. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  4. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  5. Clinical Study of Intra-operative Computed Tomography Guided Localization with A Hook-wire System for Small Ground Glass Opacities in Minimally Invasive Resection%CT引导下Hook-w ire定位肺磨玻璃样微小结节微创切除的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初向阳; 侯晓彬; 张连斌; 薛志强; 任志鹏; 温佳新; 刘毅; 马克峰; 孙玉鹗

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Localization of pulmonary ground glass small nodule is the technical dif-ficulty of minimally invasive operation resection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of intraoperative computed tomography (CT)-guided localization using a hook-wire system for small ground glass opacity (GGO) in minimally invasive resection, as well as to discuss the necessity and feasibility of surgical resection of small GGOs (<10 mm) through a minimally invasive approach.MethodshTe records of 32 patients with 41 small GGOs who underwent intraoperative CT-guided double-thorn hook wire localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection from October 2009 to October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) within 10 min atfer wire localiza-tion. hTe effcacy of intraoperative localization was evaluated in terms of procedure time, VATS success rate, and associated complications of localization.Results A total of 32 patients (15 males and 17 females) underwent 41 VATS resections, with 2 simultaneous nodule resections performed in 3 patients, 3 lesion resections in 1 patient, and 5 lesions in a patient. Nodule di-ameters ranged from 2 mm-10 mm (mean: 5 mm). hTe distance of lung lesions from the nearest pleural surfaces ranged within 5 mm-24 mm (mean: 12.5 mm). All resections of lesions guided by the inserted hook wires were successfully performed by VATS (100% success rate). hTe mean procedure time for the CT-guided hook wire localization was 8.4 min (range: 4 min-18 min). hTe mean procedure time for VATS was 32 min (range: 14 min-98 min). hTe median hospital time was 8 d (range: 5 d-14 d). Results of pathological examination revealed 28 primary lung cancers, 9 atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and 4 nonspe-ciifc chronic inlfammations. No major complication related to the intraoperative hook wire localization and VATS was noted. Conclusion Intraoperative CT-guided hook wire

  6. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  7. A novel hook-shaped enhancement on contrast-enhanced sagittal magnetic resonance image in acute Sheehan's syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujisawa, Ichiro; Ishihara, Takashi; Tahara, Yumiko; Kazuma, Mariko; Fujiwara, Yuta; Iwakura, Toshio; Hino, Megumu; Matsuoka, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    We report characteristic magnetic resonance (MR) image findings in a case of Sheehan's syndrome. A 37-year-old woman experienced complications of retained placenta and massive bleeding (3600 g) during delivery of a full-term baby. A pituitary function test demonstrated panhypopituitarism. MR image of the pituitary gland on postpartum day 10 revealed swelling of the anterior lobe. A hook-shaped enhancement was demonstrated on a sagittal image. The pituitary stalk, majority of the marginal zone of the anterior lobe, the anterior lobe just in front of the posterior lobe, and posterior lobe were well enhanced. In contrast, the central portion and the superior margin, just in front of the stalk insertion of the anterior lobe, were not enhanced. Anatomically, blood supply to these unenhanced portions of the anterior lobe was via the hypophyseal long portal vein and trabecular artery, which are tributaries of the superior hypophyseal artery that originate far from the internal carotid artery. Based on clinical history and MR image findings, the patient was diagnosed with Sheehan's syndrome and treated with hydrocortisone and levothyroxine. Follow-up MR image revealed marked atrophy of the anterior lobe. The characteristic hook-shaped enhancement in Sheehan's syndrome well reflected the vulnerability to massive bleeding based on the complex pituitary vasculature, which has not been reported previously. MR image with contrast enhancement is useful in the diagnosis of the acute phase of Sheehan's syndrome and in evaluating infarction of the anterior lobe.

  8. Chemical Constituents of Primula sikkmensis Hook( Ⅱ )%钟花报春花的化学成分研究(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭腾; 邱建平; 邓赟; 涂永勤

    2012-01-01

    Five known compounds were isolated from the Spend of Primula sikkmensis Hook. Their structures were elucidated as following based on spectral method;5-hydroxy flavone (1) ,2-phenyl-chromone (2) ,5,8-dihydroxy flavone (3) ,2'-hydroxy flavone (4) ,3'-hydroxy-flavone-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) ,respectively. Compound 5 was isolated from this plant and compound 1-4 were isolated from genus Primula for the first time. The 1 H and 13C NMR data of compound 3 were assigned for the first time.%从钟花报春花Primula sikkmensis Hook.中分离得到5个化合物,通过波谱分析其结构分别鉴定为5-羟基黄酮(1),2-苯基色原酮(2),5,8-二羟基黄酮(3),2'-羟基黄酮(4),3'-羟基-黄酮-4'-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(5).其中化合物1~4首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物5首次从该植物中分离得到,并首次对3的NMR数据进行了归属.

