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Sample records for chinese holstein cows

  1. Identification of alleles and genotypes of beta-casein with DNA sequencing analysis in Chinese Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ronghua; Fang, Yu; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Shuyun; Ding, Jinmei; Xu, Ke; Yang, Lingyu; He, Chuan; Ding, Fangmei; Meng, He

    2016-08-01

    The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker. However, few data on beta-casein variants are available for the Chinese Holstein cow. In the present paper, one hundred and thirty three Holstein cows were included in the analysis. Results revealed the presence of 5 variants (A1, A2, A3, B and I), preponderance of the genotype A1A2 (0·353) and superiorities of A1/A2 alleles (0·432 and 0·459, respectively) in the population. Sequence analysis of β-casein gene in the cows showed four nucleotide changes in exon 7. Our study can provide reference and guidance for selection for superior milk for industrial applications and crossbreeding and genetic improvement programmes.

  2. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline pha...

  3. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

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    Peter Strapák

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  4. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows g...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density......This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... in Chinese Holstein were assessed. The allele correct rate increased around 2.7 and 1.7% in imputation from the 54K to the HD marker data for Chinese Holstein bulls and cows, respectively, when the Nordic HD-genotyped bulls were included in the reference data for imputation. However, the prediction accuracy...

  5. An SduI polymorphism at intron 20 of the Chinese Holstein cow STAT4 gene and its effect on milk performance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X M; Zhang, L; Jiang, J F; Shi, F X; Jiang, Y Q

    2013-05-13

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) genes are responsive to a wide range of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones, and thus control important biological processes. In humans, STAT4 mutations have been identified as genetic markers for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and primary Sjögren's syndrome, whereas little research has been conducted on bovine STAT4 mutations and their potential effects. Herein, 585 Chinese Holstein cows were used to investigate STAT4 mutations and their effects on milk performance traits. One haplotype block, containing g.95879G>A, g.96013G>C, was identified in intron 20 of the bovine STAT4 gene by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with milk yield at 305 days (P Holstein cows with the haplotype GGGG had higher milk yields at 305 days and lower protein percentages. These results suggest that the 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms of STAT4 could be used as genetic markers for milk performance traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

  6. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the bovine lactoferrin gene influence milk somatic cell score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yongjiang; Zhu, Xiaorui; Xing, Shiyu; Zhang, Meirong; Zhang, Huimin; Wang, Xiaolong; Karrow, Niel; Yang, Liguo; Yang, Zhangping

    2015-12-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in cow's milk that plays an important role in preventing mastitis caused by intramammary infection. In this study, 20 Chinese Holstein cows were selected randomly for PCR amplification and sequencing of the bovine lactoferrin gene promoter region and used for SNP discovery in the region between nucleotide positions -461 to -132. Three SNPs (-270T>C, -190G>A and -156A>G) were identified in bovine lactoferrin, then Chinese Holstein cows (n=866) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) based on the previous SNP information in this study, and the associations between SNPs or haplotype and milk somatic cell score (SCS) and production traits were analyzed by the least squares method in the GLM procedure of SAS. SNPs -270T>C and -156A>G showed close linkage disequilibrium (r(2)=0.76). The SNP -190G>A showed a significant association with SCS, and individuals with genotype GG had higher SCS than genotypes AG and AA. Associations were found between the SNPs -270T>C and -190G>A with SCS and the milk composition. The software MatInspector revealed that these SNPs were located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including NF-κB p50, KLF7 and SP1, and may alter gene expression, but further investigation will be required to elucidate the biological and practical relevance of these SNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of brachyspina syndrome carriers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

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    Fang, Lingzhao; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Dongxiao; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Shengli

    2013-07-01

    Brachyspina syndrome (BS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary disorder identified in the Holstein breed caused by a 3.3-kb deletion in the bovine Fanconi anemia complementation group I (FANCI) gene on chromosome 21. In previous reports, the BS mutant allele was identified in North American and European Holstein populations. Because frozen semen and embryos have been imported into China from such regions during the past few years, BS has potentially spread into the dairy cattle population in China. In the present study, 206 Holstein bulls and 136 Holstein cows were tested for BS, with 10 BS carrier bulls and 3 carrier cows identified. Pedigree analysis showed that all 10 BS carrier bulls could be traced back to a common ancestor, the U.S. Holstein sire Sweet Haven Tradition. It is recommended that effective selection and mating strategies should be carried out to gradually eliminate this recessive gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  8. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

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    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science

  9. Bilateral exophthalmos in a Holstein cow with lymphosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Malatestinic, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old Holstein cow presented with severe bilateral exophthalmos. A complete blood cell count revealed late stage lymphoma; the agar gel immunodiffusion test for enzootic bovine leukosis was positive. The cow was euthanized 1 wk after presentation. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and tumors in most organs. Final diagnosis was lymphosarcoma.

  10. Metabolic acclimation to heat stress in farm housed Holstein cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of body condition score to metabolic acclimation in heat stressed Holstein cows. Body condition of cows had no effect on any of the tested parameters during the thermal neutral period, except for the percentage of protein in milk. Heat stress has been demonstrated to have ...

  11. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  12. Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with ketosis in periparturient Holstein cows.

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    Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Kvidera, Sara K; Fernandez, Maria V Sanz; Nayeri, Amir; Upah, Nathan C; Nolan, Erin A; Lei, Sam M; DeFrain, Jeffery M; Green, Howard B; Schoenberg, Katie M; Trout, William E; Baumgard, Lance H

    2016-12-01

    Ketosis is a prevalent periparturient metabolic disorder and we hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infiltration may play a key role in its etiology. Study objectives were to characterize biomarkers of inflammation during the transition period in healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic cows. Cows were retrospectively categorized into one of two groups: healthy and clinically diagnosed ketotic. Two data sets were utilized; the first dataset (Study A) was obtained as a subset of cows (n=16) enrolled in a larger experiment conducted at the Iowa State University Dairy utilizing Holstein cows (8 healthy; 8 ketotic), and the second dataset (Study B; 22 healthy; 22 ketotic) was obtained from a commercial farm. For both experiments, blood samples were collected prior to and following calving. Ketotic cows in both studies had reduced milk production compared to healthy cows (P6 fold and ~4 fold; P=0.04 and P=0.03), and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (66 and 45%; Pketosis in transition dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

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    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  14. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Aliasghar CHALMEH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  15. Milk urea concentration in Holstein and Simmental cows

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    Darija Bendelja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator of the nutritional protein status of the organism as well as of the ratio between the energy and the protein in ruminant rations, with increasing practical usage. In addition to nutrition, milk urea concentration is influenced by a whole range of factors, for example: breed, stage and number of lactations, body weight, daily production and chemical composition of milk, somatic cell count, season and milking. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of the cow breed (Holstein and Simmental, the number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, milking time (morning-evening and season (spring-summer and autumn-winter on milk urea concentration. The following was determined for each breed: daily milk yield, milk fat, protein and lactose content, urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk. Statistical data processing was carried out by applying General Linear Model procedure, SAS system (1999. The cow breed had a significant influence on daily milk yield and log somatic cell count (P<0.001, lactose content in milk (P<0.01, milk fat content and milk urea concentration (P<0.05. The number of lactations significantly influenced daily milk yield (P<0.001, protein content (P<0.001 and P<0.01 and milk urea concentration, but only for Holstein breed (P<0.05. Milking time significantly influenced the fat and protein content (P<0.001 in the milk of Holstein cows, that is, lactose content (P<0.05 and urea concentration (P<0.05 in the milk of Simmental cows. The season significantly influenced the fat and protein content of milk (P<0.001, that is, urea concentration and log somatic cell count (P<0.01. Determining of urea concentration in cow milk should also be systematically conducted in the Republic of Croatia, in order to determine standard physiological values characteristical for a particular cow breed, aiming to determine the balance of energy and protein in rations.

  16. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

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    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  17. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen use efficiency in crossbred F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows

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    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N compounds use efficiency in F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows. Eighteen crossbred cows (six Holstein × Gir, six Holstein × Guzerat, and six Holstein × Nellore were used in the experiment, constituting three experimental treatments in simple random samples, under the same feeding conditions. At the estimation of individual intake at grazing, titanium dioxide was used for estimating fecal excretion and indigestible neutral detergent fiber, in order to determine pasture intake. There was effect of the lactation period on nutrient intake, except for the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and total digestible nutrients (TDN in % of body weight (BW, as well as those of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, in kg. The digestibility coefficients of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap and the contents of TDN varied in function of the lactation period, whereas the coefficients of digestibility of DM, ether extract (EE and OM did not present such effect. The total milk production projected at 305 days of lactation for Holstein × Gir cows was superior in relation to Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows. The excretion of urea into urine and of urea N into the milk and the plasma presented quadratic behavior in function of the lactation period. The utilization of the genetic group from Holstein × Zebu grazing cows does not cause alterations in intake, nutrient digestibility or nitrogen use efficiency; however, there is variation in function of the lactation period. Holstein × Gir cows presented greater accumulated production during lactation and persistence, followed by Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows.

  18. Improving the accuracy of genomic prediction in Chinese Holstein cattle by using one-step blending.

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    Li, Xiujin; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Ju; Li, Leyi; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Xiangdong

    2014-10-14

    The one-step blending approach has been suggested for genomic prediction in dairy cattle. The core of this approach is to incorporate pedigree and phenotypic information of non-genotyped animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the improvement of the accuracy of genomic prediction using the one-step blending method in Chinese Holstein cattle. Three methods, GBLUP (genomic best linear unbiased prediction), original one-step blending with a genomic relationship matrix, and adjusted one-step blending with an adjusted genomic relationship matrix, were compared with respect to the accuracy of genomic prediction for five milk production traits in Chinese Holstein. For the two one-step blending methods, de-regressed proofs of 17 509 non-genotyped cows, including 424 dams and 17 085 half-sisters of the validation cows, were incorporated in the prediction model. The results showed that, averaged over the five milk production traits, the one-step blending increased the accuracy of genomic prediction by about 0.12 compared to GBLUP. No further improvement in accuracies was obtained from the adjusted one-step blending over the original one-step blending in our situation. Improvements in accuracies obtained with both one-step blending methods were almost completely contributed by the non-genotyped dams. Compared with GBLUP, the one-step blending approach can significantly improve the accuracy of genomic prediction for milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Thus, the one-step blending is a promising approach for practical genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle, where the reference population mainly consists of cows.

  19. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding...... previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest...... or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were...

  20. Genetic architecture of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to explore the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,918 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows were ...

  1. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows we...

  2. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  3. Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred Holstein x Gir cows

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    Alexandre Balancin Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of Holtein-Frisian x Gir crossbred cows. The traits evaluated were: milk production up to 305 days (P305, total milk production (PTL, production per day of calving interval (PIP, age at first calving (IPP, calving interval (IDP, service period (PS and gestation length (PG, which were analyzed using mixed linear models. The Incomplete gamma function was used to estimate the parameters of lactation curves for each genetic group. The animals of genetic groups (GG 3/4H, 7/8H and pure by crosses (PC achieved higher performances for productive traits, and animals from the GG 1/2H achieved better performance for reproductive traits. The Holstein-Frisian PC animals presented the lactation curves with higher production levels and higher productions at the peak of the lactation but with less persistence. The 1/2H animals had slightly lower persistence in comparison to genetic groups 3/4H and 7/8H. Milk production in function of gestation length varied according to each group and Holstein-Frisian (PC presented greater decrease in milk yield after conception.

  4. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  5. EFFECT OF PUERPERAL METRITIS ON HOLSTEIN COWS PRODUCTIVE, REPRODUCTIVE VARIABLES AND CULLING RATES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dawod; Min, Byeng R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of puerperal metritis prevalence in high yielding Holstein cows on productive (305 days, actual milk yields), reproductive (days to first estrus, days open and services per conception) variables and culling rates. Throughout the study, 2885 dairy records were collected from high yielding private Holstein dairy farm (average milk yield was up to 9000 kg) for 3 successive lactation seasons. Dairy cows were classified according to their uter...

  6. Cow-level and herd-level risk factors for subclinical endometritis in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S H; Nydam, D V; Galvão, K N; Crosier, B M; Gilbert, R O

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain prevalence estimates for subclinical endometritis (SCE), determine cow- and herd-level risk factors, and evaluate the reproductive consequences of SCE. A cross-sectional study was used to determine prevalence and risk factors with cows followed in a prospective study to determine reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were sampled between 40 and 60 d in milk using low-volume uterine lavage, and cytology was evaluated to determine SCE status. In total, 779 cows from 38 herds were used in the analysis. The cow-level prevalence of SCE was 25.9%. Within-herd level prevalence ranged from 4.8 to 52.6% (median 26.3%, interquartile range 15.6 to 33.3%). Cow-level risk factors identified were ketosis [odds ratio (OR) 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-8.07], acute metritis (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.05-3.30], and the interaction between milk production and parity. Primiparous cows that produced more milk had increased odds of having SCE, whereas multiparous cows that produced more milk had decreased odds of having SCE. Herd-level risk factors identified were housing early postpartum cows on bedded packs (herd-level SCE=36.1%), which increased herd prevalence of SCE by 16.7% (SE 5.58) compared with early postpartum cows housed in freestalls (herd-level SCE=19.4%), and straw bedding in the calving pen, which decreased herd prevalence of SCE by 10.7% (SE 3.59) compared with herds that used other bedding material. In this study, primiparous cows with and without SCE had similar reproductive performance; however, multiparous cows with SCE had median days open 44 d longer (159 d; 95% CI 126-186 d) compared with unaffected multiparous cows (115 d; 95% CI 106-132 d). Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequencing and annotated analysis of the Holstein cow genome.

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    Kõks, Sulev; Lilleoja, Rutt; Reimann, Ene; Salumets, Andres; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to create a high-quality Holstein cow genome reference sequence and describe the different types of variations in this genome compared to the reference Hereford breed. We generated one fragment and three mate-paired libraries from genomic DNA. Raw files were mapped and paired to the reference cow (Bos taurus) genome assemblies bosTau6/UMD_3.1. BioScope (v1.3) software was used for mapping and variant analysis. Initial sequencing resulted in 2,842,744,008 of 50-bp reads. Average mapping efficiency was 78.4 % and altogether 2,168,425,497 reads and 98,022,357,422 bp were successfully mapped, resulting in 36.7X coverage. Tertiary analysis found 5,923,230 SNPs in the bovine genome, of which 3,833,249 were heterozygous and 2,089,981 were homozygous variants. Annotation revealed that 4,241,000 of all discovered SNPs were annotated in the dbSNP database and 1,682,230 SNPs were considered as novel. Large indel variations accounted for 48,537,190 bp of the entire genome and there were 138,504 of them. The largest deletion was 18,594 bp and the largest insertion was 13,498 bp. Another group of variants, small indels (n = 458,061), accounted for the total variation of 1,839,872 nucleotides in the genome. Only 92,115 small indels were listed in the dbSNP and therefore 365,946 small indels were novel. Finally, we identified 1,876 inversions in the bovine genome. In conclusion, this is another description of the Holstein cow genome and, similar to previous studies, we found a large amount of novel variations. Better knowledge of these variations could explain significant phenotypic differences (e.g., health, production, reproduction) between different breeds.

  8. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  9. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardie, L.C.; VandeHaar, M.J.; Tempelman, R.J.; Weigel, K.A.; Armentano, L.E.; Wiggans, G.R.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Haas, de Y.; Coffey, M.P.; Connor, E.E.; Hanigan, M.D.; Staples, C.R.; Wang, Z.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Spurlock, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition,

  10. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Eslamizad, M

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal...

  11. Effect of monensin on milk production by Holstein and Jersey cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Jonker, L.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of the administration of monensin via concentrates to dairy cows were studied in two trials. In one trial, 64 Holstein cows were assigned to four groups that received 0, 150, 300, or 450 mg/d of monensin from 5 to 24 wk postpartum. Milk production tended to increase (4.0, 3.3, and 5.4%,

  12. Lactation curves of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily milk yield for 478 Holstein-Friesian cows from two herds, recorded between 1984-1985, and for 218 Jersey cows from two herds, recorded between 1984-1985, were used to estimate lactation curve parameters for Wood's gamma function: Yn = A nbe-cn. Yn is the predicted average daily milk yield in the nth ...

  13. Intentionally induced intestinal barrier dysfunction causes inflammation, affects metabolism, and reduces productivity in lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 days in milk) were enrolled in two experimental perio...

  14. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  16. [Ecbolic and hormonal action of synthetic prostaglandin F2a in fetal mummification in two Holstein cows (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P; Lamothe, P

    1979-02-01

    Ecbolic and Hormonal Action of Synthetic Prostaglandin F(2)a in Fetal Mummification in Two Holstein CowsThe effects of treatment with synthetic prostaglandin F(2)a (500mug i.m.) to correct cases of fetal mummification in two Holstein cows are described.

  17. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Allan S; Maerz, Noah L; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Akins, Matthew S; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  18. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  19. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  20. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison digestibility and protozoa population of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Safora; Eslami, Moosa; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Bojarpour, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to compare the morphology and activity of rumen protozoa of Khuzestan water buffalo and Holstein cow using in vitro digestibility and gas production parameters of steam treated sugarcane pith. Rumen fluid obtained from two buffalo and cow steers fed the same diet, 30:70 concentrate: forage. To separate rumen protozoa, antibiotic solution and fungicides were added to rumen fluid. The results of present experiment indicated that the neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 7.8 vs. 1.69%) and acid detergent fiber (ADF; 6.24 vs. 3.24%) digestibility of steam treated sugarcane pith by rumen protozoal population of Khuzestan buffalo was higher than those of cow (p cow (p cow (p cow (3.68 × 10(5) vs. 2.18 × 10(5) mL(-1) of rumen content) (p cow (41.27 vs. 35.7% of total rumen protozoa, respectively). Percentage of Entodinium, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex and Isotricha in cow was more than those of buffalo. Therefore, in the same diet, protozoa and total rumen micro-organisms of Khuzestan water buffalo have higher digestion activity compared to Holstein cow.

  2. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bayram; GÜLER, O.; M. Yanar; O. Akbulut

    2006-01-01

    Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE) and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficien...

  3. Winter environmental effects on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Alves Fagundes

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the association of environment and feed intake and also to measure the variation on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows, as a function of temperature decrease, during the winter in humid subtropical climate. The experiment was developed in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during July and August, 1986. There were used 12 Holstein cows with ration based on corn silage fed for "ad libitum" consumption, distributed in two sets: stabled cows and cows maintened in padlots. The experimental design was completely randomized. The daily dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows (0.095 ± 0.006 kg/kg0.75, was significantly different (P< 0.01 from the stabled ones (0.077 ± 0.005 kg/kg0.75. There was significant correlation (P < 0.05 among dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows and environmental temperature, air humidity, wind velocity and precipitation, with coefficients varying from -0.58 to 0.51 while the feed intake of stabled cows was only correlated significantly (P < 0.05 with the environmental temperature at 7 a.m. with coefficient of -0.27. These results show that feed intake of Holstein cows kept in padlots was higher than in stabled cows, due to lower environmental temperatures, as high as 0.36 kgDM/cow for each unit of air temperature decrease and for each unit of increase of relative humidity and wind velocity at 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., simultaneously.

  4. Genome-wide detection of selective signature in Chinese Holstein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunfei Pan

    Full Text Available Selective signatures in whole genome can help us understand the mechanisms of selection and target causal variants for breeding program. In present study, we performed Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH tests to identify significant core regions harboring such signals in Chinese Holstein, and then verified the biological significance of these identified regions based on commonly-used bioinformatics analyses. Results showed a total of 125 significant regions in entire genome containing some of important functional genes such as LEP, ABCG2, CSN1S1, CSN3 and TNF based on the Gene Ontology database. Some of these annotated genes involved in the core regions overlapped with those identified in our previous GWAS as well as those involved in a recently constructed candidate gene database for cattle, further indicating these genes under positive selection maybe underlie milk production traits and other important traits in Chinese Holstein. Furthermore, in the enrichment analyses for the second level GO terms and pathways, we observed some significant terms over represented in these identified regions as compared to the entire bovine genome. This indicates that some functional genes associated with milk production traits, as reflected by GO terms, could be clustered in core regions, which provided promising evidence for the exploitability of the core regions identified by EHH tests. Findings in our study could help detect functional candidate genes under positive selection for further genetic and breeding research in Chinese Holstein.

  5. Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk product...

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes related to daughter pregnancy rate in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Previously, a candidate gene approach identified 40 SNPs associated with daughter pregnancy rate (DPR) in dairy bulls. We evaluated 39 of these SNPs for relationship to DPR in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped on their predicted transmitting ability for DPR: <= -1 (n=1266) a...

  7. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  8. Effect of milk yield genotype on response to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cows (n = 12/genotype) from unselected (stable milk yield since 1964, UH) and contemporary (CH) Holsteins that differed by more than 4,500 kg milk/305 d were fed the same diet ad lib and housed together for more than 4 months before being blocked (2/genotype) by DIM and randomly assigned within geno...

  9. A colon-associated cystic mass occurring in conjunction with cecal dilatation in a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Edgar F; Singh, Kuldeep

    2012-12-01

    A 7-year-old Holstein cow was presented for reduced appetite and decreased milk production. Based on physical examination, cecal dilatation was the primary differential diagnosis and was confirmed at surgery. However, in addition to the dilated cecum, 2 large cystic masses were found firmly attached to the proximal loop of the ascending colon.

