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Sample records for chinese holstein dairy

  1. In vitro culture and characterization of a mammary epithelial cell line from Chinese Holstein dairy cow.

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    Han Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to establish a culture system and elucidate the unique characteristics of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line in vitro. METHODOLOGY: Mammary tissue from a three year old lactating dairy cow (ca. 100 d relative to parturition was used as a source of the epithelial cell line, which was cultured in collagen-coated tissue culture dishes. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells successively grew and extended from the culturing mammary tissue at the third day. Pure epithelial cells were obtained by passages culture. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strong positive immunostaining to cytokeratin 18 suggested that the resulting cell line exhibited the specific character of epithelial cells. Epithelial cells cultured in the presence of 10% FBS, supraphysiologic concentrations of insulin, and hydrocortisone maintained a normal diploid chromosome modal number of 2n=60. Furthermore, they were capable of synthesizing beta-casein (CSN2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA and butyrophilin (BTN1A1. An important finding was that frozen preservation in a mixture of 90% FBS and 10% DMSO did not influence the growth characteristics, chromosome number, or protein secretion of the isolated epithelial cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained mammary epithelial cell line had normal morphology, growth characteristics, cytogenetic and secretory characteristics, thus, it might represent an useful tool for studying the function of Chinese Holstein dairy cows mammary epithelial cell (CMECs.

  2. Effects of Different Doses of PMSG on Reproductive Performance in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Shu-Bin Fu, Hua-Lin Zhang, Hasan Riaz, Sibtain Ahmad§, Xiao-Min Wang, Xiang Li, Guo-Hua Hua, Xiao-Ran Liu, Ai-Zhen Guo1 and Li-Guo Yang*

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG on reproductive performance synchronized with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. The study was conducted on one hundred cyclic dairy cows. Cows were equally divided into five treatment groups. Each group (n=20 was administered with an injection of PMSG (Serum Gonadotrophin for Injection, SanSheng Pharmaceutical, China at dose rate of 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, or 4 IU/kg BW, followed by an injection of PGF2α (Cloprostenol Sodium for Injection, SanSheng Pharmaceutical, China 48 h later. Estrus was detected by a teaser bull three times daily after PGF2α administration. The cows were artificially inseminated 12 and 20 h after standing heat. On day 30 after artificial insemination, pregnancy rate was confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography while calving rate and multiple calvings were added up after successful parturition. There were no significant difference (P>0.05 in estrus response among all treatment groups. Similarly, interval from PMSG administration to estrus was decreased non-significantly (P>0.05 with the different doses of PMSG. Pregnancy rate was significantly lower (P0.05 among different regimens. The effects of PMSG dose on multiple calving was found to be statistically significant (P2.5 IU/kg than in the lowest treatment group (2 IU/kg, however, later pregnancy rate was non-significant (P>0.05 in all groups. In summary, PMSG administration could successfully induce estrus and improve fertility of a dairy herd. Furthermore, low doses of PMSG aid in quick return of non-pregnant cows to subsequent next estrus.

  3. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

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    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. PMID:26779989

  4. Consistency of linkage disequilibrium between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins and genomic prediction for Chinese Holsteins using the joint reference population

    OpenAIRE

    Lei ZHOU; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yachun; Lund, Mogens S; Su, Guosheng

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, the reference population of genotyped Holstein cattle is relatively small with to date, 80 bulls and 2091 cows genotyped with the Illumina 54 K chip. Including genotyped Holstein cattle from other countries in the reference population could improve the accuracy of genomic prediction of the Chinese Holstein population. This study investigated the consistency of linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers between the Chinese and Nordic Holstein populations, and compared...

  5. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X;

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows g...

  6. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

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    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  7. Effect of economic crisis on sustainability of Holstein dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.; Koops, W.

    2002-01-01

    This analysis presents the development of the Holstein dairy system in Brazil, evaluating system sustainability during a time of crisis, based on changes in system productivity, stability, resilience and equity. Sustainability indicators are used to describe these changes. Records of Holstein cows r

  8. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

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    Berman, A

    2005-06-01

    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  9. Kappa Casein Gene Polymorphism in Holstein Chinese Cattle

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    A. E. Hamza1,*, X. L. Wang and Z. P.Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kappa casein gene polymorphism has received a considerable attention because of its correlation with milk quality, composition and technological properties. The polymorphism of kappa casein gene (K-CN was detected in Holstein Chinese cattle. A 218 bp sequence in exon IV of 319 Holstein Chinese cattle blood samples were amplified using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation (PCR-SSCP technique. Sequence analysis revealed one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP T/C SNP in exon 1V at nucleotides (80, moreover; three genotypes TT, TC and CC were also identified with following frequencies: 0.40, 0.34 and 0.26%, respectively. The allele frequency for T and C found to be 0.6 and 0.4 %, respectively. Allele frequencies in the population fitted with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of k-casein at exon 1V exhibited medium polymorphism information content (PIC=0.36.

  10. Consequences and economics of metritis in Iranian Holstein dairy farms.

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    Mahnani, A; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Cabrera, V E

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the risk factors, incidence, and productive and reproductive consequences of metritis in dairy cows, and (2) to estimate the financial losses associated with metritis using data gathered from 4 Holstein dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran. Calving records from March 2008 to December 2013, comprising 43,488 calvings, were included in the data set. The effects of metritis on productive and reproductive performance were analyzed using a mixed linear model for primiparous and multiparous cows separately and in an overall data set (all cows combined), whereas risk factors on metritis incidence were examined using a multivariable logistical regression model for the overall data set. The incidence of metritis per cow per year was 13.2% on average and ranged from 9.0 to 15.8%. Results of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that calving year, parity number, calving season, twinning, dystocia, and retained placenta were significantly associated with the occurrence of metritis, whereas previous metritis incidence did not show an association. Greatest odds of metritis occurred in first-parity cows that calved in winter and had retained placenta, twinning, and dystocia in recent years. A case of metritis significantly reduced the 305-d milk yield in primiparous and multiparous cows and overall, but had no significant effects on 305-d fat and protein percentages in either primiparous or multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis reduced 305-d milk yield by 129.8±41.5kg/cow per lactation. The negative reproductive effects due to metritis were smaller and nonsignificant for primiparous cows compared with multiparous cows. Overall, a case of metritis increased days open and number of insemination per conception by 16.4±1.2 and 0.1±0.0 per cow per lactation, respectively. Among the individual farms, metritis costs ranged from $146.4 to $175.7 with a mean of $162.3/case. The model to calculate metritis costs proposed here could

  11. Genome-wide detection of selective signature in Chinese Holstein.

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    Dunfei Pan

    Full Text Available Selective signatures in whole genome can help us understand the mechanisms of selection and target causal variants for breeding program. In present study, we performed Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH tests to identify significant core regions harboring such signals in Chinese Holstein, and then verified the biological significance of these identified regions based on commonly-used bioinformatics analyses. Results showed a total of 125 significant regions in entire genome containing some of important functional genes such as LEP, ABCG2, CSN1S1, CSN3 and TNF based on the Gene Ontology database. Some of these annotated genes involved in the core regions overlapped with those identified in our previous GWAS as well as those involved in a recently constructed candidate gene database for cattle, further indicating these genes under positive selection maybe underlie milk production traits and other important traits in Chinese Holstein. Furthermore, in the enrichment analyses for the second level GO terms and pathways, we observed some significant terms over represented in these identified regions as compared to the entire bovine genome. This indicates that some functional genes associated with milk production traits, as reflected by GO terms, could be clustered in core regions, which provided promising evidence for the exploitability of the core regions identified by EHH tests. Findings in our study could help detect functional candidate genes under positive selection for further genetic and breeding research in Chinese Holstein.

  12. New insights into body condition score and its association with fatty liver in holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc H.; Kirovski Danijela; Jovanović M.; Vujanac I.; Bojković-Kovačević Slavica; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila; Prodanović R.; Stajković Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between body condition and fatty liver in high-yielding dairy cows. One hundred dry Holstein cows were selected. Cows were scored once for body condition during the dry period, puerperium and month 2 of lactation, according to the system provided by Elanco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. Body condition loss was determined as marked if loss was over 0.7 points between two consecutive phases of cycles and o...

  13. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy.

  14. The effect of air temperature on yield of Holstein dairy cattle

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    Anna Šimková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in the agricultural company Petrovice during the summer and winter seasons. The experiment included Holstein dairy cattle. Air temperature was measured using a data logger with sensors (Datalogger COMET 3120 in the stable. Data on average yield were taken from farm records and then processed using Microsoft Excel. The aim of the study was to determine how the values of ambient temperature affect the welfare of the animals with regard to the average performance. The air temperature is very variable and its changes animals react immediately. Measured values of air temperature in the stable are important for optimal welfare. It affects the productivity of dairy cows, milk quality, reproduction and animal health.

  15. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

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    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1). PMID:15710518

  16. Establishment of paternity testing system using microsatellite markers in Chinese Holstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Tian; Dongxiao Sun; Yuan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the efficiency of microsatellite markers in paternity testing among Chinese Holstein, 30 microsatellite loci were used to differentiate 330 Chinese Holstein genotypes, according to the calculation of the allele frequency, number of alleles, effective number of alleles, genetic heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC), and the exclusion probability in this cattle population. The results demonstrated that the exclusion probability ranged from 0.620 in locus BM1818 to 0.265 in locus INRA005 with the average of 0.472 and 11 microsatellite markers exceeding 0.5. The combined exclusion probability of nine microsatellite markers was over 0.99. The result showed that paternity testing of Chinese Holstein was basically resolved using the nine microsatellite markers selected.

  17. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

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    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  18. Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Fang, Ming; Liu, Lin;

    2013-01-01

    ,314 Chinese Holstein cattle and 52,166 SNPs. Totally, 59 genome-wide significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were detected by genome-wide association analysis; five SNPs were within previously reported QTL regions (Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database) and 11 were very close to the...... pairs of traits, and the genetic correlation between each pair of traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.86, suggesting that these SNPs may have a pleiotropic effect on each pair of traits.Conclusions: A total of 59 significant SNPs associated with 26 conformation traits were identified in the Chinese Holstein...

  19. 饲粮粗蛋白质水平对中国荷斯坦奶牛产奶性能、氮利用及血液激素的影响%Dietary Crude Protein Levels Affect Milk Production, Nitrogen Utilization and Blood Hormones of Chinese Holstein Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星凌; 刘春林; 赵红波; 游伟; 成海建

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein levels on milk production, nitrogen utilization and blood hormones of Chinese Holstein dairy cows. Eight multiparous Chinese Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design and the crude protein (CP) levels of four diets were 12. 56% , 13. 96% , 15. 53% and 16. 93% , respectively. Each lactating cow had 4 experimental periods and each period had a 14-d adaptation, following by a 4-d total faecal and urine collection period. Milk yield, milk composition and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured in the 4 d. Blood samples were taken in the last day of the collection period. The results showed that milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) production of cows fed 12. 56% CP diet were much lower than those of cows fed the other three diets (P 0. 05). Milk protein percentage was improved with dietary CP content increased (P 0. 05). Milk nitrogen efficiency of cows fed 12. 56% CP diet and 13. 96% CP diet was higher than that of cows fed 15. 53% CP diet and 16. 93% CP diet (P < 0. 05 , P < 0.01). The higher dietary CP levels increased urinary nitrogen excretion, milk nitrogen secretion and nitrogen retention (P <0.05, P < 0. 01) , and only 16. 93% CP diet increased fecal nitrogen excretion (P <0. 05). The blood leptin concentration of 12. 56% CP diet was highest (P <0. 05) , and 12. 56% CP diet had higher concentrations of prolactin (PRL) , growth hormone ( GH) , insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) , glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) numerically. On the contrary, the plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentration of 16. 93% CP diet was the highest (P <0. 01) , and the concentrations of insulin, GH were increased and the IGF-1 concentration was decreased. It is concluded that the diet containing 13. 96% CP is sufficient for the milk performance, nitrogen utilization and endocrine regulation in Chinese Holstein cows producing 28 kg/d milk or 32 kg

  20. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

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    Georges Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

  1. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

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    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. PMID:27473997

  2. Serotonin receptor expression is dynamic in the liver during the transition period in Holstein dairy cows.

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    Laporta, J; Hernandez, L L

    2015-04-01

    Nonneuronal serotonin (5-HT) participates in glucose metabolism, but little is known regarding the actions of 5-HT in the liver during the transition period in dairy cattle. Here, we explore circulating patterns of 5-HT and characterize the hepatic 5-HT receptor and glucose transporter profiles around calving in multiparous Holstein dairy cows (n = 6, average lactation = 4 ± 1.9). Concentrations of serum 5-HT decreased on day -3 compared with -5 and -7 precalving (167.7 ± 80 vs 1511.1 ± 602 ng/mL). 5-HT nadir was on day -1 precalving and remained low postcalving (481.4 ± 49 ng/mL). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased precalving (P = 0.008) and were positively correlated with 5-HT during the precalving period (r = 0.55, P = 0.043). On day 1, postcalving hepatic messenger RNA expression of 5-HT1D, 2B, 3C, 6, and 7 receptors were decreased compared with day -7 (P transition from pregnancy to lactation. PMID:25528206

  3. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

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    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  4. Reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in healthy Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein dairy cattle.

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    Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947

  5. Effects of Sire, Ration, and Interaction of Sire with Ration on Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jen-Hon Justin

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyze reproductive data gathered over a ten-year period at the Utah State University Dairy Farm. The study utilized 289 complete first lactations of Holstein cows, including 150 daughters of 10 sires in Trial I and 139 daughters of 8 sires in Trial II. One sire was used in both trials; this was sire 4 in Trial I and sire 18 in Trial II. The study measured ration, season, and sire effects and their interactions on the reproductive performances of dairy cows. Repro...

  6. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    OpenAIRE

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure o...

  7. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson H; Kindahl H; Franzén G; Kornmatitsuk B

    2003-01-01

    During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB) and Swedish Holstein (SLB) dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26) were observ...

  8. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  9. Influence of corn silage hybrid type on lactation performance by Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, M S; Shaver, R D

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with

  10. Suitable Percentage of Holstein in Crossbred Dairy Cattle in Climate Change Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Petladda Kuadsantiat; Bordin Bundasak; Amonrat Molee; Plern Mernkrathoke

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of a suitable level of Holstein of crossbred Holstein in climate change situation was the aim of this study. The exceeded 8,000 records of milk yield from 2007-2009 were used. Temperature and relative humidity of each day from 2007-2009 were the weather data. Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) was calculated and compared by t-test. Milk production was divided into 3 groups followed by the different percentages of Holstein, G1 = % Holstein

  11. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  12. Relationship of Somatic Cell Count with Milk Yield and Composition in Chinese Holstein Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jia-zhong; LIU Xiao-lin; XU A-juan; XIA Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of somatic cell count(SCC)with milk yield,fat and protein percentage,fat and protein yield using analysis of variance and correlation analysis in Chinese Holstein population.The10 524 test-day records of 568 Chinese Holstein Cattle were obtained from 2 commercial herds in Xi'an region of China during February 2002 to March 2009.Milk yield,fat percentage,fat and protein yield initially increased and then dropped down with parity,whereas protein percentage decreased and SCC increased.Analysis of variance showed highly significant effects of different subclasses SCC on milk yield and composition(P0.05).The results of the present study first time provide the relevant base-line data for assessing milk production at Xi'an region of China.

  13. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; Pmilk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  14. Effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on probability of conception in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM), occurring in different weekly intervals before or after artificial insemination (AI), on the probability of conception in Holstein cows. Clinical mastitis occurring in weekly intervals from 6 wk before until 6 wk after AI was modeled. The first 4 AI in a cow's lactation were included. The following categories of pathogens were studied: Streptococcus spp. (comprising Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, and other Streptococcus spp.); Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level that can be detected from our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); and other pathogens [including Citrobacter, yeasts, Trueperella pyogenes, gram-negative bacilli (i.e., gram-negative organisms other than E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter, and Citrobacter), Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium spp., Pasteurella, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, and others]. Other factors included in the model were parity (1, 2, 3, 4 and higher), season of AI (winter, spring, summer, autumn), day in lactation of first AI, farm, and other non-CM diseases (retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Data from 90,271 AI in 39,361 lactations in 20,328 cows collected from 2003/2004 to 2011 from 5 New York State dairy farms were analyzed in a generalized linear mixed model with a Poisson distribution. The largest reductions in probability of conception were associated with CM occurring in the week before AI or in the 2 wk following AI. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. had the greatest adverse effects on probability of conception. The probability of conception for a cow with any combination of characteristics may be calculated based on the parameter estimates. These

  15. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinske Tacoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016 [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software.

  16. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacoma, Rinske; Fields, Julia; Ebenstein, David B; Lam, Ying-Wai; Greenwood, Sabrina L

    2016-03-01

    Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016) [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software. PMID:26937459

  17. Differences in the rumen methanogen populations of lactating Jersey and Holstein dairy cows under the same diet regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin E; Smith, Rachel P; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2011-08-15

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  18. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations. PMID:26126595

  19. Mapping QTLs Affecting Economic Traits on BTA3 in Chinese Holstein with Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Chun-hua; CHU Qin; CHU Gui-yan; ZHANG Yi; ZHANG Qin; ZHANG Sheng-li; SUN Dong-xiao

    2014-01-01

    It had been demonstrated that the strong and highly signiifcantquantitative trait locus (QTL) can affect protein percentage on Bos Taurus Autosome 3 (BTA3) at the position 52 cM, near the microsatelliteDIK4353, with the 95% conifdence interval spanning from 25 to 57 cM in Chinese Holstein population using QTL-express, MQREML, and GRIDQTL softwares. This study herein focused on such region of ifne mapping QTLs for milk production and functional traits with 16 microsatellite markers with coverage of 33 cM between the markersBMS2904 andMB099 on BTA3 in a daughter-designed Chinese Holstein population. A total of 1298 Holstein cows and 7 sires were genotyped for 16 microsatellites with ABI 3700 DNA sequencer. The variance components QTL linkage analysis (LA) and linkage-disequilibrium (LD) analysis (LA/LD) was performed to map QTLs for 7 traits, i.e., 305-d milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, somatic cell score and persistency of milk yield. Four strong and highly signiifcant QTLs were detected for fat yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score at the position 40, 30, 27 and 26 cM, respectively. Two minor QTLs for milk yield and persistency of milk yield were identiifed at 42 and 46 cM, respectively. These ifndings provided a general idea for the ifne mapping of the causal mutation for milk production and functional traits on BTA3 in the future.

  20. Twinning in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows: Proportion Carried to Term and Calf Sex Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Cockcroft

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the proportion of twins carried to term and the sex ratio of twin calves at birth in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle kept on commercial farms in Devon and Cornwall, England. Ten farms were used in the study. Fifty four cows with twin pregnancies were identified using trans-rectal ultra-sonographic examination between 30 and 70 days of gestation. The farm records were subsequently used to derive the number of calves born. Farm records of 66 additional sets of twin births with the sex of the calves recorded were also identified. Of the 54 cows diagnosed with twin pregnancies, 16 cows (29.6% aborted or absorbed both fetuses, 11 cows (20.4% carried one calf to term and 27 cows (50% carried both calves to term. In the calf sex analysis of the additional 66 sets of twins: 13♂♂ calves (19.7%, 18 ♀♀ calves (27.3% and 35 ♂♀ calves (53.0%. There was no statistically significant difference from an expected ratio of 1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀ (p = 0.61. This study provides bench marks for the expected abortion/absorption rates following the early ultra-sonographic diagnosis of twin pregnancies in comparable populations and supports earlier observations that the expected  sex ratio for twinning approximates to1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀.

  1. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  2. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hua Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (BTA-55340-no-rsb located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077. Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01. In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program.

  3. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Yan; Li, Cong; Zhang, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dong-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A) is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (BTA-55340-no-rs(b)) located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and six SNPs in 5' regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p A, c.-724 A>G) were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program. PMID:26556348

  4. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  5. Pathogen-specific effects on milk yield in repeated clinical mastitis episodes in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of clinical mastitis (CM) cases due to different pathogens on milk yield in Holstein cows. The first 3 CM cases in a cow's lactation were modeled. Eight categories of pathogens were included: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; cases with CM signs but no bacterial growth (above the level detectable by our microbiological procedures) observed in the culture sample, and cases with contamination (≥ 3 pathogens in the sample); other pathogens that may be treated with antibiotics (included Citrobacter, Corynebacterium bovis, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas; "other treatable"); and other pathogens not successfully treated with antibiotics (Trueperella pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Prototheca, yeasts; "other not treatable"). Data from 38,276 lactations in cows from 5 New York State dairy herds, collected from 2003-2004 until 2011, were analyzed. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure (to account for correlation among the repeated measures of milk yield within a lactation) were estimated. Primiparous (lactation 1) and multiparous (lactations 2 and 3) cows were analyzed separately, as the shapes of their lactation curves differed. Primiparas were followed for up to 48 wk of lactation and multiparas for up to 44 wk. Fixed effects included parity, calving season, week of lactation, CM (type, case number, and timing of CM in relation to milk production cycle), and other diseases (milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, ketosis, displaced abomasum). Herd was modeled as a random effect. Clinical mastitis was more common in multiparas than in primiparas. In primiparas, Streptococcus spp. occurred most frequently as the first case. In multiparas, E. coli was most common as the first case. In subsequent cases, CM cases with no specific growth or contamination were most common in both parity groups. The hazard of

  6. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  7. Antibody Tracing, Seroepidemiology and Risk Factors of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Bovine Adenovirus-3 in Dairy Holstein Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa FARZINPOUR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibody tracing, risk factors and seroepidemiology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine adenovirus-3 were investigated in 22 Industrial and Semi-Industrial dairy Holstein farms. Serum samples (n=736 from various ages of unvaccinated cows were collected from May to September 2012. Risk factors including age, past history of respiratory diseases, amount of milk production, husbandry type and herd size were considered. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and logistic regression. Results indicated that the infection with some of individual viruses was related to past history of respiratory disease and herd size. No specific pattern was seen on the effect of level of milk production on seropositivity of animals. The seroprevalence for BRSV and BAV-3 were 89.1% and 88%, respectively. The present study indicates that infections of bovine respiratory viruses frequently occur in cattle of Fars province and the main viral cause of primary occurrence of respiratory diseases may be due to aforementioned viruses.

  8. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolahad Shadparvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  9. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  10. A post-GWAS confirming the SCD gene associated with milk medium- and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in Chinese Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Sun, D; Zhang, S; Liu, L; Alim, M A; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-01

    The stearoyl-CoA desaturase (delta-9-desaturase) gene encodes a key enzyme in the cellular biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids. In our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Chinese Holstein cows, 19 SNPs fell in a 1.8-Mb region (20.3-22.1 Mb) on chromosome 26 underlying the SCD gene and were highly significantly associated with C14:1 or C14 index. The aims of this study were to verify whether the SCD gene has significant genetic effects on milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle. By resequencing the entire coding region of the bovine SCD gene, a total of six variations were identified, including three coding variations (g.10153G>A, g.10213T>C and g.10329C>T) and three intronic variations (g.6926A>G, g.8646G>A and g.16158G>C). The SNP in exon 3, g.10329C>T, was predicted to result in an amino acid replacement from alanine (GCG) to valine (GTG) in the SCD protein. An association study for 16 milk fatty acids using 346 Chinese Holstein cows with accurate phenotypes and genotypes was performed using the mixed animal model with the proc mixed procedure in sas 9.2. All six detected SNPs were revealed to be associated with six medium- and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.0457 to P analysis revealed significant associations of the haplotypes encompassing the six SCD SNPs and one SNP (rs109923480) in a GWAS with C14:1, C14 index, C16:1 and C16 index (P = 0.0011 to P < 0.0001). In summary, our findings provide replicate evidence for our previous GWAS and demonstrate that variants in the SCD gene are significantly associated with milk fatty acid composition in dairy cattle, which provides clear evidence for an increased understanding of milk fatty acid synthesis and enhances opportunities to improve milk-fat composition in dairy cattle. PMID:26970560

  11. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D

    2016-04-01

    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production. PMID:26700882

  12. Addition of gut active carbohydrates to colostrum replacer does not improve passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Godden, S M; Haines, D M; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L

    2014-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) with gut active carbohydrates (GAC) on passive transfer of IgG in commercial dairy calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment on preweaning health and growth. A total of 240 newborn Holstein dairy calves on a commercial dairy farm were enrolled in this study. Newborn heifer and bull calves were weighed and then randomly assigned to either the treated group [GAC: 30g of GAC mixed into 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of commercial colostrum replacer; n=119] or the control group [CON: 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of CR; n=121]. The assigned CR treatment was fed within 3.5h of birth using an esophageal tube feeder. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 and 24h of age and used to measure serum IgG (mg/mL) and serum total protein (g/dL) concentrations and to estimate the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (%). The 129 heifers calves enrolled (CON=60; GAC=69) were also followed until weaning to assess the effect of GAC addition on preweaning health and growth. Multivariable linear regression showed that the addition of GAC to CR did not influence passive transfer of IgG, as measured by apparent efficiency of absorption at 24h of age (CON=54.0 vs. GAC=54.3%), serum IgG (CON=20.3 vs. GAC=20.2mg/mL), and serum total protein (CON=5.69 vs. GAC=5.68g/dL). Although study sample sizes were not originally derived to evaluate health outcomes, treatment had no effect on weight gain or incidence of health events (diarrhea, pneumonia, mortality) for heifer calves between birth and 7 wk of age. PMID:25022688

  13. [Possible causes of unspecific reduced productivity in dairy herds in SchIeswig-Holstein: an explorative case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campe, Amely; Hohmeier, Stefan; Koesters, Sarah; Hartmann, Maria; Ruddat, Inga; Mahlkow-Nerge, Katrin; Heilemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recently unspecific productivity losses were observed in dairy herds in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. This case-control study on cattle health investigated the possible association between a multifactorial event and the occurrence of unspecific productivity losses. 35 dairy farms were defined as cases and 65 farms as controls, when they met two out of three eligibility criteria, respectively (cell count, mortality and life production of cows). Case farms had relevantly more often problems with forage collection (too low cutting height), feed storage (no foil used), and energy supply of dairy cattle (insufficient feeding of corn silage and lowered energy content of grass silage). Case farms had relevantly more often dirty lying areas, feeding and walking alleys, feed bunks and watering places as well as more cows with dirty udders, flanks and legs than control farms. Farm individual self-control as well as veterinarian and agricultural consultancy should focus on these management areas. Furthermore, the health situation should be checked regularly on an individual animal level for diseases of the locomotor (especially by intensifying claw care), metabolic and reproductive systems. Additionally, 22 so-called intermediate farms with considerable herd health problem during the study period were investigated for possible exogenous influences on the farm performance. There were no indications for influences by the soil type, weather conditions at harvesting or wild bird occurrence on cropland, which might be as well due to the explorative nature of the study. However, herd health problems were apparent in case and intermediate farms more often and more diversely than in control farms. PMID:27169149

  14. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Nozad; Ali-Gholi Ramin; Siamak Asri Rezaie

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, ...

  15. Genetic structure of Antioquia Holstein from two SNPs and association with dairy traits

    OpenAIRE

    Stephania Madrid G; Albeiro López H; Julián Echeverri Z.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. Analyze the structure and genetic differentiation of a population of Antioquia Holstein cows from the polymorphisms A192G of INHA and A-320T of FSHR, and explore the association of the genotypic combinations with milk traits. Materials and methods. 1240 lactations of 356 animals from 9 herds in 6 municipalities of Antioquia were analyzed. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Structure and genetic diversity parameters were determined using GenAlex software. The associatio...

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Michael G. Diskin; Ciaran O. Lynch; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intron...

  17. EVALUATION OF SELECTED EFFECTS ON MILK PRODUCTION AND FERTILITY IN HOLSTEIN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš FREJLACH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The breeding of dairy cattle, in terms of investment and operating costs, is the most demanding sector of livestock production. In terms of importance for agricultural enterprises and all of society, in most EU Member States and the Czech Republic it is one of the major agrarian sectors. Milk production in the Czech Republic has been an important source of income for farmers. For this reason, it is important to ensure an adequate level of milk production in dairy cattle herds and the resulting profit of the enterprise. At the present time in the Czech Republic, it is difficult to ensure profitability in dairy farming because input costs have a continuously rising trend, as compared to the price of milk, which is very unstable. The evaluation of selected indicators of milk yield and fertility in dairy herds is an important tool for evaluating the economics and the level of the breeding. The highest milk yield in kilograms during the first lactation was attained by dairy cows that calved at the age of 27 to 29 months (9,335 kg of milk. When utilizing the DOUBLE OVSYNCH synchronization protocol, the average calving interval was 412 days, and a higher conception rate after first insemination (43% was found as compared to the nationwide average in the Czech Republic (34.2%.

  18. PLCz functional haplotypes modulating promoter transcriptional activity are associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pan

    Full Text Available The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT, H2H2 (GCGC, H3H3 (ATAT, and H4H4 (ACAC, were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as

  19. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  20. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  1. Application of imputation methods to genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Ziqing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Missing genotypes are a common feature of high density SNP datasets obtained using SNP chip technology and this is likely to decrease the accuracy of genomic selection. This problem can be circumvented by imputing the missing genotypes with estimated genotypes. When implementing imputation, the criteria used for SNP data quality control and whether to perform imputation before or after data quality control need to consider. In this paper, we compared six strategies of imputation and quality control using different imputation methods, different quality control criteria and by changing the order of imputation and quality control, against a real dataset of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results demonstrated that, no matter what imputation method and quality control criteria were used, strategies with imputation before quality control performed better than strategies with imputation after quality control in terms of accuracy of genomic selection. The different imputation methods and quality control criteria did not significantly influence the accuracy of genomic selection. We concluded that performing imputation before quality control could increase the accuracy of genomic selection, especially when the rate of missing genotypes is high and the reference population is small.

  2. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Michel; Cornelissen Albert WCA; Schrooten Chris; Tamma Nico; Farnir Frédéric; Druet Tom; Mes Ted HM; Coppieters Wouter; Ploeger Harm W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Ho...

  3. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  4. Place of dairy products in the Chinese-American family food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Nan; Brown, J Lynne

    2010-08-01

    Chinese Americans have a high risk of osteoporosis and their calcium intake is substantially below the daily recommendation. However, little has been done to reduce the risk of this hard-to-reach population. This theory-based qualitative study explored how first-generation Chinese American couples with children view dairy products, how they use them in their family food system, and how these uses influence their dietary behavior or intake. Twenty couples, recruited from weekend Chinese schools at three locations in Pennsylvania, were interviewed. Taste, texture, and use of additives and growth hormones appeared to be more important influences on dairy choice than lactose intolerance. In these families, parental use of food rules and power to influence food patterns affected family flexibility about dairy use. Father's power, his views of dairy products, and his preference for Chinese-based dinners had a greater influence than those of his wife or children on the use of dairy-based dinner dishes. In contrast, choices at breakfast or lunch and for snacks were more flexible and could include dairy products. Nutrition educators can encourage introduction of dairy products into the traditional dietary pattern of Chinese Americans by offering opportunities to taste unfamiliar dairy products, demonstrating use of dairy products to prepare familiar foods, including both parents in any intervention or at least in tasting recipes, and providing information on importance of calcium to bone health and amount of calcium needed from reputable sources. PMID:20656096

  5. Prediction of water intake and excretion flows in Holstein dairy cows under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Boudon, A; Maxin, G; Faverdin, P

    2012-10-01

    The increase in the worldwide demand for dairy products, associated with global warming, will emphasize the issue of water use efficiency in dairy systems. The evaluation of environmental issues related to the management of animal dejections will also require precise biotechnical models that can predict effluent management in farms. In this study, equations were developed and evaluated for predicting the main water flows at the dairy cow level, based on parameters related to cow productive performance and diet under thermoneutral conditions. Two datasets were gathered. The first one comprised 342 individual measurements of water balance in dairy cows obtained during 18 trials at the experimental farm of Méjussaume (INRA, France). Predictive equations of water intake, urine and fecal water excretion were developed by multiple regression using a stepwise selection of regressors from a list of seven candidate parameters, which were milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), body weight, diet dry matter content (DM), proportion of concentrate (CONC) and content of crude protein (CP) ingested with forage and concentrate (CPf and CPc, g/kg DM). The second dataset was used for external validation of the developed equations and comprised 196 water flow measurements on experimental lots obtained from 43 published papers related to water balance or digestibility measurements in dairy cows. Although DMI was the first predictor of the total water intake (TWI), with a partial r(2) of 0.51, DM was the first predictive parameter of free water intake (FWI), with a partial r(2) of 0.57, likely due to the large variability of DM in the first dataset (from 11.5 to 91.4 g/100 g). This confirmed the compensation between water drunk and ingested with diet when DM changes. The variability of urine volume was explained mainly by the CPf associated with DMI (r.s.d. 5.4 kg/day for an average flow of 24.0 kg/day) and that of fecal water was explained by the proportion of CONC in the diet and DMI

  6. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  7. Diurnal variations in milk macro-mineral concentrations in Holstein dairy cows in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Nozad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples from high and low milk producer Holstein cows, were obtained during the morning and afternoon milking over a one week period. Overall, 1064 samples were tested within 14 times sampling in Urmia, Iran. Milk macro-mineral concentrations in the morning milking and in low producers were greater than in the afternoon and in high producers. The highest and lowest concentrations were observed in Na+ and Mg++, respectively. Mean milk values between low and high producers in the morning, afternoon and daily milking times were different (p < 0.05. The individual comparison of milk parameters between both groups in the different milking times were also different (p < 0.05. The results of correlation among macro-minerals in the morning, afternoon and overall milking showed significant and positive correlations among all macro-minerals except for Na+ and K+, in which there was a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05. The highest and lowest correlations were found between Ca++ and inorganic phosphorus (IP (r=0.37, p < 0.05 and Na+ and IP (r=0.10, p < 0.05, respectively. It is concluded that the concentration of macro-minerals in different producers varied between milking times. The sodium concentration was the highest while Mg++ was the lowest among macro-minerals. The correlation between Ca++/ IP was the highest, while Na+/K+ revealed a negative correlation. Therefore, by organizing the appropriate macro-minerals in the ration, it would be possible to achieve an optimal purpose from animal husbandry.

  8. Hsp72 is present in plasma from Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, and the concentration level is repeatable across days and age classes

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Løvendahl, Peter; Berg, Peer; Loeschcke, Volker

    2004-01-01

    Although heat shock proteins (Hsps) are primarily considered as being intracellular, this study identified the presence of Hsp72 in plasma from female Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Plasma samples were collected from the same animals at different ages and on different days after calving and accordingly divided into 5 age classes. The age classes were calves less than 235 days of age, young heifers between 235 and 305 days of age, older heifers between 305 and 560 days of age, cows early in l...

  9. Changes in genetic selection differentials and generation intervals in US Holstein dairy cattle as a result of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Adriana; Cole, John B; VanRaden, Paul M; Wiggans, George R; Ruiz-López, Felipe J; Van Tassell, Curtis P

    2016-07-12

    Seven years after the introduction of genomic selection in the United States, it is now possible to evaluate the impact of this technology on the population. Selection differential(s) (SD) and generation interval(s) (GI) were characterized in a four-path selection model that included sire(s) of bulls (SB), sire(s) of cows (SC), dam(s) of bulls (DB), and dam(s) of cows (DC). Changes in SD over time were estimated for milk, fat, and protein yield; somatic cell score (SCS); productive life (PL); and daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) for the Holstein breed. In the period following implementation of genomic selection, dramatic reductions were seen in GI, especially the SB and SC paths. The SB GI reduced from ∼7 y to less than 2.5 y, and the DB GI fell from about 4 y to nearly 2.5 y. SD were relatively stable for yield traits, although modest gains were noted in recent years. The most dramatic response to genomic selection was observed for the lowly heritable traits DPR, PL, and SCS. Genetic trends changed from close to zero to large and favorable, resulting in rapid genetic improvement in fertility, lifespan, and health in a breed where these traits eroded over time. These results clearly demonstrate the positive impact of genomic selection in US dairy cattle, even though this technology has only been in use for a short time. Based on the four-path selection model, rates of genetic gain per year increased from ∼50-100% for yield traits and from threefold to fourfold for lowly heritable traits. PMID:27354521

  10. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  11. Associations of selected bedding types with incidence rates of subclinical and clinical mastitis in primiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to determine the association of exposure to selected bedding types with incidence of subclinical (SM) and clinical mastitis (CM) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows housed in identical pens at a single facility. At parturition, primiparous cows were randomly assigned to pens containing freestalls with 1 of 4 bedding materials: (1) deep-bedded new sand (NES, n=27 cows), (2) deep-bedded recycled sand (RS, n=25 cows), (3) deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS, n=31 cows), and (4) shallow-bedded manure solids over foam-core mattresses (SBMS, n=26 cows). For 12mo, somatic cell counts of quarter milk samples were determined every 28d and duplicate quarter milk samples were collected for microbiological analysis from all quarters with SM (defined as somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL). During this period, duplicate quarter milk samples were also collected for microbial analysis from all cases of CM. For an additional 16mo, cases of CM were recorded; however, no samples were collected. Quarter days at risk (62,980) were distributed among bedding types and most quarters were enrolled for >150d. Of 135 cases of SM, 63% resulted in nonsignificant growth and 87% of recovered pathogens (n=33) were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The distribution of etiologies of pathogens recovered from cases of SM was associated with bedding type. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 12, 38, 11, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. A result of nonsignificant growth was obtained for 81, 59, 89, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. Quarters of primiparous cows bedded with NES tended to have greater survival time to incidence of CM than quarters of primiparous cows bedded with RS or DBMS. PMID:27060828

  12. Mapping QTLs on BTA6 affecting milk production traits in a Chinese Holstein population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huiyong; LI Hejun; QIU Xiaotian; ZHANG Qin; WANG Chunkao; SHU Juan; MEI Gui; YIN Cengceng; HU Fang; XU Jingjing; GONG Weijia

    2005-01-01

    A Chinese Holstein population with daughter design was analyzed using 14 microsatellites covering a map distance of 55.7 cM on chromosome 6 to fine map QTL for five milk production traits. 26 paternal half-sib families with 2356 daughters were involved. Two different approaches, linear regression approach and variance component approach, were employed, with a one-QTL model and two-QTL model fitted. With a one-QTL model, the linear regression approach revealed a QTL near BMS470 with effects on milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, and fat percentage, and another QTL near BMS2460 for protein percentage. The variance component approach confirmed the results of linear regression approach for the three yield traits, with the exception that the QTL for fat yield was mapped to a different position near BMS1242. The 95% confidence intervals resulted from linear regression, obtained by bootstrapping, were generally large, ranging from 31 to 53 cM, whereas the variance component approach revealed very small confidence intervals, calculated by LOD drop-off method, for the three yield traits, only 4―5 cM. With a two-QTL model, both approaches provided strong evidence for the existence of two QTLs for the three yield traits. Along with the QTLs identified in one-QTL model analyses, the linear regression approach revealed a second QTL near BP7 with effects on all the three yield traits, whereas the variance component approach located the second QTL near ILSS035, BMS470, and BP7 for the three traits, respectively.

  13. Joint genome-wide association study for milk fatty acid traits in Chinese and Danish Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Lund, Mogens Sandø;

    2015-01-01

    is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine...... data individually, the total numbers of overlapping SNP that were significant at the chromosome level were 94 for C14:1, 208 for the C14 index, and 1 for C18:0. Joint analysis using the combined data of the 2 populations detected greater numbers of significant SNP compared with either of the individual...... populations alone for 7 and 10 traits at the genome- and chromosome-wide significance levels, respectively. Greater numbers of significant SNP were detected for C18:0 and the C18 index in the Chinese population compared with the joint analysis. Sixty-five significant SNP across all traits had significantly...

  14. Short communication: Short-term changes in stocking density did not alter meal characteristics of lactating Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R A; Grant, R J; Krawczel, P D

    2016-08-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effect of short-term increases in stocking density and milking on meal duration, meal frequency, and time between meals and to determine the bioequivalence of different meal criterions in a competitive environment. Forty-eight Holstein dairy cows were allotted to 1 of 4 groups (n=12 per group). Stocking density treatments of 100 (one cow per freestall and headlock), 113, 131, and 142% were assigned to groups using a 4×4 Latin square with treatments imposed for 14-d periods. On d 11 of each period, feeding time was recorded for 24h using 10-min scan samples from direct observation. Meals were defined as repeated observations of eating with a maximum of 20, 30, or 40min of not eating between observations constituting the same meal. A new meal was established when a cow was observed feeding and then not feeding for greater than 2 (20min), 3 (30min), or 4 (40min) observations. To evaluate diurnal effects, the 24-h period of data was divided into 8-h intervals (based on milking time); morning (0400-1200h), afternoon (1200-2000h), and night (2000-0400h). Feed delivery occurred daily at 0430h, with feed pushed up throughout the day. A mixed linear model was used to determine the effect of stocking density and time of day on meals per day, meals per hour, meal duration, time between meals, and meal duration 2h before and after milking. Regardless of stocking density, meal duration, meal frequency, meals per hour, and time between meals did not differ. Regardless of stocking density, mean meal duration was longer during the morning and afternoon compared with night. Meal duration was also greater after milking compared with before milking, regardless of stocking density. These results suggest meal length decreased throughout the day, relative to feed delivery, with periodic increases in length due to return from milking. Meals per hour, meal duration before and after milking, and meal frequency established bioequivalence for the

  15. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 ± 3.0 vs. 21.3 ± 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.7 ± 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 18.2 ± 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 ± 2.8 vs. 17.5 ± 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 ± 4.0 vs. 17.6 ± 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 ± 6.2 vs. 18.1 ± 6.3) and per hour (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 ± 5.0 vs. 18.5 ± 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1

  16. Genetic parameters for somatic cell score and production traits in the ifrst three lactations of Chinese Holstein cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fu-ping; GUO Gang; WANG Ya-chun; GUO Xiang-yu; ZHANG Yuan; DU Li-xin

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters of lactation average somatic cel scores (LSCS) and examine genetic associations between LSCS and production traits in the ifrst three lactations of Chinese Holstein cows using single-parity multi-trait animal model and multi-trait repeatability animal model. There were totaly 273605 lactation records of Chinese Holstein cows with ifrst calving from 2001 to 2012. Heritability estimates for LSCS ranged from 0.144 to 0.187. Genetic correlations between LSCS and 305 days milk, protein percentage and fat percentage were –0.079,–0.082 and –0.135, respectively. Phenotypic correlation between LSCS and 305 days milk yield was negative (–0.103 to –0.190). Genetic correlation between 305 days milk and fat percentage or protein percentage was highly negative. Genetic correlation between milk fat percentage and milk protein percentage was highly favorable. Heritabilities of production traits decreased with increase of parity, whereas heritability of LSCS increased with increase of parity.