  9. The dynamic locking blade plate, a new implant for intracapsular hip fractures: biomechanical comparison with the sliding hip screw and Twin Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerdink, W H; Aalsma, A M M; Nijenbanning, G; van Walsum, A D P

    2009-03-01

    Internal fixation of intracapsular hip fractures results in a high failure rate with non-union and avascular necrosis being the two most important complications. In order to prevent these possible complications treatment should consist of an anatomical reduction and stable fixation by insertion of a low volume, dynamic implant, providing angular and rotational stability to the femoral head. According to these principles a new implant, the dynamic locking blade plate (DLBP) was designed for the fixation of intracapsular hip fractures. We performed a biomechanical analysis in synthetic bone to compare the rotational stability and cut out resistance of the DLBP with a conventional sliding hip screw (SHS) and the more recently developed Twin Hook. The rotational stability of the DLBP proved to be three times higher than the rotational stability of a SHS and two times higher than the Twin Hook. There was no major difference in cut out resistance between the different implants. The design of the DLBP and possible advantages with regard to the healing of an intracapsular hip fracture are discussed.

  10. Gesture-Controlled Interface for Contactless Control of Various Computer Programs with a Hooking-Based Keyboard and Mouse-Mapping Technique in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ben Joonyeon; Jang, Taekjin; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Namkug

    2016-01-01

    We developed a contactless interface that exploits hand gestures to effectively control medical images in the operating room. We developed an in-house program called GestureHook that exploits message hooking techniques to convert gestures into specific functions. For quantitative evaluation of this program, we used gestures to control images of a dynamic biliary CT study and compared the results with those of a mouse (8.54 ± 1.77 s to 5.29 ± 1.00 s; p < 0.001) and measured the recognition rates of specific gestures and the success rates of tasks based on clinical scenarios. For clinical applications, this program was set up in the operating room to browse images for plastic surgery. A surgeon browsed images from three different programs: CT images from a PACS program, volume-rendered images from a 3D PACS program, and surgical planning photographs from a basic image viewing program. All programs could be seamlessly controlled by gestures and motions. This approach can control all operating room programs without source code modification and provide surgeons with a new way to safely browse through images and easily switch applications during surgical procedures.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of the Uncaria Hook Alkaloid Geissoschizine Methyl Ether in Rat and Human Liver Microsomes Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Kushida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM is an indole alkaloid found in Uncaria hook, which is a galenical constituent of yokukansan, a traditional Japanese medicine. GM has been identified as the active component responsible for anti-aggressive effects. In this study, the metabolic profiling of GM in rat and human liver microsomes was investigated. Thirteen metabolites of GM were elucidated and identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method, and their molecular structures were proposed on the basis of the characteristics of their precursor ions, product ions, and chromatographic retention times. There were no differences in the metabolites between the rat and human liver microsomes. Among the 13 identified metabolites, there were two demethylation metabolites, one dehydrogenation metabolite, three methylation metabolites, three oxidation metabolites, two water-adduct metabolites, one di-demethylation metabolite, and one water-adduct metabolite followed by oxidation. The metabolic pathways of GM were proposed on the basis of this study. This study will be helpful in understanding the metabolic routes of GM and related Uncaria hook alkaloids, and provide useful information on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This is the first report that describes the separation and identification of GM metabolites in rat and human liver microsomes.

  12. C2 laminar screw and C1-2 transarticular screw combined with C1 laminar hooks for atlantoaxial instability with unilateral vertebral artery injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qunfeng; Liu, Jun; Ni, Bin; Lu, Xuhua; Zhou, Fengjin

    2011-09-01

    Transarticular screw fixation (TASF) is technically demanding, with high risk of vertebral artery (VA) injury. How to manage intraoperative VA injury and choose optimal alternative fixation becomes a concern of spinal surgeons. In this study, the management strategy for a patient with suspected intraoperative VA injury was analyzed. A 53-year-old woman developed type II odontoid fracture and brain stem injury due to a motor vehicle accident 3 months earlier. After conservative treatments, the brain stem injury improved, but with residual ocular motility defect in the right eye. The odontoid fracture did not achieve fusion with displacement and absorption of fracture fragments. After admission, atlantoaxial fixation using bilateral C1-2 transarticular screws (TASs) combined with C1 laminar hooks was planed. The first TAS was inserted successfully. Unfortunately, suspected VA injury developed during tapping the tract for the second TAS. Considering the previous brain stem injury and that directly inserting the screw to tamponade the hemorrhage might cause VA stenosis or occlusion, we blocked the screw trajectory with bone wax. C2 laminar screw was implanted instead of intended TAS on the injured side. The management strategy for suspected VA injury should depend on intraoperative circumstances and be tailored to patients. Blocking screw trajectory with bone wax is a useful method to stop bleeding. Atlantoaxial fixation using C2 laminar screw and C1-2 TAS combined with C1 laminar hooks is an ideal alternative procedure.

  13. The hook claw Components holes cobalt based alloy technology developed%钩爪组件小孔钴基合金堆焊技术研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌; 郑继雷

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the hook component in nuclear reactor control rod drive system as the research object, built on the basis of holes cobalt-based alloy surfacing technology, first for the the hook claw assemblies holes cobalt-based alloy surfacing the main content of the technology involved in the development process to the detailed analysis of the the entire surfacing technology involved in the development process of technological innovation point basis, aimed at for future research and practical work carried out reference and help.%  本文以核反应堆控制棒驱动系统中钩爪组件为研究对象,提出了一种建立在小孔钴基合金基础之上的堆焊技术,首先针对钩爪组件小孔钴基合金堆焊技术在研制过程中所涉及到的主要内容进行了详细分析,在此基础之上提出了整个堆焊技术在研制过程中所涉及到的技术创新点,旨在于为今后相关研究与实践工作的开展提供一定的参考与帮助。

  14. Bears in Eden, or, this is not the garden you're looking for: Margaret Cavendish, Robert Hooke and the limits of natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Ian

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates Margaret Cavendish's characterization of experimental philosophers as hybrids of bears and men in her 1666 story The Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World. By associating experimental philosophers, in particular Robert Hooke and his microscope, with animals familiar to her readers from the sport of bear-baiting, Cavendish constructed an identity for the fellows of the Royal Society of London quite unlike that which they imagined for themselves. Recent scholarship has illustrated well how Cavendish's opposition to experimental philosophy is linked to her different natural-philosophical, political and anthropological ideas. My contribution to this literature is to examine the meanings both of bears in early modern England and of microscopes in experimental rhetoric, in order to illustrate the connection that Cavendish implies between the two. She parodied Hooke's idea that his microscope extended his limited human senses, and mocked his aim that by so doing he could produce useful knowledge. The bear-men reflect inhuman ambition and provide a caution against ignoring both the order of English society and the place of humans in nature.

  15. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    for asymmetric games when some valuations are zero. In that case we prove that the auctioneer can stabilize the game by placing his own ticket in each basket. On the other hand, when all the valuations are strictly positive, a pure Nash equilibrium is guaranteed to exist, and the equilibrium strategies......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  16. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  17. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  18. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  19. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  20. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  1. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  2. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  3. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  4. [Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes during wood formation in Chinese fir by SSH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Feng; Gao, Yan; Yang, Li-Wei; Shi, Ji-Sen

    2007-04-01

    Wood is an important raw material for the global industry with rapidly increasing demand. To isolate the differentially expressed genes in xylogenesis of Chinese fir [Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook], a forward subtractive cDNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method, which was performed using the cDNA from the mutant Dugansha clone as the tester and the cDNA from the normal Jurong 0 clone as the driver. Six hundred and eighteen clones were obtained. Recombinants were identified using PCR with universal T7 and SP6 primers and using EcoR digestion. To further eliminate false positive, dot hybridization was used with four DIG-labeled probes (FSP, RSP, UTP, and UDP). Real-time PCR was performed to confirm the results. A total of 260 unique ESTs were obtained, 60% of the ESTs exhibiting homologies with proteins of known function fell into 4 major classes: metabolism, cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, signal transduction and stress. The systematic analysis of genes involved in wood formation in Chinese fir provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in xylem differentiation, is important resources for forest research directed toward understanding the genetic control of wood formation and future endeavors to modify wood and fiber properties for industrial use.

  5. Hooked on Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes several hummingbird adaptations and suggests ways of attracting hummingbirds to schoolyards and including them in the curriculum. Provides hummingbird feeder tips along with a list of ideas for designing inquiry-based activities related to hummingbird behavior. Also provides a hummingbird quiz, two instructional games, and a listing of…

  6. Hooking Kids with Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstead, Neil L.

    1993-01-01

    Humanitas is part of Collaboratives for Humanities and Arts Teaching (CHART), a nationwide network funded primarily by the Rockefeller Foundation. In 11 large school districts and numerous rural districts, high school teachers, academics, artists, and business and community leaders are cooperating to promote teaching of the arts and humanities.…

  7. Baiting the Book Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robyn Reeves

    1993-01-01

    It is time to stop blaming children's nonreading on innate intelligence, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, TV-watching, or other factors beyond teachers' control. Too many schools are boring kids with dull texts and basal readers. Kids read about topics that interest them and particularly enjoy mystery, adventure, humor stories. Matching…

  8. Getting Hooked on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-04-01

    Other fun things in this issue include three Quote Boxes by Olney (3) that will allow your students to engage in deductive reasoning to solve the puzzles. Kelkar (4) presents a slightly more difficult but very clever mystery element game; it provides clues to element symbols that all fit into a single matrix. Ibanez's game (5) lists popular sayings or proverbs and the student's job is to match each with an analogous chemical phenomenon. As always, answers are provided. For the more sophisticated among us, there is Who Wants to Be a Chemist Extraordinaire? devised by Campbell and Muzyka (6), who describe their use of online chemistry game shows patterned on popular TV programs. Examples of the HTML files with sample questions are available through JCE Online. These are just some of the many suggestions that can be found in this issue of JCE. Try a few, you might like them!

  9. Chasing Captain Hook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Somalia has come into the international media spotlight because of the high-profile pirate attacks off its coast. But piracy is only part of the Horn of Africa country’s ordeal. Somalia has been embroiled in armed conflicts between feuding warlords since 1991, without a central government that can put the country under effective control. In an interview with Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei, Somalia’s Ambassador to China Mohammed Awil called on the international community to help his war-torn country fight piracy, stop illegal fishing and waste dumping in Somali waters and achieve peace and reconciliation. The ambassador also gave positive evaluation to China’s naval presence on Somali waters. Excerpts of the interview follow

  10. Too Many Hooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen

    1994-01-01

    Five college and university fund-raising professionals discuss ways in which uncoordinated solicitations of gifts from the same prospective donor(s) by different schools or departments can be avoided by planning, coordination, and communication. Advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized administrative approaches are considered.…

  11. ClRTL1 Encodes a Chinese Fir RNase III–Like Protein Involved in Regulating Shoot Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes controlling shoot branching is crucial for improving plant architecture and increasing crop yield or biomass. A branching mutant of Chinese fir named “Dugansha” (Cunninghamia lanceolata var. dugan. has been isolated in our laboratory. We chose the cDNA-AFLP technique and an effective strategy to screen genes that potentially regulate shoot branching in Chinese fir using this mutant. An RNase III-like1 cDNA fragment named ClRTL1 was identified as a potential positive regulator. To investigate the function of ClRTL1 in regulating shoot branching, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence from C. lanceolata (Lamb. Hook, deduced its secondary structure and function, and overexpressed the coding sequence in Arabidopsis. The ClRTL1 cDNA is 1045 bp and comprises an open reading frame of 705 bp. It encodes a protein of 235 amino acids. The deduced secondary structure of the ClRTL1 indicates that it is a mini-RNase III-like protein. The expression analysis and phenotypes of 35S: ClRTL1 in A. thaliana implies that ClRTL1 plays a role in promoting shoot branching in Chinese fir.

  12. 胸腔镜术前低剂量CT引导下Hook-wire联合亚甲蓝定位肺局灶性磨玻璃样病变%Low-dose CT-guided Localization with a Hook-wire System Combined with Methylene Blue for Focal Ground-glass Opacity before Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉涛; 王海涛; 赵晓东; 朱勇刚; 周成伟; 卢斌; 周银杰; 葛明亮; 张霞萍; 邓生德

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate low-dose CT ( LDCT)-guided localization by using Hook-wire combined with methylene blue before video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary focal ground-glass opacity (fGGO). Methods From November 2010 to April 2012, we performed video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung on 21 patients with unilateral fGGO (the diameter of fGGO ranged from 5 to 17 mm with a mean of 11.5 mm, and the distance between the parietal pleura and the lesion was 0 to 28 mm). All the patients received LDCT-guided localization with Hook-wire and methylene blue. Results The success rate of LDCT-guided localization was 100%. The procedure was completed in a mean of 21 min (ranged from 15 to 28 min). Intraoperative metal hook shedding occurred in one of the cases, but with video-assisted thoracoscopy and staining with methylene blue to localize the lesion, the resection was completed successfully. In the other case, methylene blue staining failed, but the fGGO was removed by localizing the lesion with Hook-wire. Six patients developed postoperative complications, including asymptomatic pneumothorax (4 cases) , asymptomatic bleeding in the left upper lobe (1 case) , and asymptomatic pneumothorax complicated with right lower lobe hemorrhage (1 case). The mean operation time for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was 22 min (15 - 43 min) , and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 31 ml (23 -38 ml). The patients were discharged from hospital in a mean of 7 days after the procedure (5-12 days). Postoperative pathological examination showed carcinoma in situ in 4 cases, microinvasive adenocarcinoma in 3 cases, pulmonary adenocarcinoma in 1, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia in 5, hamartoma in 1 , interstitial pneumonia in 3 , intrapulmonary lymph node hyperplasia in 2, and inflammatory granuloma in 2. Conclusion LDCT-guided localization by using Hook-wire combined with methylene blue is accurate for fGGO with mile complications.%目的 探讨低剂量CT( low-dose CT

  13. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  14. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105

  15. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Some Chinese characters refer to natural phenomena andsubstances, such as "雨" yu (rain), "云" yun (clouds), "雪" xue (snow),"电" dian (lightning) and "雷" lei (thunder). The original form of "雨"was"(?)," in which"(?)" represents the cloud layer, and"(?)"symbolizes rain drops.

  16. Targeting the Chinese Consumer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL O'NEILL

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's consumer markets have developed an almost mythic status in recent years; the Holy Grail for Western retailers and manufacturers desperate to carve a position in a market of such huge dimensions. But understanding the Chinese consumer is no easy task,as many overseas companies have found to their peril.

  17. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  18. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  19. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    China Plans to Stabilize Population Growth by the ’30s of the Next Century On November 19, 1997, China’s State Councilor, Song Jian, revealed that China should be able to achieve control of population growth about thirty years into the next century, when the Chinese population reaches 1.5 to 1.6 billion.

  20. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  1. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benedicte; Corbiere

    2013-01-01

    <正>Even today, I still ask myself why I am so fascinated with Chinese language, history, culture, films, photos and economic development. My interest in China was not a spur-of-the-moment move; instead, all sorts of lucky chances since my childhood made me irresistibly interested in this great and impressive country. I was born in

  2. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Li Yiyi, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of Shenyang Metal Research Institute, has developed a new system for creating a low temperature and high pressure anti-hydrogen material in the research of engineering material. She has also been successful in her research of various types of steel.

  3. Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

  4. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese Ethnic Park, divided into two parts, occupies 45 hectares. The northern section, which opened first, occupies 20 hectares, featuring 16 ethnic villages where people can enjoy indigenous music and dance. About 200 performers working in the village represent a number of minority nationalities. Their performances are based on local custom, and mostly comprise greeting and bidding

  5. Chinese Borrowings in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    There are eight types of English word formation, which are widely used nowadays in English. Among them, Borrowings, as one of widely used types of English word formation, has drawn people's attention because many English words are borrowed from other languages, such as German, Latin. This article aims to demonstrate Chinese Borrowings in English from two aspects.

  6. Chinese Lacquer Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengXiangjun

    2003-01-01

    Over the sweep of Chinese longstanding history,numerous treasures and heritages have been left over,among which the lacquer art is a brilliant one.China is the earliest country in the world using natural lacquer,In the early 1970s,archeologists unearthed a red lacquer wood bowl in an excavation in the

  7. Chinese Workers' Real Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2010-01-01

    @@ A new generation different from their elders Cheap labor has built Chinas economic miracle.As China's economy has bounced back,wages have followed suit.But,for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers,wages are not enough to meet their needs.

  8. Chinese Decorative Coatings Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Growth prospects The Chinese market for decorative coatings, excluding non-architectural products such as industrial varnishes,marine paint and other industrially applied coatings, has been growing byaround 10% annually and was estimated to be worth Eurol.3 billion a year, with an annual per capita consumption of just less than 1 liter ofpaint.