  10. Genetic parameters of test day milk yields of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Machado

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Data were obtained from 17,968 records from 2,130 first lactations of Holstein cows calving between 1988 and 1991. The subjects were daughters of 136 sires monitored by Brazilian Breeders Association, Animal Science Institute, Department of Agriculture, a branch of the State of São Paulo. Data were divided into 10 subsets based on the number of days in milk yield. Test day milk yields (M1 to M10 and 305-day milk yield (M305 were the traits studied. These traits were adjusted for several environmental effects: class of cow age at calving, interval from calving to first test day, and herd-year-season. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of (covariance components were obtained from one and two-traits analysis under a sire model. Estimates of heritabilities for M ranged from 0.04 to 0.32. The highest values were found in the second half of lactation (M5 to M7. Heritability estimate for M305 was 0.32. Genetic correlations between individual test days and M305 ranged from 0.78 to 1.00. Results suggested that test day milk yields, mainly in mid-lactation, can be used instead of 305-day milk yield in genetic evaluations, because estimates of these two-trait heritabilities are nearly alike. Moreover, early selection can reduce generation intervals.No presente estudo foram utilizados 17.968 registros de produção de leite, referentes a 2130 primeiras lactações de vacas da raça Holandesa, paridas nos anos de 1988 a 1991, filhas de 136 touros e controladas pela Associação Brasileira de Criadores (ABC. Os dados foram distribuídos em dez sub-arquivos de acordo com o número do controle (M1 a M10. As características estudadas foram: produção de leite no dia do controle (M e produção aos 305 dias de lactação (M305, as quais foram ajustadas para os seguintes fatores de variação: idade da vaca ao parto em classes, intervalo parto-primeiro controle e subclasses de rebanho-ano-estação de parto. Os componentes de (covariância foram obtidos a

  11. Milk production and economic measures in confinement or pasture systems using seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S L; Benson, G A; Washburn, S P; Green, J T

    2002-01-01

    This 4-yr study examined total lactation performance of dairy cows in two feeding systems: pasture-based and confinement. Spring and fall calving herds were used and each seasonal herd had 36 cows on pasture and 36 cows in confinement with 282 Holstein and 222 Jersey cows included over seven seasonal replicates. Pasture-fed cows received variable amounts of grain and baled haylage depending upon pasture availability. Confinement cows received a total mixed ration with corn silage as the primary forage. Data were collected on milk production, feed costs, and other costs. Pasture-fed cows produced 11.1% less milk than confinement cows. Across treatments, Jerseys produced 23.3% less milk than Holsteins, but calving season and various interactions were not significant. Feed costs averaged $0.95/cow per day lower for pastured cows than confinement cows. Feed costs were lower for Jerseys than Holsteins and for cows calving in spring. Income over feed costs averaged $7.05 +/- 0.34 for confinement Holsteins, $6.89 +/- 0.34 for pastured Holsteins, $5.68 +/- 0.34 for confinement Jerseys, and $5.36 +/- 0.34 for pastured Jerseys; effects of breed were significant but treatment, season, and interactions were not. Economic factors such as labor for animal care, manure handling, forage management, and cow culling rates favored pastured cows. Higher fertility and lower mastitis among Jerseys partially offsets lower income over feed cost compared with Holsteins. Milk production was lower in this study for pasture-based systems but lower feed costs, lower culling costs, and other economic factors indicate that pasture-based systems can be competitive with confinement systems.

  12. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  13. Clinical study report on milk production in the offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Hideki; Hamano, Seizo; Inaba, Toshio; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2013-12-17

    This study examined two female offspring of a somatic cell cloned Holstein cow that had reproduction problems and milk production performance issues. The two offspring heifers, which showed healthy appearances and normal reproductive characteristics, calved on two separate occasions. The mean milk yields of the heifers in the first lactation period were 9,037 kg and 7,228 kg. The relative mean milk yields of these cows were 111.2% and 88.9%, respectively, when compared with that of the control group. No particular clinical abnormalities were revealed in milk yields and milk composition rate [e.g., fat, protein and solids-not-fat (SNF)], and reproductive characteristics of the offspring of the somatic cell cloned Holstein cow suggested that the cloned offspring had normal milk production.

  14. Recovery with a regular dose of antibiotics from bacillary hemoglobinuria in a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Kohyama, Moeko; Ono, Tetsushi; Adachi, Satoshi; Shirao, Daiji; Tamura, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-12-01

    One Holstein cow housed with 21 other cows exhibited clinical signs of pyrexia, anorexia and diarrhea along with severe hemoglobinuria. Hematological and biochemical analyses conducted before and after antibiotic therapy indicated severe hemolytic anemia and disruption of hepatic function. A general improvement in conditions was observed after an 11-day program of treatment comprising a regular dose of antibiotics and prescribed supportive therapies. A tentative diagnosis of bacillary hemoglobinuria was made based on the clinical and clinico-pathologic features on day 7. A molecular diagnosis was made by a PCR amplification of the flagellin gene of Clostridium haemolyticum using DNA extracted from the whole blood. The cow was diagnosed with the first recorded occurrence of bacillary hemoglobinuria of Holstein cattle in Japan.

  15. Effect of energy balance profiles on metabolic and reproductive response in Holstein and Swedish Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntallaris, T; Humblot, P; Båge, R; Sjunnesson, Y; Dupont, J; Berglund, B

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effect of two feeding levels during the antepartum and postpartum period on reproductive performance and blood metabolites (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin) in primiparous Holstein and Swedish Red (SRB) cows, in order to identify possible differences in the way these breeds respond to negative energy balance after calving. A total of 44 cows (22 Holstein, 22 SRB) kept in a loose housing system were included in the study. The control group (HE, n = 23) was fed a diet for high-producing cows (target 35 kg/d energycorrected milk, ECM). A lower feeding intensity (LE, n = 21) was achieved by giving -50% concentrate to target 25 kg/d ECM. Diets were implemented 30 days before expected calving and the cows were monitored for 120 days postpartum. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), live body weight and body condition score (BCS) were assessed to calculate the weekly energy balance (residual feed intake). Blood sampling started before diet implementation and was repeated every 2 weeks until Day 60 postpartum and then once monthly until Day 120. Plasma was kept at -20 °C until analysis for glucose, insulin and NEFA concentrations. Mixed linear models were used to analyse data (SAS 9.3; PROC MIXED). Holstein cows had lower mean energy balance than SRB cows (-4.7 ± 1.4 and -0.9 ± 1.4 MJ, respectively; p = 0.05). SRB cows had higher (pmilk production to a larger extent than SRB cows, resulting in a less balanced metabolic profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters of fertility traits in Chinese Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Guo, Xiangyu; Wang, Yachun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits in Chinese Holstein heifers and cows. Data of 20169 animals with 42106 records over a period of 10 yr (2001–2010) were collected from Sanyuan Lvhe Dairy Cattle Center in Beijing, China. Traits included age at first...... service (AFS), number of services (NS), days from calving to first service (CTFS), days open (DO), and calving interval (CI). Genetic parameters were estimated with multiple-trait animal model using the DMU software. Heritability estimates for AFS, NS, CTFS, DO and CI were 0.100±0.012, 0.040±0.017, 0.......49–0.99), and DO showed strong correlation with NS and CTFS (0.49 and 0.58, respectively). The genetic correlation between CTFS and NS was negative moderate (−0.25). Results were in range with previous literature estimates and can be used in Chinese Holstein genetic evaluation for fertility traits...

  17. Conception rate of artificially inseminated Holstein cows affected by cloudy vaginal mucus, under intense heat conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain prevalence estimates of cloudy vaginal mucus in artificially inseminated Holstein cows raised under intense heat, in order to assess the effect of meteorological conditions on its occurrence during estrus and to determine its effect on conception rate. In a first study, an association was established between the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during estrus and the conception rate of inseminated cows (18,620 services, raised under intense heat (mean annual temperature of 22°C, at highly technified farms, in the arid region of northern Mexico. In a second study, data from these large dairy operations were used to assess the effect of meteorological conditions throughout the year on the occurrence of cloudy vaginal mucus during artificial insemination (76,899 estruses. The overall rate of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was 21.4% (16,470/76,899; 95% confidence interval = 21.1-21.7%. The conception rate of cows with clean vaginal mucus was higher than that of cows with abnormal mucus (30.6 vs. 22%. Prevalence of estruses with cloudy vaginal mucus was strongly dependent on high ambient temperature and markedly higher in May and June. Acceptable conception rates in high milk-yielding Holstein cows can only be obtained with cows showing clear and translucid mucus at artificial insemination.

  18. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation in Holstein cows using a random regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Araujo Cobuci

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A model for analyzing test day records including both fixed and random coefficients was applied to the genetic evaluation of first lactation data for Holstein cows. Data comprising 87045 test-day milk yield records from calving between 1997 and 2001 from Holstein herds in 10 regions of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Six persistency of lactation measures were evaluated using breeding values obtained by random regression analyses. The Wilmink function was used to model the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Residual variance was constant throughout lactation. Ranking for animals did not change among criteria for persistency measurements, but ranking changes were observed when the estimated breeding value (EBV for persistency of lactation was contrasted with those estimated for 305-day milk yield (305MY. The rank correlation estimates for persistency of lactation and 305MY were practically the same for sire and cows, and ranged from -0.45 to 0.69. The EBVs for milk yield during lactation for sires producing daughters with superior 305MY indicate genetic differences between sires regarding their ability to transmit desirable persistency of lactation traits. This suggests that selection for total lactation milk yield does not identify sires or cows that are genetically superior in regard to persistency of lactation. Genetic evaluation for persistency of lactation is important for improving the efficiency of the milk production capacity of Holstein cows.

  19. Evaluation of heat stress on Tarentaise and Holstein cow performance in the Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagi, Rahma; Martin, Bruno; Chassaing, Chantal; Najar, Taha; Pomiès, Dominique

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to first quantify the effect of heat stress on milk yield and components of Tarentaise in comparison to Holstein cows. A dataset of 16,143 monthly individual records of production traits was collected for 435 Tarentaise and 543 Holstein cows from 21 farms in Tunisia (2009 to 2014). This dataset was merged with meteorological data from 5 public stations relative to the 21 farms. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated as a combination of ambient temperature and relative humidity, was used to characterize heat stress. When the THI increased from an average value of 53.7 in winter to 75.4 in summer, the Holstein and Tarentaise cows decreased their milk production by 0.93 and 0.15 kg/day, respectively. Milk fat, protein, and urea content decreased similarly in both breeds (-2.20 g/kg, -1.40 g/kg, and -14 mg/L, respectively), and the milk somatic cell count increased for Holstein cows (+352,000/mL) while decreased for Tarentaise cows (-160,000/mL). The second aim of this study was to describe the relationship between the variations of the milk yields between the summer and the winter (Δ milk yields) and some barn characteristics during the hot season. A survey carried out on 19 of the 21 previous farms permitted to conclude that the closed buildings led to a higher decrease in milk yield between the summer and winter than the open buildings (-1.13 vs. -0.27 kg/day). A metallic roof had a more negative impact on Δ milk yields than the other roof types (-1.04 vs. -0.15 kg/day).

  20. Heritability estimates for methane emission in Holstein cows using breath measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Jørgen; Løvendahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Enteric methane emission from ruminants contributes substantially to the greenhouse effect. Few studies have focused on the genetic variation in enteric methane emission from dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability for enteric methane emission from Danish Holstein...... cows. On a total of 683 dairy cows a Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) measuring unit was used to make large scale individual methane emission records. The cows were measured in 7 herds during their visits to automatic milking systems (AMS). The FTIR unit air inlet was mounted in the front part...... of an AMS close to the cows head for 7 days, recording continuously every 5 seconds. The phenotype analysed was the mean methane to carbon dioxide ratio across visits during the measuring period, as this ratio reflects the proportion of the metabolisable energy exhaled as methane. The statistical linear...

  1. Performance of Holstein cows fed sugarcane or corn silages of different grain textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows were allocated to three 3 ' 3 latin squares and were fed 200 g of forage neutral detergent fiber per kg of dry matter as either hard texture corn ensiled at the half milk line stage of maturity, soft texture corn ensiled at the black layer stage, or sugarcane. There were no detectable differences between corn hybrids with regard to milk yield (34.2 vs 34.6 kg d-1 and composition, dry matter intake (23.0 vs 23.2 kg d-1 and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. Sugarcane decreased feed intake (21.5 kg d-1 and milk yield (31.9 kg d-1. Organic matter digestibility, chewing activity and rumen pH did not differ among treatments. Sugarcane seems to be a viable option to feed groups of Holstein cows during lactation stages in which nutrient demand is not at a maximum. The performance of dairy cows fed dent corn ensiled at the black layer stage of maturity was similar to the performance of cows fed flint corn ensiled at the half milk line stage.

  2. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  3. Contribution of Holstein cows to sustainability of dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Waltrick, de B.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: sustainability,Holsteincows,

  4. Analyze of the milk yield and economics indicators in dairy cows of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZNAMENANÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to analyze selected indicators of milk yield and economics of milk production in dairy herd of Holstein cattle. Economics of dairy cows is critical to keeping cattle on the farm. Among the main priorities that can improve the economic results of cattle, are mainly production conditions corresponding milk yields, good fertility, high quality market products, quality dairy nutrition, good health, appropriate management of breeding and compliance of welfare in the cattle...

  5. Analysis of the influence factors on dystocia, stillbirth and calf birth weight in Holstein Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Maschurek, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Within the past ten years many studies that deal with causes of increased dystocia and calf losses have been published. Despite the knowledge high numbers of dystocia and perinatal mortality are common in dairy herds. The calf birth weight is an important factor for pathologic parturitions, particulary in Holstein heifers. It was the objective of this study to identify risk factors of dystocia and calf death at or during birth on a large dairy farm in Germany (2132 cows, 11520 kg milk yiel...

  6. Effect of grazing and fat supplementation on production and reproduction of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, S L; Staples, C R; Sollenberger, L E; Jenkins, T C; Thatcher, W W

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of feeding a soybean oil refining by-product (SORB), made up mainly of sodium salts of long-chain fatty acids, on reproductive performance and productivity of 36 early lactation Holstein cows managed in a free-stall barn or on annual rye-ryegrass pasture. In this 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, cows consumed 0 or 0.5 kg/d of SORB as part of a total mixed ration for barn cows or as part of a grain supplement fed to cows on intensively, rotationally stocked pasture. Blood was sampled 3 times weekly and plasma was measured for progesterone to assess ovarian activity. Estrus activity was recorded using the HeatWatch estrus detection system. Although average 14-wk milk production (37.2 kg/d) was not different among treatments, barn cows had more persistent lactations than did grazing cows. Cows housed in the barn lost less body weight and returned to initial body weight sooner and had lower mean concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (464 vs. 261 mEq/L) than those managed on pasture. The milk fat of cows on pasture contained greater proportions of conjugated linoleic acid and linolenic acid but a corresponding 0.22 percentage unit decrease in milk fat concentration (3.39 vs. 3.16%). Cows managed on pasture had greater peak concentrations of plasma progesterone during the first estrous cycle. Cows managed on pasture and fed SORB had the greatest accumulation of plasma progesterone over the 14 wk of the study (SORB x housing interaction). These cows experienced the most mounts during their first estrus (9.3) and pregnancy rate was also greatest for this treatment (62.5%). Feeding SORB did not affect production of milk, fat, or protein. Loss of body condition was less in cows fed SORB. Ruminal fluid concentration of propionate increased and ruminal pH decreased in cows fed SORB. A lower proportion of fatty acids less than 18 carbons in length was found in the milk fat of cows fed SORB, thus

  7. Effects of oral calcium supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Bisinotto, R S; Daetz, R; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of oral Ca supplementation on milk yield, body condition, pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and days to pregnancy in Holstein cows considered to be of low (LRM; no calving assistance, live singleton without retained placenta) or high (HRM; at least one of the following: dystocia, twins, stillbirth, retained placenta, or vulvo-vaginal laceration) risk of developing metritis. The hypotheses were that oral Ca supplementation during the early postpartum period would reduce the loss of body condition and improve lactation performance and reproduction. Four hundred fifty Holstein cows were blocked by parity as primiparous cows (n=174) or multiparous cows (n=276). Within parity, a cow considered at HRM was matched with a cow of LRM and the pair was randomly assigned to control (no Ca supplementation), 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum (CaS1), or 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum followed by 43g/d on d 2 to 4 postpartum (CaS4). Body condition was scored at calving and 32 d postpartum and estrous cyclicity was evaluated at 38 and 52 d postpartum. Milk yield was recorded daily. Multiparous cows were classified as above or below the mean 305-d mature equivalent milk yield based on production in the previous lactation. Reproductive performance was evaluated for the first 210 d postpartum. Body condition did not differ among treatments, and cows lost on average 0.44 units of body condition in the first month of lactation. Calcium supplementation did not affect milk yield in the first 5 mo postpartum. For multiparous cows, Ca supplementation was beneficial to milk yield in the first 30 DIM in cows of greater production potential, but detrimental to multiparous cows with below average production potential. Calcium supplementation to primiparous cows reduced P/AI at first (control=55.8, CaS1=31.5, CaS4=37.0%) and all artificial inseminations (control=48.5, CaS1=34.6, CaS4=38.5%); however, Ca

  8. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam Christian; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly...

  9. Genetic background of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured with infrared sensors in automatic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Tol, van der P.P.J.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2018-01-01

    International environmental agreements have led to the need to reduce methane emission by dairy cows. Reduction could be achieved through selective breeding. The aim of this study was to quantify the genetic variation of methane emission by Dutch Holstein Friesian cows measured using infrared

  10. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  11. Effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic glucose and amino acid metabolism in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Nine periparturient Holstein cows catheterized in major splanchnic vessels were used in a complete randomized design with repeated measurements to investigate effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic metabolism of glucose and amino acids. At parturition, cows were assi...

  12. Peptidomic profile of milk of Holstein cows at peak lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A; Garay, Luis A; Bhandari, Aashish; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Barile, Daniela; German, J Bruce

    2014-01-08

    Bovine milk is known to contain naturally occurring peptides, but relatively few of their sequences have been determined. Human milk contains hundreds of endogenous peptides, and the ensemble has been documented for antimicrobial actions. Naturally occurring peptides from bovine milk were sequenced and compared with human milk peptides. Bovine milk samples from six cows in second-stage peak lactation at 78-121 days postpartum revealed 159 peptides. Most peptides (73%) were found in all six cows sampled, demonstrating the similarity of the intramammary peptide degradation across these cows. One peptide sequence, ALPIIQKLEPQIA from bovine perilipin 2, was identical to another found in human milk. Most peptides derived from β-casein, αs1-casein, and αs2-casein. No peptides derived from abundant bovine milk proteins such as lactoferrin, β-lactoglobulin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. The enzymatic cleavage analysis revealed that milk proteins were degraded by plasmin, cathepsins B and D, and elastase in all samples.

  13. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in PPARGC1A Gene Associates Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Alim§, Yipeng Fan§, Yan Xie, Xiaoping Wu, Dongxiao Sun*, Yi Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Qin Zhang and Lin Liu1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find out possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of PPARGC1A gene and milk production traits. In the current study, one SNP at g.85330C>T position was identified in 9th intron of PPARGC1A gene through pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNP was genotyped using MALDI-TOF MS technique in 752 individuals from the Chinese Holstein cattle breed. The frequency of C allele at position g.85330C>T was more frequent in our population (0.69, followed by the T allele (0.31. From the association results, significant differences were found between PPARGC1A genotypes in the protein concentration and protein yield. Heterozygous cows with CT genotype at the g.85330C>T locus showed the highest protein yield, with more than 4.18 kg compared with homozygous cows with TT genotype; homozygous CC cows were found at intermediate position. In case of protein percentage, homozygous cows with TT genotype were significantly greater than heterozygous CT cows, with a difference of about 0.012%; CC cows were found in lowest position. The allele substitution results demonstrated that g.85330C>T-C allele decreased protein yield (1.23kg and protein percentage (0.016%. This result clearly indicated that g.85330C>T-T allele increased protein percentage and protein yield.

  14. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    . Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access......In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One...... solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving...

  15. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  16. Using plant wax markers to estimate the diet composition of grazing Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heublein, C; Südekum, K-H; Gill, F L; Dohme-Meier, F; Schori, F

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether diet selection of dairy cows under grazing conditions could be estimated using plant wax markers. Furthermore, differences between 2 cow strains and the effect of concentrate supplementation on plant species selection were investigated. The experiment was a study with a crossover design performed on an organic farm with 12 Swiss Holstein cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein cows. Both experimental periods consisted of a 21-d adaptation and a 7-d measurement period. All cows grazed full time in a rotational stocking system and received either no concentrate or 6 kg/d of a commercial cereal-grain mix. Representative herbage samples of each grazed paddock were taken and botanical composition of subsamples was manually determined. The average proportions of the plant species were 27.8% Lolium perenne, 6.1% Dactylis glomerata, 10.4% Trifolium repens, and 9.0% Taraxacum officinale. Other grass species were merged as "other grass" (38.2%) and other forb species as "other forbs" (8.5%). n-Alkanes, long-chain fatty acids, and long-chain alcohols (LCOH) were analyzed in the samples of plant species, concentrate, and feces from each cow. A linear discriminant analysis indicated that diet components were differentiated best with LCOH (96%) and worst with the combination of all marker groups together (12%). For each marker, the fecal marker recovery (FR) relative to dosed ytterbium was determined in 2 ways. Estimation of diet composition was performed with the software "EatWhat," and results were compared with botanical composition with the Aitchison distance. The results indicate that the diet composition of grazing dairy cows can be estimated using plant wax markers. Additionally, the calculation of FR led to mostly reliable results, yet this approach needs further validation. The most accurate estimation was achieved with the marker combination of n-alkanes and LCOH with a correction for FR. Less accurate estimations were achieved

  17. Improving Productive and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows through Dry Period Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Safa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of dry period (DP length on milk yield, milk composition, some blood metabolites, complete blood count (CBC, body weight and score and follicular status, twenty five primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a completely randomized design with DP-60 (n = 13 and DP-20 (n = 12 dry period lengths. Cows in the DP-60 produced more milk, protein, SNF, serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and beta hydroxyl butyrate acid (BHBA compared with cows in DP-20 (p≤0.05. Serum glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, urea, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT were all similar among the treatments. Body Condition Score (BCS, body weight (BW, complete blood count (CBC and health problems were similar between the treatments. Diameter of the first dominant follicle and diameter of the dominant follicle on d 14 were different among the treatments. Thus, results of this study showed that reducing the dry period length to DP-20 had a negative effect on milk production, milk composition and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows.

  18. Metabolic effects of feeding ethanol or propanol to postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    Eight lactating Holstein cows implanted with a ruminal cannula and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate metabolism of propanol and ethanol in the postpartum transition period. Cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized...... design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was 2.6 g of calcium carbonate/kg of dry matter (DM) versus 1.5 g of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester/kg of DM. Factor 2 was supplementation with 14 g of propanol/kg of DM (propanol treatment; PT) versus 14 g...... of ethanol/kg of DM (ethanol treatment; ET). Only factor 2 data are presented in the present paper. Treatments were administered in silage-based total mixed rations and cows were fed the experimental total mixed ration from the day of parturition. Daily rations were fed in 3 equally sized portions at 8-h...

  19. Joint genetic evaluation of mastitis susceptibility and recovery ability in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welderufael, Berihu Gebremedhin; Janss, Luc; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    Mastitis in dairy cows is an unavoidable problem and variation in recovery from mastitis is therefore of interest, in addition to resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters for mastitis resistance and recovery were estimated for Danish Holstein-Friesian cows using data from Automatic Milking...... were -0.853 (PSD=0.108), -0.909 (PSD=0.076), -0.292 (PSD=0.105) and 0.052 (PSD=0.157) for the random effects of genetic, permanent environment, cow-parity interaction, and herd-test-week, respectively. Heritabilities were 0.080 (PSD=0.026) for HD and 0.075 (PSD=0.030) for DH. Recovery could...

  20. Moderate summer heat stress does not modify immunological parameters of Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacetera, Nicola; Bernabucci, Umberto; Ronchi, Bruno; Scalia, Daniela; Nardone, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    The study was undertaken during spring and summer months in a territory representative of the Mediterranean climate to assess the effects of season on some immunological parameters of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows were used. Eleven of those cows gave birth during spring; the remaining nine cows gave birth in summer. The two groups of cows were homogeneous for parity. Values of air temperatures and relative humidity were recorded both during spring and summer, and were utilized to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). One week before the expected calving, rectal temperatures and respiratory rates of the cows were recorded (1500 hours), and cell-mediated immunity was assessed by measuring the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Within 3 h of calving, one colostrum sample was taken from each cow and analysed to determine content of immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgM and IgA. At 48 h after birth, passive immunization of the calves was assessed by measuring total serum IgG. During summer, daytime (0900-2000 hours) THI values were above the upper critical value of 72 [75.2, (SD 2.6)] indicating conditions that could represent moderate heat stress. That THI values were able to predict heat stress was confirmed by the values of rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, which were higher ( P cows. Results indicated that moderate heat stress due to the hot Mediterranean summer does not modify cell-mediated immunity, the protective value of colostrum and passive immunization of the offspring in dairy cows.

  1. Endometrial transcription of microbial molecular patterns receptors in Gyr and F1 Holstein x Gyr postpartum cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zebu and Holstein x Zebu crossbred have low incidence of uterine infection when compared to Holstein cows. Resistance to uterine infections may be associated with the ability to recognize invading microorganisms. Endometrial transcription of microbial molecular patterns receptors has been investigated in the postpartum period of Holstein cows, but it is completely unknown in Zebu or Holstein x Zebu cows. In this study, 9 Gyr and 12 F1 Holstein x Gyr cows were submitted to endometrial biopsies at the first and seventh days postpartum, with the objective to measure transcription levels of toll-like receptors (TLRs 1/6, 2, 4, 5, and 9; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptors 1 and 2; and coreceptors cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2. There was a significant (P<0.05 decrease in transcription of TLR5 in Gyr, and an increase in transcription of TLR9 in F1 cows, between the first and seventh day postpartum. Both groups had low incidences of uterine infections up to 42 days postpartum. Uterine involution completed at 27.7 ± 10.1 and 25.1 ± 4.7 days postpartum for Gyr and F1 cows, respectively. In Gyr cows, higher transcription levels of TLR1/6 and NOD1 correlated to a longer period required for uterine involution. In F1 cows, lower levels of TLR1/6, TLR2 and NOD2 correlated to a longer period required for uterine involution. In conclusion, some pathogen recognition receptors associated significantly with the time required for uterine involution in Gyr and F1 cows.

  2. Lipid fraction quality of milk produced by Minhota (Portuguese autochthonous breed) compared to Holstein Friesian cow's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Heryka M M; Campos, Sílvia D; Casal, Susana; Alves, Rui; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2012-12-01

    Minhota and Holstein Friesian cows (15 from each breed) were selected from several farms located in the north of Portugal, all under similar feeding regime. Milk samples from individual cows were collected once a month, during one year, to take into account different lactation stages and feeding seasonal changes. Holstein milk was found to have higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, and trans fatty acids, while Minhota milk had significantly higher monounsaturated fatty acids content. No statistical differences were observed for omega-3 and saturated fatty acids contents, mostly due to the high dispersion observed in Minhota milk samples. The average amount of conjugated linoleic acid was higher in Minhota breed, but the high dispersion of values reduced the statistical significance. Cholesterol content, expressed as mg kg(-1) of fat, was higher in Holstein than in Minhota milk. The results indicate that Minhota milk has important nutritional qualities that deserve attention, but the wide individual variation found within animals from this breed suggests a high genetic variability. Following this, the selection of some of these animals for intensive milk production could improve milk quality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effects of a hot climate on the performance of first lactation Holstein cows grouped by coat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, V L; Denise, S K; Armstrong, D V; Torabi, M; Wiersma, F

    1988-04-01

    Dairy Herd Improvement data from 432 Holstein cows were analyzed to determine if coat color was a significant source of variation in the performance of first lactation cows in a hot climate. One of three coat color scores was subjectively assigned to first lactation Holstein cows. White coat color was less than 40% black (15% of the cows), mixed coat color was 40 to 60% black (42% of the cows), and black coat color was greater than 60% black (43% of the cows). Coat color by season of freshening interaction was not an important source of variation for any of the production traits studied; but cows were cooled during the first 130 d of lactation, perhaps removing any advantage white cows may have had during the summer months. The interaction between coat color and season of freshening was significant for days open and services per conception. White cows freshening in February and March required fewer services per conception and had fewer open days than the mixed and black cows. The heritability estimate of coat color was .22 using a paternal half-sib analysis. Additional studies, with more white cows represented, would be useful to elucidate the effects of coat color on production in a hot climate.

  4. Association of transferrin genotypes and production traits of Holstein-Friesian cows in Vojvodina

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    Dragomir Lukač

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify genotypes of transferrin, evaluate their frequency in popula¬tion of Holstein-Friesian cows, and to study association of transferrin genotypes with productivity of cows. Blood samples were collected from 249 healthy adult Holstein cows, daughters of 18 sires, reared at farm in Vojvodina. The nine transferrin (Tf genotypes were identified: three (transferrin AA, D1D1 and D2D2 of these were homozygous and the remaining six (transferrin AD1, AD2, AE, D1D2, D1E and D2E heterozygous. The frequencies of genotypes AD2, D1D2, D2D2 and AD1 were 0.29, 0.20, 0.17, and 0.11, respectively, while the other genotypes had frequencies below 0.11. The frequency of alleles A, D1, D2 and E, which was derived from the frequency of genotypes, was 0.30 for allele A, 0.19 for allele D1, 0.45 for allele D2 and 0.06 for allele E. In the analyzed population, cows Tf genotype D2E, AD2, D2D2, and D1D2 had the highest average of milk and milk fat yield in the first three standard lactation, while cows genotype AA, AD1 and D1E had the least amount. Analysis of variance showed that Tf genotype had a non-significant effect in the case of milk fat. However, cows which showed the highest performance for milk fat yield in three standard lactations were phenovarients Tf D2E, AD2, D2D2 and D1D2 in the analyzed population. Based on these results, the general conclusion can be made that the cows with Tf genotype AD2 recorded best results in all observed traits, and that cows which were heterozygous for Tf gene had higher milk yield and milk fat than the cows homozygous for Tf gene.

  5. The energy expenditure of 2 Holstein cow strains in an organic grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, S; Dohme-Meier, F; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Schori, F

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare EE, which can be affected by differences in body weight (BW), body composition, grazing behavior, physical activity, and milk production level, in 2 Holstein cow strains. Twelve Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH; 616 kg of BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ; 570 kg of BW) cows in the third stage of lactation were paired according to their stage of lactation and kept in a rotational, full-time grazing system without concentrate supplementation. After adaption, the daily milk yield, grass intake using the alkane double-indicator technique, nutrient digestibility, physical activity, and grazing behavior recorded by an automatic jaw movement recorder were investigated over 7d. Using the (13)C bicarbonate dilution technique in combination with an automatic blood sampling system, EE based on measured carbon dioxide production was determined in 1 cow pair per day between 0800 to 1400 h. The HCH were heavier and had a lower body condition score compared with HNZ, but the difference in BW was smaller compared with former studies. Milk production, grass intake, and nutrient digestibility did not differ between the 2 cow strains, but HCH grazed for a longer time during the 6-h measurement period and performed more grazing mastication compared with the HNZ. No difference was found between the 2 cow strains with regard to EE (291 ± 15.6 kJ) per kilogram of metabolic BW, mainly due to a high between-animal variation in EE. As efficiency and energy use are important in sustainable, pasture-based, organic milk production systems, the determining factors for EE, such as methodology, genetics, physical activity, grazing

  6. The effects of supplemental protease enzymes on production variables in lactating Holstein cows

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    Ekin Sucu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the effects of supplemental dietary protease enzymes on production variables in dairy cattle. Ninety-six multiparous lactating Holstein cows (624±62 kg body weight and 154±104 days in milk were blocked according to parity, days in milk, and previous milk production and randomly assigned to a control total mix ration (TMR or a TMR containing a blend of supplemental protease enzymes (PE; 4 g/cow/d in a crossover design with two 21-day experimental periods. Daily pen milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI were recorded and milk composition from all cows was determined on d 15, 17, 19 and 21 of each period. There was no treatment effect on milk yield (37.6 kg/d, but supplemental PE-fed cows consumed less DMI (P<0.05 compared to controls and therefore tended to have improved feed efficiency (P=0.06. Feeding supplemental PE decreased blood urea nitrogen (P<0.05 compared to the control cows. However, feeding PE had no effect on milk fat and protein content but tended (P=0.08 to increase milk lactose concentration and tended (P=0.10 to decrease milk urea nitrogen levels and somatic cell score. Results indicate that supplemental PE may enhance production efficiency and improve parameters of nitrogen status.

  7. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  8. Primary vaginal fibroleiomyosarcoma in a 4-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Hamdi; SERİN, Güneş; AYDOĞAN, Ahmet; BİRİNCİOĞLU, Serap

    2014-01-01

    A case of fibroleiomyosarcoma of the vagina in a 4-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow is described. The tumour was 6.5 × 5 × 4.2 cm in size, weighed 87.73 g, and had a solid appearance. Histologically, the tumour was composed of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue components with spindle-shaped cells with eosinophilic fibrillary cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells reacted with antibodies to a-SMA, desmin, and vimentin but not with antibodies to CD34, CD68, and S-100 protein. Both hist...

  9. Progesterone levels and follicular dynamic during holstein cows postpartum under low tropic conditions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinzón S.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Holstein cows were selected at random and followed, every three days, from the 7th day postpartum until they got pregnant again or day 120 postpartum. Ovarian activity was determined through use of dynamic follicular ultrasounds and the measurement of progesterone levels (RIA. The intervals: delivery first estrus observed, first insemination, first ovulation, first rise in progesterone (>1ng/ml and first dominant follicle were 67.3, 70.3, 27, 36 and 26 days respectively. The conception rate at first insemination was 54.4%. The patterns of follicular growth were inconsistent during the first 15 days postpartum. Some cows showed inactive ovaries and others showed follicles with diameters over 10mm. 72.6% of the cows had “silent” estrous cycles with a luteal phase shorter than those with estrus behavior (12 vs. 15 days and lower progesterone concentration at day 15 ( 1.994 vs. 3.3873 ng/ml. Earlier luteal activity (day 3 was observed in pregnant cows than in open cows (day 6. Pregnant cows had higher progesterone levels at day 15 (over 3 ng/ml while open cows levels went down gradually revealing early luteolysis. Results show that the beginning of postpartum ovarian activity (follicular and hormonal dynamic is not determined by the first estrous behavior. Use of RIA is a tool to detect where in the cycle is the subject animal when there are no external signs of estrus. The delay in reproductive activity, as evaluated based the wide range of open days and the number of services per pregnancy, is not due to a lack of early ovarian activity. It is necessary to analyze together other factors, such as productive pressure and nutritional problems that could be affecting reproductive efficiency in future investigations.

  10. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    , hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein samples were collected at day 14 of each period. Milk fat yield decreased for P and PPA compared with C, however, dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment. Portal uptake of propanol accounted for 48 to 61% of ingested propanol and differed among......Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration...... all 3 treatments C ≪ PPA treatments including decreased proportion of ruminal acetate to total VFA; increased proportions of ruminal propionate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate; increased arterial glucose concentration; decreased arterial...

  11. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the dependence of reliability and prediction bias on the prediction method, the contribution of including animals (bulls or cows), and the genetic relatedness, when including genotyped cows in the progeny-tested bull reference population. We performed genomic evaluation using a Japanese Holstein population, and assessed the accuracy of genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) for three production traits and 13 linear conformation traits. A total of 4564 animals for production traits and 4172 animals for conformation traits were genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50 array. Single- and multi-step methods were compared for predicting GEBV in genotyped bull-only and genotyped bull-cow reference populations. No large differences in realized reliability and regression coefficient were found between the two reference populations; however, a slight difference was found between the two methods for production traits. The accuracy of GEBV determined by single-step method increased slightly when genotyped cows were included in the bull reference population, but decreased slightly by multi-step method. A validation study was used to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV when 800 additional genotyped bulls (POPbull) or cows (POPcow) were included in the base reference population composed of 2000 genotyped bulls. The realized reliabilities of POPbull were higher than those of POPcow for all traits. For the gain of realized reliability over the base reference population, the average ratios of POPbull gain to POPcow gain for production traits and conformation traits were 2.6 and 7.2, respectively, and the ratios depended on heritabilities of the traits. For regression coefficient, no large differences were found between the results for POPbull and POPcow. Another validation study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic relatedness between cows and bulls in the reference and test populations. The effect of genetic relationship among bulls in the reference

  12. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that RFI is reasonably repeatable for a wide range of dietary starch levels fed to mid-lactation cows, so that cows that have low RFI

  14. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate of Italian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffani, S; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Lacetera, N; Nardone, A

    2016-07-01

    The data set consisted of 1,016,856 inseminations of 191,012 first, second, and third parity Holstein cows from 484 farms. Data were collected from year 2001 through 2007 and included meteorological data from 35 weather stations. Nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56) was considered. A logit model was used to estimate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) on reproduction across parities. Then, least squares means were used to detect the THI breakpoints using a 2-phase linear regression procedure. Finally, a multiple-trait threshold model was used to estimate variance components for NR56 in first and second parity cows. A dummy regression variable (t) was used to estimate NR56 decline due to heat stress. The NR56, both for first and second parity cows, was significantly (unfavorable) affected by THI from 4 d before 5 d after the insemination date. Additive genetic variances for NR56 increased from first to second parity both for general and heat stress effect. Genetic correlations between general and heat stress effects were -0.31 for first parity and -0.45 for second parity cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

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    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for stillbirths in Holstein cows in a hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mellado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors for stillbirth were studied in a dairy operation in northern Mexico (25°N. Data set consisted of 29406 full term calving records. Factors affecting stillbirths were analyzed using a step-wise multivariable logistic regression models. The predictive indicators of stillbirth risk were: temperature-humidity index (THI during pregnancy and at calving, season of calving, calf birth weight, gestation length, semen characteristics (conventional or sexed, gender of calves, hour of calving and type of parturition (normal or dystocic. Throughout the study period, 7.3 (95%, confidence interval= 7.0–7.6 of every 100 calving events had a stillborn calf. Stillborns were higher with severe dystocia compared with non-assisted births (29.0% vs. 6.2%, p278 d compared with calves with shorter gestation periods (2.8% vs. 30.0%, p83 units had 1.3 higher risk of stillbirths than cows suffering reduced heat stress (p<0.0001. Evidence for a greater (p<0.001 stillbirth rates in cows with parturitions between 18:00 and 19:00 h compared with cows calving during other hours of the day was found (9.1% vs. 7.1%. Together, these results demonstrate that ameliorating heat stress during the peripartum period is an important management practice to reduce stillbirths in Holstein cows in this warm climate. Additionally, a greater attention of parturition around sunset can lower the current stillbirth rates.

  17. Copper status, serum cholesterol, and milk fatty acid profile in Holstein cows fed varying concentrations of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, T E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu status and lipid metabolism in Holstein cows. Three primiparous and 21 multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in this experiment. Groups of three cows similar in parity, days in milk, and milk yield were assigned randomly to one of the following three treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM from Cu sulfate (CuSO4), and 3) 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM from CuSO4. Liver Cu concentrations were higher in Cu supplemented cows at the end of the 61-d study. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher liver Cu concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Plasma Cu concentrations were similar across treatments. Total serum cholesterol concentrations were higher in cows receiving supplemental Cu. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher serum cholesterol concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Dry matter intake, average daily milk production, and milk lipid, protein, and somatic cell numbers were similar across treatments. On d 61, milk fatty acids C18:1 trans and C18-conjugated dienes were lower in cows receiving supplemental Cu relative to the nonsupplemented controls. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher C12:0 and lower C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM. These results indicate that Cu supplementation alters lipid metabolism in high producing dairy cows and that Cu supplementation at 40 mg/kg of DM for 61 d can elevate liver Cu concentrations to levels considered to be marginally toxic in dairy cattle.

  18. Sensible and latent heat loss from the body surface of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A. S. C.; Dasilva, R. G.; Battiston Loureiro, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    The general principles of the mechanisms of heat transfer are well known, but knowledge of the transition between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss by Holstein cows in field conditions must be improved, especially for low-latitude environments. With this aim 15 Holstein cows managed in open pasture were observed in a tropical region. The latent heat loss from the body surface of the animals was measured by means of a ventilated capsule, while convective heat transfer was estimated by the theory of convection from a horizontal cylinder and by the long-wave radiation exchange based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law. When the air temperature was between 10 and 36°C the sensible heat transfer varied from 160 to -30 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by cutaneous evaporation increased from 30 to 350 W m-2. Heat loss by cutaneous evaporation accounted for 20-30% of the total heat loss when air temperatures ranged from 10 to 20°C. At air temperatures >30°C cutaneous evaporation becomes the main avenue of heat loss, accounting for approximately 85% of the total heat loss, while the rest is lost by respiratory evaporation.

  19. Genetic associations between reproductive and linear-type traits of Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Prestes Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate heritability, genetic, and residual correlations between reproductive traits such as age at first calving, calving interval, dry period, and first service period and linear type traits measured in Holstein cows born between the years 1990 and 2008 in Brazil. The (covariance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, using the MTDFREML software. The heritability for reproductive traits and linear-type traits ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 and from 0.07 to 0.40, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between reproductive and linear-type traits ranged from -0.23 (top line to 0.28 (angularity to age at first calving, from -0.54 (final score to 0.34 (foot angle to calving interval, from -0.23 (angularity to 0.56 (stature to dry period, and from -0.52 (final score to 0.36 (height udder to first service period. Direct selection for any of the reproductive traits implies low genetic gains by virtue of their low heritabilities. Among the linear-type traits, the final score, chest width, top line, angularity, teat length, udder attachment, rear teat placement were highlighted as good auxiliary traits to improve reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows in Brazil. The simultaneous selection for reproductive and linear-type traits can lead a higher genetic progress in the reproductive traits.

  20. Effect of Feeding on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

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    D. J. Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  1. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Martin, O; Blavy, P

    2016-01-01

    of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined...... by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows...... similar to one another. To conclude, the GARUNS model was able to fit and simulate the extended lactation of Holstein cows. The simulated outputs indicate that managing the primiparous cows with a 16-mo extended lactation, followed by 10-mo lactations, allows their lifetime efficiency to increase...

  2. The comparison of digestibility of treated sugarcane tops silage by bacteria or whole microorganisms of Holstein cow and buffalo rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Afrooz; Chaji, Morteza; Mohammadabadi, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding sulfuric acid to sugarcane tops silage on rumen bacteria and whole rumen microorganisms (WRM) and compare the digestibility of sugarcane tops treated with different amount of urea, molasses and sulfuric acid between Holstein cow and Khouzestan buffalo. Regardless of the type of the treatment, potential of gas production (B) by cow WRM (130.670 mL) was more than buffalo (104.060 mL) ( p cow (0.021 and 0.014 mL per hr, respectively) ( p cow rumen bacteria (75.040 mL) was more than buffalo (67.150 mL), ( p cow (0.017 mL per hr), ( p cow rumen bacteria and whole microorganisms was higher than buffalo.

  3. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms.

  4. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megasphaera elsdenii (Me) is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 25 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in three studies in which strains of Me wer...

  5. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  6. Converting to organic dairy farming: Consequences for production, somatic cell scores and calving interval of first parity Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the changes prompted by conversion to organic farming for milk production and fertility of first parity Holstein cows. Data was collected for Dutch organic farms, with a distinction made between long-standing-organic farms, converted organic farms and a reference group of

  7. Evaluation of catfish oil as a feedstuff for lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, A K; Jenkins, T C; Staples, C R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate catfish oil (CFO) as a dietary ingredient for lactating Holstein cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (6 fitted with a rumen cannula and 6 noncannulated cows), arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square design replicated 4 times, were used to evaluate CFO as a dietary ingredient for lactating Holstein cows. Each period lasted 27 d with the last 13 d used for data collection. Dietary treatments were 0, 1.5, and 3% CFO (dry matter basis). Orally dosing with chromium oxide powder was used as an external inert marker for calculation of apparent dry matter and nutrient digestion coefficients. Ruminal fluid was collected hourly for 8 h after feeding to measure pH and volatile fatty acids. Intake of dry matter increased as intake of CFO increased (23.0, 24.4, and 25.4 kg/d). Production of milk was unchanged by the feeding of CFO (29.0, 29.0, and 29.4 kg/d). Concentrations of milk fat (3.57, 3.60, and 3.48%) and protein (3.21, 3.18, and 3.23%) were unchanged by feeding CFO. Concentrations of plasma glucose (57.8, 55.1, and 56.0 mg/100 mL), urea nitrogen (11.6, 11.0, and 12.0 mg/100 mL), and insulin (0.55, 0.53, and 0.57 ng/mL) were not affected by dietary treatments. Average ruminal fluid pH decreased (6.40, 6.20, and 6.15), as did the molar proportions of acetate (64.5, 64.2, and 63.4%), as dietary concentration of CFO increased. The molar proportions of propionate increased (19.4, 20.0, and 20.4%) as did that of butyrate (12.0, 12.4, and 12.5%) as intake of CFO increased. Ruminal protozoa numbers were unchanged by treatments. Apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were increased by addition of CFO. In situ lag, rate, and extent of corn silage dry matter digestion were not affected by the inclusion of CFO. However, in situ digestion rate of neutral detergent fiber was increased (0.023, 0.024, and 0.029 h(-1)) with increasing intake of CFO. In a second study

  8. Uterine involution and fertility of holstein cows subsequent to early postpartum PGF2alpha treatment for acute puerperal metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, P; McHale, J; Bartolome, J; Archbald, L F; Donovan, G A

    2004-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 doses of PGF(2alpha) injected early postpartum on uterine involution, serum concentration of acute phase proteins at 12 d postpartum, and fertility in Holstein cows with acute puerperal metritis. Only cows diagnosed with retained fetal membranes and metritis and treated with ceftiofur hydrochloride for 5 d were used in the study. Two hundred cows were assigned randomly to be treated (n = 100) or to serve as controls (n = 100). Treatment consisted of 2 i.m. injections of PGF(2alpha) 8 h apart on d 8 postpartum. A subsample of 90 cows was selected randomly (45 treated cows; 45 controls) to evaluate uterine diameter using ultrasonography, uterine score, and serum concentrations of acute phase proteins at 12 d postpartum. The outcome variable for all cows was conception rate at first service. Postpartum, primiparous, treated cows had smaller uterine diameters and lower uterine scores than controls. Cows with a uterine diameter cows with larger uterine horn diameter. Treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Within primiparous cows, treatment also increased conception at first service by 17%. It was concluded that 2 doses of PGF(2alpha) 8 h apart at 8 d postpartum in primiparous cows with acute puerperal metritis decreased the diameter of uterine horns and serum concentration of alpha1-acid glycoprotein at 12 d postpartum and increased the conception rate at first service.

  9. Polymorphism of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes in Busha and Holstein Friesian dairy cows in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Maletić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of κ-casein (κ-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg genotypes in the autochtonous (Busha and dairy (Holstein-Friesian, HF cattle breeds with PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism. For the amplification of κ-CN and β-Lg gene fragments specific primers were used. After digestion with specific endonucleases genotypes were determined for both genes in 18 Busha and 19 HF cows. The results showed that κ-CN gene was represented with the AA genotype in 31.58 % HF cows, AB in 52.63 % cows, whilst the genotype BB was found in 15.79 % cows only. Among the examined Busha cattle 44.44 % cows had AA genotype and 55.56 % genotype AB for κ CN. As for β-Lg gene in HF breed, AA genotype was found in 26.31 % cows, AB in 63.16 % and BB in 10.53 % cows. In Busha cows the following genotypes were established for β-Lg gene: AA in 44.44 % cows and AB in 55.56 %, whilst BB genotype was not found. These results indicate that Busha cows had a higher presence of A allelic forms of both genes (k-CN and β-lactoglobulin than HF cows.

  10. Effects of subcutaneous calcium administration at calving on mineral status, health, and production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Akbari, A P; Farsuni, N E; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of subcutaneous (s.c.) infusions of Ca at calving day on serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and health in fresh cows receiving a dietary cation-anion difference diet during the dry period. Three hundred seventy-five fresh Holstein cows were blocked based on parity (143 cows in first parity, 108 cows in second parity, and 124 cows in third or greater parity) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments immediately after calving. Treatments were control group without infusion (control; n=190); 1 s.c. infusion of 250mL of 40% Ca borogluconate (1SC250; n=72) at calving; 1 s.c. infusion of 500mL of 40% Ca borogluconate (1SC500; n=63) at calving; 2 s.c. infusions of 250mL of 40% Ca borogluconate, one immediately after calving and the second 12 to 18h after first infusion (2SC250; n=50). Blood samples were collected immediately after parturition and at 1, 2, 4, and 7d in milk (DIM) for Ca, P, and Mg determination. Milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded monthly up to 90 DIM. The evaluation of BCS was performed at calving and at 38 DIM. A subset of 9 cows per treatment group was randomly chosen to measure serum concentration of glucose and BHB at 2, 4, and 7 DIM. Total serum Ca in 1SC250 (8.95mg/dL), 1SC500 (9.27mg/dL), and 2SC250 (9.07mg/dL) was greater during the first week postpartum compared with control (8.45mg/dL). Serum concentrations of P, Mg, BHB, glucose, and milk yield were not affected by treatments. The dry matter intake during the first 24h after calving was higher for treatments 1SC250 (13.5kg), 1SC500 (15.0kg), and 2SC250 (15.6kg) relative to control (12.5kg). Milk somatic cell counts were lower for 1SC500 (90.5 cells/mL) and 2SC250 (82.2 cells/mL) than control (132.8 cells/mL). Risk ratio was >1 for development of metritis, and clinical and subclinical endometritis in control cows

  11. Cow-specific risk factors for retained placenta, metritis and clinical mastitis in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Ardalan, Mehrnaz

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between cow-specific risk factors and the lactational incidence risks of retained placenta (RP), metritis (MET) and clinical mastitis (CM) in 57,301 dairy cows on 20 large dairy herds in Iran between January 2005 and June 2009. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for MET, RP and CM and quantify their odds ratio (OR). The lactational incidences of MET, RP and CM were 8%, 5.2% and 18.9%, respectively, and significant risk factors for MET were dystocia (OR = 4.32), stillbirth (OR = 6.26), RP (OR = 27.74), twin births (OR = 6.57), primiparity (OR = 1.68), calving during winter season (OR = 2.45) and male calves (OR = 2.41). Significant risk factors for RP were dystocia (OR = 3.17), stillbirth (OR = 3.18), abortion (OR = 8.46), milk fever (OR = 3.66), twin births (OR = 2.76), pluriparity (OR = 2.69), calving during winter season (OR = 1.86) and shorter gestation length of dairy cows (OR = 3.82). Also, significant risk factors for CM were RP (OR = 9.45), milk fever (OR = 12.36), pluriparity (OR = 2.83), calving during winter season (OR = 1.68) and the first months of lactation (P cows in the risk of having MET, RP and CM based on a combination of cow factors. These differences among cows could be useful to aid the better detection of these diseases in the dairy herds.

  12. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  13. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  14. Short communication: Large-scale study on effects of metritis on reproduction in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Labouriau, R; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Callesen, H

    2013-01-01

    A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56 d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk production and body condition score as confounders. Metritis was defined as a score of at least 5 (indicating purulent vaginal discharge with abnormal smell) on the Danish uterine score scale (from 0 to 9, used to evaluate vaginal discharge in the first 19 d postpartum on all fresh cows in herds participating in a national herd health program). Cows with metritis in early lactation presented a significant delay in first insemination (hazard ratio of 0.80) and a significantly reduced probability of success at first insemination. The effect of metritis was also present after adjusting for possible effects of body condition score, milk production in the first month of lactation, parity, herd, and year-season. Only a small part of the observed effect of metritis could be explained by variation in body condition score at calving and milk production in the first month after calving. The results from this large-scale study underscore the deleterious effects of metritis on the fertility variables CFI and NR56. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  16. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  17. The Holstein cow in embryo transfer today as compared to 20 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, J F

    2006-01-07

    Embryo transfer practice and results were examined over a 20-year period in Holstein cows and heifers within four commercial embryo transfer programs located in different areas of North America. Mean embryo production per collection decreased (P cows entering embryo transfer programs, the number of times they were superstimulated and changes in the brands of gonadotropins used for superstimulation all complicated the analysis of embryo production over time. Data reveal higher pregnancy rates (P cows. It is not clear whether pregnancy rates have decreased over time as a result of the change from surgical to non-surgical embryo transfer. In the two programs in which pregnancy rates were analyzed, there was a decrease (P < 0.001) when non-surgical transfers were adopted in one program, while no change occurred in the other. One of the biggest changes in all programs was that more than 50% of embryos recovered from donors are now frozen after collection, whereas the majority were transferred fresh 20 years ago.

  18. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  19. Accuracy of predicted calving dates in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows based on fetal ages estimated using manual rectal palpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, B J; Morton, J M

    2012-07-01

    To assess potential risk factors for differences between predicted and actual calving dates in Holstein-Friesian cows in seasonal calving dairy herds where predicted dates are based on fetal ages estimated using manual rectal palpation. Accuracy of predicted calving dates was assessed in 10,487 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that were diagnosed as pregnant and that subsequently calved in 108 seasonal calving dairy herds in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia. Of these cows, 9,214 (88%) were between approximately 7 and 18 weeks of gestation when diagnosed as pregnant. Potential risk factors for differences >10 days between predicted and actual calving dates were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. For all 10,487 cows, 8,444 (80.5%) calved within 10 days of the predicted calving date, 1,329 (12.7%) calved >10 days earlier than predicted and 714 (6.8%) calved >10 days later than predicted. Estimation of fetal age was less accurate where cows had received no compared with one artificial insemination (AI), when cows were 14 weeks of gestation, and when cows were examined ≥15 compared with 10 days earlier than predicted was reduced in cows with an interval of ≥3 weeks, compared with 10 days from predicted dates based on manual rectal palpation assisted by AI dates. Risk factors for such differences include number of prior AI, fetal age at pregnancy diagnosis, and times from the cow's most recent AI to both pregnancy diagnosis and end of the herd's AI period. Herd managers should be made aware of likely proportions of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that will calve >10 days from predicted dates. If accurate predictions of calving dates are required, manual rectal pregnancy diagnosis in seasonal calving dairy herds should be scheduled to ensure that most cows are examined within 15 weeks after their most recent AI. Accuracy of estimates is reduced for cows with no AI, and for cows most recently inseminated close to the end of the herd's AI period.

  20. Association of MAP4K4 gene single nucleotide polymorphism with mastitis and milk traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Dinesh; Chen, Xing; Ur Rehman, Zia; Hao, Xingjie; Ullah, Farman; Dad, Rahim; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cui, Lu; Fan, Mingxia; Zhang, Shujun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the studies presented in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the MAP4K4 gene with different milk traits in dairy cows. Based on previous QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 11, the MAP4K4 gene was selected as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on somatic cell count and milk traits in ChineseHolstein cows. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage of each cow were collected using 305 d lactation records. Association between MAP4K4 genotype and different traits and Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was performed using General Linear Regression Model of R. Two SNPs at exon 18 (c.2061T > G and c.2196T > C) with genotype TT in both SNPs were found significantly higher for somatic SCS. We found the significant effect of exon 18 (c.2061T > G) on protein percentage, milk yield and SCS. We identified SNPs at different location of MAP4K4 gene of the cattle and several of them were significantly associated with the somatic cell score and other different milk traits. Thus, MAP4K4 gene could be a useful candidate gene for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers.

  1. Effect of mating between the donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on the in vitro production of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Toledo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull (Holstein versus Gyr on in vitro production (IVP parameters of bovine embryos comparing the mean number of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture, the rate of suitable oocytes, and cleavage and blastocyst rates. Data from 1,000 follicular aspiration sessions (OPU, including 500 in donor cows of the Holstein breed and 500 of the Gyr breed, were collected. The results were analyzed by the unpaired Student t-test and chi-square test, adopting a level of significance of 5%. The mean number and standard deviation of recovered oocytes and oocytes suitable for culture were 15.1±13.0 and 8.7±7.6 for the Holstein breed and 15.5±11.9 and 9.1±7.9 for the Gyr breed. The rates of suitable oocytes were 57.7% and 58.5% for Holstein and Gyr breeds, respectively. A significant difference between breeds was observed for the number of oocytes suitable for culture (P<0.05, but not for the number of recovered oocytes or rates of suitable oocytes (P>0.05. Similarly, the breed of the oocyte donor cow and bull influenced cleavage and blastocyst rates (P<0.05. The cleavage rates were 65.7, 60.3, 59.6 and 56.5% for the combinations (donor breed x bull breed Holstein x Holstein (G1, Holstein x Gyr (G2, Gyr x Holstein (G3 and Gyr x Gyr (G4, respectively, with G1>G2, G1>G3, G1>G4, G2=G3, G2>G4, and G3>G4. The blastocyst rates were 28.1, 33.3, 26.8 and 31.0%, respectively, with G1>G2, G1=G3, G1cow and bull influenced IVP parameters, with a larger number of oocytes suitable for culture in the Gyr breed.

  2. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  3. Associations between lying behavior and lameness in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Vasseur, E; Orsel, K

    2016-03-01

    Lying behavior is an important measure of comfort and well-being in dairy cattle, and changes in lying behavior are potential indicators and predictors of lameness. Our objectives were to determine individual and herd-level risk factors associated with measures of lying behavior, and to evaluate whether automated measures of lying behavior can be used to detect lameness. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Alberta, Ontario, and Québec. Lying behavior of 5,135 cows between 10 and 120 d in milk was automatically and continuously recorded using accelerometers over 4 d. Data on factors hypothesized to influence lying behavior were collected, including information on individual cows, management practices, and facility design. Associations between predictor variables and measures of lying behavior were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, including farm and province as random and fixed effects, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether lying behavior was associated with lameness. At the cow-level, daily lying time increased with increasing days in milk, but this effect interacted with parity; primiparous cows had more frequent but shorter lying bouts in early lactation, changing to mature-cow patterns of lying behavior (fewer and longer lying bouts) in late lactation. In barns with stall curbs >22 cm high, the use of sand or >2 cm of bedding was associated with an increased average daily lying time of 1.44 and 0.06 h/d, respectively. Feed alleys ≥ 350 cm wide or stalls ≥ 114 cm wide were associated with increased daily lying time of 0.39 and 0.33 h/d, respectively, whereas rubber flooring in the feed alley was associated with 0.47 h/d lower average lying time. Lame cows had longer lying times, with fewer, longer, and more variable duration of bouts compared with nonlame cows. In that regard, cows with lying time ≥ 14 h/d, ≤ 5 lying bouts per day, bout duration ≥ 110 min

  4. Water salinity effects on performance and rumen parameters of lactating grazing Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.; Sbodio, Oscar A.; Revelli, Germán R.; Arakaki, Cristina; Leva, Perla E.; Gaggiotti, Mónica; Tercero, Esteban J.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous lactating grazing Holstein cows, 9 ruminally cannulated, average 136.1 ± 14.6 days in milk, were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of water containing different levels of total dissolved solids (TDS; mg/l): Treatment 1 = 1,000; Treatment 2 = 5,000 and Treatment 3 = 10,000, at the Experimental Dairy Unit at Rafaela Experimental Station (31°11'S latitude) during summer 2005. Animals were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three 28-day experimental periods, with 3 weeks for water adaptation and 1 week for measurements. Feed and water intake, milk production and composition, body weight and condition score and rumen parameters were evaluated. No treatment effects were observed in any of the variables evaluated, with the exception of water intake, which was higher for animals receiving 10,000 mg/l TDS in the drinking water (189 l/day vs. 106 and 122 l/day for cows receiving water with 1,000 and 5,000 mg/l TDS, respectively). Water intake was significantly higher for animals in treatment 10,000 ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the rumen presents a surprising buffer capacity and that consideration of TDS alone is insufficient to characterize drinking water quality.

  5. Attempts to identify Clostridium botulinum toxin in milk from three experimentally intoxicated Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, R.B.; Puschner, B.; Walker, R.L.; Rocke, T.E.; Smith, S.R.; Cullor, J.S.; Ardans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Three adult lactating Holstein cows were injected in the subcutaneous abdominal vein with 175 ng/kg of body weight of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin (451 cow median toxic doses) to determine if this botulinum toxin crosses the blood–milk barrier. Whole blood (in sodium heparin) and clotted blood serum samples were taken at 0 min, 10 min, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 h postinoculation. Milk samples were taken at 0 min and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h postinoculation. All samples were tested for the presence of the toxin using the mouse bioassay and immunostick ELISA test. The immunostick ELISA identified the toxin in whole blood and the mouse bioassay identified the toxin in serum at all times examined in all 3 animals. Toxin was not identified by either detection method in milk samples collected from the 3 animals. From these results, it appears that Clostridium botulinum type C toxin does not cross from the blood to the milk in detectable concentrations.

  6. Evaluation of cytokine expression by blood monocytes of lactating Holstein cows with or without postpartum uterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Felippe, M J B; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Galvão, J S; Caixeta, L; Guard, C L; Ricci, A; Gilbert, R O

    2012-01-15

    Whereas neutrophils are the main phagocytic leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages are actively involved in immunomodulation after infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophil function is impaired by the state of negative energy balance around parturition, and that cows that develop uterine disease have a greater degree of negative energy balance than healthy cows. The objectives of this study were to compare monocyte gene expression and protein secretion of selected cytokines from calving to 42 d after calving in Holstein cows that did or did not develop uterine disease. Real time quantitative RT-PCR (Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) and ELISA (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8) were used to evaluate cytokine response following in vitro stimulation of blood-derived monocytes with irradiated E. coli. Relative to unstimulated cells, E. coli-stimulated monocytes from cows with metritis had lower gene expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines than healthy cows from calving to 14 d after calving (TNFα at 0, 7, and 14 d after calving, IL-1β and IL-6 at 7 and 14 d after calving; P cows with metritis. Expression of mRNA in stimulated cells (relative to housekeeping genes) was lower for TNFα (7 and 14 d postpartum) and for IL-10 (7 and 14 d postpartum) in cows with metritis. Concentration of TNFα was lower in the culture medium of E. coli-stimulated monocytes from cows with metritis than healthy cows at calving and 7 and 21 d after calving (P cows and cows that developed endometritis, diagnosed cytologically at 42 d after calving. We concluded that altered levels of expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines postpartum could contribute to impaired inflammatory response and predispose cows to development of metritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Milk fatty acid composition as an indicator of energy status in Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vranković

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Transition dairy cows often enter a stage of negative energy balance during which the utilization of energy reserves is reflected in the milk fatty acid (FA composition. In this study, metabolic status was evaluated by measuring milk FA, ruminal short-chain FA (RSCFA, and serum biochemical parameters in Holstein cows. Samples (milk, rumen contents, and blood were collected around days 30 (early and 150 (middle of lactation, and rumen contents and blood samples were collected 30 days before calving (dry. Fatty acids were extracted and FA composition was determined. Glucose, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB, and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were determined in serum samples. Lower percentages of saturated FA in milk and higher percentages of monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and C18:1n-9 were observed in early lactation compared to mid-lactation. In rumen higher concentrations of propionic acid were determined at mid-lactation compared to early lactation. Acetic and butyric acid concentrations showed no significant differences between sampling intervals. In serum higher glucose concentrations were observed during the dry period and mid-lactation than during early lactation. Lower BHB and higher NEFA concentrations were noted during early lactation compared to mid-lactation and the dry period. Total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triacylglycerols showed no significant differences between sampling intervals. The results of the present study suggest that determination of milk FA is a potential indicator of energy status in dairy cows.

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy J Hempel

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s, chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.

  9. Citrus pulp as a dietary source of antioxidants for lactating holstein cows fed highly polyunsaturated Fatty Acid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G T; Lima, L S; Schogor, A L B; Romero, J V; De Marchi, F E; Grande, P A; Santos, N W; Santos, F S; Kazama, R

    2014-08-01

    The effects of feeding pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) as a natural antioxidant source on the performance and milk quality of dairy cows fed highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) diets were evaluated. Four lactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin-square. Treatments, on a dry matter (DM) basis, were i) control diet; ii) 3% soybean oil; iii) 3% soybean oil and 9% PCP and; iv) 3% soybean oil and 18% PCP. When cows fed on citrus pulp, the DM intake tended to decrease. The total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ether extract decreased when cows fed on the control diet compared to other diets. Cows fed PCP had higher polyphenols and flavonoids content and higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in milk compared to those fed no pelleted citrus pulp. Cows fed 18% PCP showed higher monounsaturated FA and lower saturated FA in milk fat compared with cows fed the other diets. The lowest n-6 FA proportion was in milk fat from cows fed control. The present study suggests that pelleted citrus pulp added to 9% to 18% DM increases total polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, and the FRAP in milk.

  10. Indicators of induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in Danish Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Li, Shucong; Andersen, Pia H; Khafipour, Ehsan; Kristensen, Niels B; Plaizier, Jan C

    2015-07-17

    The prevalence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows is high with large impact on economy and welfare. Its current field diagnosis is based on point ruminal pH measurements by oral probe or rumenocentesis. These techniques are invasive and inaccurate, and better markers for the diagnosis of SARA are needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate clinical signs of SARA and to investigate the use of blood, faecal and urinary parameters as indicators of SARA. Six lactating, rumen cannulated, Danish Holstein cows were used in a cross-over study with three periods. The first and second periods included two cows on control diet and two cows on nutritional SARA challenge. The third period only included two cows on SARA challenge. Control diet was a conventional total mixed ration [45.5% dry matter (DM), 17.8% crude protein, 43.8% neutral detergent fibre, and 22.5% acid detergent fibre (DM basis)]. SARA challenge was conducted by substituting control diet with grain pellets (50% wheat/barley) over 3 days to reach 40% grain in the diet. Ruminal pH was measured continuously. Blood samples were collected once daily at 7 h after feeding. Samples of faeces and urine were collected at feeding, and at 7 and 12 h after feeding. Blood samples were analysed for pCO2, pO2, pH, electrolytes, lactate, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV), and total plasma protein concentration. Milk composition, ruminal VFA, and pH of faeces and urine were measured. SARA was associated with decreased (P < 0.05) minimum ruminal, faecal and urinary pH. Daily times and areas of ruminal pH below 5.8, and 5.6 were increased to levels representative for SARA. Significant differences were detected in milk composition and ruminal VFAs. Blood calcium concentration was decreased (P < 0.05), and pCO2 tended to be increased (P = 0.10). Significant differences were not detected in other parameters. SARA challenge was associated with changes in faecal and urinary pH, blood calcium concentration and

  11. Genetic Analysis of Protein Yield, Udder Health, and Female Fertility in First-Parity Danish Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Norberg, E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic parameters for protein yield, clinical mastitis, SCS, number of inseminations (NI), and days from first to last insemination (FLI) were estimated for first-parity Danish Holstein cows. The objective was to estimate genetic correlations between the five traits mentioned above and to study...... whether NI and FLI are measures of the same trait. Records containing information on approximately 200 000 cows were analysed using tri-variate animal models. The genetic correlations between the udder health traits and the fertility traits were favourable and in the range from 0.17 to 0.42, whereas...

  12. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  13. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil

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    Abílio G.T. Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six, and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100% corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott. The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  15. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  16. Use of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with daughter pregnancy rate for prediction of genetic merit for reproduction in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated 69 SNPs in genes previously related to fertility and production traits for relationship to daughter pregnancy rate (DPR), cow conception rate (CCR) and heifer conception rate (HCR) in a separate population of Holstein cows grouped according to their predicted transmitting ability for DP...

  17. A comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F(1) hybrid on milk fatty acid composition under grazing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, R A; Buckley, F; Prendiville, R; Murphy, J J; Callan, J; Kenny, D A

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 breeds, Holstein and Jersey, and their F(1) hybrid (Jersey x Holstein) on milk fatty acid (FA) concentrations under grazing conditions, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids because of their importance to human health. Eighty-one cows (27 per breed grouping) were allocated a predominantly perennial ryegrass pasture. Samples were collected over 2 periods (June and July). Breed affected dry matter intake and milk production and composition. Holstein cows had the highest dry matter intake (18.4+/-0.40kg of DM/d) and milk production (21.1+/-0.53kg of DM/d). Holstein and Jersey x Holstein cows had similar 4% fat corrected milk, fat yield, and protein yield; with the exception of fat yield, these were all higher than for Jersey cows. Milk fat concentration was highest for Jersey cows and lowest for Holstein cows, with the hybrid cows intermediate. Total FA and linolenic acid intake (1.09+/-0.023 and 0.58+/-0.012 kg/d, respectively) were highest for Holstein cows. In terms of milk FA, Holstein cows had higher contents of C14:1, cis-9 C18:1 and linoleic acid. In turn, Jersey and Jersey x Holstein cows had higher content of C16:0. Milk concentrations of neither the cis-9,trans-11 isomer of CLA nor its precursor, vaccenic acid, were affected by breed. Nevertheless, large variation between individual animals within breed grouping was observed for CLA and estimated Delta(9)-desaturase activity. There was some evidence for a negative heterotic effect on milk concentration of CLA, with the F(1) hybrid cows having lower concentrations compared with the mid parent average. Plasma FA profile did not accurately reflect differences in milk FA composition. In conclusion, there was little evidence for either breed or beneficial heterotic effects on milk FA content with human health-promoting potential, though significant within-breed, interanimal variation was observed. Copyright 2010

  18. Study of the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate, glucose, protein and albumin in Holstein cows with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the levels of beta hydroxy butyrate (BHB, glucose, protein and albumin in serum of healthy Holstein cows and those with subclinical ketosis. In this survey, blood samples were collected at two stages from cows selected at 7 dairy farms in Shahriar province of Tehran. Five to 7 ml of blood were taken from the coccygeal vein of 100 cows during the last week of pregnancy when the animals were dry and once again 2 months after parturition from the same cows, their sera separated and the amounts of BHB, glucose, protein and albumin determined by enzymatic techniques and commercially available kits. With the cut point of BHB at 1.2, 1.4 and 1.7 mmol/lit, the percentage of cows affected with subclinical ketosis were 18, 14 and 4 percent, respectively. Mean levels of BHB in ketotic cows was significantly higher than healthy cows before and after parturition while mean levels of glucose, protein and albumin was significantly lower during the same periods (P

  19. Effect of propylene glycol on adipose tissue mobilization in postpartum over-conditioned Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Storm, A C; Eslamizad, M; Kuhla, B; Larsen, M

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative effects of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on postpartum adipose tissue mobilization in over-conditioned Holstein cows. Nine ruminally cannulated and arterially catheterized cows were, at parturition, randomly assigned to a ruminal pulse dose of either 500g of tap water (n=4) or 500g of PG (n=5) once a day. The PG was given with the morning feeding for 4 wk postpartum (treatment period), followed by a 4-wk follow-up period. All cows were fed the same prepartum and postpartum diets. At -16 (±3), 4 (±0), 15 (±1) and 29 (±2) days in milk (DIM), body composition was determined using the deuterium oxide dilution technique, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were collected, and mammary gland nutrient uptake was measured. Weekly blood samples were obtained during the experiment and daily blood samples were taken from -7 to 7 DIM. Postpartum feed intake and milk yield was not affected by PG allocation. The body content of lipid was not affected by treatment, but tended to decrease from 4 to 29 DIM with both treatments. Except for the first week postpartum, no difference in plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration was noted between treatments in the treatment period. Yet, PG allocation resulted in decreased plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and increased plasma concentrations of glucose. In the follow-up period, plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and BHB did not differ between treatments. Additionally, the change in abundance of proteins in adipose tissue biopsies from prepartum to 4 DIM was not affected by treatment. In conclusion, the different variables to assess body fat mobilization were concurrent and showed that a 4-wk postpartum PG allocation had limited effect on adipose tissue mobilization. The main effect was an enhanced glucogenic status with PG. No carry-over effect of PG allocation was recorded for production or plasma metabolites

  20. Blood plasma traits associated with genetic merit for feed utilization in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, C D; Baumrucker, C R; Bruckmaier, R M; Blum, J W

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of selection for feed utilization on associated blood plasma metabolite and hormone traits. Dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded in 970 Holsteins from 11 commercial farms in Pennsylvania and used to derive dry matter efficiency (DME; fat-corrected milk yield/DMI), crude protein efficiency (CPE; protein yield/crude protein intake), and residual feed intake (RFI, defined as actual feed intake minus expected feed intake for maintenance and milk production, based on calculation of DMI adjusted for yield, body weight, and body condition score). Estimated breeding values for the 4 feed utilization traits (DMI, DME, CPE, and RFI), yield traits, body traits, and days open were standardized according to their respective genetic standard deviations. Up to 631 blood samples from 393 cows from 0 to 60 d in milk (DIM) were evaluated for blood plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), creatinine, urea, growth hormone (GH), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), and other parameters. Blood plasma traits were regressed on DIM, lactation number, herd, and standardized genetic merit. Cows with higher genetic merit for yield had significantly higher concentrations of GH, NEFA (milk and protein yield), and BHB (fat yield) from 31 to 60 DIM, but lower concentrations of glucose from 0 to 30 DIM, and T3 (milk yield, 0-60 DIM). The high GH-low glucose-low T3 concentration pattern was further accentuated for cows with genetic merit for enhanced feed efficiency (higher DME and lower RFI). Cows with a genetic tendency to be thin (low body condition score) also had elevated GH concentrations, but lower blood glucose, creatinine, and T3 concentrations. Those characteristics associated with enhanced feed efficiency (higher GH and lower glucose and T3 concentrations) were unfavorably associated with fertility, as indicated by elevated days open. Elevated NEFA and BHB concentrations were also

  1. Accuracy of direct genomic values in Holstein bulls and cows using subsets of SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatkar Mehar S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the current price, the use of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP genotyping assays in genomic selection of dairy cattle is limited to applications involving elite sires and dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of low-density assays to predict direct genomic value (DGV on five milk production traits, an overall conformation trait, a survival index, and two profit index traits (APR, ASI. Methods Dense SNP genotypes were available for 42,576 SNP for 2,114 Holstein bulls and 510 cows. A subset of 1,847 bulls born between 1955 and 2004 was used as a training set to fit models with various sets of pre-selected SNP. A group of 297 bulls born between 2001 and 2004 and all cows born between 1992 and 2004 were used to evaluate the accuracy of DGV prediction. Ridge regression (RR and partial least squares regression (PLSR were used to derive prediction equations and to rank SNP based on the absolute value of the regression coefficients. Four alternative strategies were applied to select subset of SNP, namely: subsets of the highest ranked SNP for each individual trait, or a single subset of evenly spaced SNP, where SNP were selected based on their rank for ASI, APR or minor allele frequency within intervals of approximately equal length. Results RR and PLSR performed very similarly to predict DGV, with PLSR performing better for low-density assays and RR for higher-density SNP sets. When using all SNP, DGV predictions for production traits, which have a higher heritability, were more accurate (0.52-0.64 than for survival (0.19-0.20, which has a low heritability. The gain in accuracy using subsets that included the highest ranked SNP for each trait was marginal (5-6% over a common set of evenly spaced SNP when at least 3,000 SNP were used. Subsets containing 3,000 SNP provided more than 90% of the accuracy that could be achieved with a high-density assay for cows, and 80% of the high-density assay

  2. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters and eigenvector indices for milk production of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savegnago, R P; Rosa, G J M; Valente, B D; Herrera, L G G; Carneiro, R L R; Sesana, R C; El Faro, L; Munari, D P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test-day milk yield (TDMY) of the first lactation of Brazilian Holstein cows using random regression (RR), and to compare the genetic gains for milk production and persistency, derived from RR models, using eigenvector indices and selection indices that did not consider eigenvectors. The data set contained monthly TDMY of 3,543 first lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows calving between 1994 and 2011. The RR model included the fixed effect of the contemporary group (herd-month-year of test days), the covariate calving age (linear and quadratic effects), and a fourth-order regression on Legendre orthogonal polynomials of days in milk (DIM) to model the population-based mean curve. Additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects were fit as RR with 4 classes of residual variance random effect. Eigenvector indices based on the additive genetic RR covariance matrix were used to evaluate the genetic gains of milk yield and persistency compared with the traditional selection index (selection index based on breeding values of milk yield until 305 DIM). The heritability estimates for monthly TDMY ranged from 0.12 ± 0.04 to 0.31 ± 0.04. The estimates of additive genetic and nongenetic animal effects correlation were close to 1 at adjacent monthly TDMY, with a tendency to diminish as the time between DIM classes increased. The first eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic response of the milk yield and the second eigenvector was related to the increase of the genetic gains of the persistency but it contributed to decrease the genetic gains for total milk yield. Therefore, using this eigenvector to improve persistency will not contribute to change the shape of genetic curve pattern. If the breeding goal is to improve milk production and persistency, complete sequential eigenvector indices (selection indices composite with all eigenvectors) could be used with higher economic

  4. Associations of selected bedding types with incidence rates of subclinical and clinical mastitis in primiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to determine the association of exposure to selected bedding types with incidence of subclinical (SM) and clinical mastitis (CM) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows housed in identical pens at a single facility. At parturition, primiparous cows were randomly assigned to pens containing freestalls with 1 of 4 bedding materials: (1) deep-bedded new sand (NES, n=27 cows), (2) deep-bedded recycled sand (RS, n=25 cows), (3) deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS, n=31 cows), and (4) shallow-bedded manure solids over foam-core mattresses (SBMS, n=26 cows). For 12mo, somatic cell counts of quarter milk samples were determined every 28d and duplicate quarter milk samples were collected for microbiological analysis from all quarters with SM (defined as somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL). During this period, duplicate quarter milk samples were also collected for microbial analysis from all cases of CM. For an additional 16mo, cases of CM were recorded; however, no samples were collected. Quarter days at risk (62,980) were distributed among bedding types and most quarters were enrolled for >150d. Of 135 cases of SM, 63% resulted in nonsignificant growth and 87% of recovered pathogens (n=33) were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The distribution of etiologies of pathogens recovered from cases of SM was associated with bedding type. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 12, 38, 11, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. A result of nonsignificant growth was obtained for 81, 59, 89, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. Quarters of primiparous cows bedded with NES tended to have greater survival time to incidence of CM than quarters of primiparous cows bedded with RS or DBMS. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Comparison of maintenance energy requirement and energetic efficiency between lactating Holstein-Friesian and other groups of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of cow group on energy expenditure and utilization efficiency. Data used were collated from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken from 1992 to 2010, with 823 observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and 112 observations from other groups of lactating cows including Norwegian (n=50), Jersey × HF (n=46), and Norwegian × HF (n=16) cows. The metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) for individual cows was calculated from heat production (HP) minus energy losses from inefficiencies of ME use for lactation, energy retention, and pregnancy. The efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) was obtained from milk energy output adjusted to zero energy balance (El(0)) divided by ME available for production. The effects of cow groups were first evaluated using Norwegian cows against HF crossbred cows (F1 hybrid, Jersey × HF and Norwegian × HF). The results indicated no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ per kg of metabolic body weight, MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl. Consequently, their data were combined (categorized as non-HF cows) and used to compare with those of HF cows. Again, we detected no significant difference in energy digestibility, ratio of ME intake over gross energy intake, MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), or kl between non-HF and HF cows. The effects were further evaluated using linear regression to examine whether any significant differences existed between HF and non-HF cows in terms of relationships between ME intake and energetic parameters. With a common constant, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups of cows in coefficients in each set of relationships between ME intake (MJ/kg(0.75)) and MEm (MJ/kg(0.75)), El(0) (MJ/kg(0.75)), HP (MJ/kg(0.75)), MEm:ME intake, El(0):ME intake, or HP:ME intake. However, MEm values (MJ/kg(0.75)) were positively related to ME

  7. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prepartal Energy Intake Alters Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transcriptome During the Peripartal Period in Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry, cow health and farmer profits depend on the balance between diet (ie, nutrient composition, daily intake and metabolism. This is especially true during the transition period, where dramatic physiological changes foster vulnerability to immunosuppression, negative energy balance, and clinical and subclinical disorders. Using an Agilent microarray platform, this study examined changes in the transcriptome of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs due to prepartal dietary intake. Holstein cows were fed a high-straw, control-energy diet (CON; NE L  = 1.34 Mcal/kg or overfed a moderate-energy diet (OVE; NE L  = 1.62 Mcal/kg during the dry period. Blood for PMNL isolation and metabolite analysis was collected at −14 and +7 days relative to parturition. At an analysis of variance false discovery rate <0.05, energy intake (OVE vs CON influenced 1806 genes. Dynamic Impact Approach bioinformatics analysis classified treatment effects on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, including activated oxidative phosphorylation and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and inhibited RNA polymerase, proteasome, and toll-like receptor signaling pathway. This analysis indicates that processes critical for energy metabolism and cellular and immune function were affected with mixed results. However, overall interpretation of the transcriptome data agreed in part with literature documenting a potentially detrimental, chronic activation of PMNL in response to overfeeding. The widespread, transcriptome-level changes captured here confirm the importance of dietary energy adjustments around calving on the immune system.

  9. Systemic and local bactericidal potentiality in late lactation Holstein-Friesian cows following a combined antibiotics and Enterococcus faecium SF68 dry-cow treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiantong, Attapol; Piamya, Piya; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Liu, Wen-Bor; Chang, Fang-Yu; Lin, Pei-Chi; Nagahata, Hajime; Chang, Chai-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic dry-cow treatment contributes a major part to the total use of antibiotics in dairy herds. Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 (SF68) was of human origin but has been authorized in EU as probiotic feed additive. In the present study, one of the front and rear quarters of twelve late lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were infused once with a commercial antibiotic dry-cow formula (antibiotics quarter) on the first milk-stasis day (d 1), when the contrallateral quarters were infused with 5 x 10(8)-CFU SF68 plus half-dose antibiotic dry-cow formula (SF68/antibiotics quarter) meanwhile. Gelatinase level and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production capacity were measured for blood and quarter secretion. The results showed that the count of blood total leukocytes minorly decreased on d 3 only but the microscopic somatic cell count (MSCC) continuously increased up to d 7, especially in SF68/antibiotics quarters. Plasma level of gelatinase A remained similar up to d 7 but gelatinase B was not detectable in plasma throughout the study. The level of gelatinase A in quarter secretion increased up to d 7 but gelatinase B increased even more drastically, especially in SF68/antibiotics quarters. The ROS production capacity of blood leukocytes increased temporarily only on d 3, but that of milk cells continuously increased up to d 7, especially in SF68/antitiotics quarters. Overall, late lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were systemically adaptable to the combined antibiotics and SF68 dry-cow treatment, while the local bactericidal potentiality in mammary gland was actively responsive to additional SF68 intramammary treatment.

  10. Supplementing Holstein cows with low doses of bovine somatotropin prepartum and postpartum reduces calving-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, M S; Liboni, M; Hayen, M J; Head, H H

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether supplementing Holstein cows with bovine somatotropin (bST; 142.8 mg/14 d), beginning at 21 d (+/-3 d) before expected calving and continuing through 42 d in milk (+/-3 d), affected the incidence rates of retained fetal membranes (RFM), metritis (MET), clinical mastitis (MAS), digestive problems (DIG), ketosis (KET), milk fever (MF), displaced abomasum (DA, left or right), lameness (LAM), or number of sick cows during the first 60 d in milk. Data for multiparous Holstein cows from 3 separate trials were merged for analyses (n = 437). Cows in the bST-supplemented group (n = 162) received biweekly subcutaneous injections of Posilac, whereas control cows (n = 166) and a group of cohorts (n = 109) were not supplemented. Incidences of disease were collected from the herd health records. Across all treatment groups, the incidence rates (number of diseased cows divided by the total number of cows) for RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM were 8.47, 18.31, 16.02, 4.35, 4.35, 3.66, 3.20, and 3.66%, respectively. The incidence rates of RFM, MET, MAS, DIG, KET, MF, DA, and LAM for cows in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 6.79, 7.83, and 11.93%; 16.05, 7.47, and 22.94%; 10.49, 18.07, and 21.10%; 1.23, 5.42, and 7.34%; 1.23, 6.02, and 6.42%; 2.47, 4.22, and 4.59%; 2.47, 3.61, and 3.67%; and 3.70, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. The percentages of sick cows (number of cows having one or more cases of disease divided by the total number of cows) in the bST-supplemented, control, and cohort groups were 33.95, 43.37, and 49.54%, respectively. Significant chi-squared values were detected between the bST-supplemented and control groups for MAS, DIG, and KET, with a greater number of healthy cows in the bST-supplemented group. No differences in incidences of diseases or sick cows were detected between the control and cohort groups. Results indicated that a low dose of bST supplemented to Holstein cows for 3 wk

  11. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  12. The use of simple physiological and environmental measures to estimate the latent heat transfer in crossbred Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Severino Guilherme Caetano Gonçalves dos; Saraiva, Edilson Paes; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Fonsêca, Vinicus França Carvalho; Pinheiro, Antônio da Costa; Almeida, Maria Elivania Vieira; de Amorim, Mikael Leal Cabral Menezes

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the heat transfer through cutaneous and respiratory evaporation of dairy cows raised in tropical ambient conditions using simple environmental and physiological measures. Twenty-six lactating crossbred cows (7/8 Holstein-Gir) were used, 8 predominantly white and 18 predominantly black. The environmental variables air temperature, relative humidity, black globe temperature, and wind speed were measured. Respiratory rate and coat surface temperature were measured at 0700, 0900, 1100, 1300, and 1500 h. The environmental and physiological data were used to estimate heat loss by respiratory (ER) and cutaneous evaporation (EC). Results showed that there was variation ( P cows kept confined in tropical ambient conditions.

  13. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two......In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced...... partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW...

  14. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    with whole cracked rapeseed (WCR), control supplemented with rumen protected vegetable fat (Lipmix 40/60, Lipitec, NLM Vantinge Aps, Ringe, Denmark) (RPF), and RPF supplemented with HMBi (MetaSmart, Adisseo, France) (RPFA). Rations contained 2.63%, 5.63%, 5.55%, and 5.59% crude fat on dry matter (DM) basis......, ECM and lactose, but decreased milk protein and urea concentrations compared to CON. No effects of HMBi on milk yield and composition were detected. Lactation persistency was improved for all fat supplemented treatments for multiparous cows, particularly with WCR. Fat supplemented rations decreased...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  15. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    parturition until week 30 of lactation. Cows were ad libitum fed one of the three MR based on maize and grass/clover silage, barley, soybean meal, and dried sugar beet pulp. In the saturated ration (SFA), C16 rich fat substituted barley on dry matter (DM) basis; in the unsaturated ration (UFA), ground rape......The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...... were performed within breed and random regression was used to test for differences between treatment responses throughout lactations. For all breeds, SFA increased milk fat concentration of C16 whereas UFA increased milk fat concentration of unsaturated as well as saturated C18 fatty acids (FA...

  16. [Isolation and identification of cellulolytic anaerobic fungi and their associated methanogens from holstein cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meizhou; Jin, Wei; Li, Yuanfei; Mao, Shengyong; Cheng, Yanfen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2014-05-04

    We studied the microbial interaction between anaerobic fungi and methanogens in the rumen of Holstein Cow. Co-cultures of anaerobic fungi with indigenously associated methanogen were isolated by Hungate roll-tube technique. The anaerobic fungi were identified by morphology and 4', 6 diamidino-2-phylindole nucleus staining and the methanogens were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 28 co-cultures of anaerobic fungus with indigenously associated methanogen were obtained. The anaerobic fungi in the co-cultures were identified as monocentric genera Piromyces, Neocallimastix and Caeomyces. The indigenously associated methanogens were Methanobrevibacter olleyae like and Methanobrevibacter thaueri like strains. Four different phylotypes of fungus-methanogen co-cultures were obtained, which were Piromyces/Methanobrevibacter olleyae like strains, Neocallimastix/ Methanobrevibacter olleyae like strains, Neocallimastix/Methanobrevibacter thaueri like strains and Caecomyces/ Methanobrevibacter olleyae like strains. Our study isolated and identified 28 co-cultures of anaerobic fungus and associated methanogens, which provided new materials for further study the mechanism of methane emission in the rumen.

  17. Detection of faecal Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in diarrheic Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, K; Pourjafar, M; Ghane, M

    2011-08-01

    Over a one-year period, based on a random cluster sampling design, 661 faecal samples from natural cases of diarrheic calves were taken in Fars province of Iran. The samples were taken from the 267 diarrheic calves of high and 394 diarrheic calves of average producing Holstein dairy cows. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum. Herd selection was based on geographical location and density of cattle in the region. Samples were collected based on 5 percent of herd population in 4 geographical regions: North, West, East and South of Fars province. The herds were stratified into small, medium and large size. Laboratory investigation consisted of a direct identification test for antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum. All herds had HPDC and APDC Cryptosporidium-infected diarrheic calves in their population. Diarrheic Cryptosporidium infected HPDC calves in southern region of Fars province were at much lower risk (P2 to 3years) showed a higher rate of infection when compared to diarrheic HPDC Cryptosporidium infected ones. There were no differences among the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic HPDC and APDC calves of different herd size groups.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of multiple doses of transdermal flunixin meglumine in adult Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Gorden, P J; Smith, J S; Schleining, J A; Kleinhenz, K E; Wulf, L L; Sidhu, P K; Rea, D; Coetzee, J F

    2018-02-20

    A transdermal formulation of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, flunixin meglumine, has been approved in the United States and Canada for single-dose administration. Transdermal flunixin meglumine was administered to 10 adult Holstein cows in their second or third lactation at the label dose of 3.33 mg/kg every 24 hr for three total treatments. Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed on each individual animal with noncompartmental methods using computer software. The time to maximum drug concentration (Tmax) was 2.81 hr, and the maximum drug concentration was 1.08 μg/ml. The mean terminal half-life (T½) was determined to be 5.20 hr. Clearance per fraction absorbed (Cl/F) was calculated to be 0.294 L/hr kg -1 , and volume of distribution of fraction (Vz/F) absorbed was 2.20 L/kg. The mean accumulation factor was 1.10 after three doses. This indicates changes in dosing may not be required when giving multiple doses of flunixin transdermal. Further work is required to investigate the clinical efficacy of transdermal flunixin after multiple daily doses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Conception Rates of Holstein-Friesian Cows Inseminated Artificially with Reducing Frozen Semen Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conception rates of Holstein Friesian (HF acceptors were evaluated in artificial insemination (AI mating using three frozen semen doses of the straws per volume of 0.25 cc.  Frozen semen consisted of a standard dose by 25 x 106 sperms (L.1 and two reduced doses by 20 x 106 sperms (L.2 and 15x106 sperms (L.3.  This field study was conducted in dairy cattle area of Lembang NBMCU, from August 2011 to March 2012.  Frozen semens were obtained from two HF national progeny tested young bulls. Conception was detected by rectal palpation, around 60-90 days after AI mating. Conception rates (CR % were calculated as a ratio between pregnant acceptors to the total AI mated cows.  Some general linear model analyzes were conducted by considering fixed variables of semen dose (3, bull (2, inseminator (6 and parity (5.  The results showed that three frozen semen doses did not significantly affect (P>0.05 on CR (%.  By decreasing semen dose to L.3 gave CR (% similar to L2 even to L1.  It was concluded that frozen semen doses of HF bulls at the levels of 20 million to 15 million sperms per straw per volume of 0.25 cc resulted CR (% similar to the standard one.

  20. Transcriptome profiles of whole blood in Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental lactating cows diverging for genetic merit for milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, M; Stefanon, B; Loor, J J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the variation of gene expression in the blood of lactating cows in relation to the genetic merit for productive traits. For the study, 24 Italian Holstein (IH) cows from a single farm and 24 Italian Simmental (IS) cows from a second farm were selected. Cows were in mid-lactation, and farms had similar management and feeding conditions. For each breed, cows were separated into 3 classes of estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk protein yield (EBVp), namely, 8 cows with low EBVp (low group, LG), 8 cows with high EBV (high group, HG), and the 8 cows closest to the median (medium group, MG). Gene expression was measured on blood with a whole-transcriptome bovine microarray, and data of LG and HG were expressed relative to MG. The number of differentially expressed genes between the low and high EBVp groups were 443 for IS and 281 for IH cows. The IS cows had a greater number of genes (398 vs. 241 in IH cows) with opposite expression in the high and low EBV groups, compared with the MG. In IS cows, the largest number of pathways affected were within the KEGG subcategories of "energy metabolism," "lipid metabolism," and "metabolism of cofactors and vitamins." Furthermore, the "glutathione metabolism" pathway was markedly affected, with GSTM1 (from glutathione-S-transferase family), GSS (glutathione synthetase), and G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) upregulated in the IS HG but downregulated in the IS LG group. The "intestinal immune network for IgA production" pathway had 2 bovine leukocytes antigen (BoLA-DQ) genes, and the B-cell activating factor of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF13B) upregulated in the IS LG group and downregulated in the IS HG group. The IH cows had the highest number of affected pathways in the "metabolism" and "organismal systems" categories, the latter with 5 out of 10 subcategories relative to the immune system. Within the "T cell receptor signaling pathway," the IH HG cows had upregulation of the CD1

  1. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  2. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K

    2015-10-01

    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  3. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  4. Periparturition alterations to liver ultrasonographic echo-texture and fat mobilization parameters in clinically healthy Holstein cows.

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    Rafia, Saman; Taghipour-Bazargani, Taghi; Asadi, Farzad; Vajhi, Alireza; Bokaie, Saied

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to record the sequential alterations in liver echo-texture through digital analyzing of the B-mode ultrasonography in three groups of under-conditioned (UC), moderate-conditioned (MC), and over-conditioned (OC) clinically healthy Holstein cows from 30 days to calving until 30 days in milk. Furthermore, to compare their changes in association with the changes of fat mobilization parameters of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and body condition score (BCS). Although the cows lost significant (P < 0.05) BCS from calving and the NEFA values showed an increasing trend near calving and the BHBA values significantly inclined postparturition, the mean grey scale histogram (MGSH) of liver images did not reveal significant fluctuations unless a significant decrease on calving day (P < 0.05). The MGSH drop was predicted to be the result of anatomical changes in abdominal cavity, related to delivery and liver's blood flow. OC cows had higher NEFA on day +20 than UC and MC cows (P < 0.05). UC cows showed higher MGSH values on day -30 than MC cows and again on day -10 comparing to MC and OC cows (P < 0.05). MGSH values correlated with BCS values (rUC = -0.186; rMC = -0.283; rOC = -0.158). It was concluded that the studied cows did not show significant alterations in textural changes in their liver ultrasound whilst going through fat mobilization. As quantitative ultrasonography has shown the potential to detect cases of fatty liver, it could gain the attention to become a feasible device for liver health monitoring on a herd basis.

  5. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

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    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  6. Mineral profile of crossbred F 1 Holstein x Gyr dairy cows during the transition period in summer and winter

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    T.F. Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The transition period is often a great challenge for dairy cows and mineral imbalances are frequent. With the aim to better understand the mineral profile of F1 Holstein x Gyr dairy cows and their performances under the different conditions of summer and winter, we collected blood samples to measure calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Samplings were performed during summer and winter, on 15 and 13 pluriparous F1 Holstein x Gyr dairy cows, respectively. Blood sampling started 4 weeks prior to the expected calving date until 30 days postpartum. The mean concentrations of all three minerals had a different pattern during the transition period in each season, representing the interaction time x season. Calcium concentration was lower in winter and more animals suffered from subclinical hypocalcemia (100% then in summer (38.46%. Magnesium concentration was also lower in winter and 46.67% of animals had hypomagnesemia, contributing for the higher hypocalcemia frequency observed in the same season. A high proportion of animals had hyperphosphatemia what can represent an environmental problem and more attention should be given to it. The high frequency of animals with subclinical hypocalcemia is alarming once that can lead to greater consequences.

  7. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  8. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  9. Mutations in lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene change the susceptibility to clinical mastitis in Chinese Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jienan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Wenxin; Cai, Yafei; Wang, Genlin

    2012-10-01

    Mastitis is an unsolved human challenge all dairy farms facing with, which leads to immeasurable economic loss to the farmers. LBP gene plays a vital role in the innate immune recognition of Gram-negative bacterium that is a major cause of bovine clinical mastitis, but little is known about LBP mutations and their effects on cows' susceptibility to clinical mastitis. In this study, PCR-SSCP method was adopted to analyze SNPs of LBP gene in Chinese Holstein for the first time. 17 SNPs were found in the promoter core region, exon1, exon2, exon3, exon4 and exon8. The mutation g.-81C → T in promoter leads to an AP-2 binding site lost. Two mutations, g.11T → C (4 Leu → Ser) and g.68G → C (23Gly → Ala) in signal peptide brought about molecular secondary structural change, meanwhile, g.11T → C made a Big-1 domain lost, and there was an N-myristoylation site at the g.68G/C locus. The three mutations above were in complete linkage disequilibrium in allele A. In mature LBP protein, five mutations were found: g.3034G → A(36Asp → Asn), g.3040A → G(38Asn → Asp), g.3056T → C(43Ile → Thr) in allele D; g.4619G → A(67Ala → Thr) in allele F; 19975G → A (282Val → Met) in allele J. And SNPs in allele D and F were in complete linkage disequilibrium, also in which 38Asn → Asp and 67Ala → Thr influenced the protein secondary structure. Prediction of the 3-D structure shows mutations 36Asp → Asn, 38Asn → Asp and 43 Ile → Thr were on the concave surface of LBP protein at barrel-N, 67Ala → Thr was in the apolar pocket at barrel-N. Motif analysis shows 36Asp → Asn causes loss of a CK2 phosphorylation site, 67 Ala → Thr forms a new PKC phosphorylation site. And 43Ile → Thr, 67Ala → Thr made hydrophobic amino acids to be hydrophilic amino acids. Interestingly, the morbidity of AB (mixed type g.-81C/T, g.11T/C, g.68G/C), CD (mixed type g.3034G/A, g.3040A/G, g.3056T/C) and EF (mixed type g.4619G/A) genotype cows are significant higher than

  10. Characterization of luteal dynamics in lactating Holstein cows for 32 days after synchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Carvalho, P D; Amundson, M C; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-04

    Approximately 20 to 30% of cows diagnosed not pregnant 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI) lack a corpus luteum (CL), and cows submitted to a resynchronization protocol in the absence of a CL have about 10% fewer pregnancies per AI (P/AI) than cows with a CL. An understanding of luteal dynamics after synchronization of ovulation and TAI may help refine strategies for reinseminating cows failing to conceive. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 141) were synchronized for first TAI using a Double-Ovsynch protocol. Thrice weekly from 4 to 32 d after TAI, blood samples were collected for evaluation of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations, and CL diameter was measured using transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnancy status was determined using transrectal ultrasonography 32 d after TAI. Nonsynchronized cows (n = 4) were removed from the study. For cows diagnosed pregnant 32 d after TAI (n = 57), P4 increased from 4 to 15 d and then remained constant until 32 d after TAI, whereas CL volume increased from 4 to 11 d and then remained constant until 32 d after TAI. For cows diagnosed not pregnant 32 d after TAI (n = 80), P4 profiles were evaluated using statistical cluster analysis based on the day after TAI that P4 decreased to 32 d after TAI (5.0%), and (5) CL maintained until 32 d after TAI (21.3%). Plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) levels at 25 and 32 d after TAI differed among clusters and were below the cut-off value of the assay for the classification of cows as not pregnant for cows in clusters 2, 3, and 4, whereas more than half of the cows in cluster 5 had increased plasma PAG levels. We conclude that at least half of the nonpregnant cows that maintained their CL until 32 d after TAI were initially pregnant but underwent early pregnancy loss based on increased plasma PAG levels at 25 and 32 d after TAI. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short communication: Metritis affects milk production and cull rate of Holstein multiparous and primiparous dairy cows differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittrock, J M; Proudfoot, K L; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-05-01

    Metritis, a common transition disease in dairy cows, reduces milk production during the duration of the disease. To our knowledge, no work has investigated the short-term effects of metritis on feed intake and the long-term consequences on milk yield and risk of culling. The objectives were to determine the effect of metritis on 305-d lactation curves, dry matter intake (DMI), reproduction, and the probability of being culled. Identifying differences in response to metritis between primiparous and multiparous cows was of interest. Milk records were collected twice daily from Holstein cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis (11 primiparous and 16 multiparous) or classified as healthy (14 primiparous and 43 multiparous) during the first 3 wk after calving. Metritic cows were treated at the discretion of the herd veterinarian. Lactation curves of healthy and metritic cows were compared using a mixed model with a Wilmink function. Differences in DMI, days open, and the number of services per conception were assessed using mixed models. The probabilities that cows with and without metritis were not bred, were bred but never confirmed pregnant, or were culled were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Primiparous and multiparous animals were assessed separately. Multiparous cows with metritis produced less milk (35.1±1.5 vs. 39.2±1.0 kg/d), ate less during the 3 wk after calving (12.2±1.2 vs.14.0±0.8 kg/d), and were more likely to be culled (50.0%) than healthy cows (20.9%). The decision to cull was likely influenced by the lower milk yield in early lactation as a result of metritis; the decision to cull was made early, as 7 of the 8 culled metritic cows were not bred. No differences were found in any measurement between primiparous cows with and without metritis. These results indicate that metritis in early lactation has long-term effects on multiparous cows but not primiparous cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Relationships among the cervical mucus urea and acetone, accuracy of insemination timing, and sperm survival in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, J; Stádník, L; Ducháček, J; Okrouhlá, M; Doležalová, M; Kadlecová, V; Ptáček, M

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationships among urea and acetone content in cows' cervical mucus (CM), its crystallization type (CT) and sperm survival (SS) after timed AI. Samples of CM were collected from 192 Holstein cows treated by Ovsynch(®) protocol. Analysis of the urea and acetone content for identification of the metabolic status, the arborization test for evaluation of insemination timing and the short-term heat test of SS for assessment of its suitability as a biological matrix were performed. The data set was analyzed by the GLM procedure using SAS(®). The results documented the existence of substantial differences in individual response to the Ovsynch(®) protocol causing insemination of 55.2% cows at an inappropriate time. The urea content was found as a possible indicator of a cow's metabolism and/or of insemination timing, concentrations of less than 500 mg/L corresponded (Pacetone content on SS were determined. The greatest values of SS were detected in cows with an expected response to precisely timed oestrus documented by the corresponding CT. Greater values of urea (>260 mg/L) and acetone (>5mg/L) negatively affected SS as well (P<0.05-0.01). The results confirmed that the accuracy of insemination timing can be affected by the metabolism intensity, just as CM quality directly influences sperm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrophoretic study of whey proteins in Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis by Agarose gel procedure

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    A Davasaz Tabrizi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one the most important economic diseases in dairy cattle industry, which causes reduction in milk production, treatment expenses, reduction in herd genetic progress and fall in quality of milk. The aim of this study was to examine the milk proteins of Holstein dairy cows with different grades of clinical and subclinical mastitis. During the sampling period, none of the cows were in late pregnancy or at early lactation and also had no parasitemia and any other inflammatory diseases.  Clinical and laboratory examinations which were carried out completely revealed the cows were all healthy. They were fed on corn silage, concentrate and alfalfa. In this study, the cows were divided into five groups, each group with 25 cases. For this purpose, milk samples were collected from 125 dairy cattle of two large dairy farms in Tabriz. All the cows were in the lactation period and they were milked three times a day. The groups consist of the control group with negative California mastitis test and negative culture, 2+ subclinical groups, 3+ subclinical group, sub acute clinical group and acute clinical group. The results of the whey electrophoresis using Agarose gel procedure indicated significant difference in albumin levels in all groups except the 2+ subclinical group compared with the control group (p

  14. The influence of ordinal number and stage of lactation on milkability traits in Holstein cows

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    Pero Mijić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milkability traits have an increasing importance in modern cattle production, although they are the secondary selective trait. The machine milking of cows has indicated that there is no complete alignment between the machine and the animals, what lead to increasing duration of milking and disturbances in health of udder. Because of that, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the ordinal number of lactation and stage of lactation on milkability traits (amount of milk per milking (KMM, maximum milk flow rate (MPM, average milk flow rate (PPM, duration of the start of milk flow (tS500, duration of the ascending phase of milking (tUFM, duration of the plateau phase of milking (tPFM, duration of the descending phase of milking (tSFM, duration of the main phase of milking (tGFM, and recommend the same for the selection work. The study was done on 322 Holstein cows in the period from the first to third lactation, arranged in three stages of lactation (the first of the 50-90 day, the second stage of the 91-135 day and a third of 136-180 day of lactation. The results showed that the ordinal number of lactation had a highly statistically significant influence (P<0.01 on KMM and MPM, and on the PPM and tGFM (P<0.05. Statistically significant influence of the stage of lactation on the KMM was recorded in the first and second lactation (P<0.05 respectively in the third lactation (P<0.01. Was recorded a significant positive influence of KMM (P<0.05 on the MPM, tPFM, tSFM and tGFM (r = from 0.22 to 0.52. The negative correlation of the MPM (P<0.05 was recorded with some parts of the milking phase duration (r = -0.14 to -0.47. The results indicate that there are opportunities for selection work to improve milkability traits, which can have a positive impact on the economy of expenditure of time during milking, and indirectly improve the health of the udder.

  15. Good sensory quality and cheesemaking properties in milk from Holstein cows managed for an 18-month calving interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, G M; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, M K; Kidmose, U; Gaillard, C; Sehested, J; Larsen, L B

    2016-11-01

    Extended calving interval (CInt) for high-yielding dairy cows beyond the traditional 12mo has been suggested as a profitable, environmentally and welfare-friendly production strategy. However, concerns exist on whether extending cow CInt, and consequently prolonging lactation length, impairs milk quality. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of milk produced during the extended lactation period to mid lactation. In particular, milk indicators related to udder integrity and cheesemaking properties when cows were fed low- or high-energy diets in early lactation mobilization period. Forty-seven healthy Danish Holstein cows (15 primi- and 32 multiparous) were fed 2 distinct weight-adjusted diets in early lactation: either a high-density diet for approximately 42d in milk (DIM) followed by a low-density diet (n=22), or a low-density diet throughout the whole experiment (n=25). Milk quality was explored at 3 lactation periods: 140 to 175 DIM (P1), 280 to 315 DIM (P2), and 385 to 420 DIM (P3). Lactation period was found to be the main factor affecting milk yield, quality, and cheesemaking properties. Primiparous cows kept the same daily milk yield throughout the studied periods, whereas multiparous cows produced, on average, 10.2kg/d less in P3 compared with P1. Fat, protein, and casein concentrations increased, respectively, by 18, 16, and 16%, from P1 to P3. Cheesemaking properties, such as curd-firming rate, gel strength, and wet and dry curd yield, got an improvement from P1 to P3 and were strongly correlated with milk concentrations of protein and casein. The udder integrity indicators, somatic cells count, level of free amino terminals as an index of proteolysis, and milk pH, remained unchanged throughout the studied lactation periods. Feeding cows either high- or low-density diets during the early lactation mobilization period did not exert any relevant carryover effect on milk composition, and thus had no effect on cheesemaking properties in extended

  16. Kurthia ruminicola sp. nov., isolated from the rumen contents of a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Kim, Eun Tae; Kim, Sang Bum; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj

    2018-01-01

    Gram-staining-positive, motile, rod-shaped bacteria, designated as H31022 T and H31024 was isolated from rumen contents of a Holstein cow. Optimum growth occurred at 25°C and pH 7.0 on R2A agar medium. Oxidase and catalase activities are positive. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1,452 bp) of the new isolates revealed they belong to the genus Kurthia of the phylum Firmicutes. Highest gene sequence similarities were assessed to be with Kurthia massiliensis JC30 T (98.4%), Kurthia senegalensis JC8E T (97.5%), and Kurthia populi 10y-14 T (97.4%). Kurthia sibirica DSM 4747 T (97.3%), Kurthia zopfii NBRC 101529 T (97.0%), and Kurthia gibsonii NCIMB 9758 T (96.7%). DNA G + C content of strains H31022 T and H31024 were 34.4% and 39.7%. Strains H31022 T and H31024 has the following chemotaxonomic characteristics; the major fatty acids are iso-C 15:0 , iso-C 14:0 and anteiso-C 15 ; polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), unknown aminophospholipids (APL), unknown glycolipids (GL), unknown phospholipids (PL), and unknown polar lipids (L); the major quinone is MK-7. Based on polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strains H31022 T (= KCTC 33923 T = JCM 19640 T ) and H31024 (= KCTC 33924 T = JCM 19641 T ) identified a novel species in the genus Kurthia for which the name Kurthia ruminicola sp. nov. is proposed.

  17. Genetic parameters of fatty acids in Italian Brown Swiss and Holstein cows

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    Emanuela Tullo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and to predict experimental breeding values (EBVs for saturated (SFA, unsaturated (UFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, the ratio of fatty acids, and the productive traits in Italian Brown Swiss (BSW and Holstein Friesian (HOL cattle. Test-day yields from 235,658 HOL and 21,723 BSW cows were extracted from the Italian HOL and BSW Associations databases from November 2009 to October 2012 out of 3310 herds. The milk samples collected within the routine milk recording scheme were processed with the MilkoscanTM FT 6500 Plus (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark for the identification of SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA composition in milk. Genetic parameters for fatty acids and productive traits were estimated on 1,765,552 records in HOL and 255,592 records in BSW. Heritability values estimated for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 for the BSW breed and from 0.10 to 0.29 for HOL. The genetic trends for the fatty acids were consistent between traits and breeds. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations among EBVs for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA and official EBVs for fat percentage were in the range 0.32 to 0.54 for BSW and 0.44 to 0.64 for HOL. The prediction of specific EBVs for milk fatty acids and for the ratio among them may be useful to identify the best bulls to be selected with the aim to improve milk quality in terms of fat content and fatty acid ratios, achieving healthier dairy productions for consumers.

  18. Frequency of ovarian follicular cysts, reasons for culling, and fertility in Holstein-Friesian cows given gonadotropin-releasing hormone at two weeks after parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, J H; Harrison, D S; Morrow, D A

    1977-06-01

    Holstein-Friesian cows (n=204) were given saline solution or 200 microgram of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by intramuscular injection at 8 to 23 days after parturition. Of cows culled, fewer GnRH-treated cows were culled for infertility, compared with number of cows given saline solution (26 vs 57%; P less than 0.05). Frequency of ovarian follicular cysts was reduced from 15.2% in controls to 5.7% for cows given GnRH (P less than 0.01). The interval to 1st insemination, interval to conception, and inseminations per conception did not differ among saline solution or GnRH-treated cows which remained in the herds. These data provide evidence for reduction in infertility and reproductive disorders in early postpartum dairy cows given GnRH as a prophylactic.

  19. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

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    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; energy density, as determined from individual cow performance, indicating that digestibility explains some of the between-animal differences for the ability to convert gross energy into net energy. Some of the differences in digestibility between HRFI and LRFI were expected because cows with high RFI eat at a greater multiple of maintenance, and greater intake is associated with increased passage rate and digestibility depression. Based on these data, we conclude that a cow

  20. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.

  1. Genetic Parameters for Dry Matter Intake at Different Lactation Stages among Primiparous Holstein, Jersey and Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Løvendahl, Peter; Fikse, W F

    This study evaluated the genetic variation in Dry Matter Intake (DMI) at 6 lactation stages over the first 24 lactation weeks in a population including Holstein, Jersey and Red cows. In total, 830 primiparous cows from Sweden and Denmark were included. Genetic parameters were estimated based...... on a linear mixed model. Heritability for DMI ranged between 0.16 and 0.35 across lactation stages. The lowest repeatability and heritability were found during the first 4 weeks of lactation, indicating large residual variance and low response to selection for DMI from early lactation. Genetic correlations...... between DMI across lactation stages ranged from 0.46 to 0.99. The weakest genetic correlation occurred between early and mid lactation, indicating a different genetic basis for DMI along lactation. A potential difference in genetic variation was found between Jersey and the other two breeds, requiring...

  2. Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri inoculation or 1-propanol supplementation to corn silage on the performance of lactating Holstein cows

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    Janielen da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effects of corn silage supplemented with 1-propanol or inoculated with L. buchneri on the ruminal fermentation profile, digestibility, and production traits of lactating Holstein cows. Whole-corn plants were harvested at 350 g/kg dry matter (DM and packed in nine bag silos (13 t/silo. At ensiling, two treatments were applied: control (no additive; six silos and L. buchneri inoculation with 1 × 105 cfu/g (three silos. Feeding started after 247 days of storage; one L. buchneri and two control silos were opened in each experimental period. Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows (~33 kg/day of milk were allocated to seven balanced 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-day periods (14 days of adaptation. The experimental diets contained (DM basis: 80 g/kg cottonseed, 95 g/kg citrus pulp, 180 g/kg soybean meal, 90 g/kg corn grain (ground, 25 g/kg minerals and vitamins premix, and 530 g/kg of corn silage. Source of corn silage was the only difference between experimental treatments: control, L. buchneri, or control silage supplemented with 1-propanol (10 g/kg of diet DM. The 1-propanol was dissolved in water (1:1 and sprinkled onto the ration during mixing, immediately before each feeding. Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, and composition were not affected by treatments. Cows fed 1-propanol had greater concentrations of 1-propanol in the rumen fluid, higher concentration of glucose, and lower concentration of non-esterified fatty acids in blood plasma. Corn silage inoculated with L. buchneri at 1 × 105 cfu/g does not affect silage fermentation, ruminal fermentation profile, or milk production. Supplementation of 1-propanol at 10 g/kg affects the ruminal fermentation profile without affecting feed intake and milk production of mid-lactating dairy cows.

  3. Effects of rumen-protected methionine and choline supplementation on vaginal discharge and uterine cytology of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra S. Skenandore

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Methionine is one of the most limiting amino acids in dairy diets and low feed intake around the time of calving could lead to decreased synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. An alternative pathway for phosphatidylcholine is to have choline as a precursor. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected methionine and choline pre – and postpartum on reproduction of Holstein cows. Seventy-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to four treatments from 21 days before calving to 30 days in milk (DIM: supplementation with rumen-protected methionine (MET; n = 20, received 0.08% of the dry matter (DM of the diet/d as methionine, Smartamine M® to a Lys:Met = 2.9:1, rumen-protected choline (CHO; n = 17, received 60 g/d choline, Reassure, both rumen protected methionine and choline (MIX; n = 19, received 0.08% of the DM of the diet/d as methionine to a Lys:Met = 2.9:1 and 60 g/d choline, or no supplementation to serve as control (CON; n = 16, fed total mixed ration with a Lys:Met = 3.5:1. Cows were evaluated at 4, 7, 10, 13, 15, 17, and 30 d after calving for the presence of secretion using the Metricheck® device. On 15, 30, and 72 d after calving, the uterine endometrium of all cows was sampled using a cytological brush and streaked onto slides for analysis of the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN. We hypothesized that cows supplemented with methionine would have lower metricheck smell scores and lower rates of PMN than non-supplemented cows. On d 30, a treatment difference was detected using the metricheck score and smell (P < 0.04, with treatment MIX (score = 0.38 having a lower score than CHO (score = 2.11. Supplementing cows with rumen-protected methionine may have a beneficial effect on cows’ uterine health.

  4. The influence of strain of Holstein-Friesian cow and feeding system on greenhouse gas emissions from pastoral dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Shalloo, L; Grainger, C; Buckley, F; Horan, B; Wallace, M

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the effect of 3 divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in 3 pasture-based feed systems on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 3 strains of Holstein-Friesian compared were high-production North American (HP), high-durability North American (HD), and New Zealand (NZ). The 3 feed systems were a high grass allowance system (MP, control); high stocking rate system (HS); and high concentrate supplementation system (HC). The MP system had an overall stocking rate of 2.47 cows/ha and received 325 kg of dry matter concentrate per cow in early lactation. The HS system had a similar concentrate input to the MP system, but had an overall stocking rate of 2.74 cows/ha. The HC system had a similar overall stocking rate to the MP system, but 1,445 kg of dry matter concentrate was offered per cow. A newly developed integrated economic-GHG farm model was used to evaluate the 9 milk production systems. The GHG model estimates on-farm (emissions arising within the farm's physical boundaries) and production system (incorporating all emissions associated with the production system up to the point milk leaves the farm gate) GHG emissions. Production system GHG emissions were always greater than on-farm emissions, and the ranking of the 9 systems was usually consistent under both methods. The exception was the NZ strain that achieved their lowest GHG emission per unit of product in the HC system when indirect emissions were excluded, but their lowest emission was in the HS system when indirect emissions were included. Generally, the results showed that as cow strain changed from lower (HD and NZ) to higher genetic potential (HP) for milk production, the GHG emission per kilogram of milk solids increased. This was because of a decline in cow fertility in the HP strain that resulted in a higher number of nonproductive animals, leading to a lower total farm milk solids production and an increase in emissions from nonproductive animals. The GHG

  5. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  6. Modeling heat stress effect on Holstein cows under hot and dry conditions: selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Bachagha, K; Ramón, M; Díaz, C

    2014-12-01

    Data from milk recording of Holstein-Friesian cows together with weather information from 2 regions in Southern Spain were used to define the models that can better describe heat stress response for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS). Two sets of analyses were performed, one aimed at defining the population phenotypic response and the other at studying the genetic components. The first involved 2,514,762 test-day records from up to 5 lactations of 128,112 cows. Two models, one fitting a comfort threshold for temperature and a slope of decay after the threshold, and the other a cubic Legendre polynomial (LP) model were tested. Average (TAVE) and maximum daily temperatures were alternatively considered as covariates. The LP model using TAVE as covariate showed the best goodness of fit for all traits. Estimated rates of decay from this model for production at 25 and 34°C were 36 and 170, 3.8 and 3.0, and 3.9 and 8.2g/d per degree Celsius for milk, fat, and protein yield, respectively. In the second set of analyses, a sample of 280,958 test-day records from first lactations of 29,114 cows was used. Random regression models including quadratic or cubic LP regressions (TEM_) on TAVE or a fixed threshold and an unknown slope (DUMMY), including or not cubic regressions on days in milk (DIM3_), were tested. For milk and SCS, the best models were the DIM3_ models. In contrast, for fat and protein yield, the best model was TEM3. The DIM3DUMMY models showed similar performance to DIM3TEM3. The estimated genetic correlations between the same trait under cold and hot temperatures (ρ) indicated the existence of a large genotype by environment interaction for fat (ρ=0.53 for model TEM3) and protein yield (ρ around 0.6 for DIM3TEM3) and for SCS (ρ=0.64 for model DIM3TEM3), and a small genotype by environment interaction for milk (ρ over 0.8). The eigendecomposition of the additive genetic covariance matrix from model TEM3 showed the existence of a dominant

  7. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  8. Effects of ruminal dosing of Holstein cows with Megasphaera elsdenii on milk fat production, ruminal chemistry, and bacterial strain persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Da Silva Cabral, L; Cacite, F

    2015-11-01

    Megasphaera elsdenii is a lactate-utilizing bacterium whose ruminal abundance has been shown to be greatly elevated during milk fat depression (MFD). To further examine this association, a total of 23 cannulated multiparous Holstein cows were examined in 3 experiments in which strains of M. elsdenii were directly dosed into the rumen (~2 × 10(12) cells/dose); control cows were dosed with sterile lactate-free culture medium. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (292 g of starch/kg of dry matter) that contained primarily corn silage, alfalfa silage, finely ground high-moisture corn, supplemental protein, and corn oil (3 g/kg of dry matter). Experiments differed in stage of lactation of the cows (early or late), dosing events (single dose, or 4 doses over a 5-d period), timing of dose (prefeed or 4 h postfeed), and M. elsdenii strain (laboratory strain YI9 or 3 strains isolated from cows in the same herd). Dry matter intake and milk yield and composition were measured from 5 to 0 d before dosing and 1 to 7d after first dosing, plus later time points that varied by experiment. Milk yield and composition were not affected by dosing. Megasphaera elsdenii was quantified in the liquid phase of ruminal contents by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis, or by PCR with relative quantification (M. elsdenii 16S rRNA gene copy number as a percentage of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies). Neither the M. elsdenii-dosed or control cows displayed MFD after dosing, and in almost all cases M. elsdenii populations returned to low baseline levels (cows that were dosed with a strain of M. elsdenii that had been isolated from that particular cow during a previous bout of MFD. Ruminal pH and total millimolar volatile fatty acids and lactate did not differ between dosed and control cows, although acetate-to-propionate ratio declined in both groups and butyrate increased after dosing with M. elsdenii. The results confirm that establishing exogenously added bacterial strains in the

  9. Association among gestation length and health, production, and reproduction in Holstein cows and implications for their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2017-04-01

    Objectives were to evaluate associations among gestation length (GL) and performance in Holstein cows and their offspring. A total of 8,095 Holstein cows and 3,635 female offspring born alive on 2 farms using only artificial insemination (AI) were evaluated. Gestation length averaged 276 ± 6 d in the 8,095 dams, and it was categorized as short (SGL; at least 1 SD below the population mean; mean = 266 d, range 256 to 269 d), average (AGL; population mean ± 1 SD; mean = 276 d, range 270 to 282 d), or long (LGL; at least 1 SD above the population mean; mean = 285 d, range 283 to 296 d). Responses evaluated in dams included incidence of diseases within 90 d in milk (DIM), pregnancy at first AI and by 300 DIM, and time to pregnancy. Milk yield and removal from the herd by culling or death were recorded for the first 300 DIM. Responses evaluated in female offspring born alive included removal from the herd and reproductive performance. Within primiparous cows, those with SGL had greater incidence of stillbirth, retained placenta, and metritis than primiparous with AGL or LGL; however, within multiparous cows, those with SGL or LGL had greater incidence of dystocia, stillbirth, retained placenta, and metritis than cows with AGL. Morbidity and rate of morbidity were greater for SGL and LGL than AGL. Rate of removal of dams from the herd was 38% faster for SGL than AGL. Milk production was greatest in AGL cows, but responses depended on parity. For primiparous cows, milk production was less in SGL and LGL than in AGL (AGL = 35.4, SGL = 34.6, LGL = 33.0 ± 0.4 kg/d), whereas for multiparous cows, production was less in SGL but greater in LGL than in AGL (AGL = 41.6, SGL = 38.6, LGL = 42.4 ± 0.3 kg/d). A smaller proportion of cows with SGL received at least one AI, but pregnancy at first AI did not differ among groups. Rate of pregnancy was 11% slower for LGL multiparous than for AGL multiparous. By 300 DIM, pregnancy was greater in AGL than SGL. Pregnancy by 300 DIM in

  10. Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Storm, Adam C; Vestergaard, Mogens; Larsen, Mogens; Larsen, Torben

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of propylene glycol (PG) allocation on concentrations of milk metabolites with potential use as indicators of glucogenic status in high yielding postpartum dairy cows. At time of calving, nine ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were randomly assigned to ruminal dosing of 500 g/d tap water (CON, n = 4) or 500 g/d PG (PPG, n = 5). The PG was given with the morning feeding week 1-4 postpartum (treatment period) and cows were further followed during week 5-8 postpartum (follow-up period). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet. Milk samples were obtained at each milking (3 times/d) in the treatment period, and at morning milking during the follow-up period. Weekly blood samples were obtained from -4 to +8 weeks relative to calving and daily blood samples from -7 until +7 d relative to calving. The main effect of PG allocation was an increased glucogenic status, e.g. visualised by a prompt marked increase in blood fructosamine. During the treatment period, milk concentration of free glucose tended to be greater, whereas milk concentrations of isocitrate and BHBA were lower for PPG compared with CON. It is proposed that the ratio between free glucose and isocitrate in milk may be a potential biomarker for glucogenic status in the vulnerable early postpartum period. We will pursue this issue in the future.

  11. Relationships between milk protein composition, milk protein variants, and cow fertility traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, R M; Markiewicz, K; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2010-11-01

    Selective breeding can change milk protein composition to improve the manufacturing properties of milk. However, the effects of such breeding strategies on other economically important traits should be investigated before implementation. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between cow fertility traits and (1) milk protein composition and (2) milk protein variants (β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein, and β-κ-casein) in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,644 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. Greater relative concentration of α(S1)-casein within total milk protein had a positive phenotypic relationship with nonreturn rates and calving rate after first insemination. Furthermore, results showed virtually no significant relationship between cow fertility and concentration of other milk proteins or milk protein variants. Results of this study can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk protein composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. Our findings suggest that selecting cows based on milk protein composition or milk protein variants for improved manufacturing properties would have no negative influence on reproductive performance. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic parameters of milk production traits and fatty acid contents in milk for Holstein cows in parity 1-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Soyeurt, H; Gengler, N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of milk, fat, and protein yields, fat and protein contents, somatic cell count, and 17 groups and individual milk fatty acid (FA) contents predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry for first-, second- and third-parity Holstein cows. Edited data included records collected in the Walloon region of Belgium from 37,768 cows in parity 1,22,566 cows in parity 2 and 8221 in parity 3. A total of 69 (23 traits for three parities) single-trait random regression animal test-day models were run. Approximate genetic correlations among traits were inferred from pairwise regressions among estimated breeding values of cow having observations. Heritability and genetic correlation estimates from this study reflected the origins of FA: de novo synthetized or originating from the diet and the body fat mobilization. Averaged daily heritabilities of FA contents in milk ranged between 0.18 and 0.47. Average daily genetic correlations (averaged across days in milk and parities) among groups and individual FA contents in milk ranged between 0.31 and 0.99. The genetic variability of FAs in combination with the moderate to high heritabilities indicated that FA contents in milk could be changed by genetic selection; however, desirable direction of change in these traits remains unclear and should be defined with respect to all issues of importance related to milk FA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effect of oral calcium administration on the cure and reproductive performance of Holstein cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, Pablo; Velez, Juan; Solano, Gilberto; Rodriguez, Nelson; Naves, Julianne; Schuenemann, Gustavo M; Risco, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of oral calcium administration on clinical cure, survival, subsequent presentation of peripartal health disorders, and reproductive performance of Holstein cows diagnosed with puerperal metritis (PM) under certified organic management. A second objective was to evaluate the metabolic status at calving and at the time of PM diagnosis (d 0) in affected and matched healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with PM (n = 200) were assigned randomly to receive 1 of 2 treatments: (1) control received 3.75 mL of Optimum UterFlush [Van Beek Natural Science, Orange City, IA, containing yucca extract, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and a proprietary blend of carvacrol (4-isopropyl-2-methylphenol, at 0.47 g/mL)] diluted in 117 mL of distilled water by intrauterine infusion, administered every other day for a total of 3 treatments (n = 100); (2) calcium-supplemented (CA) received the same intrauterine treatment plus 6 oral capsules providing calcium ('O' Cal-D Cap, Bio-Vet Inc., Barneveld, WI; 7.5-9.0 g of Ca/capsule) once per day, for 3 consecutive days after diagnosis of PM. All cows received hypertonic saline solution (500 mL of 7.2% solution i.v. once), dextrose (500 mL of 50% solution i.v. once), and oral aspirin (5 boluses/d for 3 d). Outcome variables included fever, presence of fetid vaginal discharge, and uterine score at d 6 and 14 after diagnosis, survival at 30 and 100 d in milk, reproductive performance, and incidence of other health disorders after PM. A group of 200 control healthy cows (CH) was matched with PM cows at d 0, and calcium and fatty acid serum concentrations were determined at calving and at the day of diagnosis of PM (d 0). Calcium status was also assessed in PM cows at d 1, 2, 3, and 6 after diagnosis. Treatment effects were tested by logistic regression, repeated measures analysis, and ANOVA. Average calcium serum concentrations at d 0 were lower in PM cows (1.57 mmol/L) compared with CH cows (2.10 mmol/L). In PM cows, calcium

  14. Individual animal variability in ruminal bacterial communities and ruminal acidosis in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Weimer, P J; Penner, G B; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability among individual cows in their severity of ruminal acidosis (RA) pre- and postpartum, and determine whether this variability was related to differences in their ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC). Variability in the severity of RA among individual cows was characterized based on ruminal fermentation variables. Effects of prepartum dietary treatment on the severity of RA were also examined. Fourteen Holstein heifers paired by expected calving date and BCS were allotted to 1 of 2 prepartum dietary treatments: low-concentrate or high-concentrate diets. All cows received the same lactation diet postpartum. Microbial DNA extracted from 58 ruminal digesta samples in total collected prepartum (d -50, -31, and -14; 27 samples) and postpartum (d +14 and +52; 31 samples) and amplified by PCR were subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Changes in ruminal variables over time [pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and acidosis indicators, including duration and area under the rumen pH curve below 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, measured on d -54, -35, -14, -3, +3, +17, +37, and +58] were analyzed using principal components analysis. Based on the shift (defined as the distance of the mean loadings) between the prepartum and postpartum period for each cow, the 14 cows were classified into 3 groups: least acidotic (n=5), most acidotic (n=5), and intermediate (n=4). Cows in the most acidotic group had greater severity of RA (measured as duration of total RA, mild RA, moderate RA, and acute RA; area under the pH curve for total RA, mild RA, and moderate RA) postpartum than prepartum, and this difference between periods was greater than for the least acidotic cows. Similarly, the RA index (total area of pH <5.8 normalized to intake) showed an interaction between severity of RA and period. The variation in the severity of RA was independent of intake, total VFA concentration, and individual VFA proportions

  15. Multifocal granulomatous jejunitis associated with an argyrophilic gram-positive segmented filamentous bacterium in a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibaraki, Y; Shibahara, T; Kobayashi, H; Ito, N; Shinozuka, Y; Kasuya, K; Murakoshi, N; Chikuba, T; Kubo, M

    2011-01-01

    Multifocal, raised, ulcerated firm nodules accompanied by an intussuscepted area were detected in the jejunum of an 8-year-old Holstein cow. The cut surfaces of the nodules were yellow-white. Microscopically, the lamina propria was expanded by an intense infiltration of epithelioid cells, multinucleate giant cells, macrophages, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Numerous bacteria were found within the granulomatous lesions. These were argyrophilic, gram-positive, periodic acid-Schiff-positive, segmented, rarely branched, elongate filamentous bacteria (2-28 μm in length, 0.2-0.35 μm in diameter). Ultrastructurally, a cell wall with an electron-transparent zone was detected. The present pathogen was clearly different from the argyrophilic, gram-negative, non-segmented, filamentous bacterium previously reported in a Holstein cow with jejunal granuloma. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that the organism was an unpublished species (GenBank accession number AB539875). This is the first report of bovine jejunal granuloma associated with an argyrophilic gram-positive segmented filamentous bacterium. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of parity on the proportion of important healthy fatty acids in raw milk of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Stádník

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the effect of parity on the fatty acids groups’ proportion in Holstein cows’ milk during the first phase of lactations, with an emphasis on its potential importance for consumer health. A total of 25 Holstein cows, 9 primiparous, 9 in the 2nd, and 7 in the 3rd and subsequent parity, were observed and sampled at 7-day intervals through the first 17 weeks of lactation. The percentage proportion of saturated (hypercholesterolemic and volatile as its components and unsaturated (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated as its components fatty acids in the samples of milk fat (n=425 was determined. The effects of parity and negative energy balance, as well as regression, on the lactation week and the fat to protein ratio were evaluated using SAS 9.3. A significantly (P<0.01 lower proportion of unhealthy hypercholesterolemic fatty acids was detected in primiparous cows (-2.67 % and those in the 3rd and subsequent lactation (-2.94 % compared to the 2nd lactation, as well as a simultaneously higher proportion of healthy unsaturated fatty acids (+2.07, respectively +3.08 %. The determined relationships corresponded to organism stress evoked by the initiation of milk production and its maintenance in higher parities. Therefore, the generally required prolongation of dairy cows’ longevity can influence on the quality of raw milk, especially considering composition of fatty acids.

  17. Differences of hormones involved in adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing Holstein cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzi Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate hormonal involvement in the adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing dairy cows in a hot environment. Forty Holstein healthy cows with a similar parity were used and assigned into high producing group (average production 41.44 ± 2.25 kg/d and low producing group (average production 29.92 ± 1.02 kg/d with 20 cows in each group. Blood samples were collected from caudal vein to determine the difference of hormones related to adipose metabolism and lactation. The highest, lowest, and average temperature humidity index (THI, recorded as 84.02, 79.35 and 81.89, respectively, indicated that cows were at the state of high heat stress. No significant differences between high and low producing groups were observed in the levels of nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, total cholesterol (TCHO, and insulin (INS (P > 0.05. However, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and estrogen (E2 concentrations in high producing group were significantly higher than those of low producing group (P  0.05, whereas high producing group had a rise in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level compared with low producing group (P < 0.05. These results indicated that, during summer, high and low producing dairy cows have similar levels of lipid catabolism, but high producing dairy cows have advantages in outputting hepatic triglyceride (TG.

  18. The effects of feeding 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emissions and productivity of Holstein cows in mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisan, J; Sun, Y; Guan, L L; Beauchemin, K A; Iwaasa, A; Duval, S; Barreda, D R; Oba, M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of adding 3-nitrooxypropanol to the diet of lactating Holstein cows on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, ruminal microbial profile, and milk production. Twelve ruminally cannulated Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a crossover design study with 28-d periods. Cows were fed a diet containing 38% forage on a dry matter basis with either 2,500 mg/d of 3-nitrooxypropanol (fed as 25 g of 10% 3-nitrooxypropanol on silicon dioxide) or 25 g/d of silicon dioxide (control). After a 21-d diet adaptation period, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield were recorded daily. Rumen fluid and digesta were collected on d 22 and 28 for volatile fatty acid analysis and microbial profiling. Enteric methane emissions were measured on d 23 to 27 using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique. Feeding 3-nitrooxypropanol did not affect DMI; however, methane production was reduced from 17.8 to 7.18 g/kg of DMI. No change in milk or milk component yields was observed, but cows fed 3-nitrooxypropanol gained more body weight than control cows (1.06 vs. 0.39 kg/d). Concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in ruminal fluid were not affected by treatment, but a reduction in acetate proportion and a tendency for an increase in propionate proportion was noted. As such, a reduction in the acetate-to-propionate ratio was observed (2.02 vs. 2.36). Protozoa counts were not affected by treatment; however, a reduction in methanogen copy count number was observed when 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (0.95 vs. 2.69 × 10(8)/g of rumen digesta). The data showed that feeding 3-nitrooxypropanol to lactating dairy cows at 2,500 mg/d can reduce methane emissions without compromising DMI or milk production. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short communication. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

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    Osman Azizi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL on milk yield (MY and composition, dry matter intake (DMI and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design including 4 periods and 4 experimental diets. The cows were fed diets containing 0 (control, 15, 30 and 45% of EAPBL, respectively. The highest DMI (p<0.05 was observed in cows fed diets containing 15 and 30% of EAPBL. Milk production was lower (p<0.05 in cows fed 0% EAPBL than in the other experimental groups. Diet including 45% of EAPBL increased (p<0.05 blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen concentration. Inclusion of EAPBL on dairy cows rations might efficiently cause an improvement on MY, milk composition and DMI.

  20. Study of lameness incidence in Holstein cows using gait scoring method and its relation with animal production, parity and body condition score

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    Ali Hosseinkhani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 397 Holstein dairy cows were used to determine locomotion score, lameness prevalence and its relationship with age of the animal and body condition score (BCS. Locomotion score was determined using seven gait properties of animal. The results showed that more than 56% of cows in the herd had no locomotion problems. More than 40% of cows were placed in the group of suspected subclinical lameness and about 3.5% of the cows showed obvious clinical signs of lameness evident. Moreover increasing age or parity has increased the probability of lameness incidence. Primiparous and second parity of cows showed the lowest incidence of clinical and subclinical lameness. However frequency of prevalence of clinical and subclinical lameness increased significantly in older cows (greater than 2 lactations (P

  1. Comparison on models for genetic evaluation of non-return rate and success in first insemination of the Danish Holstein cow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Su, G

    2010-01-01

    the first lactation of the Danish Holstein cows, covering insemination year from 1995 to 2004. Model stability was evaluated by the correlation between sire EBV (estimated breeding values) from two sub-datasets. The predictive ability of models was assessed by two criteria: 1) the correlation between...

  2. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes previously related to genetic variation in fertility with phenotypic measurements of reproductive function in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of 68 SNP previously associated with genetic merit for fertility and production on phenotype for reproductive and productive traits in a population of Holstein cows. In addition, we determined which SNP had repeated effects across three studie...

  3. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    lactation diet (lucerne) in the first week postpartum. From week 2 to 4 postpartum, all cows were fed the control lactation diet. In the first week postpartum, dry matter intake (DMI) was unaffected by treatment, but during week 2-4 postpartum, DMI was lower for lucerne as compared with control......The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage...

  4. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

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    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  5. Residual feed intake of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows predicted from high-density genotypes and phenotyping of growing heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Spelman, R J

    2014-03-01

    A genomic prediction for residual feed intake (RFI) developed in growing dairy heifers (RFIgro) was used to predict and test breeding values for RFI in lactating cows (RFIlac) from an independent, industry population. A selection of 3,359 cows, in their third or fourth lactation during the study, of above average genetic merit for milk production, and identified as at least 15/16ths Holstein-Friesian breed, were selected for genotyping from commercial dairy herds. Genotyping was carried out using the bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) on DNA extracted from ear-punch tissue. After quality control criteria were applied, genotypes were imputed to the 624,930 single nucleotide polymorphisms used in the growth study. Using these data, genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) for RFIgro were calculated in the selected cow population based on a genomic prediction for RFIgro estimated in an independent group of growing heifers. Cows were ranked by GEBV and the top and bottom 310 identified for possible purchase. Purchased cows (n=214) were relocated to research facilities and intake and body weight (BW) measurements were undertaken in 99 "high" and 98 "low" RFIgro animals in 4 consecutive groups [beginning at d 61 ± 1.0 standard error (SE), 91 ± 0.5 SE, 145 ± 1.3 SE, and 191 ± 1.5 SE d in milk, respectively] to measure RFI during lactation (RFIlac). Each group of ~50 cows (~25 high and ~25 low RFIgro) was in a feed intake facility for 35 d, fed pasture-alfalfa cubes ad libitum, milked twice daily, and weighed every 2 to 3 d. Milk composition was determined 3 times weekly. Body weight change and BW at trial mid-point were estimated by regression of pre- and posttrial BW measurements. Residual feed intake in lactating cows was estimated from a linear model including BW, BW change, and milk component yield (as MJ/d); RFIlac differed consistently between the high and low selection classes, with the overall means for RFIlac being +0.32 and -0.31 kg of

  6. The relationship between energy balance after calving and reproductive functions in Holstein dairy cows treated by the OVSYNCH system

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    Martina Doležalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the course and the depth of negative energy balance (NEB rated by changes of the body condition after calving and subsequent recovery of reproductive abilities of Holstein dairy cows treated by OVSYNCH. The body condition was evaluated by the BCS system one week before calving and subsequently at 30-day intervals for the period of 6 months of lactation. Recovery of ovarian functions was evaluated by the results of ultrasound examination of all the dairy cows’ ovaries in two controls after calving. The first one was performed on an average of 67 days after calving, and the second at a 60-day interval. The occurrence of individual findings - the presence of corpus luteum, ovarian cysts or ovaries without findings was evaluated as an effect of NEB on the recovery of the ovarian cycle of dairy cows and their subsequent possibility of conception. The suitable cows were treated by the OVSYNCH system after the 1st and 2nd ultrasound examination. Therefore, the insemination interval was calculated and in the case of dairy cows, pregnancy detection, also the number of services per conception and the length of open days. Twice performed hormonal treatment of 73.6% of the animals delayed the period by 50.2 days. In all, 202 dairy cows calved in the period from 29th July 2011 to 7th February 2012 were included in this observation. Significant effects of the body condition change on the ovarian activity as documented by sonographic examination and reproductive indicators appeared primarily in the second month of lactation. The best reproductive indicators were found in cows with the lowest body condition change, thus with a small decline or even increase of body condition score (−0.0 to +0.75 points, P < 0.05. On the contrary, the worst level of indicators of recovery of the reproduction functions were documented in the dairy cows with the most marked decline of BCS (P < 0.05.

  7. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  8. Analysis of lactoferin gene polymophism and its association to milk quality and mammary gland health in Holstein-Friesian cows

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    Maletić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (LTF is a glycoprotein, a member of transferrin gene family which plays an important role in immune mechanisms in the mammary glands of cows. The amount of lactoferrin increases during inflammatory processes and viral infections. The aim of this investigation was to monitor the distribution of lactoferrin gene genotypes and its connection to milk quality and the occurrence of mammary gland diseases in 46 Holstein-Freisian cows of different age (2-7 years on a farm near Belgrade. DNA was isolated from blood samples, and the polymorphism of lactoferrin gene was deterimined by PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme Eco RI. We found two alelic forms of this gene in cows included in these experiments (A and B and two genotypes (AA and AB in a ratio 71.7% to 28.3%. The genotype BB was not found in this sample. In order to determine the degree of differences between genotypes we used discriminant analysis which has shown that there is a statistically significant difference between genotypes AA and with respect to productive parameters. When analyzed separately, the only parameter which differed significantly (p=0.021 between two genotypes was total milk production. Individuals with observed genotypes are most similar for the amount of milk fat (p=0.271. There is no statistically significant difference in the number of somatic cells in milk samples between the examined genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46002

  9. Comparative evaluation of a new lactation curve model for pasture-based Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adediran, S A; Ratkowsky, D A; Donaghy, D J; Malau-Aduli, A E O

    2012-09-01

    Fourteen lactation models were fitted to average and individual cow lactation data from pasture-based dairy systems in the Australian states of Victoria and Tasmania. The models included a new "log-quadratic" model, and a major objective was to evaluate and compare the performance of this model with the other models. Nine empirical and 5 mechanistic models were first fitted to average test-day milk yield of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows using the nonlinear procedure in SAS. Two additional semiparametric models were fitted using a linear model in ASReml. To investigate the influence of days to first test-day and the number of test-days, 5 of the best-fitting models were then fitted to individual cow lactation data. Model goodness of fit was evaluated using criteria such as the residual mean square, the distribution of residuals, the correlation between actual and predicted values, and the Wald-Wolfowitz runs test. Goodness of fit was similar in all but one of the models in terms of fitting average lactation but they differed in their ability to predict individual lactations. In particular, the widely used incomplete gamma model most displayed this failing. The new log-quadratic model was robust in fitting average and individual lactations, and was less affected by sampled data and more parsimonious in having only 3 parameters, each of which lends itself to biological interpretation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictive value of prepartum serum metabolites for incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in grazing primiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Elizabeth; Schneider, Augusto; Montagner, Paula; Acosta, Diego Andres Velasco; Pfeifer, Luiz Francisco Machado; Schmitt, Eduardo; Rabassa, Viviane Rohrig; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert; de Lima Gonzalez, Helenice; Timm, Cláudio Dias; Corrêa, Marcio Nunes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in biochemical markers in the peripartum period of primiparous Holstein cows diagnosed with subclinical and clinical mastitis. In this study, 37 dairy cows were monitored daily during milking until 60 days postpartum and were categorized according to the occurrence of clinical mastitis (group mastitis (GM), n = 9) or subclinical mastitis (group subclinical mastitis (GSUB), n = 10) or absence of symptoms (control group (CG), n = 18). Blood samples were collected weekly from -30 to 60 days from calving. Samples were grouped for prepartum (-30 to 0 days from calving), early postpartum (0 to 30 days from calving), and late postpartum (30 to 60 days from calving) periods. Prepartum serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration was higher in GM than in CG (P mastitis in the early postpartum, probably due to low immune function associated to a more negative energy balance. In sum, increased prepartum serum NEFA concentration and decreased glucose in primiparous cows were associated with clinical mastitis incidence in the postpartum period.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of age at first calving in Iranian Holstein dairy cows

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    Atefeh Seyeddokht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age at first calving (AFC has an important effect on profitability and reproductive management of dairy cattle. Every month increase in AFC beyond 24 months increases the cost of production. The time between birth and first calving represents a period in which replacement heifers are not generating income. Instead this rearing period requires considerable capital expenditures including feed, housing, and veterinary expenses. These expenses constitute 15% to 20% of the total expenses related to milk production. A basic approach to reduce this cost is to decrease the time between birth and her first freshening. Worldwide recommendations for one particular AFC might be an incorrect management goal for all of the cattle on all of the farms, since the recommendation might not represent the management goals and/or capabilities of a particular production system or farm. We realize that each dairy has its own set of unique management and environmental conditions, which makes a universal AFC and BW after first calving, a difficult goal to achieve. The AFC has a profound influence on the total cost of raising dairy replacements in which older calving heifers are more expensive to raise than younger ones. Materials and methods: A total of 19499 calving records belonged to 96 herd from 1996 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic components and genetic trend for age at first calving in Holstein dairy cows of Iran. Data were analyzed using a univariate model and Wombat software. Linear regression of estimated breeding values on calving year was used to estimate genetic trend. Results and Discussion: Estimated genetic trend was positive for some years and was negative for others and showed that reducing age at first calving has not been considered in the selection strategies; however, the phenotypic trend was decreased. The age at first calving for Yazd, Markazi, and southern Khorasan provinces were the highest and for Kermanshah, East Azarbayjan

  12. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    and the shape of the lactation curve. In this paper, we hypothesized that increasing the supply of energy during the early lactation mobilization period would have a positive carryover effect on milk production during extended lactation. A total of 53 Holstein cows completed a 16-mo lactation, including 30......Extending lactation by voluntarily delaying rebreeding aims to improve fertility and milk production in the modern dairy cow. Previous studies have shown that increased energy concentrations in the ration induced greater total milk yield and lactation persistency defined by the duration......% primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain...

  13. The association of plasma glucose, BHBA, and NEFA with postpartum uterine diseases, fertility, and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, M L S; Marques, E C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2017-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the metabolic indicators such as nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and glucose during the transition period and the development of uterine diseases. In total, 181 Holstein dairy cows were enrolled in the study. Plasma glucose, NEFA, and BHBA concentrations were measured at -50, -6, 3, 7, and 14 days relative to parturition. All cows enrolled in the study were evaluated for retained placenta (RP), metritis, and endometritis. Metritis and RP were diagnosed and treated by trained farm personnel. Clinical endometritis was evaluated by a veterinarian at 35 days in milk using a Metricheck device. We found plasma glucose concentration to be associated with the occurrence of metritis and clinical endometritis. Moreover, cows with an increased calving-to-conception interval (>150 days) presented higher plasma glucose concentrations than cows that became pregnant within the first 150 days, whereas BHBA and NEFA were not associated with the occurrence of any uterine disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used in an attempt to determine the cow-level critical thresholds for the occurrence of metritis, and endometritis. In addition, pairwise comparisons of area under the curve (AUC) of ROC curves for the critical thresholds for glucose, BHBA, and NEFA predicting the same uterine disease were performed. Glucose at 3 days in milk was the best predictor for metritis and endometritis diagnosis, with AUC values of 0.66 and 0.67, respectively. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed and showed that cows with higher levels of glucose at Day 3 were at 6.6 times higher odds of being diagnosed with metritis, and 3.5 times higher odds of developing clinical endometritis, compared with cows with lower glucose levels. Finally, a simple linear regression analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between daily milk yield in the first and second weeks of

  14. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P milk production than C (18.70 vs. 17.43 kg, respectively), and AM + PM cows had a trend ( P milk energy output vs. the C and AM groups (13.75 vs. 13.18 and 13.15 Mcal, respectively). Protein and fat in milk, body condition score, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine were similar among the groups. Four hours of cooling with spray and fans during severe summer temperatures only modestly improved milk yield of lactating Holstein cows.

  15. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  16. Effect of a high-concentrate diet on milk components and mammary health in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z L; Zhang, J; Zhang, D M; Li, J F; Lin, Y H

    2017-03-22

    In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P milk protein percentage (P milk protein yield (P milk fat percentage (P Milk somatic cell count and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity (P health. The amino acid content was lower, suggesting that depletion of amino acids, resulting in depleted milk protein, affects milk quality.

  17. Effects of feeding dry glycerin to early postpartum Holstein dairy cows on lactational performance and metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Rico, D E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Noirot, V; Ames, A; Varga, G A

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding a dry glycerin product (minimal 65% of food grade glycerol, dry powder) to 39 multiparous Holstein dairy cows (19 control and 20 glycerin-supplemented; lactation number = 2.2 +/- 1.3 SD) on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and blood metabolic profiles were investigated. Dry glycerin was fed at 250 g/d as a top dressing (corresponding to 162.5 g of glycerol/d) to the common lactating total mixed ration from parturition to 21 d postpartum. Individual milk was sampled from 2 consecutive milkings weekly and analyzed for components. Blood was sampled from the coccygeal vein at 4, 7, 14, and 21 (+/-0.92, pooled SD) d in milk and analyzed for urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Urine was tested for the acetoacetate level weekly by using Ketostix. Average feed intake, milk yield and components, blood metabolites, and serum insulin concentrations were not affected by dry glycerin supplementation. Glycerin-supplemented cows experienced a more positive energy status (higher concentrations of plasma glucose, lower concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, and lower concentrations of urine ketones), which was observed during the second week of lactation, suggesting that energy availability may have been improved. This glucogenic effect of dry glycerin did not result in an increase in feed intake or milk yield during the first 3 wk of lactation, likely because of the relatively less negative energy status of cows transitioning into lactation. The tendency toward higher milk yield for glycerin-supplemented cows during wk 6 of lactation (52 vs. 46 kg/d) after the supplementation period (dry glycerin was terminated at wk 3 of lactation) suggested a potential benefit of dry glycerin on subsequent milk production, perhaps through changes in metabolism, which requires further investigation.

  18. Production responses of Holstein dairy cows when fed supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenping; Boerman, Jacquelyn P; Aldrich, James M

    2017-08-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids (FA) on milk performance of Holstein dairy cows. A database was developed from 21 studies published between 1991 and 2016 that included 502 dairy cows and a total of 29 to 30 comparisons between dietary treatment and control without fat supplementation. Only saturated free FA (>80% of total FA) was considered as the supplemental fat. Concentration of the supplemental fat was not higher than 3.5% of diet dry matter (DM). Dairy cows were offered total mixed ration, and fed individually. Statistical analysis was conducted using random- or mixed-effects models with Metafor package in R. Sub-group analysis showed that there were no differences in studies between randomized block design and Latin square/crossover design for dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production responses to the supplemental fat (all response variables, p≥0.344). The supplemental fat across all studies improved milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and milk protein yield by 1.684 kg/d (pproduction responses to the supplemental fat (all response variables, I2≤24.1%; p≥0.166). The effects of saturated free FA were quantitatively evaluated. Higher milk production and yields of milk fat and protein, with DMI remaining unchanged, indicated that saturated free FA, supplemented at ≤3.5% dietary DM from commercially available fat sources, likely improved the efficiency of milk production. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to assess the variation of production responses to different saturated free FA, either C16:0 or C18:0 alone, or in combination with potentially optimal ratio, when supplemented in dairy cow diets.

  19. Preliminary studies of offspring exposure to phenylbutazone and ivermectin during the perinatal period in a Holstein cow-calf model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Pamela L; Fowler, Bruce A; Sexton, Mary J; Peggins, James O; Bredow, Jurgen von

    2003-03-15

    The pregnant Holstein cow and her newborn calf were evaluated as an animal model to study in utero and for lactational drug transfer and offspring exposure. A nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, phenylbutazone, and an antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, were tested in the model. Prior to parturition, pregnant cows were dosed orally to steady state with phenylbutazone at 4 g/day or given a single subcutaneous injection of 200 microg ivermectin/kg body wt. The level of drug transferred to calves exposed in utero, in utero combined with lactational exposure, and via lactational exposure only, was measured from days 1 through 7 postpartum. At birth the plasma level in phenylbutazone-exposed calves was approximately one-half the dam's steady-state level. For ivermectin-exposed calves, plasma levels were at or below the limit of quantitation (0.5 ng/ml) at birth, suggesting that placental transfer of ivermectin is limited in the cow. For both drugs, rapid accumulation of the drug in calf plasma occurred with lactational exposure to a mean daily dose of 2 microg ivermectin/kg body wt or 0.1 mg phenylbutazone/kg body wt/day for the first 7 days of life. The accumulation observed in the newborn calf is attributed to the lipid solubility and long elimination half-lives of these drugs. These results demonstrate that drug transfer and offspring exposure can be studied using the cow-calf model. The data also highlight the importance of considering not only the dose but also physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of the drug in the offspring when evaluating the safety of a newborn's exposure to a drug in breast milk.

  20. Importance of calving diseases and risk factors on milk production of Holsteins cowsImportância das desordens do periparto e seus fatores de risco sobre a produção de leite de vacas Holandesas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli; Arlei Coldebella; Paulo Fernando Machado; Carlos Humberto Corassin; Sergio Soriano

    2011-01-01

    This correlational study investigated the effects of the peripartum health disorders and your respective risk factors about the milk production, in the peak and to the 305 days in lactation. Holsteins cows (n = 522...

  1. Effects of corn-based reduced-starch diets using alternative carbohydrate sources on performance of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Fredin, S M; Cotanch, K W; Grant, R J; Kokko, C; Ji, P; Fujita, K

    2015-06-01

    Increases in grain prices have led to renewed interest in feeding reduced-starch diets to lactating dairy cows. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of altering carbohydrate sources and reducing dietary starch on lactational performance, feeding behavior, and ruminal measures of Holstein dairy cows. Fifteen multiparous cows (6 ruminally cannulated) were blocked and assigned to 1 of 5 squares and used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed 1 of 3 experimental diets: a control diet containing 20% brown midrib corn silage, 20% conventional corn silage, and 10% hay crop silage (CON); a reduced-starch high-forage diet containing 53% brown midrib corn silage and 10% hay crop silage (HFOR); and a reduced-starch diet containing the same forages as CON with partial replacement of corn meal by nonforage fiber sources (HNFFS). The CON diet contained (% of dry matter) 26.0% starch and 34.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), whereas the HFOR and HNFFS diets contained 21.4 or 21.3% starch and 38.3 or 38.0% NDF, respectively. Dry matter intake tended to be greater for cows fed the CON diet (28.2 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (27.2 kg/d). Dry matter intake for cows fed the HNFFS diet was intermediate (27.7 kg/d). Milk yield was greater for cows fed the CON diet (51.6 kg/d) compared with those fed the HFOR diet (48.4 kg/d), but milk fat content tended to increase for cows fed the HFOR diet (3.98%) compared with those fed the CON diet (3.66%). Consequently, fat-corrected and solids-corrected milk yields were unaffected by dietary treatments. Total chewing, eating, and rumination times were similar across all dietary treatments. Rumination time per kilogram of DM was greatest for the HFOR diet, intermediate for the HNFFS diet, and least for the CON diet, whereas rumination time per kilogram of NDF was greatest for the CON diet and least for the HNFFS diet. Mean ruminal pH, NH3-N (mg/dL), and total volatile fatty acid

  2. An investigation into heterogeneity of variance for milk and fat yields of Holstein cows in Brazilian herd environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Claudio Napolis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of variance in Brazilian herd environments was studied using first-lactation 305-day mature equivalent (ME milk and fat records of Holstein cows. Herds were divided into two categories, according to low or high herd-year phenotypic standard deviation for ME milk (HYSD. There were 330 sires with daughter records in both HYSD categories. Components of (covariance, heritability, and genetic correlations for milk and fat yields were estimated using a sire model from bivariate analyses with a restricted maximum likelihood (REML derivative-free algorithm. Sire and residual variances for milk yield in low HYSD herds were 79 and 57% of those obtained in high HYSD herd. For fat yield they were 67 and 60%, respectively. Heritabilities for milk and fat yields in low HYSD herds were larger (0.30 and 0.22 than in high HYSD herds (0.23 and 0.20. Genetic correlation between expression in low and high HYSD herds was 0.997 for milk yield and 0.985 for fat yield. Expected correlated response in low HYSD herds based on sires selected on half-sister information from high HYSD was 0.89 kg/kg for milk and 0.80 kg/kg for fat yield. Genetic evaluations in Brazil need to account for heterogeneity of variances to increase the accuracy of evaluations and the selection efficiency for milk and fat yields of Holstein cows. Selection response will be lower in low variance herds than in high variance herds because of reduced differences in daughter response and among breeding values of sires in low HYSD herds. Genetic investments in sire selection to improve production are more likely to be successful in high HYSD herds than in low HYSD Brazilian herds.

  3. Bull fertility evaluations for Angus service sires bred to Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a phenotypic evaluation of service-sire fertility implemented in August 2008, is based on data from the most recent 4 years, conventional-semen breedings up to 7 services, and cow parities 1 through 5. Many US dairy cows are now being bred to Angus sires because beef pric...

  4. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...... percentage per the standard first lactation. Fifteen classified linear type traits were added, as they were measured at first lactation in the Czech Holstein population. All phenotypic data were collected within the progeny testing program of the Czech-Moravian Breeders Corporation from 2005 to 2009...

  5. Infection dynamics of digital dermatitis in first-lactation Holstein cows in an infected herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, N.; Boye, Mette; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2012-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) refers to painful lesions primarily affecting the skin in the interdigital region of dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of DD in 39 cows, observed at approximately 3-d intervals, for the first 6mo of lactation. Specifically, the study aimed...... at evaluating different levels of DD susceptibility in cows, identifying the bacterial colonization of the interdigital skin, and exploring the relationship between clinical DD diagnosis and laboratory findings. Three different susceptibility categories were identified for DD: 1=consistently healthy cow; 2......=intermittently infected cow; and 3=consistently infected cow. