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Sample records for chinese holstein dairy

  1. Genome-wide Association Studies for Female Fertility Traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins.

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    Liu, Aoxing; Wang, Yachun; Sahana, Goutam; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2017-08-16

    Reduced female fertility could cause considerable economic loss and has become a worldwide problem in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins using various strategies. First, single-trait association analyses were performed for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins. Second, the SNPs with P-value Nordic Holsteins. Third, the summary statistics from single-trait association analyses were combined into meta-analyses to: (1) identify common QTL for multiple fertility traits within each Holstein population; (2) detect SNPs which were associated with a female fertility trait across two Holstein populations. A large numbers of QTL were discovered or confirmed for female fertility traits. The QTL segregating at 31.4~34.1 Mb on BTA13, 48.3~51.9 Mb on BTA23 and 34.0~37.6 Mb on BTA28 shared between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins were further ascertained using a validation approach and meta-analyses. Furthermore, multiple novel variants identified in Chinese Holsteins were validated with Nordic data as well as meta-analyses. The genes IL6R, SLC39A12, CACNB2, ZEB1, ZMIZ1 and FAM213A were concluded to be strong candidate genes for female fertility in Holsteins.

  2. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

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    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... was improved slightly when using the marker data imputed based on the combined HD reference data, compared with using the marker data imputed based on the Chinese HD reference data only. On the other hand, when using the combined reference population including 4398 Nordic Holstein bulls, the accuracy...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density...

  4. In vitro culture and characterization of a mammary epithelial cell line from Chinese Holstein dairy cow.

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    Han Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n=60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing beta-casein (CSN2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA and butyrophilin (BTN1A1. An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs.

  5. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-11-25

    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  6. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  7. ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TROPICAL THEILERIOSIS ON A HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN DAIRY FARM IN PAKISTAN.

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    Rashid, Muhammad; Haroon, Akbar; Rashid, Muhmmad Imran; Khalid, Saeed; Liaquat, Ahmad; Saghir, Abdullah; Wasim, Shehzad; Saher, Islam; Shahid, Farooqi

    2018-03-09

    The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan. The economic impact of T. annulata infection was calculated for cattle with subclinical and clinical theileriosis. Losses were estimated based on milk production, morbidity, mortality and tick control costs (organophosphate sprays). Animals were classified into groups after screening for mastitis, teat abnormality, abnormal parturition, intestinal parasites and hemoparasites (T. annulata, Babesia spp., and Anaplasma spp.). Microscopy was done for hemoparasites and intestinal parasites. PCR was used to confirm microscopic identification of T. annulata. Animals were classified into 3 groups, comprising group A (normal), group B (subclinical theileriosis) and group C (acute theileriosis). Hemoparasites were observed microscopically in 28.7% of cows. Theileria annulata was found in 8% and the herd incidence (new cases) of T. annulata was 2.8%. Milk production, animal rectal temperature and body condition scores of group A with B and C were significantly different (P0.05). The total expenditure incurred due to theileriosis was US $74.98 per animal and 13.83% of total farm costs. Hence theileriosis caused significant economic loss of US $18743.76 (0.02 million) on this Holstein Friesian dairy.

  8. Effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition and related indices in Chinese Holstein cows in northern China.

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    Yang, L; Yang, Q; Yi, M; Pang, Z H; Xiong, B H

    2013-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of seasonal change and parity on milk composition and related indices, and to analyze the relationships among milk indices in Chinese Holstein cows from an intensive dairy farm in northern China. The 6,520 sets of complete Dairy Herd Improvement data were obtained and grouped by natural month and parity. The data included daily milk yield (DMY), milk solids percentage (MSP), milk fat percentage (MFP), milk protein percentage (MPP), milk lactose percentage (MLP), somatic cell count (SCC), somatic cell score (SCS), milk production loss (MPL), and fat-to-protein ratio (FPR). Data analysis showed that the above 9 indices were affected by both seasonal change and parity. However, the interaction between parity and seasonal change showed effects on MLP, SCS, MPL, and DMY, but no effects on MFP, MPP, MSP, and FPR. Duncan's multiple comparison on seasonal change showed that DMY (23.58 kg/d), MSP (12.35%), MPP (3.02%), and MFP (3.81%) were the lowest in June, but SCC (288.7 × 10(3)/mL) and MPL (0.69 kg/d) were the lowest in January; FPR (1.32) was the highest in February. Meanwhile, Duncan's multiple comparison on parities showed that MSP, MPP, and MLP were reduced rapidly in the fourth lactation, but SCC and MPL increased with increasing parities. The canonical correlation analysis for indices showed that SCS had high positive correlation with MPL (0.8360). Therefore, a few models were developed to quantify the effects of seasonal change and parity on raw milk composition using the Wood model. The changing patterns of milk composition and related indices in different months and parities could provide scientific evidence for improving feeding management and nutritional supplementation of Chinese Holstein cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the insulin reaction of peripheral blood T cells between healthy Holstein dairy cows and JB during the periparturient period.

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    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Madoka; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Tanami, Erika; Masui, Machiko; Hayashi, Tomohito; Ando, Takaaki; Watanabe, Daisaku; Koiwa, Masateru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawamura, Seiichi

    2006-11-01

    To compare the changes in the insulin reaction of Holstein dairy cows and Japanese Black cows (JB) during the periparturient period, the insulin resistance test in vivo and lymphocytes proliferation with insulin in vitro were performed. Ten healthy Holstein dairy cows (Holstein group) and 10 healthy JB cows (JB group) used in this study were observed on days 60, 40, and 20 before calving and days 7 and 20 after calving. In insulin resistance reaction in vivo and in vitro, a low insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate and lymphocyte proliferation with insulin were observed in the Holstein group compared with the JB group during the experimental period. An analysis of the lymphocytes cultured with insulin showed that the percentage of CD4+CD45R- T cells in the Holstein group was significantly lower than that of the JB group before day 20. These findings indicate that T cells reaction to insulin in healthy periparturient Holstein cows is lower than that in Japanese Black.

  10. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  11. Reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows.

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    Knob, Deise Aline; Alessio, Dileta Regina Moro; Thaler Neto, Andre; Mozzaquatro, Fabrício Desconsi

    2016-10-01

    Crossbreed dairy breeds, such as Holstein × dairy type of Simmental, have been generally used to improve fertility, udder health, and longevity of dairy herds. The aim was to compare the reproductive performance and survival of Holstein and Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows. Data from two farms were used as follows: one located in Bom Retiro, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. and another in Carambeí, Paraná state. Information concerning birth, inseminations, and parity date were obtained from the management software of the farms, generating information regarding the calving interval, days between calving to first service, conception rate, and age at first calving. At one of the farms, calving was monitoring to quantify dystocia. Live weight as well as body condition score (BCS) of cows and information of culling were obtained to determine the survival rate. Data were analyzed by variance analysis and by logistic regression. Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had better reproductive performance than the Holstein cows, characterized by lower calving interval (381 vs. 445 days), higher conception rate (37.3 vs. 33.6 %), and shorter calving to first service interval (65 vs. 89 days). These results were related to a higher BCS in crossbred cows (3.63 vs. 2.94 points). Crossbred Holstein × Simmental cows had higher survival rate than Holstein cows on the second parity (83 vs. 92 %). No differences between genetic groups were observed (P > 0.05) for body weight and dystocia. In conclusion, Holstein × Simmental crossbred cows have better reproductive performance and higher survival rate than Holstein cows.

  12. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

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    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (pdystocia than male calves (pdystocia than singletons (pdystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  13. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

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    Anna Šimková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120 in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The air temperature is very variable and its changes animals react immediately. Measured values of air temperature in the stable are important for optimal welfare. It affects the productivity of dairy cows, milk quality, reproduction and animal health.

  14. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Šimková; Miloslav Šoch; Kateřina Švejdová; Kristýna Šimák-Líbalová; Luboš Smutný; Šárka Smutná; Bohuslav Čermák; Iveta Novotná

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120) in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The ...

  15. Atrial Fibrillation in a Diarrheic Holstein Dairy Calf

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    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac auscultation of a 10-day-old diarrheic female Holstein dairy calf revealed irregularities in rhythm and absence of 4th heart sound. Electrocardiogram (ECG and blood sample were obtained before and after the treatment. Based on ECG and cardiac auscultation findings, atrial fibrillation (AF was diagnosed. Serum sodium, calcium and magnesium before treatment were significantly lower than their reference ranges and potassium was significantly higher. One day after treating this patient, serum electrolytes were reached to reference ranges and AF was changed to normal sinus rhythm. Based on resolving the AF after treating the patient and correcting the electrolyte imbalances, it can be suggested that electrolyte imbalances were the main cause of the occurrence of AF in the present case.

  16. Changes in animal performance and profitability of Holstein dairy operations after introduction of crossbreeding with Montbéliarde, Normande, and Scandinavian Red.

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    Dezetter, C; Bareille, N; Billon, D; Côrtes, C; Lechartier, C; Seegers, H

    2017-10-01

    An individual-based mechanistic, stochastic, and dynamic simulation model was developed to assess economic effects resulting from changes in performance for milk yield and solid contents, reproduction, health, and replacement, induced by the introduction of crossbreeding in Holstein dairy operations. Three crossbreeding schemes, Holstein × Montbéliarde, Holstein × Montbéliarde × Normande, and Holstein × Montbéliarde × Scandinavian Red, were implemented in Holstein dairy operations and compared with Holstein pure breeding. Sires were selected based on their estimated breeding value for milk. Two initial operations were simulated according to the prevalence (average or high) of reproductive and health disorders in the lactating herd. Evolution of operations was simulated during 15 yr under 2 alternative managerial goals (constant number of cows or constant volume of milk sold). After 15 yr, breed percentages reached equilibrium for the 2-breed but not for the 3-breed schemes. After 5 yr of simulation, all 3 crossbreeding schemes reduced average milk yield per cow-year compared with the pure Holstein scheme. Changes in other animal performance (milk solid contents, reproduction, udder health, and longevity) were always in favor of crossbreeding schemes. Under an objective of constant number of cows, margin over variable costs in average discounted value over the 15 yr of simulation was slightly increased by crossbreeding schemes, with an average prevalence of disorders up to €32/cow-year. In operations with a high prevalence of disorders, crossbreeding schemes increased the margin over variable costs up to €91/cow-year. Under an objective of constant volume of milk sold, crossbreeding schemes improved margin over variable costs up to €10/1,000L (corresponding to around €96/cow-year) for average prevalence of disorders, and up to €13/1,000L (corresponding to around €117/cow-year) for high prevalence of disorders. Under an objective of constant

  17. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

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    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.

  18. Performance and financial consequences of stillbirth in Holstein dairy cattle.

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    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Keshavarzi, H

    2018-03-01

    Stillbirth is an economically important trait on dairy farms. Knowledge of the consequences of, and the economic losses associated with stillbirth can help the producer when making management decisions. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of stillbirth on productive and reproductive performance as well as financial losses due to stillbirth incidence in Iranian Holstein dairy farms. Economic and performance data were collected from nine Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan and Khorasan provinces of Iran from March 2008 to December 2013. The final data set included 160 410 calving records from 53 265 cows. A linear mixed model was developed to evaluate the effects of stillbirth on performance of primiparous and multiparous cows separately and overall. An economic model was used to estimate the economic losses due to stillbirth. The incidence of stillbirth cases per cow per year was 4.2% on average (3.4% to 6.8% at herd level). The least square means results showed that a case of stillbirth significantly (P0.05). Overall, a case of stillbirth reduced 305-day milk yield by 544.0±76.5 kg/cow per lactation. Stillbirth had no significant effects on 305-day fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, cows that gave birth to stillborn calves had significantly increased days open by 14.6±2.6 days and the number of inseminations per conception by 0.2 compared with cows that gave birth to live calves (Pfinancial losses associated with stillbirth incidence averaged US$ 938 per case (range from $US 767 to $US 1189 in the nine investigated farms). The loss of a calf was not the only cost associated with stillbirth, as it accounted for 71.0% of the total cost. The costs of dystocia (7.6%) and culling and replacement expenses (6.3%) were the next most important costs associated with stillbirth. These results can be used to assess the potential return from management strategies to reduce the occurrence of stillbirths.

  19. Effect of THI on milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

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    Simone Beux

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI on the milk coagulation properties of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle from northeast part of Italy. A total of 592 individual milk samples from six dairy herds were evaluated. The milk coagulation properties traits analysed were milk rennet coagulation time and curd firmness, as well as the fat, protein, and casein contents, pH, milk aptitude to coagulate (IAC, and the somatic cell count. The THI was determined during the periods of sample collection. The THI results showed that values of up to 75 did not significantly change the IAC values; however, when the THI values were above 75, the IAC decreased significantly. The control of THI can be used to guarantee appropriate milk coagulation properties.

  20. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

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    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  1. Risk factors for occurrence of displaced abomasum and their relation to nutritional management of Holstein dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Behluli, Behlul; Musliu, Arben; Sherifi, Kurtesh; Youngs, Curtis R.; Rexhepi, Agim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify nutritional risk factors for the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA) in Holstein dairy cattle raised in regions with highly variable nutritional management. Feeding program data were collected from 30 dairy farms throughout Kosovo via use of a standardized questionnaire, and an AgriNIR™ Analyser was used to analyze the nutrient composition of forage (hay, corn silage) fed to cattle on those farms. A diagnosis of DA was made via auscultation/percu...

  2. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

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    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  3. Effect of Feeding on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

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    D. J. Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  4. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

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    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  5. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

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    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  6. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  7. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  8. Heat stress effects on Holstein dairy cows' rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, R; Biffani, S; Chessa, S; Bozzi, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and rumination time (RT) in order to possibly exploit it as a useful tool for animal welfare improvement. During summer 2015 (1 June to 31 August), data from an Italian Holstein dairy farm located in the North of Italy were collected along with environmental data (i.e. ambient temperature and relative humidity) recorded with a weather station installed inside the barn. Rumination data were collected through the Heatime® HR system (SCR Engineers Ltd., Hadarim, Netanya, Israel), an automatic system composed of a neck collar with a Tag that records the RT and activity of each cow. A significant negative correlation was observed between RT and THI. Mixed linear models were fitted, including animal and test day as random effects, and parity, milk production level and date of last calving as fixed effects. A statistically significant effect of THI on RT was identified, with RT decreasing as THI increased.

  9. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  10. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  11. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  12. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Atashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42 kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05. Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05. Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05. Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI = 1.1(1.08–1.11. Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23, 3.16 (0.80 and 6.52 (1.01 kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05.

  13. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  14. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  15. Short communication: Association of disease incidence and adaptive immune response in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Crispi, K A; Hine, B; Quinton, M; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use previously calculated estimated breeding values for cell- (CMIR) and antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) to determine associations between immune response (IR) and economically important diseases of dairy cattle. In total, 699 Holsteins were classified as high, average, or low for CMIR, AMIR, and overall IR (combined CMIR and AMIR), and associations with mastitis, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasums, and retained fetal membranes were determined. The incidence of mastitis was higher among average cows as compared with cows classified as high AMIR [odds ratio (OR)=2.5], high CMIR (OR=1.8), or high IR (OR=1.8). Low-CMIR cows had a higher incidence of metritis (OR=11.3) and low-IR cows had a higher incidence of displaced abomasum (OR=4.1) and retained fetal membrane (OR=2.8) than did average responders. Results of this study show that cows classified as high immune responders have lower occurrence of disease, suggesting that breeding cattle for enhanced IR may be a feasible approach to decrease the incidence of infectious and metabolic diseases in the dairy industry. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  17. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  18. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  19. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  20. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... between conformation traits and other traits of interest in dairy cattle, such as fertility, longevity and feed effciency, but little is known about how methane emissions correlate with conformation traits. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the genetic correlations between methane and six conformation...

  1. Joint genome-wide association study for milk fatty acid traits in Chinese and Danish Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2015-01-01

    is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine...... different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA....... A large region (14.9–24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97–73.69 Mbp) on BTA9 showed a significantly different effect on C18:0 between the 2 populations. Detection of these important SNP...

  2. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P body condition score, reduced milk yield and shorter gestation (P fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. PMID:20670403

  3. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  5. Geographical influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To model the influence of heat stress on milk production of Holstein dairy herds on pasture in South Africa, the maximum entropy (Maxent) modelling technique was used in a novel approach to model and map optimal milk-producing areas. Geographical locations of farms with top milk-producing Holstein herds on pasture ...

  6. The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C N; Baek, K S; Parkhurst, A

    2016-01-01

    Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai'i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a) black (B, >90%); b) black/white (BW, 50:50) and c) white (W, >90%). Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  8. Comparison of clinical signs and bacterial isolates of postpartum endometritis in holstein dairy cows in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the uterine bacteria in cows with endometritis and to compare other characteristics in cases of endometritis without bacterial growth, with Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes or other bacteria. In total, 86 Holstein cows with postpartum endometritis from 13 commercial dairy herds were sampled once between 21-35 days postpartum. We used several diagnostic techniques for endometritis such as external observation, vaginal exam, rectal palpation, ultrasonography, and cervical and uterine cytological examination. Clear mucus with flakes of pus (E1, mucopurulent discharge (E2, and purulent discharge (E3 are three groups of endometritis. A transcervical double-guarded swab was used for bacterial sampling. The samples were cultured aerobic and anaerobically and biochemical tests were used for differentiation. Measurements were compared between groups: A, no growth (n=47; B, positive bacterial growth without T. pyogenes (n=21; and C, positive bacterial growth with T. pyogenes (n=18. There were no differences (P>0.05 in uterine wall thickness, body condition score (BCS and milk yield between the groups. The uterine horn diameter was largest in groups A (4.30±0.88 in comparison with groups B (4.81±1.17 and C (5.53±2.17 (P<0.05. The percentage of neutrophiles in smears of the uterine discharge (45.7±33.4 in group C was higher (P<0.05 than in groups A (14.5±22.7 and B (23.5±24.0. Eighty-three percent of group C have shown purulent discharge. In conclusion, the facultative anaerobe T. pyogenes may be the most common bacterial agent of postpartum endometritis in Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

  9. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    OpenAIRE

    Maede Moosavi; Abdolah Mirzaei; Mohsen Ghavami; Amin Tamadoد

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM) of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ? 150 DIM), duration of masti...

  10. Effects of different doses of melamine in the diet on melamine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this paper were to evaluate the effects of feeding diets containing different levels of melamine on melamine concentrations in milk, plasma, rumen fluid, urine and feces in Holstein dairy cows. Sixteen Chinese Holstein dairy cows fixed with permanent ruminal cannulas were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments ...

  11. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative study of the gut microbiome potentially related to milk protein in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Huo, Dongxue; Hu, Qisong; Peng, Qiannan

    2017-02-08

    Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural difference to the genera of Sutterella, Coprococcus and Dorea. A further analysis of microbial functional features revealed that the biosynthesis of amino acids (including lysine, valine, leucine and isoleucine), lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and cofactor/vitamin biosynthesis were enriched in the buffalo. In contrast, dairy cattle had higher levels of pyruvate metabolism and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. A further correlation analysis based on different milk components and the typical microbiome uncovered a significant positive correlation between milk protein and the microbial biosynthesis of amino acids, which was also positively correlated in the genera of Parabacteroides, Dorea and Sutterella. This study will expand our understanding of the intestinal microbiome of buffalo and cattle as representative ruminants, as well as provide new views about how to improve the production and nutritional qualities of animal milk.

  13. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (recorded information on housing, animal species present, manure management, reproduction, biosecurity practices, wildlife observations, peri-parturient cow management, herd disease history and nutrition. Production and other herd parameters were obtained from DHI records. Logistic regression indicated that the following parameters were positively associated with a N. caninum abortion in a herd: the N. caninum herd seroprevalence (OR = 1.1), the total number of dogs on a farm (OR = 2.8), the frequency that dogs were observed defecating in mangers (OR = 2.8), the number of horses on a farm (OR = 3.1), the observed annual rate of retained fetal membranes (OR = 1.2) and the observed annual rate of cows returning to estrus after pregnancy confirmation (OR = 1.2). Factors negatively associated were the frequency of stray cats and wild canids observed on a farm (OR = 0.4 and OR = 0.7, respectively) and the housing of heifers on loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1).

  14. Effects of Genotypes on Economic Traits in Chinese Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. P. Yue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate allele frequencies at the CSN1S2 locus in two Chinese dairy goat breeds and the effects of its variation on dairy goat economic traits. Seven hundred and eight goats from Xinong Saanen (XS, n = 268 and Guanzhong (GZ, N = 440 breeds were selected. The milk samples of 268 XS goats were collected during the middle of lactation, body size parameters (708 goats and daily milk yield (202 goats were registered. The RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism and SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism were used to detect the polymorphisms in CSN1S2. The Hardy-Weinberg (HW equilibrium and the associations between body size, milk yield and composition and the genotypes were calculated. The results revealed that only A and F CSN1S2 alleles were found in the two Chinese dairy goat breeds. Allelic frequencies of A and F were 0.795, 0.205 and 0.739, 0.261 in Xinong Saanen and Guanzhong population respectively. Xinong Saanen breed was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while Guanzhong breed deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05. The association of polymorphism with economic traits indicated that the goats with FF genotype have higher milk fat and total solid concentration than those with AA and AF genotypes (p<0.05.

  15. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  16. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  17. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  18. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their milk yield in transition period. Key words: Dairy cow, ... 20 multiparous Holsteins (parity 3) housed in free stalls at the. Esfahan-Kesht farm .... Corn gluten meal.

  19. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated. The res......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated....... The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production...

  20. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the interaction between genotype and climate for milk and fat production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Milk and fat production data were grouped in 5 climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. (Co)Variance components and genetic parameters of first lactation ...

  1. Non-genetic factors affecting fertility traits in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    referee1

    2014-03-08

    Mar 8, 2014 ... non-genetic factors affect the fertility of dairy cows. ... (2002) found conception rates of 64% in open heifers and 39% in .... the number of days from calving date to first service date for Holstein cows in the USA increased from.

  2. Effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on probability of conception in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These

  3. The relationship between energy balance after calving and reproductive functions in Holstein dairy cows treated by the OVSYNCH system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Doležalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the course and the depth of negative energy balance (NEB rated by changes of the body condition after calving and subsequent recovery of reproductive abilities of Holstein dairy cows treated by OVSYNCH. The body condition was evaluated by the BCS system one week before calving and subsequently at 30-day intervals for the period of 6 months of lactation. Recovery of ovarian functions was evaluated by the results of ultrasound examination of all the dairy cows’ ovaries in two controls after calving. The first one was performed on an average of 67 days after calving, and the second at a 60-day interval. The occurrence of individual findings - the presence of corpus luteum, ovarian cysts or ovaries without findings was evaluated as an effect of NEB on the recovery of the ovarian cycle of dairy cows and their subsequent possibility of conception. The suitable cows were treated by the OVSYNCH system after the 1st and 2nd ultrasound examination. Therefore, the insemination interval was calculated and in the case of dairy cows, pregnancy detection, also the number of services per conception and the length of open days. Twice performed hormonal treatment of 73.6% of the animals delayed the period by 50.2 days. In all, 202 dairy cows calved in the period from 29th July 2011 to 7th February 2012 were included in this observation. Significant effects of the body condition change on the ovarian activity as documented by sonographic examination and reproductive indicators appeared primarily in the second month of lactation. The best reproductive indicators were found in cows with the lowest body condition change, thus with a small decline or even increase of body condition score (−0.0 to +0.75 points, P < 0.05. On the contrary, the worst level of indicators of recovery of the reproduction functions were documented in the dairy cows with the most marked decline of BCS (P < 0.05.

  4. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Pcows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of lactation stage, its number, current milk performance and barn air temperature on laterality of Holstein dairy cows laying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zejdová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of lactation stage and number, current milk performance and ambient temperature on laterality of dairy cows laying behaviour (i.e. preference of either left or right body side. The monitoring was performed at the University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic, (geographical coordinates 49° 0’4’’ N and 16° 36’ E, the altitude 179 m within the six warmest months of the year 2010 (i.e. from 1 April 2010 to 30 September 2010. Observed were altogether 70 Holstein dairy cows with the average daily milk production of 34.48 kg of milk, which were kept in loose housing boxes with bedding (size of boxes: 2500 mm x 1250 mm. Animals were directly observed once a week (always at 9.00 a.m.. In the course of observation, the position of dairy cows in the barn was exactly recorded. In case of laying animals, it was recorded on which body side they were resting. Altogether 1,239 records of laying position of individual dairy cows were analysed and it was found out that the experimental animals preferred the left body side of their body (left and right laterality was observed in 671 and 568 animals, respectively. This left-side laterality was more frequent among animals in later stages of lactation (more than 200 days and also in dairy cows with a higher number of lactations (4th and more. Dairy cows with a below-average milk performance rested on their left body side more frequently than those with a high level of milk production. As compared with average and/or low air temperatures, the left laterality was more frequent in periods of high ambient temperatures.

  6. The effect of polymorphism in gene of insulin-like growth factor-I on the serum periparturient concentration in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, A; Sharifiyazdi, H; Ahmadi, M R; Ararooti, T; Ghasrodashti, A Rowshan; Kadivar, A

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between polymorphism within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IGF-I gene and its periparturient concentration in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Blood samples (5 mL, n = 37) were collected by caudal venipuncture from each animal into sample tubes containing the EDTA and DNA was extracted from blood. In order to measure IGF-I concentration the collection of blood samples (n = 111) was also done at 14 d before calving (prepartum), 25 and 45 d postpartum. We found evidence for a significant effect of C to T mutation in position 512 of IGF-I gene on its serum concentration in dairy cows in Iran. Cows with CC genotype had significantly higher concentration (Mean±SD) of IGF-I at 14 d prepartum (91.8±18.1) µg/L compared to those with TT genotype (73.3±14.4) µg/L (P=0.04). A significant trend (quadratic) was found for IGF-I concentration, as higher in CC cows compared to ones with TT genotype, during the 14 d before calving to 45 d postpartum (P=0.01). We concluded that C/T transition in the promoter region of IGF-I gene can influence the serum concentration of IGF-I in periparturient dairy cows.

  7. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-10-01

    The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p forage supplementation in both forage offering methods increased total DMI, ruminal pH and ruminating time in dairy calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Dairy farming: indoor v. pasture-based feeding

    OpenAIRE

    HOFSTETTER, P.; FREY, H.-J; GAZZARIN, C.; WYSS, U.; KUNZ, P.

    2017-01-01

    The current situation of volatile milk prices and rising costs of, e.g. grain and labour, suggests that it is worth studying productivity and efficiency in dairy farming. The objective of the current whole-system study, carried out in lowland Central Switzerland from 2007 to 2010, was to compare the performance, efficiency, land productivity and profitability of indoor-feeding (IF) dairy production with that of pasture-based feeding (PF) dairy production. An IF herd consisting of 11 Holstein-...

  9. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E...... interaction exists between populations. 2) Combining data from Chinese and Danish Holstein populations increases the power of GWAS and detects new QTL regions for milk fatty acid traits. 3) The novel multi-trait Bayesian model efficiently estimates region-specific genomic variances, covariances...

  10. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication. Behavioural activities of two dairy cow genotypes (Holstein-Friesian vs. Jersey x Holstein-Friesian in two milk production systems (grazing vs. confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Roca-Fernández

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the behavioural activities of two cow genotypes, Holstein-Friesian (HF vs. Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (Jx, when managed within two production systems, a low inputs grazing (G system vs. a high inputs confinement (C system. Eighty spring calving cows (HF, n=40 and Jx, n=40, from AFBI Hillsborough (Northern Ireland experimental dairy cattle, were randomly assigned to one of two production systems (G, n=40 and C, n=40 in a block design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of four treatments (HF-G, HF-C, Jx-G and Jx-C. Cow behavioural activities (feeding, lying, standing and ruminating were registered on three periods at 20-min intervals, between 16.00-22.00 h and 07.00-14.00 h. Average milk yields (kg cow-1 day-1 were higher (p<0.001 in the C system (27.0 than in the G system (20.1, with differences (p<0.001 between the two cow genotypes (HF, 25.1 vs. Jx, 22.0 kg cow-1 day-1. Milk production system showed an effect on cow behavioural activities. Animals on the G system spent more time (p<0.001 grazing (522 min than those on the C system spent feeding (173 min. Cows on the C system spent more time (p<0.001 lying (C, 411 vs. G, 212 min, standing (C, 236 vs. G, 85 min and ruminating (C, 244 vs. G, 141 min than those on the G system. There were differences between periods for time spent lying (p<0.001, feeding (p<0.05 and ruminating (p<0.001, while time spent standing did not differ between periods. Cow genotype had no effect on any of the behavioural activities.

  12. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...

  13. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  14. Comparative study of the gut microbiome potentially related to milk protein in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Chinese Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiachao Zhang; Chuanbiao Xu; Dongxue Huo; Qisong Hu; Qiannan Peng

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggested a close relationship between ruminant gut microbes and the mammary gland. In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to reveal the differences in the intestinal microbiome potentially related to milk components in Murrah buffaloes and Chinese Holstein cattle. A PCoA based on the weighted Unifrac distances showed an apparent clustering pattern in the structure of intestinal microbiota between buffalo and cattle. We could attribute the structural differenc...

  15. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  16. Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Holsteins are known as the world’s highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein using Korean Holstein data. Methods This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. Results We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. Conclusion This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.

  17. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  18. A comparison of the performance of Holstein and Friesian bulls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 92 Holstein-Friesian bulls, which were accepted for progeny testing ander the South African National Dairy Animal Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme during 1982, 1983 and 1984, was compared. Bulls which were locally bred for more than one generation were not entered under the Scheme.

  19. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...

  20. Factors associated with the rectal temperature of Holstein dairy cows during the first 10 days in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, J R; Moore, D A; Kasimanickam, R

    2011-04-01

    Daily evaluation of rectal temperature (RT) during the first 10 d in milk (DIM) is used to facilitate the early identification of postpartum complications, particularly metritis in dairy cows. The factors associated with RT of postpartum dairy cows have not been clearly established and the RT threshold used to define fever has been variable. The objectives were to identify factors associated with the RT of postpartum dairy cows and provide descriptive statistics of the RT during the first 10 DIM to clarify the normal range of RT for cows. Daily RT was evaluated from 1 to 10 DIM for all cows calving during 2 consecutive summers on a single 1,500-cow Holstein dairy. Cows were placed into metabolic/digestive (METB), infectious (INF), and no recorded disease (NONE) groups based on disease diagnoses during the first 10 DIM. Cows were grouped based on calving difficulty and parity. Multiple linear regression models with repeated measures were used to evaluate the factors associated with RT. Three hundred and ninety-two cows were evaluated, of which 45% were primiparous and 32% required assistance at calving. No difference was observed in calving assistance by parity. First disease diagnoses peaked in the INF and METB groups at 3 and 1 DIM, respectively. The RT of primiparous cows was 0.1 to 0.2°C higher than that of multiparous cows from 1 to 8 DIM, accounting for calving difficulty, twin births, month of calving, and disease group in the model. The INF group cows had a higher RT than did NONE group cows (38.9±0.04 to 39.2±0.73 vs. 38.7±0.03°C, respectively) on each of the first 10 DIM, which was approximately 0.6°C higher from 3 to 5 DIM. The RT of cows with metritis was at least 0.1°C higher (38.8±0.05°C) than that of NONE group cows beginning 4 d before diagnosis. The mean RT of primiparous, defined healthy (NONE group) cows was 38.8±0.02°C, with an upper normal limit (mean+2 SD) of 39.6°C. The mean RT of multiparous cows in the NONE group during the first

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Mullen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to 1 identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs 2 determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5’ promoter, intronic and 3’ regulatory regions, encompassing ~ 5 kb of the IGF-1 gene. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P<0.05 were identified between 6 SNPs (four novel and two previously identified and milk composition, survival, body condition score and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P<0.05 with increased cow carcass weight (i.e. an indicator of mature cow size. Novel SNPs were identified in the 3’ region of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with functional survival and chest width. The remaining 4 SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.

  2. Changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis for primiparous Holstein dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during IMI challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli) for dairy cows during early lactation. Thirty, healthy primiparous Holstein cows were infused (h = 0) with ~20-40 cfu of live...... the effect of IMI challenge on metabolic responses of cows during early lactation.ResultsBy 12 h, E. coli was recovered from challenged quarters and shedding continued through 72 h. Rectal temperature peaked by 12 h post-challenge and returned to pre-challenge values by 36 h post-IMI challenge. Daily feed...... intake and milk yield decreased (P mastitis challenge. Plasma BHBA decreased (12 h; P

  3. Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Fang, Ming; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    .Results: The Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with body conformation traits. A least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) was applied to detect multiple SNPs simultaneously for 29 body conformation traits with 1,314 Chinese...... Holstein cattle and 52,166 SNPs. Totally, 59 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were detected by genome-wide association analysis; five SNPs were within previously reported QTL regions (Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database) and 11 were very close to the reported...... SNPs. Twenty-two SNPs were located within annotated gene regions, while the remainder were 0.6-826 kb away from known genes. Some of the genes had clear biological functions related to conformation traits. By combining information about the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions...

  4. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the sale of milk. The current study was carried out to determine the economic value of SCC in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle, in order to establish its relative emphasis in breeding objectives. Bulk-tank ...

  5. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  6. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  7. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  8. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving....... Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access...... at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because...

  9. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  10. [Familial occurrence of diprosopus in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ursula; Kuiper, Heidi; Doeleke, Renate; Ulrich, Reiner; Gerdwilker, Axel; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Diprosopus was diagnosed in six German Holstein calves born on different dairy farms. The degree of facial duplication varied from a partial doubling of the nostrils and upper jaw to complete duplication of the face with formation of two mouths, four eyes and four ears. Further calves descending from the same parents or dams and calves from the same farms were not affected. A joint pedigree was ascertained for the calves with diprosopus. Furthermore, a previously reported case of diprosopus could be traced back to the same ancestors of this pedigree. Consequently, we detected the first time a familial accumulation of diprosopus. Since the ancestors showed no signs of diprosopus and the frequency of diprosopus in German Holsteins is presumably low, an oligogenic inheritance is likely. Recessive genes or a combination of recessive and dominant genes may cause this anomaly.

  11. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  12. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  14. Effect of dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance and functional longevity in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dystocia on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in Iranian Holsteins. Data consisted of 1 467 064 lactation records of 581 421 Holstein cows from 3083 herds which were collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from April 1987 to February 2014. Reproduction traits in this study included interval from first to second calving, days open and days from first calving to first service. The generalized linear model was used for the statistical analysis of reproductive traits. Survival analysis was performed using the Weibull proportional hazards models to analyse the impact of dystocia on functional longevity. The incidence of dystocia had an adverse effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, reproductive traits deteriorated along with increase in dystocia score (p dystocia (p 33 months had the greatest risk (p dystocia had important negative effects on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in dairy cows, and it should be avoided as much as possible to provide a good perspective in the scope of economic and animal welfare issues in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  16. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  17. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.

  18. Preferences of Freestall Housed Dairy Cows to Different Bedding Materials

    OpenAIRE

    MITEV, Jurii; VARLYAKOV, Ivan; MITEVA, Tchonka; VASILEV, Nasko; GERGOVSKA, Jivka; UZUNOVA, Krassimira; DIMOVA, Vania

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during the rest periods and their preferences to different bedding materials with limited amount of straw as well as the hygienic score of dairy cows. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows at the first to fourth lactation with live weight 610±58 kg and milk yield of 7364±1202 liter for 305 days of lactation were used for the experiment. Three types of bedding materials were used for the preference tes...

  19. Comparison of holstein and jersey milk production with a new stochastic animal reproduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsteins and Jerseys are the most popular breeds in the US dairy industry. We built a stochastic, Monte Carlo life events simulation model in Python to test if Jersey cattle’s higher conception rate offsets their lower milk production. The model simulates individual cows and their life events such ...

  20. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  1. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  2. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  3. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  4. Genomic selection for tolerance to heat stress in Australian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy T T; Bowman, Phil J; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Benjamin J

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and humidity levels above a certain threshold decrease milk production in dairy cattle, and genetic variation is associated with the amount of lost production. To enable selection for improved heat tolerance, the aim of this study was to develop genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for heat tolerance in dairy cattle. Heat tolerance was defined as the rate of decline in production under heat stress. We combined herd test-day recording data from 366,835 Holstein and 76,852 Jersey cows with daily temperature and humidity measurements from weather stations closest to the tested herds for test days between 2003 and 2013. We used daily mean values of temperature-humidity index averaged for the day of test and the 4 previous days as the measure of heat stress. Tolerance to heat stress was estimated for each cow using a random regression model with a common threshold of temperature-humidity index=60 for all cows. The slope solutions for cows from this model were used to define the daughter trait deviations of their sires. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction was used to calculate GEBV for heat tolerance for milk, fat, and protein yield. Two reference populations were used, the first consisted of genotyped sires only (2,300 Holstein and 575 Jersey sires), and the other included genotyped sires and cows (2,189 Holstein and 1,188 Jersey cows). The remainder of the genotyped sires were used as a validation set. All animals had genotypes for 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms. When using only genotyped sires in the reference set and only the first parity data, the accuracy of GEBV for heat tolerance in relation to changes in milk, fat, and protein yield were 0.48, 0.50, and 0.49 in the Holstein validation sires and 0.44, 0.61, and 0.53 in the Jersey validation sires, respectively. Some slight improvement in the accuracy of prediction was achieved when cows were included in the reference population for Holsteins. No clear improvements in the accuracy of

  5. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  6. Characterisation of the Whole Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Calves in Response to Gradual Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Johnston

    Full Text Available Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. The objectives of the study were to use RNA-seq technology to examine the effect of (i breed and (ii gradual weaning, on the whole blood mRNA transcriptome of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. The calves were gradually weaned over 14 days (day (d -13 to d 0 and mRNA transcription was examined one day before gradual weaning was initiated (d -14, one day after weaning (d 1, and 8 days after weaning (d 8. On d -14, 550 genes were differentially expressed between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves, while there were 490 differentially expressed genes (DEG identified on d 1, and 411 DEG detected eight days after weaning (P 0.05. The pathways, gene ontology terms, and biological functions consistently over-represented among the DEG between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey were associated with the immune response and immune cell signalling, specifically chemotaxis. Decreased transcription of several cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin-like genes, phagocytosis-promoting receptors and g-protein coupled receptors suggests decreased monocyte, natural killer cell, and T lymphocyte, chemotaxis and activation in Jersey compared to Holstein-Friesian calves. Knowledge of breed-specific immune responses could facilitate health management practices better tailored towards specific disease sensitivities of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. Gradual weaning did not compromise the welfare of artificially-reared dairy calves, evidenced by the lack of alterations in the expression of any genes in response to gradual weaning.

  7. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means. ... The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein ... Maintaining cow performance under hot conditions requires the adoption of ...

  8. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  9. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  10. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  11. Contribution of Holstein cows to sustainability of dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Waltrick, de B.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: sustainability,Holsteincows,

  12. Milk urea concentration as an indicator of ammonia emission from dairy cow barn under restricted grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Smits, M.C.J.; Andre, G.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk milk urea concentration was evaluated to assess its potential as an indicator of ammonia emission from a dairy cow barn in a situation with restricted grazing. An experiment was carried out with a herd of, on average, 52 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The cows were housed in a naturally

  13. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  14. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  15. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation,...

  16. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  17. DETECCIÓN SEROLÓGICA DEL BLV EN MUESTRAS DE LECHE EN UNA POBLACIÓN DE VACAS HOLSTEIN, ANTIOQUIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ÚSUGA MONROY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV is the etiological agent of the Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL, this disease is infectious, chronic and specifically cattle, presenting a low percentage of patients with clinical manifestations. Between 30-70% of infected animals can develop persistent lymphocytosis (LP and between 0,1-10% of cattle over three years of infection suffers some form of lymphosarcoma (LS. The aim of this work was serologically detection of BLV in milk samples from Holstein cows in three dairy herds in the department of Antioquia. Were taken 133 milk samples from Holstein cows three dairy herds located in the municipality of Medellin and Belmira, was conducted an indirect ELISA against gp51 envelope protein of the virus. The ELISA test showed a seroprevalence of 79,69% (106/133 for all samples tested. The herd was the largest herd seroprevalence 1 (82,86%, followed by the herd 2 (80% and finally the herd 3 (77,08%. The presence of the BLV has increased in recent years in Antioquia, so fast and efficient diagnosis through reliable methodologies allow control over the spread of the disease in dairy herds.

  18. Incidence of clinical mastitis and distribution of pathogens on large Chinese dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Barkema, Herman W; Zhang, Limei; Liu, Gang; Deng, Zhaoju; Cai, Lingjie; Shan, Ruixue; Zhang, Shiyao; Zou, Jiaqi; Kastelic, John P; Han, Bo

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge of the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) and the distribution of pathogens involved is essential for development of prevention and control programs as well as treatment protocols. No country-wide study on the incidence of CM and the distribution of pathogens involved has been conducted in China. Core objectives of this study were, therefore, to determine the cumulative incidence of CM and the distribution of pathogens causing CM on large Chinese (>500 cows) dairy farms. In addition, associations between the distribution of CM pathogens and bedding materials and seasonal factors were also investigated. Bacterial culture was done on a total of 3,288 CM quarter milk samples from 161 dairy herds (located in 21 provinces) between March 2014 and September 2016. Additional data, including geographical region of herds, herd size, bedding types, and number of CM cases during the last month, were also recorded. Mean cumulative incidence of CM was 3.3 cases per 100 cows per month (range = 1.7 to 8.1). The most frequently isolated pathogens were Escherichia coli (14.4%), Klebsiella spp. (13.0%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11.3%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (10.5%), and Staphylococcus aureus (10.2%). Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from 2.8% of CM samples, whereas Streptococcus uberis were isolated from 2.1% of samples, and 15.8% of 3,288 samples were culture-negative. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, E. coli, and other Enterobacter spp. were more frequently isolated in the northwest than the northeast or south of China. Streptococcus dysgalactiae, other streptococci, and Strep. agalactiae were more frequently isolated in winter (October-March), whereas E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were mostly isolated in summer (April-September). Streptococcus dysgalactiae was more often isolated from CM cases of herds using sand bedding, whereas Klebsiella spp. and other streptococci were more common in herds using organic bedding. The incidence of CM and distribution

  19. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  20. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  1. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee David A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1 genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results TLR4-2021 associated (P SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P Conclusion Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.

  2. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....

  3. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  4. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  5. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  6. Changes in serum metabolic hormone levels after glucose infusion during lactation cycles in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Chalmeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Negative energy balance can impair the metabolism of high producing dairy cows and supplying the glucose, as an energy source; can prevent the metabolic disorders in these animals. Hence, we hypothesized that bolus intravenous glucose administration may change the concentrations of metabolic hormones in order to prevent and control of metabolic dysfunctions of dairy cows. Twenty five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactations, far-off and close-up dry periods. All cows were received dextrose 50% intravenously at 500 mg/kg, 10 mL/kg/h. Blood samples were collected from all animals prior to and 1, 2, 3 and 4 after dextrose 50% infusion and sera were separated to determine glucose, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, serum free T3 (fT3, free T4 (fT4, cortisol and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. The decreasing pattern of T3 concentration was detected in all studied animals following intravenous glucose infusion (P<0.05. The significant increasing pattern of T4 levels was seen in early and mid lactation cows after glucose administration (P<0.05. The significant decreasing pattern of IGF-1 was detected in mid and late lactations and far-off dry groups (P<0.05. There were no significant alterations in fT3, fT4 and cortisol concentrations following glucose infusion in all experimental groups. In conclusion, bolus intravenous glucose infusion could influence the metabolic hormones in high producing Holstein dairy cows. Alterations of metabolic hormones following bolus intravenous glucose administration indicated that glucose is an important direct controller of metabolic interactions and responses in dairy cows during different physiological states.

  7. Effects of straw processing and pen overstocking on the growth performance and sorting characteristics of diets offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Akins, M S; Esser, N M; Ogden, R K; Gelsinger, S L

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the growth performance, feed-bunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers. Two corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets diluted with wheat straw were offered; diet composition was identical, except that one diet contained short (well-processed) straw (SS; 46.0% neutral detergent fiber, 12.9% crude protein, 60.7% total digestible nutrients, TDN), and the other long (poorly processed) straw (LS; 46.5% neutral detergent fiber, 12.6% crude protein, 60.0% TDN; % of dry matter basis). A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (SS or LS) and pen-stocking-density [100, 125, or 150% of capacity] treatments was evaluated with 240 Holstein dairy heifers (410 ± 56.3 kg) that were blocked by weight, and then assigned to 24 pens with 4 pens/interactive treatment. For 91 d, diets were dispersed at 1100 h daily, and bunks were sampled subsequently at 1300, 1600, 1900, 2200, 0100, and 0600 h during 3 evaluation periods throughout the trial. Diets were offered for ad libitum intake, but with minimal orts (19 mm) particles increased linearly from 1.26 to 2.82 across sampling times, differing from the SS diet at 2200, 0100, 0600, and 0900 h (orts). Similar factors calculated for the SS diet also increased linearly across sampling times, but these responses were less severe (1.27 to 1.97). Overall, particle-size concentration factors for physically effective fiber exhibited responses similar to those observed for large particles, except they were limited to narrower ranges for both the SS (1.04 to 1.14) and LS (1.03 to 1.26) diets. Despite these differences, daily dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (mean = 9.65 kg of dry matter/d), nor was daily intake of TDN (mean = 5.92 kg of TDN/d). For SS, heifers housed within overstocked pens exhibited reduced average daily gain (ADG) compared with the 100% stocking rate (0.93 vs. 0.99 kg/d). With LS processing, ADG

  8. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bienesusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was us...

  9. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  10. Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, L G D; Abade, C C; da Silva, E M; Litherland, N B; Hansen, L B; Hansen, W P; Chebel, R C

    2014-02-01

    subclinical endometritis, but HO cows tended to be more likely to have pyrexia from d 0 to 15 postpartum (50.0 vs. 31.4%) and to have greater incidence of purulent vaginal discharge (44.2 vs. 26.5%) than crossbred cows. Holstein cows were more likely to have at least 1 uterine disorder postpartum than crossbred cows (63.5 vs. 36.7%). No differences between breeds were observed in uterine involution. Holstein cows had larger subordinate follicles (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 8.9 ± 0.5) and a greater number of class III follicles (1.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1) than crossbred cows. Furthermore, the first corpus luteum postpartum of HO cows was diagnosed at a slower rate compared with crossbred cows. Crossbred cows had improved uterine health compared with HO cows and this may have been a consequence of heterosis and (or) breed complementarity and less pronounced decrease in DMI during the last days of gestation. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  12. Ovarian condition of Holstein dairy cows between 30 and 90 days postpartum in the microregion of Uberlândia, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Kloster Munhoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anestrous postpartum is a state of complete sexual inactivity without estrous manifestations and the return of ovarian activity in postpartum may be negatively affected by several factors, such as negative energy balance (NEB, loss of body condition score (BCS, season in which the calving occurs, nutritional deficiencies, dystocic calving, retained placenta, uterine infections and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BCS and number of days in milk (DIM on ovarian cyclicity of Holstein dairy cows. Ovarian conditions of 168 cows between 30 to 90 days in milk (DIM were evaluated twice by ultrasonography with seven days of interval and cows were classified in four categories: ovaries with presence of small follicles (Category 1: up to 10 mm; ovaries with medium follicles (Category 2: 10 to 18 mm; ovaries with large follicles (Category 3: over 20 mm and ovaries with presence of corpus luteum (CL (Category 4. The cows classified in categories 1, 2 and 3 were considered in anestrous. Data were analyzed by logistic regression at Minitab (P<0.05. As a result 15 cows (8.93% were in Category 1, 34 (20.24% in Category 2, 4 (2.38% in Category 3 and 115 (68.45% in Category 4. There was no effect (P>0.05 of DIM in the percentage of cycling cows, however there was a tendency (P=0.074 that cows with greater BCS (≥ 2.75 had a higher cyclicity rate (74.44% vs. 61.54% than cows with lower BCS. Days in milk effect was not detected in cyclicity rate in cows between 30 and 90 DIM, but there was a tendency of Holstein cows with greater body condition score to had higher cyclicity rate.

  13. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  14. Immune responses of Holstein and Jersey calves during the preweaning and immediate postweaned periods when fed varying planes of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of breed and planes of preweaned milk replacer (MR) nutrition on the immune responses of pre- and postweaned dairy calves. Forty-two bull calves (n=20 Holstein and n=22 Jersey, 2±1 d old) were studied. Holstein and Jersey calves came from separate dairies. Calves were fed either a higher plane of MR nutrition or a lower plane of MR nutrition. Holstein and Jersey calves on the lower planes of MR nutrition were fed 454 g (as fed)/d of a 20% crude protein (CP)/20% fat MR. Holstein calves on the higher plane of MR nutrition were fed 810 and 1,180 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/20% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. Jersey calves on the higher plane of nutrition were fed 568 and 680 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/25% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. On d 4, 42, and 77, peripheral blood was collected for ex vivo immunological analyses, and on d 7 all calves were challenged subcutaneously with commercially available lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (4 µg/kg of body weight); clinical and biochemical responses were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 72 h. We observed a breed difference in total serum protein, wherein Jersey calves had higher concentrations than Holsteins. Holsteins and calves fed the higher plane of MR nutrition had greater glucose concentrations following the LPS challenge. With the exception of plasma haptoglobin concentrations at 24 h postchallenge, we observed no treatment × time interactions following the LPS challenge. Calves fed higher planes of MR nutrition had greater plasma haptoglobin concentrations 24h following the LPS challenge. Isolated mononuclear cells from Holstein calves secreted more tumor necrosis factor-α than did cells from Jersey calves when stimulated ex vivo with LPS on d 77. In addition, when whole blood was incubated with a live enteropathogenic E. coli culture, blood from Holsteins had a greater killing capacity than did whole blood from

  15. Effect of partially replacing a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Moats, J; Aluthge, N D; Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T; Penner, G B; Fernando, S C

    2018-01-01

    The effects of partial replacement of a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows were evaluated. Treatments fed were CONT, a normal diet that included barley silage, alfalfa hay and a barley-based concentrate that contained no flaxseed or faba beans; FLAX, inclusion of a nonextruded flaxseed-based product containing 55·0% flaxseed, 37·8% field peas and 6·9% alfalfa; EXT, similar to FLAX, but the product was extruded and EXTT, similar to FLAX, but product was extruded and field peas were replaced by high-tannin faba beans. The rumen bacterial population was evaluated by utilizing 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most abundant phyla, families and genera were unaffected. However, some taxa were affected; for example, unsaturated fatty acid content was negatively correlated with Clostridiaceae, and tannin content was negatively correlated with BS11 and Paraprevotellaceae. Predominant rumen bacterial taxa were not affected, but the abundance of some taxa found in lower proportions shifted, possibly due to sensitivity to unsaturated fatty acids or tannins. Flaxseed-based products were effective for partially replacing barley-based concentrate in rations of lactating dairy cows. No negative effects of these products were observed on the abundance of predominant rumen bacterial taxa, with only minor shifts in less abundant bacteria. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  17. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...

  18. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens.

  19. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  20. Technical note: The development of a methodology for ruminal and colon tissue biopsying of young Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, J K; Middeldorp, M; Steele, M A

    2018-05-09

    The objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for biopsying the rumen and colon of young dairy calves and to collect suitable quality tissue samples for microscopic and gene expression analysis. Six Holstein dairy bull calves (45.0 ± 1.5 kg birth weight) were ruminally cannulated during the second week of life and weaned at the end of wk 6. Ruminal and colon tissue samples were collected at the end of wk 5, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Calves were not sedated but were restrained in a chute for sampling. The endoscope (100 cm length, 9.8 mm diameter) was introduced through the rumen cannula to harvest ruminal tissue. Endoscopic biopsies of the rumen with endoscopic biopsy forceps were unsuccessful 85% of the time because they were unable to shear the ruminal tissue. Thereafter, an Allis clamp was used to retrieve the blind sac through the rumen cannula to perform direct tissue biopsying with surgical scissors. To biopsy the colon, the lubricated distal tip of an endoscope was slowly inserted into the calf's anus. A total of 6 colon tissue samples (12.6 ± 0.74 mg) were collected per calf per time point from the distal colon 30 to 40 cm from the calf's anus using endoscopic biopsy forceps, which were inserted through the instrument channel. A new forcep was used between sites and calves. Between calves, the outside of the endoscope was washed with 4% chlorohexidine and rinsed with water and the instrument channel was washed with distilled water and 70% ethanol. Colon and ruminal samples were processed for histological measurements, and RNA was isolated and sequenced. High-quality RNA (RNA integrity number 8.8 ± 0.08) was collected from samples, and light and electron microscopy was performed on samples. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsying can be used for tissue harvest in the colon of young calves. However, it was found that collecting ruminal tissue by retracting the rumen from the cannula and taking samples with surgical scissors was more successful than an

  1. Reproduction, mastitis, and body condition of seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows in confinement or pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; White, S L; Green, J T; Benson, G A

    2002-01-01

    Dairy cows in confinement and pasture-based feeding systems were compared across four spring-calving and three fall-calving replicates for differences in reproduction, mastitis, body weights, and body condition scores. Feeding systems and replicates included both Jersey and Holstein cows. Cows in confinement were fed a total mixed ration, and cows on pasture were supplemented with concentrates and provided baled hay or haylage when pasture supply was limiting. Breeding periods were for 75 d in spring or fall. Reproductive performance did not differ significantly due to feeding system or season. Jerseys had higher conception rates (59.6 vs. 49.5 +/- 3.3%) and higher percentages of cows pregnant in 75 d (78.1 vs. 57.9 +/- 3.9%) than Holsteins. Cows in confinement had 1.8 times more clinical mastitis and eight times the rate of culling for mastitis than did cows on pasture. Jerseys had half as many clinical cases of mastitis per cow as Holsteins. Only 41 +/- 5% of confinement Holsteins remained for a subsequent lactation, starting within the defined calving season compared with 51 +/- 5% of pastured Holsteins and 71 and 72 +/- 5% of Jerseys, respectively. Body weights and condition scores were generally higher for confinement cows than pastured cows, and Jerseys had higher condition scores and lower body weights than Holsteins. In summary, pastured cows had fewer clinical cases of mastitis, lower body condition scores, and lower body weights than confinement cows. Holsteins were less likely to rebreed, had more mastitis, higher culling rates, and lower body condition scores than Jerseys.

  2. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  3. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  4. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  5. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  6. Biliary clearance of bromosulfophthalein in healthy and ketotic Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kirovski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with liver lipidosis. Numerous tests have been developed to detect hepatic dysfunction in dairy cows. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP clearance is established as a sensitive index of hepatic function. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of biliary excretion of BSP between ketotic and healthy Holstein cows and to correlate this excretion with other indicators of liver dysfunction. Twenty puerperal Holstein cows divided in two groups (10 cows each were involved in the study. The first group included healthy and the second group ketotic cows. Blood samples were taken 10 days after parturition. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, Ca, P, total lipids, urea and glucose were determined. Immediately after blood sampling, BSP test was performed. Blood samples were taken 5 and 45 minutes after injection, and the percentage of retained pigment in the sample obtained at minute 45 was calculated. Blood albumin and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in healthy then ketotic cows. Total bilirubin concentration was significantly higher in ketotic than healthy cows. BSP excretion was significantly higher in ketotic compared to healthy cows. There was a significant positive correlation between BSP values and total bilirubin concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows and a significant negative correlation between BSP values and glucose concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows. In conclusion, biliary clearance of BSP may be used as a reliable method for the detection of hepatic dysfunction associated with clinical symptoms of ketosis in dairy cows.

  7. Holstein-Friesian milk performance in organic farming in North Spain: Comparison with other systems and breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Rodríguez-Bermúdez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic systems are highly dependent on the environment and require animals well adapted to local conditions. In Spain, organic dairy farmers are not satisfied with the productive performance of their herds and ask for technical advice to obtain suitable animals for organic systems. The milk productive performance (milk yield, nutritional composition, and somatic cell count of Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming in North Spain compared with conventional farms has been analysed. When breed diversity was present in the same organic farm, Holstein-Friesian milk performance was compared with other breeds and/or crosses. Holstein-Friesian cows in organic farming produce slightly less milk than grazing conventional cows, but milk was similar in composition and somatic cell count across systems. The limited data from organic farms where breed diversity exists indicate that Holstein-Friesian cows produce numerically more milk than other breeds and crosses but with statistically lower protein content. Considering that in Spain organic milk production is mostly used for liquid milk consumption and that the payment system is based only on milk volume, Holstein-Friesian cows would better fit the farmer interests than other breeds or crosses. However, in addition to productive performance, reproductive efficiency, animal health and consumer’s preferences should be fully considered when selecting a breed for organic production. If Holstein-Friesian was the selected breed, efforts should be made to identify cows within the breed that are best adapted to organic conditions. New productive, reproductive, nutritional and economic studies would be needed to develop a genetic merit index for organic systems.

  8. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Brian K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems. This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input. Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework

  9. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems). This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input). Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework upon which to identify the

  10. Associations of selected bedding types with incidence rates of subclinical and clinical mastitis in primiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to determine the association of exposure to selected bedding types with incidence of subclinical (SM) and clinical mastitis (CM) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows housed in identical pens at a single facility. At parturition, primiparous cows were randomly assigned to pens containing freestalls with 1 of 4 bedding materials: (1) deep-bedded new sand (NES, n=27 cows), (2) deep-bedded recycled sand (RS, n=25 cows), (3) deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS, n=31 cows), and (4) shallow-bedded manure solids over foam-core mattresses (SBMS, n=26 cows). For 12mo, somatic cell counts of quarter milk samples were determined every 28d and duplicate quarter milk samples were collected for microbiological analysis from all quarters with SM (defined as somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL). During this period, duplicate quarter milk samples were also collected for microbial analysis from all cases of CM. For an additional 16mo, cases of CM were recorded; however, no samples were collected. Quarter days at risk (62,980) were distributed among bedding types and most quarters were enrolled for >150d. Of 135 cases of SM, 63% resulted in nonsignificant growth and 87% of recovered pathogens (n=33) were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The distribution of etiologies of pathogens recovered from cases of SM was associated with bedding type. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 12, 38, 11, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. A result of nonsignificant growth was obtained for 81, 59, 89, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. Quarters of primiparous cows bedded with NES tended to have greater survival time to incidence of CM than quarters of primiparous cows bedded with RS or DBMS. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  12. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (Pcows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance.

  13. The effects of heat stress in Italian Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabucci, U; Biffani, S; Buggiotti, L; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A

    2014-01-01

    The data set for this study comprised 1,488,474 test-day records for milk, fat, and protein yields and fat and protein percentages from 191,012 first-, second-, and third-parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from 2001 through 2007 and merged with meteorological data from 35 weather stations. A linear model (M1) was used to estimate the effects of the temperature-humidity index (THI) on production traits. Least squares means from M1 were used to detect the THI thresholds for milk production in all parities by using a 2-phase linear regression procedure (M2). A multiple-trait repeatability test-model (M3) was used to estimate variance components for all traits and a dummy regression variable (t) was defined to estimate the production decline caused by heat stress. Additionally, the estimated variance components and M3 were used to estimate traditional and heat-tolerance breeding values (estimated breeding values, EBV) for milk yield and protein percentages at parity 1. An analysis of data (M2) indicated that the daily THI at which milk production started to decline for the 3 parities and traits ranged from 65 to 76. These THI values can be achieved with different temperature/humidity combinations with a range of temperatures from 21 to 36°C and relative humidity values from 5 to 95%. The highest negative effect of THI was observed 4 d before test day over the 3 parities for all traits. The negative effect of THI on production traits indicates that first-parity cows are less sensitive to heat stress than multiparous cows. Over the parities, the general additive genetic variance decreased for protein content and increased for milk yield and fat and protein yield. Additive genetic variance for heat tolerance showed an increase from the first to third parity for milk, protein, and fat yield, and for protein percentage. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were all unfavorable (from -0.24 to -0.56). Three EBV per trait were

  14. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; Pketosis in transition dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comportamiento lechero de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo Dairy performance of Holstein x Zebu genotypes under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el potencial bioproductivo y económico de rebaños de diferentes genotipos raciales de doble propósito (Holstein x Cebú en asociaciones de leguminosas arbóreas con gramíneas, se seleccionaron tres unidades lecheras con 80 vacas cada una, formadas por los genotipos Mambí (¾ H x ¼ C, Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 C y F1 (½H x ½ C, respectivamente. Se determinó la disponibilidad de materia seca de los pastos y el consumo de alimentos complementarios, así como los indicadores productivos del rebaño y los ingresos económicos. No se encontraron marcadas diferencias entre los rebaños en cuanto a la disponibilidad de MS y el aporte del pasto a la dieta. Se obtuvieron valores de producción de leche entera de 7,2; 6,8 y 6,7 y corregida de 9,1; 9,3 y 9,8 kg/vaca/día para los raciales Mambí, Siboney y F1, respectivamente. Los precios de venta de la leche fueron superiores a los 90 centavos en los tres rebaños, con utilidades mayores a los 10 000 pesos. Se concluye que no hubo diferencias apreciables, en términos de producción de leche, entre los genotipos; las diferencias económicas a favor del genotipo F1 están dadas por su rusticidad y adaptación al medio ambiente de pastoreo. Por otra parte, se demostró la sostenibilidad productiva de la tecnología del silvopastoreo racional durante 10 años de explotación.With the objective of evaluating the bioproductive and economic potential of herds from different double purpose racial genotypes (Holstein x Zebu in associations of legume trees with grasses, three dairy units were selected with 80 cows each, including the genotypes Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z, Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z and F1 (1/2 H x ½ Z, respectively. Dry matter availability of the pastures and intake of complementary feedstuffs were determined, as well as the productive indicators of the herds and the incomes. No remarkable differences were found among herds regarding DM availability and contribution of pasture

  16. A case of ocular thelaziasis in a 2.5 years old Holstein heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Daradka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-years-old, Holstein lactating dairy cow was presented to the Veterinary Health Center with severe conjunctivitis and exuberant granulation tissue formation of the left eye. Upon close examination of the eye, a 2-cm long slender-shaped nematode was found in the conjunctival sac. The nematode was examined by a veterinary parasitologist and determined to be Thelazia species. The exuberant granulation tissue was surgically removed and a total of 0.5 mL of 1% levamisole was injected subconjunctivally. Levamesole was also injected subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight and repeated after 15 days. The cow made a complete recovery within 25 days following treatment. This is the first case report of ocular thelaziasis in dairy cattle in Jordan.