  17. Variation Regulation and Models of Raw Milk Composition of Chinese Holstein Cattle in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang; YANG; Yi; MA; Zhihong; PANG; Miao; YI; Qin; YANG; Benhai; XIONG

    2013-01-01

    Based on raw milk DHI data of Chinese Holstein cattle in northern China,milk composition (milk protein percentage and milk fat percentage) of lactating cow is grouped into parity 1 to 4. After preprocessing original data,6114 data records of milk protein percentage and 5871 data records of milk fat percentage were obtained. This study discusses effects of natural months,lactation parity and their interaction on changes of milk protein percentage and milk fat percentage,and the model is established using GLM procedure of SAS software. At last,results are as follows: (i) Duncan multiple comparison of natural months,regardless of parity (only parity 1 to 4) ,indicates that milk composition takes on significant difference between different months (P < 0. 05) . And milk protein percentage reaches highest in September (3. 187%), drops to the lowest in July (3. 016%); the milk fat percentage reaches highest in February (4. 137%),and drops to the lowest in July (3.845%) . (ii) Duncan multiple comparison of different parity,regardless months (January to December) ,shows that milk composition of different parity also takes on significant difference (P < 0. 05) although the difference between parities are not significant; milk protein percentage reaches highest in the 2nd parity (3. 114%)and drops to the lowest in the 4th parity (3. 066%); milk fat percentage reaches highest in the 2nd and 3rd parity (3. 983% and 3. 973%),and drops to the lowest in the 4th parity (3. 923%). (iii) Using Wood model,the relational expression between milk protein percentage (MPP,%)and milk fat percentage (MFP,%)of different parity and natural month,i. e. MPP = 3. 094x - 0. 046 4 × e 0. 011 7x and MFP = 4. 211 6x - 0. 034 4 × e 0. 027 6x (x stands for month) . According to the above results,it is concluded that natural months,lactation parity and their interaction significantly influence milk protein percentage and milk fat percentage (P < 0. 001) ,and milk protein percentage and milk fat

  18. Effect of summer conditions and shade on the production and metabolism of Holstein dairy cows on pasture in temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laer, E; Tuyttens, F A M; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Moons, C P H; Vandaele, L

    2015-09-01

    For dairy cattle on pasture in temperate regions, it is largely unknown to what degree hot summer conditions impact energy metabolism, milk yield and milk composition and how effective shade is in reducing these negative effects. During the summer of 2012, a herd of Holstein cows was kept on pasture without access to shade (treatment NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013, the herd was divided into a group with (treatment S) and a group without (treatment NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees combined with shade cloths (80% reduction in solar radiation). A weather station registered the local climatic conditions on open pasture, from which we calculated daily average Heat Load Index (HLI) values. The effects of HLI and shade on rectal temperature (RT), blood plasma indicators of hyperventilation and metabolic changes due to heat stress, milk yield and milk composition were investigated. RT increased with increasing HLI, but was less for S cows than for NS cows (by 0.02°C and 0.03°C increase per unit increase of HLI, respectively). Hyperchloraemia (an increased blood plasma concentration of Cl-), a sign of hyperventilation, increased for NS cows but not for S cows. The plasma concentration of alkaline phosphatase, a regulator of energy metabolism in the liver, decreased with increasing HLI for NS cows only. Access to shade, thus, reduced the effect of HLI on RT, hyperchloraemia and the regulation of metabolism by the liver. As HLI increased, the plasma concentration of cholesterol decreased (indicating increased lipolysis) and the plasma concentration of creatinine increased (indicating increased protein catabolism). These effects did not differ between S and NS cows. For NS cows, after a lag-time of 2 days, the milk yield decreased with increasing HLI. For S cows, the milk yield was unaffected by HLI and its quadratic factor. The milk concentrations of lactose, protein and fat decreased as HLI increased, but only the effect on milk protein

  19. Ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profiles, and productive performance of Holstein dairy cows fed 2 different safflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dschaak, C M; Noviandi, C T; Eun, J-S; Fellner, V; Young, A J; Zobell, D R; Israelsen, C E

    2011-10-01

    A lactation trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing whole safflower seeds (SS) on ruminal fermentation, lactational performance, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (days in milk = 110 ± 20) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d, with 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data collection. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 3 dietary treatments as follows: cottonseed total mixed ration (TMR; CST), conventional SS (variety S-208) TMR (CSST), and NutraSaff SS (Safflower Technologies International, Sidney, MT) TMR (NSST). Diets contained approximately 63% forage (36% alfalfa hay, 4% grass hay, and 23% corn silage) and 37% concentrate supplemented with 2% cottonseed to the CST and 3% conventional or NutraSaff SS to the CSST or the NSST, respectively. Intake of dry matter (DM) averaged 21.8 kg/d and did not differ across diets, but feeding the NSST decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) due to lower dietary concentration of NDF in the NSST. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were similar among treatments. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed in response to supplementing SS. Dietary treatments did not affect ruminal pH, total or molar proportions of ruminal volatile FA, and ammonia-N. However, cows fed SS had a higher molar proportion of isobutyrate than those fed the CST diet. Ruminal C16:0 FA concentration increased with the CST, whereas C18:1 cis-9 and C18:2 n-6 tended to increase with SS supplementation, indicating that conventional and NutraSaff SS were partially protected from microbial biohydrogenation. Supplementing SS decreased milk C16:0 concentration, whereas it increased C18:1 cis-9 and C18:1 trans-9. Milk FA C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid increased and tended to increase with feeding the NSST, respectively, but not the CSST diet. In conclusion, supplementing diets with whole SS at 3

  20. Associations of peripartum markers of stress and inflammation with milk yield and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, Juliana M; Mann, Sabine; Nydam, Daryl V; Grant, Richard J; Overton, Thomas R

    2015-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association of peripartum concentrations of fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostane; 11,17-DOA), plasma cortisol and haptoglobin (Hp), as well as two markers of negative energy balance, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), with milk yield and reproductive performance. Blood and fecal samples were collected weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows from wk -3 through wk +1 relative to calving. Pregnancies by 150 days in milk (DIM) and projected 305-d mature equivalent (305ME) milk yield based on the 3rd Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) test day (mean±SD; 102±17 DIM) were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were used to describe the associations of metabolites with 305ME milk yield. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to describe associations of the same metabolites with risk of conception by 150 DIM. Negative associations with milk yield were found for prepartum Hp in wk -2, -1, and +1 relative to calving (estimate±SE: 490±251, 564±259, and 464±136kg lower yield for every increase in Hp concentration by 1g/L, respectively) as well as with NEFA concentration in wk -2 (estimate±SE: 1465±541kg lower milk yield for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1mEq/L). Postpartum associations of NEFA with milk yield depended on parity; NEFA was associated with an increase in milk yield in primiparous animals only (estimate±SE: 1548±510kg increase for an increase in NEFA concentration by 1mEq/L). An increase in plasma cortisol concentration by 1μg/dL in wk +1 relative to calving was associated with an increase in milk yield (estimate±SE: 580±176kg). Prepartum 11,17-DOA was associated in all three prepartum sampling weeks with a reduced hazard ratio (HR) of conception (HR [95% CI]: 0.81 [0.67-0.97], 0.85 [0.72-0.99], and 0.85 [0.75-0.97] for every increase in concentration by 1mg/g fecal dry matter (DM) in wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving, respectively

  1. Methane emission and community composition patterns of rumen bacteria and methanogens in Holstein dairy cows as affected by silage type and dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Højberg, Ole; Canibe, Nuria;

    Silage type and dietary fat supplementation can affect enteric methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the impact of dietary interventions on the rumen microbiota is still not fully understood. The present study used six rumen cannulated Holstein cows (6x4 incomplete Latin Square) to...... rRNA and methyl co-enzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, respectively. Methanogen abundances were evaluated by qPCR using two mcrA-targeting primer sets. Silage type significantly affected CH4 emissions and rumen acetate:propionate ratios, being highest for late grass and lowest for maize. Dietary fat...... significantly reduced the gross energy lost as CH4 regardless of silage type. Silage type significantly affected the bacterial community composition pattern; the grass silages favored potential hemicellulose- and cellulose-degrading bacteria, while the maize silage mainly favored potentially starch...

  2. Changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis for primiparous Holstein dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during IMI challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli) for dairy cows during early lactation. Thirty, healthy primiparous Holstein cows were infused (h = 0) with ~20-40 cfu of live...... effect of IMI challenge on metabolic responses of cows during early lactation.ResultsBy 12 h, E. coli was recovered from challenged quarters and shedding continued through 72 h. Rectal temperature peaked by 12 h post-challenge and returned to pre-challenge values by 36 h post-IMI challenge. Daily feed....... However, the early rise in plasma NEFA may also signify enhanced adipose tissue lipolysis. Lower concentrations of plasma BHBA may be attributed to an increase transfer into milk after IMI. Decreases in both milk lactose yield and % after challenge may be partly attributed to reduced conversion of fglu to...

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Mullen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to 1 identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs 2 determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5’ promoter, intronic and 3’ regulatory regions, encompassing ~ 5 kb of the IGF-1 gene. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P<0.05 were identified between 6 SNPs (four novel and two previously identified and milk composition, survival, body condition score and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P<0.05 with increased cow carcass weight (i.e. an indicator of mature cow size. Novel SNPs were identified in the 3’ region of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with functional survival and chest width. The remaining 4 SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.

  4. Converting to organic dairy farming: Consequences for production, somatic cell scores and calving interval of first parity Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming for milk production and fertility of first parity Holstein cows. Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of

  5. Effects of feeding guar germ (Cyamopsis teragonloba at different levels on milk yield and milk quality of Holstein dairy cows under Sudan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan, K.Mohamed,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein dairy cows in second to fifth lactations were used to examine the effect of guar germ at different levels on yield and quality of milk. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (A, B, C and D of almost similar weight and milk production. The animals of group A, B, C and D were fed on 0, 50, 75 and 100% of guar germ. All diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks and 2 weeks for adaptation period. The results indicated that there were significant differences (P0.05 were found between treatments in the percentage of milk fat. The study of sensory evaluation of milk showed no significant differences (P<0.05 between the four treatments in colour, flavour and taste for fresh and boiled milk. On the basis of results obtained from this study, guar germ can be used in diets of dairy cows to replace groundnut cake without any negative effects on the quantity and quality of milk.

  6. Replacement of grass and maize silages with lucerne silage: effects on performance, milk fatty acid profile and digestibility in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L A; Edwards, R; Errington, K A; Holdcroft, A M; Wright, M

    2015-12-01

    In total, 20 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four diets in each of four periods of 28-day duration in a Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of lucerne in the ration of high-yielding dairy cows would improve animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. All dietary treatments contained 0.55 : 0.45 forage to concentrates (dry matter (DM) basis), and within the forage component the proportion of lucerne (Medicago sativa), grass (Lolium perenne) and maize silage (Zea mays) was varied (DM basis): control (C)=0.4 : 0.6 grass : maize silage; L20=0.2 : 0.2 : 0.6 lucerne : grass : maize silage; L40=0.4 : 0.6 lucerne : maize silage; and L60=0.6 : 0.4 lucerne : maize silage. Diets were formulated to contain a similar CP and metabolisable protein content, with the reduction of soya bean meal and feed grade urea with increasing content of lucerne. Intake averaged 24.3 kg DM/day and was lowest in cows when fed L60 (P0.05) by dietary treatment. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP and fibre decreased (Psilage can be replaced with first cut lucerne silage without any detrimental effect on performance and an improvement in the milk FA profile, although intake and digestibility was lowest and plasma urea concentrations highest in cows when fed the highest level of inclusion of lucerne. PMID:26242305

  7. Comparison of genomic predictions using medium-density (~54,000) and high-density (~777) single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels in Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Guosheng; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Aamand, Gert Pedersen; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated genomic prediction using medium density (54k) and high density marker panels (777k), based on data from Nordic Holstein and Red dairy cattle (RDC). The Holstein data comprised 4,539 progeny-tested bulls, and the RDC data 4,403 progeny-tested bulls. The data were divided into......, 2) 54k dataset where missing genotypes were imputed, and 3) imputed high density (HD) marker dataset which was created by imputing the 54k data to HD data based on 557 bulls genotyped using a 777k SNP chip in Holstein, and 706 bulls in RDC. Based on the three marker datasets, direct genomic breeding...... values (DGV) for protein, fertility and udder health were predicted using a genomic BLUP model (GBLUP) and a Bayesian mixture model with two normal distributions. Reliability of DGV was measured as squared correlations between de-regressed proofs (DRP) and DGV corrected for reliability of DRP...

  8. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  9. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LNmastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  10. Effects of α-linolenic acid-enriched diets on gene expression of key inflammatory mediators in immune and milk cells obtained from Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezamand, Pedram; Hatch, Brent P; Carnahan, Kevin G; McGuire, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Immune system and inflammatory responses are affected by α-linolenic acid (αLA: 18:3 ω-3). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of αLA-enriched rations on gene expression of systemic (blood) and local (mammary gland) inflammatory markers in Holstein dairy cattle. Further, the effect of dietary treatments was evaluated on the concentration of αLA in serum phospholipids. Camelina (Camelina sativa) meal (containing 24·2% αLA) was fed at 0, 3, 6, and 9% (dry matter basis) replacing canola meal (rich in 18:1 ω-9) to provide rations with incremental concentrations of αLA. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 16 d and milk and blood samples were collected during the final 2 d of each period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and milk cells (MC) were harvested, and RNA extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time PCR analysis. The effect of dietary treatments (αLA) on the relative abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the PBMC and MC was tested by the MIXED procedure of SAS. Expression of pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in MC was linearly reduced (up to 40%) as dietary αLA increased. Expression of pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α was reduced (29, 20, and 27%, respectively) in PBMC isolated from cows fed 6% camelina meal ration as compared with cows fed 0% (control). Expression of IL-6 was, however, increased with inclusion of camelina meal. Greater dietary αLA linearly increased serum phospholipids αLA contents, and when fed up to 6% DM down-regulated expression of some of the local (milk) and systemic (blood) pro-inflammatory markers in vivo. PMID:26869108

  11. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  12. Phenotypic and genetic variability of methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents of Walloon Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Soyeurt, Hélène; Vanlierde, Amélie; Dehareng, Frédéric; Froidmont, Eric; Gengler, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in reducing methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation of dairy cows because these emissions contribute to climate change and represent losses of gross energy intake for cows. Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is influenced by rumen fermentations. The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic variability of enteric CH4 emissions of dairy cows and FA contents of milk. CH4 emissions (g/d) and milk FA contents are predicted from milk mid-infrared (MIR...

  13. Phenotypic and genetic variability of methane emissions and milk fatty acid contents of Walloon Holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Soyeurt, Hélène; Vanlierde, Amélie; Dehareng, Frédéric; Froidmont, Eric; Gengler, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in reducing methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation of dairy cows because these emissions contribute to climate change and represent losses of gross energy intake for cows. Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is influenced by rumen fermentations. The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic variability of enteric CH4 emissions of dairy cows and FA contents of milk. CH4 emissions (g/d) and milk FA contents are predicted from milk mid-infrared (MIR...

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in PPARGC1A Gene Associates Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alim§, Yipeng Fan§, Yan Xie, Xiaoping Wu, Dongxiao Sun*, Yi Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Qin Zhang and Lin Liu1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find out possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of PPARGC1A gene and milk production traits. In the current study, one SNP at g.85330C>T position was identified in 9th intron of PPARGC1A gene through pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNP was genotyped using MALDI-TOF MS technique in 752 individuals from the Chinese Holstein cattle breed. The frequency of C allele at position g.85330C>T was more frequent in our population (0.69, followed by the T allele (0.31. From the association results, significant differences were found between PPARGC1A genotypes in the protein concentration and protein yield. Heterozygous cows with CT genotype at the g.85330C>T locus showed the highest protein yield, with more than 4.18 kg compared with homozygous cows with TT genotype; homozygous CC cows were found at intermediate position. In case of protein percentage, homozygous cows with TT genotype were significantly greater than heterozygous CT cows, with a difference of about 0.012%; CC cows were found in lowest position. The allele substitution results demonstrated that g.85330C>T-C allele decreased protein yield (1.23kg and protein percentage (0.016%. This result clearly indicated that g.85330C>T-T allele increased protein percentage and protein yield.

  15. The Impact of Kappa Casein Gene Polymorphism on Milk Components and Other Productive Performance Traits of Chinese Holstein Cattle

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    A. E. Hamza1, 2, Z. P.Yang1*, X. L. Wang1, R. J. Chen1, H. T. Wu1 and A. I. Ibrahim3

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of kappa casein gene (κ-Cn at exon 5 in 259 Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation (PCR-SSCP technique, to verify its effect on milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS and solids not fat (SNF content and influence of other factors such as parity and season of calving; aiming at utilizing it as a genetic aid in selection to improve the quality of production of this herd. A 218 bp fragment containing exon 1V of kappa casein gene was amplified by PCR and SSCP was applied to identify the structural gene polymorphism of κ-Cn. General linear model (GLM was used to analyze differences between genotypes. The results indicated that κ-Cn genotypes significantly (P0.05 on TS and SNF. However, cows with genotype TT showed higher fat and protein contents (3.89 and 3.50%, respectively than those of genotypes CC and TC (3.62 and 3.66% for fat; 3.35 and 3.36 % for protein, respectively. Except for lactose content; parity had no effect on milk components. Also, the results disclosed that season of calving did not affect (P>0.05 milk composition. This study indicated that the κ-Cn genetic variants may be used as a genetic aid through increasing the frequency of desired genotypes to improve the quality of production of this herd.

  16. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis. PMID:27254118

  17. Research of diagnosis of early pregnancy of Chinese holstein cows by measuring the contenets of progesterone and oestraniol in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of progesterone(P), oestradiol(E2) and P/E2 ratio in the milk of Chinese Holstein cows in and around breeding days were measured with radioimmunoassay, and the relations between the contents of P and E2 and cow conceiving were evaluated. The results indicated that the difference between the P content in the milk of the pregnant and the non- pregnant cows before breeding was not significant, but the P content from the first to the 18th day before breeding was highly significant(P2 content in the milk of the pregnant and the non-pregnant cows was highly significant difference (P2 content in the milk of the pregnant cows was nearly two times as higher as that in the non-pregnant cows. The P content between the pregnant and the non-pregnant cows was significant difference (P2 content was not significant, and the P/E2 ratio was highly significant difference (P<0.01). (authors)

  18. Penentuan Keberhasilan Involusi Uterus Sapi Perah Friesian Holstein Berdasarkan Kadar Estrogen Setelah Beberapa Penginjeksian Selenium-Vitamin E (DETERMINATION OF THE SUCCESS UTERINE INVOLUTION IN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COW BASED ESTROGEN LEVELS AFTER MU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ayu Prasdini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of selenium-vitamin ETM to the increasedlevels of estrogen as a sign of completion uterine involution process in dairy cows Frisian Holstein (FHafter calving. Twenty pragnant FH cows were used in this experiment. The cows devided into four groups.The first group (as control, P0 was not given selenium-vitamin ETM, the second group (P1 was given 0.5mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mL vitamin ETM, the third group (P2 was given 1,5 mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mLvitamin ETM and the fourth group (P3 was given 2 mg/mL selenium + 100 mg/mL vitamin ETM. Theadministration of selenium-vitamin ETM performed at the 7th months of pragnancy, 8th month of pragnancy,two weeks before calving, 7 and 14 days after calving intramuscularly. After calving, the serum of dairycows were taken for analysis of estrogen levels on the 25th day, the 45th, the 65th and current first postpartumestrus in the position of standing heat using Bovine Estrogen ELISA Kit (EST methode . The results of theanalysis of high estrogen levels on day 25, the 45th, the 65th and current first estrus days after giving birthin units of pg / mL found in treatment 3 (P3, which were a 8.94 ± 0.22; 9.64 ± 0.55; 9.86 ± 0.67and 10.14 ±0.84 respectively, but the fastest uterine involution based estrogen levels was in treatment 2 (P2 on the45th day with 9.12 ± 0.94 for the estrogen levels.. The conclusions of the study was the addition of seleniumand vitamin E at the 7th month of pragnancy until the 14th day after calving may significantly affecton theincreased levels of estrogen which indicates the success of uterine involution in dairy cows FH.

  19. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

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    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  20. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

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    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  1. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

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    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  2. Comparison of peripartum metabolic status and postpartum health of Holstein and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, L G D; Abade, C C; da Silva, E M; Litherland, N B; Hansen, L B; Hansen, W P; Chebel, R C

    2014-02-01

    Objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate plasma concentrations of metabolites and haptoglobin peripartum, uterine health and involution, and follicle growth and resumption of cyclicity of Holstein (HO) and Montbéliarde-sired crossbred cows. Cows (52 HO and 52 crossbred) were enrolled in the study 45 d before expected calving date. Cows had body weight and body condition score recorded on d -45, -14, 0, 1, 28, and 56 relative to calving. Dry matter intake was calculated for a subgroup of cows (25 HO and 38 crossbred) from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving. Blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 56 relative to calving for determination of glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; from d -7 to 21 relative to calving for determination of haptoglobin concentration; and from d 14 to 56 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Cows were examined at calving and on d 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum for diagnosis of postparturient diseases, on d 24 postpartum for diagnosis of purulent vaginal discharge, and on d 42 postpartum for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Uteri and ovaries were examined by ultrasonography every 3 d from d 14 to 41 postpartum. Milk yield and composition were measured monthly and yield of milk, fat, protein, and energy-corrected milk were recorded for the first 90 d postpartum. Body weight was not different between Holstein and crossbred cows, but HO cows had reduced body condition score compared with crossbred cows. Even though DMI from 6 wk before to 6 wk after calving tended to be greater for HO cows (16.8 ± 0.7 vs. 15.3 ± 0.5 kg/d), HO cows tended to have more pronounced decline in dry matter intake, expressed in percentage of body weight from d -15 to 0 relative to calving. Energy-corrected milk and nonesterified fatty acid and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not different between breeds. No differences were observed in incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, and

  3. Altered Molecular Expression of the TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Mammary Tissue of Chinese Holstein Cattle with Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; WANG, GENLIN

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway ...

  4. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  5. Associations of prepartum plasma cortisol, haptoglobin, fecal cortisol metabolites, and nonesterified fatty acids with postpartum health status in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Nydam, D V; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

    2011-12-01

    The association between negative energy balance and health has led to the testing of blood analytes such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) to identify opportunities for improving the management of transition dairy cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether prepartum analytes associated with stress (cortisol) or inflammation (haptoglobin) could also identify dairy cattle at increased risk for health complications after calving. Prepartum blood and fecal samples were collected once weekly from 412 Holstein dairy cows on 2 commercial dairy farms (at wk -3, -2, and -1 relative to calving) and analyzed for concentrations of NEFA, haptoglobin (Hp), and cortisol in plasma and cortisol metabolites in feces. Retained placenta (RP), displaced abomasum (DA), subclinical ketosis (SCK), high Hp concentration (HiHp), and death were recorded up to 30 d in milk (DIM), and animals were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) no disorder of interest (NDI); (2) one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, or HiHp); or (3) more than one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, HiHp) or death. With the exception of prepartum NEFA, no associations were detected between prepartum concentrations of our analytes of interest and the occurrence of one disorder (RP, DA, SCK, or HiHP) by 30 DIM. Haptoglobin concentration tended to be greater during wk -2 and -1 in cows that developed more than one disorder or that died by 30 DIM; however, when calving assistance was included as a covariate in the analysis prepartum, Hp was no longer a significant risk factor for this postpartum health outcome. Primiparous cows with plasma cortisol concentrations >22.2 nmol/L during wk -2 had reduced odds [odds ratio (OR) 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.98] of developing more than one disorder or death by 30 DIM, whereas multiparous cows with plasma cortisol >34.1 nmol/L during wk -2 tended to have greater odds (OR 2.53; 95% CI 0.87-7.37) of developing more than one disorder or death by 30 DIM. Individual

  6. Genetic analysis of locomotion and associated conformation traits of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows managed in different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyiro, O M; Brotherstone, S

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of housing on lameness-related linear and composite traits, and to estimate heritabilities of the traits and correlations among them. Data comprised 156,770 national type evaluation records of pedigreed first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows that calved from 2000 through 2006 and were classified in different housing systems--cubicles, straw yards, slatted or loafing yards, and on pasture. Locomotion score (LOCO), rear leg, side view (RLS), foot angle (FA), bone quality (BO-NEQ), legs and feet (L&F), and mammary composite (MAMM) were the traits measured. Data were analyzed by REML, using an animal model. In general, cows in grazing systems had better locomotion, straighter RLS, steeper FA, flat and more refined bones, better L&F, and better mammary systems compared with cows housed in other systems. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.11 for LOCO to 0.31 for MAMM. Bone quality had the highest heritability (0.23) of the traits associated with L&F. Genetic associations between BO-NEQ and LOCO, L&F, and MAMM were moderate to high (0.30 to 0.50), but estimates between BONEQ and RLS and FA were not significantly different from zero. Locomotion score had a very high genetic (0.98) and phenotypic (0.78) correlation with L&F, indicating that both traits are genetically the same. On the basis of the genetic parameters, including BONEQ in a selection index as a predictor of longevity is promising, but further information on its association with longevity is required. PMID:18096954

  7. Rear shape in 3 dimensions summarized by principal component analysis is a good predictor of body condition score in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A; Luginbühl, T; Delattre, L; Delouard, J M; Faverdin, P

    2015-07-01

    Body condition is an indirect estimation of the level of body reserves, and its variation reflects cumulative variation in energy balance. It interacts with reproductive and health performance, which are important to consider in dairy production but not easy to monitor. The commonly used body condition score (BCS) is time consuming, subjective, and not very sensitive. The aim was therefore to develop and validate a method assessing BCS with 3-dimensional (3D) surfaces of the cow's rear. A camera captured 3D shapes 2 m from the floor in a weigh station at the milking parlor exit. The BCS was scored by 3 experts on the same day as 3D imaging. Four anatomical landmarks had to be identified manually on each 3D surface to define a space centered on the cow's rear. A set of 57 3D surfaces from 56 Holstein dairy cows was selected to cover a large BCS range (from 0.5 to 4.75 on a 0 to 5 scale) to calibrate 3D surfaces on BCS. After performing a principal component analysis on this data set, multiple linear regression was fitted on the coordinates of these surfaces in the principal components' space to assess BCS. The validation was performed on 2 external data sets: one with cows used for calibration, but at a different lactation stage, and one with cows not used for calibration. Additionally, 6 cows were scanned once and their surfaces processed 8 times each for repeatability and then these cows were scanned 8 times each the same day for reproducibility. The selected model showed perfect calibration and a good but weaker validation (root mean square error=0.31 for the data set with cows used for calibration; 0.32 for the data set with cows not used for calibration). Assessing BCS with 3D surfaces was 3 times more repeatable (standard error=0.075 versus 0.210 for BCS) and 2.8 times more reproducible than manually scored BCS (standard error=0.103 versus 0.280 for BCS). The prediction error was similar for both validation data sets, indicating that the method is not less

  8. Supplementing fresh bovine colostrum with gut-active carbohydrates reduces passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M P; Godden, S M; Haines, D M

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of coliform bacteria in maternal colostrum (MC) have been associated with reduced IgG absorption in calves. Mannan-oligosaccharide, a gut-active carbohydrate (GAC) derived from yeast cell wall, has been shown to adsorb pathogens expressing type-1-fimbriae, reducing their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate if addition of a GAC to colostrum would result in increased IgG absorption in newborn calves. Newborn Holstein heifer and bull calves were enrolled in summer 2012 at a commercial transition cow facility in western Wisconsin. Each day, 7.6-L pools of fresh, first milking MC were created, split into 3.8-L aliquots, and refrigerated until feeding. Eligible newborn calves were removed from the dam 30 to 60min after birth, weighed, and randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of the MC pool (control) or 3.8 L of the MC pool with 30 g of GAC mixed in immediately before feeding. Duplicate 10-mL samples of colostrum were collected and frozen at -20°C before feeding (and before addition of GAC) for bacterial culture and IgG determination. A 10-mL venous blood sample was collected from calves before feeding colostrum and 24 h after colostrum feeding, for laboratory determination of serum IgG using radial immunodiffusion analysis. Colostrum and calf characteristics, including colostrum IgG concentration (g/L), colostrum bacteria counts (log10, cfu/mL), calf dystocia scores (1 to 4), birth weights (kg), and age at first feeding (min) were not different between the group fed GAC (n=47) and the control group (n=48). Mixed linear regression analysis showed that calves fed colostrum supplemented with 30 g of GAC had lower mean (standard error) apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and lower serum IgG concentrations at 24 h [23.9% (1.0); IgG=24.0 (1.1) g/L] than did control calves [30.4% (1.0); IgG=30.8 (1.0) g/L]. Given the negative effect observed in this study, it is not recommended that fresh

  9. Genetic parameters for digital dermatitis and correlations with locomotion, production, fertility traits, and longevity in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyiro, O M; Andrews, L J; Brotherstone, S

    2008-10-01

    Heritability of digital dermatitis (DD) and correlations between DD and type traits related to legs and feet were estimated from a linear animal model. Data comprised 93,391 national type evaluation records of pedigreed first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows that calved from 2002 through 2006. At the time of classification, cows were housed in different housing systems (i.e., cubicles, straw yards, slatted or loafing yards) and on pasture. The type traits evaluated were locomotion score (LOCO), rear legs side view (RLS), foot angle (FA), bone quality and leg and feet composite (L&F). In addition, cows were examined for DD lesions at classification. The relationships among these type traits, lifespan (LS), production (milk and fat), fertility (calving interval and 56-d nonreturn) and DD were examined by estimating the approximate genetic correlations from sire estimated breeding values. The study also evaluated the association between DD and the housing systems as well as the general conditions of the farm flooring where classification took place. In general, cows on pasture were less susceptible to DD than cows in other housing systems, whereas the association between DD and the flooring conditions was counterintuitive. Heritability estimate for DD was 0.011 on the 0/1 scale, which is equivalent to 0.029 on the assumed underlying normally distributed scale. Bone quality, LOCO, and L&F had moderate to high negative genetic correlations with DD, indicating that flatter, more refined bones, higher LOCO, and better L&F were associated with less incidence of DD. The genetic correlations between DD, RLS, and FA were not significantly different from zero. Digital dermatitis had moderate but negative genetic correlations with LS and milk and fat, suggesting that breeding for resistance to DD will result in an increase in both longevity and production. Cows affected with DD had a slightly shorter calving interval than healthy cows, an association found to be mediated

  10. Benchmarking cow comfort on North American freestall dairies: lameness, leg injuries, lying time, facility design, and management for high-producing Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Barrientos, A; Ito, K; Galo, E; Weary, D M

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel approach to corporate involvement in on-farm assessment, driven by the desire to provide a service for dairy producers and to create a vehicle for engagement on issues of dairy cow welfare. This program provides producers with feedback on animal-based (including gait score, leg injuries, and lying time) and facility-based (including freestall design, bedding practices, feed bunk design and management, and stocking density) measures that can be used to better address their management goals. The aim of this paper is to describe variation in the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries, lying behavior, facility design, and management practices for high-producing cows on freestall dairy farms in 3 regions of North America: British Columbia (BC; n=42); California (CA; n=39); and the northeastern United States (NE-US; n=40). Prevalence of clinical lameness averaged (mean ± SD) 27.9±14.1% in BC, 30.8±15.5% in CA, and 54.8±16.7% in NE-US; prevalence of severe lameness averaged 7.1±5.4% in BC, 3.6±4.2% in CA, and 8.2±5.6% in NE-US. Overall prevalence of hock injuries was 42.3±26.2% in BC, 56.2±21.6% in CA, and 81.2±22.5% in NE-US; prevalence of severe injuries was 3.7±5.2% in BC, 1.8±3.1% in CA, 5.4±5.9% in NE-US. Prevalence of swollen knees was minimal in CA (0.3±0.6%) but high (23.1±16.3%) in NE-US (not scored in BC). Lying times were similar across regions (11.0±0.7h/d in BC, 10.4±0.8h/d in CA, 10.6±0.9h/d in NE-US), but individual lying times among cows assessed varied (4.2 to 19.5h/d, 3.7 to 17.5h/d, and 2.8 to 20.5h/d in BC, CA, and NE-US, respectively). These results showed considerable variation in lameness and leg injury prevalence as well as facility design and management among freestall farms in North America. Each of the 3 regions had farms with a very low prevalence of lameness and injuries, suggesting great opportunities for improvement on other farms within the region. PMID:23063152

  11. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  12. The effect of sire predicted transmitting ability for production traits on fertility, survivability, and health of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho; Foditsch, Carla; Gilbert, Rob; Oikonomou, Georgios

    2014-01-15

    The major objective of this study was to evaluate, using survival analysis and multivariable regression models, the relationship of sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for production traits with their daughters' milk production, fat, and protein percentage (PROPCT), reproductive performance, postpartum disease incidence, and survivability. Data were collected from six large commercial dairy farms, and data analysis included 22,205 cows. Information regarding each sire's genetic evaluation included the following: PTA for fat yield (FAT), fat percentage (FATPCT), milk yield (MILK), protein yield, and PROPCT. Sire PTA was categorized into quartiles to facilitate data analysis and interpretation. Retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and clinical mastitis were diagnosed and treated by farm personnel. The overall average daily milk production, milk fat and PROPCT during the first 10 months of lactation was higher for the cows in the highest quartile of sire PTA, and cows in the lowest quartile had lower averages. There was no significant association between sire PTA for production traits and first test day fat to protein ratio or the incidence of postpartum disease. Sire PTA for MILK, FATPCT, and PROPCT were significantly associated with the hazard of pregnancy. The median days from calving to conception were 159, 155, 170, and 181 days for cows in the sire PTA for MILK quartiles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Sire PTA for PROPCT and FATPCT were also significantly associated with the hazard of pregnancy. The median days from calving to conception were 175, 189, 152, and 145 for cows in the sire PTA for PROPCT groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Additionally, cows in the highest quartile for sire PTA for FATPCT had the lowest median days from calving to conception (144 days) and cows in lowest quartile had the highest median interval (177 days). Sire PTA for FAT was the only sire PTA significantly associated with the hazard of death/culling. When

  13. 规模化养殖的中国荷斯坦奶牛产污系数模型的确定%Modelling pollutant generation coefficients in holstein dairy production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海媛; 张宝贵; 郭建斌; 董仁杰; 周捷; 张万钦; 陈理; 王宝芝; 庞昌乐

    2012-01-01

    以近期中国荷斯坦奶牛产污系数试验资料为基础,分析饲料摄入量及成分与排出粪污污染物之间的关系,建立了奶牛产污系数模型并进行了验证.结果表明:育成牛排粪量可用采食量、摄入氮、摄入磷和摄入铜4因子预测,其模型拟合度高于产奶牛;育成牛排氮量可用采食量、摄入氮两因子预测,产奶牛的排氮量可用摄入氮预测;产奶牛和育成牛的排磷量均可用摄入磷预测.该模型由于包括了不同季节、不同样本、不同奶牛养殖场等影响因素,使结果具有广泛的适用性,可用于分析中国荷斯坦奶牛养殖对环境的污染及粪污农田的消纳利用%Pollutants generation coefficients of livestock breeding industry are the important basic data in the field of environment assessment of livestock breeding industry. However, the reported coefficients have a significant difference. The relationship of dairy feedstock intake and its pollutant production were analyzed on the basis of previous studies on pollutant generation coefficients of Holstein and a model of pollutants generation coefficients in dairy production was suggested and verified. The amount of feces excreted by bred cattle could be predicted by four factors of feed intake, intake of nitrogen, intake of phosphorus and intake of copper. And the results fit the model better than that of the dairy cow. The nitrogen content in the feces of bred cattle could be predicted by intake of feed and nitrogen. The nitrogen content in the feces of dairy cattle could be predicted by intake nitrogen. The phosphorus content in bred cattle and dairy cattle could be predicted both by intake of phosphorus. Considering the impact factors of seasons, samples and location, this model had a wide adaptability which allows to determine the pollution generation coefficients in Holstein dairy production. It facilitated analysis of the environmental pollution and the cow manure nutrients to field

  14. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  15. 育成荷斯坦奶公牛与其他3个品种牛的肉品质比较研究%Study on Beef Quality of Growing Holstein Dairy Bull Compared with Other Three Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡猛; 张文举; 尹君亮; 陈宁; 张云峰

    2013-01-01

    通过对育成荷斯坦奶公牛与西门塔尔牛、新疆褐牛及新疆土种牛肉品质部分指标的比较分析研究,旨在探讨荷斯坦奶公牛的肉品质.选择在相同营养模式下18月龄左右4个品种牛各3头进行屠宰,取右半边胴体的背最长肌作为肉品质试验样品,分别对牛肉的肉品质、常规营养成分及氨基酸含量进行测定和分析.结果表明,荷斯坦奶公牛肉色、失水率、系水力、熟肉率、大理石花纹等指标均优于新疆褐牛、新疆土种牛,次于西门塔尔牛;荷斯坦奶公牛嫩度优于新疆土种牛;粗蛋白质、粗灰分含量分别为20.14%、1.11%,且各品种间差异均不显著(P>0.05),干物质含量为26.30%,显著高于新疆褐牛和新疆土种牛(P<0.05),低于西门塔尔牛(P>0.05),粗脂肪含量为10.04%,显著高于其他品种牛(P<0.05);荷斯坦奶公牛含有人体需要的各种氨基酸,其中蛋氨酸、谷氨酸、甘氨酸、组氨酸、牛磺酸等含量丰富,氨基酸组成比例良好.%By the comparative study on the beef quality of growing Holstein dairy bull, Simmental cattle, Xinjiang Brown calf and Xinjiang local cattle,the assay was aimed to explore the internal beef quality of the dairy bull. Four different breeds of 18 month age cattle were slaughter in the same nutrition model. Carcass were taken back up the right muscle as meat sample. Edible quality,normal composition of nutrition and amino acids were detected and analysed. The results showed that marbling, beef color, water losing rate,water retention capacity and cooking percentage of Holstein dairy bull were better than Xinjiang Brown calf and Xinjiang local cattle, but weaker than Simmental cattle. The tenderness of Holstein dairy bull was better than Xinjiang local cattle. The contents of crude protein and crude ash were 20. 14% and 1. 11%, there were no significant differences during each breeds (P>0. 05). The content of dry matter was 26. 30% , it

  16. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  17. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on growth performance and sorting behaviors of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...

  18. Effects of Chinese herbal formula Heat-stress-releasing on antioxidant function in dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qingru; NI Yaodi; GUO Hongbin; WANG Chunguang

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal formula Heat-stress-releasing on the antioxidant function in dairy cows,ten dairy cows were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group,with five cows in each group.All the cows were fed with a basal diet.The animals in the experimental group were given with 220 g of herbs per day in addition to the basal diet.The trial was conducted for 14 days.Blood samples were taken from the vena cava at day 0,day 7,and day 15,respectively.The antioxidant statuses were examined.The results are as follows.(1) Heat-Stress-releasing formula can significantly increase the milk yield of dairy cows under heat stress.Compared with the control group,the milk yield of the herb-treated group increased by 14.01% (P<0.05),14.32% (P<0.05) and 15.01% (P<0.05) in prophase,metaphase and anaphase of the test,respectively.(2) Heat-Stress-releasing formula can increase significantly the antioxidant status of the heat stressed dairy cows.Compared with the control group,the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased by 45.93% (P<0.01) at day 7 and by 54.40% (P<0.01) at day 15.The Glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity of the test group increased by 17.99% (P<0.05) at day 7 and 25.98% (P<0.01) at day 15.The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the test group increased by 43.64% (P<0.01) at day 7 and 46.35% (P<0.01)at day 15.The malondaldehyd (MDA) content of test group declined by 23.88% (P<0.01) at day 7 and 25.32% (P<0.01)at day 15.

  19. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    Full Text Available The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity.

  20. A g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 is associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Sun, Yan; Wang, Xiuge; Yang, Chunhong; Ju, Zhihua; Jiang, Qiang; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Jinming; Zhong, Jifeng; Yin, Miao; Wang, Changfa

    2016-07-01

    The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for sperm motility. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating the expression of the CAPN1 gene in bulls remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of CAPN1 in testis, epididymis, and sperm at the RNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence assay. Results revealed that the expression of CAPN1 levels was higher in the sperm head compared with that in other tissues. Moreover, we identified a novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (g.-1256 A>C, ss 1917715340) in the noncanonical core promoter of the CAPN1 gene between base g.-1306 and g.-1012. Additionally, we observed greater sperm motility in bulls with the genotype CC than in those with the genotype AA (PC was revealed by transient transfection in MLTC-1 cells and luciferase report assay. Finally, CAPN1 was highly expressed in the spermatozoa with the CC genotype compared with that with the AA genotype by qRT-PCR. This study is the first report on genetic variant g.-1256 A>C in the promoter region of CAPN1 gene association with the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls by influencing its expression. g.-1256 A>C can be a functional molecular marker in cattle breeding. PMID:27107033

  1. Study on the Effects of Chinese Herb Additive on Milk Yield and Anti-heat Stress Ability of Holstein Cow%中草药添加剂对荷斯坦奶牛产奶量及抗热应激能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵政; 陈学文; 李仕坚

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to explore the effects of Chinese herb additive on milk yield and anti-heat stress ability of Holstein cow.[Method] 36 Holstein cows with similar birth order and milk yield were equally and randomly divided into 3 groups which were control group, Chinese medicine Ⅰ group and Chinese medicine Ⅱ group. In control group, cows were fed with basic feed, while in Chinese medicine Ⅰ group, cows were fed with basic feed containing 4% compound Chinese herb additive and in Chinese medicine Ⅱ group, cows were fed with basic feed containing 3% compound Chinese herb additive.All cows in the 3 groups were analyzed comparatively.[Result] Adding some compound Chinese herb additive into basic feed would increase milk yield and anti-heat stress ability of Holstein cow,besides,it also could decrease cow diseases such as cow mastitis.Chinese medicine Ⅰ would generate the highest economic benefit of practical production.[Conclusion] Adding Chinese herb additive into basic feed is an effective way for reliefing heat stress and increasing milk yield.

  2. Detection of genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties in Danish Holstein dairy cattle by analyses of pooled whole-genome sequences from phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, H P; Gregersen, V R; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard;

    2016-01-01

    differences between pooled whole-genome sequences of phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).. Curd-firming rate and raw milk pH were measured for 415 Danish Holstein cows, and each animal was sequenced at low coverage. Pools were created containing whole genome sequence reads from samples with "extreme...... located on chromosome 6. A total of 9 significant SNP, which were selected based on the possible function of proximal candidate genes, were genotyped in the entire sample set ( = 415) to test for an association. The most significant SNP was located proximal to , explaining 33% of the phenotypic variance....... , coding for κ-casein, is the most studied in relation to milk coagulation due to its position on the surface of the casein micelles and the direct involvement in milk coagulation. Three additional SNP located on chromosome 6 showed significant associations explaining 7, 3.6, and 1.3% of the phenotypic...

  3. Isolation and Identification of Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis from Milk, Manure and Fecal Samples of Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    M. Seyyedin; T.Z. Salehi; H. Tadjbakhsh; M.F. Najafi; Rabbani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was detection of subclinical forms of Johne’s disease on dairy farms which were suspected of having Johne’s disease or history of it and confirmatory paraclinical of paratuberculosis in them. Also, the isolated bacteria will be used for genotyping and molecular epidemiology of paratuberculosis in the next studies. Samples were gathered of 137 farms in different parts of Razavi Khorasan Province of Iran. There were 505 fresh-fecal and manure samples and 148 raw milk ...

  4. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  5. 中国乳制品企业的道德管理%The Chinese Dairy Enterprise Ethics Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奎霞

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008,the Chinese dairy enterprise occurred frequently quality and safety accidents.The cause of the accident leads directly to the enterprise ethics.Through analysis of the status of ethical management of dairy enterprises to improve and find ways to improve corporate ethics management.Based on the analysis of large amounts of data demonstrate that China's dairy companies do not pay attention to ethical management,the concept behind,the mechanism is not perfect is the main reason leading to moral failure.Dairy companies should systematically build corporate culture,the development of scientific development strategy,emphasis on supply chain management and quality control,enhance the standardization of enterprise management,accelerate product innovation and upgrading the system to enhance the management level of business ethics.%中国乳制品企业自2008年频发质量安全事故,事故原因直指企业伦理道德。通过对当前我国乳制品企业的道德管理现状分析,找到改善和提升企业道德管理的途径。通过对大量资料的分析论证发现我国乳制品企业对道德管理不重视,观念落后,机制不健全是导致道德缺失的主要原因。企业应该系统建设企业文化,制定科学发展战略,重视供应链管理和质量控制,加强对企业的规范化管理,加快产品创新和升级以系统提升企业道德管理水平。

  6. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  7. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  8. Verification for the control of kappa-casein gene on milk protein yield of friesian-holstein in dairy central region of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anggraeni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotipe of BB kappa kasein (ĸ-kasein gene positively influences high milk protein yield. The aim of this research was to verify the use of the к-casein gene as marker of assisted selecion (MAS of high protein yield in domestic Holstein-Friesian (HF cattle. Genotyping blood samples was conducted for lactating cows from BPPT-SP Cikole (82 head and a number of small holders in KPSBU Lembang (190 head. Genotyping the к-casein gene was also conducted for active and non active AI bulls (HF from BIB Lembang (25 head and BBIB Singosari (32 head. Varian genotipes were identified trough DNA migration, whereas frequencies of alleles were calculated by Nei Method (1987. The effects of variant genotypes on protein yield and other milk component yields were studied in lactating cows (56 head in BPPT-SP Cikole and 111 head in KPSBU Lembang by applying Least Square Means (LSM method of the General Linear Model (GLM. Genotyping the ĸ-kasein gene resulted in three genotypes, namely AA, AB and BB, with two alleles, namely A and B. It was identified that a very limited number of lactating cows with BB genotype (0-9%. These cows produced higher protein yield around 3.37-3.84% than that of AA cows, while AB cows produced protein yield in between, though these differences were not statistically significant (P>0,05. In contrast, AA cows tended to produced higher milk fat yield than BB cows. Cows BB and AB seemingly produced higher dry matter, while both specific density and pH were not affected by variant genotypes of the к-casein gene. The results showed that BB genotype of the к-casein gene tended to be quitely consistent in controlling high protein yield, so it would be a good oppurtinity to be used as MAS of milk protein yield in HF domestic.

  9. BUTYRATE SUPPLEMENTATION AFFECTS mRNA ABUNDANCE OF GENES INVOLVED IN GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION AND LIPOGENESIS IN THE RUMEN EPITHELIUM OF HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hermen Laarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy availability in epithelial cells is a crucial link for maintaining epithelial barrier integrity; energy depletion is linked to impaired barrier function in several epithelia. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of exogenous butyrate on mRNA abundance of genes indirectly involved in rumen epithelial barrier integrity. Sixteen mid-lactation Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration received a concentrate mix to induce Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA. For 7 days, while being fed the concentrate mix, cows were assigned either a control treatment or a butyrate treatment, in which cows were fed butyrate at 2.5% daily dry matter intake in the form of a calcium salt. On days 6 and 7, rumen pH was measured continuously and on day 7, rumen biopsies took place. Rumen pH fell below 5.6 for more than 3 hours per day in both treatments, con-firming the occurrence of SARA. Microarray and pathway analysis, confirmed by real time PCR, showed that exogenous butyrate significantly increased the mRNA abundance of hexokinase 2 (fold change: 2.07, pyruvate kinase (1.19, cytochrome B-complex 3 (1.18 and ATP Synthase, F0 subunit (1.66, which en-code important glycolytic enzymes. Meanwhile, butyrate decreased mRNA abundance of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2(-2.38, ATP citrate lyase (-2.00 and mitochondrial CoA transporter (-2.27, which en-code enzymes involved in lipogenesis. These data suggest exogenous butyrate induces a shift towards energy mobilization in the rumen epithelium, which may aid barrier function in the rumen epithelium during SARA.

  10. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S.

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  11. Study on Lactation Curve Models of Chinese Holstein for the Third Parity%中国荷斯坦奶牛第三泌乳期泌乳曲线模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊本海; 马毅; 罗清尧; 庞之洪; 邓文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] In order to meet the precise prediction of nutrient requirements for dairy cattle individuals and investigate the secreting pattern of milk composition. [Method] One hundred and ninety-six cows were divided into 7 groups according to 305-day yield in the third parity from 5000 to 11999 kg with an interval of 1000 kg. The adjusted month-milk-yields were fitted using 3 equations (Wood, Gompertz and Dijkstra equations). Twenty-one sets of lactation curve models for different milk yield ranges were obtained by nonlinear parameter estimation and mean square error (MSE) analysis and lactation features of each yield range including initial yield (v0), time to peak yield (tm), peak yield (ym) and relative rate of decline at the point halfway between peak yield and end of lactation (r(th)) were revealed by model parameters. [ Result] Analysis on the model parameters and feature indices showed that the above three mathematic equations were all able to describe lactation characteristics of Chinese Holstein dairy cows among different milk yield ranges for the third parity well. The parameter estimation for both Wood and Gompertz equations (empirical model) with three parameters was more simple and practical than for Dijkstra equation (mechanical model) with four parameters, and the former model parameters and lactation characteristics demonstrated by them were better than the later. [Conclusion] The above lactation curve models for different milking ranges established for different milking ranges could provide a helpful basic model for the accurate prediction of nutrient requirements and precise feeding for dairy cattle.%[目的]满足对奶牛个体营养需要量的精确预测,探索乳成分的分泌规律.[方法]以中国荷斯坦奶牛第三泌乳期305 d的产奶量为基础,从5 000-11 999 kg,按1 000 kg为间隔分为7个区间对196头奶牛进行分组,分别采用Wood、Gompertz经验模型和Dijkstra机理模型对每月测定并校正到标准日期

  12. Detection of genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties in Danish Holstein dairy cattle by analyses of pooled whole-genome sequences from phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, H P; Gregersen, V R; Poulsen, N; Nielsen, R O; Das, A; Madsen, L B; Buitenhuis, A J; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Larsen, L B; Bendixen, C

    2016-04-01

    Rennet-induced milk coagulation is an important trait for cheese production. Recent studies have reported an alarming frequency of cows producing poorly coagulating milk unsuitable for cheese production. Several genetic factors are known to affect milk coagulation, including variation in the major milk proteins; however, recent association studies indicate genetic effects from other genomic regions as well. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation affecting milk coagulation properties, measured as curd-firming rate (CFR) and milk pH. This was achieved by examining allele frequency differences between pooled whole-genome sequences of phenotypically extreme samples (pool-seq).. Curd-firming rate and raw milk pH were measured for 415 Danish Holstein cows, and each animal was sequenced at low coverage. Pools were created containing whole genome sequence reads from samples with "extreme" values (high or low) for both phenotypic traits. A total of 6,992,186 and 5,295,501 SNP were assessed in relation to CFR and milk pH, respectively. Allele frequency differences were calculated between pools and 32 significantly different SNP were detected, 1 for milk pH and 31 for CFR, of which 19 are located on chromosome 6. A total of 9 significant SNP, which were selected based on the possible function of proximal candidate genes, were genotyped in the entire sample set ( = 415) to test for an association. The most significant SNP was located proximal to , explaining 33% of the phenotypic variance. , coding for κ-casein, is the most studied in relation to milk coagulation due to its position on the surface of the casein micelles and the direct involvement in milk coagulation. Three additional SNP located on chromosome 6 showed significant associations explaining 7, 3.6, and 1.3% of the phenotypic variance of CFR. The significant SNP on chromosome 6 were shown to be in linkage disequilibrium with the SNP peaking proximal to ; however, after accounting for the genotype of

  13. A Method for Accuracy of Genetic Evaluation by Utilization of Canadian Genetic Evaluation Information to Improve Heilongjiang Holstein Herds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Ke-wei; TAKEO Kayaba

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to set up a new genetic evaluation procedure to predict the breeding values of Holstein herds in Heilongjiang Province of China for milk and fat production by utilizing Canadian pedigree and genetic evaluation information and to compare the breeding values of the sires from different countries. The data used for evaluating young sires for the Chinese Holstein population consisted of records selected from 21 herds in HeiIongjiang Province. The first lactation records of 2 496 daughters collected in 1989 and 2000 were analyzed. A single-trait animal model including a fixed herd-year effect, random animal and residual effects was used by utilizing Canadian pedigree and genetic evaluation information of 5 126 sires released from the Canadian Dairy Network in August 2000. The BLUP procedure was used to evaluate all cattle in this study and the Estimated Breeding Values (EBV)for milk and fat production of 6 697 cattle (including 673 sires and 6 024 cows) were predicted. The genetic levels of the top 100 sires originated from different countries were compared.Unlike the BLUP procedure that is being used in conjunction with the single-trait sire model in Heilongjiang Province of China now, the genetic evaluation procedure used in this study not only can be used simultaneously to evaluate sires and cows but also increase the accuracy of evaluation due to using the relationships and genetic values of the Canadian evaluated sires with more daughters. The results showed that the new procedure was useful for genetic evaluation of dairy herds and the comparison of the breeding values of these sires imported from different countries showed that a significant genetic improvement has been achieved for milk production of the Heilongjiang Holstein dairy population by importing sires from foreign countries, especially from the United States due to the higher breeding values.

  14. Communication Strategies of the Chinese Dairy Industry Manufacturers to Rebuild Reputation and Maintain a Quality Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashi Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Sanlu tainted milk powder crisis in China in 2008, the entire powdered milk manufacturing industry, and in many ways the food industry as a whole, faced a crisis of reputation and consumer confidence. Through a study of the organisation and public relationships of dairy companies, the crisis communication strategies they used, and how they cultivated relationships, this paper explores how companies within the milk industry rebuilt their reputations to a point where customers and other key elements of the public once again felt confident about their products. This study explores the organisation­-public relationships (OPRs cultivation strategies of the dairy companies and the communication strategies they used to rebuild the industry's reputation after the Sanlu crisis. The author interviewed dairy company personnel and consumers in China (N=18 and conducted secondary document research. The communication strategies that dairy companies used to maintain their relationship with the public are analysed. This study develops the theory of relationship management and provides suggestions for other companies to utilise should they face an industry crisis in the future. The cultivation strategies the dairy companies use to maintain their relationship with the public is hard to separate from communication strategy employed after the crisis.

  15. Reliability of Genomic Evaluation of Holstein Cattle in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers in Canada and the United States have been collaborating to develop and implement genomic evaluations aiming to fully integrate them into their national genetic evaluations for dairy cattle in 2009. A total of 44 Canadian traits were analyzed for 12,913 Holstein animals. For 43 out of 44...

  16. Communication Strategies of the Chinese Dairy Industry Manufacturers to Rebuild Reputation and Maintain a Quality Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Dashi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    After the Sanlu tainted milk powder crisis in China in 2008, the entire powdered milk manufacturing industry, and in many ways the food industry as a whole, faced a crisis of reputation and consumer confidence. Through a study of the organisation and public relationships of dairy companies, the crisis communication strategies they used, and how they cultivated relationships, this paper explores how companies within the milk industry rebuilt their reputations to a point where customers and oth...

  17. 焦磷酸测序法分析中国荷斯坦牛、娟姗牛及水牛的乳蛋白基因多态性%Genetic polymorphisms of milk protein in Chinese Holstein cattle, Jersey cattle and water buffalo analyzed by pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大喜; 陈有亮; 刘建新; 李玲; 林波; 曾庆坤

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze and compare the genetic polymorphisms of milk protein in Chinese Holstein cattle, Jersey cattle and water buffalo.MethodsThe primers were designed according to the milk protein polymorphic sites of Holstein, and the genetic polymorphisms were analyzed by pyrosequencing and confirmed by RP-HPLC.ResultsGenetic polymorphisms of milk protein genes (β-casein,κ-casein andβ-lactoglobulin) were detected in Chinese Holstein cattle and Jersey cattle. However, no polymorphism was found in water buffalo exceptκ-casein, and the polymorphic site was different with Holstein and Jersey. ConclusionMilk protein polymorphism was found in Chinese Holstein, Jersey and buffalo, and pyrose-quencing was a high-throughput and fast method for milk protein genotyping.%目的:本研究旨在分析和比较中国荷斯坦牛、娟姗牛和水牛的乳蛋白基因多态性。方法根据奶牛多态位点设计引物,采用焦磷酸测序法分析乳蛋白基因多态性,并采用高效液相色谱法进行验证。结果荷斯坦牛和娟姗牛的乳蛋白(β-casein,κ-casein和β-lactoglobulin)均存在基因多态性,而水牛仅在κ-casein上存在多态性且多态位点与另两种奶牛不同。结论中国荷斯坦牛、娟姗牛和水牛的乳蛋白基因均存在多态性,焦磷酸测序法能高通量、快速测定乳蛋白基因多态性。

  18. Feeding a High-Concentrate Corn Straw Diet Induced Epigenetic Alterations in the Mammary Tissue of Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Guozhong; Qiu, Min; Ao, Changjin; Zhou, Jun; Khas-Erdene,; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Zhu; YANG You

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS) diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw) on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS) diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw) and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF) diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage). Experimental Design Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets fo...

  19. Effects of “NPN” Supplement on Milk Production in Holstein Dairy Cow%“NPN”补充料对增加奶牛产奶量效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关超

    2011-01-01

    为探讨NPN (non protein nitrogen非蛋白氮简称NPN)补充料在奶牛养殖业中的作用,选取相关材料和方法进行研究.中国荷斯坦奶牛32头随机分为试验组和对照组,每组16头.试验组在精料中用NPN补充料取代一定数量的常规蛋白质补充料,对照组饲喂常规饲料,不添加NPN补充料.经过60天的试验,结果表明:试验组奶牛总产奶量16108kg,比对照组的15289 kg增产819kg,平均每头每日增产0.85 kg,以当地鲜奶时价2元/kg计,计算出日增收1.7元.再来计算饲料成本,在用NPN补充料替换出常规蛋白质补充料胡麻饼时,精饲料总成本降低544元,即试验组比对照组饲料成本节省544元,通过相关计算可得试验组平均每头每日节约饲料成本0.57元.从而得出NPN补充料对奶牛产奶量及经济效益的影响结果,对其在生产中推广应用有指导作用.%To explore the NPN supplement; in the role of breeding industry of cows, select, related materials and methods to research. Choose thirty-two China Holstein dairy cows, and then randomly divided them into two groups: experiment group and control group, each group is sixteen .In the experimental group feed with NPN supplement to replace a certain number of conventional protein supplement. The control group feed with conventional material, do not add NPN supplementary material .After years of experimentation, The results shows: experimental group output is 16108 kg and control group output is 15289 kg. The former more than the latter 819 kg. The average daily milk yield number of cow per day increase 0.85 kg, decides on a price 2 yuan/kg ideas by the fresh milk to be the equivalent to increase 1.7 yuan per day. Calculate the cost of feed while with NPN supplementary material replacing the conventional protein supplementary material in Hu sesame seed cake. The concentrated feed total cost drops 544 yuan. Namely the experimental group drops 544 yuan compared to the control group feed

  20. A Five State Survey of Heifer Management Practices on Dairy Farms and Virginia Custom Dairy Heifer Growing Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Two surveys evaluated heifer management practices in dairy herds and custom grower operations. The NC-119 Heifer Management Survey conducted through the North Central Regional Research Project 119 included 226 Holstein and 67 Jersey herds from MN, MO, PA, VA, and WA. Mean rolling herd average for milk was 8,838 and 6,251 kg for Holstein and Jersey herds, respectively. Calf mortality rates from birth to first calving were 15.3 % for Holsteins and 15.8% for Je...

  1. Tissue protein nitration and peripheral blood endotoxin activity are indicative of the severity of systemic organ compromise in naturally-occurring clinical cases of bacterial mastitis in Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this survey study was to determine a relationship between the intensity of tissue protein tyrosine nitration measured in samples of mammary gland, liver, pancreas and lung compared to estimated blood endotoxin (LPS) activity. Blood was collected from nine multiparous Holstein cows...

  2. Polymorphism of CRP gene and its relationship with mastitis and milk in Chinese Holstein and bioinformatics analysis%奶牛CRP基因多态性与奶牛乳腺炎及乳质乳量的相关性研究及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏志; 刘小林; 徐阿娟; 郭家中; 贺花

    2011-01-01

    选用400头中国荷斯坦奶牛取血样400份,每份各2管.根据奶牛CRP基因序列设计2对引物,利用PCRSSCP技术检测CRP基因的多态性,并用透射免疫比浊法测定奶牛血清CRP水平,然后运用SPSS等统计学软件对其与乳房炎及乳质、乳量的关系进行统计分析.结果显示,在第1对引物的扩增片段中检测到多态位点,出现3种基因型(AA、AB、BB),第2对引物的扩增片段中并未检测到多态位点.将第1对引物所扩片段的不同基因型与奶牛乳腺炎的相关性作关联分析,结果3种不同基因型奶牛的体细胞数、乳质率、蛋白率、305 d产奶量均无显著差异,但患乳房炎奶牛个体全为AA型.而CRP含量检测结果可知患乳房炎的奶牛与正常个体之间的血清CRP含量并无显著差异.%The goal of the present study was to detect the polymorphism in C-reactive protein(CRP) and analyze the relationship between CRP gene and m astitis (include resistance and susceptible to mastitis,milk quantity and quality) ,and the level of serum CRP between mastitis and normal cow. According to the sequence of bovine CRP gene,design two pairs of primers and use PCR-SSCP to detect single nucleotide polymorphism of CRP gene in Chinese Holstein,and analyze the relationship through the software SPSS and Excel. There was one polymorphic locus occurring in P1 with three genotypes (AA, AB, BB),and no polymorphic locus occurring in P2. The relationship analysis indicates that the genotype and the mastitis have no significant difference,and also do to the milk quality and quantity,but all of the mastitis dairy cows are AA genotype. And the serum CRP level between mastitis and normal group are not significantly different.

  3. Gynecological and cytological evaluation in Holstein cows with more than three repetitions of estrus

    OpenAIRE

    Cícero Fleury Guedes Martins; Patricia Magalhães de Oliveira; Nayara Resende Nasciutti; Vinícius de Morais Barbosa; Mariana Borges Ferreira; Milton Maturana Filho; Ricarda Maria dos Santos; Francisco Cláudio Dantas Mota; João Paulo Elsen Saut

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gynecological examination and endometrial cytology in Holstein cows with more than three repetitions of estrus. The experiment was conducted in six commercial dairy herds both with similar reproductive and sanitary managements and assisted by veterinarians. It was included only Holstein cows up to five calving and more than three consecutive repetitions of estrus. Seventy-seven cows were identified and carried gynecological examination and endom...

  4. 中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛mtDNAD-loop序列多态性分析%Sequence Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Region in the Population of Chinese Holstein Cattle and Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣超; 王国华; 常玉霞; 杨国忠; 昝林森

    2011-01-01

    为了从母系遗传角度深入阐明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛的群体遗传多样性以及起源进化,本研究采用PCR测序法测定了9头中国荷斯坦牛和11头鲁西黄牛的线粒体DNA D-loop区的部分序列,并经剪切后进行生物信息学软件分析.结果表明,20个个体D-loop区共711 bp,共检测到19种单倍型和50个多态位点.核苷酸多样性(Pi)为0.021 33±0.004 54,单倍型多样性(Hd)为0.994±0.019,平均核苷酸差异数(k)为15.146 20.构建的NJ网络进化树共分为两大支系,其中部分鲁西黄牛与瘤牛聚为一支,而中国荷斯坦牛和部分鲁西黄牛与普通黄牛聚为一支.说明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛群体遗传多样性均较高;鲁西黄牛同时含有瘤牛和普通黄牛的血统,而中国荷斯坦牛只含有普通黄牛的血统.%In order to illustrate population genetic polymorphism and origin of Chinese Holstein cattle and Luxi cattle from the perspective of maternal inheritance, partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA D-loop of 9 Chinese Holsein catties and 11 Luxi catties were detected by PCR sequencing technology, and analyzed after cut by bioin-formatics software. The results revealed that D-loop sequences were 711 bp in 20 individuals and there were 19 different haplotypes and 50 polymorphic sites. The mean nucleotide diversity (Pi) was 0.021 33±0.004 54, the hap-lotype diversity (Hd) was 0.994±0.019, and the average number of nucleotide differences (k) was 15.146 20. The neighbor joining (NJ) free showed that there were two main branches in those 2 cattle breeds, in which, some Luxi catties were clustered with Bos taurus lineage, and the others were in Bos indicus lineage which also included all Chinese Holsein catties. The results indicated abundant genetic diversity in both two groups, and there were two marternal origins in Luxi cattle which were Bos taurus and Bos indicus, but in Chinese Holstein cattle only one origin of Bos taurus.

  5. Use of a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay PCR Method to Detect the Complex Vertebral Malformation in Some Chinese Holstein Sires%部分中国荷斯坦种公牛脊柱畸形综合征携带状况的检测和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 赵学明; 朱化彬; 杜卫华; 王栋; 郝海生; 王宗礼

    2011-01-01

    摘本研究旨在对部分中国荷斯坦种公牛脊柱畸形综合征(Complex vertebral malformation,CVM)致病基因的携带状况进行筛查.应用错配PCR突变分析技术(PCR mismatch amplification mutation assay,PCR-MAMA)建立了针对CVM致病基因的特异性检测方法.利用PCR-MAMA法检测了154头荷斯坦种公牛,发现了24头CVM阳性个体,阳性率为15.58%.结果显示,应对中国荷斯坦种公牛进行全面的针对CVM的检测.%This experiment was conducted to test some Chinese Holstein sires for complex vertebral malformation (CVM). In this study, a simple, rapid PCR mismatch amplification mutation assay (PCR- MAMA) was developed to detect the mutation allele. Out of 154 tested Holstein sires, 24 sires (15. 58%) were identified to be CVM carriers by PCR- MAMA. The results indicate that all the Chinese Holstein sires should be tested for CVM.

  6. Study on How Do Chinese Dairy Companies Create Shared Value in a Value Chain Model%基于价值链模型的我国乳品企业创造共享价值路径探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 李存金; 刘营

    2015-01-01

    我国乳品企业经历几次重要危机事件后,发展遭受了重创。文章通过分析我国乳品企业发展陷入困境的原因,认为应该以创造共享价值思想革新中国乳品企业经营理念,重树国产奶品形象,引导乳品企业走出困境。为此,文章结合价值链模型探究了企业创造共享价值的基本路径,给出了一个我国乳品企业创造共享价值路径模型。%Chinese dairy companies' development has been severely undermined after several serious crises. The paper argues that Chinese dairy companies' business concepts can be innovated into creating shared value to remold the image of domestic milk and get out of trouble through analysis of the reasons why Chinese dairy companies are in trouble. Therefore,the paper explores how Chinese dairy companies create shared value in a value chain model, and then gives a model of creating shared value paths.

  7. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in lactoferrin gene and their association with mastitis susceptibility in Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ateya A.I.; El-Seady Y.Y.; Atwa S.M.; Merghani B.H.; Sayed N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Since lactoferrin is acute phase protein and has an exceptional role in defense mechanism of mammary gland, it is considered a candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility in dairy cattle. In this study, blood samples were collected for DNA extraction from fifty Holstein dairy cows in the third lactation season reared under Egyptian conditions assigned into three groups mastitis (n=15), subclinical mastitis (n=20) and healthy (n=15) based on California mastit...

  8. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  9. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  10. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  11. Correlation between the Insertion/Deletion Mutations of Prion Protein Gene and BSE Susceptibility and Milk Performance in Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-rong Hu; Yong-tao Huai; Chuan-ying Pan; Chu-zhao Lei; Hong Chen; Xian-yong Lan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the 23 bp and 12 bp insertion/deletion (indel) mutations within the bovine prion protein (PRNP) gene in Chinese dairy cows, and to detect the associations of two indel mutations with BSE susceptibility and milk performance. Methods Based on bovine PRNP gene sequence, two pairs of primers for testing the 23 bp and 12 bp indel mutations were designed. The PCR ampliifcation and agarose electrophoresis were carried out to distinguish the different genotypes within the mutations. Moreover, based on previous data from other cattle breeds and present genotypic and allelic frequencies of two indels mutations in this study, the corrections between the two indel mutations and BSE susceptibility were tested, as well as the relationships between the mutations and milk performance traits were analyzed in this study based on the statistical analyses. Results In the analyzed Chinese Holstein population, the frequencies of two“del”alleles in 23 bp and 12 bp indel muations were more frequent. The frequency of haplotype of 23del-12del was higher than those of 23del-12ins and 23ins-12del. From the estimated r2 and D’ values, two indel polymorphisms were linked strongly in the Holstein population (D’=57.5%, r2=0.257). Compared with the BSE-affected cattle populations from the reported data, the signiifcant differences of genotypic and allelic frequencies were found among present Holstein and some BSE-affected populations (P0.05). Conclusions These observations revealed that the inlfuence of two indel mutations within the bovine PRNP gene on BSE depended on the breed and they did not affect the milk production traits, which layed the foundation for future selection of resistant animals, and for improving health conditions for dairy breeding against BSE in China.

  12. Eating quality of Holstein bull calves fed only grass or purely herbs matches that of concentrate-fed veal calves

    OpenAIRE

    Therkildsen, M.; Jensen, S. K.; Vestergaard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic meat production from Holstein calves born in dairy herds require that the bull calves are raised outdoor at least 6 months a year, and on large quantities of roughage in the diet. This study aimed at elucidating if Holstein bull calves fed either purely grass or purely herbs prior to slaughter would differ in meat quality traits, fatty acid composition and sensory profile and if they differed in quality aspects from concentrate-fed veal calves.

  13. The Effect of Rumen Acid Load on Postpartum Performance and Blood Metabolic Responses in Transition Holstein Cows

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Mesgaran; Vakili, A.; A. H. Moosavi; G. Koolabadi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The transition period is the most stressful time in the production cycle of a dairy cow because of depressed feed intake, endocrine and metabolic changes at parturition. The aim was to determine the effect of rumen acid load on postpartum performance and metabolic parameters in transition Holstein cows. Approach: The Acidogenicity Values (AV) of the diets were determined using an In-vitro essay. Thirty late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows with the ave...

  14. Effect of supplemental Bacillus culture on rumen fermentation and performance in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two parts were involved in this experiment. In experiment 1, 32 Chinese Holstein cows with relatively similar body condition, lactation number and days in milk were selected. The cows were assigned in a randomized complete block design trial to determine the effect of supplemental Bacillus cultures to diet on production performance in dairy cattle. Four treatments, i.e., Bacillus licheniformis (strain number 1.813) group, Bacillus subtilis (strain number 1.1086) group, Bacillus cereus var. mycoides (strain number 1.260) group and control group. Each treatment had eight replicates, each replicate had one cow, 50 g per head per day. Results showed that Bacillus licheniformis group increased the milk yield (P0.05). In experiment 2, 3 Chinese Holstein cows with permanent fistulas were used. 3×3 Latin squares were assigned to three diets: Bacillus lincheniformis culture, Bacillus subtilis culture and control. Bacillus licheniformis culture increased total rumen microorganism (P0.05), increased the rate of acetic acid to propionic acid (P>0.05). Bacillus licheniformis culture decreased the methane production (P>0.05).

  15. Parámetros Genéticos para Algunas Características Productivas y Reproductivas en un Hato Holstein del Oriente Antioqueño, Colombia Genetic Parameters for Some Productive and Reproductive Traits in a Dairy Herd in Eastern Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerinne Quiroz Osorio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La edad y el peso al primer parto y otros caracteres productivos y reproductivos son importantes porque determinan el desempeño futuro de las vacas lecheras, su análisis permite definir metas relacionadas con el inicio de la vida productiva de las mismas, influyendo directamente en el costo del periodo de crecimiento y desarrollo. En esta investigación se estimaron las heredabilidades (h2 y algunas correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para edad y peso al primer servicio, edad y peso al servicio fértil, producción en primera y segunda lactancia y algunas otras características relacionadas con el desempeño general de las vacas durante su vida. Fueron analizadas 928 lactancias de 184 vacas de la raza Holstein nacidas entre 1985 y 2006 en un hato lechero del departamento de Antioquia. Los componentes de varianza fueron estimados mediante análisis univariados con la metodología de máxima verosimilitud restricta libre de derivadas y las correlaciones se estimaron directamente con la información fenotípica y los valores genéticos estimados. Se utilizó el programa SAS 9,0 para la edición de los datos y los análisis estadísticos y el software MTDFREML para el análisis genético. No se encontró efecto significativo (P>0,05 de la edad y peso al primer servicio con producción de leche en primera y segunda lactancia, ni con caracteres reproductivos, la edad y el peso al primer servicio fértil tuvieron efecto altamente significativo (PThe age and weight at first calving and other productive and reproductive traits are decisive because are important for the future performance of dairy cows, their analysis allows to define some goals related to the start of productive life of those, influencing direct economic cost of the period of growth and development. In this research, were estimated the heritability (h2 and some genetic and phenotypic correlations of age and weight at first service, age and weight at fertile service, milk yield at

  16. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    2015-01-01

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E...... interaction exists between populations. 2) Combining data from Chinese and Danish Holstein populations increases the power of GWAS and detects new QTL regions for milk fatty acid traits. 3) The novel multi-trait Bayesian model efficiently estimates region-specific genomic variances, covariances...

  17. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. PMID:26231801

  18. 酮病对荷斯坦奶牛抗氧化系统和一氧化氮含量的影响%Effects of Ketosis on Anti-Oxidative System and NO Content of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银龙; 高树; 贺志锐; 刘强; 赛务加甫

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To observe the change of biochemical indicators in serum of Xinjiang Holstein cow ketosis and disease pathogenesis.[Method] Xinjiang Holstein cows were selected as experimental animals,their serum were detected with ketone powder method and improved salicylaldehyde detection method.Nitrate reductase method was used for determination of determinationserum nitric oxide (NO) content and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity,DTNB chromogenic assay was used to determine GSH-Px activity,the xanthine oxidation method was used for the determination of T-SOD activity,thio Pakistanthan properly acid method was adopted for determination of serum MDA content.[Result] The results showed that ketosis cows serum GSH-Px activity poles (P < 0.01) reduction in T-SOD activity significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and serum MDA content significantly increased (P < 0.05) ; NO content and NOS activity in the serum of cows in the control group were significantly greater than the positive group.[Conclusion] Ketosis not only affects the anti-oxidative system but also can reduce NO content and activity of NOS,which has important significance to reveal the mechanism of cow ketosis.%[目的]研究新疆荷斯坦奶牛酮病血清中的部分生化指标的变化及其酮病致病机理的探讨.[方法]以新疆荷斯坦奶牛为试验动物,用酮粉法和改良的水杨醛检测法对其血清进行检测,应用硝酸还原酶法测定血清中一氧化氮(NO)含量和一氧化氮合酶(NOS)活性;应用DTNB显色法测定血清中GSH-Px活力,应用黄嘌呤氧化法测定血清中T-SOD活力,应用硫代巴比妥酸法测定血清中MDA含量.[结果]酮病奶牛血清中GSH-Px活力极显著降低(P<0.01),T-SOD活力显著降低(P<0.05),血清中MDA含量显著增高(P<0.05);对照组奶牛血清中的NO含量和NOS活性均显著高于阳性组.[结论]酮病不但影响奶牛的抗氧化系统而且也会降低一氧化氮含量和一氧化氮酶的活性,对

  19. Holstein: la nodriza de los antioqueños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes one of the most important events in the development of the dairy industry in the department of Antioquia: the Holstein Exhibition of La Ceja (1949-1959. We argue that exhibitions became the means through which the genetic improvements of local farms and the managerial techniques needed for their reproduction of said improvements were disseminated. Also, exhibitions affectively articulated the genetic level reached by the farms with those of the market, i.e. the needs of individual landowners, rural producers, suppliers and union entities.

  20. The Role of Dairy Cattle Husbandry in Supporting The Development of National Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intensive development in Indonesian dairy industry has expanded over two decades. During this period, the structure of the national dairy industry has progressed completely. The capacity of the national fresh milk production, however, has been able to supply only 35% of domestic milk demand. The milk domestic demand is predicted to be continous due to the increases in the national population and their welfare. Raising temperate dairy breed (Holstein-Friesian under tropical climate has resulted many deteriorates in productivity. More inferiority has been found under a semi-intensive management at small dairy farms. The existence of various changes in the global trade regulation for agriculture commodities has been a considerable factor directly affecting the future development of the national dairy industry. Increasing efficiency of various determinant components of the national dairy industry is required to produce domestic fresh milk in a good quality at a competitive price. This paper is dealing with the status of various determined factors especially for dairy livestock components to improve the future national dairy industry prospectively, involving for the national dairy cattle population, domestic milk yield, productivity of dairy cattle, breeding system and supporting reproduction technology. More over, other essential factors providing for dairy institution as well as distribution and marketing domestic milk production are also described.

  1. Occurrence of retained placenta is preceded by an inflammatory state and alterations of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dervishi, Elda; Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dunn, Suzana M; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to expel fetal membranes within 24 h of calving is a pathological condition defined as retained placenta (RP). The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether there are alterations in several selected serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism that precede occurrence of RP in transition Holstein dairy cows. Methods One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected from the c...

  2. The association of hoof lesions at claw trimming with test-day milk yield in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Capion, Nynne; Hill, Ashley E.

    2007-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, performed between October 2002 and April 2003 on 55 Danish dairy herds with 6161 predominantly Holstein Friesian cows the prevalence of 9 hoof lesions was determined. All test-day yields (TDY) of kg energy corrected milk (ECM) in the lactation of diagnosis were recorded...

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters for Holstein cows for test-day yield traits with a random regression cubic spline model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters were estimated with REML for individual test-day milk, fat, and protein yields and SCS with a random regression cubic spline model. Test-day records of Holstein cows that calved from 1994 through early 1999 were obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems in Raleigh, North Car...

  4. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  5. The dynamics of biochemical parameters in blood of clinically healthy holstein cows from day 5 before to day 60 after calving

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Celeska; Aleksandar Janevski; Igor Dzadzovski; Igor Ulchar; Danijela Kirovski

    2015-01-01

    The peripartal period in Holstein dairy cows is critical, due to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. We have studied the dynamics of biochemical parameters from day 5 before to day 60 after calving. The study included 10 multiparous Holstein cows, examined at days -5, 5, 10, 30 and 60 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken from vena jugularis. Analyzed biochemical parameters were glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, albumin, total protein, urea, NEFA and ...

  6. Mastitis in dairy heifers: Prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bludau, Maren Jana; Maeschli, Ariane; Leiber, Florian; Steiner, Adrian; Klocke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Poor udder health represents a serious problem in dairy production and has been investigated intensively, but heifers generally have not been the main focus of Mastitis control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of heifer mastitis in Switzerland. The study included 166,518 heifers of different breeds (Swiss Red Pied, Swiss Brown Cattle and Holstein). Monthly somatic cell counts (SCCs) provided by the main dairy breeding organisations in Switze...

  7. Comparative cervical cytology and conception rate in postpartum dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ahmadi, Mohammad; NAZIFI, Saeed; Reza Ghaisari, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    During the early postpartum period, multiple bacterial species invade the uterus of cows. Phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells is a primary mechanism involved in the elimination of bacteria and improvement of conception rate. Therefore, a relationship could exist between endometrial cytology and conception rate of postpartum dairy cows. In this study 50 postpartum healthy Holstein Frisian dairy cows were selected. They had a normal parturition history and had no mucopurulent discharge from...

  8. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Strapák

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  9. Modelling the effects of genetic line and feeding system on methane emissions from dairy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle make a significant contribution to global methane emissions. Milking cows in the UK make up about a fifth of the total cattle population, with Holstein-Friesian cows being the most common breed. Investigating ways to minimise methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) produced by dairy cows from enteric fermentation and manure, has gained importance in recent years due its role in climate change. Currently, GHG emissions from UK dairy farming are predicted using the In...

  10. Effect of Parenteral Antioxidant Supplementation During the Dry Period on Postpartum Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abuelo, A.; Alves‐Nores, V.; Hernandez, J.; Muiño, R.; J.L. BENEDITO; C. CASTILLO

    2016-01-01

    Background Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. Hypothesis Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. Animals Ten late‐pregnant Holstein cows entering ...

  11. Variación de la concentración de hierro y cinc en leche de vacas Holstein-Frieisian a lo largo de la lactancia en dos explotaciones tamberas (Iron and zinc concentration variation in Holstein-Friesian milk cows throughout lactation in two dairy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roldán V,P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenComo existen pocos antecedentes regionales publicados sobre los valores de hierro y cinc durante el periodo de lactación, nos proponemos en este trabajo obtener datos actualizados sobre la composición de estos microminerales de la leche de bovinos lecheros en dos tambos de la región centro de Santa Fe (Campo (1 de Pilar y Campo (2 de la Cuenca del Salado en dicho periodo. Las determinaciones de los valores promedio de hierro y cinc se realizaron por espectroscopia de absorción atómica y se aplicó el método estadístico ANOVA para el tratamiento de los datos. En el Campo 1 se observó una disminución en la concentración media del cinc y del hierro hacia la lactación avanzada, ubicándose las concentraciones de ambos microminerales por debajo de los valores referenciales. En el campo (2 se observó que el cinc y el hierro siempre se encontraban por debajo de los valores referenciales y sus valores se mantenían a lo largo de la lactación. Se observó correspondencia entre la cantidad de elementos traza de la leche y la concentración de estos minerales en suero. SummaryAs few published antecedents on iron and zinc values along lactation exist, intend to obtain actualized data on micromineral composition milk of bovine milk in two dairy fields of Santa Fe center region (Field (1 Pilar and Field (2 Cuenca del Salado in this period. Iron and zinc average values were carried out for atomic absorption spectroscopy and for data treatment, statistical method ANOVA was applied . In the Field 1,a decrease of iron and zinc toward advanced lactation was observed, being located the microminerals concentrations below referential values. In the field (2 zinc and iron were always below the values reference along lactation. One correspondence between elements quantity of milk and the concentration of these minerals in serum was observed.

  12. Sincronización de estros con GnRH y Prostaglandina F2a en vacas Holstein Friesian en confinamiento Use of GnRH and PGF2a for synchronisation of oestrus in confined dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. COX

    1999-01-01

    una alternativa efectiva para enfrentar el problema de detección de estros en rebaños confinadosThe combination of GNRH and prostaglandin F2a allows the control of the luteal phase and the follicular dynamic that coexist in the ovary, facilitating precise oestrus synchronisation schemes. The study was intended to characterise the reproductive response to the use of this combination for an oestrus detection program. The study considered 423 clinically sound dairy cows, from two herds, 1 to 7 calvings and adjusted production levels from 7.500 to 12.500 Kg. Cows were confined under a free-stall system and both herds were under a sanitary and nutritional control program. Since 50 days after calving, cows received 10 µg of buserelin and those having a corpus luteum, based on ultrasound assessment 7 days later, received 0.75 mg of tiaprost. At the moment of tiaprost administration and 72 h later, milk was collected for progesterone by RIA. The results showed that 90.7% (206/227 cows had a functional corpus luteum at the moment of prostaglandin administration, 93.7% (193/206 responded with luteolysis, and that 85.0% (164/193 showed oestrus behaviour. The interval to the oestrus was 66±15.2 h with 93.9% of cows presenting oestrus between days 2 and 4, with a high percentage (54.9% presenting oestrus on day 3 after tiaprost administration. Finally, the conception rate was similar to the untreated controls (55.4% (144/269 vs. 50.3% (82/163 for treated vs. untreated respectively. No differences were found between herds in any parameter considered in the study. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the combination of GnRH and PGF2a can be an effective alternative to approach the problem of estrus detection in confined dairy herds

  13. Genetic effects of heat stress on milk yield and MIR predicted methane emissions of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Gengler, Nicolas; Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Soyeurt, Hélène; Hammami, Hedi

    2013-01-01

    Dairy cows both contribute to and are affected by climate change. Breeding for heat tolerance and reduced methane (CH4) emissions is a key requirement to mitigate interactions between dairy cows and climate change. This study was aimed to estimate genetic variation of milk yield and CH4 emissions over the whole trajectory of temperature humidity index (THI) using a reaction norm approach. A total of 257,635 milk test-day (TD) records and milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra from 51,782 Holstein co...

  14. Performance of Holstein cows fed sugarcane or corn silages of different grain textures

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei; Pereira Marcos Neves; Oliveira Simone Gisele de; Ramos Marcelo Hentz

    2003-01-01

    Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows were allocated to three 3 ' 3 latin squares and were fed 200 g of forage neutral detergent fibe...

  15. The Effect of Some Factors on Stillbirth in Primiparous and Multiparous Holstein Cattle in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai, Firas

    2012-01-01

    A total of 9691 records of calves belonged to 3076 Holstein cows and 58 sires were analyzed from 1995 to 1999 , at Nasr Dairy Cattle Station. The aim of the research is to evaluate sires geneticelly by using best linear unbiased prediction ( BLUP) according to the stillbirths of their daughters after adjusting for fixed effects and to estimate heritability, phenotypic trend for the mentioned trait. Data were analayzed by using General Linear Model within SAS program to investig...

  16. ETIO-PREVALENCE OF SUB CLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CROSSBRED CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Anirban Guha; Sandeep Gera

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of Somatic cell count (SCC), California mastitis test (CMT) and Chloride test in detecting SCM and study its etioprevalence in Holstein X Haryana cattle. SCC prevalence for SCM, latent infected quarters and non-specific infected quarters were found to be 28.63%, 8.63% and 6.67%, respectively, when divided on the basis of International Dairy Federation criteria. Staphylococcus sp. (47.37%) and Streptococcus sp. (33.68%) ...

  17. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...

  18. Chronic Copper Toxicity in a Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Blakley, B R; Berezowski, J. A.; Schiefer, H B; Armstrong, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A three year old Holstein dairy cow fed a ration containing a copper supplement died of chronic copper poisoning. The concentration of copper in the liver was 331 ppm (wet weight). The typical lesions of chronic copper toxicity including icterus, hepatic fibrosis and hemoglobinemic nephrosis were found at necropsy. The chronic copper toxicity was not considered to be a herd problem since the liver copper concentration in a slaughtered cull animal and blood samples taken from five animals in t...

  19. Compare of high-yield and middle-yield holstein dairy cows in the nitrogen content in feces and urine and the NH3, H2S emission content in feces%奶牛粪尿中含氮量、NH3和H2S散发量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚飞飞; 胡登林; 赵正剑; 张志军; 余雄

    2011-01-01

    以荷斯坦高产和中产奶牛为例,研究其粪便含水量、粪尿中总氮(TN)、氨态氮(AN)浓度和NH3、H2S的散发量.选取高产和中产奶牛牛舍各一栋,测定粪便含水量、粪尿中总氮(TN)氨态氮(TN)质量分数以及粪中NH3和H2S气体的散发量.结果表明,粗蛋白的摄入与需求比增加,奶牛粪尿中氮和硫的质量分数也会增加.超过动物蛋白质需要量的几乎所有的氮都是通过尿液排出体外,尿氮增加的幅度大于粪氮增加的幅度.因此,减少粪氮不是降低氮污染的有效途径.%Test to compare the high-yield and middle-yield Holstein dairy cows in feces water content, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration in feces and urine, NH3 and H2S emission content in feces. Were selected a high-yield and a middle-yield cowshed, determination the feces water content, the total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (AN) concentration and NH3, H2S emission content in feces. The results showed that:The ratio of crude protein intake and demand increase, the nitrogen and sulfur content in feces and urine will increase. Protein, which more than demand will almost all be excreted through urine, the rate of increase urine nitrogen is greater than the rate of increase fecal nitrogen. Reduce the fecal nitrogen is not an effective way to reduce nitrogen pollution.

  20. Prediction of the methane conversion factor (Ym) for dairy cows on the basis of national farm data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Brask, Maike;

    2016-01-01

    -corrected milk and dietary composition. In total, 183 observations were compiled, including 41 rations from 10 experiments with Holstein dairy cows where methane emission was measured by means of indirect calorimetry using the same experimental equipment. Two models were developed; one using dry matter intake...... conversion factor (Ym,%of gross energy) for dairy cows on the basis of data obtained from a range of our respiration studies, and, subsequently, to use this model to predict Ym for Holstein and Jersey cows on the basis of compiled average national farm data on dry matter intake, yield of energy...... effect in any model. On the basis of compiled data from practical Danish farms, the predicted Ym for dairy cows was 6.02% and 5.98% of gross energy intake for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively, in the model with dry matter intake and 6.13% and 6.00% for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively...

  1. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  2. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech;

    2008-01-01

    milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... lactating mammary epithelial cells, nor to systemic endocrine changes. This suggests that lowered mammary nutrient uptake must have been associated with reduced mammary blood flow, metabolic activity, or both, most likely as a result of disturbed lactogenesis I prepartum or lactogenesis II postpartum...... triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated....

  3. Identification of MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 Gene and Their Association with Heat Tolerance in Chinese Holstein%中国荷斯坦牛HSF1基因microRNA SNPs与耐热性能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 鞠志花; 贾祥捷; 黄金明; 李建斌; 李荣岭; 李芳; 王长法; 仲跻峰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Heat shock transcription factorl (HSF1) is the key protein in regulating heat stress response. [Method] The polymorphisms of HSF1 gene and their association with heat tolerance in 638 Chinese Holstein cattle were investigated for the purpose of providing molecular marker information to facilitate the breeding efficiency ofthermo tolerant cows.Primers were designed to amplify HSF1 gene fragment. DNA sequencing, PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP methods were used to analyze the polymorphisms. MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene were localized by blasting to miRBASE database. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were analyzed using SHEsis software. The association of these polymorphisms with heat tolerance index including potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE), decrease rate of milk production (R), rectal temperature (RT) and heat-tolerance coefficient (HTC) was analyzed by SAS software. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was studied by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technology. [Result] Two novel microRNA SNPs, T909C and G4693T, were found. The cows with CC and CT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with TT genotype at T909C locus (P< 0.05). The cows with TT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with GG genotype at G4693T locus (P<0.05). Four haplotype and 10 haplotype combinations were found. The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower PCE, RT and higher HCT than those with H1H3 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower R than those with H1H1 haplotype combination (P<0.05). H2H4 was the heat tolerant haplotype combination. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was different in different tissues. The highest is that in heart, which is 11.24-fold enrichment than that in muscle (P<0.05). [Conclusion] microRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene could be chosen as the molecular markers for choosing thermo tolerant dairy cattle in breeding program

  4. 乳房炎对中国荷斯坦牛测定日泌乳性能及体细胞数变化的影响%Effects of Mastitis on Test-day Milk Performance and the Variation of SCC of Chinese Holstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛永江; 陈莹; 陈仁金; 常玲玲; 施雪奎; 杨章平; 梁祥焕; 尹召华

    2011-01-01

    发生率提供了参考.%The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of clinical mastitis and pathogen-specific mastitis on the test-day milk performance and the variation of SCC for Chinese Hol-stein. Clinical mastitis and sub-clinical mastitis were indentified using CMT method from 140 milking cows in a dairy farm, Jiangsu Province. In September, 2009, and the pathogens were indentified for the quarters of sub-clinical mastitis cow. The effects of clinical mastitis and pathogen-specific sub-clinical mastitis on the test-day milk performance and the variation of SCC were esti-mated by ANOVA. The proportion of clinical mastitis and sub-clinical mastitis cows were 10.00% and 51. 10%, respectively. In the sub-clinical mastitis cows, the most events was the mixed infected by Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp (26. 00%) , following was Streptococcus spp (23. 30%). The proportion of cows infected by only one pathogen was 36. 11%,and the proportion of cows infected by more than two pathogens was 61. 11%. The effects of mastitis on test-day milk yield, lactose percentage, SCC and SCS were significant at P<0. 01 level. The test-day milk yield and lactose percentage for clinical mastitis and sub-clinical mastitis cows were less than that for healthy cows, and the SCC were higher than that in healthy cows. The pathogen types significantly affected SCC and SCS of cow. The test-day milk yield for sub-clinical mastitis cows infected by more than two pathogens were significant less than that in cows infected by only one pathogen, and the SCC were significant higher than that in cows infected by only one pathogen. The effect of mastitis on the variation of SCC was significant at P<0. 01 level. The healthy cows had higher ability to maintain low SCC in milk, and the possibility having more SCC for sub-clinical mastitis cows was increased . The pathogens types had no significant effect on the variation of SCC. The results indicate that the sub-clinical mastitis infected by more than two pathogens

  5. Impact of Prepartal Dietary Crude Protein Level on Postpartal Production Performance and Blood Indexes of Multiparous Holstein Dairy Cows%围产前期饲粮粗蛋白质水平对荷斯坦经产奶牛产后生产性能和血液指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘薇; 李妍; 高艳霞; 李秋凤; 曹玉凤; 李建国

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of perpartal dietary protein level on postpartal production performance and blood indexes of multiparous Holstein dairy cows.Twenty-one multiparous Hol-stein dairy cows with similar parity, expected date of confinement, body weight, as well as similar persistence time and milk yield of the last lactation period were selected and randomly assigned into three groups with 7 cows in each group.Cows were fed diets with the same net energy for lactation level (5.50 MJ/kg), and three different crude protein levels [12.12%(group A), 13.07%(group B) and 14.02%(group C)] during pre-partal period ( in 21 days before parturition) .The production performance and blood biochemical indexes dur-ing postpartal days 1 to 30 were investigated.The results showed as follows:1) on postpartal days 1 to 30, dry matter intake of group B were 5.41%and 5.85%higher than that in group A and C ( P0.05) .On postpartal days 2 to 10, lactose content of group B was 4.31%higher than that of group C ( P<0.05) .The apparent digestibility of crude protein of group B during prepartal period was 12.56%higher than that of group A ( P<0.05) .2) On postpartal days 10, 20 and 30 d, serum glucose content of group B was 31.41%, 29.47%and 21.38%higher than that of group C( P<0.05) , respectively.On the day of delivery, serum total protein content of group B was 12.98%higher than that of group C ( P<0.05) .On postpartal days 30, the contents of albumin and leptin of group B were 14.69%and 5.97%higher than that of group C ( P<0.01) , respectively.On postpartal days 20, serum triglyceride content of group B was 3.57%lower than that of group A and group C ( P<0.05) , and serum insulin content of group B was 7.26%and 12.47%lower than that of group A and group C ( P<0.01) , respectively.On postpartal days 30, serum insulin-like growth factorⅠ content of group B was 4.94%lower than that of group C ( P<0.01) .The results indicate that prepartal dietary crude

  6. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the release of endotoxin in the rumen and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Guozhong; Ao, Changjin; Zhang, Sen; Qiu, Min; Wang, Xi; Wu, Yongxia; Erdene, Khas; Jin, Lu; Lei, Chunlong; Zhang, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet on the release of endotoxin in the rumen and the changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw diet and a low-concentrate mixed forage diet. Thirty second-parity Chinese Holstein cows in mid-lactation with a body condition score of 2.86 ± 0.29, weighing 543 ± 57 kg and producing 24.32 ± 3.86 kg milk per d...

  7. Dairy buffalo breeding in countryside of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chinese buffalo is of swamp type, mainly distributed in countryside of 18 provinces in southern China. China has the third population of buffalo in the world. There are 22.75 million buffaloes in China in 2005, representing 17.37% of all cattle in the whole country. Historically Chinese buffalo is mainly used for drought since their milk production is very low with an annual milk yield of 500-700 kg. Therefore, it is important to improve them to change into dairy buffalo through crossbreeding with exotic river type dairy buffalo breeds. Murrah and Nili-Ravi, the most famous river type dairy buffalo breeds in the world, were introduced from India and Pakistan in 1957 and 1974, respectively and used to crossbreed with indigenous Chinese buffalo for genetic improvement. The effect is very prominent that the performance of crossbred has been improved significantly after several decades and the milk yield reaches 1200-2000 kg. Recent years in countryside of China, buffalo rearing has been changed from extensive and dispersive model in the past into specialized small or medium dairy herd model for the present along with the rapid development of dairy buffalo breeding and the model of dairy buffalo breeding sub-district has been formed. This article introduces briefly that the system of dairy buffalo breeding as well as producing, processing and selling of buffalo milk under the current condition and the prospects of dairy buffalo development in countryside of China.

  8. A survey of decision making practices, educational experiences, and economic performance of two dairy farm populations in Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, J A; Koonawootrittriron, S; Elzo, M A

    2008-10-01

    A survey was performed to characterize the dairy production, educational experiences, decision making practices, and income and expenses of dairy farms and to determine any differences of these practices among two dairy farm populations. Farm groups were identified as farms from the Muaklek dairy cooperative (Muaklek farms) and farms from other dairy cooperatives (Non-Muaklek farms). In April, 2006 questionnaires were distributed to 500 dairy farms located in Lopburi, Nakhon Ratchisima, and Saraburi provinces. A total of 85 farms completed and returned questionnaires. Means and frequencies were calculated for questions across categories and Chi-square tests were performed to determine differences among Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms. Results showed that most farms from both groups had a primary or high school educational level, used a combination confinement and pasture production system, gave a mineral supplement, raised their own replacement females, milked approximately 16 cows/day, used crossbred Holstein cows (75% Holstein or more), and mated purebred Holstein sires to their cows. More Non-Muaklek farms (P profit per lactating cow, were 1,641 and 1,029 baht for Muaklek and Non-Muaklek farms, respectively. Overall, information from the study should be useful for dairy cooperatives and other dairy organizations when training farmers in the future and furthering dairy production research in Thailand. PMID:18716903

  9. Use of sexed semen and its effect on conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth of Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexed-semen use for breeding Holstein heifers and cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds was documented by frequency and percentage for parity and service number as well as for herd region, size, and milk yield. Year of breeding accounted for the most variation in the amount of use of sexed semen for ...

  10. Primeira onda folicular e ovulação de vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com diferentes fontes energéticas durante o período de transição First follicular wave and first postpartum ovulation of primiparous Holstein dairy cows receiving diets with different energetic sources during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.T. Artunduaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de diferentes fontes energéticas na dieta de vacas leiteiras, durante o período de transição, sobre a primeira onda folicular e o intervalo parto-primeira ovulação. Foram utilizadas 40 vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa, no período de 28 dias antes da data prevista do parto até o 46º dia pós-parto. As vacas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos (grupos durante o período de transição: grupo-controle e grupos tratados com, Megalac-E (sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos da soja, soja tostada ou propileno-glicol. Avaliações ultrassonográficas foram realizadas do 10º ao 46º dia pós-parto, com a classificação dos folículos ovarianos em quatro classes (I, II, III e IV de tamanho e do registro do volume do tecido luteal. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas nos dias 10, 17, 24, 31, 38 e 45 após o parto para análise de progesterona. O padrão de crescimento folicular mais eficiente foi apresentado pelos animais dos grupos Megalac-E e propileno-glicol, que foram caracterizados pela redução no número de folículos de classes I e II e aumento no número de folículos de classes III e IV. Os intervalos entre o parto e a primeira ovulação dos grupos controle, Megalac-E, soja tostada e propileno-glicol foram de 29, 23, 30 e 37 dias, respectivamente (PThe effects of different energy sources added to the diet on the first postpartum ovarian follicle wave and first postpartum ovulation were evaluated. Forty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were used from 28 days before the expected calving date until 46 days postpartum. Cows were randomly allotted to the following groups: control, Megalac-E calcium salts of soybean fatty acid, toasted soybean and propylene glycol. Ovarian structures were scanned using ultrasound from 10 to 46 days postpartum. Follicles were classified according to the diameter in classes I, II, III, and IV and the luteal tissue volume was registered when present. Blood samples for

  11. Predição do consumo de pasto de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack por vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu em lactação Prediction of the voluntary intake of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack grazing by Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Ferraz Lopes

    2005-06-01

    efeito de substituição àquele do pasto de capim-elefante.Equations for predicting elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schumack dry matter intake (DMI by Holstein x Zebu lactating dairy cows under grazing were developed by stepwise regression analysis. The dataset consisted of results of trials carried out at Embrapa Gado de Leite (Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. The independent variables related to animal factors (days in milk; milk protein, fat and total solids contents and yields; live weight; live weight at calving; milk and fat-corrected milk yield; Holstein x Zebu gene fraction; order of parturition; management factors (occupation day of paddock; forage allowance and availability; resting periods; environmental factors (season of the year; rainfall and feed factors (in vitro digestibility and parameters of chemical composition of elephantgrass herbage and sugarcane - Saccharum officinarum (L. plus 1% urea; supplement intake - concentrate and sugarcane plus urea; fecal crude protein, neutral and acid detergent fiber concentration. Logarithmic and quadratic functions for some variables were also considered. The main independent variables selected at the best-fit regressions models (R2 = 65.2-67.0% for elephantgrass herbage DMI were roughage supplement (sugarcane plus urea DMI; elephantgrass in vitro digestibility; rainfall; fat-corrected milk yield; live weight (or alternatively live weight at calving and concentrate intake that showed substitution effect to intake of elephantgrass in supplementing grazing cows.

  12. 中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛mtDNA D-loop序列多态性分析%Sequence Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Region in the Population of Chinese Holstein Cattle and Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝荣超; 王国华; 常玉霞; 杨国忠; 昝林森

    2011-01-01

    为了从母系遗传角度深入阐明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛的群体遗传多样性以及起源进化,本研究采用PCR测序法测定了9头中国荷斯坦牛和11头鲁西黄牛的线粒体DNAD-loop区的部分序列,并经剪切后进行生物信息学软件分析。结果表明,20个个体D-loop区共711bp,共检测到19种单倍型和50个多态位点。核苷酸多样性(Pi)为0.02133±0.00454,单倍型多样性(Hd)为0.994±0.019,平均核苷酸差异数(k)为15.14620。构建的NJ网络进化树共分为两大支系,其中部分鲁西黄牛与瘤牛聚为一支,而中国荷斯坦牛和部分鲁西黄牛与普通黄牛聚为一支。说明中国荷斯坦牛和鲁西黄牛群体遗传多样性均较高;鲁西黄牛同时含有瘤牛和普通黄牛的血统,而中国荷斯坦牛只含有普通黄牛的血统。%In order to illustrate population genetic polymorphism and origin of Chinese Holstein cattle and Luxi cattle from the perspective of maternal inheritance,partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA D-loop of 9 Chinese Holsein cattles and 11 Luxi cattles were detected by PCR sequencing technology,and analyzed after cut by bioinformatics software.The results revealed that D-loop sequences were 711 bp in 20 individuals and there were 19 different haplotypes and 50 polymorphic sites.The mean nucleotide diversity(Pi) was 0.021 33±0.004 54,the haplotype diversity(Hd) was 0.994±0.019,and the average number of nucleotide differences(k) was 15.146 20.The neighbor joining(NJ) tree showed that there were two main branches in those 2 cattle breeds,in which,some Luxi cattles were clustered with Bos taurus lineage,and the others were in Bos indicus lineage which also included all Chinese Holsein cattles.The results indicated abundant genetic diversity in both two groups,and there were two marternal origins in Luxi cattle which were Bos taurus and Bos indicus,but in Chinese Holstein cattle only one origin of Bos taurus.

  13. Estimativa de níveis críticos superiores do índice de temperatura e umidade para vacas leiteiras ¹/2, ³/4 e 7/8 Holandês-Zebu em lactação Estimation of upper critical levels of the temperature-humidity index for ½, 3/4 e 7/8 lactating Holstein-Zebu dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio de Azevedo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura retal (TR, freqüência respiratória (FR e temperatura da superfície corporal (TS foram avaliadas em vacas ½, ¾ e 7/8 Holandês-Zebu (HZ durante dois verões e dois invernos nos períodos da manhã e da tarde no Município de Coronel Pacheco - MG, Brasil. O objetivo nesta pesquisa foi estimar níveis críticos superiores do índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU para os grupos genéticos pesquisados. As medidas para análise de correlação e de regressão múltipla entre as variáveis foram obtidas de um grupo de 15 vacas em lactação por estação estudada, sendo cinco de cada um dos grupos genéticos ½, ¾ e 7/8HZ. Os resultados obtidos na análise de correlação evidenciaram que a freqüência respiratória (FR é um indicador de estresse térmico melhor que a temperatura retal (TR. Com base na TR, foram estimados valores críticos superiores de ITU iguais a 80, 77 e 75 para os grupos genéticos ½, ¾ e 7/8HZ, respectivamente. Considerando-se a FR, os valores críticos superiores de ITU estimados para os referidos grupos genéticos foram 79, 77 e 76, respectivamente. Com base na TS, estimou-se valor crítico superior de ITU igual a 79 para os três grupos genéticos estudados. Vacas do grupo genético ½HZ demonstraram maior tolerância ao calor que as 7/8HZ, enquanto as ¾HZ se situaram em posição intermediária.The objective of this trial was to estimate the upper critical levels of the temperature-humidity index (TUI measuring morning and afternoon rectal temperature (RT, respiratory rate (RF, and hair coat surface temperature (ST of ½, ¾ and 7/8Holstein-Zebu (HZ dairy cows during two consecutive years (two summers and two winters in Coronel Pacheco, MG, Brazil. Correlation and multiple analysis were determined using data obtained from 15 dairy crossbreed cows/season; five from each genetic group (GG. Results showed that RF was more reliable than RT as an indicator of heat stress based on both correlation and

  14. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for minerals in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey milk

    OpenAIRE

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Sehested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine milk provides important minerals, essential for human nutrition and dairy product quality. For changing the mineral composition of the milk to improve dietary needs in human nutrition and technological properties of milk, a thorough understanding of the genetics underlying milk mineral contents is important. Therefore the aim of this study was to 1) estimate the genetic parameters for individual minerals in Danish Holstein (DH) (n = 371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n = 321) milk...

  15. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  16. Production performance of dairy cows after the dietary addition of clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Casini; Davide Creston; Paolo Bosi

    2010-01-01

    Clays are frequently proposed for the addition to dairy cattle diets to reduce the transfer of mycotoxins in milk. This study  examined the effect of the addition of Clinoptilolite to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk com-  position. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows (average lactation length: 142 d) were blocked according to milk production,  parity, and days of lactation for assignment to one of two dietary treatments: control diet; control diet + ...

  17. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Nazira Mammadova; İsmail Keskin

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input...

  18. Environmental protection in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the contributions by Norbert Knauer, the Akademie Sankelmark presents one of the results of its activities. Prof. Knauer is head of the department of grassland management, cropping and landscape ecology at Kiel University. He is a member of the Experts Commission for Problems of Environmental Protection of the Schleswig-Holstein Government, of the Schleswig-Holstein Curatory for Environmental Protection as well as of the regional planning council. He is also regional supervisor for nature and landscape conservation of the state of Schleswig-Holstein. All these functions have made him an expert in the field of landscape conservation and environmental protection. (orig.)

  19. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    -recorded on 5 consecutive days, d −2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on......The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  20. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  1. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi...... heritability estimates of this traits are low ranging from 0.02-0.04. Furthermore, the expression of the trait is very sensitive to environmental factores and it is affected by the ineraction between genotype and environment (GxE)....

  2. Serum thyroid hormone evaluation during transition periods in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, E.; Piccione, G.; Gianesella, M.; V. Praticò; Vazzana,I; S. Dara; Morgante, M

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were selected from a high-producing dairy farm in northeastern Italy: 16 in second lactation (L2), 10 in third lactation (L3) and 9 in fourth lactation (L4). Blood sampling was carried out 7 ± 5 days before calving (Pre/C) and 7 ± 5 days after calving (Post/C). Serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed statistically significant effects...

  3. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  4. Relationship between blood calcium level and ST peak interval of electrocardiographic variables in peripartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Megumi; Sakurai, Yoshie; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kawamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The association between blood calcium levels and electrocardiographic variables was compared in 137 normal parturient and 36 peripartum recumbent Holstein cows to determine whether hypocalcemia in peripartum dairy cows can be rapidly diagnosed using electrocardiograph. Inverse of STc (ST peak interval/SS interval(0.5)) and blood ionized calcium or serum calcium concentrations were strongly correlated, and both correlation coefficients were 0.81 (Pcows with STc >0.385 ± 0.001 sec are very likely to be hypocalcemic (blood ionized or serum calcium concentrations of hypocalcemia in parturient cows can be non-invasively estimated using the STc. PMID:26118411

  5. Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds

  6. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  7. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  8. Rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Jan; Svensson, Catarina; Pehrsson, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length of productive life, lifetime milk production, a fixed milk price of 0.3 €/kg ECM, a...

  9. Genetic evaluation of mastitis in dairy cattle in France

    OpenAIRE

    Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Dassonneville, Romain; Baloche, Guillaume; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three main French dairy breeds: Holstein, Montbéliarde and Normande. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days oflactation. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2 and 4 % depending on the breed but the trait has significant genetic variance despite its low her...

  10. A case of ocular thelaziasis in a 2.5 years old Holstein heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Daradka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-years-old, Holstein lactating dairy cow was presented to the Veterinary Health Center with severe conjunctivitis and exuberant granulation tissue formation of the left eye. Upon close examination of the eye, a 2-cm long slender-shaped nematode was found in the conjunctival sac. The nematode was examined by a veterinary parasitologist and determined to be Thelazia species. The exuberant granulation tissue was surgically removed and a total of 0.5 mL of 1% levamisole was injected subconjunctivally. Levamesole was also injected subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight and repeated after 15 days. The cow made a complete recovery within 25 days following treatment. This is the first case report of ocular thelaziasis in dairy cattle in Jordan.

  11. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using a single-step approach and a genomic matrix re-weighting procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical mastitis (CM) is one of the health disorders with largest impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. Previous studies have consistently shown that CM is under genetic control but knowledge about regions of the genome associated with resistance to CM in US Holstein is lacking...

  12. Genetic parameters and selection for casein content in Italian Holstein and Brown Swiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bagnato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of more than 2,000,000 records on casein contents were collected in Lombardia (Italy during routine milk recording of Italian Holstein and Brown Swiss dairy cows. Variance components for casein were estimated as well as all the genetic correlations of casein with production and type traits considered in selection. According to the heritabilities estimated (12.4% for Brown and 9.36% for Holstein, breeding values were calculated for bulls and compared to the breeding values for total protein. The results of two different selection scenarios were compared for each breed when including protein or casein as selection criterion. Genetic progress expected for all traits selected were compared after 10 years of selection. The genetic variability of casein allows the use of this trait as selection criterion with the estimation of breeding values and its inclusion in selection indexes. Ranking of breeding values for casein and protein are very similar in both breeds. But some differences in genetic values for casein exist for the same level of breeding value for protein. Nevertheless results in genetic gain differ between breeds depending mainly on genetic correlations with the other traits selected. The positive results in selection response estimated for several traits suggest to the Brown Swiss Association the replacement of protein selection with casein. In contrast the smaller effects estimated for the Italian Holstein suggest to wait for more casein data collected before any change in selection program.

  13. Responses of milk quality to roasted soybeans, calcium soap and organic mineral supplementation in dairy cattle diets

    OpenAIRE

    Adawiah; Toha Sutardi; Toto Toharmat; Wasmen Manalu; Nahrowi

    2006-01-01

    Milk quality is affected by feed nutrient either macronutrient or micronutrient. Roasted soayabeans and calcium soap were to increase supply by pas protein and fat to dairy cattle. Thus, organic mineral was to increase bioavailability of feed mineral to animal. The objective of this study was to evaluate roasted soybean, mineral soap and organic mineral supplementation on milk quality of dairy cattle. Twenty lactating Frisian Holstein cows (initial weight 361.4 ± 40.39 kg) were assigned in...

  14. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) suppl...

  15. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine on production performance and blood biochemical indies of peripartum dairy cows%中药对围产期奶牛生产性能及血液生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建存; 周帮会

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on the production performance and blood biochemical indies of peripartum healthy cows, 90 head healthy Dutch Stan perinatal dairy cows were randomly divided into three groups with 30 cows each after clinical examination according to the principle of close age, parity and due date. Group A were given the traditional Chinese medicine Jiaweisijunzisan (400 g/d) 15 d before delivery for five days, then were given Yimush-enghuasan (400 g/d)on the delivery day for two days. Group B were only given Yimushenghuasan on the delivery day for two days. Group C were the control ( no medicine throughout the experiment). The dry matter intake, daily milk yield, milk ingredients and blood biochemical indies were measured. Compared with the control group C, dry matter intake of group A dairy cows was increased by 10% (P<0. 05 ) , the average daily milk yield was enhanced by 10% ( P<0. 05 ) , the content of serum triglyceride was reduced significantly (P<0. 05 ) , and the contents of serum glucose, total serum protein and serum calcium were maintained high level ( P<0. 05). Results indicated that prenatal or postnatal traditional Chinese medicine application to dairy cows improved blood biochemical indexes effectively and benefited production performance of postnatal cows.%为探明中药对围产期健康奶牛生产性能及血液生化指标的影响,选临床检查健康的围产期荷斯坦奶牛90头,按年龄、胎次和预产期相近的原则随机平均分成A、B、C3组,A组:于预产期前15 d喂服中药加味四君子散(每头400 g/d),连用5d,分娩后当天喂服益母生化散(每头400 g/d),连用2 d;B组:产前不喂服中药,分娩后当天喂服益母生化散(每头400 g/d)),连用2 d;C组为对照组,产前、产后均不喂服中药.各组奶牛分别测定干物质摄入量、日产奶量、乳成分及血液生化指标.结果显示:与对照组相比,A组奶牛干物质采食量增加10

  16. Pemertahanan Bahasa Pakpak Dairi di Kabupaten Dairi

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Nurhayati

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses about language maintenance of Pakpak Dairi in Dairi District. It focuses on the condition of language maintenance of Pakpak Dairi, the factors influence language maintenance of Pakpak Dairi, and the efforts to maintain Pakpak Dairi language. The respondent consists of 99 persons selected through stratified random sampling technique and divided into three groups, namely adolescent, adult, and parent group. Data were obtained through questioner, observation, and intervie...

  17. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mömke, S; Sickinger, M; Lichtner, P; Doll, K; Rehage, J; Distl, O

    2013-06-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is one of the most common disorders of the digestive system in many dairy breeds and particularly in Holstein dairy cows. We performed a genome-wide association study for 854 German Holstein cows, including 225 cases and 629 controls. All cows were genotyped using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After quality control of genotypes, a total of 36,226 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were left for analysis. We used a mixed linear model approach for a genome-wide association study of LDA. In total, 36 SNP located on 17 bovine (Bos taurus) chromosomes (BTA) showed associations with LDA at nominal -log10P-values >3.0. Two of these SNP, located on BTA11 at 46.70 Mb and BTA20 at 16.67 Mb, showed genome-wide significant associations with LDA at -log10P-values >4.6. Pathway analyses indicated genes involved in calcium metabolism and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus to be factors in the pathogenesis of LDA in German Holstein cows. PMID:23548285

  18. Performance of Holstein cows fed sugarcane or corn silages of different grain textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows were allocated to three 3 ' 3 latin squares and were fed 200 g of forage neutral detergent fiber per kg of dry matter as either hard texture corn ensiled at the half milk line stage of maturity, soft texture corn ensiled at the black layer stage, or sugarcane. There were no detectable differences between corn hybrids with regard to milk yield (34.2 vs 34.6 kg d-1 and composition, dry matter intake (23.0 vs 23.2 kg d-1 and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. Sugarcane decreased feed intake (21.5 kg d-1 and milk yield (31.9 kg d-1. Organic matter digestibility, chewing activity and rumen pH did not differ among treatments. Sugarcane seems to be a viable option to feed groups of Holstein cows during lactation stages in which nutrient demand is not at a maximum. The performance of dairy cows fed dent corn ensiled at the black layer stage of maturity was similar to the performance of cows fed flint corn ensiled at the half milk line stage.

  19. Rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity in Canadian Holstein and Jersey cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, K; Sargolzaei, M; Miglior, F; Schenkel, F S

    2011-10-01

    The accumulation of inbreeding and the loss of genetic diversity is a potential problem in the modern dairy cattle breeds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the pedigrees of Canadian Holstein and Jersey cattle to estimate the past and current rates of inbreeding and genetic diversity, and to identify the main causes of diversity loss. Completeness and depth of the pedigrees were good for both breeds. For Holsteins, the average rates of inbreeding per generation showed a decreasing trend in recent years when compared with the 1990s. The estimated current effective population size was about 115 for Holsteins and is not expected to significantly change in the near future if generation intervals stay at current value, as rates of increase in inbreeding and coancestry showed decreasing trends. For Jerseys, the estimated effective population size was about 55 and it is expected to decrease in the near future due to the observed increasing rates of coancestry and inbreeding. Ancestors with the highest marginal genetic contributions to the gene pool in current years and with the highest contributions to inbreeding were identified. The 2 most heavily used and represented ancestors in the Holstein pedigree (i.e., Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation and his son Hanoverhill Starbuck), accounted for 30% of inbreeding. Analyses revealed that the most important cause of genetic diversity loss in both breeds was genetic drift accumulated over nonfounder generations, which occurred due to small effective population size. Therefore, a need exists in both breeds, particularly in Jerseys, for managing selection and mating decisions to control future coancestry and inbreeding, which would lead to better handling of the effective population size. PMID:21943766

  20. An assessment of ammonia emissions from dairy facilities in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J D; Dou, Z; Ramberg, C F

    2001-10-26

    A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb). Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups) to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor) typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status) and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP). Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM), urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28 tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution. Reduction of ammonia

  1. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  2. Determination of the reproductive performance of Holstein cows in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trials to determine the onset of post-partum (pp) ovarian activity in a Holstein herd were carried out in 1985 and repeated during the same time of the year in 1987. In each, 20 recently calved adult cows and first-calf heifers were randomly selected and sampled for milk progesterone (MP4) determination twice a week between days 10 and 90 pp. Climatic conditions and availability of high quality fodder were better in 1987 than 1985. Results showed differences both in pregnancy rate (40% vs. 65%), as well as in the percentage of anoestrous cows (60% vs. 15%) between 1985 and 1987, respectively. In the second trial, not all cows in physiological oestrus (according to MP4 measurements) were identified in heat by observation of behavioural signs. It was concluded that nutritional levels greatly influence the reproductive efficiency of the herd on this farm, and that poor oestrus detection was a further contributory factor. Another trial conducted on a dairy herd in order to compare the efficiency of oestrus synchronization by PGF2α with manual enucleation of the corpus luteum (CL) showed no differences between treatment groups. Ovarian palpation to assess the presence of a CL was accurate in 69% of cases while the use of MP4 estimations proved to be 100% efficent. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to analyse the combined effect of lactation stage and fat supplementation. Either protected or unprotected fat was fed to dairy cows to quantify effects on dry matter intake (DMI), mammary nutrient uptake, energy corrected milk (ECM) yield, milk composition, and energy, N and feed...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...... efficiency. Additionally, we studied the effect of adding Hydroxy-methionine-analogue-isobutyrate (HMBi) to the ration supplemented with protected fat. A total of 107 Holstein cows and 54 Jersey cows were assigned to one of four different mixed dietary treatments: Control (CON), control supplemented with...

  4. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (Ppercentage (Pfat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  5. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Khelil-Arfa, Hajer; Faverdin, Philippe; Boudon, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20% DM (Na(-)) and 0.50% DM (Na(+))] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4 mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of...

  6. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation......, were collected from 2005 to 2009 in the progeny testing program of the Czech-Moravian Breeders Corporation. The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59,467, except for locomotion, where 53,436 animals were recorded. The 3-generation pedigree file included 164,125 animals. (Co...

  7. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  8. Intravaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria Modulated Local and Systemic Immune Responses and Lowered the Incidence of Uterine Infections in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Qilan; Odhiambo, John F.; Farooq, Umar; Lam, Tran; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1) one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk) on wk +1 relative to the expected day o...

  9. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

    OpenAIRE

    Citek Jindrich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR) is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR ...

  10. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic......Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...

  11. Morphological and milkability breed differences of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bobić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical characteristics of dairy cattle are not equal for all breeds, meaning that the morphological traits of udder and teats could favor an individual performance or a determined breed. Changes in teat tissue after machine milking occur because of the negative influence of the vacuum and mechanical forces of the teat cup liner. Duration and performance of machine milking also depend on the udder and teat conformation and milkability traits of cows. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in morphological characteristics of Simmental and Holstein cows before and after machine milking, as well as to elaborate the differences in some of milkability traits of the cows during process of milking. A correlation (from -0.30 to 0.37 was determined between exterior and interior traits of teats and the performance of milkability traits. In both cow breeds, statistically significant difference (p<0.0001 was found between the pre- and post-milking values in all investigated traits, with exception of teat end width. Holstein cows had significantly (p<0.001 higher amount of milk per milking, maximum and average milk flow, while cows of the Simmental breed had longer milking time duration, but without statistical significance. In comparison to Holstein breed, results of internal morphological traits of teats showed that cows of Simmental breed had longer teat canals and wider teat ends for both front and rear teats. Holstein breed compared to Simmental had thinner teats wall, but wider teat cistern. If compared to pre-milking stage, differences in teat cistern width and teat wall thickness that occur after milking were more expressed in the Holstein breed than in Simmental. Simmental cows had significantly (p<0.05 longer and wider rear teats. Future research should focus on proving the differences in changes of teat tissue due to milking between different groups of cows, as depending on the milk flow. Ultrasound method of recording can be

  12. Preliminary survey of the administration of pgf2α in postpartum dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Fejzo Selami; Griseld Selami

    2012-01-01

    This preliminary study was conducted to obtain a first view of the role of PGF2α on placenta expulsion, prevention of postpartum uterine infections, and fertility in dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows, 3 to 6 years of age, from a commercial dairy farm near Permet’s district were selected for this study. Cows were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: Ten cows were administered intramuscularly with 2 ml PGF2α (Estrumate®) 2 hours after parturition, and the treatment was repeated with th...

  13. TRANSCRIPTOMIC CHANGES IN RUMINAL TISSUE INDUCED BY THE PERIPARTURIENT TRANSITION IN DAIRY COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Dionissopoulos; Ousama AlZahal; Michael Alexander Steele; James Clyde Matthews; Brian William McBride

    2014-01-01

    To understand how the capacity for fat metabolism (uptake, synthesis, modification) changes in rumen epithelia immediately before and after onset of lactation in dairy cows, rumen fluid Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) concentrations and mRNA expression profiles of rumen epithelia was determined in twelve Holstein dairy cows at three weeks prior to calving (wk -3, n = 12), one week post calving (week +1, n = 12) and six weeks (week +6, n = 12) after calving. The diet was modified from a dry cow ...

  14. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  15. Effect of processed cereal grains as a supplement on grass intake, rumen pool sizes, ruminal kinetics and the performance of grazing lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.; Zhang, R.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Five multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fitted with rumen cannula were allowed to graze perennial ryegrass swards. Next to a control treatment of grazing only, pelleted barley (PB), pelleted maize (PM), toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB), and toasted and subsequently pell

  16. Pleiotropic effects of polymorphism of the gene diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Blum, Y.; Bannink, A.; Causeur, D.; Houee-Bigot, M.; Lagarrigue, S.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Microarray analysis was used to identify genes whose expression in the mammary gland of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows was affected by the nonconservative Ala to Lys amino acid substitution at position 232 in exon VIII of the diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Mammary gland biopsies of 9 hom

  17. Effect of strategies regarding concentrate supplementation and day-time grazing on N utilization at both field and dairy cow level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Søegaard, Karen; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2008-01-01

    N utilization at cow and field level was examined over two grazing periods of 30 days with 64 Holstein dairy cows. At cow and field level the effect of sward type (diploid vs. tetraploid perennial ryegrass, both mixed with white clover) and compressed sward height (6 vs. 10 cm) was examined....

  18. Milk and fat yields decline in bovine leukemia virus-infected Holstein cattle with persistent lymphocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Y; Shanks, R D; Stewart, J A; Lewin, H A

    1993-07-15

    Effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection on milk and fat yields were studied by using data collected from Holstein cows over a 6-year period. Milk and fat yields in BLV-infected cows with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) declined significantly relative to their BLV-infected non-PL herdmates. Declines were most pronounced in cows older than 6 years. The estimated loss to the dairy industry due to PL is more than $42 million annually. A major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) allele that has been previously associated with resistance to PL was associated with longevity and realization of milk production potentials, indicating that genetic resistance to PL will have an economic benefit in herds where BLV is endemic. PMID:8341665

  19. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  20. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  1. SYNCHRONIZATION OF ESTRUS IN DAIRY HEIFERS AND ITS EFFECT ON CONCEPTION RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that following the costs of feeding the lactating herd, heifer rearing is the second largest expense in dairy operations, accounting for approximately 20% of the total (Gabler et al. 2000). Holstein heifers achieve puberty at 30???40% of their expected adult body weight and the recommended body weight for insemination is between 340 and 365 kg, while the recommended age at first calving is considered to be ??? 24 months with body weight ??? 560 kg after cal...

  2. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Rini; C Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  3. Reproductive performance and nutritional status of Holstein cows in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproductive performance and nutritional status were assessed in Holstein cows from two dairy herds in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In the first herd (good management, G), concentrate was fed individually to cows, complete records were kept, veterinary services were provided as necessary and the standard of husbandry practices was good. In the second herd (fair management, F), veterinary services were used only occasionally, the concentrate fed was divided equally among lactating cows and the standard of husbandry practices was only fair. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, glucose, total protein and phosphorus were measured in blood collected at various times after calving. There were no statistical differences between the blood parameters in the two herds except for inorganic phosphorus which differed significantly between farms (P < 0.01). Only plasma glucose had a significant (P < 0.01) effect on the time required by the animals to initiate post-partum ovarian activity. The proportion of cows ovulating by day 60 was 75% in herd G versus 53% in herd F (P < 0.01); by day 100 the values were 82% in herd G and 70% in herd F (P < 0.01). Calving intervals were 12.7 and 13.2 months for herds G and F respectively, suggesting comparable reproductive efficiency. However, only 1 of the 28 cows in herd G was open more than 365 days after calving, as opposed to 5 of the 30 cows in herd F. When a value of 365 open days was given for these non-pregnant cows, the average days open for the herds were then 123 and 154 days for herds G and F respectively, indicating a decided production advantage in favour of the better managed herd. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. The effects of treading by two breeds of dairy cow with different live weights on soil physical properties, poaching damage and herbage production on a poorly drained clay-loam soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohy, P.; Fenton, O; Holden, N. M.; Humphreys, J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY There is little empirical evidence to indicate that dairy cow live weight affects the extent of soil damage at the hoof-soil interface during grazing on poorly drained permanent grassland. In the present study the impact of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cows with a mean (±standard deviation) live weight of 570 (±61) kg were compared with Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JX) with a mean live weight of 499 (±52) kg each at two stocking densities: mean 2·42 ± (0·062) and 2·66 (±0·079) cows/ha....

  5. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard;

    2011-01-01

    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  6. Dairy farms typology and management of animal genetic resources in the peri-urban zone of Bamako (Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Toure

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To characterise this development around Bamako (Mali, this study establishes a typology of dairy production systems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118 and 42% of farmers owned cropland (8.3± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha. Feeding strategy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85% of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to different levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %, Maure Zebu (9.2 %, Holstein (3.0 %, Azawak Zebu (1.3 %, Mere Zebu (0.5% and Kuri taurine (0.1 %. Holstein crossbred represented 30.5% of the total number of animals (19.0% Fulani-Holstein, 11.2% Maure-Holstein and 0.3% Kuri-Holstein. Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7% and 0.3 %, respectively. A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management practices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.

  7. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  8. Gynecological and cytological evaluation in Holstein cows with more than three repetitions of estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Fleury Guedes Martins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the gynecological examination and endometrial cytology in Holstein cows with more than three repetitions of estrus. The experiment was conducted in six commercial dairy herds both with similar reproductive and sanitary managements and assisted by veterinarians. It was included only Holstein cows up to five calving and more than three consecutive repetitions of estrus. Seventy-seven cows were identified and carried gynecological examination and endometrial cytology. The reproductive causes found in this study, subject to involuntary culling, were: clinical endometritis with purulent vaginal discharge and more than 3% neutrophils (7.79%, clinical endometritis with purulent vaginal discharge and less than 3% neutrophils (2.6%, subclinical endometritis (10.4%, urovagina (1.3% and 77.9% cows with unknown causes and they were not associated with reproductive disorders evaluated. It was concluded: a the rate of cows without diagnosis is very high and it interferes directly to the reproductive performance; b the proposed examination diagnosed 22.1% of clinical disorders that might be prevented or treated and thus decreasing the involuntary culling.

  9. Research on Dairy Foods’ Cold Chain Logistics Development Based on "Dumbbell" Integration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Liu; Dazheng Wang; Hongming Zhao; Suzhen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the causes of weak development of dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry in china, we analyze the role that the improvement of living standards play in dairy foods’ cold chain logistics to put forward higher requirements. This study discusses many serious problems in Chinese dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry, cold chain logistics system is incomplete, which cause a lot of damage to people's mental and physical. For these evergrowing problems, countries need to i...

  10. Associations between milk production level, calving interval length, lactation curve parameters and economic results in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Němečková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of work was to evaluate effects of milk production level (MY1≥9500 kg, n=23; MY2 = 8000-9499, n=28; and MY3≤7999 kg, n=29 and calving interval length (CI1≥440 days, n=22; CI2 = 400-439 days, n=33; and CI3≤399 days, n=25 on the lactation curve parameters calculated using MilkBot® Model and economic profitability of Holstein dairy cow breeding. Data were obtained from 80 Holstein cows on 1st to 4th parity calved between January and August 2012 on the dairy farm of the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague in Czech Republic. Lactation curve parameters differed more in relation with milk production level compared to calving interval length. Lactation curve in cows with the highest MY was characterized with significantly higher overall magnitude (scale parameter of milk production (P<0.01, higher peak yield (P<0.01 which occurred later (P<0.05 and higher persistence (P<0.05. Due to combination of higher persistence and total yield, average milk yield per day of calving interval was significantly (P<0.05 higher in cows with middle CI than in short CI. Optimal calving interval length should be assessed in relation with lactation persistence and milk production level. The highest individual profitability was reached by cows in MY1 and CI2 group.

  11. Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Newhouse, Stefanie A; Peters, Tonia L; Crump, Peter M; Akins, Matthew S; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum. Milk was collected daily during the postpartum period. Feed intake and milk yield were unaffected by 5-HTP infusion postpartum. Cows infused with 5-HTP had elevated circulating serotonin concentrations prepartum. Infusion with 5-HTP induced a transient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows prepartum, but not in any other treatment. Holstein cows infused with saline had the highest milk calcium on the day of and day after parturition. Postpartum, circulating total calcium tended to be elevated, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) concentrations were elevated in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP. Overall, Jerseys had higher urine DPD concentrations postpartum when compared with Holsteins. Taken together, these data warrant further investigation of the potential therapeutic benefit of 5-HTP administration prepartum for prevention of hypocalcemia. Further research should focus on delineation of mechanisms associated with 5-HTP infusion that control calcium homeostasis during the peripartum period in Holstein and Jersey cows. PMID:27390301

  12. Chinese consumers concerns about food safety: Case of Tianjin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain an insight to Chinese consumers' knowledge and concerns over food safety from a case study in Tianjin city. The results indicate that Chinese consumers are very much concerned about food safety, particularly with regard to vegetables and dairy products. Chinese

  13. Environmental consequences of an expanding and westernizing dairy sector in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moria, Laura

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, dramatic changes in traditional Chinese diets are observed. This so-called westernization of diets, among others, depicts a shift towards the consumption of more dairy. Per caput consumption and production of dairy in China tripled during the last decade. Cow milk production

  14. Study on the circular economy of dairy industry in Hohhot,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Shouxian; Lu Chunxia; Zhang Lei

    2008-01-01

    On August 8,2005,Hohhot was awarded the title of"Chinese Dairy Capital".Now dairy industry is one of the pillar industries in Hohhot,with strong driving effect to the development of social economy.However,the sustainahle development of dairy indus'try in Hohhot is threatened hy rapid scale expansion and restriction of environmental supporting capacity.In accord with the ideas and requirements of the circular economy theory,this paper analyzes dairy industry pattern from two aspects and establishes the industry system.The dairy industry mainly consists of cow breeding and dairy,process.The cireular economy must set about from the two aspects.For the most part,dairy processing should start from the two most key links,namely packing and water using.

  15. International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Canavesi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS, non-return rate at 56 days (NR56 and calving interval (CI. Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

  16. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the Bovine...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the...

  17. Dairy buffalo breeding in countryside of China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C; Qin, J.; X. L.Q. Zeng; Yang, B

    2010-01-01

    Chinese buffalo is of swamp type, mainly distributed in countryside of 18 provinces in southern China. China has the third population of buffalo in the world. There are 22.75 million buffaloes in China in 2005, representing 17.37% of all cattle in the whole country. Historically Chinese buffalo is mainly used for drought since their milk production is very low with an annual milk yield of 500-700 kg. Therefore, it is important to improve them to change into dairy buffalo through crossbreeding...

  18. Fatty Liver Syndrome in Dairy Cattle: Relation between Nefa, Apo-A, Ammoniac, Tsh and Total Bilirobin Serum Values in this Syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Parviz Rezaei Saber; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver syndrome (Hepatic lipidosis) or fat cow syndrome is a major metabolic disorder in many dairy cattle's in early period of lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluating fatty liver syndrome in dairy cattle in Tabriz by measurement of NEFA, APO-A, Ammoniac, TSH and Total Bilirobin serum values. In this study 10 mL blood samples from 400 Holstein dairy cows were obtained by venoject from jugular vein and then samples in vicinity of the ice sent to the laboratory. In lab, prepared...

  19. The effect of different physical forms of rapeseed as a fat supplement on the activity of some enzymes in the duodenal chyme of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharerry, A.; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2014-01-01

    Studies on nutritional regulation of digestive enzymes in ruminants are scarce. Fat supplementation of diets for dairy cows changes the supply of nutrients for absorption and transport. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the physical form of rapeseed (Brassica napus) fat on the...... duodenal enzyme profile in dairy cows. Four mid-lactation Danish Holstein dairy cows were submitted to an experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed four rations containing 50% forage and 50% concentrate on a dry matter basis. The four rations were: a control ration with rapeseed meal (low fat...

  20. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  1. Genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in United States Holstein and Jersey populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E A; Rosa, G J M; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T

    2013-09-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus that affects only cattle. It is associated with decreased milk production and increased cull rates due to development of lymphosarcoma. The virus also affects the immune system. Infected cows display a weak response to some vaccinations. It is important to determine if the heritability of BL susceptibility is greater than zero, or if the environment is the only factor that can be used to reduce the transmission and incidence of the disease. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability for BL incidence and the genetic merit of sires for leukosis resistance in Holstein and Jersey cattle. Continuous scores and binary milk ELISA results for 13,217 Holstein cows from 114 dairy herds across 16 states and 642 Jersey cows from 8 dairy herds were considered. Data were obtained from commercial testing records at Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). Out of the 13,859 animals tested, 38% were found to be infected with the disease. Linear and threshold animal models were used to analyze the continuous and binary data, respectively. Results from both models were similar in terms of estimated breeding values and variance components in their respective scales. Estimates of heritability obtained with the 2 approaches were approximately 8% for both breeds, indicating a considerable genetic component underlying BL disease incidence. The correlation between the estimated breeding values from the 2 models was larger than 0.90, and the lists of top 10% bulls selected from each model had about 80% overlap for both breeds. In summary, results indicate that a simple linear model using the continuous ELISA scores as the response variable was a reasonable approach for the genetic analysis of BL incidence in cattle. In addition, the levels of heritability found indicate that genetic selection could also be used to decrease susceptibility to bovine leukosis virus infection in Holstein and Jersey

  2. Decoquinate, lasalocid and monensin for starter feeds and the performance of holstein calves to 20 weeks of age Decoquinato, lasalocida e monensina em concentrado inicial e desempenho de bezerros holandeses até 20 semanas de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio; John Tal Huber; Luiz Gustavo Nussio

    2002-01-01

    The large utilization of coccidiostats in dairy herds has raised the question regards the best product to use, based on better animal performance. Sixty-four Holstein calves were randomly assigned to four treatments at 10 (±4) d of age to evaluate calf performance when fed approved coccidiostats available on the market in Arizona, USA. Calves received a dry calf starter without (control) or with one of the following coccidiostats: lasalocid, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinate, 19 mg kg-1; and monensin, ...

  3. Performance of Holstein cows fed sugarcane or corn silages of different grain textures Desempenho de vacas Holandesas alimentadas com cana-de-açúcar ou silagens de milho de diferentes textura de grão

    OpenAIRE

    Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei Corrêa; Marcos Neves Pereira; Simone Gisele de Oliveira; Marcelo Hentz Ramos

    2003-01-01

    Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows were allocated to three 3 ' 3 latin squares and were fed 200 g of forage neutral detergent fibe...

  4. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P 0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. PMID:26474687

  5. Hepatic transcriptome profiling identifies differences in expression of genes associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth between Hereford and Holstein-Friesian bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Pawel; Kościuczuk, Ewa M; Gościk, Joanna; Pierzchała, Mariusz; Rowińska, Barbara; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2014-04-01

    This study examined liver transcriptomic profiles of cattle distinctly different in meat and milk production capacity. It was performed on bulls of two different genetic backgrounds: Herefords (H), a meat breed, and Holstein-Friesians (HF), a dairy breed. Using bovine long oligo-microarrays and qPCR, we identified 128 genes that are differentially expressed between the two breeds. In H bulls, we observed up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism (CD36, CAT, HSD3B1, FABP1, ACAA1) and involved in insulin signaling (INSR, INSIG2, NR4A1) and down-regulation of genes involved in somatotropic axis signaling (IGF1, GHR, IGFBP3) as compared to HF. Transcriptome profiling of these two breeds allowed us to pinpoint the transcriptional differences between Holstein and Hereford bulls at hepatic level associated with changes in metabolism and postnatal growth. PMID:24304134

  6. MILK PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF PURE BRED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN AND JERSEY COWS IN SUBTROPICAL ENVIRONMENT OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    M. LATEEF, K. Z. GONDAL, M. YOUNAS, M. SARWAR, M. I. MUSTAFA AND M. K. BASHIR1

    2008-01-01

    The data on 575 records of 270 Holstein Friesian and 818 records of 326 Jersey cows maintained in Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed. The cows were grouped into imported Holstein Friesian, imported Jersey, Farm born Holstein Friesian and farm born Jersey cows. Lactation milk yield of farm born Holstein Friesian and Jersey cows was significantly (P

  7. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING AND LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT ON DEVELOPMENT OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE GENETIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turlyun V. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews an analysis of several problems of milk production process as well as fast methods of dairy cows' health control widely used in the countries of high-level dairy breeding. The results of milk analysis via test stripes reveal that about 30% of cows during transition period - phases transit 2 and 1st phase of lactation - have clinical and subclinical ketosis marks what comes as one of the reasons of cow's low productivity. Evaluation of cows' fatness evidence that only 46,4% of tested animals have normal fatness according to the appropriate lactation period, whereas other animals have too high fatness index and only very small part - 1% have extremely low fatness index. Cows' obesity leads in future to ketosis and disturbance in metabolism. The research also revealed nonconformities in boxes size, they do not satisfy requirements of comfortable Holstein cows handling. The article provides recommendations on implementation of tested methods based on survey in order to suggest the ways of milk production efficiency increase

  8. Immune and oxidative response to linseed in the diet of periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đidara, M; Poljičak-Milas, N; Milinković-Tur, S; Mašek, T; Šuran, J; Pavić, M; Kardum, M; Šperanda, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the influence of dietary replacement of n-6 with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cellular immunity and oxidative stress in the transition period dairy cows. The experiment was conducted on 20 dairy Holstein cows from 3 ± 1 weeks before parturition until the 6th week of lactation. Both groups were fed an iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diet. Soybean meal from control (C) group was replaced with linseed in the experimental (LS) group. Cellular immunity and oxidative stress were measured on days -10, 1, 21 and 42 relative to parturition. During the entire experimental period, the proportion of CD45+ cells was lower (Pcows fed with n-3 fatty acids were significantly reduced (Pcows fed with n-6 fatty acids. The most severe decrease in phagocytosis ability was on day -10 and 1 relative to parturition. The activity of superoxide dismutase (Pperiod. In that matter we can conclude that not only dietary n-3 fatty acids but also oxidative stress, which reached peak at time of parturition, contributed to the reduced cellular immunity during the periparturient period. PMID:25786897

  9. Pedigree Analysis of Holstein Bulls in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlík

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic diversity in Holstein bulls population in Slovakia by the methods of pedigree analysis. The population was represented by the bulls with reserve of frozen semen doses in AI centers. Whole reference population consisted of 169 bulls born from 1997 to 2009. For calculation of diversity parameters the program Endog v.4.8 (Gutiérrez, Goyache, 2005 was used. An average maximal number of generations traced was 9.35, 3.06 complete generations and equivalent number of generations traced was 5.71. An average coefficient of inbreeding was 2.48%, individual increase in inbreeding was 0.53% and average relatedness was 2.72%. The 167 bulls from 169 were inbred (98.82%. An average number of offsprings per bull was 107.70 with maximal number 1,641 offsprings. The effective population size computed via individual increase in inbreeding was 94.50. The effective number of founders was 88, effective number of ancestors 31 and only 13 ancestors described 50% of diversity. From these results we can conclude that the diversity of Holstein bulls is reduced by more factors (inbreeding, high relatedness, bottlenecks. Obtained results point out the need to use new outbred bull lines for mating cows.

  10. Mastitis in dairy heifers: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bludau, M J; Maeschli, A; Leiber, F; Steiner, A; Klocke, P

    2014-12-01

    Poor udder health represents a serious problem in dairy production and has been investigated intensively, but heifers generally have not been the main focus of mastitis control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of heifer mastitis in Switzerland. The study included 166,518 heifers of different breeds (Swiss Red Pied, Swiss Brown Cattle and Holstein). Monthly somatic cell counts (SCCs) provided by the main dairy breeding organisations in Switzerland were monitored for 3 years; the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) was determined on the basis of SCCs ≥100,000 cells/mL at the first test date. The probability of having SCM at the first test date during lactation was modelled using logistic regression. Analysed factors included data for the genetic background, morphological traits, geographical region, season of parturition and milk composition. The overall prevalence of SCM in heifers during the period from 2006 to 2010 was 20.6%. Higher frequencies of SCM were present in heifers of the Holstein breed (odds ratio, OR, 1.62), heifers with high fat:protein ratios (OR 1.97) and heifers with low milk urea concentrations combined with high milk protein concentrations (OR 3.97). Traits associated with a low risk of SCM were high set udders, high overall breeding values and low milk breeding values. Heifers with SCM on the first test day had a higher risk of either developing chronic mastitis or leaving the herd prematurely. PMID:25457268

  11. ANALYSE OF TRAITS OF MILK PRODUCTION IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrncar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating milk performance indicators, we mainly focused on dairy cows of the Holstein breed and its cross-breeds. Within the Holstein breed and its cross-breeds we evaluated 68 dairy cows, which produced on average 6447.63 kg of milk, 272.42 kg of fat, 210.73 kg of proteins and 307.79 kg of lactose. By means of a device LACTOSCAN 90 we defined basic milk components in our samples in laboratory conditions on the basis of set working procedures. Average fat content in our samples stood at 3.87 g/100 g. Average proteins content in our samples stood at 3.36 g/100 g. Average lactose content stood at 4.96 g/100 g. When assessing milk technological qualities we determined the average milk acidity value in our samples, which was 5.85 oSH. The average thermostability value of the tested samples was 2.75. In the milk cheeseability test the shortest time needed for sample precipitation was detected in samples No. 4 (42 s.,   No. 13 (185 s. and No.11 (190 s..    doi:10.5219/93

  12. Comportamiento productivo y reproductivo del ganado holstein rojo, holstein negro y pardo suizo en Palmira, Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata Oscar

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Three breeds of dairy cattle (26 Red Holstein RH, 97 Black Holstein BH and 29 Brown Swiss BS, were evaluated for reproductive eficiency, and milk production for the years 1979 - 1987 a t the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario, Palmira. Days of milking, milk and fat production were for BH (324.0days, 2545.9 kg, 91.1 kg for the RH (300.0 days, 2243.7 kg, 81.0 kg for the BS (298.2 days, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. % fat average were 3.6% in RH, 3.7 % in BH and BS. The lactation curves for the three breeds were best ajusted with the model: Y=A+B(lnt + C(lnt2. Larger persistaency was observed on BS followed by RH. The BS presented better reproductive efficiency than RH and BH with a mean of 169.0,177.4 and 195.6 days, calving data-conception and 2.0, 22 and 22 for number of services per conception. The HR breed had a calving age of 3.4 years and 470.5 kg of calving weight larger than 3.5 years and 440.0 kg for the BH and 3.8 years and 458.1 kg for the BS. Average weight at birth for males and females together BS showed grater weights (37.02 kq, BH and RH showed similar results (36.0 and 362 kg. The incidence of problem at birth was higher for RH (10.90/0 and puerperium problems in BS(21.60,b. Not significal effect of calving weight and rainfall on milk yield and calving date-conception. In most cases there was no correlation between milk yield and calving date-conception. There was a very narow relation between calving date- conception and number of services per conception.En el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario-Palmira, se evaluó el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de 152 vacas; 26 Holstein Rojo (HR, 97 Holstein Negro (HN y 29 vacas Pardo Suizo (PS, durante el período 1979-1987. La mayor duración de la lactancia, producción de leche y grasa (kg la presentó la raza HN (324 días, 2545.9 ka, 91.1 kg, seguido de la HR (300 días, 2243.7,81.0 kg y de la PS (298.2 días, 1886.6 kg, 66.9 kg. los porcentajes de grasa fueron 3.6 (HR y 3.7010 (HN y PSI

  13. PREDICTION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL SIMMENTAL AND RED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN ADMIXTURE LEVELS IN SWISS FLECKVIEH CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Khayatzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated levels of local ancestry for individuals of the Swiss Fleckvieh dairy cattle population. It is a composite breed descending from two pure breeds, Simmental (SIM and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF. Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data for a total of 500 pure and admixed animals were used for the analysis. The global ancestries estimated by Hidden Markov model were 0.68 and 0.32 for RHF and SIM respectively. Local ancestry levels investigated along chromosomes 2, 3 and 13 indicated that there were some regions across the chromosomes exhibiting substantial fluctuations in admixture. On chromosome 2, in the range of 28 to 31, 41 to 46 and 54 to 56 Mb RHF ancestry is substantially higher than average (0.77-0.78. These regions on chromosome 2 are wide, indicating recent admixture. Along the segments on chromosome 2, many QTLs related to dairy, conformation, reproduction, health and carcass traits were found. We observed sharper excess in favour of SIM on chromosome 3, whereas different regions with excess of RHF and SIM were found out on Chromosome 13. At the first part of chromosome 13, an excess of RHF was observed. Moreover, in regions between 40 and 57 Mb excess of SIM, referred to recent admixture was detected. In respect of RHF chromosome segments in admixed animals, dairy, reproduction and health QTLs were found. In positions where more Simmental segments were detected, QTLs related to meat and carcass traits as well as udder health traits were found. In conclusion, the authors believe that estimation of local admixture levels in crossbred populations can add information to the composite breeds history of selection.

  14. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  15. Ghrelin and its correlation with leptin, energy related metabolites and thyroidal hormones in dairy cows in transitional period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozi-Asl, A; Aarabi, N; Rowshan-Ghasrodashti, A

    2016-01-01

    The transition from late gestation to early lactation is a critical period in a dairy cow's life so that dairy cows undergo tremendous changes during this period. The aim of this study was to determine blood levels of ghrelin, leptin, glucose, β-ydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in dairy Holstein cows (n=20) and their correlations during the transition period. Blood samples were collected weekly from 3 wk antepartum to 6 wk postpartum from 20 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Ghrelin and leptin of plasma and glucose, BHB, NEFA, TG, T3, T4 of serum were then measured. Early lactation cows showed significantly higher (pcows. Serum concentrations of glucose did not differ significantly at any time (P>0.05). Plasma ghrelin concentrations showed positive correlations with the serum BHB and NEFA (p0.05) was found between ghrelin and glucose. The results of the study showed that blood ghrelin, leptin, BHB and NEFA levels are sensitive indicators of the energy balance during the peri-partum period in dairy cows and glucose values may not be considered as a precise indicator of negative energy balance in dairy cows. PMID:27096804

  16. Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) locate...

  17. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13...

  18. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1) on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, L; Kume, K.

    2010-01-01

    About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha) is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1) of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P), Limousi...

  19. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  20. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Biricik; Gulay Deniz; Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen; Hidir Gencoglu

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assi...

  1. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Tušimová Eva; Kováčik Anton; Harangozo Ľuboš; Lukáč Norbert; Kolesárová Adriana; Vollmannová Alena; Kováčik Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG), nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotrans...

  2. Effect of breed, energy level of diet, and lactation stage on the evolution of milk lipolysis in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbergue, Elise; Delaby, Luc; Colette, Ségolène; Gallard, Yves; Hurtaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous lipolysis is the result of the activity of a native milk enzyme, the lipoprotein lipase. Lipolysis leads to a release of free fatty acids (FFA) that cause rancid flavor in milk products. A trial was carried out to study the effects of breed, energy levels, and lactation stage on milk spontaneous lipolysis in dairy cows. Sixty-four cows were used through a year of lactation. Cows were divided into 4 homogenous groups according to their breed [Holstein (HO) or Norm...

  3. Changes in white blood pictures and some biochemical parameters of dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Joksimović Todorović; Vesna Davidović

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the changes in the number of cells of white blood line and some biochemical parameters: concentration of glucose, concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), activity of enzymes of aspartat aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyltranferase (GGT), in 17 Holstein-Friesian breed dairy cows in peripartum period and early lactation (on d 15 prepartum, on the day of parturition and on d 15, 30, and 45 postpartu...

  4. Prevalence and Distribution of Mastitis Pathogens and their Resistance against Antimicrobial Agents in Dairy Cows in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Azmi D. Hawari; Fawzi Al-Dabbas

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the aetiology of bovine mastitis in ten herds of Holstein Friesian cow in Jordan, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Milk samples were collected from 220 lactating cows to determine the clinical and subclinical mastitis by white side test and confirmed by cultural tests. It was found that 138 quarters (15.7%) had been diagnosed as clinical mastitis with definite gross pa...

  5. Dairy development in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mohamed A. M.; Ehui, Simeon; Yemesrach, Assefa

    2004-01-01

    Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable potential for smallholder income and employment generation from high-value dairy products, development of the dairy sector in Ethiopia can contribute significantly to poverty alleviation and nutrition in the country. Like other sectors of the economy, the da...

  6. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  7. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  8. Enteric methane emissions and efficiency of use of energy in Holstein heifers and steers at age of six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A; Carson, A F; Ferris, C P; Easson, D L; Wills, D

    2013-01-01

    Twenty 5-mo-old Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) were selected from a dairy herd for a 28 d study of enteric methane emissions and energy utilization. The cattle were offered a completely mixed diet with grass silage and concentrates (0.45 and 0.55, DM basis, respectively). They were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, transferred to metabolism units for 3 d, and subsequently housed in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers for next 5 d with measurements of feed intake, feces and urine outputs, and gaseous exchange. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the 2 groups in terms of animal performance (feed intake, BW, or BW gain), energy metabolism (energy intake, energy outputs, or energy use efficiency), or methane emission rates (total methane emissions expressed on feed intake or energy intake basis). Therefore, the data from the 2 groups were pooled to develop a range of relationships between inputs and outputs. The regression of energy balance or heat production against ME intake (r2=0.85; Pbeef production systems. These data can add useful information, as there is little information available on measurements of maintenance energy requirement or methane emissions in young stock (6 mo old) of the current high-yielding dairy cattle. The use of these data can potentially improve the accuracy of prediction of energy requirement and methane emissions for dairy and beef production systems in these dietary conditions. PMID:23048155

  9. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  10. Polymorphisms in bovine immune genes and their associations with somatic cell count and milk production in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magee David A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is a major source of economic loss on dairy farms. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between two previously identified polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1 genes and mammary health indictor traits in (a 246 lactating dairy cow contemporaries representing five breeds from one research farm and (b 848 Holstein-Friesian bulls that represent a large proportion of the Irish dairy germplasm. To expand the study, a further 14 polymorphisms in immune genes were included for association studies in the bull population. Results TLR4-2021 associated (P SERPINA1 haplotype with superior genetic merit for milk protein yield and milk fat percentage (P Conclusion Of the sixteen polymorphisms in seven immune genes genotyped, just CXCR1-777 tended to associate with SCS, albeit only in the on-farm study. The lack of an association between the polymorphisms with SCS in the Holstein-Friesian data set would question the potential importance of these variants in selection for improved mastitis resistance in the Holstein-Friesian cow.

  11. Substituição parcial de silagem de milho por farelo de glúten de milho desidratado na alimentação de vacas holandesas em lactação Partial replacement of corn silage by corn gluten feed in the feeding of dairy Holstein cows in lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina do Nascimento Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito da substituição de parte da silagem de milho por farelo de glúten de milho (FGM-21 desidratado na produção e composição do leite e nos parâmetros sangüíneos de vacas em lactação e avaliar economicamente essa substituição. Foram avaliados os níveis 0, 8 e 16% de inclusão de FGM-21 (% MS nas dietas. Trinta vacas foram utilizadas no estudo da produção e composição do leite e 15 vacas no estudo dos parâmetros sangüíneos. O delineamento experimental foi quadrado latino 3 ´ 3 com dez replicações. Houve diferença entre as dietas para a produção de leite e a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. As demais características estudadas não diferiram entre as dietas. Para produção de leite, foram obtidos os valores de 22,44; 23,69 e 23,88 kg/vaca/dia; para produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, 23,25; 24,71 e 24,44 kg/vaca/dia; para porcentagem de gordura, 3,69; 3,76 e 3,65%; para proteína no leite, 3,22; 3,20 e 3,25%; lactose, 4,29; 4,32 e 4,31%; sólidos totais, 12,12; 12,23 e 12,14%; N-uréico no leite, 16,57; 16,50 e 14,96 mg/dL; N-uréico plasmático, 19,92; 21,17 e 20,21 mg/dL; e para glicose sérica, 55,69; 56,50 e 54,78 mg/dL nos níveis 0, 8 e 16% de FGM-21, respectivamente. A dieta com 16% de FGM-21 resultou em maior lucro.The objective was to study the effects of partial replacing of corn silage by corn gluten feed (CGF-21 dehydrated on milk production and composition of milk and in the blood parameters of dairy cows, beyond the economic evaluation. Inclusion levels of 0, 8 and 16% of CGF-21 (% DM to the diets were evaluated. Thirty cows were used for study of milk production and composition and fifteen cows for blood parameters study. A 3 x 3 Latin Square experimental design with ten replications was used. There was difference among diets for milk yield and for 3.5% fat correct milk. No difference among diets was observed for the other studied

  12. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure. PMID:27104783

  13. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Sørensen, A.C.; Lassen, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    assumptions made in the simulation study, especially the genetic correlations between traits. A more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations did not change total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the US Holstein...... population size is of greater importance than differences in trait definitions and relative weighting of the index traits for the advantage of exchanging genetic material between the Nordic and the US Holstein populations. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the Nordic Holstein population did......, importation of genetic material from Nordic Holsteins may slow down the deterioration of animal health and reproduction in US Holsteins...

  14. Individual and combined effects of anovulation and cytological endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Neto, A; Gilbert, R O; Butler, W R; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Vercouteren, M M; Bruno, R G; Bittar, J H J; Galvão, K N

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate the individual and combined effect of anovulation and cytological endometritis (CTE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. A total of 1,569 cows from 3 data sets were used. In data set 1, 403 Holstein cows from 5 dairies in New York were used. In data set 2, 750 Holstein cows from 2 dairies, one in Florida and one in California were used. In data set 3, 416 dairy cows, 165 Holsteins, 36 Jerseys, and 215 Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds from a grazing dairy in Florida were used. Cyclicity and CTE was determined at 35±3 (data set 2) or 49±3 d in milk (data sets 1 and 3). A variable (VarCycCTE) containing all 4 possible permutations between cyclicity (cyclic = Cyc; anovular = Anov) and CTE (present = CTE; absent = Healthy) was created. In the combined data set (sets 1, 2, and 3), pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) diagnosed at 30 to 38 d after first AI was affected by VarCycCTE, with AnovCTE cows having decreased P/AI compared with CycHealthy cows (21.3 vs. 46.7%), whereas AnovHealthy (37.9%) and CycCTE cows (36.0%) had intermediate P/AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination for the individual data sets and for pregnancy diagnosed at 63 to 74 d after artificial insemination followed a similar pattern. Pregnancy loss was not affected by VarCycCTE. Hazard of pregnancy up to 300 d in milk was affected by VarCycCTE in the combined data sets 1 and 2, with AnovCTE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55], AnovHealthy cows (HR=0.71), and CycCTE (HR=0.8) having decreased hazard of pregnancy compared with CycHealthy cows. Median days open were 200, 159, 145, and 121 for AnovCTE, AnovHealthy, CycCTE, and CycHealthy, respectively. Hazard of pregnancy for the individual data sets followed a similar pattern. In summary, both anovulation and CTE were negatively associated with reproductive performance and, when combined, they had an additive negative effect. PMID:24996269

  15. National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program is a continuation of ongoing USDA collaboration with the U.S. dairy industry on genetic evaluation of dairy cattle since 1908. Data are provided by dairy records processing centers (yield, health, pedigree, and reproduction traits), breed registry societ...

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of quantitative trait loci for minerals in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Sehested, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Background Bovine milk provides important minerals, essential for human nutrition and dairy product quality. For changing the mineral composition of the milk to improve dietary needs in human nutrition and technological properties of milk, a thorough understanding of the genetics underlying milk...... mineral contents is important. Therefore the aim of this study was to 1) estimate the genetic parameters for individual minerals in Danish Holstein (DH) (n = 371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n = 321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with mineral content in the milk using a genome....... Conclusion The results show that Ca, Zn, P and Mg show high heritabilities. In combination with the GWAS results this opens up possibilities to select for specific minerals in bovine milk....

  17. Endocrine and metabolic profile in Holstein and red Holstein heifers during peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasagić D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this stady was to examine the relationship between triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and blood serum liver function biomarkers concentrations in Holstein and Red Holstein heifers during the peripartal period. In the first experimental group (I were heifers of Holstein Friesian breed (n=10, and in the second experimental group (II were Red Holstein heifers (n=10. Blood samples were taken from the vena coccygea three times during the short peripartal period (5 days before delivery, at delivery and 5 days after delivery, and blood serum samples were separated after spontaneous coagulation. Blood serum T3, T4 and IGF-I concentrations were determinated using radioimmunoassay (RIA. Blood serum concentrations of glucose (G, total protein (TP, albumin, (Alb, urea, total bilirubin (tBil and aspartate aminotrasferase (AST were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The statistical significance between means was determined using Student t-test. Blood serum T3 concentration in Group II was significantly lower after delivery, and T4 concentration was significantly higher before delivery (p<0.05, compared to Group I. Mean blood serum IGF-I concentrations between the two experimental groups were not significantly different at all time intervals. Relationships between the determined hormones showed a median positive correlation between T3, and T4 (r=0.74 in Group I and highly positive correlation in Group II (r=0.81. Blood serum thyroid gland hormones and IGF-I concentrations in healthy heifers during peripartal period vary considerably, the lowest values being determined immediately after calving in both experimental groups. Blood serum G, TP, Alb and urea concentrations were significantly higher in Group I at all investigated time intervals. Blood serum tBil concentration was significantly higher after partus in Group I (11.02 ± 3.33 : 8.49 ± 3.35 μmol/L, Group I vs. II, respectively, and AST activity was

  18. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasana, Nidarshani; Cho, GwangHyun; Park, SuBong; Kim, SiDong; Choi, JaeGwan; Park, ByungHo; Park, ChanHyuk; Do, ChangHee

    2015-09-01

    The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd) 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling rates while improving

  19. Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Feed Supplement on Milk Production and its Composition in Tunisian Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maamouri O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 105-day feed trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feed supplement containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk yield and its composition in Holstein Friesian cows. The trial was conducted in the region of Sidi Bouzid in the west of Tunisia. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated on eight Holstein Friesian cows randomly divided into two groups of four animals on the basis of age, body weight, average milk yield, and lactation number. The first group was supplemented with 2.5 g/cow/day of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.5 1010 CFU/day and the second group (control was without the yeast. The study showed that supplementation with 2.5 g of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae per cow per day or 2.5 1010 CFU/day tended (P < 0.06 to increase milk production by 1.1 kg/cow. By cons, there was a significant increase of fat (P < 0.01; 52.8 and 46.9 g/cow/day and protein (P < 0.05; 41.7 and 38.7 g/cow/day content both for treated and control group, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.5 1010 CFU/day in the diet of dairy cows may have positive influence on milk fat and protei n yield (g/cow/day.

  20. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  1. Survey of management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, W J; Lehenbauer, T W; Karle, B M; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Anderson, Randall J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Farver, T B; Aly, S S

    2016-02-01

    In the spring of 2013, a survey of California (CA) dairies was performed to characterize management practices related to bovine respiratory disease in preweaned calves, compare these practices across geographic regions of the state, and determine the principal components that explain the variability in management between herds. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions divided into 6 sections to assess management practices affecting dairy calves from precalving to weaning. The questionnaire was mailed to 1,523 grade A licensed dairies in CA and 224 responses (14.7%) were collected. Survey response rates were similar over the 3 defined regions of CA: northern CA, northern San Joaquin Valley, and the greater southern CA region. The mean size of respondent herds was 1,423 milking cows. Most dairies reported raising preweaned calves on-site (59.7%). In 93.3% of dairies, preweaned calves were raised in some form of individual housing. Nonsaleable milk was the most frequent liquid diet fed to preweaned heifers (75.2%). Several important differences were identified between calf-raising practices in CA and practices reported in recent nationwide studies, including herd sizes, housing practices, and sources of milk fed to heifers. The differences between the CA and nationwide studies may be explained by differences in herd size. Regional differences within CA were also identified. Compared with the 2 other regions, northern CA dairies were found to have smaller herds, less Holstein cattle, calves remained with dams for longer periods of time after calving, were more likely to be certified organic dairies, and raised their own calves more often. Principal component analysis was performed and identified 11 components composed of 28 variables (questions) that explained 66.5% of the variability in the data. The identified components and questions will contribute to developing a risk assessment tool for bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves. PMID:26709177

  2. 日粮中添加N-氨甲酰谷氨酸对奶牛泌乳性能的影响%Effects of N-Carbonyl Glutamic Acid on Milk Yield of Dairy Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽丽; 马毅; 赵庆彬

    2015-01-01

    20 Chinese Holstein cows of basically the same condition at age and lactation were selected, randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 cows. This experiment was assigned to 2 dietary treatments:control group (0%) and NCG group (20 g/d) to study the effects of N-carbonyl glutamic acid added into dairy diet on yield of dairy cattle. The results indicated that the milk production and milk protein rate of the NCG group was higher than that of the control group;the fat in every milk samples was lower. The economic return of the NCG group was higher than that of the control group. It could be concluded that NCG could indirectly affect milk yield and components of milk by urea cycle.%研究NCG对奶牛泌乳性能的影响,选取20头年龄、胎次、泌乳状况基本相同的荷斯坦奶牛随机分成2组,分别饲喂在基础日粮中添加0(试验组)和20 g/(d·头)(试验组)的NCG(N-氨甲酰谷氨酸)日粮。试验结果表明,日粮中添加NCG可使奶牛日产奶量提高0.7 kg(P<0.05),可使每头奶牛1个泌乳期增加经济利润1088.85元;乳脂率降低显著(P<0.05),乳蛋白率显著升高(P<0.05)。提示NCG可以通过尿素循环间接影响奶牛泌乳量及乳成分。

  3. Effect of Metallothionein on Cell Cycle, Apoptosis Rate and Subsets Distribution of Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood of Dairy Cattle under Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajie LUO; Jun FANG; Lili LI; Bin ZHANG; LiZhuan WU; Zijun LI; Ying PENG; JueXin FAN; XinYi LAN; JinShun ZHAN

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to research the effect of metal othionein on cellcycle, apoptosis rate and subsets distribution of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of dairy cows under heat stress, so as to perfect the regulative mechanism re-searches of MT to anti-heat stress. [Method] Twenty lactating Chinese Holstein cows were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D), and injected with 0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 mg Zn-metal othionein, respectively by intravenous route. Blood sam-ples were col ected at 1st, 16th, 31st, 46th and 61st day, and the dynamic changes of cellcycle, apoptosis rate and subsets distribution of lymphocytes were determined. [Result] The apoptosis rate of cells in group B and C was lower than those in group A by 26.63% (P>0.05) and 24.84% (P>0.05) respectively. The number of cells in the G0/G1 phage in trial groups was increased and the number of cells in the S and G2/M phages tended to decrease, but there were no significant differences (P>0.05). The number of CD3+ T cellin three trial groups was greater than those in group A by 7.02% (P>0.05), 5.45% (P>0.05) and 3.85% (P>0.05) respectively, while the number of CD4+ T cellin trial groups was higher than those in control group by 31.04% (P<0.05), 35.68% (P<0.05) and 39.34% (P<0.05) respectively. The number of CD8+ T celland the levels of CD4+/CD8+ in trial groups were increased observ-ably, but significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the levels of CD4+/CD8+between groups A and C only. It demonstrated that exogenous Zn-metal othionein can decrease apoptosis rate, improve cellcycle and regulate subsets distribution of lymphocytes in dairy cattle in a dose-dependent manner. [Conclusion] This study wil provide scientific basis for safe utilization of MT in dairy industry.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes and their relation with somatic cell scores in Argentinean dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Juan P; Raschia, Maria A; Carignano, Hugo; Poli, Mario A; Calvinho, Luis F; Amadio, Ariel F

    2015-11-01

    The prevention and control of bovine mastitis by enhancing natural defenses in animals is important to improve the quality of dairy products. Mastitis resistance is a complex trait which depends on genetic components, as well as environmental and physiological factors. The limitations of classical control measures have led to the search for alternative approaches to minimize the use of antibiotics by selecting naturally resistant animals. Polymorphisms in genes associated with the innate immune system are strong candidates to be evaluated as genetic markers. In this work, we evaluated a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes for health and production traits, and determined their association with the somatic cell score (SCS) as an indicator of mastitis in Argentinean dairy cattle. We evaluated 941 cows: Holstein (n = 677) and Holstein × Jersey (n = 264) crossbred, daughters from 22 bulls from 14 dairy farms located in the central dairy area of Argentina. Two of the 21 successfully genotyped markers were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the SCS: GHR_140 and OPN_8514C-T. The heterozygote genotype for GHR_140 showed a favorable effect in reducing the SCS. On the other hand, heterozygote genotypes for OPN8514C-T caused an increase in the SCS; moreover, combined genotypes for OPN SNPs showed an even larger effect. These findings can contribute to the design of effective marker-assisted selection programs. PMID:25783851

  5. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dorshorst

    Full Text Available Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD and Recessive Red (MC1Re. A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele.

  6. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  7. Research on Dairy Foods’ Cold Chain Logistics Development Based on "Dumbbell" Integration Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the causes of weak development of dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry in china, we analyze the role that the improvement of living standards play in dairy foods’ cold chain logistics to put forward higher requirements. This study discusses many serious problems in Chinese dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry, cold chain logistics system is incomplete, which cause a lot of damage to people's mental and physical. For these evergrowing problems, countries need to introduce policies and regulations, to support the development of cold chain logistics industry, increased investment, vigorously develop the integrated cold chain logistics development, so as to promote the "Dumbbell" integration development strategy of Dairy foods’ cold chain logistics industry, to deal with the relationship between government and market and make the regional contribution to the realization of Chinese dream.

  8. Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raadsma Herman W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian approach as implemented in PHASE. LD was then estimated using the Hedrick multiallelic extension of Lewontin normalised coefficient D'. Estimates of D' from the two approaches were in close agreement (r = 0.91. The mean estimates of D' for marker pairs with an inter-marker distance of less than 5 cM (n = 13 are 0.57 and 0.51, and for distances more than 20 cM (n = 44 are 0.29 and 0.17, estimated from the E-M and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The Malecot model was fitted for the exponential decline of LD with map distance between markers. The swept radii (the distance at which LD has declined to 1/e (~37% of its initial value are 11.6 and 13.7 cM for the above two methods, respectively. The Malecot model was also fitted using map distance in Mb from the bovine integrated map (bovine location database, bLDB in addition to cM from the MARC map. Overall, the results indicate a high level of LD on chromosome 6 in Australian dairy cattle.

  9. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  10. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  11. Mycoplasma in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Currin, John F.; Whittier, W. Dee; Currin, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma is a tiny bacterium that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, drooped ears, and lameness in dairy cattle. While this bacterium has existed for more than 100 years, the current disease has only recently become a problem in Virginia.

  12. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  13. Changes in serum copper and zinc levels in peripartum healthy and subclinically hypocalcemic dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Baoyu; Liu, Guowen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum copper and zinc in subclinically hypocalcemic peripartum dairy cows in comparison to healthy animals. Blood samples were taken from 219 multiparous Holstein cows near parturition (from 4 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum) and 51 cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. The results showed that the serum copper concentration increased gradually at 1 week prepartum and remained high for the first 4 weeks postpartum in the healthy periparturient dairy cows. The serum zinc concentration reached a nadir at 1 week postpartum and subsequently increased gradually to baseline. The serum zinc concentration was significantly decreased (Pcows with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with healthy cows. There was no significant difference in the serum copper concentration between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and healthy cows. These data demonstrate that the concentrations of copper and zinc in serum change dramatically during the peripartum period in dairy cows, which is a tremendous challenge for the body and for the maintenance of dairy cow health. The present study further suggests that a decreased serum zinc concentration could be a cause of decreased productive performance and increased susceptibility to other diseases due to immunosuppression in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. Additionally, this decreased zinc concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical hypocalcemia. PMID:24859816

  14. Effects of dehydrated lucerne and soya bean meal on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion, and methane and nitrogen losses in dairy cows receiving two different forages

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlay, Anne; Rochette, Yvanne; Martin, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated lucerne is used as a protein source in dairy cow rations, but little is known about the effects of lucerne on greenhouse gas production by animals. Eight Holstein dairy cows (average weight: 582 kg) were used in a replicated 4x4 Latin square design. They received diets based on either maize silage (M) or grass silage (G) (45% of diet on dry matter (DM) basis), with either soya bean meal (15% of diet DM) completed with beet pulp (15% of diet DM) (SP) or dehydrated lucerne (L) (30% o...

  15. Smallholder dairy in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ngigi, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    The author describes a successful case study as follows: "Dairy production in Kenya has grown at 2.8 percent per year over the past two decades, resulting in per capita production levels double those found anywhere else on the continent. Kenya's commercial farmers laid the foundation for this growth. They introduced improved dairy breeds in the early 1900s, and by the 1930s they had successfully lobbied for a range of government financial and policy support, including quarantine laws, veterin...

  16. Daily grazing time as a risk factor for alterations at the hock joint integument in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Rousing, Tine;

    2013-01-01

    Structural changes lead to increasing sizes of dairy herds and a reduction in grazing use. Thus, cows spend more time in the barn and become more exposed to the barn environment. The cubicle surface can result in damages of the cows’ hock joint integument. Pasture is generally seen as a beneficial...... environment for cows. We hypothesized that a higher number of daily grazing hours reduce the probability of hock joint alterations in dairy cows from large herds. In total, 3148 lactating cows from 36 grazing and 20 zero-grazing dairy herds, with an average herd size of 173 cows, were assessed individually...... and Danish Holstein v. other breeds showed an increasing effect on the probability for integument alterations. Increase in days in milk only showed an increasing effect on the probability for lesions and swellings. We concluded that a long daily stay on pasture is most beneficial for the hock joint...

  17. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas; José Esler de Freitas Júnior; Julianne de Rezende Naves; Marco Aurélio de Felicio Porcionato; Luís Felipe Prada e Silva; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9) or inorganic (n = 10) sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to...

  18. Effect of Different Intrauterine Oxytetracycline Treatment on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows with Clinical Endometritis and Determination of Oxytetracycline Residues in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    MAKKI, Meysam; GHEISARI, Hamid Reza; AHMADI, Mohammad Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Main objective of this study was to determine whether intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline (OTC) is an appropriate method for the treatment of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows or not. To this end, 280 lactating Holstein cows with clinical signs of endometritis were randomly assigned into three treatment groups and 186 cows were sampled for cytology experiment. In group 1 (n=73) cows were treated with intrauterine infusion of 5 g/cow 10% OTC. In group 2 (n=44), before intrauterine OTC...

  19. Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrheae Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1, and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Avcı, Oğuzhan; Yavru, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1 and Bovine Leukosis Virus infections in a dairy cattle herd with abortion problem in Çankırı. A total of 172 serum and 172 leukocytes samples were collected from unvaccinated Holstein cows for mentioned infections in 2010. All sampled animals were over 3 years. While the serum samples were analysed by commercially available indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), leukocyte samples...

  20. Influence of GnRH-gonadoreline and prostaglandine F2α-dinoprost application on reproduction parameter values in dairy cows with puerperal endometritis

    OpenAIRE

    Šabanović Mustafa; Paprikić Nevres; Suljkanović Ahmet; Miljas Jako; Lazarević Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of investigations of gonadoreline application (14-16, 17-20 and 21-25 days post partum) influence, followed by prostaglanin F2 α ten days later, on the reproductive parameters of dairy cows with difficult calving and endometritis. The study was carried out on a total of 92 Holstein-Friesian cows. Fifty of them treated with hormones, while 42 animals served as controls, receiving placebo injections. Analysis of the results in cows with postpartal endometrits reveale...

  1. Short communication: Genomic selection for hoof lesions in first-parity US Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Tiezzi, F; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2015-05-01

    Hoof lesions contributing to lameness are crucial economic factors that hinder the profitability of dairy enterprises. Producer-recorded hoof lesions data of US Holsteins were categorized into infectious (abscess, digital and interdigital dermatitis, heel erosion, and foot rot) and noninfectious (korn, corkscrew, sole and toe ulcer, sole hemorrhage, white line separation, fissures, thin soles, and upper leg lesions) categories of hoof lesions. Pedigree- and genomic-based univariate analyses were conducted to estimate the variance components and heritability of infectious and noninfectious hoof lesions. A threshold sire model was used with fixed effects of year-seasons and random effects of herd and sire. For genomic-based analysis, a single-step procedure was conducted, incorporating H matrix to estimate genomic variance components and heritability for hoof lesions. The pedigree-based analysis produced heritability estimates of 0.11 (±0.05) for infectious hoof lesions and 0.08 (±0.05) for noninfectious hoof lesions. The single-step genomic analysis produced heritability estimates of 0.14 (±0.06) for infectious hoof lesions and 0.12 (±0.08) for noninfectious hoof lesions. Approximated genetic correlations between hoof lesion traits and hoof type traits along with productive life and net merit were all low and ranged between -0.25 and 0.14. Sire reliabilities increased, on average, by 0.24 and 0.18 for infectious and noninfectious hoof lesions, respectively, with incorporation of genomic data. PMID:25726100

  2. The effects of supplemental protease enzymes on production variables in lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Sucu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the effects of supplemental dietary protease enzymes on production variables in dairy cattle. Ninety-six multiparous lactating Holstein cows (624±62 kg body weight and 154±104 days in milk were blocked according to parity, days in milk, and previous milk production and randomly assigned to a control total mix ration (TMR or a TMR containing a blend of supplemental protease enzymes (PE; 4 g/cow/d in a crossover design with two 21-day experimental periods. Daily pen milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI were recorded and milk composition from all cows was determined on d 15, 17, 19 and 21 of each period. There was no treatment effect on milk yield (37.6 kg/d, but supplemental PE-fed cows consumed less DMI (P<0.05 compared to controls and therefore tended to have improved feed efficiency (P=0.06. Feeding supplemental PE decreased blood urea nitrogen (P<0.05 compared to the control cows. However, feeding PE had no effect on milk fat and protein content but tended (P=0.08 to increase milk lactose concentration and tended (P=0.10 to decrease milk urea nitrogen levels and somatic cell score. Results indicate that supplemental PE may enhance production efficiency and improve parameters of nitrogen status.

  3. Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, R.B., Jr.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three adult lactating Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood-milk barrier. Whole blood (in sodium heparin) and clotted blood serum samples were taken at 0 min, 10 min, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h postinoculation. Milk samples were taken at 0 min and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h postinoculation. All samples were tested for the presence of the toxin using the mouse bioassay and immunostick ELISA test. The immunostick ELISA identified the toxin in whole blood and the mouse bioassay identified the toxin in serum at all times examined in all 3 animals. Toxin was not identified by either detection method in milk samples collected from the 3 animals. From these results, it appears that Clostridium botulinum type C toxin does not cross from the blood to the milk in detectable concentrations. ?? American Dairy Science Association, 2009.

  4. Endometrial expression of selected transcripts in postpartum of primiparous Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard; Torres, Cristian G; Carvallo, Francisco; Duchens, Mario; Peralta, Oscar A

    2015-05-01

    Postpartum endometritis compromises milk production and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Infection of the endometrium induces an inflammatory response with secretion of cytokines that lead to polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) influx and bacterial clearance. Considering that only a portion of cows with endometritis is eligible for clinical diagnosis, there is an increasing effort for developing reliable tools and protocols for diagnosis of subclinical endometritis. Recent reports have indicated that primiparous cows are at greater risk of uterine infection and primiparous cows with subclinical endometritis produce less milk compared to healthy cows. In the present study, gene expression profiles were compared for selected cytokine and hormone endometrial transcripts in the postpartum of primiparous Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis. Cows were classified as healthy (no signs of clinical endometritis), cows with subclinical endometritis (PMNcows with clinical endometritis (PMN>5%). Although, cows with clinical endometritis had greater (Pcows; no significant differences were detected between clinical and subclinical endometritis groups. Spearman correlation coefficients were positive between relative amounts of gene expression as indicated by amount of these transcripts and PMN percentages and ranged from 0.74 to 0.93 (Pcows with subclinical and clinical endometritis. Moreover, differential relative amounts of hormone transcripts suggest dysregulation of the luteolytic mechanism and PG synthases but not ERα in cows with endometritis. PMID:25746855

  5. Association of TLR4 polymorphisms with subclinical mastitis in Brazilian holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Queiroz de Mesquita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of dairy cows with greater or lower potential to develop mastits has been pursued for many years among different segments of the milk industry, including governmental organizations. Genomic studies have suggested that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs within the pattern recognition receptors (PRR could lead to different responses to pathogens, and consequently result in mastitis resistance or susceptibility. To investigate whether toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 gene is associated with subclinical mastitis in Holstein cows from a property in the state of Goiás, Brazil, TaqMan allelic discrimination and somatic cell count were performed. One hundred and fifty milk samples were analyzed for SCC and centesimal composition. Twenty percent of those samples with SCC above 200,000 (n=13 were screened for real-time PCR identification of microorganisms and blood samples were genotyped for TLR4 SNPs. There was a higher prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria in the analyzed samples (88.9% and animals that had the combined genotypes AACCCC, GGTCGG and GACCGC presented the lowest somatic cell scores, and consequently those genotypes have the potential to be applied as molecular markers for assisted animal selection to improve milk quality.

  6. Suspected Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) Poisoning with a Concomitant Babesiosis in Dairy Cows in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan H. Oruc*, Sezgin Senturk1, Mufit Kahraman2, Veli Y. Cirak3 and Ezgi Akdesir2

    2012-01-01

    Nine Holstein cows were died between 3 October and 13 December of 2009 in Turkey. On this farm, all the dairy cattle (350) were being fed in two groups by the owner. The only difference between the rations was that the ration of group 2 was containing hairy vetch hay. It was noticed that all (except one dead) animal were in the Group 2. Clinical signs in affected animals prior to death were generally dramatic drop in milk yield, inconsistent fever, diarrhea, cutaneous lesions, listless, rumin...

  7. Organic dairy production based on rapeseed, rapeseed cake or cereals as supplement to silage ad libitum

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Ingvartsen, Klaus L; Kristensen, Troels; Seested, Susanne; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment presents the effect of 100% organic feed rations grown at an equal area per cow on milk production performance and metabolic responses. A total of 174 Danish Holstein cows were included in two experiments on two commercial organic dairy farms during the winter 2000/2001. Three types of supplementary feed were examined: 5 kg cereals, 3 kg rapeseed/cereal pellet or 1 kg rapeseed cake fed with a mixture of clover grass silage, whole crop silage and grass pellets ad libitum. The s...

  8. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  9. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  10. Vaginal Fornix Discharge Cellularity and Its Leukocyte Esterase Activity for Diagnosis of Endometritis in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl HAJIBEMANI; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of some strip test markers (i.e., leukocyte esterase (LE) activity, protein, nitrate and pH) for diagnosis of endometritis in dairy cows using vaginal fornix discharge. Also, the total white blood cell count (t-WBC/ml) of this secretion and degenerative changes of neutrophils in cervical cytology were used as alternative methods to predict progression of the endometritis severity. Holstein cows (n=215) between 30-40 days in mi...

  11. Vaginal Fornix Discharge Cellularity and Its Leukocyte Esterase Activity for Diagnosis of Endometritis in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abolfazl HAJIBEMANI; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of some strip test markers (i.e., leukocyte esterase (LE) activity, protein, nitrate and pH) for diagnosis of endometritis in dairy cows using vaginal fornix discharge. Also, the total white blood cell count (t-WBC/l) of this secretion and degenerative changes of neutrophils in cervical cytology were used as alternative methods to predict progression of the endometritis severity. Holstein cows (n=215) between 30-40 days in mi...

  12. Prevalence of opportunistic fungi and their possible role in postpartum endometritis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Derakhshandeh; Seyed Morteza Aghamiri; Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi; Abdollah Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify fungal infections by culture from uterine lavages of 172 Holstein dairy cows between 25 and 35 days postpartum and two weeks later. In the first examination, 61/172 (35.5%) cows were suffering from clinical endometritis. The positive rate of fungal growth was fifteen (8.7 %) swabs and the remaining 157 (91.3%) showed no fungal growth. The most frequently isolated fungi were Aspergillus spp. (60%) followed by Penicillium spp. (26%) and Yeast (13%). In the ...

  13. The effect of Glycoline® on reproductive efficiency in high-producing dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Del Campo; Marco Gonzalez T.; Hans Andresen; Freddy A. Cea

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective. Determine the effect of Glycoline® on reproductive efficiency in high producing dairy cows. Materials and methods. 100 Holstein cows one month before delivery were selected. About 21 days before parturition they were put in a barn and were randomized in two groups: Glycoline® Group (GG, n=50), 300 g/day of Glycoline® for 21 days antepartum and 250 g/day of GlycoLine® over the following 21 days postpartum, and the Control Group (CG, n=50) with the same feed and silage rati...

  14. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira; Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira; Saulo Tannus Azevedo; Ricardo Dias Signoretti; Gustavo Rezende Siqueira; Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg ...

  15. GRAZING BEHAVIOUR OF DAIRY COWS ON MOUNTAIN FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  16. Efeito do balanço cátion-aniônico da dieta no equilíbrio ácido-básico e metabolismo de minerais em vacas lactantes da raça Holandesa em ambiente quente - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1955 Effect of dietary cation-anion balance, on acid-basic status and mineral metabolism of lactating dairy Holstein cows in hot weather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Alves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos do balanço cátion-aniônico da dieta (BCAD nas respostas do estado ácido-básico sistêmico e nas concentrações plasmáticas e urinárias de minerais (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl e Creatinina em vacas da raça Holandesa, durante a época do verão. Nove vacas lactantes foram utilizadas de acordo com a idade e a produção de leite, distribuídas em um modelo de quadrado latino 3x3. As dietas continham silagem de milho e ração concentrada na razão de 1:1 (base na MS, sendo formuladas para fornecer +32 mEq de [(Na + K - Cl]/100g de MS da dieta, em 3 tratamentos: 1 dieta controle + 1,57% de KCl da MS fornecida; 2 dieta controle + 1,22% de NaCl da MS fornecida; 3 dieta controle. Amostras de sangue e de urina foram coletadas quatro horas após a alimentação da manhã do último dia de cada período experimental, para análise dos minerais Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl e da Creatinina, além da gasometria do sangue. O pH do sangue e da urina não sofreu efeito dos tratamentos. Nenhum efeito no equilíbrio ácido-básico e no metabolismo dos minerais no sangue e na urina foi observado, mostrando que os animais não responderam ao fornecimento de um balanço cátion-aniônico dietético de +32 mEq/100g de MS na dieta, acrescida ou não de KCl ou NaCl.The objective was to evaluate the response of lactating dairy cows to dietary Na, K, and Cl while holding cation-anion balance constant. Nine lactating Holstein cows, blocked according to age and previous milk yiel, wen assigned randomly to replicated 3x3 Latin esquares with experimental period of 3 week. Diets contained corn silage and concentrate ration in a 50:50 rate (DM basis and were formulated to provide + 32 mEq of (Na + K - Cl/100g diet DM via one of three variations: 1 control diet plus 1.57% of KCl in DM basis, 2 control diet plus 1.22% of NaCl in DM basis, 3 control diet. Samples of blood and of urine were collected four hours after feeding of the

  17. Validation of Associations for Female Fertility Traits in Nordic Holstein, Nordic red and Jersey Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund, Johanna; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2014-01-01

    Background The results obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often show pronounced disagreements. Validation of association studies is therefore desired before marker information is incorporated in selection decisions. A reliable way to confirm a discovered association between genetic markers and phenotypes is to validate the results in different populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker associations to femal...

  18. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  19. Prediction of parturition in Holstein dairy cattle using electronic data loggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titler, M; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gordon, E; McCullough, K; Federico, P; Schuenemann, G M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of parturition on behavioral activity [steps, standing time, lying time, lying bouts (LB), and duration of LB] 4 d before calving using electronic data loggers. Animals (n=132) from 3 herds were housed in similar freestall barns using a prepartum pen 21 d before the expected calving date and were moved into a contiguous individual maternity pen for parturition. Electronic data loggers were placed on a hind leg of prepartum heifers (heifers, n=33) and cows (cows, n=99) at 7±3 d before the expected calving date and removed at 14±3 d in milk. Calving ease (scale 1-4), parity, calving date and time, and stillbirth (born dead or died within 24h) were recorded. The number of steps (no./d), standing time (min/d), lying time (min/d), number of LB (no./d), and duration of LB (min/b) were recorded. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS, adjusting for the herd effect. Only cows experiencing unassisted births (calving ease=1) were included in the study. An activity index was developed to predict calving time. Heifers and cows with unassisted births had significantly higher number of steps and longer standing time, decreased lying time, and more LB of shorter duration 24h before calving compared with d -4, -3, and -2. Additionally, the number of LB increased as both heifers and cows approached labor starting on d -2 and peaked at the day of calving. The time since the activity index increased over 50% to parturition did not differ between heifers and cows, and the activity index revealed the shift in activity on average 6h 14min (range from 2h to 14h 15min) before calf birth. This study provided evidence that heifers and cows approaching parturition showed a similar, but distinct, behavioral pattern that can be observed on average 6h before calf birth. The potential benefits of electronic data loggers as predictors of parturition along with proactive management practices should improve the overall survival and welfare of both the dam and calf. PMID:26074226

  20. Desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras de Cuba (Metabolic imbalances and minerals deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders in dairy cattle in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Díaz, Juan R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue diagnosticar los principales desequilibrios metabólicos con especial referencia a las carenciales de minerales asociadas a los problemas reproductivos en vacas lecheras mestizas Holstein x Cebú en un sistema de producción con amamantamiento restringido en la región central de Cuba.SummaryThe objective of this study was to diagnose the principal metabolic imbalances and deficiencies associated with reproductive disorders especially due to mineral deficiency in crossbreed (Holstein × Cebu dairy cows under restrained system of production in the central region of Cuba.

  1. Plasma exosome profiles from dairy cows with divergent fertility phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M D; Scholz-Romero, K; Reed, S; Peiris, H N; Koh, Y Q; Meier, S; Walker, C G; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Rice, G; Salomon, C

    2016-09-01

    Cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions may be influenced by neighboring cells, distant tissues, or local environmental factors. Exosomes are specific subsets of extracellular vesicles that internalize and deliver their content to near and distant sites. Exosomes may play a role in the maternal-embryo crosstalk vital for the recognition and maintenance of a pregnancy; however, their role in dairy cow reproduction has not been established. This study aimed to characterize the exosome profile in the plasma of 2 strains of dairy cow with divergent fertility phenotypes. Plasma was obtained and characterized on the basis of genetic ancestry as fertile (FERT; 92% North American genetics, North American Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8). Exosomes were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation and characterized by size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis, NanoSight NS500, NanoSight Ltd., Amesbury, UK), the presence of CD63 (Western blot), and their morphology (electron microscopy). The total number of exosomes was determined by quantifying the immunoreactive CD63 (ExoELISA kit, System Biosciences), and the protein content established by mass spectrometry. Enriched exosome fractions were identified as cup-shape vesicles with diameters around 100 nm and positive for the CD63 marker. The concentration of exosomes was 50% greater in FERT cows. Mass spectrometry identified 104 and 117 proteins in FERT and SUBFERT cows, of which 23 and 36 were unique, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for proteins involved in immunomodulatory processes and cell-to-cell communication. Although the role of exosomes in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated, their quantification and content in models with divergent fertility phenotypes could provide novel information to support both physiological and genetic approaches to improving dairy cow fertility. PMID:27372594

  2. Heritability estimates for enteric methane emissions from Holstein cattle measured using noninvasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Jan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritability of enteric methane emissions from dairy cattle. Methane (CH4) and CO2 were measured with a portable air-sampler and analyzer unit based on Fourier transform infrared detection. Data were collected on 3,121 Holstein dairy cows from 20 herds using automatic milking systems. Three CH4 phenotypes were acquired: the ratio between CH4 and CO2 in the breath of the cows (CH4_RATIO), the estimated quantified amount of CH4 (in g/d) measured over a week (CH4_GRAMSw), and CH4 intensity, defined as grams of CH4 per liter of milk produced (CH4_MILK). Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight data were also derived for the analysis. Data were analyzed using several univariate and bivariate linear animal models. The heritability of CH4_GRAMSw and CH4_MILK was 0.21 with a standard error of 0.06, and the heritability of CH4_RATIO was 0.16 with a standard error of 0.04. The 2 CH4 traits CH4_GRAMSw and CH4_RATIO were genetically highly correlated (rg=0.83) and they were strongly correlated with FPCM, meaning that, in this study, a high genetic potential for milk production will also mean a high genetic potential for CH4 production. The genetic correlation between CH4_MILK and FPCM and live weight showed similar patterns as the other CH4 phenotypes, although the correlations in general were closer to zero. The genetic correlations between the 3 CH4 phenotypes and live weight were low and only just significantly different from zero, meaning there is less indication of a genetic relationship between CH4 emission and live weight of the cow. None of the residual correlations between the ratio of CH4 and CO2, CH4 production in grams per day, FPCM, and live weight were significantly different from zero. The results from this study suggest that CH4 emission is partly under genetic control, that it is possible to decrease CH4 emission from dairy cattle through selection, and that selection for higher milk yield will lead to

  3. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  4. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Britni M; Stallings, Jon W; Clay, John S; Rhoads, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC) cows (n = 94,440); cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC) contemporaries (n = 141,365). In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall). Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however, heat stress at

  5. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  6. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole;

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte...

  7. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  8. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated

  9. Multiple trait genomic evaluation of conception rate in Holsteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national data set of artificial inseminations in US Holsteins was used to obtain genetic evaluations for conception rate (CR). This objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility and resulting accuracy from using all available phenotypic, pedigree and genomic information. Evaluations w...

  10. 1991 measurement report. Air pollution monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides a report of the immission situation for 1991 in Schleswig-Holstein on the basis of the continuously processing measuring stations of the Air Hygienic Monitoring Schleswig-Holstein and the special measuring programs at selected sites. The measuring results of the Air Hygienic Monitoring determined for Schleswig-Holstein in 1991 can be summarized as follows: - The basic load of air by pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne particles in relatively small in the entires region of the nation; Schleswig-Holstein is, therefore, continues to be ranked as one of the regions in the Federal Republic of Germany least burden to air contaminates. - A slight increase compared to the previous year could be determined for the components of sulphur dioxide and airborne particles. - The limit values defined by the European Community (EG) were adhered to at the time of the report; the admittance values for SO2 and NO2 were, however, exceeded. (orig./KW)

  11. Bilateral exophthalmos in a Holstein cow with lymphosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Malatestinic, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old Holstein cow presented with severe bilateral exophthalmos. A complete blood cell count revealed late stage lymphoma; the agar gel immunodiffusion test for enzootic bovine leukosis was positive. The cow was euthanized 1 wk after presentation. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and tumors in most organs. Final diagnosis was lymphosarcoma.

  12. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Gustavsson, Frida; Glantz, Maria; Paulsson, Marie; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Bendixen, Christian

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  13. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Mammadova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.

  14. Dairy beverages and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Jo-Anne;

    2010-01-01

    High dairy intakes have been associated with lower rates of obesity in observational studies, but mechanisms to explain the association are lacking. A high intake of dairy protein reduces spontaneous food intake and may be one important mechanism, but more specific effects of dairy calcium seem to...

  15. The analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of six Chinese cattle populations using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A total of 321 individuals from six cattle populations of four species in a bovine subfamily in China were studied using 12 pairs of microsatellite markers. The genetic diversities within and between populations were calculated. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by(δμ)2 and DA distances, and the divergence times between populations were estimated by (δμ)2. Altogether, 144 microsatellite alleles were detected including 24 private alleles and nine shared alleles. Chinese Holstein had the largest number of private alleles (10), whereas,Bohai black and Buffalo had the smallest number of private alleles (2). Chinese Holstein showed the highest genetic variability. Its observed number of alleles (Na), mean effective number of alleles (MNA), and mean heterozygosity (He) were 7.7500, 4.9722, and 0.7719,respectively, whereas, the Buffalo and Yak showed low genetic variability. In the phylogenetic trees, Luxi and Holstein grouped first,followed by Bohai and Minnan. Yak branched next and buffalo emerged as the most divergent population from other cattle populations.Luxi and Bohai were estimated to have diverged 0.039-0.105 million years ago (MYA), however, buffalo and Holstein diverged 0.501-1.337 MYA. The divergence time of Yak versus Minnan, Holstein and buffalo was 0.136-0.363, 0.273-0.729, and 0.326-0.600MYA, respectively.

  16. Genome-wide association mapping and pathway analysis of leukosis incidence in a US Holstein cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E A; Peñagaricano, F; Byrem, T M; Weigel, K A; Rosa, G J M

    2016-08-01

    Bovine leukosis virus is an oncogenic virus that infects B cells, causing bovine leukosis disease. This disease is known to have a negative impact on dairy cattle production and, because no treatment or vaccine is available, finding a possible genetic solution is important. Our objective was to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in dairy cattle. Data on leukosis occurrence, pedigree and molecular information were combined into multitrait GBLUP models with milk yield (MY) and somatic cell score (SCS) to estimate genetic parameters and to perform whole-genome scans and pathway analysis. Leukosis data were available for 11 554 Holsteins daughters of 3002 sires from 112 herds in 16 US states. Genotypes from a 60K SNP panel were available for 961 of those bulls as well as for 2039 additional bulls. Heritability for leukosis incidence was estimated at about 8%, and the genetic correlations of leukosis disease incidence with MY and SCS were moderate at 0.18 and 0.20 respectively. The genome-wide scan indicated that leukosis is a complex trait, possibly modulated by many genes. The gene set analysis identified many functional terms that showed significant enrichment of genes associated with leukosis. Many of these terms, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling Pathway, Regulation of Nucleotide Metabolic Process and different calcium-related processes, are known to be related to retrovirus infection. Overall, our findings contribute to a better understanding of the genetic architecture of this complex disease. The functional categories associated with leukosis may be useful in future studies on fine mapping of genes and development of dairy cattle breeding strategies. PMID:27090879

  17. Short communication: Genetic correlation of bovine leukosis incidence with somatic cell score and milk yield in a US Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E A; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T M; Rosa, G J M

    2016-03-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus (BLV), which affects only cattle. Dairy cows positive for BL produce less milk and have more days open than cows negative for BL. In addition, the virus also affects the immune system and causes weaker response to vaccines. Heritability estimates of BL incidence have been reported for Jersey and Holstein populations at about 0.08, indicating an important genetic component that can potentially be exploited to reduce the prevalence of the disease. However, before BL is used in selection programs, it is important to study its genetic associations with other economically important traits such that correlated responses to selection can be predicted. Hence, this study aimed to estimate the genetic correlations of BL with milk yield (MY) and with somatic cell score (SCS). Data of a commercial assay (ELISA) used to detect BLV antibodies in milk samples were obtained from Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). The data included continuous milk ELISA scores and binary milk ELISA results for 11,554 cows from 112 dairy herds across 16 US states. Continuous and binary milk ELISA were analyzed with linear and threshold models, respectively, together with MY and SCS using multitrait animal models. Genetic correlations (posterior means ± standard deviations) between BL incidence and MY were 0.17±0.077 and 0.14±0.076 using ELISA scores and results, respectively; with SCS, such estimates were 0.20±0.081 and 0.17±0.079, respectively. In summary, the results indicate that selection for higher MY may lead to increased BLV prevalence in dairy herds, but that the inclusion of BL (or SCS as an indicator trait) in selection indexes may help attenuate this problem. PMID:26778307

  18. Effects of herd origin, AI stud and sire identification on genetic evaluation of Holstein Friesian bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of herd origin of bull, AI stud and sire identification number (ID  on official estimated breeding values (EBV for production traits of Holstein Friesian proven bulls. The data included 1,005  Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls, sons of 76 sires, born in 100 herds and progeny tested by 10 AI studs. Bulls were required  to have date of first proof between September 1992 and September 1997, to be born in a herd with at least one other  bull and to have sire and dam with official EBV when bull was selected for progeny testing. Records of sires with only one  son were also discarded. The dependent variable analyzed was the official genetic evaluation for a “quantity and quality  of milk” index (ILQ. The linear model to predict breeding values of bulls included the fixed class effects of herd origin of  bull, AI testing organization, birth year of bull, and estimated breeding values of sire and dam, both as linear covariates.  The R2of the model was 45% and a significant effect was found for genetic merit of sire (P   for herd origin of bull (P   nificant. The range of herd origin effect was 872 kg of ILQ. However, in this study, the causes of this result were not  clear; it may be due to numerous factors, one of which may be preferential treatment on dams of bulls. Analyses of resid-  uals on breeding value of proven bulls for ILQ showed a non significant effect of sire ID, after adjusting for parent aver-  age, herd origin effect and birth year effect. Although the presence of bias in genetic evaluation of dairy bulls is not evi-  dent, further research is recommended firstly to understand the reasons of the significant herd origin effect, secondly to  monitor and guarantee the greatest accuracy and reliability of genetic evaluation procedures. 

  19. Effect of sex-sorted sperm dosage on conception rates in Holstein heifers and lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, J M; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E; Moreno, J F; McCleary, C R; Lenz, R W

    2008-05-01

    Ejaculates were collected by artificial vagina from 3 Holstein sires and sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa (range 88 to 93%) using flow cytometry. Sorted sperm were diluted to 2.1, 3.5, or 5.0 x 10(6) sperm per dose in an egg yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender. Collections were repeated until >600 straws per sperm dose per sire were obtained. Each sperm dose was loaded into color-coded 0.25-mL French straws, with alternate colors used to define treatments across sires. Within sires, straws were packaged at 9 per cane (3 of each color) and strategically allocated to 75 Holstein herds with targets for 50% use in heifers and 50% in lactating cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm record-keeping system at the time of insemination. Data were analyzed separately for cows and heifers. Among heifers, a total of 2,125 usable records were retrieved from 51 herds (238 +/- 5.5 services/ sperm dose per sire, range: 218 to 263). Conception rates in heifers were influenced by the sire x sperm dosage interaction. Within sire A, conception rates of heifers were greater for the 5 x 10(6) (59.5%) than for the 2.1 x 10(6) (46.4%) sperm dose and intermediate for the 3.5 x 10(6) sperm dose (52.2%). However, across sires, sperm dosage had no effect on heifer conception rates (46.7, 51.2, and 52.5% for the 2.1, 3.5, and 5.0 x 10(6) sperm dosages, respectively). Among cows, a total of 2,369 services were retrieved from 56 herds (263 +/- 8.8 services/sperm dose per sire, range: 233 to 303). Conception rates of cows (29.4%) were not affected by sire or sperm dosage (27.0, 29.1, and 30.3% for the 2.1, 3.5, and 5.0 x 10(6) sperm dosages, respectively). In conclusion, these data indicate that an increased sperm dosage may enhance virgin heifer conception rates for some (but not all) sires, whereas neither sire nor sexed-sperm dosage affected conception rates of lactating cows. Additional studies of sexed-sperm dosage across a larger sampling of bulls are

  20. Association analysis for feet and legs disorders with whole-genome sequence variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Identification of genetic variants associated with feet and legs disorders (FLD) will aid in the genetic improvement of these traits by providing knowledge on genes that influence trait variations. In Denmark, FLD in cattle has been recorded since the 1990s. In this report, we used deregressed breeding values as response variables for a genome-wide association study. Bulls (5,334 Danish Holstein, 4,237 Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and 1,180 Danish Jersey) with deregressed estimated breeding values were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequence variants, and then 22,751,039 SNP on 29 autosomes were used for an association analysis. A modified linear mixed-model approach (efficient mixed-model association eXpedited, EMMAX) and a linear mixed model were used for association analysis. We identified 5 (3,854 SNP), 3 (13,642 SNP), and 0 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions associated with the FLD index in Danish Holstein, Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and Danish Jersey populations, respectively. We did not identify any QTL that were common among the 3 breeds. In a meta-analysis of the 3 breeds, 4 QTL regions were significant, but no additional QTL region was identified compared with within-breed analyses. Comparison between top SNP locations within these QTL regions and known genes suggested that RASGRP1, LCORL, MOS, and MITF may be candidate genes for FLD in dairy cattle. PMID:27344389

  1. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  2. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E. Façanha

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as {R_{abs}} = 640.0 ± 3.1 W.{m^{ - 2}} . Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 ± 2.7 W m-2; long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 ± 1.5 W m-2. It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature ( {T_{mr}^* } ) . Average T_{mr}^* was 101.4 ± 1.2°C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, {T_{mr}} = 65.1 ± 0.5° C . Estimates of T_{mr}^* were considered as more reliable than those of T mr in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T mr is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  3. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  4. Reproductive performance of backcross Holstein × Brown Swiss and their Holstein contemporaries under subtropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; El-Bayoumi, Khairy M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of the Holstein (HO) and their backcross HO × Brown Swiss (BS) under Egyptian subtropical conditions. The backcrosses were HBH (HO sires crossed with F1 BS × HO cows) and HHB (HO sires crossed with F1 HO × BS cows). Several reproductive indices and health traits for different genotypes were measured, and the effect of temperature-humidity index level (THI) on reproductive performance was investigated. Reproductive indices of the HHB backcross were better than those of the HO. The conception (30.1%) and pregnancy (28.9%) rates of the HHB backcross were significantly higher than those of the HO (28.1% and 22.6%, respectively). The calving interval and the days open of the HHB backcross were significantly shorter than those of the HO. The fertility of the HHB backcross was not affected by the level of the THI. The conception and the pregnancy rate of the HO decreased from 35.8% and 29.4%, respectively, at low THI to 16.1% and 12.1%, respectively, at high THI. The HHB backcross had the significant lowest incidence of retained placenta and metritis (9.6 and 16.9, respectively). In conclusion, despite their high milk production efficiency, pure HO had retarded reproductive performance and adaptability. On the other hand, the HHB backcross had a better adaptability and fertility under Egyptian conditions. PMID:25459027

  5. Prospect of Dairy Cattle Development Outside Java Island to Support Milk Self Sufficiency in Indonesia

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    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle in Indonesia have known as Holstein Friesian (FH cows with the highest milk production in the world. The cow have a good adaptability to subtropical to tropical climate, and from highlands to lowlands. The FH cows grow quite well in areas with an altitude of more than 700 m above sea level as well as in lowland areas with a range of 0 – 300 m above sea level such as in Pasuruan (East Java, Sumedang (West Java, and Kampar (Riau. FH cows produce milk in a range between 3000 – 4000 liters per lactation or an average of 10.7 liter/head/day. Indonesia has a good prospect to develop dairy industry due to a potential of population that nearly to 240 million people. Milk consumption tends to increase along with growth on economic and income per capita of Indonesia people. Domestic milk production has only reached 30% of national demand. Up to the moment, production center of dairy population has concentrated in Java (99%, even though it has limitation on land availability and feed sources. Therefore, the development of dairy industry outside of Java need to be supported as the strengths to do are available such as a market potential for fresh milk, adaptability of climate and local feed resources. The central and provincial government have to accelerate the roles on facilitation and regulation including easily access to financial sources to get liability of commercial credit for farming business.

  6. Dairy Sector Profit Squeeze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Like any other industries in China,the potential in the dairy industry is huge but competition is tough,The big players such as Mengniu and Yili are happy to stay engaged in a price war that has raged for the last year,seemingly not affected by rising raw material prices.

  7. The Effect of Rumen Acid Load on Postpartum Performance and Blood Metabolic Responses in Transition Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Mesgaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The transition period is the most stressful time in the production cycle of a dairy cow because of depressed feed intake, endocrine and metabolic changes at parturition. The aim was to determine the effect of rumen acid load on postpartum performance and metabolic parameters in transition Holstein cows. Approach: The Acidogenicity Values (AV of the diets were determined using an In-vitro essay. Thirty late pregnant multiparous Holstein cows with the average yielding of 9800 Kg/year were housed. Three weeks before the expected date of calving, cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (a High AV (AV11.9 diet (n = 16 (b Low AV (AV10.7 diet (n=14. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein once a week at a consistent time after morning feeding from d 10 till d 42 postpartum and were analysed for Beta Hydroxybutyrate (BHB, Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFAs, glucose and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN. Milk samples were collected from each milking once per week and composited for subsequent analysis of milk composition. Results: Overall subsequent milk yield of animals in high AV was higher compared to the other group (41.9 and 37.8 kg. Although milk fat percentage of the low AV group was higher than the other group (3.7 and 3.5%, however there was no significant effect of the diets on milk protein. Plasma NEFA and BHBA was reduced significantly in animals receiving the high AV diet. Although the concentration of glucose was markedly higher in high AV animals, however the BUN concentration was lower compare to the low AV group. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that high grain prepartum diets have dramatic impact on postpartum performance and blood metabolic parameters.

  8. Shapes of Lactation Curves of F1 (Holstein X Zebu Cows in the Humid Tropic of Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Vinay-Vadillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the lactation curves in F1 (Holstein x Zebu dairy cows in a farm located in the humid tropic of Mexico. Lactation curves were modeled using four mathematical models (including the incomplete gamma function, Wilmink, Dijkstra and Ali and Schaeffer models on actual daily milk yield records. Estimators of the lactation parameters for each model were computed for each cow by nonlinear regression using Powell algorithm in the software Scientist for Windows®, version 2. The shape of lactation curves was determined by the sign of each parameter from every lactation curve in each model. The adjustment criteria considered to compare models were correlation, R2, coefficient of determination and model selection criterion. The effects of parity, calving year and calving season were studied. A total of 61,320 observations from 219 complete lactations of 68 cows were used. Ali-Shaeffer model fitted nine different curve shapes, but three accounted for 76% of them all. Dijkstra model fitted only one curve shape with all the parameters being positive. In turn, Wood and Wilmink models fitted three different curves shapes each one, but two forms in each case represented 98% of all the fitted curves. For its highest values in the R2, Coefficient of determination, Correlation and Model Selection Criterion. Ali and Schaeffer model was the best one for characterizing the curve of milk production of F1 Holstein X zebu cows, but more research on the topic is required to reach significant recommendations.

  9. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  10. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. Af...

  11. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Zhang, B. X.; Yao, K. Y.; Yoon, I.; Chung, Y. H.; Wang, J. K.; Liu, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses. PMID:26954175

  12. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Zhang, B X; Yao, K Y; Yoon, I; Chung, Y H; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V) on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d), parity (2.88±0.91) and day in milk (204±46 d). The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control), 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00) was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07) for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10). Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10). Milk yield increased linearly (pcontrol lost body weight. Net energy balance also increased linearly (p0.10) was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses. PMID:26954175

  13. Iterated perturbation theory for the attractive Holstein and Hubbard models

    OpenAIRE

    Freericks, J. K.; Jarrell, Mark (Eds. )

    1994-01-01

    A strictly truncated (weak-coupling) perturbation theory is applied to the attractive Holstein and Hubbard models in infinite dimensions. These results are qualified by comparison with essentially exact Monte Carlo results. The second order iterated perturbation theory is shown to be quite accurate in calculating transition temperatures for retarded interactions, but is not as accurate for the self energy or the irreducible vertex functions themselves. Iterated perturbation theory is carried ...

  14. Congenital multi-organ malformations in a Holstein calf

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Nazarizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 5-day-old female Holstein calf was necropsied because of lethargy, recumbency and anorexia. At necropsy, multiple gross defects were evident in several organs, including unclosed sutures of skull bones, asymmetrical orbits, doming of the skull bones, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, cleft palate, brachygnathia, ventricular septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia and rudimentary lungs. On microscopic examination, pulmonary hypoplasia was characterized by reduced number of alveoli, replacement o...

  15. Accidental Sulfur Poisoning in a Group of Holstein Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Moira F.; Baird, John D.; Wilkie, Judith S. Nimmo

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen animals died or were euthanized after toxic levels of elemental sulfur were accidentally fed to a group of 120 Holstein heifers. Dehydration, rumen stasis, tachycardia, and diarrhea were seen along with metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, and hypochloremia. The majority of deaths occurred from 3 to 10 days after the sulfur was fed to the heifers. Postmortem examination showed rumenitis, acute alveolitis, and renal tubular necrosis. The toxicity of ingested sulfur was attributed to the c...

  16. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  17. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve national inventories of manure N output and greenhouse gas emissions and to

  18. Alteración diurna de la carga calórica corporal e interrelación de las temperaturas rectal y láctea en vacas cruzadas (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Pardo Suizo y Holstein bajo estrés calórico diurno durante la época seca en el clima tropical húmedo - Daytime alteration of body heat load and relationship between rectal and milk temperatures in crossbred (6/8 Bos taurus x 2/8 Bos indicus, Brown Swiss and Holstein lactating cows under heat stress during summer time in the humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araúz, E. E.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas temperaturas rectal y de la secreción láctea y la carga calóricacorporal fueron evaluadas en 191 vacas en lactación (cruzadas 6/8Pardo Suizo x 2/8 Cebú y 6/8 Holstein x 2/8 Cebú: 27; Pardo Suizo:131; y Holstein: 33; bajo estrés calórico diurno en la época secadistribuidas entre 45 y 1064 msnm; con el objetivo de establecer laalteración diurna y su interrelación según el grupo genético y el grado de sensibilidad calórica.SummaryRectal and milk temperatures were measured in the afternoon (2 PM to4 PM in 191 lactating dairy cows (6/8 Brown Swiss x 2/8 Zebu and 6/8Holstein x 2/8 Zebu: 27, Brown Swiss: 131 and Holstein: 33 underheat stress in the tropical environment to evaluate daytime alterationof body heat load and establish the relationship between rectal andmilk temperature.