  9. SWOT analysis - Chinese Petroleum

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  10. Chinese Yuan after Chinese Exchange Rate System Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiji Ogawa; Michiru Sakane

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the actual exchange rate policy conducted by the Chinese government after the Chinese exchange rate system reform on 21 July 2005 is investigated. Also, the long-run effect is investigated, including the Balassa-Samuelson effect on the Chinese yuan. It was found that the Chinese government generated a statistically significant but small change in exchange rate policy during the sample period until 25 January 2006. It was not identifted that the Chinese monetary authority is adopting the currency basket system because the change is too small in the economic sense. It is indicated that the Chinese government should take account of the productivity growth of countries composing the currency basket in order to operate a currency basket regime.

  11. 超声波提取红景天鞣质工艺的优化%Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction Process of TanninS from Rhodiola crenulata ( Hook. f. et Thomms. ) HH. Ohba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚钢明; 何晓静

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To optimize the ultrasonic extraction conditions of tannins from Rhodiola crenulata ( Hook. f. et Thomms. ) H. Ohba.[ Method ] The extraction conditions were optimized by orthogonal test based on single factor test, and the content of tannins was determined with casein method. [ Result ] The optimal extraction conditions for tannins from Rhodiola crenulata ( Hook. f. et Thomms. ) H. Ohba. were determined to be: extraction solvent of 70% acetone, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1∶ 10, ulttasonic power of 450 W and extraction duration of 15 min.Under the optimum extraction process, the content of tannins from Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thorns. )H. Ohba reached as high as 5.17 nmg/ml. [ Conclusion] The study provides theoretical evidence for the extraction of tannins from Rhodiola crenulata ( Hook. f. et Thomms. ) H.Ohba.%[目的]对红景天[Rhodiola crenulata (Hook.f.et Thoms.)H.Ohba]鞣质超声波提取工艺进行优化.[方法]在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验优化红景天鞣质提取的工艺;采用干酪素法测定鞣质含量.[结果]红景天鞣质的提取最佳工艺条件为:70%丙酮溶剂,料液比为1:10,超声功率为450 W,提取时间15 min.在最佳工艺条件下,红景天鞣质提取率为5.17 mg/ml.[结论]该研究为红景天鞣质的进一步开发利用提供了理论依据.

  12. Pediatric Patient with Incidental Os Odontoideum Safely Treated with Posterior Fixation Using Rod-Hook System and Preoperative Planning Using 3D Printer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Nagamachi, Akihiro; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-05-31

    Os odontoideum is often found incidentally. Surgical treatment is recommended for patients with atlantoaxial instability or neurologic deficits. Although various techniques have been used for C1-C2 fusion in adults, the use of these procedures in children is not widely accepted. We present a 12-year-old boy with incidental os odontoideum and obvious C1-C2 instability, in which bony union was achieved safely and successfully by posterior fixation using a rod-hook system and perioperative planning using a three-dimensional printer. At the 2-year follow-up, bone formation around the gap of the dens, which has been generally considered as pseudoarthrosis, was obtained after union of the posterior element of C1-C2.

  13. 应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗mallet骨折%Treatment of Mallet fractures with internal fixation using hook plate technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠哲; 易传军; 胡琪; 田光磊

    2009-01-01

    目的 介绍应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗mallet骨折的手术方法 及疗效.方法 2006年8月-2008年2月,应用钩钢板内固定技术治疗25例mallet骨折患者,其中Ⅰ B型18例,ⅡB型7例.采用2.0 mm Medicon微型直钢板制备1孔钩钢板,切开复位内固定骨折,术后行限制性远指间关节早期功能锻炼.结果 所有患者术后获2~18个月(平均10个月)随访,骨折均顺利愈合,愈合时间平均5周.术后疼痛程度和关节屈伸活动度评价:优14例,良9例,可2例,差0例;优良率为92%.术后未发生严重并发症.结论 应用钩钢板切开复位内固定技术治疗mllet骨折,复位牢固可靠,内固定物不固定骨折块和关节,允许早期关节活动,有效降低术后关节疼痛和关节活动受限,是治疗撕脱骨折块大于末节指骨基底关节面1/3 mallet骨折的有效方法 .%Objective To introduce the surgical techniques and clinical outcomes of trestment of Mallet fractures using hook plate internal fixation. Methods From August 2006 to February 2008, 25 cases of Mallet fractures were treated with hook plate internal fixation. There were 18 cases of Ⅰ B type fractures and 7 cases of Ⅱ B type fractures. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using a one-hole hook plate fabricated from a 2.0 mm Medicon straight plate. Early postoperative protected motion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint was allowed. Results All the cases were followed up for 2 to 18 months, with an average of 10 months. All the fractures healed successfully, with an average bone union time of 5 weeks. Functional evaluation included degree of pain and DIP joint flexion and extension. The results were rated as excellent in 14 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 2 cases and poor in 0 case. The overall good-excellent rate was 92%. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusion Treatment of Mallet fractures with hook plate internal fixation technique can achieve more tellable fixation

  14. Lignans from Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Hook.f. et Thoms%满山香木脂素成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈业高; 秦国伟; 谢毓元

    2001-01-01

    Three dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans were isolated from the stemsof Schisandra propinqua (Wall.) Hook. f.et Thoms. Their structrues were identified as interiotherin A (Ⅰ), benzoylisogomisin O (Ⅱ) and gomisin G (Ⅲ) by spectroscopic analysis. Compound Ⅰwas first discovered in Schisandra genus. Compounds Ⅱ and Ⅲ were originally isolated form S. propinqua.%从五味子科植物满山香茎藤中分离出3个联苯环辛二烯木脂素化合物,经光谱数据分析鉴定它们的结构分别为interiotherinA(I),benzoylisogomisinO(Ⅱ)和gomisinG(Ⅲ)。其中I系首次自五味子属植物中分离得到,Ⅱ和Ⅲ系首次自本植物中分得。

  15. Taking a toy gun to school: a consideration of the determinants of adolescent forensic behavior in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent forensic behavior can have a variety of meanings. A consideration of the range of meanings can inform the practice of the psychiatric forensic evaluation. This case report describes the history of an adolescent in individual treatment for disruptive and self-defeating behaviors who brought a concealed toy gun into his high school in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook shooting. The overdetermined nature of this act, as well as a consideration of its multiple meanings in the context of the young man's psychology, his educational and family systems, and his relationship with his treatment provider, will be described and developed. The discussion will broaden to consider the parameters of indicated therapeutic programs to address this subset of adolescent forensic behaviors. The role of deficient implicit emotion regulation capacities in adolescents and the corrective measures to target these neurobehavioral deficits will be described. The report concludes with implications for primary prevention of future adolescent forensic behaviors.

  16. Effect of compression on hydroscopicity of extracted Chinese fir heartwood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of extraction and compression on the hydroscopicity of wood, Chinese fir (Cunninghamia laneeolata Hook.) heartwood samples with or without extraction were radially or tangentially compressed under water-saturated condition at room temperature. Warm water and 1% sodium hydroxide were used as different solutions for extraction. Water absorp-tion capacity and moisture adsorption isotherms of the eornpressed samples were then tested. The fractai dimension of internal wood surfaces (Dfs) was calculated based on adsorption isotherms by FHH equation. Results showed that in both compressed groups, the hydroseopieity of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution improved greatly, while that of samples extracted by warm water changed little, compared with that of water-saturated samples. Recovery of set and the change of hydroscopic environment inside wood were main reasons for the difference of water absorption among water-saturated samples and samples extracted with warm water and sodium hydroxide solution. The swelling rate of samples extracted by sodium hydroxide solution significantly increased.Moreover, the swelling rate in the tangential direction of tangentially compressed samples was obviously higher than that in radial direction of radially compressed ones, Des values of woods extracted by warm water and sodium hydroxide solution decreased by 0.002 and 0.007 in a radially compressed group and by 0.013 and 0.013 in a tangentially compressed group, compared to those of water-saturated one. Therefore, the conclusion can be made that the extraction and compression treatments used in this study have no obvious effects on internal wood surface.

  17. I-Ching, Chinese Thinking Mode And Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婧媛

    2013-01-01

      I-Ching regards human-being as an integral part of nature and stresses the relative complimentary of the two opposing principles of nature, Yin and Yang. Therefore, under the influence of I-Ching, the Chinese thinking mode is different from the west-erners’. The Chinese thinking pattern is holistic, dynamic and abstract, but lacking logic and inference. The Chinese tend to express their ideas succinctly in a few simple remarks. Consequently Chinese is a concise and comprehensive language full of hint and ambiguity.

  18. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  19. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.