  17. Differences in response to heat stress due to production level and breed of dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantner, Vesna; Bobic, Tina; Gantner, Ranko; Gregic, Maja; Kuterovac, Kresimir; Novakovic, Jurica; Potocnik, Klemen

    2017-09-01

    The climatic conditions in Croatia are deteriorating which significantly increases the frequency of heat stress. This creates a need for an adequate dairy farming strategy. The impact of heat stress can be reduced in many ways, but the best long-term solution includes the genetic evaluation and selection for heat stress resistance. In order to create the basis for genetic evaluation, this research determined the variation in daily milk yield (DMY) and somatic cell count (SCC) as well as the differences in resistance to heat stress due to production level (high, low) and breed (Holstein, Simmental) of dairy cattle breed in Croatia. For statistical analysis, 1,070,554 test-day records from 70,135 Holsteins reared on 5679 farms and 1,300,683 test-day records from 86,013 Simmentals reared on 8827 farms in Croatia provided by the Croatian Agricultural Agency were used. The results of this research indicate that the high-producing cows are much more susceptible to heat stress than low-producing especially Holsteins. Also, the results of this research indicate that Simmental breed, in terms of daily milk production and somatic cell count, could be more resistant to heat stress than Holstein. The following research should determine whether Simmentals are genetically more appropriate for the challenges that are in store for the future milk production in this region. Furthermore, could an adequate production level be achieved with Simmentals by maintaining the heat resistance?

  18. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive

  19. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. Differential responsiveness of Holstein and Angus dermal fibroblasts to LPS challenge occurs without major differences in the methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Aimee L; Green, Benjamin B; Crooker, Brian A; McKay, Stephanie D; Kerr, David E

    2016-03-24

    We have previously found substantial animal-to-animal and age-dependent variation in the response of Holstein fibroblast cultures challenged with LPS. To expand on this finding, fibroblast cultures were established from dairy (Holstein) and beef (Angus) cattle and challenged with LPS to examine breed-dependent differences in the innate immune response. Global gene expression was measured by RNA-Seq, while an epigenetic basis for expression differences was examined by methylated CpG island recovery assay sequencing (MIRA-Seq) analysis. The Holstein breed displayed a more robust response to LPS than the Angus breed based on RNA-Seq analysis of cultures challenged with LPS for 0, 2, and 8 h. Several immune-associated genes were expressed at greater levels (FDR Angus fibroblasts, and two of these regions fell within the promoter region (-2500 to +500 bp of the transcription start site) of the genes NTRK2 and ADAMTS5. Fibroblasts isolated from Holstein cattle display a more robust response to LPS in comparison to cultures from Angus cattle. Different selection strategies and management practices exist between these two breeds that likely give rise to genetic and epigenetic factors contributing to the different immune response phenotypes.

  1. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  2. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  3. Use of sexed semen and its effect on conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth of Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexed-semen use for breeding Holstein heifers and cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds was documented by frequency and percentage for parity and service number as well as for herd region, size, and milk yield. Year of breeding accounted for the most variation in the amount of use of sexed semen for ...

  4. Ability of dairy cows to ensure pregnancy according to breed and genetic merit for production traits under contrasted pasture-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Disenhaus, C; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Delaby, L

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess and measure the effects of breed, genetic merit for production traits, and feeding systems (FS) on the ability of dairy cows to ensure pregnancy through its components (fertilization, embryonic losses, recalving). An experiment was conducted over 9 yr on Normande and Holstein cows assigned to contrasted FS. Diets were based on maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate in spring in the high FS group, and on grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate during spring in the low FS group. Within breeds, cows were classified into 2 groups with similar estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk solids: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a milk group and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a content group. Holstein cows produced more milk throughout lactation than Normande cows (the differential was greater in the high FS group, +2,294 kg, compared with +1,280 kg in the low FS group) and lost more body condition to nadir (the differential was greater in the high FS group, -1.00 point, compared with -0.80 point in the low FS group). Within breeds, milk solids production was similar between genetic groups. Cows in the high FS group produced more milk (+2,495 kg for Holstein and +1,481 kg for Normande cows) and had a higher body condition score at nadir (+0.40 point for Holstein and +0.60 point for Normande) than cows in the low FS group. Holstein cows had a lower recalving rate than Normande cows (-19 percentage units). We found no effect of genetic group and FS on fertility of Normande cows. However, according to FS, Holstein cows in the content group exhibited different fertility failure patterns. In the low FS group, Holstein cows in the content group had more nonfertilizations or early embryo mortality (+26 percentage units at first and second services) than Holstein cows in the milk group. In the high FS group, Holstein cows in the content group had a higher proportion of

  5. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  6. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  7. Molecular typing of isolates obtained from aborted foetuses in Brucella-free Holstein dairy cattle herd after immunisation with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Candidate gene association analyses for ketosis resistance in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroezen, V; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F; Baes, C F; Squires, E J

    2018-06-01

    High-yielding dairy cattle are susceptible to ketosis, a metabolic disease that negatively affects the health, fertility, and milk production of the cow. Interest in breeding for more robust dairy cattle with improved resistance to disease is global; however, genetic evaluations for ketosis would benefit from the additional information provided by genetic markers. Candidate genes that are proposed to have a biological role in the pathogenesis of ketosis were investigated in silico and a custom panel of 998 putative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was developed. The objective of this study was to test the associations of these new markers with deregressed estimated breeding values (EBV) for ketosis. A sample of 653 Canadian Holstein cows that had been previously genotyped with a medium-density SNP chip were regenotyped with the custom panel. The EBV for ketosis in first and later lactations were obtained for each animal and deregressed for use as pseudo-phenotypes for association analyses. Results of the mixed inheritance model for single SNP association analyses suggested 15 markers in 6 unique candidate genes were associated with the studied trait. Genes encoding proteins involved in metabolic processes, including the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids and ketone bodies, gluconeogenesis, lipid mobilization, and the citric acid cycle, were identified to contain SNP associated with ketosis resistance. This work confirmed the presence of previously described quantitative trait loci for dairy cattle, suggested novel markers for ketosis-resistance, and provided insight into the underlying biology of this disease. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

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    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  10. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  11. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  12. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  13. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  14. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

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    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  15. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  16. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y

    2014-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  17. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  18. Effects of Management and Genetics on Udder Health and Milk Composition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Beerda, B.; Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Milk production per cow has increased significantly as a result of breeding, feeding, and other management factors. This study aims to address concerns about udder health risks for low- and high-producing dairy cows. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 100) of low or high

  19. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  20. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  1. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  2. Fertility parameters of dairy cows with cystic ovarian disease after treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, G.A.; Oijen, van M.A.A.J.; Frankena, K.; Valks, M.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Fertility data were collected every four weeks for 10 years from 40 herds of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. The data collected during 925 lactations from cows with cystic ovarian disease which were treated with 500 μg gonadorelin were compared with data from a control group of 13,869 normal

  3. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... milking, as seen by a higher frequency of tripping and kicking. Mastitic cows continued to show increased kicking during milking even after the antibiotic treatment period. These results show that the behavioral changes induced by naturally occurring mastitis persisted beyond the days of antibiotic...

  4. Persistency of milk yield in Indonesian Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Putra, F. Y.; Nugroho, T.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Milk yield is an important trait in dairy industry; thus, information regarding this phenotype is essential to measure the productivity of a farm. Total milk yield in one lactation period was often predicted using information from samples collected within certain time intervals. The rate of change of milk production between two-time intervals is defined as persistency. This article aims to estimate the persistency of milk yield between lactation 1, 2 and 3 in Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH) cows. Data was collected from Limpakuwus stable, Baturraden Dairy Cattle Breeding Centre, Central Java Indonesia. Records were obtained from cows which started lactating on 2013 until the end of third lactation around the beginning of 2016. Milk yield from the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) lactations of 21 cows were recorded in kilograms. Samples were collected in 30 days basis interval started from the 10th day of lactation up to the 10th month. In this population, the cows first calving was around February – April 2013; while the second and third calving occurred all over the relevant year. The mean of milk yield for L1, L2 and L3 were 17.77±3.70, 16.09±5.17 and 13.73±4.02 Kg respectively. The peak of milk yields was achieved at the second month of the lactation for L1, L2 and L3. The persistency from the second to the tenth test days were 97, 93 and 94% for L1, L2 and L3, respectively. Milk yield persistency is representing ability of cow in maintain milk production after peak during lactation period. The more persistent shows better performance of dairy cattle as well as farm management. For that, persistency value could be used as valuable information in evaluating the management in Indonesian dairy farms.

  5. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-04-20

    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  6. THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHT ON MILK PRODUCTION IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available 20 multiparous cows were utilized to investigate effect of supplemental light on milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (n=10: a 10- 13 hours of light and 14-11 hours of darkness/d natural light -NL group; b 17 hours of light (natural light + supplemental light -SL group. Supplemental lighting of 350 lx at eye level was provided by fluorescent lamps, controlled by an automatic timer. Multiparous cows in SL group produced more fat corected milk (FMC than multiparous cows in NL group. The efficiency of production in dairy cows can be enhanced by the photoperiod manipulation and thus provide another management tool for dairy producers to enhance productivity.

  7. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  8. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones ( in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05. In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05. Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution.

  9. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  10. Methane production and digestion of different physical forms of rapeseed as fat supplements in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed fat on methane (CH4) mitigation properties, feed digestion, and rumen fermentation. Four lactating ruminal-, duodenal-, and ileal-cannulated Danish Holstein dairy cows (143 d in milk, milk yield of 34.3 kg) were...

  11. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2014-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Penentuan Keberhasilan Involusi Uterus Sapi Perah Friesian Holstein Berdasarkan Kadar Estrogen Setelah Beberapa Penginjeksian Selenium-Vitamin E (DETERMINATION OF THE SUCCESS UTERINE INVOLUTION IN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COW BASED ESTROGEN LEVELS AFTER MU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ayu Prasdini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of selenium-vitamin ETM to the increasedlevels of estrogen as a sign of completion uterine involution process in dairy cows Frisian Holstein (FHafter calving. Twenty pragnant FH cows were used in this experiment. The cows devided into four groups.The first group (as control, P0 was not given selenium-vitamin ETM, the second group (P1 was given 0.5mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mL vitamin ETM, the third group (P2 was given 1,5 mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mLvitamin ETM and the fourth group (P3 was given 2 mg/mL selenium + 100 mg/mL vitamin ETM. Theadministration of selenium-vitamin ETM performed at the 7th months of pragnancy, 8th month of pragnancy,two weeks before calving, 7 and 14 days after calving intramuscularly. After calving, the serum of dairycows were taken for analysis of estrogen levels on the 25th day, the 45th, the 65th and current first postpartumestrus in the position of standing heat using Bovine Estrogen ELISA Kit (EST methode . The results of theanalysis of high estrogen levels on day 25, the 45th, the 65th and current first estrus days after giving birthin units of pg / mL found in treatment 3 (P3, which were a 8.94 ± 0.22; 9.64 ± 0.55; 9.86 ± 0.67and 10.14 ±0.84 respectively, but the fastest uterine involution based estrogen levels was in treatment 2 (P2 on the45th day with 9.12 ± 0.94 for the estrogen levels.. The conclusions of the study was the addition of seleniumand vitamin E at the 7th month of pragnancy until the 14th day after calving may significantly affecton theincreased levels of estrogen which indicates the success of uterine involution in dairy cows FH.

  13. Differences in milk fat composition predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry among dairy cattle breeds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Soyeurt, H.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate breed differences in milk fatty acid (FA) profile among 5 dairy cattle breeds present in the Netherlands: Holstein-Friesian (HF), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and Jersey (JER). For this purpose, total fat percentage

  14. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  15. Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Xie, Tian Yu; Janssen, Peter H; Sun, Xue Zhao; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhi Liang; Gao, Min

    2016-09-01

    Different carbohydrates ingested greatly influence rumen fermentation and microbiota and gaseous methane emissions. Dissolved hydrogen concentration is related to rumen fermentation and methane production. We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates ingested greatly alter the rumen environment in dairy cows, and that dissolved hydrogen concentration is associated with these changes in rumen fermentation and microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows [aged 4-5 y, body weight 480 ± 37 kg (mean ± SD)] were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate effects of 4 diets differing in forage content (45% compared with 35%) and source (rice straw compared with a mixture of rice straw and corn silage) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations. Feed intake (10.7-12.6 kg/d) and fiber degradation (0.584-0.692) greatly differed (P ≤ 0.05) between cows fed the 4 diets, leading to large differences (P ≤ 0.05) in gaseous methane yield (27.2-37.3 g/kg organic matter digested), dissolved hydrogen (0.258-1.64 μmol/L), rumen fermentation products, and microbiota. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was negatively correlated (r 0.40; P Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated (r = 0.93; P ruminal dissolved hydrogen in lactating dairy cows. An unresolved paradox was that greater dissolved hydrogen was associated with greater numbers of methanogens but with lower gaseous methane emissions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  17. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  18. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  19. Barium selenate supplementation and its effect on intramammary infection in pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, A; Kruze, J; Barkema, H W; Dohoo, I R; Sanchez, J; Uribe, D; Wichtel, J J; Wittwer, F

    2010-04-01

    A significant proportion of cattle receive inadequate dietary Se because of its low content in soils and pastures of various regions of the world. Several economically important diseases in dairy cows, such as mastitis, have been associated with Se deficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single injection of a long-acting form of Se at drying off on the risk and incidence rate of new intramammary infections and on milk somatic cell count in the subsequent lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. Forty-nine Chilean Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a diet containing pasture-based dairy cows did not affect udder health in the subsequent lactation, indicating that Se basal intake was adequate for preventing subclinical mastitis in pasture-based cows in southern Chile. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  1. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage l...

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of age at first calving in Iranian Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Seyeddokht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age at first calving (AFC has an important effect on profitability and reproductive management of dairy cattle. Every month increase in AFC beyond 24 months increases the cost of production. The time between birth and first calving represents a period in which replacement heifers are not generating income. Instead this rearing period requires considerable capital expenditures including feed, housing, and veterinary expenses. These expenses constitute 15% to 20% of the total expenses related to milk production. A basic approach to reduce this cost is to decrease the time between birth and her first freshening. Worldwide recommendations for one particular AFC might be an incorrect management goal for all of the cattle on all of the farms, since the recommendation might not represent the management goals and/or capabilities of a particular production system or farm. We realize that each dairy has its own set of unique management and environmental conditions, which makes a universal AFC and BW after first calving, a difficult goal to achieve. The AFC has a profound influence on the total cost of raising dairy replacements in which older calving heifers are more expensive to raise than younger ones. Materials and methods: A total of 19499 calving records belonged to 96 herd from 1996 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic components and genetic trend for age at first calving in Holstein dairy cows of Iran. Data were analyzed using a univariate model and Wombat software. Linear regression of estimated breeding values on calving year was used to estimate genetic trend. Results and Discussion: Estimated genetic trend was positive for some years and was negative for others and showed that reducing age at first calving has not been considered in the selection strategies; however, the phenotypic trend was decreased. The age at first calving for Yazd, Markazi, and southern Khorasan provinces were the highest and for Kermanshah, East Azarbayjan

  3. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  4. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which

  5. Injury scores and locomotor disorders of Holstein cows in a free-stall facility with different beds

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchin, Daiane; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Campos, Alessandro Torres; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Pires, Maria de Fátima Ávila; Sousa, Francine Aparecida; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Amaral, Pedro Ivo Sodré; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Yanagi Junior, Tadayuki; Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA Lavras - MG; Ferreira, Suane Alves; Médica Veterinária – UNIPAC Juiz de Fora, MG.; Souza, Myriam Cristiane Morais; Graduanda em Medicina Veterinária – UNIPAC Juiz de Fora, MG.; Cecchin, Diego; Especialista em Gestão – UPF, Passo Fundo, RS

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders in 36 multiparous Holstein cows confined in a free-stall model system with two types of beds at Embrapa Dairy Cattle in the city of Coronel Pacheco / MG. Rubber composite beds and sand beds were compared and the hock and knee injuries and locomotor disorders were assessed for severity scores. There was no difference between the scores or hock lesions observed at the beginning and end of the trial perio...

  6. Estimate of the economic impact of mastitis: A case study in a Holstein dairy herd under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Juliana L B; Brito, Maria A V P; Lange, Carla C; Silva, Márcio R; Ribeiro, João B; Mendonça, Letícia C; Mendonça, Juliana F M; Souza, Guilherme N

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of mastitis at the herd level and the weight (percent) of the components of this impact in a Holstein dairy herd under tropical conditions. Three estimates of the economic impact of mastitis were performed. In estimates 1 and 2 the real production and economic indices from February 2011 to January 2012 were considered. In the estimate 1, indices for mastitis classified as ideal were considered, whereas in the estimate 2, the mastitis indices used were those recorded at the farm and at Holstein Cattle Association of Minas Gerais State database (real indices). Ideal mastitis indices were bulk milk somatic cell counts less than 250,000 cells/mL, incidence of clinical mastitis less than 25 cases/100 cows/year, number of culls due to udder health problems less than 5% and the percentage of cows with somatic cell counts greater than 200,000 cells/mL less than 20%. Considering the ideal indices of mastitis, the economic impact was US$19,132.35. The three main components of the economic impact were culling cows (39.4%) and the reduction in milk production due to subclinical and clinical mastitis (32.3% and 18.2%, respectively). Estimate 2 using real mastitis indices showed an economic impact of US$61,623.13 and the reduction in milk production due to mastitis (77.7%) and milk disposal (14.0%) were the most relevant components. The real impact of culling cows was approximately 16 times less than the weight that was considered ideal, indicating that this procedure could have been more frequently adopted. The reduction in milk production was 27.2% higher than the reduction in Estimate 1, indicating a need to control and prevent mastitis. The estimate 3 considered the same indices as estimate 2, but for the period from February 2012 to January 2013. Its economic impact was US$91,552.69. During this period, 161 treatments of cows with an intramammary antibiotic were performed to eliminate Streptococcus agalactiae, and

  7. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d, parity (2.88±0.91 and day in milk (204±46 d. The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control, 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00 was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07 for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10. Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10. Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10 was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.

  8. Effects of bedding with recycled sand on lying behaviors, udder hygiene, and preference of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, J A; Ingle, H D; Black, R A; Eberhart, N L; Krawczel, P D

    2017-09-01

    Effects of bedding with recycled sand and season on lying behaviors, hygiene, and preferences of late-lactation Holstein cows were studied. It was hypothesized that recycled sand will decrease lying time and increase hygiene scores due to increased moisture content and organic matter, and thus a preference for the control sand will be evident. Cows (n = 64) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group) per season. In summer (August to September), cows were balanced by days in milk (268.1 ± 11.9 d) and parity (2.0 ± 0.2). In winter (January to February), mean DIM was 265.5 ± 34.1 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a crossover design with each treatment lasting 7 d (no-choice phase): bedding with recycled sand (RS; n = 32) or control (CO; clean sand; n = 32). Stocking density was maintained at 100%. The choice phase allowed cows to have access to either treatment with stocking density at 50%. Accelerometers recorded daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, lying bout duration (min/bout), and total steps per day. Teat swabs, milk, sand samples, and udder hygiene scores were collected on d 0, 3, and 7 of each experimental week. Samples were cultured for streptococci, staphylococci, and gram-negative bacteria. Video data were used to assess bedding preferences. All data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Lying time was not affected by treatment, but cows did take more steps during winter. Bacterial counts were elevated for cows on recycled sand. A preference was observed for clean sand during the summer, but no preference was observed for sand during the winter. Regardless of bedding, the most commonly observed behavior was lying in the stalls, which suggested either bedding might be suitable. Caution should be used with this interpretation of preference, as sand was recycled only once. This limited reclamation was still sufficient to potentially alter the composition of sand, driving

  9. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from two dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitamin D3; 5) CR, vitamin E; 6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, ...

  10. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Rajão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  11. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of passive immunity was determined in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented of total serum protein (TSP) have corresponded to measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, during the months of August and November in 50 dairy farms. 2500 heifer calves born from Holstein cows, Jersey, HolsteinxJersey crosses and others were evaluated. When the TSP concentration has been less than 5,5 g / dl, it was considered as a failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPTI). TSP concentration has ranged between 2,0 and 10,0 g/dl, with an overall mean of 5,9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. The animals sampled have presented 38,8% of FPTI. A significantly higher TSP concentration (P<0,05) to the Holstein breed and others were obtained from the animals from the Jersey breed and HolsteinxJersey crosses. When considering calving of the dam, the concentration of TSP of the offsprings remains without significant differences. The offspring of first calving cows have showed the lowest proportion of animals with FPTI. The TSP concentration has varied significantly (P <0,05) between calves that have remained with the dams and were fed with colostrum by bottle. The FPTI has been higher when calves have stayed with their mother (44 vs. 33%). (Author) [es

  12. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Dahl, G E; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2017-03-01

    Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. Three variants with moderate effects on the () gene were identified in 2 Larson blue cows. Despite being lighter in color, there was no difference in daily variation in vaginal temperature between Larson Blue and other Holsteins when recorded during the summer for cows housed in free-stall barns with shade, fans, and sprinklers. Similarly, there was no effect of the Larson Blue phenotype on seasonal variation in milk yield. Therefore, the phenotype confers no advantage in terms of response to heat stress when cattle are housed in facilities with extensive cooling.

  13. PENAMPILAN REPRODUKSI SAPI PERAH FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN (FH PADA BERBAGAI PARITAS DAN BULAN LAKTASI DI KETINGGIAN TEMPAT YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aju Tjatur N. K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui penampilan reproduksi sapi perah FH pada berbagai paritas dan bulan laktasi di ketinggian tempat yang berbeda telah dilakukan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Koperasi Usaha Sapi Perah Nongkojajar (daerah dataran tinggi dan Koperasi Usaha Sapi Perah Grati (daerah dataran rendah Kabupaten Pasuruan. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa  sapi FH yang dipelihara di dataran tinggi lebih baik penampilan reproduksinya dibandingkan yang dipelihara di dataran rendah.. Rata-rata nilai DO, CI dan S/C di dataran tinggi masing-masing 110,84±46,45 hari, 382,58±45,76 hari dan 1,58±0,78 sedangkan di dataran rendah  129,91±32,05 hari, 40,47±32,84 hari dan 2,82±0,77. Efisiensi reproduksi ternak di dataran tinggi menunjukkan penampilan  yang lebih baik daripada di dataran rendah. Paritas dan bulan laktasi tidak memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap penampilan  reproduksi sapi perah FH.   Kata kunci: penampilan reproduksi, paritas, bulan laktasi dan  ketinggian tempat   The Performances of Reproductive Friesian Holstein (FH  Dairy Cows at Various Parity and Month of Lactation in Different Altitude   ABSTRACT The aim of the research was to know  the reproductive performance of dairy cows Friesian Holstein (FH at various parity and month of lactation in different altitude. The research was conducted at KPSP Setia Kawan Nongkojajar (highlands and KUTT Suka Makmur  Grati (lowlands Pasuruan regency. The results concluded that reproductive performance dairy cows at high altitude better than low altitude. The average value of DO, CI and S / C at highlands 110.84 ± 46.45 days, 382.58 ± 45.76 days and 1.58 ± 0.78 while at lowlands 129.91 ± 32.05 days, 401.47 ± 32.84 days and 2.82 ± 0.77. The parity and month of lactation not significant affected on the reproductive performance dairy cows..   Keywords: reproductive performance,  parity, month of lactation and altitude

  14. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  15. Sward and milk production response to early turnout of dairy cows to pasture in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VIRKAJÄRVI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of turnout is an important factor affecting the grazing management of dairy cows. However,its consequences are not well known in the short grazing season of northern Europe. Thus, the effect of the turnout date of dairy cows to pasture on sward regrowth, herbage mass production and milk production was studied in two experiments,1a grazing trial with 16 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows and 2a plot trial where the treatments simulated the grazing trial.The treatments were early turnout (1 Juneand normal turnout (6 June.Early turnout decreased the annual herbage mass (HM production in the plot trial (P =0.005,but due to a higher average organic matter (OMdigestibility (P 0.05. Although early turnout had no effect on milk yields it meant easier management of pastures.;

  16. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P

    2009-01-01

    The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy...... balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before...... of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age ± SD; 126 ± 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2...

  18. Genetic architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the Bovine...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...

  19. Coagulation Tests and Selected Biochemical Analytes in Dairy Cows with Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Padilla-Arellanes; F. Constantino-Casas; L. Núnez-Ochoa; J. Doubek; C. Vega-Murguia; J. Bouda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the values and changes in conventional and optimised clotting tests, as well as in selected biochemical analytes during hepatic lipidosis in postpartum dairy cows. Ten healthy and ten Holstein cows with hepatic lipidosis were selected based upon clinical history, clinical examination, liver biopsy, flotation test and histological analysis of hepatic tissue. Prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were determined in non-diluted and dil...

  20. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum paraoxonase-1 as biomarker for improved diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Fath, Eman Mohamed; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro

    2013-04-11

    Fatty liver is a major metabolic disorder in dairy cows and is believed to result in major economic losses in dairy farming due to decreased health status, reproductive performance and fertility. Currently, the definitive means for diagnosing fatty liver is determining the fat content of hepatic tissue by liver biopsy, which is an invasive and costly procedure, making it poorly suited to dairy farms. Therefore, the key aim of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), an enzyme exclusively synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. A comparative cohort study using serum specimens from Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 healthy and 46 fatty liver cases) was conducted. Serum PON1 (paraoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase) activity and other biochemical and hematological parameters were measured. We found that serum PON1 activity was lower (Pratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR), diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) and overall diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing fatty liver. The present results indicate that addition of serum PON1 activity measurement to the biochemical profile could improve the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows, which would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  3. Environmental consequences of an expanding and westernizing dairy sector in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moria, Laura

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, dramatic changes in traditional Chinese diets are observed. This so-called westernization of diets, among others, depicts a shift towards the consumption of more dairy. Per caput consumption and production of dairy in China tripled during the last decade. Cow milk production

  4. Genome-wide association study for milking speed in French Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marete, Andrew Gitahi; Sahana, Goutam; Fritz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    in 32,491 French Holstein dairy cows. Milking speed was measured by a score given by the farmer. Phenotypes were yield deviations as obtained from the French evaluation system. They were analyzed with a linear mixed model for association studies. We identified SNP on 22 chromosomes significantly...... was located on chromosome 14 (ZFAT gene). Eleven novel milking speed quantitative trait loci (QTL) were observed on chromosomes 7, 10, 11, 14, 18, 25, and 26. Twelve candidate SNP for milking speed mapped directly within genes. Of these 10 were QTL lead SNP, which mapped within the genes HMHA1, POLR2E, GNB5......, KLHL29, ZFAT, KCNB2, CEACAM18, CCL24, and LHPP. Limited pleiotropy was observed between milking speed QTL and clinical mastitis....

  5. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  6. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    Full Text Available Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD and Recessive Red (MC1Re. A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele.

  7. Effect of processed cereal grains as a supplement on grass intake, rumen pool sizes, ruminal kinetics and the performance of grazing lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.; Zhang, R.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Five multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fitted with rumen cannula were allowed to graze perennial ryegrass swards. Next to a control treatment of grazing only, pelleted barley (PB), pelleted maize (PM), toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB), and toasted and subsequently

  8. Decreased serum protein associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis shedding in German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Erhardt, G; Soschinka, A; Brandt, H R

    2014-04-19

    Using well established metabolic parameters, this study aimed to substantiate differences in protein and energy metabolism between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) positive and negative dairy cows tested by faecal culture. A total of 227 MAP-positive and 239 MAP-negative German Holstein cows kept in 13 MAP-positive dairy herds were selected for metabolic testing. The serum concentrations of total protein (TP), bilirubin, cholesterol and betahydroxybutyrate were measured as well as the activities of Glutamate-Dehydrogenase (GLDH) and Aspartate-Aminotransferase. MAP-positive cows were characterised by a decreased mean TP (66.5 g/l) compared to the MAP-negative controls (73.2 g/l). Mean log10 GLDH activities tended to be higher in MAP-positive than MAP-negative cows. Concerning TP, there was a significant interaction between MAP status and farm. Within four farms, the difference between MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals differed significantly, while in the other farms this difference was not significant. It is concluded that a decreased TP and an increased GLDH indicate alterations in protein metabolism. These findings suggest an enhanced liver cell turnover in MAP-positive cows. The results contribute to an understanding of the metabolic alterations in MAP-positive dairy cows.

  9. The Relationship between Lameness, Fertility and Aflatoxin in a Dairy Cattle Herd

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZSOY, Serhat; ALTUNATMAZ, Kemal

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the relationship between aflatoxins taken with feed, laminitis, lameness and impaired fertility. Lesions were identified in the claw and hock region, causing lameness in 45 cattle in an establishment of 300 Holstein dairy cattle. Of these lame cattle, 27 had cystic ovaries and 10 had cystic ovaries together with clinical metritis. The increase in lameness and fertility problems occurring in this herd, living under the same management and feeding conditi...

  10. Crossbreds of Jersey x Holstein compared with pure Holsteins for production, fertility, and body and udder measurements during first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; Seykora, A J; Johnson, D G; Linn, J G; Romano, J E; Hazel, A R

    2008-03-01

    Jersey x Holstein crossbreds (JxH; n = 76) were compared with pure Holsteins (n = 73) for 305-d milk, fat, and protein production; conception rate; days open; proportion of cows pregnant within fixed intervals postpartum; and body and udder measurements during first lactation. Cows were housed at 2 research locations of the University of Minnesota and calved from September 2003 to May 2005. The JxH were mated to Montbeliarde sires, and Holstein cows were mated to Holstein sires. Best Prediction was used to determine actual production (milk, fat, and protein) for 305-d lactations with adjustment for age at calving, and records less than 305 d were projected to 305 d. The JxH (274 kg) and pure Holsteins (277 kg) were not significantly different for fat production, but JxH had significantly less milk (7,147 vs. 7,705 kg) and protein (223 vs. 238 kg) production than pure Holsteins. The JxH had significantly fewer days open than pure Holsteins (127 vs. 150 d). Also, a significantly greater proportion of JxH were pregnant at 150 and 180 d postpartum than pure Holsteins (75 vs. 59% and 77 vs. 61%, respectively). The JxH had significantly less body weight (60 kg) at calving, but significantly greater body condition (2.80 vs. 2.71). Furthermore, JxH had significantly less udder clearance from the ground to the bottom of the udder than pure Holsteins (47.7 vs. 54.6 cm), and greater distance between front teats (15.8 vs. 14.0 cm) than pure Holsteins during first lactation.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis of thirty one production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tassell Curtis P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association analysis is a powerful tool for annotating phenotypic effects on the genome and knowledge of genes and chromosomal regions associated with dairy phenotypes is useful for genome and gene-based selection. Here, we report results of a genome-wide analysis of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of 31 production, health, reproduction and body conformation traits in contemporary Holstein cows. Results Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of candidate genes and chromosome regions associated with 31 dairy traits in contemporary U.S. Holstein cows. Highly significant genes and chromosome regions include: BTA13's GNAS region for milk, fat and protein yields; BTA7's INSR region and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate, somatic cell score and productive life; BTA2's LRP1B for somatic cell score; BTA14's DGAT1-NIBP region for fat percentage; BTA1's FKBP2 for protein yields and percentage, BTA26's MGMT and BTA6's PDGFRA for protein percentage; BTA18's 53.9-58.7 Mb region for service-sire and daughter calving ease and service-sire stillbirth; BTA18's PGLYRP1-IGFL1 region for a large number of traits; BTA18's LOC787057 for service-sire stillbirth and daughter calving ease; BTA15's CD82, BTA23's DST and the MOCS1-LRFN2 region for daughter stillbirth; and BTAX's LOC520057 and GRIA3 for daughter pregnancy rate. For body conformation traits, BTA11, BTAX, BTA10, BTA5, and BTA26 had the largest concentrations of SNP effects, and PHKA2 of BTAX and REN of BTA16 had the most significant effects for body size traits. For body shape traits, BTAX, BTA19 and BTA3 were most significant. Udder traits were affected by BTA16, BTA22, BTAX, BTA2, BTA10, BTA11, BTA20, BTA22 and BTA25, teat traits were affected by BTA6, BTA7, BTA9, BTA16, BTA11, BTA26 and BTA17, and feet/legs traits were affected by BTA11, BTA13, BTA18, BTA20, and BTA26. Conclusions Genome-wide association analysis identified a number of

  12. Effect of strategies regarding concentrate supplementation and day-time grazing on N utilization at both field and dairy cow level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Søegaard, Karen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    N utilization at cow and field level was examined over two grazing periods of 30 days with 64 Holstein dairy cows. At cow and field level the effect of sward type (diploid vs. tetraploid perennial ryegrass, both mixed with white clover) and compressed sward height (6 vs. 10 cm) was examined....

  13. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  14. Relationship between season, lactation number and incidence of clinical mastitis in different stages of lactation in a Holstein dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maede Moosavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the occurrence and duration of clinical mastitis in different seasons, stages of lactation period and parities in a Holstein dairy farm in Iran. A retrospective epidemiological survey from April 2005 to March 2008 was conducted on 884 clinical mastitis cases of 7437 lactations. Data of each case including calendar-date of mastitis onset, days in milk (DIM of mastitis onset (early: 0-74 DIM; middle: 75-150 DIM, and late ≥ 150 DIM, duration of mastitis, and parity (1, 2, and ≥ 3 were recorded. Based on date of mastitis onset, cases were classified into stages of lactation. Moreover, beginning of mastitis was seasonally categorized. Duration of clinical mastitis after treatment in early lactation was less than late lactation in the first-parity cows (p = 0.005. In early lactation period, the first-parity cows suffered clinical mastitis in days earlier than two other parity groups (p < 0.001. Moreover, in late lactation period, the first-parity cows had clinical mastitis in days later than cows in the third and more parities (p = 0.002. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in summer increased in late lactation period but in winter increased in early lactation period (p = 0.001. In addition, occurrence time of clinical mastitis in summer were in days later than in spring (p = 0.02 and winter (p = 0.03 in early lactation period. In conclusion, occurrence of mastitis in winter and spring during early lactation and in summer during late lactation period were more prevalent especially in lower parities.

  15. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  16. Effects of chestnut tannins on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Li, K

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned either to a diet supplemented with CT (CNT, 10 g of CT/kg of diet, dry matter basis) or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet from 3 wk prepartum to 3 wk postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d -21, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver samples were taken by puncture biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for analysis of SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA. Data were analyzed for a completely randomized block design with repeated measures. The addition of CT had no significant effects on dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk composition but did decrease milk MDA and somatic cell score in transition dairy cows. Dry matter intake decreased from d -21 to 0 and increased from d 1 to 21 relative to calving across treatments. During the experimental period, body weight and body condition score decreased, whereas milk MDA and somatic cell score increased across treatments. A time effect was also observed for plasma MDA, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than that on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT decreased MDA concentrations in plasma and liver. Neither time nor CT × time effects were observed for SOD and T-AOC in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px in liver; a time effect was observed for plasma GSH-Px, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than those on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT increased SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver. In conclusion, addition of CT might

  17. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, N.

    1977-01-01

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  19. Chinese consumers concerns about food safety: Case of Tianjin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain an insight to Chinese consumers' knowledge and concerns over food safety from a case study in Tianjin city. The results indicate that Chinese consumers are very much concerned about food safety, particularly with regard to vegetables and dairy products. Chinese

  20. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  1. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  2. Maximizing profit on New England organic dairy farms: an economic comparison of 4 total mixed rations for organic Holsteins and Jerseys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, S P; Clark, G W; Anderson, G W; Kersbergen, R J; Lunak, M; Marcinkowski, D P; Murphy, M R; Schwab, C G; Erickson, P S

    2011-06-01

    The objective of these experiments was to compare 4 total mixed rations fed to USDA-certified organic dairy cows in New England. Forty-eight Jersey cows from the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and 64 Holstein cows from the University of Maine (UMaine) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments testing the main effects of corn silage versus grass silage as the forage base and commodity concentrates versus a complete pelleted concentrate mixture. Treatment diets were fed as a total mixed ration for 8 wk during the winter and spring months of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Milk yield, component, and quality data were recorded and used to calculate the value of the milk produced for each cow. The dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded and used to calculate the average cost per cow per day of each diet. Income over feed costs were calculated for each diet using milk value and feed cost data. Feed cost and income over feed cost data were resampled using bootstrap methodology to examine potential patterns. Milk yield, milk fat and true protein concentrations, and SCC were similar among treatments. Cows at UNH fed corn silage tended to have higher DMI and lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage, whereas cows fed pellets had higher DMI than cows fed commodities. Cows at UNH fed commodities tended to have higher body condition scores than those fed pellets. Cows at UMaine fed commodities tended to have higher DMI than did cows fed pellets, and cows fed corn silage had lower milk urea nitrogen than did cows fed grass silage. Body weights and body condition scores were not different for cows at UMaine. Feed costs were significantly higher for corn silage diets and diets at UNH containing pellets, but not at UMaine. The calculated value of the milk and income over feed costs did not differ among treatments at either university. Bootstrap replications indicated that the corn silage with commodities diet generally had the highest feed cost at both UNH

  3. Comparison of rumen bacterial communities in dairy herds of different production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indugu, Nagaraju; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Baker, Linda D; Ferguson, James D; Vanamala, Jairam K P; Pitta, Dipti W

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the rumen bacterial composition in high and low yielding dairy cows within and between two dairy herds. Eighty five Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation (79-179 days in milk) were selected from two farms: Farm 12 (M305 = 12,300 kg; n = 47; 24 primiparous cows, 23 multiparous cows) and Farm 9 (M305 = 9700 kg; n = 38; 19 primiparous cows, 19 multiparous cows). Each study cow was sampled once using the stomach tube method and processed for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the Ion Torrent (PGM) platform. Differences in bacterial communities between farms were greater (Adonis: R 2  = 0.16; p forage type and proportion in the diets. A combination of corn silage and alfalfa silage may have contributed to the increased proportion of Proteobacteria in Farm 12. It was concluded that Farm 12 had a greater proportion of specialist bacteria that have the potential to enhance rumen fermentative digestion of feedstuffs to support higher milk yields.

  4. 中国乳制品企业的道德管理%The Chinese Dairy Enterprise Ethics Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奎霞

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008,the Chinese dairy enterprise occurred frequently quality and safety accidents.The cause of the accident leads directly to the enterprise ethics.Through analysis of the status of ethical management of dairy enterprises to improve and find ways to improve corporate ethics management.Based on the analysis of large amounts of data demonstrate that China's dairy companies do not pay attention to ethical management,the concept behind,the mechanism is not perfect is the main reason leading to moral failure.Dairy companies should systematically build corporate culture,the development of scientific development strategy,emphasis on supply chain management and quality control,enhance the standardization of enterprise management,accelerate product innovation and upgrading the system to enhance the management level of business ethics.%中国乳制品企业自2008年频发质量安全事故,事故原因直指企业伦理道德。通过对当前我国乳制品企业的道德管理现状分析,找到改善和提升企业道德管理的途径。通过对大量资料的分析论证发现我国乳制品企业对道德管理不重视,观念落后,机制不健全是导致道德缺失的主要原因。企业应该系统建设企业文化,制定科学发展战略,重视供应链管理和质量控制,加强对企业的规范化管理,加快产品创新和升级以系统提升企业道德管理水平。

  5. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  6. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe De Jesus Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Holstein industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN+USA Holstein germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv and the low income system (Lowi. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican Holstein cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US Holstein populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303 and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree Holstein (HO animals from the Conv, Lowi and CAN+USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE and Brown Swiss (BS genotypes (162 and 86, respectively were used to determine if Mexican Holsteins were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 SNP markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC, admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (r2 analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HOxJE and HOxBS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN+USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN+USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN+USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN+USA. Mexican Holstein cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN+USA but have different genetic signatures.

  7. Effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm oil and chromium-propionate on insulin sensitivity and productive and reproductive traits of mid- to late-lactating Holstein × Gir dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Bertin, R D; Colombo, E A; Miranda, V F B; Lourenço, L A C; Rodrigues, S M B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2018-01-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity, milk production, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows consuming excessive energy during mid to late lactation and receiving in a 2 × 2 factorial design (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n = 20) or including 8% (DM basis) of Ca salts of palm oil (CSPO; n = 20), and (2) supplemented (n = 20) or not (n = 20) with 2.5 g/d of Cr-propionate. During the experiment (d 0-203), 40 multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gir cows (initial days in milk = 81 ± 2; mean ± SE) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily net energy for lactation requirements. From d -15 to 203, milk production was recorded daily, blood samples collected weekly, and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) recorded on d 0 and 203. For dry matter intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 5 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 6 times/group. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on d -3, 100, and 200. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on d -1, 98, and 198. Mean DMI, net energy for lactation intake, as well as BW and BCS change were similar across treatments. On average, cows gained 40 kg of BW and 0.49 BCS during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, CRN cows had lower serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and insulin-to-glucose ratio compared with CSPO cows, suggesting increased insulin sensitivity in CRN cows. During the GTT, insulin-sensitivity traits were also greater in CRN versus CSPO cows. Supplemental Cr-propionate resulted in lower serum insulin concentrations and insulin-to-glucose ratio within CRN cows only, indicating that Cr-propionate improved basal insulin sensitivity in CRN but not in CSPO

  8. Comparison of three methods of feeding colostrum to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, T E; Gay, C C; Pritchett, L

    1991-02-01

    Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by Holstein calves was studied in 3 herds in which 3 methods of colostrum feeding were used. Failure of passive transfer, as determined by calf serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration less than 10 mg/ml at 48 hours of age, was diagnosed in 61.4% of calves from a dairy in which calves were nursed by their dams, 19.3% of calves from a dairy using nipple-bottle feeding, and 10.8% of calves from a dairy using tube feeding. The management factor determined to have the greatest influence on the probability of failure of passive transfer in the herds using artificial methods of colostrum feeding (bottle feeding or tube feeding) was the volume of colostrum fed as it affected the amount of IgG1 received by the calf. In dairies that used artificial feeding methods, failure of passive transfer was infrequent in calves fed greater than or equal to 100 g IgG1 in the first colostrum feeding. In the dairy that allowed calves to suckle, prevalence of failure of passive transfer was greater than 50% even among calves nursed by cows with above-average colostral IgG1 concentration. Analysis of the effect of other management factors on calf immunoglobulin absorption revealed small negative effects associated with the use of previously frozen colostrum and the use of colostrum from cows with long nonlactating intervals.

  9. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present......, reflecting the “fingerprint” of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  10. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  11. Study on reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Kien, Cuong; Van Khanh, Nguyen; Hanzen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The reproductive performance of Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy heifers and cows was evaluated at smallholdings in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The data of 232 heifers and 244 cows (261 lactations) from 35 small dairy farms was collected over a 2-year period, from 2013 to 2014. The overall mean for age at first service (AFS), days between first and last service (DFLS), and age at conception (AC) of heifers was 479 (±80), 38 (±80), and 517 (±114) days, respectively. Average number of services per conception (NSC), conception rate (CR), and conception rate at first service (CRFS) was 1.8 (±1.4), 55, and 58%, respectively. The overall mean for the waiting period (WP), DFLS, and days open (DO) of cows was 109 (±52), 133 (±114), and 242 (±129) days, respectively. The mean for NSC, CR, and CRFS was 4.3 (±2.7), 23, and 14%, respectively. A very significant decrease in AFS and AC according to the year of birth, and a significant increase in AFS according to body weight at first insemination (>320 kg) were observed. The CRFS of heifers inseminated in 2013 was significantly higher than in 2014. Monthly mean CR in heifers and cows was negatively correlated with THI. The WP, DFLS, DO, and NSC of cows significantly decreased according to the year of calving. Cows that calved in rainy season had a significantly longer WP than in dry season. The occurrence of postpartum (PP) diseases was accompanied by an increase in WP, DO, and NSC. A decrease in body condition score (BCS) between calving and 60th day (C60) and also between 60th and 120th day of lactation resulted in a significant increase in WP and DO. A decrease in BCS between C60 was also accompanied by a considerable reduction in CRFS of cows. Season and BCS at insemination had a significant effect on NSC and CR of cows. Reproductive performance was satisfactory for heifers, but poor for cows. Losses of BCS during the first months of lactation and at insemination were the major risk factors for this poor performance

  12. Effect of postpartum suppression of ovulation on uterine involution in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Heppelmann, M; Brömmling, A; Weinert, M; Piechotta, M; Wrenzycki, C; Bollwein, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time of first postpartum ovulation after calving on uterine involution in dairy cows with and without uterine puerperal disease. Transvaginal follicular puncture (FP) of follicles >6 mm suppressed ovulation and development of a CL until Day 42 after calving. Fifty-three lactating Holstein Friesian cows (3.4 ± 1.2 years old, parity 2.5 ± 1.0 [median ± mean absolute deviation]) were divided into groups on the basis of the presence (UD...

  13. Effects of combined liver and udder biopsying on the acute phase response of dairy cows with experimentally induced E. coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2013-01-01

    A minimally invasive biopsy technique was evaluated for udder tissue collection in dairy cows with Escherichia coli mastitis. Meanwhile, the effect of taking repeated liver and udder biopsies on the systemic and local acute phase response (APR) of the dairy cows was investigated during the disease...... the systemic and local APR in dairy cows during E. coli mastitis, if the timing of biopsying and other types of sampling is planned accordingly....... The cows were divided into a biopsy group (B) (n = 16) and a no-biopsy group (NB) (n = 16) and were sampled in the acute disease stage and in the recovery stage. The cows’ pre-disease period served as a control period for establishing baseline values for the investigated parameters. A total of 32 Holstein...

  14. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  15. Short communication: Glucose kinetics in dairy heifers limit-fed a low- or high-forage ration at four levels of nitrogen intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of level of forage and nitrogen (N) intake on glucose kinetics in growing dairy heifers. Eight Holstein heifers (beginning at 362 ± 7 kg body weight (BW) and 12.3 ± 0.4 months of age) were fed eight rations according to a split-plot, 4 x 4 La...

  16. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brøndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S

    2014-11-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  18. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  19. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  20. Effect of payment for milk quality on the profitability of dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Etiene Pinheiro Teixeira Júnior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed, by means of simulation, the effect of payment for milk quality on the profitability of dairy farming a system of milk production with F1 Holstein x Gir cows. During the rainy season, in the summer season, cows were kept on pastures and, during the dry season, were confined with use of cane sugar in natura enriched with urea and ammonium sulfate. The zootechnical reference was composed of herd of F1 Holstein x Gir cows of the Experimental Farm Felixlândia (FEFX of the Agricultural Research Corporation of Minas Gerais (EPAMIG, located in the municipality of Felixlândia-MG, central region of the state. The inventory and expenditure, revenue and other data were registered on COST BOVINE MILK 1.0 software, to obtain profitability analysis. The use of zootechnical practices which enable improvements in the quality of milk provides a differential remuneration, arising from subsidies; increases the economic-financial results and improves the profitability of milk production system analyzed.

  1. Organic and Conventional Dairy Farmers Prefer Different Improvements in Breeding Goal Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    software 1000Minds. These pairwise rankings were based on equal economic worth of trait improvements. The survey was filled in by 106 organic and 290 conventional farmers. The most preferred trait improvement for both production systems was in cow fertility, and the least preferred improvement......In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organic...... and conventional systems. The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of organic and conventional Danish dairy farmers for improvements in BG traits for Holstein cattle. A survey was established to characterize preferences for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online...

  2. Long-term heat stress induces the inflammatory response in dairy cows revealed by plasma proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Shengguo; Cheng, Jianbo; Yang, Yongxin; Zhang, Yangdong; Yang, Hongjian; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-04

    In this work we employed a comparative proteomic approach to evaluate seasonal heat stress and investigate proteomic alterations in plasma of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows were used and the treatments were: heat stress (n = 6) in hot summer (at the beginning of the moderate heat stress) and no heat stress (n = 6) in spring natural ambient environment, respectively. Subsequently, heat stress treatment lasted 23 days (at the end of the moderate heat stress) to investigate the alterations of plasma proteins, which might be employed as long-term moderate heat stress response in dairy cows. Changes in plasma proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the properties of the identified proteins revealed that the alterations of plasma proteins were related to inflammation in long-term moderate heat stress. Furthermore, the increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) directly demonstrated that long-term moderate heat stress caused an inflammatory response in dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  4. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  5. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    OpenAIRE

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then ev...

  6. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Šlosárková; Petr Fleischer; Oldřich Pěnkava; Miloslav Skřivánek

    2014-01-01

    Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh) from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and...

  7. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  8. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive

  9. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  10. Phenotypic, fermentation characterization, and resistance mechanism analysis of bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolated from traditional Chinese dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaibo; Fang, Wei; Zheng, Baodong; Miao, Song; Huo, Guicheng

    2018-03-01

    Bacteriophage infection is a large factor in dairy industrial production failure on the basis of pure inoculation fermentation, and developing good commercial starter cultures from wild dairy products and improving the environmental vigor of starter cultures by enhancing their phage resistance are still the most effective solutions. Here we used a spontaneous isolation method to obtain bacteriophage-resistant mutants of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains that are used in traditional Chinese fermented dairy products. We analyzed their phenotypes, fermentation characteristics, and resistance mechanisms. The results showed that bacteriophage-insensitive mutants (BIM) BIM8 and BIM12 had high bacteriophage resistance while exhibiting fermentation and coagulation attributes that were as satisfying as those of their respective parent strains KLDS1.1016 and KLDS1.1028. According to the attachment receptor detection, mutants BIM8 and BIM12 exhibited reduced absorption to bacteriophage phiLdb compared with their respective bacteriophage-sensitive parent strains because of changes to the polysaccharides or teichoic acids connected to their peptidoglycan layer. Additionally, genes, including HSDR, HSDM, and HSDS, encoding 3 subunits of a type I restriction-modification system were identified in their respective parent strains. We also discovered that HSDR and HSDM were highly conserved but that HSDS was variable because it is responsible for the DNA specificity of the complex. The late lysis that occurred only in strain KLDS1.1016 and not in strain KLDS1.1028 suggests that the former and its mutant BIM8 also may have an activatable restriction-modification mechanism. We conclude that the L. bulgaricus BIM8 and BIM12 mutants have great potential in the dairy industry as starter cultures, and their phage-resistance mechanism was effective mainly due to the adsorption interference and restriction-modification system. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science

  11. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Mammadova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.

  12. Effect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2011-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm in eastern Saudi Arabia to investigate the effects of Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) cattle cooling systems complemented with feedline soakers on core body temperature (CBT) of dairy cows. In both experiments, cows had access to KK 24h/d. In the first experiment, 7 primiparous and 6 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence over 4 d in a switchback design. Soakers were on (ON24) or off (OFF24) for 24h/d. For the second experiment, 20 multiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence in a switchback design. This experiment lasted 4 d and feedline soakers alternately remained off or were on (ON12) for 12h/d. In experiment 1, average ambient temperature was 30 ± 0.9°C and average relative humidity was 44 ± 14% (mean ± SD). Feedline soakers complementing KK systems for 24 h/d decreased the mean CBT of lactating dairy cows compared with KK systems alone (38.80 vs. 38.98 ± 0.061°C, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was found. The greatest treatment effects occurred at 2100 h; treatment means at this time were 39.26 and 38.85 ± 0.085°C for OFF24 and ON24 treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, average ambient temperature was 35 ± 1.5°C and average relative humidity was 33 ± 16%. Feedline soakers running for 12 h/d significantly decreased the mean 24-h CBT from 39.16 to 38.99 ± 0.084°C. Treatment by time interaction was also significant; the greatest treatment effects occurred at 1500 h, when ON12 reduced CBT from 39.38 to 38.81 ± 0.088°C. These results demonstrate that complementing the KK system with feedline soakers decreased the CBT of dairy cows housed in desert environments. However, the combined systems were not sufficient to lower CBT to normal temperatures in this extreme environment. Copyright

  13. Heritability estimates for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis status of German Holstein cows tested by fecal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic manifestation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in German Holstein cows. Incorporated into this study were 11,285 German Holstein herd book cows classified as MAP-positive and MAP-negative animals using fecal culture results and originating from 15 farms in Thuringia, Germany involved in a paratuberculosis voluntary control program from 2008 to 2009. The frequency of MAP-positive animals per farm ranged from 2.7 to 67.6%. The fixed effects of farm and lactation number had a highly significant effect on MAP status. An increase in the frequency of positive animals from the first to the third lactation could be observed. Threshold animal and sire models with sire relationship were used as statistical models to estimate genetic parameters. Heritability estimates of fecal culture varied from 0.157 to 0.228. To analyze the effect of prevalence on genetic parameter estimates, the total data set was divided into 2 subsets of data into farms with prevalence rates below 10% and those above 10%. The data set with prevalence above 10% show higher heritability estimates in both models compared with the data set with prevalence below 10%. For all data sets, the sire model shows higher heritabilities than the equivalent animal model. This study demonstrates that genetic variation exists in dairy cattle for paratuberculosis infection susceptibility and furthermore, leads to the conclusion that MAP detection by fecal culture shows a higher genetic background than ELISA test results. In conclusion, fecal culture seems to be a better trait to control the disease, as well as an appropriate feature for further genomic analyses to detect MAP-associated chromosome regions. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trainability of eliminative behaviour in dairy heifers using a secondary reinforcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard

    2009-01-01

    Soiled bedding influences cleanliness and disease levels in dairy cows and there is no evidence of an inherent latrine behaviour in cattle. If cows were trained to use a concrete area of the housing system as a latrine, a cleaner bed could be maintained. Thirteen group-housed, 14-16-month......-old Holstein-Friesian heifers, were clicker trained with heifer-rearing concentrate pellets as a reward. Training was carried out in four phases. (Phase 1) Association of feed reward with clicker, criterion: 34/40 correct responses. (Phase 2) Simple task (nose-butting a disc) to reinforce phase 1 association...

  15. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  16. Methane mitigation with corn oil and calcium sulfate, responses on whole animal energy and nitrogen balance in dairy cattle consuming reduced-fat distillers grains plus solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of fat and calcium sulfate to diets fed to ruminants has been shown to reduce methane production, but these factors have not shown effects on energy balance. A study using 16 multiparous (8 Holstein and 8 Jersey) (78 ± 15 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating dairy cows was conducted to determine how ...

  17. Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

    2013-08-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population for such grazing systems. The second objective was to analyze the relationships within and between breeds regarding reproductive performance, milk yield, and body condition score (BCS) dynamics. On 15 commercial Swiss farms, NZ HF cows were paired with Swiss cows over 3 yr. Overall, the study involved 259 complete lactations from 134 cows: 131 from 58 NZ HF, 40 from 24 CH HF, 43 from 27 CH FV, and 45 from 25 CH BS cows. All production parameters were affected by cow breed. Milk and energy-corrected milk yield over 270 d of lactation differed by 1,000 kg between the 2 extreme groups; CH HF having the highest yield and CH BS the lowest. The NZ HF cows had the greatest milk fat and protein concentrations over the lactation and exhibited the highest lactation persistency. Body weight differed by 90 kg between extreme groups; NZ HF and CH BS being the lightest and CH HF and CH FV the heaviest. As a result, the 2 HF strains achieved the highest milk production efficiency (270-d energy-corrected milk/body weight(0.75)). Although less efficient at milk production, CH FV had a high 21-d submission rate (86%) and a high conception rate within 2 inseminations (89%), achieving high pregnancy rates within the first 3 and 6 wk of the breeding period (65 and 81%, respectively). Conversely, poorer reproductive performance was recorded for CH HF cows, with NZ HF and CH BS being intermediate. Both BCS at nadir and at 100 d postpartum had a positive effect on the 6-wk pregnancy rate, even when breed was included in the model. The BCS at 100 d of lactation also positively affected first service conception rate. In conclusion, despite their high milk production

  18. FGF-21: promising biomarker for detecting ketosis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Xu, Qiushi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Yu, Hongjiang; Zhu, Kuilin; Shen, Taiyu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the measurement of serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), a protein mainly synthesized by the liver, as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows. Ninety Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 healthy and 30 ketosis cases) were selected and divided into a Ketosis group (K), and a Control group (C). We measured serum FGF-21 and other biochemical parameters by commercial ELISA kits. In a combined population of all 90 cows, we found that serum FGF-21 level was lower (P ketosis. When the β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) level increased over 1.2 mmol/L, the FGF-21 level tended to decline below 300.85 pg/ml. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for serum FGF-21 for diagnosis of fatty liver was 0.952-0.025 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.904, 1.000] which was higher than the AUC-ROC for glucose (Glc) and other tested parameters. We concluded that FGF-21 could be a diagnostic parameter in the evaluation and auxiliary diagnosis of changes in the energy metabolism state, and serum FGF-21 measurement would have a considerable clinical impact and lead to greater profitability in the dairy industry.

  19. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  20. Pre-test habituation improves the reliability of a handheld test of mechanical nociceptive threshold in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundal, P. M.; Andersen, P. H.; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) testing has been used to investigate aspects of painful states in bovine claws. We investigated a handheld tool, where the applied stimulation force was monitored continuously relative to a pre-encoded based target force. The effect on MNT of two pre-testing...... habituation procedures was performed in two different experiments comprising a total of 88 sound Holsteins dairy cows kept either inside or outside their home environment. MNT testing was performed using five consecutive mechanical nociceptive stimulations per cow per test at a fixed pre-encoded target rate...... of 2.1 N/s. The habituation procedure performed in dairy cows kept in their home environment led to lowered intra-individual coefficient of variation of MNT (P test...

  1. An evaluation of the effect of altering nutrition and nutritional strategies in early lactation on reproductive performance and estrous behavior of high-yielding Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, H S; Young, F J; Patterson, D C; Wylie, A R G; Law, R A; Kilpatrick, D J; Elliott, C T; Mayne, C S

    2011-07-01

    Reproductive performance in the high-yielding dairy cow has severely decreased in the last 40 yr. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 4 nutritional strategies in improving the reproductive performance of high-yielding dairy cows. It was hypothesized that offering cows a high-starch ration in early lactation would enhance the onset of luteal activity, and that decreasing the severity of negative energy balance in the early postcalving period would improve reproductive parameters. Nutritional regimens aimed at improving fertility were applied to 96 Holstein-Friesian dairy animals. Upon calving, animals were allocated in a balanced manner to one of 4 dietary treatments. Primiparous animals were balanced according to live weight, body condition score and calving date. Multiparous animals were balanced according to parity, previous lactation milk yield, liveweight, body condition score and calving date. Treatment 1 was based on an industry best practice diet (control) to contain 170 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter. Treatment 2 was an individual cow feeding strategy, whereby the energy balance (EB) of individual animals was managed so as to achieve a predetermined target daily EB profile (±10 MJ/d). Treatment 3 was a high-starch/high-fat combination treatment, whereby an insulinogenic (high-starch) diet was offered in early lactation to encourage cyclicity and followed by a lipogenic (low-starch, high-fat) diet to promote embryo development. Treatment 4 was a low-protein diet, containing 140 g of crude protein/kg of dry matter, supplemented with protected methionine at an inclusion level of 40 g per animal per day. The nutritional strategies implemented in this study had no statistically significant effects on cow fertility measures, which included the onset of luteal activity, conception rate, in-calf rate, and the incidence of atypical cycles. The individual cow feeding strategy improved EB in early lactation but had no benefit on conception

  2. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P dystocia (calving difficulty score = 4 or 5), with sensitivity = 0.50 and specificity = 0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying real-time quantitative PCR to diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle by quantifying SRY gene: a comparison experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Freemartinism generally occurs in female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most bovine heterosexual twin females are freemartins. However, about 10% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. Farmers mostly cull bovine fertile heterosexual twin females due to the lack of a practical diagnostic approach. Culling of such animals results in economic and genetic-material losses both for dairy and beef industry. Methods In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was performed to establish the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were used in this study, while three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Results Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that SRY gene were absent in three heterosexual twin females and only two of them were verified as fertile in later age. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was more than 14.2% in freemartins and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical difference between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. Discussion Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR is a better detection method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle as compare to qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We concluded that low-level of SRY would not influence fertility of bovine heterosexual twin female.

  4. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (Pheat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic parameters of subclinical macromineral disorders and major clinical diseases in postparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9dairy herds located in Northern Greece. None of the herds used any kind of preventive measures for milk fever (MF). A total of 1,021 Holstein cows with pedigree information were examined from November 2010 until November 2012. The distribution across parities was 466 (parity 1), 242 (parity 2), 165 (parity 3), and 148 (parity 4 and above) cows. All cows were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and blood was sampled on d 1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving. Serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in all samples, whereas β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) was measured only for d 8. The final data set included 4,064 clinical and 16,848 biochemical records (4,020 Ca, 4,019 P, 4,020Mg, 3,792K, and 997 BHB). Data of 1,988 observations of body condition score at d 1 and 8 were also available. All health traits were analyzed with a univariate random regression model. The genetic analysis for macromineral-related disorders included 986 cows with no obvious signs of MF (35 cows with MF were excluded). Analysis for other health traits included all 1,021 cows. A similar single record model was used for the analysis of BHB. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated with a series of bivariate analyses. Statistically significant daily heritabilities of subclinical hypocalcemia (0.13-0.25), hypophosphatemia (0.18-0.33), subclinical hypomagnesemia (0.11-0.38), and hyperphosphatemia (0.14-0.22) were low to moderate, whereas that of hypokalemia was low (0.08-0.10). The heritability of body

  6. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  7. Genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity for milk and milk quality in Walloon Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, J; Bastin, C; Gengler, N; Mulder, H A

    2013-09-01

    Animals that are robust to environmental changes are desirable in the current dairy industry. Genetic differences in micro-environmental sensitivity can be studied through heterogeneity of residual variance between animals. However, residual variance between animals is usually assumed to be homogeneous in traditional genetic evaluations. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic heterogeneity of residual variance by estimating variance components in residual variance for milk yield, somatic cell score, contents in milk (g/dL) of 2 groups of milk fatty acids (i.e., saturated and unsaturated fatty acids), and the content in milk of one individual fatty acid (i.e., oleic acid, C18:1 cis-9), for first-parity Holstein cows in the Walloon Region of Belgium. A total of 146,027 test-day records from 26,887 cows in 747 herds were available. All cows had at least 3 records and a known sire. These sires had at least 10 cows with records and each herd × test-day had at least 5 cows. The 5 traits were analyzed separately based on fixed lactation curve and random regression test-day models for the mean. Estimation of variance components was performed by running iteratively expectation maximization-REML algorithm by the implementation of double hierarchical generalized linear models. Based on fixed lactation curve test-day mean models, heritability for residual variances ranged between 1.01×10(-3) and 4.17×10(-3) for all traits. The genetic standard deviation in residual variance (i.e., approximately the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance) ranged between 0.12 and 0.17. Therefore, some genetic variance in micro-environmental sensitivity existed in the Walloon Holstein dairy cattle for the 5 studied traits. The standard deviations due to herd × test-day and permanent environment in residual variance ranged between 0.36 and 0.45 for herd × test-day effect and between 0.55 and 0.97 for permanent environmental effect. Therefore, nongenetic effects also

  8. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption characteristics, and morphology of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schären, M.; Seyfang, G.M.; Steingass, H.; Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Hüther, L.; Frahm, J.; Beineke, A.; Soosten, von D.; Meyer, U.; Breves, G.; Dänicke, S.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the change from a concentrate and silage-based ration (total mixed ration, TMR) to a pasture-based ration, a 10-wk trial (wk 1-10) was performed, including 10 rumen- and duodenum-fistulated German Holstein dairy cows (182 ± 24 d in milk, 23.5 ± 3.5 kg of milk/d; mean

  9. Joint genetic evaluation of mastitis susceptibility and recovery ability in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; Janss, Luc; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    Mastitis in dairy cows is an unavoidable problem and variation in recovery from mastitis is therefore of interest, in addition to resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters for mastitis resistance and recovery were estimated for Danish Holstein-Friesian cows using data from Automatic Milking...... Systems equipped with online somatic cell count (OCC) measuring units. The OCC measurements were converted to elevated mastitis risks (EMR), a continuous variable (on a [0-1] scale) indicating the risk of mastitis. EMR values above 0.6 were assumed to indicate that a cow had mastitis. For each cow...... and lactation the sequence of health states (mastitic or healthy) was converted to weekly transitions: 0 if the cow stayed within the same state and 1 if the cow changed state. The result was two series of transitions: one for healthy to diseased (HD, to model mastitis resistance) and the other for diseased...

  10. Genetic correlations between methane production and fertility, health, and body type traits in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetouni, L; Kargo, M; Norberg, E; Lassen, J

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH 4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH 4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH 4 and several different traits were estimated. These traits were interval between calving and first insemination, interval between first and last insemination, number of inseminations, udder diseases, other diseases, height, body depth, chest width, dairy character, top line, and body condition score. Bivariate linear models were used to estimate the genetic parameters within and between CH 4 and the other traits. In general, the genetic correlations between CH 4 and the traits investigated were low. The heritability of CH 4 was 0.25, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.07 for fertility and health traits, and from 0.17 to 0.74 for body conformation traits. Further research with a larger data set should be performed to more accurately establish how CH 4 relates to fertility, health, and body conformation traits in dairy cattle. This will be useful in the design of future breeding goals that consider the production of CH 4 . The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  11. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  12. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  13. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  14. PENAMPILAN PRODUKSI SAPI PERAH FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN (FH PADA BERBAGAI PARITAS DAN BULAN LAKTASI DI KETINGGIAN TEMPAT YANG BERBEDA

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    Aju Tjatur Nugroho K.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to know the performance of milk yield Holstein Friesian (FH of dairy cows at various parities and month of lactation in different altitude. The research was conducted from January to March 2010 at Setia Kawan dairy cooperative in Nongkojajar (highlands and Suka Makmur dairy cooperative in Grati (lowlands. Both cooperatives were located in Pasuruan regency. The research materials used totally 90 heads of FH dairy cows (45 heads in Nongkojajar and 45 heads in Grati which consisted of parity 2 (15 heads, parity 3 (15 heads and parity 4 (15 heads. Each parity consisted of 2nd lactation (5 heads, 3rd lactation (5 heads and 4th lactation (5 heads. The variables were daily milk yield, and environmental factors related to milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy cows that is temperature and air humidity, temperature humidity index (THI and feed consumption. The method of the research was case study. The data had been analyzed by ANOVA and if there were significant influences it would be further tested using Duncan multiple range test. The results showed that the altitude significantly affected milk yield (P<0.05. Average milk yield at lowlands and highlands were 10.17±2.57 liters and 13.10±3.20 liters, but the 2nd, 3rd and 4th parities did not significantly affect milk yield. Another finding showed that the month of lactation significantly affected milk yield (P<0.05. Average milk yield in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th lactations were 12.98±3.61, 11.28±2.76 and 10.63±2.92 litters respectively. Based on the results it was concluded that the altitude and the month of lactation affected milk yield performances of FH dairy cows. It was suggested to improve environmental conditions at lowlands through controlling the temperature and humidity (THI for not more than 72 so that appropriate for dairy cows and to improve management of productivity, reproductive and feeding practices. Keywords: milk yield, dairy cow, parity, month

  15. Milk progesterone in evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Hueckmann, F.; Estrada, S.; Padilla, M.; Robert, O.; Madriz, C.; Alfaro, R.; Gonzales, V.; Colmenares, A.

    1990-01-01

    Post-partum ovarian activity was studied by means of rectal palpation, and progesterone (P 4 ) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay in defatted milk samples in Jersey, Holstein, Criollo and Criollo x Jersey cows. The accuracy with which farm personnel detected oestrus was monitored from measurements of P 4 on the day of AI and 23 days later. P 4 profiles during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy were determined in Jersey cows through the analysis of daily milk samples. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis as indicated by P 4 levels was 79% and 88% in Jersey and Holstein cows respectively. Diagnosis of non-pregnancy from P 4 levels was found to be 100% accurate. Only 62% of the Jerseys and 82.5% of the Holsteins which returned to oestrus after first AI post-partum were identified by staff on the different farms. Studies carried out in Jersey and Holstein cows during the early post-partum period revealed significant discrepancies between P 4 levels and palpable corpora lutea. P 4 profiles showed the presence of short (< 14 days) oestrous cycles in 53.9% and 47.4% of the Jersey and Holstein cows respectively during the first six weeks post-partum. Cows which developed milk fever at or before calving but which were treated promptly took no longer than healthy cows to resume ovarian activity. However, compared with healthy cows, those which had dystocia, retention of placenta or severe metritis took significantly longer (P < 0.01) to resume ovarian activity. Studies in the humid tropics during the post-partum period in Criollo, Criollo x Jersey and Jersey cows showed that 57% of the animals exhibited pre-ovulatory short cycles. Analysis of the monthly AI percentages in the different genetic groups indicated a seasonal distribution in sexual receptivity in both Criollo and Jersey dairy cows under these conditions; Criollo cows also resumed post-partum ovarian activity sooner than the other breeds. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  16. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms.

  17. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. A field study on the effects of dietary monensin on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; DuTremblay, Denis; Baril, Jean; Bagg, Randy; Brodeur, Marcel; Duffield, Todd; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of 16 ppm of dietary monensin on milk production and composition of dairy cows, and to investigate factors having a potential impact on this effect. Data were generated from a total of 3577 Holstein dairy cows (47 herds) in Quebec enrolled in a herd-level, randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of monensin supplementation. Milk production and composition data were collected from monthly dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Monensin increased milk production by 0.9 kg/cow/d in cows under 150 days in milk (DIM) (P < 0.05). Monensin decreased milk fat percentage by 0.18 percentage points during the whole lactation (P < 0.05). This decreasing effect was larger for component-fed cows (P < 0.05) and for cows being fed low levels of dietary physically effective particles (P < 0.05) when compared respectively to cows fed total mixed ration and cows fed high levels of dietary physically effective particles. The results of this study suggest that monensin influences milk production and milk composition of dairy cows, and that diet composition and feeding system influence those effects. PMID:20592825

  19. Effect of dietary monensin on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jeffery A; Hamilton, Scott W; DePeters, Edward J; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2010-02-01

    To determine the effect of monensin, a carboxylic polyether ionophore antibiotic, on the bacterial population structure of dairy cattle colonic contents, we fed six lactating Holstein cows a diet containing monensin (600 mg day(-1)) or an identical diet without monensin. Fresh waste samples were taken directly from the animals once a month for 3 months and assayed for their bacterial population structure via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In total 6,912 16S rRNA genes were examined, comprising 345 and 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the monensin fed and control animals, respectively. Coverage estimates of the OTUs identified were 87.6% for the monensin fed and 88.3% for the control colonic content derived library. Despite this high level of coverage, no significant difference was found between the libraries down to the genus level. Thus we concluded that although monensin is believed to increase milk production in dairy cattle by altering the bacterial population structure within the bovine gastrointestinal tract, we were unable to identify any significant difference in the bacterial population structure of the colonic contents of monensin fed vs. the control dairy cattle, down to the genus level.

  20. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    Full Text Available The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity.

  1. Regulatory effect of dietary intake of chromium propionate on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages from Holstein cows in mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Qu, Y; Scholte, C M; O'Connor, D; Rounds, W; Moyes, K M

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) has been reported to enhance immune function and improve insulin sensitivity and performance in beef and dairy cattle. However, its effect on bovine macrophage inflammatory and metabolic response is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary Cr on the inflammatory and metabolic response of polarized macrophages ex vivo. Twelve primiparous and 16 multiparous healthy Holstein cows in mid lactation (143 ± 37 d in milk) were enrolled in this study. Cows were fed a common total mixed ration once per day that was top-dressed with 200 g of ground corn containing 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (CTL, no Cr supplementation) or Cr propionate (CrP, 8 mg of Cr/cow per day) for 35 d. At d 1, 17, and 35 of treatment, blood monocytes were isolated and cultured to obtain 3 monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) phenotypes: M0 (non-polarized), M1 (pro-inflammatory; IFN-γ polarized) and M2 (anti-inflammatory; IL-4 polarized). The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design. Neither dry matter intake nor milk yield was affected by treatment. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and the metabolic and inflammatory response of MDM in spent media were not affected by treatment. Neither the whole blood cell population nor the specific proportion of leukocytes was affected by the main effect of treatment. However, we did observe a trend for fewer circulating neutrophils in cows fed CrP than in cows fed CTL for 35 d, which may be partly attributable to a greater influx of neutrophils into peripheral tissues, a reduced pro-inflammatory response during disease, or both; this warrants future study. Expression of IGFI was increased in MDM-M0, and expression of CXCL11 tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL. Expression of SLC2A3 also tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL at 17 d. Our results suggest that CrP has minimal effect on the inflammatory and metabolic

  2. Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    production and body condition score as confounders. Metritis was defined as a score of at least 5 (indicating purulent vaginal discharge with abnormal smell) on the Danish uterine score scale (from 0 to 9, used to evaluate vaginal discharge in the first 19d postpartum on all fresh cows in herds participating......A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk...... in a national herd health program). Cows with metritis in early lactation presented a significant delay in first insemination (hazard ratio of 0.80) and a significantly reduced probability of success at first insemination. The effect of metritis was also present after adjusting for possible effects of body...

  3. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production and Composition during Multiple Lactations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available Heat stress at the time of conception affects the subsequent milk production of primiparous Holstein cows; however, it is unknown whether these effects are maintained across multiple lactations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and measurements of milk production and composition in cows retained within a herd for multiple lactations. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included milk production data and milk composition data from over 75,000 and 44,000 Holstein cows, respectively, born between 2000 and 2010 in Florida, Georgia, and Texas. Conception dates were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress conceived (HSC cows; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral conceived (TNC contemporaries. Adjusted 305-d mature equivalent milk, protein percent and fat percent were evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS. Milk production was significantly affected by periconceptional heat stress. When a significant difference or tendency for a difference was detected between the HSC and TNC cows, the TNC produced more milk in all but one comparison. The advantage in milk production for the TNC cows over the HSC cows ranged from 82 ± 42 to 399 ± 61 kg per lactation. Alterations in fat and protein percentage were variable and most often detected in first lactations (first > second or third. Overall, the most striking result of this study is the consistency of the relationship between HSC and milk production. The nature of this relationship suggests that heat stress at or around the time of conception impairs cow milk yield throughout her lifetime.

  4. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium and Mycoplasma canadense from outbreaks of granulopapular vulvovaginitis in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, I; Brenner, J; Alpert, N; Benjamin, A; Bernstein, M; Elad, D; Blum, S; Friedgut, O; Rotenberg, D

    2009-09-12

    A syndrome in which white foci and granulopustular lesions appeared on the vaginal mucous membranes of Holstein cows in several dairy herds in Israel is described. During clinical and diagnostic investigations, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium was isolated from 11 of 20 clinical cases. Vaginal swabs taken from the same cows yielded three isolates of Mycoplasma canadense, which were all associated with the M bovigenitalium infection. Two isolates of small, round, non-enveloped viral particles were approximately 25 nm in diameter and characteristic of enteroviruses on negative-staining electron microscopy.

  6. High levels of whole raw soya beans in dairy cow diets: digestibility and animal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Freitas Junior, J E; Verdurico, L C; Mingoti, R D; Bettero, V P; Benevento, B C; Vilela, F G; Rennó, F P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high levels of whole raw soya beans in the diets of lactating cows. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used, randomized in three 4 ×  4 balanced and contemporary Latin squares and fed the following diets: (i) control (C), without including whole raw soya beans; (ii) 80 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G80); (iii) 160 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G160); and (iv) 240 g/kg in DM of whole raw soya beans (G240). There was significant reduction (p beans in dairy cow diets improves the unsaturated fatty acid profile in milk, and the diets (G80 and G160) led to minor alterations in the digestive processes and animal metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  8. Development and application of a processing model for the Irish dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, U; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Garrick, D J; Shalloo, L

    2010-11-01

    . The value per liter of milk in scenario 1 was 24.8, 30.8, and 27.4 cents for Irish Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian milk, respectively. In scenario 2 the value per liter of milk was 26.1, 32.6, and 28.9 cents for Irish Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and New Zealand strain of Holstein-Friesian milk, respectively. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...... yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several...... years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk...

  10. Investigation of hormone profiles in dairy cattle with a view to controlling fertility and increasing reproductive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, R.; Krsmanovic, L.; Maric, D.; Perkucin, R.; Veselinovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation was carried out on 677 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from one big commercial farm in Voivodina. The accuracy of the application of serum progesterone RIA for the early diagnosis of non-pregnancy was 98% (and 97% for milk progesterone samples). The figures were 49% and 60%, respectively, for positive diagnosis. The high percentage of false positive results was probably due to a high incidence of disturbances in the oestrous cycle and problems of heat detection. Investigation of progesterone profiles in post-partum dairy cows showed that the duration of post-partum anoestrous was strongly influenced by the level of nutrition. Treatment with GnRH suggested that two injections of GnRH given 15 d and 23 d post-partum could induce the onset of the first ovulation. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Diurnal behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peres Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal ingestive behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate was evaluated. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were used in a randomized block design. The treatments were partial replacement of corn silage for limited alfalfa grazing time (LGT or unlimited grazing time (UGT. Rotational alfalfa grazing was used and the amount of concentrate fed was the same in both treatments. Behavioral activities observed were time spent grazing, rumination and idleness, during four days, from 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM. From 2:00 to 5:00 PM grazing was intermittent and short-lasting on UGT, whereas on LGT grazing activity was longer than UGT in the morning and at the end of the afternoon. Restriction in available grazing time clearly influenced the distribution of time spent with grazing, rumination and idleness throughout the day. However, this effect was not observed in the total time spent in these activities.

  12. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  13. Single nucleotide variants and InDels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza

    Full Text Available Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production. A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel. The submission of these genetic variants to the dbSNP database significantly increased the number of known variants, particularly for the indicine genome. The concordance rate between genotypes obtained using the Bovine HD BeadChip array and the same variants identified by sequencing was about 99.05%. The annotation of variants identified numerous non-synonymous SNVs and frameshift InDels which could affect phenotypic variation. Functional enrichment analysis was performed and revealed that variants in the olfactory transduction pathway was over represented in all four cattle breeds, while the ECM-receptor interaction pathway was over represented in Girolando and Guzerat breeds, the ABC transporters pathway was over represented only in Holstein breed, and the metabolic pathways was over represented only in Gyr breed. The genetic variants discovered here provide a rich resource to help identify potential genomic markers and their associated molecular mechanisms that impact economically important traits for Gyr, Girolando, Guzerat and Holstein breeding programs.

  14. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  15. Evaluation of vaginal discharge with the Metricheck device and the relationship to reproductive performance in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, Christian; Völker, Denise; Janowitz, Ulrich; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Vaginal mucus during estrus was examined with the Metricheck device and the relationship to the reproduction of high-yielding dairy cows was studied. The study was conducted in 99 dairy herds located in Western Germany and 1348 Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows showing spontaneous estrus were examined. Independent of the Metricheck result, the animals were inspected by professional insemination technicians and those suitable for insemination (n = 989) were bred by artificial insemination (AI). Reproductive performance was characterized by non-return rate at 90 days (NRR90). The discharge of the animals predominantly had a clear appearance (70%) and a stringy consistency (80%). Animals with clear vaginal discharge had higher NRR90 (56%; n = 697) than animals with abnormal (turbid, mucopurulent, purulent, sanguineous) vaginal secretion (48%, n = 292; P  130 days; 62%) intervals (P  45 kg) milk yield class. In conclusion, the use of the Metricheck device integrated into the insemination procedure is recommended to identify dairy cows suffering severely from uterine disease. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Strong, sudden cooling alleviates the inflammatory responses in heat-stressed dairy cows based on iTRAQ proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Min, Li; Zheng, Nan; Fan, Caiyun; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2018-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of sudden cooling on the physiological responses of 12 heat-stressed Holstein dairy cows using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling approach. Plasma samples were collected from these cows during heat stress (HS), and after strong, sudden cooling in the summer (16 days later). We compared plasma proteomic data before and after sudden cooling to identify the differentially abundant proteins. The results showed that sudden cooling in summer effectively alleviated the negative consequences of HS on body temperature and production variables. Expressions of plasma hemoglobin alpha and hemoglobin beta were upregulated, whereas lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and haptoglobin were downregulated in this process. The increase of hemoglobin after cooling may improve oxygen transport and alleviate the rise in respiration rates in heat-stressed dairy cows. The decrease of LBP and haptoglobin suggests that the inflammatory responses caused by HS are relieved after cooling. Our findings provide new insight into the physiological changes that occur when heat-stressed dairy cows experience strong, sudden cooling.

  17. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FSHR POLYMORPHISM WITH PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN ANTIOQUIA HOLSTEIN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid Gaviria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because FSH and its receptor play a fundamental role in reproduction, the objective of this research was determining the effect of the A-320T polymorphism in productive and reproductive traits in Antioquia Holstein cows. The PCR-RFLP was used to amplify a segment of 970 bp of the bovine follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR which was digested with the restriction enzyme TaqI. The effect of the FSHR genotypes on productive and reproductive traits was determinate by a Mixed Linear Model and Tukey Test was used to establish significant differences between means for the three genotypes. The effect of allelic substitution was studied through a linear regression model where the genotypes AA, AT and TT were transformed into a quantitative scale of 0, 1 and 2, respectively according to the number of possessed T alleles. In Antioquia Holstein cattle the most common genotype was the AT (0.485 followed by TT (0.417 and AA (0.096 genotypes. Allele frequencies were 0.339 for A and 0.660 for T, respectively. The FSHR genotypes did not exert a significant effect on the principal productive parameters, except for fat percentage (P<0.01 where the TT individuals presented the highest percent. Results showed that T allele seems to improve the solids in milk while A allele improves dairy yield. The reproductive parameters were not affected by this SNP but AT animals showed a higher number of services per conception. Further studies are required to determine whether this SNP may be used as a molecular marker

  18. Genetic Analysis of Milk Yield Using Random Regression Test Day Model in Tehran Province Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seyeddokht

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research a random regression test day model was used to estimate heritability values and calculation genetic correlations between test day milk records. a total of 140357 monthly test day milk records belonging to 28292 first lactation Holstein cattle(trice time a day milking distributed in 165 herd and calved from 2001 to 2010 belonging to the herds of Tehran province were used. The fixed effects of herd-year-month of calving as contemporary group and age at calving and Holstein gene percentage as covariate were fitted. Orthogonal legendre polynomial with a 4th-order was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. RRM using Legendre polynomials as base functions appears to be the most adequate to describe the covariance structure of the data. The results showed that the average of heritability for the second half of lactation period was higher than that of the first half. The heritability value for the first month was lowest (0.117 and for the eighth month of the lactation was highest (0.230 compared to the other months of lactation. Because of genetic variation was increased gradually, and residual variance was high in the first months of lactation, heritabilities were different over the course of lactation. The RRMs with a higher number of parameters were more useful to describe the genetic variation of test-day milk yield throughout the lactation. In this research estimation of genetic parameters, and calculation genetic correlations were implemented by random regression test day model, therefore using this method is the exact way to take account of parameters rather than the other ways.

  19. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  20. Food safety issues in China: a case study of the dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhemin

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 10 years, food safety incidents have occurred frequently in China. Food safety issues in the dairy sector have increasingly gained the attention of the Chinese government and the public. The objective of this research is to explore consumption changes of dairy products of different income groups after these dairy safety incidents. The research indicates that consumers' response to dairy safety risk is very intense. Dairy consumption has experienced a declining trend in recent years, and the impact of dairy safety incidents has lasted for at least 5 years. Until 2012, dairy consumption had not yet fully recovered from this influence. Using the random effects model, this study examined the relationship between food safety incident and consumption. Overall, the results show that consumers in the low-income group are more sensitive to safety risk than those in the high-income group. It can be seen from this paper that the decrease of urban residents' dairy consumption was mainly driven by changes in fresh milk consumption, while the decline of milk powder consumption, which was affected by the melamine incident, was relatively moderate, and milk powder consumption for the high-income group even increased. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined...... with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used...

  2. Endocrine Profiles, Haematology and Pregnancy Outcomes of Late Pregnant Holstein Dairy Heifers Sired by Bulls Giving a High or Low Incidence of Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of stillbirth in Swedish Holstein heifers has increased continuously during the last 15 years to an average of 11% today. The pathological reasons behind the increased incidence of stillbirth are unknown. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate possible causes of stillbirth and to study possible physiological markers for predicting stillbirth. Twenty Swedish Holstein dairy heifers sired by bulls with breeding values for a high risk of stillbirth (n = 12 (experimental group and a low risk of stillbirth (n = 8 (control group, group B were selected based on information in the Swedish AI-data base. The experimental group consisted of 2 subgroups of heifers (groups A1 and A2 inseminated with 2 different bulls with 3.5% and 9% higher stillbirth rates than the average, and the control group consisted of heifers pregnant with 5 different bulls with 0%–6% lower stillbirth rates than the average. The bull used for group A1 had also calving difficulties due to large calves as compared to the bull in group A2 showing no calving difficulties. The heifers were supervised from 6–7 months of pregnancy up to birth, and the pregnancies and parturitions were compared between groups regarding hormonal levels, haematology, placental characteristics and calf viability. In group A1, 1 stillborn, 1 weak and 4 normal calves were recorded. In group A2, 2 stillborn and 4 normal calves were registered. All animals in the control group gave birth to a normal living calf without any assistance. The weak calf showed deviating profiles of body temperature, saturated oxygen and heart rates, compared with the normal living calves. No differences of the placentome thickness, measured in vivo by ultrasonography were seen between the groups. The number of leukocytes and differential cell counts in groups A1 and A2 followed the profiles found in the control group. In group A1, a slight decrease of oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 levels was found in the

  3. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as an alternative forage for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Doepel, L

    2011-08-01

    Fenugreek is a novel forage crop in Canada that is generating interest as an alternative to alfalfa for dairy cows. To evaluate the value of fenugreek haylage relative to alfalfa haylage, six, second lactation Holstein cows (56 ± 8 days in milk), which were fitted with rumen cannulas (10 cm i.d., Bar Diamond Inc., Parma, ID, USA) were used in a replicated three × three Latin square design with 18-day periods. Diets consisting of 400 g/kg haylage, 100 g/kg barley silage and 500 g/kg concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. The haylage component constituted the dietary treatments: (i) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada F70 fenugreek (F70), (ii) Crop Development Center Quatro fenugreek (QUAT) and (iii) alfalfa (ALF). DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein and lactose yields were higher (P haylage has a lower feeding value than ALF for lactating dairy cows due in part to lower DMI and subsequently lower milk yield.

  4. Intrauterine application of flavonoids in puerperal dairy cows: reproductive tract involution and fertility at high-altitude environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA; Uquillas-Patiño JB; Garcia-Herreros M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of postpartum intrauterine administration of flavonoids in order to hasten reproductive tract involution and to shorten the parturition-to-conception interval in dairy cows. A total of 40 Holstein cows (2nd-3rd lactation; BC: 3-3.5) were divided randomly into 4 groups [1 control group (T1) and 3 treatment groups (T2, T3 and T4)]. Treatments consisted of one single intrauterine administration on day 10 postpartum of 90 mg (T2)...

  5. TARGETED ANALYSIS OF JAK-STAT-SOCS GENES IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sondur Jayappa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway genes along with suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS family genes play a crucial role in controlling cytokine signals in the mammary gland and thus mammary gland development. Mammary gene expression studies showed differential expression patterns for all the JAK-STAT pathway genes. Gene expression studies using qRT-PCR revealed differential expression of SOCS2, SOCS4 and SOCS5 genes across the lactation cycle in dairy cows. Using genotypes from 1,546 Australian Holstein- Friesian bulls, a statistical model based on SNPs within 500kb of JAK-STAT pathway genes, and SOCS genes alone was carried out. The analysis suggested that these genes and pathways make a significant contribution to the Australian milk production traits. Selection of 24 SNPs close to SOCS1, SOCS3, SOCS5, SOCS7 and CISH genes were significantly associated with, Australian Profit Ranking (APR, Australian Selection Index (ASI and protein yield (PY. This study supports the view that there may be some merit in choosing SNPs around functionally relevant genes for the selection and genetic improvement schemes for dairy production traits.

  6. 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos': Transplacental transmission in dairy cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto-Soares, Aline; Soares, João Fabio; Bogado, Alexey Leon Gomel; de Macedo, César Augusto Barbosa; Sandeski, Lígia Mara; Garcia, João Luis; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-11-15

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' is a haemotropic mycoplasma that can produce various clinical signs in cattle, but abortive potential of the parasite is unknown, as well as the frequency of transplacental transmission in cattle. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of detection of 'C. M. haemobos' in aborted fetuses and the blood of dairy cows. Blood samples of 22 dairy cows that aborted and pool tissues (brain, lung, heart and liver) of their respective aborted fetuses were tested by conventional PCR. The occurrence of 'C. M. haemobos' DNA in adult animals was 40.9% (9/22) and in the fetuses was 18.2% (4/22). Two fetuses that contained 'C. M. haemobos' DNA were derived from cows which were PCR negative. When stratifying by breed, it was observed that Jersey cows had a higher proportion of positive animals (8/11; 72.7%) as compared to Holstein (1/9; 11.1% P<0.01). The results of this study suggest that this parasite can be transferred via the placenta, but it is not certain if the abortions were due to 'C. M. haemobos'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the

  8. Predicting hyperketonemia by logistic and linear regression using test-day milk and performance variables in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T L; Pralle, R S; Dórea, J R R; Poock, S E; Oetzel, G R; Fourdraine, R H; White, H M

    2018-03-01

    .4% in multiparous cows. These results suggest that predicting serum BHB from continuous test-day milk and performance variables could serve as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring HYK in Holstein and Jersey herds. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...... produce the vitamin. To test different scenarios, 16 Danish Holstein dairy cows were subjected to 4 degrees of coverage of their bodies with fabric that prevented vitamin D3 synthesis in the covered skin areas. The treatments were horse blanket (cows fitted with horse blankets), udder cover (cows fitted...... with udder covers, horse blanket + udder cover (cows fitted with both horse blankets and udder covers), and natural (cows without any coverage fitted). The cows were let out to pasture daily between 1000 and 1500 h for 4 wk in July and August 2009. Blood samples were collected 15 times during the study...