  19. Pedigree analysis of Czech Holstein calves with schistosoma reflexum

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    Citek Jindrich

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma reflexum (SR is congenital syndrome briefly characterized by visceral eventration, severe dorsoflexion and ankylosis of the spine and arthrogryposis. A genetic etiology has been proposed, but conclusive evidence has not yet been provided. Methods Pedigree analysis was carried out in 29 cases of SR in Czech Holsteins and Holstein crosses. Genetic relationship was evaluated and inbreeding coefficients calculated. Pedigrees of 15 Czech Holsteins fathering non-SR affected calves were used for comparison. Results Twenty-one cases occurred in one pedigree founded by three sires while three SR calves occurred in another pedigree with a common grandfather. The sex ratio between affected males and females was 11:6. Affected calves shared common ancestors different from those shared by the unaffected calves. The inbreeding coefficient in the SR affected calves was not increased compared to unaffected calves. Conclusions The findings are consistent with SR being inherited autosomal recessively. Further studies are however needed to confirm this and therefore a breeding trial is recommended where a suspected heterozygous sire is mated to closely related females.

  20. Genetic polymorphism of milk protein loci in Argentinian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonvillani Adriana Gloria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some alleles of milk protein loci are associated with superior cheese production characteristics. The genetic polymorphism of the milk protein loci alphas1-casein, beta-casein, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was examined in Argentinian Holstein cattle. Samples from 12 herds of four regions of Córdoba were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. The chi² test was used to assess whether the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotypic diversity was analyzed by the Shannon-Weaver index. The observed genotypic frequencies were analyzed by Hedrick's genetic identity and the genetic distance of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were similar to those of other Holstein populations. The genotypic frequencies of the alphas1-casein and beta-casein loci were in equilibrium, whereas in some populations the k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci were not. According to the Shannon-Weaver index the total genetic diversity within each herd was greater than 96%. The high values of identity agreed with the low genetic distances among populations. We conclude that there is extensive genetic homogeneity in Holstein cattle in Córdoba Province and that it would be feasible to select for B alleles at the k-casein and b-lactoglobulin loci in order to improve the quality of milk available for cheese manufacturing.

  1. Short communication: analysis of health and survival in a population of Ontario Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorquodale, C E; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F; Kelton, D; Robinson, A; Koeck, A; Leslie, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate health and survival in heifer calves, from 16 farms in southwestern Ontario. Research technicians visited the farms on a weekly schedule for 16 mo, starting in January 2008, and collected blood samples and various measurements to determine the overall health status of the calves. Data of 1,588 Holstein heifer calves from birth until 90 to 120 d of age were analyzed. Initially, a survival analysis was carried out to determine which factors surrounding birth increased a calf's risk of mortality. The factors examined were type of birth, calving ease, season of birth, serum total protein, weight during first week of life, treatment status during first week of life, total number of treatments, and bovine respiratory disease status. In general, calves born in fall (October-December), low serum total protein, low weight, and calves treated for illness during the first week of life, increasing number of treatments, and being treated for bovine respiratory disease all increased a calf's risk of mortality. Genetic parameters for requiring treatment for illness, survival, bovine respiratory disease, other diseases, height, and weight were estimated. Heritabilities for treatment, survival, and diseases were low, ranging from 0.04 to 0.07, and were not significant. Moderate and significant heritabilities were found for height (0.33 to 0.45) and weight (0.24 to 0.44). Treatment and survival to 90 to 120 d of age were favorably correlated, indicating that calves requiring less treatment have a higher survival rate and vice versa. Further, body weight was found to have a tendency of favorable genetic correlation (-0.22 to -0.53) with treatment for diseases, indicating that calves with higher body weight in their first month of life were genetically more resistant to diseases than those with average body weight. Overall, our results show the potential of using data on calfhood disease and survival in future dairy cattle breeding

  2. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  3. Insemination factors affecting the conception rate in seasonal calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Frank; Mee, John; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Evans, Ross; Berry, Donagh; Dillon, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Differences in conception rate to first service between artificial inseminations (AI) carried out by commercial AI operators (CAI) or do-it-yourself operators (DIY), between natural service (NAT) and AI, between different AI sires, and between fresh and frozen-thawed semen, on Irish commercial dairy farms, were studied using logistic regression. The study comprised 12,933 potential first inseminations from 77 spring-calving dairy herds. The data were recorded during 1999 and 2000. Amongst the total, 4,394 cows had repeated records across the two years. Adjustment variables included: herd, year, parity, calving period, calving to service interval, herd size, proportion of North American Holstein-Friesian genes, peak milk yield, semen fresh or frozen-thawed status, AI sire and a cow history variable to account for the correlation structure that may exist between performance records of cows present in both years of the study. Interactions of interest were tested but were non-significant. No significant association was observed between the category of AI operator and the likelihood of conception rate to first service (PREG1). The variation in PREG1 observed within the category of operator (CAI and DIY) was investigated using the Levene test for homogeneity of variance. There was no difference between the level of variation observed within CAI and DIY operators. There were significant differences in the likelihood of PREG1 between different AI sires. Amongst the 40 most commonly used AI sires, 3 sires had a lower likelihood of PREG1 (P < 0.05) when compared to the reference AI sire (sire with PREG1 similar to the mean of the group). There was a tendency for a reduced likelihood of PREG1 with the use of fresh semen compared to frozen-thawed semen (OR = 0.80, P = 0.067). Amongst the adjustment variables in the model, those significantly associated with the likelihood of PREG1 included the herd, calving period, calving to first service interval and peak milk yield. No

  4. Evaluation of the California Mastitis Test as a precalving treatment selection tool for Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; Du Tremblay, Denis; Descôteaux, Luc; Messier, Serge; Scholl, Daniel; Bouchard, Emile

    2009-02-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a portable electrical conductivity meter for diagnosing precalving intramammary infection (IMI) in Holstein heifers. A total of 428 dairy heifers from 23 dairy herds were enrolled between 6 and 12 days before the expected calving date from June 2002 to June 2003. Mammary secretions were tested by both diagnostic methods and by bacterial culture for evidence of IMI. California Mastitis Test was considered negative if the score was negative, trace or 1 and was considered positive otherwise. Two cut-off points were evaluated for milk electrical conductivity (>5 and >6.5 mS/cm). From this study, an overall proportion of 69% of heifers had precalving IMI and the overall heifer prevalence of major pathogen IMI was 16.8%. At the quarter level, sensitivity and specificity of CMT (68.9% and 68.4%, respectively) and milk conductivity >5 mS/cm (41.0% and 65.2%, respectively) or >6.5 mS/cm (25.2% and 83.3%, respectively) to identify all IMI were low. However, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity of CMT for major pathogens were 91.0% (81.5-96.6) and 27.5% (22.8-32.6), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 5 mS/cm, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity for major pathogens was 68.7% (56.2-79.4) and 44.1% (38.7-49.6), respectively. A conductivity cut-off value of 6.5 mS/cm decreased the sensitivity and increased the specificity to 53.7% (41.1-66.0) and 59.5% (54.0-64.8), respectively. California Mastitis Test and milk electrical conductivity are not good predictors of major pathogen IMI in heifers during the last 2 weeks before calving. However, the negative predictive values at quarter or heifer level were high and the heifer false negative rate was 6-14% using CMT or conductivity, respectively. Therefore, these measures could be useful for screening out heifers or quarters that are unlikely to have a major pathogen IMI. PMID:18930609

  5. Fatty Liver Syndrome in Dairy Cattle: Relation between Nefa, Apo-A, Ammoniac, Tsh and Total Bilirobin Serum Values in this Syndrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Parviz Rezaei Saber

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver syndrome (Hepatic lipidosis or fat cow syndrome is a major metabolic disorder in many dairy cattle's in early period of lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluating fatty liver syndrome in dairy cattle in Tabriz by measurement of NEFA, APO-A, Ammoniac, TSH and Total Bilirobin serum values. In this study 10 mL blood samples from 400 Holstein dairy cows were obtained by venoject from jugular vein and then samples in vicinity of the ice sent to the laboratory. In lab, prepared serums froze inside the micro tube. The results showed that NEFA has a positive relationship with ammoniac and total Bilirobin serum values and reverse relationship with APO-A and TSH. Thus, with elevating of NEFA serum values, ammoniac and total Bilirobin also increased and TSH and APO-A contrary diminished.

  6. An investigation of the microbiota in uterine flush samples and endometrial biopsies from dairy cows during the first 7 weeks postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby; Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Angen, Øystein; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Rasmussen, Eva Láadal; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2016-01-01

    Metritis and endometritis commonly occur in dairy cows after calving. Although numerous studies have been performed to identify the causative pathogens, a complete overview has not been done. Metagenomic studies have analyzed the bacterial populations of uterine flush samples from postpartum (pp......) dairy cows, but the microbiota in the uterine luminal fluid may differ from the microbiota of the endometrium itself, and important putative pathogens may have been overlooked. In the present study, we compared the microbiota of the uterine lumen and the endometrium of healthy, metritic, and...... endometritic cows. Samples were collected from 68 Holstein dairy cows at 1, 4, and 7 weeks pp, and the data were analyzed by deep sequencing of the V1 and V2 hypervariable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed that Porphyromonadaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Leptotrichiaceae, and Mycoplasmataceae...

  7. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co......)variance components were estimated using average information (AI-REML) implemented via the DMU statistical package. Chosen phenotypic data included average somatic cell score per a 305-day standard first lactation as well as the production traits milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, and protein...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body...

  8. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula and...... permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did not...

  9. Effects of supplementation with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester on splanchnic amino acid metabolism and essential amino acid mobilization in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbach, Kristine Foged; Larsen, Mogens; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl;

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated by...... during the first 29 DIM. Extra-splanchnic EAA mobilization can be crucial to sustain milk protein yield in the postpartum transition period and HMBi is a fast-working Met source that can improve Met status of postpartum transition cows....... difference: EAA excretion in milk protein − net portal absorption of EAA or net splanchnic release of EAA. Eight Holstein cows fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery in the dry period preceding second parturition were used in the...

  10. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. PMID:26486911

  11. Investigating associations between milk metabolite profiles and milk traits of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, N; Wittenburg, D; Hartwig, S; Jakubowski, S; Kesting, U; Willmitzer, L; Lisec, J; Reinsch, N; Repsilber, D

    2013-03-01

    In the field of dairy cattle research, it is of great interest to improve the detection and prevention of diseases (e.g., mastitis and ketosis) and monitor specific traits related to the state of health and management. During the standard milk performance test, traditional milk traits are monitored, and quality and quantity are screened. In addition to the standard test, it is also now possible to analyze milk metabolites in a high-throughput manner and to consider them in connection with milk traits to identify functionally important metabolites that can also serve as biomarker candidates. We present a study in which 190 milk metabolites and 14 milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows on 18 commercial farms were investigated to characterize interrelations of milk metabolites between each other, to milk traits from the milk standard performance test, and to influencing factors such as farm and sire effect (half-sib structure). The effect of influencing factors (e.g., farm) varied among metabolites and traditional milk traits. The investigations of associations between metabolites and milk traits revealed groups of metabolites that show, for example, positive correlations to protein and casein, and negative correlations to lactose and pH. On the other hand, groups of metabolites jointly associated with the investigated milk traits can be identified and functionally discussed. To enable a multivariate investigation, 2 machine learning methods were applied to detect important metabolites that are highly correlated with the investigated traditional milk traits. For somatic cell score, uracil, lactic acid, and 9 other important metabolites were detected. Lactic acid has already been proposed as a biomarker candidate for mastitis in the recent literature. In conclusion, we found sets of metabolites eligible to predict milk traits, enabling the analysis of milk traits from a metabolic perspective and discussion of the possible functional background for some of the detected

  12. Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female Holstein calves in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, G A; Dohoo, I R; Montgomery, D M; Bennett, F L

    1998-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affect performance (growth) between birth and 14 months of age in a convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms. Data collected on each calf at birth included farm of origin, birth date, weight, height at the pelvis, and serum total protein (a measure of colostral immunoglobulin absorption). Birth season was dichotomized into summer and winter using meteorological data collected by University of Florida Agricultural Research Stations. Data collected at approximately 6 and 14 months of age included age, weight, height at the pelvis, and height at the withers. Growth in weight and stature (height) was calculated for each growth period; growth period 1 (GP1) = birth to 6 months, and growth period 2 (GP2) = 6 to 14 months. Health data collected included data of initial treatment and number of treatments for the diseases diarrhea, omphalitis, septicemia, pneumonia and keratoconjunctivitis. After adjusting for disease occurrence, passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins had no significant effect on body weight gain or pelvic height growth. Season of birth and occurrence of diarrhea, septicemia and respiratory disease were significant variables decreasing heifer growth (height and weight) in GP1. These variables plus farm, birth weight and exact age when '6 month' data were collected explained 20% and 31% of the variation in body weight gain and pelvic height growth, respectively, in GP1. The number of days treated for pneumonia before 6 months of age significantly decreased average daily weight gain in GP2 (P < 0.025), but did not affect stature growth. Treatment for pneumonia after 6 months of age did not significantly affect weight or height gain after age 6 months. Neither omphalitis nor keratoconjunctivitis explained variability in growth in either of the growth periods. PMID:9500160

  13. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Adam C; Cooper, Vickie L; Coatney, John W; Shearer, Jan K; Gorden, Patrick J; Plummer, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  14. Genetic parameters of fatty acids in Italian Brown Swiss and Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Tullo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and to predict experimental breeding values (EBVs for saturated (SFA, unsaturated (UFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, the ratio of fatty acids, and the productive traits in Italian Brown Swiss (BSW and Holstein Friesian (HOL cattle. Test-day yields from 235,658 HOL and 21,723 BSW cows were extracted from the Italian HOL and BSW Associations databases from November 2009 to October 2012 out of 3310 herds. The milk samples collected within the routine milk recording scheme were processed with the MilkoscanTM FT 6500 Plus (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark for the identification of SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA composition in milk. Genetic parameters for fatty acids and productive traits were estimated on 1,765,552 records in HOL and 255,592 records in BSW. Heritability values estimated for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 for the BSW breed and from 0.10 to 0.29 for HOL. The genetic trends for the fatty acids were consistent between traits and breeds. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations among EBVs for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA and official EBVs for fat percentage were in the range 0.32 to 0.54 for BSW and 0.44 to 0.64 for HOL. The prediction of specific EBVs for milk fatty acids and for the ratio among them may be useful to identify the best bulls to be selected with the aim to improve milk quality in terms of fat content and fatty acid ratios, achieving healthier dairy productions for consumers.

  15. A Highly Effective Protocol for the Rapid and Consistent Induction of Digital Dermatitis in Holstein Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Adam C.; Cooper, Vickie L.; Coatney, John W.; Shearer, Jan K.; Gorden, Patrick J.; Plummer, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Digital Dermatitis (DD) is a leading cause of lameness in dairy cattle. DD is reportedly increasing in prevalence in beef cattle feedlots of the US. The exact etiologic agent(s) responsible for the disease have yet to be determined. Multiple studies have demonstrated the presence of a variety of Treponema spp. within lesions. Attempts to reproduce clinically relevant disease using pure cultures of these organisms has failed to result in lesions that mirror the morphology and severity of naturally occurring lesions. This manuscript details the systematic development of an experimental protocol that reliably induces digital dermatitis lesions on a large enough scale to allow experimental evaluation of treatment and prevention measures. In total, 21 protocols from five experiments were evaluated on their effectiveness in inducing DD lesions in 126 Holstein calves (504 feet). The protocols varied in the type and concentration of inoculum, frequency of inoculation, duration the feet were wrapped, and type of experimental controls need to validate a successful induction. Knowledge gained in the first four experiments resulted in a final protocol capable of inducing DD lesions in 42 of 44 (95%) feet over a 28 day period. All induced lesions were macroscopically and microscopically identified as clinical DD lesions by individuals blinded to protocols. Lesions were also located at the site of inoculation in the palmer aspect of the interdigital space, and induced clinically measurable lameness in a significant portion of the calves. Collectively these results validate the model and provide a rapid and reliable means of inducing DD in large groups of calves. PMID:27119564

  16. Effect of organic sources of minerals on fat-corrected milk yield of dairy cows in confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Antonio Del Valle; Elmeson Ferreira de Jesus; Pablo Gomes de Paiva; Vitor Pereira Bettero; Filipe Zanferari; Tiago Sabella Acedo; Luis Fernando Monteiro Tamassia; Francisco Palma Rennó

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of organic and inorganic sources of minerals in diets for mid-lactation dairy cows on milk yield and composition, intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, blood parameters, microbial protein synthesis, and energy and protein balances. Twenty Holstein cows averaging 146.83±67.34 days in milk and weighing 625.30±80.37 kg were used. The experimental design was a crossover. Diets were composed of corn silage (50%), ground grain corn, an...

  17. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi; André Soares de Oliveira; José Maurício de Souza Campos; Amanda Vasconcelos Guimarães; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Flávio Pereira Cobianchi; Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg) of soybean meal (SBM) by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg) was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM)...

  18. Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Guimarães; E. Guedes; R.A. Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old) from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic) was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9%) of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with ...

  19. Parity-dependent association between TNF-α and LTF gene polymorphisms and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdak-Maksymiec, Katarzyna; Szyda, Joanna; Strabel, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Background One major problem in dairy cattle husbandry is the prevalence of udder infections. In today’s breeding programmes, top priority is being given to making animal evaluation more cost-effective and reliable and less time-consuming. We proposed tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), lactoferrin (LTF) and macrophage-expressed lysozyme (mLYZ) genes as potential DNA markers in the improvement of immunity to mastitis. This study included 588 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows kept on one farm located...

  20. Assessment of Relationship Between IGF-I Concentration Before Parturition and Postpartum Endometritis and Ovarian Cysts in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Kadivar, Ali; Hamid Reza GHEISARI

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the IGF-I, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations during the peripartum period of dairy cows in normal condition, and cows with endometritis puerperalis and cystic ovarian disease. The study was conducted on 87 lactating Holstein cows (parity: 1-7) in the 9th month of pregnancy in Shiraz, Iran. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks from 2 weeks before until 6 weeks after calving. Two, four and six wee...

  1. Assessment of relationship between IGF-I concentration before parturition and postpartum endometritis and ovarian cysts in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Kadivar, Ali; Hamid Reza GHEISARI

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the IGF-I, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations during the peripartum period of dairy cows in normal condition, and cows with endometritis puerperalis and cystic ovarian disease.  The study was conducted on 87 lactating Holstein cows (parity: 1-7) in the 9th month of pregnancy in Shiraz, Iran. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks from 2 weeks before until 6 weeks after calving. Two, four and six wee...

  2. Selection for milk coagulation properties predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the Italian Holstein-Friesian breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, S; Bulgari, O; Rizzi, R; Calamari, L; Bani, P; Biffani, S; Caroli, A M

    2014-07-01

    Milk coagulation is based on a series of physicochemical changes at the casein micelle level, resulting in formation of a gel. Milk coagulation properties (MCP) are relevant for cheese quality and yield, important factors for the dairy industry. They are also evaluated in herd bulk milk to reward or penalize producers of Protected Designation of Origin cheeses. The economic importance of improving MCP justifies the need to account for this trait in the selection process. A pilot study was carried out to determine the feasibility of including MCP in the selection schemes of the Italian Holstein. The MCP were predicted in 1,055 individual milk samples collected in 16 herds (66 ± 24 cows per herd) located in Brescia province (northeastern Italy) by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The coefficient of determination of prediction models indicated moderate predictions for milk rennet coagulation time (RCT=0.65) and curd firmness (a₃₀=0.68), and poor predictions for curd-firming time (k₂₀=0.49), whereas the range error ratio (8.9, 6.9, and 9.5 for RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀, respectively) indicated good practical utility of the predictive models for all parameters. Milk proteins were genotyped and casein haplotypes (αS₁-, β-, αS₂-, and κ-casein) were reconstructed. Data from 51 half-sib families (19.9 ± 16.4 daughters per sire) were analyzed by an animal model to estimate (1) the genetic parameters of predicted RCT, k₂₀, and a₃₀; (2) the breeding values for these predicted clotting variables; and (3) the effect of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes on predicted MCP (pMCP). This is the first study to estimate both genetic parameters and breeding values of pMCP, together with the effects of milk protein genotypes and casein haplotypes, that also considered k₂₀, probably the most important parameter for the dairy industry (because it indicates the time for the beginning of curd-cutting). Heritability of predicted

  3. Numerical Renormalization Group Study of Probability Distributions for Local Fluctuations in the Anderson-Holstein and Holstein-Hubbard Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hewson, Alex C.; Bauer, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    We show that information on the probability density of local fluctuations can be obtained from a numerical renormalisation group calculation of a reduced density matrix. We apply this approach to the Anderson-Holstein impurity model to calculate the ground state probability density $\\rho(x)$ for the displacement $x$ of the local oscillator. From this density we can deduce an effective local potential for the oscillator and compare its form with that obtained from a semiclassical approximation...

  4. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele) = 0.64; -log(10)P(allele) = 6.8, -log(10)P(genotype) = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  5. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mömke

    Full Text Available Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH cows indicated motilin (MLN as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele = 0.64; -log(10P(allele = 6.8, -log(10P(genotype = 7.0 with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C. In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA.

  6. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  7. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  8. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P < 0.05) in cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P < 0.10) to be lower in AM + PM relative to the AM and C groups. The AM + PM group had higher ( P < 0.05) milk production than C (18.70 vs. 17.43 kg, respectively), and AM + PM cows had a trend ( P < 0.10) to increased milk energy output vs. the C and AM groups (13.75 vs. 13.18 and 13.15 Mcal, respectively). Protein and fat in milk, body condition score, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine were similar among the groups. Four hours of cooling with spray and fans during severe summer temperatures only modestly improved milk yield of lactating Holstein cows.

  9. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves. PMID:27065138

  10. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Null, D J; Cole, J B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene networks associated with 3 fertility traits in dairy cattle-daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate-using different approaches. Deregressed predicted transmitting abilities were available for approximately 24,000 Holstein bulls and 36,000 Holstein cows sampled from the National Dairy Database with high-density genotypes. Of those, 1,732 bulls and 375 cows had been genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The remaining animals were genotyped with various chips of lower density that were imputed to high density. Univariate and trivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with both medium- (60,671 markers) and high-density (312,614 markers) panels were performed for daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate using GEMMA (version 0.94; http://www.xzlab.org/software.html). Analyses were conducted using bulls only, cows only, and a sample of both bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was used to develop gene interaction networks. The most significant markers were further investigated to identify putatively associated genes. Little overlap in associated genes could be found between GWAS using different reference populations of bulls only, cows only, and combined bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was able to identify several genes that were not identified by ordinary GWAS. The results obtained herein will aid in further dissecting the complex biology underlying fertility traits in dairy cattle, while also providing insight into the nuances of GWAS. PMID:27209127

  11. THE CHINESE MARKET FOR U.S. PORK EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dermot J. Hayes

    1997-01-01

    China feeds twenty-two percent of the world's population on seven percent of its arable land. In contrast, the U.S. and Canada own seventeen percent of the world's arable land, but feed only five percent of its people. As China's income increases, its people will demand more livestock products, including poultry, dairy, beef, and eggs, and more alcohol. Potential Chinese import demand for pork is examined in this paper. The question facing Chinese policymakers is whether to follow their curre...

  12. Pre-test habituation improves the reliability of a handheld test of mechanical nociceptive threshold in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundal, P. M.; Andersen, P. H.; Toft, Nils;

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) testing has been used to investigate aspects of painful states in bovine claws. We investigated a handheld tool, where the applied stimulation force was monitored continuously relative to a pre-encoded based target force. The effect on MNT of two pre......-testing habituation procedures was performed in two different experiments comprising a total of 88 sound Holsteins dairy cows kept either inside or outside their home environment. MNT testing was performed using five consecutive mechanical nociceptive stimulations per cow per test at a fixed pre-encoded target rate...... of 2.1 N/s. The habituation procedure performed in dairy cows kept in their home environment led to lowered intra-individual coefficient of variation of MNT (P < 0.001), increased MNT (P < 0.001) and decreased the discrepancy between applied and target force during stimulations (P < 0.001). Pre...

  13. Investigation of hormone profiles in dairy cattle with a view to controlling fertility and increasing reproductive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was carried out on 677 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from one big commercial farm in Voivodina. The accuracy of the application of serum progesterone RIA for the early diagnosis of non-pregnancy was 98% (and 97% for milk progesterone samples). The figures were 49% and 60%, respectively, for positive diagnosis. The high percentage of false positive results was probably due to a high incidence of disturbances in the oestrous cycle and problems of heat detection. Investigation of progesterone profiles in post-partum dairy cows showed that the duration of post-partum anoestrous was strongly influenced by the level of nutrition. Treatment with GnRH suggested that two injections of GnRH given 15 d and 23 d post-partum could induce the onset of the first ovulation. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    mobilization period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...... in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows...

  15. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  16. The use of simple physiological and environmental measures to estimate the latent heat transfer in crossbred Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Fonsêca, Vinicus França Carvalho; Pinheiro, Antônio da Costa; Almeida, Maria Elivania Vieira; de Amorim, Mikael Leal Cabral Menezes

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the heat transfer through cutaneous and respiratory evaporation of dairy cows raised in tropical ambient conditions using simple environmental and physiological measures. Twenty-six lactating crossbred cows (7/8 Holstein-Gir) were used, 8 predominantly white and 18 predominantly black. The environmental variables air temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature, and wind speed were measured. Respiratory rate and coat surface temperature were measured at 0700, 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 h. The environmental and physiological data were used to estimate heat loss by respiratory (ER) and cutaneous evaporation (EC). Results showed that there was variation (P rate depending on the times of the day. The highest values were recorded at 1100, 1300, and 1500 h, corresponding to 66.85 ± 10.20, 66.98 ± 7.80, and 65.65 ± 6.50 breaths/min, respectively. Thus, the amount of heat transferred via respiration ranged from 19.21 to 29.42 W/m2. There was a variation from 31.6 to 38.8 °C for coat surface temperature; these values reflected a range of 55.52 to 566.83 W/m2 for heat transfer via cutaneous evaporation. However, throughout the day, the dissipation of thermal energy through the coat surface accounted for 87.9 % total loss of latent heat, and the remainder (12.1 %) was via the respiratory tract. In conclusion, the predictive models based on respiratory rate and coat surface temperature may be used to estimate the latent heat loss in dairy cows kept confined in tropical ambient conditions.

  17. Age at First Calving in Holstein Cattle in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifer rearing costs account for 15 to 20% of the total expense of milk production, and the decline in fertility of U.S. Holsteins is well documented. Earlier age at first calving (AFC) may improve profitability and fertility. Records for 400,000 U.S Holstein cows born on or after January 1, 1997 we...

  18. Genome Signature of Artificial Selection for High Milk Yield in Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial selection for high milk yield in Holstein cattle during the past forty years achieved tremendous increases in milk yield but had an unintended consequence of reduced fertility. It was unknown how artificial selection changed the Holstein genome and what genome changes were associated wit...

  19. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality, but...... casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  20. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  1. Seasonal and parity effects on ghrelin levels throughout the estrous cycle in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Elbaz, Michal; Kaim, Moshe; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

    2016-09-01

    In dairy cows, heat stress depresses appetite, leading to decreased food intake, a negative energy balance, and modifies ghrelin levels. Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide with two major forms: acylated, with an O-n-octanoylated serine in position 3, and nonacylated. To date, the effect of heat stress and estrous cycle on ghrelin secretion in dairy cows has not been studied. We characterized ghrelin secretion during the estrous cycle in each, the winter and the summer seasons. We further examined the effects of parity on ghrelin secretion. Blood was collected from 10 primiparous or multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows throughout the estrous cycle, in both, the hot and cold seasons. The levels of acylated and total ghrelin were measured in the blood samples. We found that both acylated and total ghrelin levels during heat stress were lower than their respective levels in the winter in both, primiparous and multiparous cows. No differences in acylated and total ghrelin levels were found between primiparous and multiparous cows in both seasons. We further found that in multiparous but not primiparous cows acylated ghrelin secretion oscillated during the estrous cycle in both seasons. Its levels peaked on the last days of the first follicular wave and on the days before and during ovulation. Interestingly, we found that elevated acylated ghrelin levels correlated with conception success and increased total ghrelin levels were associated with successful conception from first insemination. Our data is the first to demonstrate seasonal variation in ghrelin secretion. This study provides evidence for the yet unfamiliar link between heat stress, ghrelin and fertility. Increased circulating acylated ghrelin may contribute to improved fertility in dairy cows. It further raises the possibility of a link between ghrelin levels and successful inseminations. Further research is required to determine the effects of ghrelin on dairy cow performance. PMID:27288640

  2. Genetic Parameters for Fertility Measurements in Holstein Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lydia Henriette; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Mark, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    first to last insemination (IFL), age at first insemination (AFI), and age at first calving (AFC) in Danish Holstein heifers. The means of the traits were all significantly different between the two groups of herds. Heritabilities for NINS and IFL were lower than 1%, while heritabilities for AFI and AFC...... were 12–29%. Heritabilities were all lower in Heatime herds than in reference herds. The genetic correlations between traits in different environments were high for NINS, AFI, and AFC (>0.88), while the correlation for IFL was 0.68 but with a higher SE (0.313). Thus, IFL seems not to be the same trait...

  3. Evaluation of the reproduction and milk performance of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠTA, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the diploma work is to evaluation the reproduction level and the milk performance level of the concrete herd of cattle Holstein breed. The evaluation took place in family farm of Vladimír Pešta. The farm manages 73 hectares of soil and keeps 40 cows with closed herd turnover. Collection of input data took place in the years 2004 - 2007. There were monitored basic indicators of milk performance, indicators of reproduction and the development of body condition score (BCS) during...

  4. Genetic polymorphism of milk protein loci in Argentinian Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Some alleles of milk protein loci are associated with superior cheese production characteristics. The genetic polymorphism of the milk protein loci alphas1-casein, beta-casein, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was examined in Argentinian Holstein cattle. Samples from 12 herds of four regions of Córdoba were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. The chi² test was used to assess whether the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotypic diversity was analyzed by the Shannon-Weaver i...

  5. The influence of casein haplotype on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Gambacorta, Emilio; Simonetti, Amalia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (CSN1S1, CSN2, and CSN3) on quality, coagulation, and yield traits of milk from Italian Holstein cows. The casein haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing; milk clotting properties were determined by using a mechanical lacto-dynamographic instrument; and the yields of pressed and pasta filata cheeses were expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100kg of milk processed. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the casein haplotype. In particular, BB-A(1)A(1)-AA milk showed the highest fat content (4.01g/100g), whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB milk had a higher protein content, the best coagulation characteristics, and the highest yields in pressed and pasta filata cheeses, and, consequently, better ability to retain fat and protein in the curd. The results of this study suggest that knowledge of milk protein polymorphisms not only allows the production of milk with specific qualitative and quantitative characteristics, but it could also be used as a specific marker within a breed to identify milk suitable for cheesemaking, which confers an economical advantage for dairy producers. PMID:26947288

  6. Efeito do balanço cátion-aniônico da dieta na produção de leite e nas respostas fisiológicas em vacas lactantes da raça Holandesa em ambiente quente - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1959 Effect of dietary cation-anion balance, on milk production and physiological responses of lactating dairy Holstein cows in hot weather - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Pöhl Ribas

    2004-04-01

    tarde. Os resultados indicam que um balanço cátion-aniônico dietético de +32 mEq/100g de MS da dieta não demonstrou efeitos positivos na produção e na qualidade do leite, mas permitiu manter o consumo e as respostas fisiológicas dos animais dentro dos parâmetros desejáveis.The objective was to evaluate the response of lactating dairy cows to dietary Na, K, and Cl while holding cation-anion balance constant. Nine lactating Holstein cows, blocked according to age and previous milk yiel, and assigned randomly to replicated 3x3 Latin esquares with experimental period of 3 week, Diets contained corn silage and concentrate ration in a 50:50 rate (DM basis and were formulated to provide + 32 mEq of (Na + K – Cl/100 g diet DM via one of three variations: 1 control treatment plus 1.57% of KCl in DM basis, 2 control treatment plus 1.22% of NaCl in DM basis, 3 control treatment. Samples of milk were collected a week one day for fat analysis, protein, lactose and non fatty solids. The treatments did not influence the production of milk, although the addition of NaCl has contributed to a better total production of 20.58kg against 19.78kg for the addition of KCl and in the production of milk for the morning of 13.77kg against 13.1kg. The fat, protein, lactose and total solids content, didn't present significant alterations in function of the use of KCl and NaCl in the diet. The best consumption of DM was observed for the animals receiving the treatment NaCl (17.48kg against the treatment control (16.98kg, although it has not had significant effect. Larger values of somatic cells were found for the animals receiving the treatment NaCl (813.48 x 1000 células/mL of milk, and the smallest value for the treatment KCl (496.81 x 1000 células/mL of milk. The air temperature of the morning went to climatic variable that presented significant effect in the milk production and in the food consumption. Larger effect was verified for the treatments KCl and control (b = -0

  7. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  8. Tannin extracts abate ammonia emissions from simulated dairy barn floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Feeding more tannin and less crude protein (CP) to dairy cows may have synergistic impacts on reducing NH emissions from dairy barns. Three trials using lab-scale ventilated chambers with concrete floors were conducted to determine the impacts on NH emission of tannin and CP feeding, tannin feeding on urease activity in feces, and tannin application directly to the barn floor. For Trial 1, mixtures of feces and urine from lactating Holstein dairy cows () fed four levels (g kg) of dietary tannin extract [a mixture from red quebracho () and chestnut () trees]: 0 tannin (0T), 4.5 (low tannin [LT]), 9.0 (medium tannin [MT]), and 18.0 (high tannin [HT]); each fed at two levels (g kg) of dietary CP: 155 low CP (LCP) and 168 high CP (HCP) were applied to chambers. For Trial 2, urea solution was added to feces obtained from cows fed 0T, MT, and HT at HCP. For Trial 3, tannin amounts equivalent to those fed at 0T, MT, and HT were applied directly to feces-urine mixtures from 0T-HCP. For all trials, NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after treatment application. For Trial 1, reductions in NH emission due to tannin feeding were greatest when fed at LCP: The LCP-LT and LCP-HT treatments emitted 30.6% less NH than LCP-0T, and the HCP-LT and HCP-HT treatments emitted 16.3% less NH than HCP-0T. For Trial 2, feeding tannin decreased urease activity in feces, resulting in an 11.5% reduction in cumulative NH loss. For Trial 3, the application of tannin directly to simulated barn floors also apparently decreased urease activity, resulting in an average reduction in cumulative NH emissions of 19.0%. Larger-scale trails are required to ascertain the effectiveness of tannin extracts in abating NH loss from dairy barn floors. PMID:21546676

  9. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM...

  10. Flow meters tested on dairy lagoon water

    OpenAIRE

    Schwankl, Larry; Eagle, Alison; Frate, Carol; Nydam, Ben

    2003-01-01

    As California’s dairy industry continues to grow, manure management has become an increasingly important issue for dairy producers, government regulators and the public living in close proximity to dairies. Dairies are increasingly required to prepare nutrient management plans and comply with regulations concerning their manure management practices. A common dairy practice in California is to house the cows in free stall barns with water flush systems to remove the manure. The manure...

  11. Temporal trends in reproductive performance in Irish dairy herds and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee John F

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring breeding season. However, the top quartile of herds achieved a first-service conception rate of 59%, illustrating the wide variation between herds. These phenotypic trends were attributed to both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Recent Irish dairy herd fertility performance falls short of the targets set for seasonal compact calving.

  12. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria

    2014-12-01

    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  13. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows. PMID:26384688

  14. Milk progesterone in evaluation of reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-partum ovarian activity was studied by means of rectal palpation, and progesterone (P4) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay in defatted milk samples in Jersey, Holstein, Criollo and Criollo x Jersey cows. The accuracy with which farm personnel detected oestrus was monitored from measurements of P4 on the day of AI and 23 days later. P4 profiles during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy were determined in Jersey cows through the analysis of daily milk samples. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis as indicated by P4 levels was 79% and 88% in Jersey and Holstein cows respectively. Diagnosis of non-pregnancy from P4 levels was found to be 100% accurate. Only 62% of the Jerseys and 82.5% of the Holsteins which returned to oestrus after first AI post-partum were identified by staff on the different farms. Studies carried out in Jersey and Holstein cows during the early post-partum period revealed significant discrepancies between P4 levels and palpable corpora lutea. P4 profiles showed the presence of short (< 14 days) oestrous cycles in 53.9% and 47.4% of the Jersey and Holstein cows respectively during the first six weeks post-partum. Cows which developed milk fever at or before calving but which were treated promptly took no longer than healthy cows to resume ovarian activity. However, compared with healthy cows, those which had dystocia, retention of placenta or severe metritis took significantly longer (P < 0.01) to resume ovarian activity. Studies in the humid tropics during the post-partum period in Criollo, Criollo x Jersey and Jersey cows showed that 57% of the animals exhibited pre-ovulatory short cycles. Analysis of the monthly AI percentages in the different genetic groups indicated a seasonal distribution in sexual receptivity in both Criollo and Jersey dairy cows under these conditions; Criollo cows also resumed post-partum ovarian activity sooner than the other breeds. (author). 23 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Factors affecting daughters distribution among progeny testing Holstein bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing the number of daughters of Holstein bulls during the progeny testing using data provided by the Italian Holstein Friesian Cattle Breeders Association. The hypothesis is that there are no differences among artificial insemination studs (AIS on the daughters distribution among progeny testing bulls. For each bull and beginning from 21 months of age, the distribution of daughters over the progeny testing period was calculated. Data were available on 1973 bulls born between 1986 and 2004, progeny tested in Italy and with at least 4 paternal half-sibs. On average, bulls exited the genetic centre at 11.3±1.1 months and reached their first official genetic proof at 58.0±3.1 months of age. An analysis of variance was performed on the cumulative frequency of daughters at 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. The generalized linear model included the fixed effects of year of birth of the bull (18 levels, artificial insemination stud (4 levels and sire of bull (137 levels. All effects significantly affected the variability of studied traits. Artificial insemination stud was the most important source of variation, followed by year of birth and sire of bull. Significant differences among AI studs exist, probably reflecting different strategies adopted during progeny testing.

  16. The effect of calving in the summer on the hepatic transcriptome of Holstein cows during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, K; Akbar, H; Vailati-Riboni, M; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nardone, A; Bernabucci, U; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    The liver is the main metabolic organ coordinating the adaptations that take place during the peripartal period of dairy cows. A successful transition into lactation, rather than management practices alone, depends on environmental factors such as temperature, season of parturition, and photoperiod. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of calving season on the hepatic transcriptome of dairy cows during the transition period. A total of 12 Holstein dairy cows were assigned into 2 groups based on calving season (6 cows March-April, spring; 6 cows June-July, summer, SU). The RNA was extracted from liver samples obtained at -30, 3, and 35 DIM via percutaneous biopsy and hybridized to the Agilent 44K Bovine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA). A quantitative PCR on 22 target genes was performed to verify and expand the analyses. A total of 4,307 differentially expressed genes were detected (false discovery rate ≤0.05) in SU compared with spring. Furthermore, 73 unique differentially expressed genes were detected in SU compared with spring cows after applying a fold-change threshold ≥3 and ≤-3. For Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways analysis of differentially expressed genes, we used the dynamic impact approach. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to analyze upstream transcription regulators and perform gene network analysis. Among metabolic pathways, energy metabolism from lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids was strongly affected by calving in SU, with a reduced level of fatty acid synthesis, oxidation, re-esterification, and synthesis of lipoproteins, leading to hepatic lipidosis. Glycan-synthesis was downregulated in SU cows probably as a mechanism to counteract the progression of this lipidosis. In contrast, calving in the SU resulted in upregulation of gluconeogenesis but also greater use of glucose as an energy source. Among nonmetabolic pathways, the heat-shock response was obviously activated

  17. Neonatal lipopolysaccharide exposure does not diminish the innate immune response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide challenge in Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, A L; Korkmaz, F T; Elsasser, T H; Kerr, D E

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response following experimental mastitis is quite variable between individual dairy cattle. An inflammatory response that minimizes collateral damage to the mammary gland while still effectively resolving the infection following pathogen exposure is beneficial to dairy producers. The ability of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in early life to generate a low-responding phenotype and thus reduce the inflammatory response to a later-life LPS challenge was investigated in neonatal bull calves. Ten Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned to either an early life LPS (ELL) group (n=5) or an early life saline (ELS) group (n=5). At 7d of age, calves received either LPS or saline, and at 32d of age, all calves were challenged with an intravenous dose of LPS to determine the effect of the early life treatment (LPS or saline) on the immune response generated toward a subsequent LPS challenge. Dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures from each calf were established at age 20 and 27d, respectively, to model sustained effects from the early life LPS exposure on gene expression and protein production of components within the LPS response pathway. The ELL calves had greater levels of plasma IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α than the ELS calves following the early life LPS or saline treatments. However, levels of these 2 immune markers were similar between ELL and ELS calves when both groups were subsequently challenged with LPS. A comparison of the in vitro LPS responses of the ELL and ELS calves revealed similar patterns of protein production and gene expression following an LPS challenge of both dermal fibroblast and monocyte-derived macrophage cultures established from the treatment groups. Whereas an early life exposure to LPS did not result in a dampened inflammatory response toward a later LPS challenge in these neonatal bull calves, the potential that exposure to inflammation or stress in early life or in utero can create an

  18. Epidemiological profile of reproductive loss in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in São Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum

  19. Diversity and succession of bacterial communities in the uterine fluid of postpartum metritic, endometritic and healthy dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M A Santos

    Full Text Available The diversity of the uterine bacterial composition in dairy cows is still poorly understood, although the emerging picture has shown to be increasingly complex. Understanding the complexity and ecology of microorganisms in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows is critical for developing strategies to block their action in reproductive disorders, such as metritis/endometritis. Here, we used PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the uterine bacterial diversity and compare its succession in healthy, metritic and endometritic Holstein dairy cows at three intervals following calving. Samples were collected from 16 dairy cows housed in a dairy farm located in upstate New York. PCR-DGGE revealed a complex profile with extensive differences in the community structure. With few exceptions, clustering analysis grouped samples from cows presenting the same health status. Analysis of >65,000 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the uterine bacterial consortia, regardless of the health status, is mainly composed of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. In addition to these co-dominant phyla, sequences from Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Actinobacteria appear less frequently. It is possible that some sequences detected in the uterine fluid resulted from the presence of fecal or vaginal contaminants. Overall, the bacterial core community was different in uterine fluid of healthy cows, when compared to cows suffering from postpartum diseases, and the phylogenetic diversity in all the combined samples changed gradually over time. Particularly at the 34-36 days postpartum (DPP, the core community seemed to be specific for each health status. Our finding reveals that the uterine microbiota in dairy cows varies according with health status and DPP. Also, it adds further support to the hypothesis that there is uterine

  20. Identification Effects of Pedometer on Estrus of Holstein Cows during Peak Lactation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Xiaoxin; Deng; Shuangyi; Liu; Wei; Wei; Xingyuan; Ai; Li

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to discuss identification effects of pedometer on estrus of Holstein cows during peak lactation period. [Method]The estrus of Holstein cows during peak lactation period were identified by manual observation and pedometer monitoring. [Result]Compared with manual observation,the detection rate of estrus in Holstein cows using pedometer monitoring was increased by 24. 01%,which reduced the labor cost and enhanced accuracy rate. [Conclusion]The research could provide reliable basis for estrus identification of cows.

  1. Financial Performance of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Thomas H.

    1985-01-01

    Combined balance sheets and operating statements were used to develop benchmark financial ratios for dairy marketing cooperatives. Data from 291 cooperatives were summarized for five types of dairy cooperatives, then by three types and three size combinations. Both type and size of cooperative made differences in most of the 16 financial ratios calculated as well as in the common size balance sheets and operating statements.

  2. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  3. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Arda Kovanlıkaya; H. Melih Yavuz; Duygu Udum; Abdülkadir Orman; Çağdaş Kara

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS) in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1) received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2) received three drenches at...

  4. Association of Escherichia coli J5-Specific Serum Antibody Responses with Clinical Mastitis Outcome for J5 Vaccinate and Control Dairy Cattle ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David J.; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Burton, Jeanne L.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Grohn, Yrjo T

    2008-01-01

    Dairy cattle in two commercial Holstein herds were randomly selected to be vaccinated twice with J5, at approximately 60 days and 28 days before the expected calving date, or to be untreated controls. Based on whether milk production changed following clinical mastitis or whether cows were culled or died within 30 days after onset, 51 mastitis cases were classified as severe or mild. J5-specific antibody responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of all 32 severe and 19 mil...

  5. Effect of flaxseed physical form on digestibility of lactation diets fed to Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J W; Bauer, M L; Bork, N R

    2014-09-01

    Four multicannulated (rumen, duodenum, and ileum) Holstein steers (459.7±46.4kg of initial body weight) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effect of flaxseed processing method on ruminal fermentation and digestibility. Treatments were based on inclusion of (1) 7.5% linseed meal (control), (2) 10% whole flaxseed, (3) 10% rolled flaxseed, or (4) 10% ground flaxseed on a dry matter (DM) basis, and were formulated to mimic typical high-producing dairy cow lactation diets. The control diet contained linseed meal in a proportion to provide crude protein (CP) equal to the amount of CP contributed by the flaxseed in the other treatments. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained 30% corn silage, 17% chopped alfalfa hay, 6% sugar beet pulp, and 47% concentrate (comprising ground corn, supplemental protein, trace minerals and vitamins, and either flaxseed or linseed meal (DM basis). Diets were formulated to contain 17% CP, 34% neutral detergent fiber, 21% acid detergent fiber, and 4% fatty acid (DM basis). Periods were 14 d long and consisted of 7 d of adaptation and 7 d of sample collection. Dry matter intake (as a % of body weight) was similar (2.41±0.17) for all treatments. The inclusion of flaxseed, regardless of processing method, tended to decrease total-tract organic matter digestibility relative to the linseed control, but no differences in CP intake, duodenal CP flow (bacterial, apparent feed, or total), ileal CP flow, fecal CP output, microbial efficiency, or CP digestibility (apparent ruminal, true ruminal, small intestine, large intestine, or total tract) were observed between treatments. Method of processing did not alter ruminal pH, ammonia, or volatile fatty acids production. The ground flaxseed treatment had the fastest rate of in situ DM degradation (11.25%/h), followed by the control (7.46%/h), rolled flaxseed (4.53%/h), and whole flaxseed (0.57%/h) treatments. Degradability of CP and fat followed the same pattern as DM

  6. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  7. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  8. Effect of daidzein on milk yield, components of milk and hormones in serum of dairy cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Heshui; Wang Yanling; Yang Guoyu; Wang Yueying; Han Liqiang

    2006-01-01

    Four Holstein dairy cows in the 7th month of late lactation were sampled, and self-control method was used. Daidzein was added to the concentrated feed at the dose of 10mg/kg during the treatment stage. Results showed that daidzein lessened the declining tendency of milk yield in late lactation and increased the milk yield to some extents. Lactoprotein was evidently increased (P<0.01), while milkfat was not affected evidently. The level of T4 in serum was evidently increased (P<0.05); the levels of GH, PRL, E2 and TSH in serum were prone to rising while T3 was prone to decreasing . It was concluded that daidzein could indirectly affect milk yield and components of milk by regulating the levels of intrinsic hormones.

  9. Study of Behaviour Adaptation of Dairy Cows after Regrouping and Facility Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Šoch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of relocation dairy cows to different housing on someindicators of their maintenance behavior. Three days observation (72 hours of 40 Holstein cows was done. Thebehaviour activities were registered at intervals of 10 minutes. The times of lying and ruminating showed steadilyrising with each day (P<0.001. The time of standing was decreasing (P<0.001 from the first day to the third dayafter relocation. Period’s number differed also significantly in day’s comparison. Number of periods of total lying(7.34; 14.07; 16.34, and ruminating (14.32; 15.75; 18.58 were increasing (P<0.001. The converse trend (P<0.001was showed in the variables of feeding (17.46; 12.73; 9.54 and total standing (24.93; 18.19; 12.41; P<0.001.

  10. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  11. Management tools for heat stress reduction in crossbred dairy cows in a tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are three intervention management which can be considered to reduce the heat stress. These are genetic changes, environmental modification and nutritional strategies. In this review some results from these three intervention practicing in Thailand are shown. By using cross breeding program, the performance of F1 crosses with Brown Swiss, Holstein or Jersey produced milk yield 265% of local breed. In Thailand crossbred Friesian dairy cattle, average 50-87.5% Friesian, could produce 1987 kg to 5044 kg compare to 1973 kg to 6661 kg found in purebred Friesian. Different superscript in the same row is significantly different ab (P 2CO3 and bST supplementation on productive performances and physiological changes were found

  12. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  13. Alteration in Fecal Microbiota Associated with Grain-induced Subacute Ruminal Acidosis Challenge in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Derakshani, Hooman; Li, Shucong;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: High prevalence of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) in dairy herds has been reported with large impact on production and welfare. The field diagnosis of SARA is currently unclear and primarily based on point measurements of rumen pH, which are inaccurate. Consequently, SARA cases in t...... markers of the disease. bovine, subacute ruminal acidosis, fecal microbiome, biological marker Host publication information...... field are often not detected. Thus, other and better markers of SARA are needed. The purpose of this research was to study the feces microbiome during SARA and assess the possibilities of using feces microbial markers as indicators of SARA. Methods: Six lactating, rumen cannulated, Danish Holstein cows...... predictive value was estimated to R2: 87.0 and Q2: 73.2, respectively. Conclusion: Results confirm that intensive grain feeding changes the feces microbiome. The identification of specific taxa characteristic of SARA could provide new knowledge of the pathogenesis and might be useful as future biological...

  14. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFIdifferences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (Pdifferences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization. PMID:26936644

  15. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø;

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve....... Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the...... (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50k), which identifies 1,568 single...

  16. Management practices on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R; Wolff, L J; Michels, L; Schroth, S; Kelton, D F; Heins, B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare husbandry practices on organic and conventional dairy farms of similar sizes in Minnesota. Organic (ORG, n=35), same-sized conventional (SC, n=15, farmers were interviewed once about their farm, herd demographics, and herd management practices concerning nutrition, housing, and reproductive programs. Organic farms had been established as long as conventional farms, and ORG producers had most commonly selected ORG farming because of a negative perception of pesticides for human health. The distribution of cattle breeds and ages differed across farm types. Organic farms had more crossbred cows and a greater number of older cows than conventional farms, who had mainly Holstein cattle. Organic farms did not dock tails, were more likely to use breeding bulls, and were less likely to conduct pregnancy diagnoses in cattle. All conventional farmers fed corn, corn silage, and hay, but no forage or feed supplement was fed by all ORG farms with the exception of pasture. Kelp was supplemented on most ORG farms but on none of the conventional farms. In summary, although there were differences across farm types regarding the use of pasture, feeds, and feed additives, breed and age distribution, reproductive management, and the use of tail docking, observations in other management areas showed large overlap across herd types. PMID:26830734

  17. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  18. Factors associated with 56-day non-return rate in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Fouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify factors associated with the 56-day non-return rate (56-NRR in dairy herds in the Galician region, Spain, and to estimate it for individual Holstein bulls. The experiment was carried out in herds originated from North-West Spain, from September 2008 to August 2009. Data of the 76,440 first inseminations performed during this period were gathered. Candidate factors were tested for their association with the 56-NRR by using a logistic model (binomial. Afterwards, 37 sires with a minimum of 150 first performed inseminations were individually evaluated. Logistic models were also estimated for each bull, and predicted individual 56-NRR rate values were calculated as a solution for the model parameters. Logistic regression found four major factors associated with 56-NRR in lactating cows: age at insemination, days from calving to insemination, milk production level at the time of insemination, and herd size. First-service conception rate, when a particular sire was used, was higher for heifers (0.71 than for lactating cows (0.52. Non-return rates were highly variable among bulls. Asignificant part of the herd-level variation of 56-NRR of Holstein cattle seems attributable to the service sire. High correlation level between observed and predicted 56-NRR was found.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  20. A case of mesothelioma in a Holstein cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seven-year old Holstein cow was referred to the Saint Hyacinth (Quebec) veterinary school for anorexia, progressive weight loss, rapid decline in milk production and abdominal pain. Due to the presence of abdominal and thoracic fluid, abdominal pain and tachycardia with jugular pulse, initially a possible diagnosis was traumatic reticuloperitonitis and pericarditis, but excluded after radiography and ultrasonography. On exploratory laparotomy, numerous 1 to 50 mm diameter nodules were seen on the peritoneum and throughout the abdominal serosa. The animal was euthanased due to the presence of generalised tumour. On histopathology, a mesothelioma was diagnosed. Mesothelioma is rarely diagnosed in cattle. However, it is impossible to know whether this is due to its rarity or to the fact that it may be easily mistaken for other diseases and its histological diagnosis is currently difficult

  1. A case of perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perosomus elumbis is an occasionally found congenital anomaly of unknown etiology and is characterized by partial or complete agenesis of lumbar, sacral and coccygeal vertebrae and ankylosis of the hindlimbs. A 2-day-old female Holstein calf presented nearly normal forelimbs but flexure and ankylosis of the hindlimbs. The vertebrae and pelvic malformations and agenesis were radiographed and then necropsied. Mild ankylosis of the hindlimbs, absence of cauda equina, left scoliosis in state of fusion of T11 and T12 and complete fusion of L4 and L5, narrowed pelvic canal and misshapen ilium were confirmed. However, abnormal development or agenesis was not observed in the urogenital and intestinal system in this calf

  2. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy

  3. The effect of paternal bull on milk fat composition of dairy cows of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Intake of milk fat in human nutrition is important because of unsaturated and especially essential fatty acids (FAs, linoleic and α-linolenic acid, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of paternal bulls on fatty acids composition in milk fat of dairy cows of different breeds. The milk samples were taken in total from 299 dairy cows from 11 dairy farms. In experiment Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120 and Pinzgau (P, n = 74 breeds originated from different bulls were used. Individual milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids in milk fat using gas chromatography (apparatus GC Varian 3800, Techtron, USA, using FID detector in capillary column Omegawax 530; 30 m. In the chromatography records there were identified 54 fatty acids inclusive of particular isomers. Their relative proportions were expressed in percent's (%. Among the studied breeds, the highest content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA - 0.67%, essential FAs (EFA - 2.98%, monounsaturated FAs (MUFA - 25.84% and the lowest atherogenic index (AI - 3.10 was at breed P. Within this breed there was high variability and daughters of bull COS1 achieved significant above-average values of CLA content 1.07%, EFA 3.71%, MUFA 29.93% and under breed average AI = 2.40. The group of daughters of NOB3 was significant lower in CLA, 0.50% as compared with an average of P breed. . From the breed H bull MTY2 showed significantly higher value of 0.62% CLA, EFA 3.42%, 34.29% MUFA and lower value of AI, 1.9 as compared to H breed average. Statistically significantly lower levels of CLA 0.29% and 21.46% MUFA and higher AI 3.72 in milk fat of his daughters, bull STY3 may be considered as potential worser of these properties. At the breed R bull MOR506 showed in compar to the breed average significantly higher value of the EFA 3.80% and also the higher content of CLA 0.50% and MUFA 25

  4. Meat Quality of Loin and Top Round Muscles from the Hanwoo and Holstein Veal Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Chung, Eui-Gang; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the meat qualities of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. semimembranosus) from Hanwoo and Holstein veal. Ten Hanwoo and Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm and raised. They were slaughtered when they were 8 mon old and weighed. Weight and percentage in primal cuts and slaughter performance of Hanwoo and Holstein veal calves are obtained. Immediately after weighting, slices of loin and top round muscles were sampled. After vacuum packaging, the samples were subjected to proximate composition, physicochemical and microbiological analyses. Dressing weight and percentage were heavier and greater (pveal, whereas fat content, pH, cooking loss, a* (redness), and b* (yellowness) were higher in the Hanwoo than in the Holstein veal (pveal during the first 10 d of storage (p<0.05). PMID:26877632

  5. Taani - külade maa / Silvi Kuhi-Teesalu, Ulrich Holstein-Holsteinborg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuhi-Teesalu, Silvi

    2005-01-01

    Taanit ja taanlasi eestlase pilguga tutvustab Taani-Eesti Kultuuriinstituudi juhataja Silvi Kuhi-Teesalu. Eestlastest taanlase pilguga räägib Taani-Eesti Seltsi esimees krahv Ulrich Holstein-Holsteinborg

  6. Technical note: effects of forage protein-binding polyphenols on chemistry of dairy excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Hymes-Fecht, U C

    2009-04-01

    Forage chemistry can affect intake, digestion, milk production, and manure excretion. Although information is available on the effects of forage protein-binding polyphenols on small ruminant production and manure excretion, little information is available for dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to compare fecal and urinary N excretion of diets formulated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage versus condensed tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or o-quinone-containing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) silages. Significantly higher concentrations of N were excreted in urine by lactating Holstein dairy cows fed red clover and low-tannin birdsfoot trefoil (8.2 g/L) than by cows fed high-tannin birdsfoot trefoil or alfalfa (7.1 g/L). Fecal N concentrations were similar (33.6 g/kg) among all diets. Dairy cows fed red clover had lower rates of urinary N excretion (5.0 g/h) compared with other forages (6.6 g/h). Fecal N excretion rates were lowest for red clover (4.1 g/h), intermediate for alfalfa (5.8 g/h), and greatest for cows fed high- and low-tannin birdsfoot trefoil (6.4 g/h). The ratio of fecal N to urinary N was highest for high-tannin trefoil, lowest for alfalfa and red clover, and higher in excreta collected in morning than evening. Concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in feces, of N in NDF (NDIN) and acid detergent fiber (ADIN), and relative amounts of NDIN and ADIN excreted in feces were significantly higher from cows fed high-tannin birdsfoot trefoil than the other silage types. Study results imply that collection of excreta for environmental studies needs to consider forage polyphenol and diurnal effects on chemistry of dairy excreta. PMID:19307659

  7. Schleswig-Holstein auf den Weltmärkten: Exporterfolge auf schmalem Fundament

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Klaus; Laaser, Claus-Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Hat die schleswig-holsteinische Exportwirtschaft dem schärferen Wettbewerbsdruck im Zuge von Globalisierung und Erweiterung der Europäischen Union standhalten können? Die Exportbilanz Schleswig-Holsteins fällt ambivalent aus. Während die Exporte Deutschlands insgesamt ähnlich stark zunahmen wie der Welthandel, ist die Exportentwicklung Schleswig-Holsteins weniger dynamisch verlaufen. Betrachtet man den Spezialhandel, so stieg die Exportleistung Deutschlands zwischen 1991 und 2003 um mehr als ...

  8. Evaluation of Meat Color and Physiochemical Characteristics in Forequarter Muscles of Holstein Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Sung Sil; Seong, Pil-Nam; Jeong, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    The beef forequarter muscle comprises approximately 52% of carcass weight. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical characteristics and meat color from forequarter muscle of Holstein steers. Fifteen forequarter muscles were trimmed of external connective tissue and fat. An experimental group of eight Holstein steers was assessed using meat color, water-holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner–Bratzler shear force value at the same quality grade. The M. omotransversarius (...

  9. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation. PMID:27040784

  10. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  11. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  12. Invited review: Genomic selection in dairy cattle: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B J; Bowman, P J; Chamberlain, A J; Goddard, M E

    2009-02-01

    A new technology called genomic selection is revolutionizing dairy cattle breeding. Genomic selection refers to selection decisions based on genomic breeding values (GEBV). The GEBV are calculated as the sum of the effects of dense genetic markers, or haplotypes of these markers, across the entire genome, thereby potentially capturing all the quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to variation in a trait. The QTL effects, inferred from either haplotypes or individual single nucleotide polymorphism markers, are first estimated in a large reference population with phenotypic information. In subsequent generations, only marker information is required to calculate GEBV. The reliability of GEBV predicted in this way has already been evaluated in experiments in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and the Netherlands. These experiments used reference populations of between 650 and 4,500 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian bulls, genotyped for approximately 50,000 genome-wide markers. Reliabilities of GEBV for young bulls without progeny test results in the reference population were between 20 and 67%. The reliability achieved depended on the heritability of the trait evaluated, the number of bulls in the reference population, the statistical method used to estimate the single nucleotide polymorphism effects in the reference population, and the method used to calculate the reliability. A common finding in 3 countries (United States, New Zealand, and Australia) was that a straightforward BLUP method for estimating the marker effects gave reliabilities of GEBV almost as high as more complex methods. The BLUP method is attractive because the only prior information required is the additive genetic variance of the trait. All countries included a polygenic effect (parent average breeding value) in their GEBV calculation. This inclusion is recommended to capture any genetic variance not associated with the markers, and to put some selection pressure on low

  13. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  14. The dynamics of biochemical parameters in blood of clinically healthy holstein cows from day 5 before to day 60 after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Celeska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The peripartal period in Holstein dairy cows is critical, due to the transition from pregnancy to lactation. We have studied the dynamics of biochemical parameters from day 5 before to day 60 after calving. The study included 10 multiparous Holstein cows, examined at days -5, 5, 10, 30 and 60 relative to calving. Blood samples were taken from vena jugularis. Analyzed biochemical parameters were glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, albumin, total protein, urea, NEFA and BHBA. Milk production and body condition score were also estimated. Obtained results showed that cows were exposed to mild to marked metabolic distress. Energy status was changed due to increased values of NEFA and BHBA and decreased value of glucose after calving. Protein concentrations were increased at day 10 after calving, despite the decrease of the level of albumin. Urea concentrations before and after calving were within physiological range indicating an optimal protein diet. Increased values of total bilirubin at day 5 after calving indicated liver increased activity. Lipid status presented by triglycerides and total cholesterol revealed no differences in blood concentrations. Milk production was highest at day 30 after calving. BCS were highest in dry cows, thereafter they declined and recovered at day 60 after calving. In conclusion, biochemical parameters can be used as relevant indicators of metabolic distress in cows around calving with milk and BCS recording as aside parameters. Changes in some biochemical parameters indicate liver increased activity and metabolic stress, that could lead to decreased milk production, impaired reproductive performance and, finally, to illness.

  15. Genetic and environmental effects on early growth and performance in purebred Holstein, Jersey, and reciprocal crossbred calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J V; Franklin, S T; Jackson, J; McAllister, A J; Cassell, B G

    2015-02-01

    For this designed experiment, Holstein × Holstein (n=28), Jersey × Jersey (n=10), Holstein × Jersey (n=15), and Jersey × Holstein (n=15) bull and heifer calves were compared for body weight (BW), dry matter intake, feed efficiency, hip height, BW gain to 42 and 56 d, and days to weaning from birth to 8 wk. All traits were examined for purebred, maternal, and heterotic genetic effects. Purebred genetic effects significantly favored the Holstein breed for BW, dry matter intake, hip height, and BW gain to 42 and 56 d. Heterotic genetic effects were present for dry matter intake and hip height. Calf sex affected BW and BW gain to 56 d. Our results indicate that early calf growth is influenced primarily by purebred effects favoring the Holstein breed and to a lesser extent heterosis. PMID:25434341

  16. 75 FR 62692 - Dairy Import Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... the historical license reduction provisions of the Dairy Import Licensing Program, 7 CFR part 6, for a... this proposed rule to Ron Lord, Branch Chief, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import and Trade Support Programs... CONTACT: Ron Lord, Branch Chief, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import and Trade Support Programs...

  17. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  18. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  19. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  20. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  1. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C. I.; Alam, M.; Choi, T. J.; Choy, Y. H.; Choi, J. G.; Lee, S. S.; Cho, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3–L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  2. Models for Estimating Genetic Parameters of Milk Production Traits Using Random Regression Models in Korean Holstein Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C I; Alam, M; Choi, T J; Choy, Y H; Choi, J G; Lee, S S; Cho, K H

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for milk production traits of Holstein cattle using random regression models (RRMs), and to compare the goodness of fit of various RRMs with homogeneous and heterogeneous residual variances. A total of 126,980 test-day milk production records of the first parity Holstein cows between 2007 and 2014 from the Dairy Cattle Improvement Center of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in South Korea were used. These records included milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT), protein yield (PROT), and solids-not-fat yield (SNF). The statistical models included random effects of genetic and permanent environments using Legendre polynomials (LP) of the third to fifth order (L3-L5), fixed effects of herd-test day, year-season at calving, and a fixed regression for the test-day record (third to fifth order). The residual variances in the models were either homogeneous (HOM) or heterogeneous (15 classes, HET15; 60 classes, HET60). A total of nine models (3 orders of polynomials×3 types of residual variance) including L3-HOM, L3-HET15, L3-HET60, L4-HOM, L4-HET15, L4-HET60, L5-HOM, L5-HET15, and L5-HET60 were compared using Akaike information criteria (AIC) and/or Schwarz Bayesian information criteria (BIC) statistics to identify the model(s) of best fit for their respective traits. The lowest BIC value was observed for the models L5-HET15 (MILK; PROT; SNF) and L4-HET15 (FAT), which fit the best. In general, the BIC values of HET15 models for a particular polynomial order was lower than that of the HET60 model in most cases. This implies that the orders of LP and types of residual variances affect the goodness of models. Also, the heterogeneity of residual variances should be considered for the test-day analysis. The heritability estimates of from the best fitted models ranged from 0.08 to 0.15 for MILK, 0.06 to 0.14 for FAT, 0.08 to 0.12 for PROT, and 0.07 to 0.13 for SNF according to days in milk of first

  3. Effect of a short dry period on milk yield and content, colostrum quality, fertility, and metabolic status of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Rozen, S; Doekes, J J

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of shortening the dry period (DP) on milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields, milk components, colostrum quality, metabolic status, and reproductive parameters. Primiparous (n=372) and multiparous (n=400) Israeli Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy herds were subjected to a 60-d or 40-d DP. Cows within each herd were paired according to milk production, age, days in milk, and expected calving. Analysis of the data from all cows, irrespective of age, revealed significant differences in milk and ECM yields that favored the 60-d DP, with a prominent effect in 2 of 5 examined herds. In primiparous cows, milk and ECM yields were similar between groups in 4 of 5 farms. In multiparous cows undergoing a 60-d (vs. 40-d) DP, milk and ECM yields were higher in 3 herds. These differences could not be explained by milk and ECM yields in cows diagnosed with metritis, ketosis, and mastitis (defined by a somatic cell count threshold of 250,000 cell/mL), distribution of infected and noninfected cows, or new infections during DP and after calving. Including the milk and ECM yields from an average of 19.55 d from the previous lactation revealed higher milk and ECM yields for 40-d (vs. 60-d) DP cows in all herds. Analyzing 2 consecutive lactations revealed similar milk and ECM yields between groups in 4 out of 5 herds. In 1 herd, yields were higher in the 40-d compared with the 60-d DP group. One week after calving, the nonesterified fatty acid concentrations of 40-d DP cows were significantly lower than those of 60-d DP cows, indicating better postpartum energy balance. Colostrum quality, measured as IgG concentration, did not differ between the 2 DP groups. Cows assigned to 40-d DP had better reproductive performance, as reflected by fewer days to first insemination, a lower proportion with >90 d to first insemination, and fewer days to pregnancy. With respect to primiparous cows, a short DP increased conception rate after first artificial insemination

  4. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in Eastern Canada: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; Little, S M; Janzen, H H; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a typical nongrazing dairy production system in Eastern Canada. Additionally, as dairying generates both milk and meat, this study assessed several methods of allocating emissions between these coproducts. An LCA was carried out for a simulated farm based on a typical nongrazing dairy production system in Quebec. The LCA was conducted over 6 yr, the typical lifespan of dairy cows in this province. The assessment considered 65 female Holstein calves, of which 60 heifers survived to first calving at 27 mo of age. These animals were subsequently retained for an average of 2.75 lactations. Progeny were also included in the analysis, with bulls and heifers in excess of replacement requirements finished as grain-fed veal (270 kg) at 6.5 mo of age. All cattle were housed indoors and fed forages and grains produced on the same farm. Pre-farm gate GHG emissions and removals were quantified using Holos, a whole-farm software model developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Tier 2 and 3methodologies with modifications for Canadian conditions. The LCA yielded a GHG intensity of 0.92 kg of CO(2) Eq/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk yield. Methane (CH(4)) accounted for 56% of total emissions, with 86% originating from enteric fermentation. Nitrous oxide accounted for 40% of total GHG emissions. Lactating cows contributed 64% of total GHG emissions, whereas calves under 12 mo contributed 10% and veal calves only 3%. Allocation of GHG emissions between meat and milk were assessed as (1) 100% allocation to milk, (2) economics, (3) dairy versus veal animals, and (4) International Dairy Federation equation using feed energy demand for meat and milk production. Comparing emissions from dairy versus veal calves resulted in 97% of the emissions allocated to milk. The lowest allocation of emissions to milk (78

  5. Detection of recessive mutations (BLAD and CVM in Holstein-friesian cattle population in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Adamov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BLAD and CVM are Holstein-specific recessive mutations which have had significant economic impact on dairy cattle breeding worldwide. The aim of this study was to optimize a diagnostic test for detection of these two disorders and to obtain a preliminary picture about theire existence in Macedonian HF population. Blood samples were obtained from 84 HF cows from several different farms in Macedonia. Genomic DNA was extracted using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen which was also used for DNA extraction from deeply frozen sperm doses from 6 different HF bulls. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis with TaqI and HaeIII restriction endonucleases for BLAD and with PstI for CVM. The correctness of the genotyping was evaluated by direct sequencing of the amplified products. Among 90 HF cattle tested two cows were identified as carriers of the BLAD allele and one was carrier of the CVM allele. No bulls were found to be carriers of either of the two disorders.This study demonstrates that carriers of BLAD and CVM are present in Macedonia, although at low frequency. PCR followed by RFLP is efficient and inexpensive method for detection of the carriers and should be used as laboratory test in eradication programs. In order to establish a more accurate picture of the prevalence of these disorders, it is necessary to screen a larger number of animals. It is indispensable to test each bull before entering the A.I. program to prevent accidental transmission to a large number of offspring.

  6. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition and providing exogenous estrogen increases mammary gland development in Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; Akers, R M

    2016-09-01

    Feeding heifers a higher plane of nutrition postweaning but before puberty can negatively affect mammary gland development and future milk yield. However, enhanced nutrition preweaning may promote development and future production. Our objectives were to determine the effects of enhanced feeding preweaning and exogenous estrogen immediately postweaning on mammary gland development and the composition of the mammary parenchyma (PAR) and mammary fat pad (MFP). Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves (water. Starter feeding began at wk 5 and was balanced between treatments. Udders were evaluated by palpation and physical measurements weekly. Subsets of calves were killed at weaning (n=6 per diet) and at the conclusion of the trial (n=6 per treatment). Udders were removed, dissected, and weighed. At wk 8, EH calves had longer front and rear teats. Providing estrogen to EH calves increased the length of rear teats during wk 9 and 10. Enhanced-fed calves had 5.2-fold more trimmed mammary gland mass than R calves. Providing estrogen to EH calves further increased mammary gland weight. Masses of PAR and MFP were markedly greater for EH calves than for R calves (e.g., 7.3-fold greater PAR tissue). Estrogen increased the mass of both PAR and MFP in EH calves. Feeding a higher plane of nutrition increased total protein, DNA, and fat in the MFP and total protein and DNA in the PAR. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimates of mammary fat mass were highly correlated with biochemical analyses of fat content. From histological study, we observed that the degree of expansion of epithelium into the adjacent stromal tissue and the complexity of ductal development were minimal in R, increased in EH, and increased by estrogen in both dietary treatments. Results provide compelling evidence that preweaning nutrition and estrogen administration immediately postweaning markedly increase mammary gland development in dairy calves. Cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these

  7. Effects of Cooling and Supplemental Bovine Somatotropin on Milk Production relating to Body Glucose Metabolism and Utilization of Glucose by the Mammary Gland in Crossbred Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siravit Sitprija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The low milk yield and shorter persistency of lactation of dairy cattle is the major problem for the dairy practices in the tropics. High environmental temperatures and rapid decline of plasma growth hormone level can influence milk production. Regulation of the milk yield of animals is mainly based on the mechanisms governing the quantity of glucose extracted by the mammary gland for lactose biosynthetic pathways. The mechanism(s underlying the effects of cooling and supplemental bovine somatotropin on milk production relating to body glucose metabolism and intracellular metabolism of glucose in the mammary gland of crossbred Holstein cattle in the tropics have not been investigated to date. Approach: Ten crossbred 87.5% Holstein cows were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals were housed in Normal Shade barn (NS as non-cooled cows and cows in the second group were housed in barn which was equipped with a two Misty-Fan cooling system (MF as cooled cows. Supplementation of recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST (POSILAC, 500 mg per cow were performed in both groups to study body glucose metabolism and the utilization of glucose in the mammary gland using a continuous infusion of [3-3H] glucose and [U- 14C] glucose as markers in early, mid and late stages of lactation. Results: Milk yield significantly increased in both groups during supplemental rbST with a high level of mammary blood flow. Body glucose turnover rates were not significant different between cooled and non-cooled cows whether supplemental rbST or not. The glucose taken up by the mammary gland of both non-cooled and cooled cows increased flux through the lactose synthesis and the pentose cycle pathway with significant increases in NADPH formation for fatty acid synthesis during rbST supplementation. The utilization of glucose carbon incorporation into milk appeared to increase in milk lactose and milk triacylglycerol but not for

  8. Mitigation of methane emission from Holstein dairy cows: Effects of dietary manipulation on bacterial and methanogen communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    carbohydrate fermentation and pH on CH4 production and on bacterial community composition, and 2) effects of dietary manipulation (primarily through fat supplementation aiming at reducing enteric CH4 production) on community composition and activity of the rumen microbiota, with particular focus on...... methanogenic archaea. In vitro fermentations revealed that pH and carbohydrate source had only minor effects on the rumen bacterial community composition, but significantly affected volatile fatty acid production patterns. pH significantly affected CH4 emission from rumen fluid, with optimum CH4 production...... fermenting bacteria; i.e., the production of H2 due to fermentation, subsequently utilized by rumen methanogens. Starch-rich maize silage favoured potentially starch-degrading bacteria, while fibre-rich grass silage favoured potentially hemi- cellulose or cellulose-degrading bacteria. Dietary fat...

  9. Effect of Supplementing Different Sources of Fatty Acids on Lipid Metabolism and Endocrine Response of Mid- Lactating Holstein Cows%日粮添加不同来源脂肪酸对奶牛脂质代谢及激素水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓燕; 王加启; 卜登攀; 崔海; 赵小伟; 孙妍; 孙鹏; 赵国琦

    2012-01-01

    研究日粮中添加不同来源脂肪酸对泌乳中期奶牛脂质代谢及激素水平的影响.选择36头泌乳中期中国荷斯坦奶牛,采用随机区组设计,按照产奶量、胎次及泌乳日龄将奶牛分为对照组、中短链脂肪酸(SMCFA)组和长链脂肪酸(LCFA)组.对照组饲喂基础日粮,SMCFA组和LCFA组分别在基础日粮的基础上添加400g/d SMCFA和400g/d LCFA,正试期为56 d.结果显示,LCFA组奶牛血清中非酯化脂肪酸的含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05),其余组间差异不显著(P>0.05);血清中胆固醇的含量在SMCFA和LCFA组均有增加的趋势,但未达到显著水平(P>0.05);胰岛素样生长因子的含量在SMCFA组显著降低(P<0.05),其余组间没有显著差异(P>0.05);添加LCFA或SMCFA对奶牛血清中三酰甘油、高密度脂蛋白、低密度脂蛋白、生长激素及胰岛素均没有显著影响(P>0.05).结果表明日粮中添加SMCFA对泌乳中期奶牛脂质代谢有一定的负面影响.%To investigate the effect of supplementing different sources of fatty acids on lipid metabolism and endocrine response of mid - lactating Holstein cows, thirty - six Chinese Holstein cows were divided into three groups according to random block design with milk yield, DIM and parity. The animals were fed with diets contained 0 g/d, 400 g/d short and medium chain fatty acids(SMCFA) and 400 g/d long chain fatty acids(LCFA) for groupl (control ) , group2 and group3, respectively. The experiment lasted 56 days. Results showed that: 1) the non - esterified fatty acids concentration in serum was higher in group 3 than in group 2 ;2) supplementation of SMCFA and LCFA tended to increase the concentration of cholesterol;3) the concentration of serum insulin - like growth factor was declined in group 2,while no difference was detected between other groups;4)there were no differences among the groups in the concentrations of serum triglyceride, high -density lipoprotein, low -density

  10. Bayesian estimation of the accuracy of the calf respiratory scoring chart and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, Sébastien; L Ollivett, Terri; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2015-05-01

    There is currently no gold standard method for the diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex in Holstein pre-weaned dairy calves. Systematic thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) has been used as a proxy for BRD, but cannot be directly used by producers. The Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) is a simpler alternative, but with unknown accuracy. Our objective was to estimate the accuracy of CRSC, while adjusting for the lack of a gold standard. Two cross sectional study populations with a high BRD prevalence (n=106 pre-weaned Holstein calves) and an average BRD prevalence (n=85 pre-weaned Holstein calves) from North America were studied. All calves were simultaneously assessed using CRSC (cutoff used ≥ 5) and TUS (cutoff used ≥ 1cm of lung consolidation). Bayesian latent class models allowing for conditional dependence were used with informative priors for BRD prevalence and TUS accuracy (sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp)) and non-informative priors for CRSC accuracies. Robustness of the model was tested by relaxing priors for prevalence or TUS accuracy. The SeCRSC (95% credible interval (CI)) and SpCRSC were 62.4% (47.9-75.8) and 74.1% (64.9-82.8) respectively. The SeTUS was 79.4% (66.4-90.9) and SpTUS was 93.9% (88.0-97.6). The imperfect accuracy of CRSC and TUS should be taken into account when using those tools to assess BRD status. PMID:25794838

  11. Comparación productiva de vacas holstein y F1 blanco orejinero (BON x holstein 1. producción y calidad de la leche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quijano Bernal Jorge H.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron los porcentajes de heterosis para la producción de leche, duración de la lactancia y calidad de la leche ( porcentaje de grasa y proteína, en vacas Holstein y F1 (BON x HOLSTEIN del Centro Paysandú, propiedad de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, situado en el corregimiento Santa Elena, municipio de Medellín, a 2600 m.s.n.m., con temperatura promedio de 12,5C, correspondiendo a la formación bosque muy húmedo montano bajo (bmh-MB. La producción de leche fue afectada significativamente (P 0,01 y proteína (2,8 y 2,9%; P >0,01 para Holstein y F1 BON x Holstein respectivamente. En el BON estos valores fueron 278 kg, 114 días de lactancia, 4,6% de grasa y 3,9% de proteína en la leche. Los porcentajes de heterosis con base en el promedio de razas fueron: 4,20%, 16,70%, -12,80% y -12.20% para producción de leche, duración de lactancia, porcentaje de grasa y porcentaje de proteína respectivamente, todos altamente significativos (P<0,01. Los porcentajes de heterosis tomando como referencia la raza Holstein fueron: -45,20%, -21,50%, 6,25% y 5,35% en el mismo orden de las características anteriormente citadas. En general, los porcentajes de heterosis fueron menores a los reportados en la literatura. Se concluye que el F1 ha desempeñado un papel preponderante en el mejoramiento de la calidad de la leche en el Centro Paysandú, presentado porcentajes de heterosis medios para la calidad de la leche con referencia a la raza Holstein. Esto puede ser confirmado al analizar el porcentaje de grasa desde 1994, cuando parieron las primeras vacas F1, presentado coeficiente de regresión y correlación de 0,02 y 0,55 respectivamente. En la actualidad, el promedio para el porcentaje de grasa y proteína en el hato es de 3,45% y 3,03% respectivamente. Si sólo se tuviese la raza Holstein, estos porcentajes serían de 3,20% y 2,80%, significativamente menores.

  12. Melamine in Chinese milk products and consumer confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Guanghua; Guo, Ting; Klein, K K

    2010-10-01

    Chinese consumers were shocked to learn in September 2008 that melamine, a chemical used in plastics, had been found in domestic dairy products and many people, especially young children, were experiencing adverse health impacts including death. A survey of consumers in four districts of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, near where the two largest dairy companies in China are located, was conducted in November 2008. Findings reveal that consumption of fluid milk, yogurt, milk powder and ice cream, and perceptions of the safety of these products, which had plummeted in the days following the contamination announcement, had recovered strongly by the time of the survey. High proportions of respondents expressed high or moderate levels of confidence in the domestic dairy industry and generally were satisfied with corrective and remedial actions taken by the two large Hohhot-based companies, though there was less satisfaction for actions taken by companies located in other parts of the country. PMID:20566397

  13. A comparison of 2 evaporative cooling systems on a commercial dairy farm in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Villar, F; Hall, L; Allen, J; Oddy, A; Al-Haddad, A; Lyle, P; Collier, R J

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of 2 cooling systems (Korral Kool, KK, Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ; FlipFan dairy system, FF, Schaefer Ventilation Equipment LLC, Sauk Rapids, MN) was estimated utilizing 400 multiparous Holstein dairy cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 cooled California-style shade pens (2 shade pens per cooling system). Each shaded pen contained 100 cows (days in milk=58±39, milk production=56±18 kg/d, and lactation=3±1). Production data (milk yield and reproductive performance) were collected during 3mo (June-August, 2013) and physiological responses (core body temperature, respiration rates, surface temperatures, and resting time) were measured in June and July to estimate responses of cows to the 2 different cooling systems. Water and electricity consumption were recorded for each system. Cows in the KK system displayed slightly lower respiration rates in the month of June and lower surface temperatures in June and July. However, no differences were observed in the core body temperature of cows, resting time, feed intake, milk yield, services/cow, and conception rate between systems. The FF system used less water and electricity during this study. In conclusion, both cooling systems (KK and FF) were effective in mitigating the negative effects of heat stress on cows housed in arid environments, whereas the FF system consumed less water and electricity and did not require use of curtains on the shade structure. PMID:26409968

  14. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

  15. Genotype by environment interaction for livability of dairy calves from first parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweltjes, W; Windig, J J; van Pelt, M L; Calus, M P L

    2015-10-01

    Death of calves around parturition is a matter of concern for dairy farmers. Relatively high stillbirth rates and unfavourable trends have been reported for Holstein heifers in the Netherlands and several other countries. In our study, we investigated herd differences, genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction for heifer calf livability. A large dataset with data from calvings between 1993 and 2012 of Dutch dairy farms was used. There were considerable differences between herds in livability of calves from heifers, with averages ranging from 74% to 95%. Both herds with relatively high and low averages showed the same negative trend between 1993 and 2012, with largest declines in herds with the lowest averages. We found that heritability and genetic variation of first parity livability were substantially larger in herd environments where the likelihood of stillbirth was high v. environments where stillbirth was at a low level. The genetic correlations between herd environment levels were all very close to unity, indicating that ranking of sires was similar for all environments. However, for herds with a relatively high stillbirth incidence selecting sires with favourable breeding values is expected to be twice as profitable as in herds with a relatively low stillbirth incidence. PMID:26123138

  16. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss. PMID:16357301

  17. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  18. The Behavioural Manifestations of Dairy Cows in Relation to the Management System Feeding Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Šoch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to obtain data and formulate knowledge about the behavioural manifestations of dairy cows in relation to the management system of feeding regime on the farm, where Holstein cows are bred. The observations took place on the 13 and 14 August, 2014, when the cows were observed for 24 hours continuously. The ethogram records were recorded after 1 minute and physical activity of cows, periods of rest, ruminating, eating, drinking, defecation, urination and comfort and social behaviour. Cows are herded for milking 3 times a day. It was found  that within 24 hours dairy cows spend on average 10 hours by lying, 8 hours by ruminating, 20 minutes by drinking, 6 hours by eating, they defecate 14 times, urinate 6 times and walk about 430 meters. They are also scratching, licking each other and tail swiping (comfort behaviour within 24 hours. The observations of the responses to serving food indicate that cows actively react to the passage of the food vehicle, not the passage of a piling-up tractor.

  19. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) as an alternative forage for dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Doepel, L

    2011-08-01

    Fenugreek is a novel forage crop in Canada that is generating interest as an alternative to alfalfa for dairy cows. To evaluate the value of fenugreek haylage relative to alfalfa haylage, six, second lactation Holstein cows (56 ± 8 days in milk), which were fitted with rumen cannulas (10 cm i.d., Bar Diamond Inc., Parma, ID, USA) were used in a replicated three × three Latin square design with 18-day periods. Diets consisting of 400 g/kg haylage, 100 g/kg barley silage and 500 g/kg concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis were fed once daily for ad libitum intake. The haylage component constituted the dietary treatments: (i) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada F70 fenugreek (F70), (ii) Crop Development Center Quatro fenugreek (QUAT) and (iii) alfalfa (ALF). DM intake (DMI), milk yield and milk protein and lactose yields were higher (P neutral detergent fiber (NDF) passage rate (P < 0.05) and NDF turnover rate (P < 0.001) in the rumen were higher for ALF than FEN. Our results suggest that although the digestibility of the FEN diets was not different from that of the ALF diet, fenugreek haylage has a lower feeding value than ALF for lactating dairy cows due in part to lower DMI and subsequently lower milk yield. PMID:22440282

  20. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.