  10. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  11. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  12. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  13. Effect of water extract from spent mushroom substrate after Ganoderma balabacense cultivation by using JUNCAO technique on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanling; Zhao, Chao; Lin, Dongmei; Lin, Hui; Lin, Zhanxi

    2015-09-01

    The spent mushroom substrate of Ganoderma balabacense cultivation (SMSGB) contains a large amount of bioactive substances. However, the potentials of SMSGB for improving milk production in dairy cows have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the effects of hot water extract (HWE) from spent mushroom substrate after G. balabacense cultivated with JUNCAO, the herbaceous plants long-known to be suitable for cultivating edible and medicinal fungi, on production performance and hematology parameters of dairy cows, were determined. Holstein dairy cows were fed different doses of HWE. After a 60-day administration period with 100 g/day of HWE, milk yield, milk protein and triglyceride (TG) levels increased by 4.02% (P < 0.01), 4.49% (P < 0.05) and 32.65% (P < 0.05), respectively; somatic cell count (SCC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The production performance of dairy cows suggests that HWE with SMSGB treatment is effective in improving milk yield (P < 0.01) and hematology parameters of dairy cows, and may be useful as a functional feed additive. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. The number of service per conception of Indonesian Friesian Holstein with artificial insemination in Selo, Boyolali, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, A. M.; Pramono, A.; Susilowati, A.; Sutarno; Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Boyolali is an area in Central Java Indonesia, it has large number of Indonesian Friesian Holstein (IFH; dairy cattle). To improve its population as well as genetic quality of milk production, artificial insemination (AI) is widely applied as mating program. The success of AI can be evaluated from the number of service per conception (S/C), represent a number of service using AI to achieve one pregnancy. Its mirroring mating management and reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle, estimated in herd during specific time and location. For that, this study aims to estimate S/C in Selo, Boyolali during October 2016 to January 2017. Data were gathered with 95% confidence level. Sample size were 367 IFH, visited and selected purposively based on criteria one-time partus, 3 y.o and have complete AI record. Animal data were collected in reproduction and mating management. In addition, 124 dairy farmer who have minimum 5 years experiences in rearing IFH cow were interviewed as respondent in estrus detection, followed with 2 skilled inseminators for AI performing time data. Result shows that S/C is 1.71, this mean one pregnancy need 1.71 times AI services. In the estrus detection, most of dairy farmers were able to observe estrus sign in vulva color, size and the present of mucus by visual. Moreover, AI was performed in 9 to 12 hours after the sign of estrus observed. It is concluded that AI of IFH in Selo, Boyolali has been successfully applied, however there are still rooms to improve the reproduction efficiency through mating management in regard to lower S/C.

  15. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  16. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 1991 measurement report. Air pollution monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a report of the immission situation for 1991 in Schleswig-Holstein on the basis of the continuously processing measuring stations of the Air Hygienic Monitoring Schleswig-Holstein and the special measuring programs at selected sites. The measuring results of the Air Hygienic Monitoring determined for Schleswig-Holstein in 1991 can be summarized as follows: - The basic load of air by pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and airborne particles in relatively small in the entires region of the nation; Schleswig-Holstein is, therefore, continues to be ranked as one of the regions in the Federal Republic of Germany least burden to air contaminates. - A slight increase compared to the previous year could be determined for the components of sulphur dioxide and airborne particles. - The limit values defined by the European Community (EG) were adhered to at the time of the report; the admittance values for SO 2 and NO 2 were, however, exceeded. (orig./KW) [de

  18. Validation of genomic predictions for wellness traits in US Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeel, Anthony K; Reiter, Brenda C; Weigel, Dan; Osterstock, Jason; Di Croce, Fernando A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of wellness trait genetic predictions in commercial herds of US Holstein cows from herds that do not contribute phenotypic information to the evaluation. Tissue samples for DNA extraction were collected from more than 3,400 randomly selected pregnant Holstein females in 11 herds and 2 age groups (69% nulliparous, 31% primiparous) approximately 30 to 60 d before their expected calving date. Lactation records from cows that calved between September 1, 2015, and December 31, 2015, were included in the analysis. Genomically enhanced predicted transmitting abilities for the wellness traits of retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, mastitis, and lameness were estimated by the Zoetis genetic evaluation and converted into standardized transmitting abilities. Mean reliabilities of the animals in the study ranged between 45 and 47% for each of the 6 traits. Animals were ranked by their standardized transmitting abilities within herd and age group then assigned to 1 of 4 groups of percentile-based genetic groups of equal size. Adverse health events, including retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum, mastitis, and lameness, were collected from on-farm herd management software, and animal phenotype was coded as either healthy (0), diseased (1), or excluded for each of the 6 outcomes of interest. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model with genetic group, age group, and lactation as fixed effects, whereas herd and animal nested within herd were set as random effects. Results of the analysis indicated that the wellness trait predictions were associated with differences in phenotypic disease incidence between the worst and best genetic groups. The difference between the worst and best genetic groups in recorded disease incidence was 2.9% for retained placenta, 10.8% for metritis, 1.1% for displaced abomasum, 1.7% for ketosis, 7.4% for mastitis, and 3

  19. Influence of high dietary lead on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Alfaro, E.; Fielding, A.S.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of orally dosed 75 Se was studied in 10 intact male Holstein calves that were fed ad libitum a control diet containing no added Pb or supplemented with 1000 ppm Pb as PbSO 4 for 4 wk. Lead-supplemented calves did not exhibit any clinical signs of Pb toxicity. Voluntary feed intake was reduced by 9.5% and average daily gain by 23%. Lead content of rib, liver, and kidney increased. Serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase activity was increased during the last 2 wk of the experiment in calves fed Pb. In calves receiving supplemental Pb, 75 Se absorption, blood concentration, and urine concentration were reduced by 26, 21, and 42%, respectively. Tissue 75 Se concentrations were significantly lower in kidney, liver, testicle, pancreas, small intestine, heart, spinal cord, and muscle in calves fed Pb. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.78) between 75 Se and stable Pb concentrations in the liver. It is not clear whether the ingestion of subclinical amounts of Pb could affect the absorption and utilization of Se in dairy calves to the extent of Se deficiency when dairy calves are kept in areas known to be low in Se

  20. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  1. Hair cortisol detection in dairy cattle by using EIA: protocol validation and correlation with faecal cortisol metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo-Parra, O; Manteca, X; Sabes-Alsina, M; Carbajal, A; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-06-01

    Hair may be a useful matrix to detect cumulative cortisol concentrations in studies of animal welfare and chronic stress. The aim of this study was to validate a protocol for cortisol detection in hair from dairy cattle by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Seventeen adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the milking period. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 25-day-old hair samples taken from the frontal region of the head, analysing black and white coloured hair separately. Concentrations of cortisol metabolites were determined in faeces collected twice a week during the same period of time. There was a high correlation between cortisol values in faeces and cortisol in white colour hair samples but such correlation was not significant with the black colour hair samples. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.9% and 10.6%, respectively. The linearity showed R 2=0.98 and mean percentage error of -10.8 ± 1.55%. The extraction efficiency was 89.0 ± 23.52% and the parallelism test showed similar slopes. Cortisol detection in hair by using EIA seems to be a valid method to represent long-term circulating cortisol levels in dairy cattle.

  2. Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (pHH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.

  3. Comportamiento productivo y reproductivo del ganado holstein rojo, holstein negro y pardo suizo en Palmira, Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Oscar

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Three breeds of dairy cattle (26 Red Holstein RH, 97 Black Holstein BH and 29 Brown Swiss BS, were evaluated for reproductive eficiency, and milk production for the years 1979 - 1987 a t the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira. Days of milking, milk and fat production were for BH (324.0days, 2545.9 kg, 91.1 kg for the RH (300.0 days, 2243.7 kg, 81.0 kg for the BS (298.2 days, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. % fat average were 3.6% in RH, 3.7 % in BH and BS. The lactation curves for the three breeds were best ajusted with the model: Y=A+B(lnt + C(lnt2. Larger persistaency was observed on BS followed by RH. The BS presented better reproductive efficiency than RH and BH with a mean of 169.0,177.4 and 195.6 days, calving data-conception and 2.0, 22 and 22 for number of services per conception. The HR breed had a calving age of 3.4 years and 470.5 kg of calving weight larger than 3.5 years and 440.0 kg for the BH and 3.8 years and 458.1 kg for the BS. Average weight at birth for males and females together BS showed grater weights (37.02 kq, BH and RH showed similar results (36.0 and 362 kg. The incidence of problem at birth was higher for RH (10.90/0 and puerperium problems in BS(21.60,b. Not significal effect of calving weight and rainfall on milk yield and calving date-conception. In most cases there was no correlation between milk yield and calving date-conception. There was a very narow relation between calving date- conception and number of services per conception.En el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-Palmira, se evaluó el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de 152 vacas; 26 Holstein Rojo (HR, 97 Holstein Negro (HN y 29 vacas Pardo Suizo (PS, durante el período 1979-1987. La mayor duración de la lactancia, producción de leche y grasa (kg la presentó la raza HN (324 días, 2545.9 ka, 91.1 kg, seguido de la HR (300 días, 2243.7,81.0 kg y de la PS (298.2 días, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. los porcentajes de grasa fueron 3.6 (HR y 3.7010 (HN y PSI

  4. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  6. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  7. The association of plasma glucose, BHBA, and NEFA with postpartum uterine diseases, fertility, and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, M L S; Marques, E C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2017-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the metabolic indicators such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose during the transition period and the development of uterine diseases. In total, 181 Holstein dairy cows were enrolled in the study. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and BHBA concentrations were measured at -50, -6, 3, 7, and 14 days relative to parturition. All cows enrolled in the study were evaluated for retained placenta (RP), metritis, and endometritis. Metritis and RP were diagnosed and treated by trained farm personnel. Clinical endometritis was evaluated by a veterinarian at 35 days in milk using a Metricheck device. We found plasma glucose concentration to be associated with the occurrence of metritis and clinical endometritis. Moreover, cows with an increased calving-to-conception interval (>150 days) presented higher plasma glucose concentrations than cows that became pregnant within the first 150 days, whereas BHBA and NEFA were not associated with the occurrence of any uterine disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used in an attempt to determine the cow-level critical thresholds for the occurrence of metritis, and endometritis. In addition, pairwise comparisons of area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curves for the critical thresholds for glucose, BHBA, and NEFA predicting the same uterine disease were performed. Glucose at 3 days in milk was the best predictor for metritis and endometritis diagnosis, with AUC values of 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed and showed that cows with higher levels of glucose at Day 3 were at 6.6 times higher odds of being diagnosed with metritis, and 3.5 times higher odds of developing clinical endometritis, compared with cows with lower glucose levels. Finally, a simple linear regression analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between daily milk yield in the first and second weeks of

  8. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  9. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  10. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selection for milk coagulation properties predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Italian Holstein-Friesian breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, S; Bulgari, O; Rizzi, R; Calamari, L; Bani, P; Biffani, S; Caroli, A M

    2014-07-01

    Milk coagulation is based on a series of physicochemical changes at the casein micelle level, resulting in formation of a gel. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are relevant for cheese quality and yield, important factors for the dairy industry. They are also evaluated in herd bulk milk to reward or penalize producers of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. The economic importance of improving MCP justifies the need to account for this trait in the selection process. A pilot study was carried out to determine the feasibility of including MCP in the selection schemes of the Italian Holstein. The MCP were predicted in 1,055 individual milk samples collected in 16 herds (66 ± 24 cows per herd) located in Brescia province (northeastern Italy) by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The coefficient of determination of prediction models indicated moderate predictions for milk rennet coagulation time (RCT=0.65) and curd firmness (a₃₀=0.68), and poor predictions for curd-firming time (k₂₀=0.49), whereas the range error ratio (8.9, 6.9, and 9.5 for RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀, respectively) indicated good practical utility of the predictive models for all parameters. Milk proteins were genotyped and casein haplotypes (αS₁-, β-, αS₂-, and κ-casein) were reconstructed. Data from 51 half-sib families (19.9 ± 16.4 daughters per sire) were analyzed by an animal model to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of predicted RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀; (2) the breeding values for these predicted clotting variables; and (3) the effect of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes on predicted MCP (pMCP). This is the first study to estimate both genetic parameters and breeding values of pMCP, together with the effects of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes, that also considered k₂₀, probably the most important parameter for the dairy industry (because it indicates the time for the beginning of curd-cutting). Heritability of predicted

  12. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Brun-Lafleur, L.; Cutullic, E.; Faverdin, P.; Delaby, L.; Disenhaus, C.

    2017-01-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reprodu...

  13. Ability of dairy cows to be inseminated according to breed and genetic merit for production traits under contrasting pasture-based feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Disenhaus, C; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Delaby, L

    2017-05-01

    Strong genetic selection on production traits is considered to be responsible for the declined ability of dairy cows to ensure reproduction. The present study aimed to quantify the effect of genetic characteristics (breeds and genetic merit for production traits) and feeding systems (FS) on the ability of dairy cows to be inseminated. An experiment was conducted during 9 years on Normande and Holstein cows assigned to contrasted pasture-based FS. Diets were based on maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate in spring in the High FS; and on grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate during spring in the low FS. Within breed, cows were classified into two genetic groups with similar estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk solids: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a Milk-Group and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a Content-Group. Holstein produced more milk throughout lactation than Normande cows (+2294 kg in the High FS and +1280 kg in the Low FS, PGenetic group neither affected ovulation detection rate nor DAI1. Within breed and FS, cows with high genetic merit for milk yield had later CLA and DAI1. Cows in the High FS produced more milk and lost less condition to nadir than cows in the Low FS. FS did not affect dairy cows' ability to be inseminated. However, cows with higher milk protein content, and presumably better energy balance, had earlier CLA (P<0.01) and DAI1 (P<0.10). In addition, higher milk yield was associated with poorer ovulation detection rate and oestrus intensity (P<0.05). The study showed that at similar EBV level for milk solids, selection for increased milk fat and protein content resulted in improved cyclicity and similar oestrous expression and submission rates compared with selection for increased milk yield.

  14. Application of Raman spectroscopy and chemometric techniques to assess sensory characteristics of young dairy bull beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2018-05-01

    This work aims to develop a rapid analytical technique to predict beef sensory attributes using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and to investigate correlations between sensory attributes using chemometric analysis. Beef samples (n = 72) were obtained from young dairy bulls (Holstein-Friesian and Jersey×Holstein-Friesian) slaughtered at 15 and 19 months old. Trained sensory panel evaluation and Raman spectral data acquisition were both carried out on the same longissimus thoracis muscles after ageing for 21 days. The best prediction results were obtained using a Raman frequency range of 1300-2800 cm -1 . Prediction performance of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models developed using all samples were moderate to high for all sensory attributes (R 2 CV values of 0.50-0.84 and RMSECV values of 1.31-9.07) and were particularly high for desirable flavour attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.80-0.84, RMSECVs of 4.21-4.65). For PLSR models developed on subsets of beef samples i.e. beef of an identical age or breed type, significant improvements on prediction performances were achieved for overall sensory attributes (R 2 CVs of 0.63-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.38-6.88 for each breed type; R 2 CVs of 0.52-0.89 and RMSECVs of 0.96-6.36 for each age group). Chemometric analysis revealed strong correlations between sensory attributes. Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis was demonstrated to have high potential as a rapid and non-destructive technique to predict the sensory quality traits of young dairy bull beef. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  16. Epidemiological profile of reproductive loss in dairy cattle

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    Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in São Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum

  17. Effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immune system, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinshun; Liu, Mingmei; Su, Xiaoshuang; Zhan, Kang; Zhang, Chungang; Zhao, Guoqi

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of alfalfa flavonoids on the production performance, immunity, and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows. The experiments employed four primiparous Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas, and used a 4×4 Latin square design. Cattle were fed total mixed ration supplemented with 0 (control group, Con), 20, 60, or 100 mg of alfalfa flavonoids extract (AFE) per kg of dairy cow body weight (BW). The feed intake of the group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE were significantly higher (pcontent of milk reduced (p = 0.05) linearly as AFE supplementation was increased. The somatic cell count of milk in group receiving 60 mg/kg BW of AFE was significantly lower (pruminal fermentation parameters were not affected by AFE supplementation. Relative levels of the rumen microbe Ruminococcus flavefaciens tended to decrease (p = 0.09) quadratically, whereas those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens showed a tendency to increase (p = 0.07) quadratically in response to AFE supplementation. The results of this study demonstrate that AFE supplementation can alter composition of milk, and may also have an increase tendency of nutrient digestion by regulating populations of microbes in the rumen, improve antioxidant properties by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, and affect immunity by altering the proportions of lymphocyte and neutrophil granulocytes in dairy cows. The addition of 60 mg/kg BW of AFE to the diet of dairy cows was shown to be beneficial in this study.

  18. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  19. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-11-27

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined.

  20. Effects of feeding brown midrib corn silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay on lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows for the first 180 days of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more

  1. Factors associated with 56-day non-return rate in dairy cattle

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    Ramiro Fouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify factors associated with the 56-day non-return rate (56-NRR in dairy herds in the Galician region, Spain, and to estimate it for individual Holstein bulls. The experiment was carried out in herds originated from North-West Spain, from September 2008 to August 2009. Data of the 76,440 first inseminations performed during this period were gathered. Candidate factors were tested for their association with the 56-NRR by using a logistic model (binomial. Afterwards, 37 sires with a minimum of 150 first performed inseminations were individually evaluated. Logistic models were also estimated for each bull, and predicted individual 56-NRR rate values were calculated as a solution for the model parameters. Logistic regression found four major factors associated with 56-NRR in lactating cows: age at insemination, days from calving to insemination, milk production level at the time of insemination, and herd size. First-service conception rate, when a particular sire was used, was higher for heifers (0.71 than for lactating cows (0.52. Non-return rates were highly variable among bulls. Asignificant part of the herd-level variation of 56-NRR of Holstein cattle seems attributable to the service sire. High correlation level between observed and predicted 56-NRR was found.

  2. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

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    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  3. Central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelders, H; van der Lende, T; Kommadath, A; te Pas, M F W; Smits, M A; Kaal, L M T E

    2014-05-01

    The expression of oestrous behaviour in Holstein Friesian dairy cows has progressively decreased over the past 50 years. Reduced oestrus expression is one of the factors contributing to the current suboptimal reproductive efficiency in dairy farming. Variation between and within cows in the expression of oestrous behaviour is associated with variation in peripheral blood oestradiol concentrations during oestrus. In addition, there is evidence for a priming role of progesterone for the full display of oestrous behaviour. A higher rate of metabolic clearance of ovarian steroids could be one of the factors leading to lower peripheral blood concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone in high-producing dairy cows. Oestradiol acts on the brain by genomic, non-genomic and growth factor-dependent mechanisms. A firm base of understanding of the ovarian steroid-driven central genomic regulation of female sexual behaviour has been obtained from studies on rodents. These studies have resulted in the definition of five modules of oestradiol-activated genes in the brain, referred to as the GAPPS modules. In a recent series of studies, gene expression in the anterior pituitary and four brain areas (amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal hypothalamus and ventral hypothalamus) in oestrous and luteal phase cows, respectively, has been measured, and the relation with oestrous behaviour of these cows was analysed. These studies identified a number of genes of which the expression was associated with the intensity of oestrous behaviour. These genes could be grouped according to the GAPPS modules, suggesting close similarity of the regulation of oestrous behaviour in cows and female sexual behaviour in rodents. A better understanding of the central genomic regulation of the expression of oestrous behaviour in dairy cows may in due time contribute to improved (genomic) selection strategies for appropriate oestrus expression in high-producing dairy cows.

  4. Relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes for practical assesment of selenium status in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danius, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study the relationship between glutation peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the uptake of 75-Se by erytrocytes was conducted for practical assesment of selenium status in Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows. The blood used in the experiment was stored in refrigerator for 7 and 10 days. Radioselenium with a specific activity at about 0.84 mCi/m was used. A high negative correlatin (r = -0.86 and r = -0.98) was found between red blood cell GSH-Px activity and red blood cell uptake of 75-Se. Results indicated that red blood cell uptake of 75-Se can be used for determination of Se status in dairy cattle, although some factors which might affect red blood cell uptake of 75-Se should be calculated first. (author). 21 refs, 2 figs

  5. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  6. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  7. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  8. Genetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Loker, S; Gengler, N; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Québec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent

  9. Effect of peroral supplementation with selenium and vitamin e during late pregnancy on udder health and milk quality in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Vasiľ; František Zigo; Juraj Elečko; Martina Zigová; Zuzana Farkašová

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study selenium and vitamin E sources in the diet of dairy cows in late phase of pregnancy and their effects on udder health and milk quality during the first two weeks after calving. The experiment included 48 cows of Holstein breed divided into four equal groups (n = 12). The first experimental group (D1) was fed with addition of vitamin E in total dose of 1020 dl-a-tocopherol acetate Se/cow per day. The second group (D2) was added the selenium at a dose of 0...

  10. Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.

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    Sébastien Fritz

    Full Text Available The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1% showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals. Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4 including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total. Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina, SLC35A3 (CVM, APAF1 (HH1 and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.

  11. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  12. Differences of hormones involved in adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing Holstein cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzi Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate hormonal involvement in the adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing dairy cows in a hot environment. Forty Holstein healthy cows with a similar parity were used and assigned into high producing group (average production 41.44 ± 2.25 kg/d and low producing group (average production 29.92 ± 1.02 kg/d with 20 cows in each group. Blood samples were collected from caudal vein to determine the difference of hormones related to adipose metabolism and lactation. The highest, lowest, and average temperature humidity index (THI, recorded as 84.02, 79.35 and 81.89, respectively, indicated that cows were at the state of high heat stress. No significant differences between high and low producing groups were observed in the levels of nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, total cholesterol (TCHO, and insulin (INS (P > 0.05. However, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and estrogen (E2 concentrations in high producing group were significantly higher than those of low producing group (P  0.05, whereas high producing group had a rise in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level compared with low producing group (P < 0.05. These results indicated that, during summer, high and low producing dairy cows have similar levels of lipid catabolism, but high producing dairy cows have advantages in outputting hepatic triglyceride (TG.

  13. Comparación productiva de vacas holstein y F1 blanco orejinero (BON x holstein 1. producción y calidad de la leche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quijano Bernal Jorge H.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron los porcentajes de heterosis para la producción de leche, duración de la lactancia y calidad de la leche ( porcentaje de grasa y proteína, en vacas Holstein y F1 (BON x HOLSTEIN del Centro Paysandú, propiedad de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, situado en el corregimiento Santa Elena, municipio de Medellín, a 2600 m.s.n.m., con temperatura promedio de 12,5C, correspondiendo a la formación bosque muy húmedo montano bajo (bmh-MB. La producción de leche fue afectada significativamente (P 0,01 y proteína (2,8 y 2,9%; P >0,01 para Holstein y F1 BON x Holstein respectivamente. En el BON estos valores fueron 278 kg, 114 días de lactancia, 4,6% de grasa y 3,9% de proteína en la leche. Los porcentajes de heterosis con base en el promedio de razas fueron: 4,20%, 16,70%, -12,80% y -12.20% para producción de leche, duración de lactancia, porcentaje de grasa y porcentaje de proteína respectivamente, todos altamente significativos (P<0,01. Los porcentajes de heterosis tomando como referencia la raza Holstein fueron: -45,20%, -21,50%, 6,25% y 5,35% en el mismo orden de las características anteriormente citadas. En general, los porcentajes de heterosis fueron menores a los reportados en la literatura. Se concluye que el F1 ha desempeñado un papel preponderante en el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche en el Centro Paysandú, presentado porcentajes de heterosis medios para la calidad de la leche con referencia a la raza Holstein. Esto puede ser confirmado al analizar el porcentaje de grasa desde 1994, cuando parieron las primeras vacas F1, presentado coeficiente de regresión y correlación de 0,02 y 0,55 respectivamente. En la actualidad, el promedio para el porcentaje de grasa y proteína en el hato es de 3,45% y 3,03% respectivamente. Si sólo se tuviese la raza Holstein, estos porcentajes serían de 3,20% y 2,80%, significativamente menores.

  14. The effect of using cow genomic information on accuracy and bias of genomic breeding values in a simulated Holstein dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, E; Mahyari, S Ansari; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M

    2018-06-01

    Using cow data in the training population is attractive as a way to mitigate bias due to highly selected training bulls and to implement genomic selection for countries with no or limited proven bull data. However, one potential issue with cow data is a bias due to the preferential treatment. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effect of including cow genotype and phenotype data into the training population on accuracy and bias of genomic predictions and (2) assess the effect of preferential treatment for different proportions of elite cows. First, a 4-pathway Holstein dairy cattle population was simulated for 2 traits with low (0.05) and moderate (0.3) heritability. Then different numbers of cows (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 15,000, or 20,000) were randomly selected and added to the training group composed of different numbers of top bulls (0, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, or 15,000). Reliability levels of de-regressed estimated breeding values for training cows and bulls were 30 and 75% for traits with low heritability and were 60 and 90% for traits with moderate heritability, respectively. Preferential treatment was simulated by introducing upward bias equal to 35% of phenotypic variance to 5, 10, and 20% of elite bull dams in each scenario. Two different validation data sets were considered: (1) all animals in the last generation of both elite and commercial tiers (n = 42,000) and (2) only animals in the last generation of the elite tier (n = 12,000). Adding cow data into the training population led to an increase in accuracy (r) and decrease in bias of genomic predictions in all considered scenarios without preferential treatment. The gain in r was higher for the low heritable trait (from 0.004 to 0.166 r points) compared with the moderate heritable trait (from 0.004 to 0.116 r points). The gain in accuracy in scenarios with a lower number of training bulls was relatively higher (from 0.093 to 0.166 r points) than with a higher number of training

  15. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Winter feeding systems and dairy cow breed have an impact on milk composition and flavour of two Protected Designation of Origin French cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Michel, Guillaume; Berthelot, D.; Delaby, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two feeding systems and two dairy cow breeds on milk yield and composition, physical and sensorial properties of Camembert and Pont-l'Eveque cheeses. The experiment consisted of a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A low energy grass diet with only 15% of concentrate (LowGS) was compared with a high-energy maize silage diet with 30% concentrate (HighMS). Thirty-four Holstein (Hp) and 34 Normande (No) cows in early lactation were assigned to one o...

  17. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  18. The Effect of the Age of First Mating on Reproductive Performances for Holstein Imported from Australia in China%澳系进口荷斯坦牛初配月龄对其繁殖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 陈亮; 毛永江; 杨章平; 王杏龙; 杨利国

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the age of first mating on breeding index, the interval from calving to first service, the interval from calving to conception were analyzed using the data of reproductive records in first parity for 5 059 Holstein imported from Australia in 2009 in Haifeng Dairy Cattle Farm, Jiangsu Pro. The results showed that the age of first mating had significant effects on breeding index (0.01 〈P〈0.05) and the interval from calving to first service as well as the interval from calving to conception at P〈0.01. With the delay of the age of first mating, the interval from calving to first service and the interval from calving to conception showed the tendency of shortening. The optimal age of first mating was from 14 to 15 months for Holstein cattle imported from Australia in Haifeng Dairy Cattle Farm based on all information, and these resuhs provided useful information tor the reprnduction management in dairy cattle farm in this region.%本研究利用海丰奶牛场有限公司2009年引进的5 059头澳系进口荷斯坦牛初配月龄及其繁殖性能的数据,分析了不同初配月龄对第二胎受胎情期数、产后第一次配种时间、产犊到受胎时间间隔的影响。结果表明,初配月龄显著影响受胎情期数(0.01

  19. Cuts of dairy-origin cattle fed mesquite pod meal in replacement of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Paula Almeida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to assess commercial front and rear cuts of dairy-origin cattle fed mesquite pod meal. Twenty-five non-castrated male bovines (Holstein-Zebu, distributed according to a completely randomized design, with five animals per treatment, were used. The feed contained about 121.2 and 544.98 g kg-1 of crude protein and total digestible nutrients, respectively, and was composed of tifton grass hay, cornmeal, soybean meal, mesquite pod meal and mineral salt. The right half carcass of each animal was separated between the 5th and 6th ribs, in front and rear quarters, from which commercial cuts were obtained. There was no effect (p > 0.05 as to the replacement of corn for mesquite pod meal on the weights and yields of front cuts (shoulder, brisket, chuck, hump and flanks and rear cuts (tenderloin, shank, knuckle, thin flank, flat, eye round, rump tail, top side, cap of rump, rump, cut of rump, striploin, cap of cube roll. Mesquite pod meal can substitute cornmeal in 100% in the concentrate without changes in weight and yield of the commercial front and rear cuts of male bovines of dairy origin.

  20. The effect of parity on the proportion of important healthy fatty acids in raw milk of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the effect of parity on the fatty acids groups’ proportion in Holstein cows’ milk during the first phase of lactations, with an emphasis on its potential importance for consumer health. A total of 25 Holstein cows, 9 primiparous, 9 in the 2nd, and 7 in the 3rd and subsequent parity, were observed and sampled at 7-day intervals through the first 17 weeks of lactation. The percentage proportion of saturated (hypercholesterolemic and volatile as its components and unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as its components fatty acids in the samples of milk fat (n=425 was determined. The effects of parity and negative energy balance, as well as regression, on the lactation week and the fat to protein ratio were evaluated using SAS 9.3. A significantly (P<0.01 lower proportion of unhealthy hypercholesterolemic fatty acids was detected in primiparous cows (-2.67 % and those in the 3rd and subsequent lactation (-2.94 % compared to the 2nd lactation, as well as a simultaneously higher proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids (+2.07, respectively +3.08 %. The determined relationships corresponded to organism stress evoked by the initiation of milk production and its maintenance in higher parities. Therefore, the generally required prolongation of dairy cows’ longevity can influence on the quality of raw milk, especially considering composition of fatty acids.

  1. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Hugues; Detilleux, Johann; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine; Bonvoisin, Marie; Rollin, Frederic; Sandersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Downer cow syndrome (DCS) is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma. The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows. A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows. Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium), thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS) was assessed. Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB) were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation. Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  2. Comparison of Various Indices of Energy Metabolism in Recumbent and Healthy Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Guyot

    Full Text Available Downer cow syndrome (DCS is often diagnosed in dairy cattle during the early post-partum period. The etiology of this condition is not completely understood, as it can be related to the energetic or electrolyte metabolism, as well as to infectious diseases or to trauma.The aim of this study is to compare energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity indices and various biochemical parameters between recumbent and healthy dairy cows.A prospective study has been undertaken on 361 recumbent and 80 healthy Holstein cows.Plasmatic glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were assayed in all cows in order to calculate the insulin sensitivity indices but also minerals (Calcium, Phosphorous and Magnesium, thyroxin and creatine kinase. Body Condition Scores (BCS was assessed.Significant differences in NEFA, and the glucose and insulin sensitivity indices ("Homeostasis Model Assessment" HOMA, "Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index" RQUICKI, RQUICKI-BHB were observed between healthy and recumbent cows in the early post-parturient period indicating disturbances of glucose and insulin homeostasis in the recumbent cows. In the same manner, mineral concentrations were significantly different between healthy and recumbent cows. Glucose, insulin NEFA, and HOMA, were different between early post-partum downer cows and the DCS-affected cows later in lactation.Results indicate disturbances in energy homeostasis in DCS-affected dairy cows. Further research should determine a prognostic value of the indices in cows suffering from recumbency of metabolic origin.

  3. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  4. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating......, ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulated Holstein dairy cows (206 days in milk, milk yield 25.1 kg) were submitted to an incomplete Latin square design (6 × 4) with six diets and four periods. Two grass silages (early first cut, 361 g aNDFom/kg DM and late first cut, 515 g aNDFom/kg DM) and one maize silage...... grass silage had a higher total tract OM and aNDFom digestibility than late cut grass silage. The present study demonstrates that choice of forage species and harvest time affects CH4 emission from dairy cows, while the CH4 reducing ability of fat does not interact with forage characteristics...

  5. Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E

    2014-10-01

    Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar

  6. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  7. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  8. Communication Strategies of the Chinese Dairy Industry Manufacturers to Rebuild Reputation and Maintain a Quality Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Sanlu tainted milk powder crisis in China in 2008, the entire powdered milk manufacturing industry, and in many ways the food industry as a whole, faced a crisis of reputation and consumer confidence. Through a study of the organisation and public relationships of dairy companies, the crisis communication strategies they used, and how they cultivated relationships, this paper explores how companies within the milk industry rebuilt their reputations to a point where customers and other key elements of the public once again felt confident about their products. This study explores the organisation­-public relationships (OPRs cultivation strategies of the dairy companies and the communication strategies they used to rebuild the industry's reputation after the Sanlu crisis. The author interviewed dairy company personnel and consumers in China (N=18 and conducted secondary document research. The communication strategies that dairy companies used to maintain their relationship with the public are analysed. This study develops the theory of relationship management and provides suggestions for other companies to utilise should they face an industry crisis in the future. The cultivation strategies the dairy companies use to maintain their relationship with the public is hard to separate from communication strategy employed after the crisis.

  9. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.

  11. Genetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderick, S; Troch, T; Gillon, A; Glorieux, G; Gengler, N

    2014-12-01

    Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a data set including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf × age of dam classes × group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd × year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was approximately 8% with linear models and approximately 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were approximately 2 and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17 and 23% greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Histopathology case definition of naturally acquired Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin infection in young Holstein cattle in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Thompson, Belinda; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin ( Salmonella Dublin) is a host-adapted bacterium that causes high morbidity and mortality in dairy cattle worldwide. A retrospective search of archives at the New York Animal Health Diagnostic Center revealed 57 culture-confirmed Salmonella Dublin cases from New York and Pennsylvania in which detailed histology of multiple tissues was available. Tissues routinely submitted by referring veterinarians for histologic evaluation included sections of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Of the 57 S almonella Dublin-positive cases, all were Holstein breed, 53 were female (93%), and 49 (86%) were 90% (45 of 49) of lungs, 90% (28 of 31) of livers, 50% (11 of 22) of spleens, and 62% (18 of 29) of lymph nodes examined had moderate-to-severe inflammation with or without necrosis. Inconstant lesions were seen in 48% (10 of 21) of hearts examined, and consisted of variable inflammatory infiltrates and rare areas of necrosis. We propose a histopathology case definition of Salmonella Dublin in cattle that includes a combination of pulmonary alveolar capillary neutrophilia with or without hepatocellular necrosis and paratyphoid granulomas, splenitis, and lymphadenitis. These findings will assist in the development of improved protocols for the diagnosis of infectious diseases of dairy cattle.

  13. Extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid from fresh cassava peel in dairy cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on the extension of raw milk quality through supplementation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN levels from fresh cassava peel (FCPe in dairy cattle diet by increasing the milk thiocyanate (SCN concentration and lactoperoxidase (LP activity. The sample was twenty-four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 87±31 days in milk (DIM, 13.4±2.9 kg of milk and 397±52 kg body weight (BW. All cows were fed the control diet with 6.5 kg/d of 21% crude protein (CP concentrate and ad libitum grass silage (GS. The treatments groups were as follows: 1 the control diet for the 1st group, the 2nd group received the control diet supplemented with 400 g/d of FCPe (75 ppm HCN and the 3rd group received the control diet supplemented with 800 g/d of FCPe (150 ppm HCN. The results showed that 800 g/h/d FCPe enhanced the efficiency of LP activity in raw milk to reduce total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC; therefore, 400 g/h/d FCPe can be used in the concentrate for lactating dairy cows.

  14. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39

  15. Concentrações de imunoglobulinas G em colostro de vacas mestiças holandês-zebu Colostral immunoglobulin G concentrations in crossbred holstein-zebu dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins Soares Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e oito vacas leiteiras mestiças holandês-zebu (HZ foram distribuídas de acordo com a percentagem de grau de sangue holandês em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 = animais com menos de 70% de grau de sangue holandês (19 vacas; Grupo 2 = animais com 75% de grau de sangue holandês, que equivale a ¾ HZ (46 vacas; Grupo 3 = mestiços entre 80 e 90% de grau de sangue holandês, que corresponderam a 13/16 HZ e 7/8 HZ (11 vacas; Grupo 4 = vacas com mais de 90% de grau de sangue holandês (12 vacas. Após o parto, amostras de colostro da primeira ordenha foram colhidas e, posteriormente, submetidas à imunodifusão radial simples para determinações dos níveis de imunoglobulinas G (IgG. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que as concentrações de IgG não são influenciadas pelos graus de sangue estudados e seus valores médios (145,94mg/m são muito superiores aos relatados para animais de raças taurinas puras. Por esse motivo, não se justifica o emprego de métodos artificiais de fornecimento do colostro em se tratando de mestiços HZ. Ademais, o nível elevado de IgG observado no colostro sugere que a adoção da prática da mamada natural assistida seja adequada para assegurar que, na maioria das vezes, os neonatos não venham a apresentar falhas de transferência de imunidade passiva.Eighty-eight healthy crossbred holstein-zebu (HZ dairy cows were distributed in four groups as follow: Group 1 = less than 70% HZ (19 cows; Group 2 = 75% HZ animals, corresponding to ¾ HZ (46 cows; Group 3 = crossbred animals between 80 to 90% HZ, corresponding to 13/16 HZ and 7/8 HZ (11 cows; Group 4 = cows more than 90% HZ (12 animals. After birth, colostrum samples were obtained from each cow and than were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG concentration by single radial immunodifusion assay. IgG colostral concentrations were not influenced by group of crossbred HZ and its mean concentration (145.97mg/m were higher than that related for purebreds Bos

  16. Marker-assisted selection in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, J.I.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the long generation interval, the high value of each individual, the very limited female fertility and the fact that nearly all economic traits are expressed only in females, it would seem that cattle should be a nearly ideal species for application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). As genetic gains are cumulative and eternal, application of new technologies that increase rates of genetic gain can be profitable even if the nominal annual costs are several times the value of the nominal additional annual genetic gain. Complete genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the granddaughter design have been completed for most commercial dairy cattle populations, and significant across-study effects for economic traits have been found on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 14 and 20. Quantitative trait loci associated with trypanotolerance have been detected in a cross between the African N'Dama and the Boran breeds as the first step in the introgression of these genes into breeds susceptible to trypanosomosis. In dairy cattle, the actual DNA polymorphism has been determined twice, for QTL on BTA 6 and BTA 14. In both cases the polymorphism caused a non-conservative amino acid change, and both QTL chiefly affect fat and protein concentration. Most theoretical studies have estimated the expected gains that can be obtained by MAS to be in the range of a 5 to 20 percent increase in the rates of genetic gain obtained by traditional selection programmes. Applied MAS programmes have commenced for French and German Holsteins. In both programmes genetic evaluations including QTL effects are computed by variants of marker-assisted best linear unbiased prediction (MA-BLUP). (author)

  17. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  18. Survey of transportation procedures, management practices, and health assessment related to quality, quantity, and value for market beef and dairy cows and bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J D W; Nicholson, K L; Frenzel, L L; Maddock, R J; Delmore, R J; Lawrence, T E; Henning, W R; Pringle, T D; Johnson, D D; Paschal, J C; Gill, R J; Cleere, J J; Carpenter, B B; Machen, R V; Banta, J P; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W

    2013-10-01

    This survey consisted of data collected from 23 beef harvest plants to document transportation procedures, management practices, and health assessments of market beef and dairy cows and bulls (about n ≅ 7,000 animals). Gooseneck/bumper-pulled trailers were used more often to transport dairy cattle than beef cattle to market whereas tractor-trailers were used more often to transport beef cattle than dairy cattle. All loads (n = 103) met the American Meat Institute Foundation guidelines for spacing. Loads where more than 3% of the cattle slipped during unloading were observed in 27.3% of beef loads and 29.0% of the dairy loads. Beef loads had numerically greater usage of electrical prods (32.4%) versus dairy loads (15.4%) during unloading and were more likely to have a variety of driving aids used more aggressively on them. Fewer cattle had horns, brands, and mud/manure contamination on hides than in the previous survey in 1999. The predominant hide color for beef cows was black (44.2%) whereas the predominant color for dairy cows was the Holstein pattern (92.9%). Fewer cattle displayed evidence of bovine ocular neoplasia (2.9%) than in previous surveys in 1994 (8.5%) and 1999 (4.3%). Knots on live cattle were found less in the round (0.5%) and more in the shoulder region (4.6%) than in 1999 (1.4% and 0.4%, respectively). Dairy cows were more frequently lame in 2007 (48.7%) than 1999 (39.2%) whereas beef cows had numerically less lameness (16.3% vs. 26.6%, respectively). Most beef cows (62.3%) and dairy cows (68.9%) received midpoint body condition scores (3, 4, and 5 for beef; 2 and 3 for dairy). Beef cows had higher numerical percentages of no defects present (72.0%) versus dairy cows (63.0%) when evaluated for a variety of reproductive, health, or management conditions. Continued improvements in several key factors related to transportation, management, and health were observed in this survey, which could result in increased value in market beef and dairy cows

  19. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  20. Effects of addition of Aspergillus oryzae culture and 2-hydroxyl-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Chong; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    To investigate effects of Aspergillus oryzae culture (AOC) and 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) on milk performance and rumen fermentation of dairy cows. Sixty-four multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were randomly allocated into four experimental diets: (i) Control diet; (ii) AOC diet: 5 g AOC/day per head; (iii) HMB diet: 25 g HMB/day; and (iv) AH diet: 5 g AOC plus 25 g HMB/day. Added HMB tended to increase the yield of milk protein (P = 0.06) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (P = 0.08) and milk fat content (P = 0.09). Milk fat yield (P = 0.03) and the contents of milk protein (P = 0.05) were increased by adding HMB. The cows fed on AOC diet had a tendency for higher body weight (BW) gain (P = 0.08). Addition of AOC, HMB and AH increased content of microbial protein (MCP) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) (P rumen fluid. Populations of rumen fungi, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to total bacterial 16S rDNA (P ≤ 0.03) and activity of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) (P contents of MCP and total VFA potentially by stimulating rumen microbe populations and CMCase activity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Genetic structure of Antioquia Holstein from two SNPs and association with dairy traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephania Madrid G

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Analyze the structure and genetic differentiation of a population of Antioquia Holstein cows from the polymorphisms A192G of INHA and A-320T of FSHR, and explore the association of the genotypic combinations with milk traits. Materials and methods. 1240 lactations of 356 animals from 9 herds in 6 municipalities of Antioquia were analyzed. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Structure and genetic diversity parameters were determined using GenAlex software. The association of genotypes combinations with productive and reproductive traits was explored through a linear mixed model. Results. SNP A192G showed a frequency of 0.534 and 0.466 for A and G alleles respectively and SNP A-320T had a frequency of 0.660 far A allele and 0.339 for T allele, this way the population is in HWE. The FST, FIS and FIT values were 0.059, 0.285 and 0.328 respectively indicating a moderate genetic differentiation between subpopulations. The A-320T SNP showed significant effect on milk yield. Fat and protein percentage, calving interval and services per conception were not affected by these polymorphisms or their interaction. Conclusions. Phenotypic selection made on this population has not been strong enough to generate noticeable changes in allele frequencies of these polymorphisms or deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The interaction of these polymorphisms has no significant effect on the characteristics of zootechnical interest, so its use in programs of molecular marker assisted selection is not recommended.

  2. Extension model of lactation curves to evaluate the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield in Holstein cows Modelo de extensão de curvas de lactação para avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palacios-Espinosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extension model of lactation curves was used to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST-r on milk yield in Holstein dairy cattle. This model use the fitted values obtained by the Wood model, and was tested on the records of 66 cows. The milk yield predicted with the extension model and the observed yield were compared and no significant differences were observed (P>0.05. Once the extension model was validated, the milk yield tests of 199 cows were used. The cows received bST-r 500mg by subcutaneous injections. The injections were applied after 100 days in milk at 14-day intervals (seven injections. The observed milk yield was compared with the yield expected by the extension model. An increase of 5.3% was observed in milk yield in response to the bST-r. This increase is lower than that reported in the literature in response to the growth hormone in dairy cattle. It is concluded that extension model used in the present work is reliable for extending the lactation curve in Holstein cows, and the increase in milk yield in response to the application of bST-r, determined in the same animal using the extension model, was lower than that reported by other authors.Um modelo de extensão de curvas de lactância foi utilizado para determinar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein. Este modelo, que utiliza os valores ajustados obtidos pelo modelo de Wood, foi testato nos registros de 66 vacas. A produção de leite predita com o modelo de extensão e a produção observada foram comparadas e não se observaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05. Uma vez validado o modelo de extensão, utilizaram-se os controles de produção de leite (de cada 15 dias de 199 vacas. As vacas receberam injeções de 500mg de bST-r via subcutânea. As injeções fora aplicadas a partir dos 100 dias de lactação a intervalos de 14 dias (sete injeções. A produção de leite observada foi

  3. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  4. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  5. Stress-related hormonal alterations, growth and pelleted starter intake in pre-weaning Holstein calves in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Mellado, M; Martínez, A M; Véliz, F G; García, J E; de Santiago, A; Carrillo, E

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress and month of birth on growth performance, pelleted starter intake, and stress-related hormones in Holstein calves. Birth weight and growth records, representing 4735 Holstein calves from a large commercial dairy herd in northern Mexico (25° N; 22.3 °C mean annual temperature) from 2013 to 2015, were analyzed. Temperature-humidity index (THI) at calving, season of birth, and month of birth were the independent variables, whereas growth traits were the dependent variables. Increased THI at birth from  85 units was associated with a decrease in birth weight from 39.3 to 38.7 kg. Calves subjected to high THI (> 75 units) at calving showed lesser (P calves born with THI calves born in the fall was about 70 g less (P calves delivered in winter months. Plasma triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine levels were lower (1.02 ± 0.21 and 48 ± 7.9 ng/mL, respectively; P calves born in summer (59 ± 40 ng/mL) than calves born in winter (20 ± 28 ng/mL). Pelleted starter intake 1 week before weaning was lowest (P calves. Thus, environmental management of the newborn calf during hot spring and summer months is warranted to optimize pelleted starter intake and calf growth rates.

  6. The impact of dystocia on dairy calf health, welfare, performance and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Haskell, M J; Birch, S; Bagnall, A; Bell, D J; Dickinson, J; Macrae, A I; Dwyer, C M

    2013-01-01

    Up to one-third of dairy calves are born after dystocia and this is a major cause of calf mortality. This study investigated the neonatal physiology, survival, health and subsequent growth of dairy calves following dystocia and is the first longitudinal study to analyse multiple effects and to look beyond the perinatal period. A total of 455 live born Holstein calves (N: No assistance, n=360; FN: Farmer assistance but normally presented calf, n=82; FM: Farmer assistance of malpresented calf, n=13) were followed from birth to first service (heifers) or until leaving the farm (bulls). Compared to N calves, FN and FM animals had higher salivary cortisol concentrations at day 1 (PDystocia had no biologically significant impact on rectal temperature throughout the first 4 days (P>0.05). During the first 60 days, FM calves had a higher proportion of days with non-routine health treatments (Pdystocia category (P>0.05). Calves which survive dystocia experience lower passive immunity transfer, higher mortality and higher indicators of physiological stress. Such calves have poorer welfare in the neonatal period and possibly beyond. Strategies need to be implemented to improve the subsequent health and welfare of such calves and to lower the incidence of dystocia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a ‘traditional food pattern’, consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork and fish; a ‘fast and processed food pattern’ consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar and confectionery; a ‘soybean, grain and flour food pattern’; and a ‘dairy, animal liver and other animal food pattern’. These patterns explained 17.48%, 9.52%, 5.51% and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of ‘traditional Chinese food’ is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  8. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  9. Factors associated with frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement test plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Miller, R H; Wright, J R; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M

    2012-07-01

    Frequency of abortions recorded through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) testing was summarized for cows with lactations completed from 2001 through 2009. For 8.5 million DHI lactations of cows that had recorded breeding dates and were >151 d pregnant at lactation termination, the frequency of recorded abortions was 1.31%. Effects of year, herd-year, month, and pregnancy stage at lactation termination; parity; breed; milk yield; herd size; geographic region; and state within region associated with DHI-recorded abortion were examined. Abortions recorded through DHI (minimum gestation of 152 d required) were more frequent during early gestation; least squares means (LSM) were 4.38, 3.27, 1.19, and 0.59% for 152 to 175, 176 to 200, 201 to 225, and 226 to 250 d pregnant, respectively. Frequency of DHI-recorded abortions was 1.40% for parity 1 and 1.01% for parity ≥ 8. Abortion frequency was highest from May through August (1.42 to 1.53%) and lowest from October through February (1.09 to 1.21%). Frequency of DHI-recorded abortions was higher for Holsteins (1.32%) than for Jerseys (1.10%) and other breeds (1.27%). Little relationship was found between DHI-recorded abortions and herd size. Abortion frequencies for effects should be considered to be underestimated because many abortions, especially those caused by genetic recessives, go undetected. Therefore, various nonreturn rates (NRR; 60, 80, …, 200 d) were calculated to document pregnancy loss confirmed by the absence of homozygotes in the population. Breeding records for April 2011 US Department of Agriculture sire conception rate evaluations were analyzed with the model used for official evaluations with the addition of an interaction between carrier status of the service sire (embryo's sire) and cow sire (embryo's maternal grandsire). Over 13 million matings were examined using various NRR for Holstein lethal recessive traits (brachyspina and complex vertebral malformation) and undesirable recessive haplotypes (HH1

  10. Semen Quality of Holstein and Buffalo Bulls after Filtration using Sephadex Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdelKhalek, A E; AboulEla, M B; Soheir, A Fawzy; Dandooush E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of sephadex column filtration technique on semen quality of five Holstein bulls and five Egyptian buffalo bulls. Semen was collected biweekly from each eight weeks. Immediately after collection, semen was extended (37degree C) and filtered using sephadex column-filtration technique. Semen was evaluated for physical semen characteristics including, percentages of sperm motility, live sperm and sperm abnormality as well as sperm cell concentration pre-and post-filtration. Results show that among all physical semen characteristics, only ejaculate semen volume was significantly (P<0.001) higher in Holstein than buffalo bulls, but motility, livability, abnormality, sperm concentration and sperm with intact acrosome did not differ between both species. As a result of filtration, sperm motility and livability increased (P<0.05) by 16.4 and 11.8% in Holstein and by 16.9 and 10.1% in buffalo semen, respectively. Sperm abnormality and concentration reduced (P<0.05) by 2.6 and 3.3% in Holstein and by 2.4 and 3.5% in buffalo semen, respectively. Improvements of live sperm and the reduction in sperm concentration (proportional to the pre-filtration value) were better (P<0.05) in Holstein than buffalo semen (15.5% and %52.4 vs. 13.2 and -49.3%, respectively). Improvement of motility and abnormality did not differ in Holstein (25.4 and %57.8) and buffalo semen (26.6 and ,(%54.5respectively. The present results indicate that using sephadex column filter technique has beneficial effects on improving quality of spermatozoa in both species. (author)

  11. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  12. Longitudinal changes in telomere length and associated genetic parameters in dairy cattle analysed using random regression models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise A Seeker

    Full Text Available Telomeres cap the ends of linear chromosomes and shorten with age in many organisms. In humans short telomeres have been linked to morbidity and mortality. With the accumulation of longitudinal datasets the focus shifts from investigating telomere length (TL to exploring TL change within individuals over time. Some studies indicate that the speed of telomere attrition is predictive of future disease. The objectives of the present study were to 1 characterize the change in bovine relative leukocyte TL (RLTL across the lifetime in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle, 2 estimate genetic parameters of RLTL over time and 3 investigate the association of differences in individual RLTL profiles with productive lifespan. RLTL measurements were analysed using Legendre polynomials in a random regression model to describe TL profiles and genetic variance over age. The analyses were based on 1,328 repeated RLTL measurements of 308 female Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. A quadratic Legendre polynomial was fitted to the fixed effect of age in months and to the random effect of the animal identity. Changes in RLTL, heritability and within-trait genetic correlation along the age trajectory were calculated and illustrated. At a population level, the relationship between RLTL and age was described by a positive quadratic function. Individuals varied significantly regarding the direction and amount of RLTL change over life. The heritability of RLTL ranged from 0.36 to 0.47 (SE = 0.05-0.08 and remained statistically unchanged over time. The genetic correlation of RLTL at birth with measurements later in life decreased with the time interval between samplings from near unity to 0.69, indicating that TL later in life might be regulated by different genes than TL early in life. Even though animals differed in their RLTL profiles significantly, those differences were not correlated with productive lifespan (p = 0.954.

  13. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  14. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers’ preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters...... with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers...... and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements...

  15. Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Henrique Andreucci Conti; Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus; Angélica Simone Cravo Pereira; Marcos André Arcari; Kleber da Cunha Peixoto Junior; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP) (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea) to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N) balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals wer...

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Dairy Cow Feces following Therapeutic Administration of Third Generation Cephalosporin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Chambers

    Full Text Available Although dairy manure is widely applied to land, it is relatively understudied compared to other livestock as a potential source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs to the environment and ultimately to human pathogens. Ceftiofur, the most widely used antibiotic used in U.S. dairy cows, is a 3rd generation cephalosporin, a critically important class of antibiotics to human health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of typical ceftiofur antibiotic treatment on the prevalence of ARGs in the fecal microbiome of dairy cows using a metagenomics approach. β-lactam ARGs were found to be elevated in feces from Holstein cows administered ceftiofur (n = 3 relative to control cows (n = 3. However, total numbers of ARGs across all classes were not measurably affected by ceftiofur treatment, likely because of dominance of unaffected tetracycline ARGs in the metagenomics libraries. Functional analysis via MG-RAST further revealed that ceftiofur treatment resulted in increases in gene sequences associated with "phages, prophages, transposable elements, and plasmids", suggesting that this treatment also enriched the ability to horizontally transfer ARGs. Additional functional shifts were noted with ceftiofur treatment (e.g., increase in genes associated with stress, chemotaxis, and resistance to toxic compounds; decrease in genes associated with metabolism of aromatic compounds and cell division and cell cycle, along with measureable taxonomic shifts (increase in Bacterioidia and decrease in Actinobacteria. This study demonstrates that ceftiofur has a broad, measureable and immediate effect on the cow fecal metagenome. Given the importance of 3rd generation cephalospirins to human medicine, their continued use in dairy cattle should be carefully considered and waste treatment strategies to slow ARG dissemination from dairy cattle manure should be explored.

  17. Effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J B; Bu, D P; Wang, J Q; Sun, X Z; Pan, L; Zhou, L Y; Liu, W

    2014-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on performance and nutrient digestibility in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (141±15 d in milk, 35.9±4.3kg of milk/d, and parity 2.0±1.1) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. Treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of true GABA/kg of dry matter (DM). The trial lasted 10wk. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400, and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2, and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on respiration rates at any time point. Dry matter intake, energy-corrected milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and milk fat yield tended to increase linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA affected, in a quadratic manner, milk protein and lactose concentrations, and milk protein yield, and the peak values were reached at a dose of 40mg of GABA/kg. Milk urea nitrogen concentration responded quadratically. Total solids content increased linearly with increasing GABA concentration. Supplementation of GABA had no effect on milk yield, lactose production, total solids, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, or feed efficiency. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were similar among treatments. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to dairy cows can alleviate heat stress by reducing rectal temperature, increase DM intake and milk production, and improve milk composition. The appropriate supplemental GABA level for heat-stressed dairy cows is 40mg/kg of DM. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of the reproductive performance of Holstein cows in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavestany, D.; Tagle, R.; Lanzzeri, S.; Miranda, W.; Gama, S.

    1990-01-01

    Trials to determine the onset of post-partum (pp) ovarian activity in a Holstein herd were carried out in 1985 and repeated during the same time of the year in 1987. In each, 20 recently calved adult cows and first-calf heifers were randomly selected and sampled for milk progesterone (MP 4 ) determination twice a week between days 10 and 90 pp. Climatic conditions and availability of high quality fodder were better in 1987 than 1985. Results showed differences both in pregnancy rate (40% vs. 65%), as well as in the percentage of anoestrous cows (60% vs. 15%) between 1985 and 1987, respectively. In the second trial, not all cows in physiological oestrus (according to MP 4 measurements) were identified in heat by observation of behavioural signs. It was concluded that nutritional levels greatly influence the reproductive efficiency of the herd on this farm, and that poor oestrus detection was a further contributory factor. Another trial conducted on a dairy herd in order to compare the efficiency of oestrus synchronization by PGF 2α with manual enucleation of the corpus luteum (CL) showed no differences between treatment groups. Ovarian palpation to assess the presence of a CL was accurate in 69% of cases while the use of MP 4 estimations proved to be 100% efficent. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: correlation to uterine condition and calving management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Friggens, N C; Waldmann, A; Mølbak, L; Callesen, H

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflecting the "fingerprint" of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0-19) and 28 (range 22-38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were found in all cows at both examinations, and the flora was composed of many species, including species not traditionally reported to be present in the bovine uterus. The bacterial composition differed according to days from calving and herd. In all five herds Fusobacterium necrophorum, Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter and Bacteroides/Sphingobacterium/Prevotellaceae were among the most common at both examinations. In four herds there was a percentage decrease of F. necrophorum from first to second examination, and in all herds there was a percentage increase of Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter from first to second examination. No differences in bacterial flora were found between cows with different uterine scores, which were influenced by herd, calving difficulty and retained placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison between Serum and Saliva Biochemical Constituents in Dairy Cows during Lactation and Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period in dairy cows. Also, the present study evaluated for the first time the salivary biochemical constituents in dairy cows. The study was carried out using 45 healthy multiparous Holstein cows maintained in dairy farms located in Morioka city (Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cows were classified into groups based on the month of lactation. Serum, saliva and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed and the variation in serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period were discussed. From the present study, it could be concluded that the 1st month of lactation has the highest levels for serum free fatty acids (FFA, β- Hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and aceto Acetic acid (ACAC. The dry period has the highest serum glucose level and the lowest serum FFA, BHBA and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Both serum and salivary FFA showed the highest value during the 1st month of lactation. Saliva contains a high level of gamma glutamyl transferase. The level of ammonia in saliva is higher than its serum level during all months of lactation and dry period. Most of the biochemical constituents in saliva change in different way from serum during lactation and dry period. Milk protein/fat ratio of 0.7 may be not indicative for subclinical ketosis.

  1. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pdairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future.

  2. Comparison of four methods to assess colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Tyler, Jeff W; Middleton, John R; Spain, James N; Dill, Jeffrey S; Steevens, Barry J

    2008-09-01

    To determine sensitivity and specificity of 4 methods to assess colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows and determine the optimal cutpoint for each method. Cross-sectional study. 160 Holstein dairy cows. 171 composite colostrum samples collected within 2 hours after parturition were used in the study. Test methods used to estimate colostral IgG concentration consisted of weight of the first milking, 2 hydrometers, and an electronic refractometer. Results of the test methods were compared with colostral IgG concentration determined by means of radial immunodiffusion. For each method, sensitivity and specificity for detecting colostral IgG concentration hydrometer 1, 0.75; hydrometer 2, 0.76; refractometer, 0.75), but no significant differences were identified among the other 3 methods with regard to sensitivity. Specificities at the optimal cutpoint were similar for all 4 methods. Results suggested that use of either hydrometer or the electronic refractometer was an acceptable method of screening colostrum for low IgG concentration; however, the manufacturer-defined scale for both hydrometers overestimated colostral IgG concentration. Use of weight of the first milking as a screening test to identify bovine colostrum with inadequate IgG concentration could not be justified because of the low sensitivity.

  3. Prevalence of lameness in high-producing holstein cows housed in freestall barns in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, L A; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A

    2006-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of clinical lameness in high-producing Holstein cows housed in 50 freestall barns in Minnesota during summer. Locomotion and body condition scoring were performed on a total of 5,626 cows in 53 high-production groups. Cow records were collected from the nearest Dairy Herd Improvement Association test date, and herd characteristics were collected at the time of the visit. The mean prevalence of clinical lameness (proportion of cows with locomotion score >or=3 on a 1-to-5 scale, where 1 = normal and 5 = severely lame), and its association with lactation number, month of lactation, body condition score, and type of stall surface were evaluated. The mean prevalence of clinical lameness was 24.6%, which was 3.1 times greater, on average, than the prevalence estimated by the herd managers on each farm. The prevalence of lameness in first-lactation cows was 12.8% and prevalence increased on average at a rate of 8 percentage units per lactation. There was no association between the mean prevalence of clinical lameness and month of lactation (for months 1 to 10). Underconditioned cows had a higher prevalence of clinical lameness than normal or overconditioned cows. The prevalence of lameness was lower in freestall herds with sand stalls (17.1%) than in freestall herds with mattress stall surfaces (27.9%). Data indicate that the best 10th percentile of dairy farms had a mean prevalence of lameness of 5.4% with only 1.47% of cows with locomotion score = 4 and no cows with locomotion score = 5.

  4. DairyWise, a whole-farm dairy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schils, R L M; de Haan, M H A; Hemmer, J G A; van den Pol-van Dasselaar, A; de Boer, J A; Evers, A G; Holshof, G; van Middelkoop, J C; Zom, R L G

    2007-11-01

    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model, and the supply of homegrown feeds, as generated by the crop models for grassland and corn silage. The output of the FeedSupply model was used as input for several technical, environmental, and economic submodels. The submodels simulated a range of farm aspects such as nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, nitrate leaching, ammonia emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, energy use, and a financial farm budget. The final output was a farm plan describing all material and nutrient flows and the consequences on the environment and economy. Evaluation of DairyWise was performed with 2 data sets consisting of 29 dairy farms. The evaluation showed that DairyWise was able to simulate gross margin, concentrate intake, nitrogen surplus, nitrate concentration in ground water, and crop yields. The variance accounted for ranged from 37 to 84%, and the mean differences between modeled and observed values varied between -5 to +3% per set of farms. We conclude that DairyWise is a powerful tool for integrated scenario development and evaluation for scientists, policy makers, extension workers, teachers and farmers.

  5. Comparative studies of the composition of bacterial microbiota associated with the ruminal content, ruminal epithelium and in the faeces of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-hua; Zhang, Meng-ling; Zhang, Rui-yang; Zhu, Wei-yun; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the composition of bacterial microbiota associated with the ruminal content (RC), ruminal epithelium (RE) and faeces of Holstein dairy cows. The RC, RE and faecal samples were collected from six Holstein dairy cows when the animals were slaughtered. Community compositions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from RC, RE and faeces were determined using a MiSeq sequencing platform with bacterial-targeting universal primers 338F and 806R. UniFrac analysis revealed that the bacterial communities of RC, RE and faeces were clearly separated from each other. Statistically significant dissimilarities were observed between RC and faeces (P = 0.002), between RC and RE (P = 0.003), and between RE and faeces (P = 0.001). A assignment of sequences to taxa showed that the abundance of the predominant phyla Bacteroidetes was lower in RE than in RC, while a significant higher (P < 0.01) abundance of Proteobacteria was present in RE than in RC. When compared with the RC, the abundance of Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia was higher in faeces, and RC contained a greater abundance of Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes. A higher proportions of Butyrivibrio and Campylobacter dominated RE as compared to RC. The faecal microbiota was less diverse than RC and dominated by genera Turicibacter and Clostridium. In general, these findings clearly demonstrated the striking compositional differences among RC, RE and faeces, indicating that bacterial communities are specific and adapted to the harbouring environment. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte......A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect...

  7. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  8. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  9. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  10. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  11. Initial insights on the performances and management of dairy cattle herds combining two breeds with contrasting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S

    2016-05-01

    Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat

  12. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  13. Relationship among circulating anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin like growth factor 1, cadmium and superovulatory response in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, R L; Khalil, A A Y; Abdel-Wahab, A; Hassan, N Y; Abdel-Hamied, E; Kasimanickam, R K

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this study were 1. to determine the associations among circulating anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations of lactating Holstein cows at the time of superovulation and 2. to determine the effect of circulating AMH, IGF1 and Cd concentrations on the superovulatory response in Holstein dairy cows. Holstein cows (n = 30) were milked thrice daily and housed and fed in free stall barn as a separate group. All animals were synchronized for superovulation and flushed. Three blood samples for AMH, IGF1 and Cd analysis were collected prior to superovulation, at estrus and at the time of embryo collection. The concentrations of blood makers prior to superovulation were highly correlated to superovulatory response. Circulating concentrations of AMH, IGF1 prior to superovulation were negatively correlated to Cd concentrations (P cows were classified into quartiles (Q) of circulating AMH concentration, number of corpus luteum, and total embryos, total transferable embryos and total grade 1 embryos yield was significantly different for AMH quartiles. The superovulatory response parameters evaluated were increased with increased AMH concentrations; particularly we observed a >2-fold difference between first and fourth AMH quartiles in total transferable embryo yield and total grade 1 embryo yield. In conclusion, circulating AMH concentration was strongly associated with superovulatory response. Measuring AMH before enrolling cows in superovulation programs will likely allow practitioners to improve numbers of embryos produced and, thereby, reduce costs per embryo produced. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Evaluation of intravenous regional anaesthesia and four-point nerve block efficacy in the distal hind limb of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, S; Khraim, N; Szura, G; Starke, A; Engelke, E; Pfarrer, C; Hopster, K; Schmicke, M; Kehler, W; Heppelmann, M; Kästner, S B R; Rehage, J

    2017-11-07

    Intravenous regional anaesthesia (IVRA) and hindfoot four-point nerve block anaesthesia (NBA) are recommended for local anaesthesia (LA) in the distal limb of dairy cows. Two studies were conducted to compare the efficacy, time until onset and stress responses to IVRA and NBA in dairy cows. In the first cross-over designed study, eight healthy unsedated German Holstein cows, restrained in lateral recumbency (LR) on a surgical tipping table, were treated with IVRA and NBA using procaine 2% as a local anaesthetic. Distal limb desensitization was tested by electrical (e-), mechanical (m-) and thermal (t-) nociceptive stimulation 10 min before and 15 and 30 min after LA. Hormonal-metabolic (blood concentrations of cortisol, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids, and glucose) and cardio-respiratory (heart and respiratory rate, mean arterial blood pressure) stress responses to treatment were assessed at predetermined intervals. In the second study, six healthy, unsedated German Holstein cows in LR were treated (crossover design) with IVRA and NBA. Short-interval e-stimulation was measured by the time until complete distal limb desensitization. In the first study, four of eight cows responded to e-stimulation 15 min after IVRA, while none of the cows treated with NBA responded until the safety cut-off level was reached. E-stimulation revealed complete desensitization of the distal limb 30 min after LA in all cows. Half of the cows did not respond to m- and t-stimulation before LA, so no further evaluation was performed. Stress reactions to IVRA and NBA treatment were similar, but differences may have been masked by stress response to LR restraint. In the second study, complete desensitization was achieved 12.5 min after NBA, while one of the six cows still responded to e-stimulation 20 min after IVRA. Hindfoot nerve block anaesthesia and intravenous regional anaesthesia induced complete desensitization of the distal hind limb in dairy cows. However, the anaesthesia

  15. Parámetros Genéticos para Algunas Características Productivas y Reproductivas en un Hato Holstein del Oriente Antioqueño, Colombia Genetic Parameters for Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in a Dairy Herd in Eastern Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerinne Quiroz Osorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La edad y el peso al primer parto y otros caracteres productivos y reproductivos son importantes porque determinan el desempeño futuro de las vacas lecheras, su análisis permite definir metas relacionadas con el inicio de la vida productiva de las mismas, influyendo directamente en el costo del periodo de crecimiento y desarrollo. En esta investigación se estimaron las heredabilidades (h2 y algunas correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para edad y peso al primer servicio, edad y peso al servicio fértil, producción en primera y segunda lactancia y algunas otras características relacionadas con el desempeño general de las vacas durante su vida. Fueron analizadas 928 lactancias de 184 vacas de la raza Holstein nacidas entre 1985 y 2006 en un hato lechero del departamento de Antioquia. Los componentes de varianza fueron estimados mediante análisis univariados con la metodología de máxima verosimilitud restricta libre de derivadas y las correlaciones se estimaron directamente con la información fenotípica y los valores genéticos estimados. Se utilizó el programa SAS 9,0 para la edición de los datos y los análisis estadísticos y el software MTDFREML para el análisis genético. No se encontró efecto significativo (P>0,05 de la edad y peso al primer servicio con producción de leche en primera y segunda lactancia, ni con caracteres reproductivos, la edad y el peso al primer servicio fértil tuvieron efecto altamente significativo (PThe age and weight at first calving and other productive and reproductive traits are decisive because are important for the future performance of dairy cows, their analysis allows to define some goals related to the start of productive life of those, influencing direct economic cost of the period of growth and development. In this research, were estimated the heritability (h2 and some genetic and phenotypic correlations of age and weight at first service, age and weight at fertile service, milk yield at

  16. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populatons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J

    2009-01-01

    in the simulation study, especially the genetic correlations between traits. A more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations did not change total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the US Holstein population led...

  17. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  18. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  19. Improving the performance of dairy cattle with a xylanase-rich exogenous enzyme preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, J J; Macias, E G; Ma, Z X; Martins, R M; Staples, C R; Beauchemin, K A; Adesogan, A T

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine effects of adding 2 exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) to the total mixed ration (TMR) on the performance of lactating dairy cows (experiment 1) and the kinetics of ruminal degradation of the diet (experiment 2). Twelve EFE had been screened in a series of in vitro assays that identified the most potent EFE and their optimal doses for increasing the digestibility of bermudagrass. In experiment 1, 66 Holstein cows (21±5 d in milk) were grouped by previous milk production and parity (45 multiparous and 21 primiparous) and assigned randomly to 1 of the following 3 treatments: (1) control (CON, untreated), (2) Xylanase Plus [2A, 1mL/kg of TMR dry matter (DM); Dyadic International, Jupiter, FL], and (3) a 75:25 (vol/vol) mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus EFE (3A, 3.4mL/kg of TMR DM; Dyadic International). The EFE were sprayed twice daily onto a TMR (10% bermudagrass silage, 35% corn silage, 5% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay mixture, and 50% concentrates; DM basis) and fed for a 14-d training and covariate period and a 70-d measurement period. Experiment 2 aimed to examine the in situ DM ruminal degradability and ruminal fermentation measurements of the diets fed in experiment 1. Three ruminally fistulated lactating Holstein cows were assigned to the diets. The experiment had a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. In experiment 1, application of 2A increased intakes (kg/d) of DM (23.5 vs. 22.6), organic matter (21.9 vs. 20.9), and crude protein (3.9 vs. 3.7) and tended to increase yields (kg/d) of fat-corrected milk (41.8 vs. 40.7) and milk fat (1.48 vs. 1.44). In particular, 2A increased milk yield (kg/d) during wk 3 (41.2 vs. 39.8, tendency), 6 (41.9 vs. 40.1), and 7 (42.1 vs. 40.4), whereas 3A increased milk yield (kg/d) during wk 6 (41.5 vs. 40.1, tendency), 8 (41.8 vs. 40.0), and 9 (40.9 vs. 39.5, tendency). In experiment 2, EFE treatment did not affect ruminal DM degradation kinetics or ruminal pH, ammonia

  20. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, T.; Peres, N. M. R.

    2007-01-01

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of one percent. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo-formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach which does not include inter-band transition and can thus not treat optica...

  1. The National Cohort of Dairy Farms--a data collection platform for mastitis research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyher, K K; Dufour, S; Barkema, H W; Des Côteaux, L; Devries, T J; Dohoo, I R; Keefe, G P; Roy, J-P; Scholl, D T

    2011-03-01

    Costs and feasibility of extensive sample collection and processing are major obstacles to mastitis epidemiology research. Studies are often consequentially limited, and fundamental mastitis researchers rarely have the opportunity to conduct their work in epidemiologically valid populations. To mitigate these limitations, the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network has optimized research funds by creating a data collection platform to provide epidemiologically meaningful data for several simultaneous research endeavors. This platform consists of a National Cohort of Dairy Farms (NCDF), Mastitis Laboratory Network, and Mastitis Pathogen Culture Collection. This paper describes the implementation and operation of the NCDF, explains its sampling protocols and data collection, and documents characteristics, strengths and limitations of these data for current and potential users. The NCDF comprises 91 commercial dairy farms in 6 provinces sampled over a 2-yr period. Primarily Holstein-Friesian herds participating in Dairy Herd Improvement milk recording were selected in order to achieve a uniform distribution among 3 strata of bulk tank somatic cell counts and to reflect regional proportions of freestall housing systems. Standardized protocols were implemented for repeated milk samplings on clinical mastitis cases, fresh and randomly selected lactating cows, and cows at dry-off and after calving. Just fewer than 133,000 milk samples were collected. Demographic and production data were recorded at individual cow and farm levels. Health management data are documented and extensive questionnaire data detailing farm management and cleanliness information are also captured. The Laboratory Network represents coordinated regional mastitis bacteriology laboratories using standardized procedures. The Culture Collection archives isolates recovered from intramammary infections of cows in the NCDF and contains over 16,500 isolates, all epidemiologically cross-referenced between

  2. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  3. Effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines, AMP-activated protein kinase, and heat shock signal molecules in dairy cows*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Cheng, Jian-bo; Shi, Bao-lu; Yang, Hong-jian; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress affects feed intake, milk production, and endocrine status in dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is employed as an index to evaluate the degree of heat stress in dairy cows. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether THI is the most appropriate measurement of heat stress in dairy cows. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of heat stress on serum insulin, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and heat shock signal molecules (heat shock transcription factor (HSF) and heat shock proteins (HSP)) in dairy cows and to research biomarkers to be used for better understanding the meaning of THI as a bioclimatic index. To achieve these objectives, two experiments were performed. The first experiment: eighteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were used. The treatments were: heat stress (HS, THI average=81.7, n=9) and cooling (CL, THI average=53.4, n=9). Samples of HS were obtained on August 16, 2013, and samples of CL were collected on April 7, 2014 in natural conditions. The second experiment: HS treatment cows (n=9) from the first experiment were fed for 8 weeks from August 16, 2013 to October 12, 2013. Samples for moderate heat stress, mild heat stress, and no heat stress were obtained, respectively, according to the physical alterations of the THI. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the serum adiponectin, AMPK, HSF, HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90 (Pheat-stressed dairy cows. When heat stress treatment lasted 8 weeks, a higher expression of HSF and HSP70 was observed under moderate heat stress. Serum HSF and HSP70 are sensitive and accurate in heat stress and they could be potential indicators of animal response to heat stress. We recommend serum HSF and HSP70 as meaningful biomarkers to supplement the THI and evaluate moderate heat stress in dairy cows in the future. PMID:26055916

  4. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  5. Changes in the expression of α-tocopherol-related genes in liver and mammary gland biopsy specimens of peripartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, S; Miyaji, M; Nakano, M; Ishizaki, H; Matsuyama, H; Katoh, K; Roh, S G

    2018-03-28

    Blood α-tocopherol (α-Toc) concentrations decline gradually throughout the prepartum period, reaching the nadir after calving in dairy cows. The 6 α-Toc-related molecules [α-Toc transfer protein (TTPA); afamin; scavenger receptor class B, Type I; ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; tocopherol-associated protein (SEC14L2); and cytochrome P450 family 4, subfamily F, polypeptide 2 (CYP4F2)] are expressed in liver and other peripheral tissues. These molecules could regulate α-Toc transport, blood concentrations, and metabolism of α-Toc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the expression of α-Toc-related genes in liver and mammary gland tissues of dairy cows around calving, which have remained elusive until now. In experiment (Exp.) 1, 28 multiparous Holstein cows were used (from -5 to 6 wk relative to parturition) to monitor the changes in dietary α-Toc intake, blood concentrations of α-Toc, and lipoproteins; in Exp. 2, 7 peripartum Holstein cows were used (from -4 to 4 wk relative to parturition) for liver tissue biopsy; and in Exp. 3, 10 peripartum Holstein cows were used (from -8 to 6 wk relative to parturition) to carry out the mammary gland tissue biopsy and milk sampling. In Exp. 1, the serum α-Toc concentrations declined gradually with decreasing amount of α-Toc intake and plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations toward calving time. However, in the early lactation period after calving, serum α-Toc concentrations remained at a lower concentration despite the recovery of α-Toc intake and plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. In Exp. 2, just after calving, the TTPA, SEC14L2, afamin, and albumin mRNA expression levels in the liver were temporarily downregulated, and the hepatic mRNA levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced unfolded protein response markers and acute-phase response marker increased at calving. In Exp. 3, the concentrations of α-Toc in colostrum were greater than those in precolostrum

  6. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Nozad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05. The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05. The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05. The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP (r=0.37, p < 0.05 and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05, respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  7. Correlation between the Insertion/Deletion Mutations of Prion Protein Gene and BSE Susceptibility and Milk Performance in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Shen-rong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance.

  8. Metabolic fate of [U-14C]pentachlorophenol in a lactating dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzell, J.H.; McKenzie, R.M.; Olson, B.A.; Kirsch, D.G.; Shull, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    A lactating Holstein-Friesen dairy cow was administered a single oral dose of [U- 14 C]pentachlorophenol (PCP). To better simulate chronic exposure conditions on a typical dairy farm, the cow was fed 0.2 mg/kg body wt/day technical PCP for 95 days prior to [U- 14 C]PCP administration and for the 4 days postadministration. Both absorption and elimination of PCP obeyed first-order kinetics and had half-lives of 4.3 and 43 h, respectively. Over the 76-h postadministration, 75% of the radiolabel was eliminated in urine, 5% in milk, and 5% in feces. The radiolabel was distributed widely into various tissues, but the highest levels were in liver, kidneys, and lungs. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue contained among the lowest levels. In milk, the fat fraction contained the greatest amount of the radiolabel but the whey fraction represented the largest pool (62.2%). In whey and casein, both conjugated and unconjugated forms were quantified. There was no evidence of phase 1 metabolism of PCP, whereas phase 2 metabolism (conjugation) was highly evident. In urine, two-thirds of the PCP was present in a conjugated form, whereas in serum about 80% was present as unconjugated PCP. These data suggest that efficient conjugation and elimination of PCP prevent its accumulation in cattle tissues

  9. Diversity and succession of bacterial communities in the uterine fluid of postpartum metritic, endometritic and healthy dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M A Santos

    Full Text Available The diversity of the uterine bacterial composition in dairy cows is still poorly understood, although the emerging picture has shown to be increasingly complex. Understanding the complexity and ecology of microorganisms in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows is critical for developing strategies to block their action in reproductive disorders, such as metritis/endometritis. Here, we used PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the uterine bacterial diversity and compare its succession in healthy, metritic and endometritic Holstein dairy cows at three intervals following calving. Samples were collected from 16 dairy cows housed in a dairy farm located in upstate New York. PCR-DGGE revealed a complex profile with extensive differences in the community structure. With few exceptions, clustering analysis grouped samples from cows presenting the same health status. Analysis of >65,000 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the uterine bacterial consortia, regardless of the health status, is mainly composed of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. In addition to these co-dominant phyla, sequences from Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Actinobacteria appear less frequently. It is possible that some sequences detected in the uterine fluid resulted from the presence of fecal or vaginal contaminants. Overall, the bacterial core community was different in uterine fluid of healthy cows, when compared to cows suffering from postpartum diseases, and the phylogenetic diversity in all the combined samples changed gradually over time. Particularly at the 34-36 days postpartum (DPP, the core community seemed to be specific for each health status. Our finding reveals that the uterine microbiota in dairy cows varies according with health status and DPP. Also, it adds further support to the hypothesis that there is uterine

  10. Benchmarking passive transfer of immunity and growth in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2017-05-01

    Poor health and growth in young dairy calves can have lasting effects on their development and future production. This study benchmarked calf-rearing outcomes in a cohort of Canadian dairy farms, reported these findings back to producers and their veterinarians, and documented the results. A total of 18 Holstein dairy farms were recruited, all in British Columbia. Blood samples were collected from calves aged 1 to 7 d. We estimated serum total protein levels using digital refractometry, and failure of passive transfer (FPT) was defined as values below 5.2 g/dL. We estimated average daily gain (ADG) for preweaned heifers (1 to 70 d old) using heart-girth tape measurements, and analyzed early (≤35 d) and late (>35 d) growth separately. At first assessment, the average farm FPT rate was 16%. Overall, ADG was 0.68 kg/d, with early and late growth rates of 0.51 and 0.90 kg/d, respectively. Following delivery of the benchmark reports, all participants volunteered to undergo a second assessment. The majority (83%) made at least 1 change in their colostrum-management or milk-feeding practices, including increased colostrum at first feeding, reduced time to first colostrum, and increased initial and maximum daily milk allowances. The farms that made these changes experienced improved outcomes. On the 11 farms that made changes to improve colostrum feeding, the rate of FPT declined from 21 ± 10% before benchmarking to 11 ± 10% after making the changes. On the 10 farms that made changes to improve calf growth, ADG improved from 0.66 ± 0.09 kg/d before benchmarking to 0.72 ± 0.08 kg/d after making the management changes. Increases in ADG were greatest in the early milk-feeding period, averaging 0.13 kg/d higher than pre-benchmarking values for calves ≤35 d of age. Benchmarking specific outcomes associated with calf rearing can motivate producer engagement in calf care, leading to improved outcomes for calves on farms that apply relevant management changes. Copyright

  11. Characterization of the analytic performance of an electrochemical point-of-care meter for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood and plasma from periparturient dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ameer A; Hiew, Mark W H; Townsend, Jonathan R; Constable, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    The Precision Xtra electrochemical meter is widely used to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHBb) in dairy cattle. The meter uses an algorithm optimized for human blood that assumes the HCT in cattle is the same as in people, and that intra-erythrocyte β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBe) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBp) concentration are equivalent. The first objective was to characterize the analytic performance of the meter for measuring BHBb and BHBp in dairy cattle. The second objective was to characterize the influence of HCT and sample temperature on BHBp concentration measured by the meter. Blood and plasma samples were obtained from 106 periparturient Holstein cattle and 15 lactating Holstein cows with experimentally induced electrolyte and acid-base imbalances. Meter performance was evaluated using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the effect of HCT and sample temperature on BHBb and BHBp concentration, respectively. The meter was linear up to BHB = 3.0 mmol/L as measured by the reference method, equivalent to meter values for BHBb > 4.5 mmol/L and BHBp > 5.2 mmol/L. An increase in HCT resulted in higher BHBb concentration. This result was partially explained by BHBe being much lower than BHBp. Changes in sample temperature caused a linear change in measured BHBp whenever BHBp > 3.0 mmol/L. Meter accuracy was markedly dependent on the BHBe-to-BHBp ratio and consequently the HCT. Therefore, the algorithm used by the meter should be revised when applied to bovine blood for improved accuracy. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Comparison of metabolic, hematological, and peripheral blood leukocyte cytokine profiles of dairy cows and heifers during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Fortes, M R S; Piper, E K; Vankan, D M; de Cisneros, J Prada J; Wittek, T

    2013-04-01

    The periparturient period presents major physiological challenges for the dairy cow. It is a period that is affected by metabolic stressors, major changes in endocrine status, and altered immune function, which together result in an increased risk of disease. Immunological, hematological, and metabolic profiles from the periparturient period of heifers (primipara) were compared with those of cows (pluripara) to test the hypothesis that at the time of calving they have qualitatively different peripheral blood profiles. Blood samples were collected from 22 Holstein-Friesian animals on 3 occasions: approximately 2 wk before calving, within 24h after calving, and approximately 2 wk after calving. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the expression of a selected set of cytokines and receptors by peripheral blood leukocytes. Additional analyses included hemoglobin concentration, red cell, platelet and white cell counts (total and differentiated), and clinical diagnostic biochemical profiles. Total leukocyte counts, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were higher in heifers than cows before calving and within 24h after calving. Alkaline phosphatase was consistently higher in heifers than cows and several significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with regards to cytokine and cytokine-receptor mRNA expression. The results warrant further investigation from the perspective of identifying risk factors for metabolic and parturient disease in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative analysis of ruminal bacterial populations involved in lipid metabolism in dairy cows fed different vegetable oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Cancino-Padilla, N.; Romero, J.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are used to increase energy density of dairy cow diets, although they can provoke changes in rumen bacteria populations and have repercussions on the biohydrogenation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of dietary lipids: soybean oil (SO......, an unsaturated source) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, a saturated source) on bacterial populations and the fatty acid profile of ruminal digesta. Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with three periods consisting of 21 days. Dietary treatments...... parameters, whereas HPO can increase load of ruminal P. bryantii. Also, results observed in our targeted bacteria may have depended on the saturation degree of dietary oils....

  14. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein cows exposed to experimentally induced heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Ferrazza, Rodrigo; Mogollón Garcia, Henry David; Vallejo Aristizábal, Viviana Helena; de Souza Nogueira, Camilla; Veríssimo, Cecília José; Sartori, José Roberto; Sartori, Roberto; Pinheiro Ferreira, João Carlos

    2017-05-01

    Heat stress (HS) adversely influences productivity and welfare of dairy cattle. We hypothesized that the thermoregulatory mechanisms vary depending on the exposure time to HS, with a cumulative effect on the adaptive responses and thermal strain of the cow. To identify the effect of HS on adaptive thermoregulatory mechanisms and predictors of caloric balance, Holstein cows were housed in climate chambers and randomly distributed into thermoneutral (TN; n=12) or HS (n=12) treatments for 16 days. Vaginal temperature (VT), rectal temperature (Tre), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured. The temperature and humidity under TN were 25.9±0.2°C and 73.0±0.8%, respectively, and under HS were 36.3±0.3°C and 60.9±0.9%, respectively. The RR of the HS cows increased immediately after exposure to heat and was higher (76.02±1.70bpm, pcows from the third day (8.27±0.33kgd -1 in the HS vs. 14.03±0.29kgd -1 in the TN, pheat exchange. The difference in the responses to acute and chronic exposure to HS suggests an adaptive response. Thus, intense thermal stress strongly influence thermoregulatory mechanisms and the acclimation process depend critically on heat exposure time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.

  18. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

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    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  19. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  20. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P cows had a trend ( P cows.

  1. Evaluación de vacas de doble propósito de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en sistemas de pastoreo arborizado: II. Bíparas Evaluation of double purpose Holstein x Zebu cows in grazing systems with trees: II. Biparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de vacas bíparas de doble propósito de los cruzamientos Holstein x Cebú, se utilizaron 75 vacas en un diseño totalmente aleatorizado, 25 por grupo de los genotipos Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Cebú, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ C y Siboney mestizo (5/8 H x 3/8 C, las cuales integraron un rebaño común con acceso al mismo manejo y alimentación, en una vaquería de producción de la granja Supervaca de la Empresa Pecuaria Genética de Matanzas. La carga fue de 1,6 UGM/ha y rotaron en 28 cuartones. Mensualmente se midió la disponibilidad de pastos y la oferta diaria de los forrajes y los suplementos. Se apreció la condición corporal al inicio y al final de cada estación, la producción de leche por vaca se midió quincenalmente, y se determinó la duración y producción por lactancia y los indicadores de reproducción. La mejor condición corporal (3,97 favoreció al Siboney mestizo (PIn order to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of biparous double-purpose Holstein x Zebu cows, 75 cows were used in a completely randomized design, 25 per group, from genotypes Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Zebu, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z and crossbred Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, which integrated a common herd with access to the same management and feeding, in a production dairy unit of the Supervaca farm, Genetic Livestock Production Firm of Matanzas. The stocking rate was 1,6 animals/ha and they rotated in 28 paddocks. Pasture availability and daily offer of forages and supplements were monthly measured. The body condition was estimated at the beginning and end of each season, milk production per cow was fortnightly measured, and the duration and production per lactation and the reproduction indicators were determined. The best body condition (3,97 favored crossbred Siboney (P<0,01; while no significant differences were found in the duration and production of milk per lactation. Likewise

  2. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  3. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  4. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  5. In situ provision of drinking water to grazing dairy cows improves milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, M M; Bonadeo, N; Ornstein, A M; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of providing water within the area grazed by dairy cows on milk yield and quality, compared to requiring cows to walk to a distant water trough, on a dairy farm in the Pampa region of Argentina during summer. Holstein dairy cows were allocated to two herds with similar parity, days in milk and milk production. They were grazed in one paddock that was divided in two, with a fixed water trough at one end. Cows were moved twice daily to grazing plots within the paddock. Control cows (n=66) could only access water from the fixed trough, whereas supplemented cows (n=67) also received water from a mobile trough within the grazing plot. Milk production of each cow, and water consumption of the two herds were measured daily over 62 days. Milk composition for each herd was determined weekly from Days 18 to 60 of the study, and grazing behaviour was observed between 08:00 and 16:00 hours on Days 11-15, 19-22 and 39-43. Over the 62 days of the study, supplemented cows produced 1.39 (SE 0.11) L/cow/day more milk than Control cows (p=0.027). Estimated mean daily water intake was 50.4 (SE 2.1) L/cow/day for supplemented cows and 58.2 (SE 2.7) L/cow/day for Control cows (p=0.004). Percentage total solids in milk was higher for supplemented (12.5 (SE 0.06)%) than Control (12.4 (SE 0.04)%) cows (p=0.047). During the periods of behavioural observation, a higher percentage of cows in the water supplemented than the Control herd were observed in the grazing area (p=0.012). This preliminary study demonstrated that provision of water to dairy cows within the grazing plot was beneficial for milk production and composition, and may be associated with longer periods spent within the grazing area, during hot weather in the Pampa region of Argentina.

  6. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate of Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffani, S; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A

    2016-07-01

    The data set consisted of 1,016,856 inseminations of 191,012 first, second, and third parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from year 2001 through 2007 and included meteorological data from 35 weather stations. Nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56) was considered. A logit model was used to estimate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) on reproduction across parities. Then, least squares means were used to detect the THI breakpoints using a 2-phase linear regression procedure. Finally, a multiple-trait threshold model was used to estimate variance components for NR56 in first and second parity cows. A dummy regression variable (t) was used to estimate NR56 decline due to heat stress. The NR56, both for first and second parity cows, was significantly (unfavorable) affected by THI from 4 d before 5 d after the insemination date. Additive genetic variances for NR56 increased from first to second parity both for general and heat stress effect. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were -0.31 for first parity and -0.45 for second parity cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DAIRY TECHNOLOGY IMPACTS ON LIVEHOODS OF DAIRY PRODUCERS IN CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Melesse

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in 2012 to assess the impact of dairy technologies on the livelihood of dairying households in Ada’a and Lume districts of central Ethiopia. A total of 108 dairy farms were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Dairying has significant contribution as a sustainable source of income to the dairy producing households. It contributed about 62% and 66% of the total monthly income in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. Dairying was the first income source for about 80% and 62% of the dairy producing households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. On the other hand, 92.9 % and 88.9 % of the respondents in Ada’a and Lume districts respectively explained that dairy technology adoption has significantly increased their household income. About 56% and 32% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts were found to save money from dairying in a traditional form of saving. Adoption of dairy technologies has also an impact on the consumption of milk and milk products as all family members in about 77.5% and 87.1% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively could consume more milk.

  8. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  9. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was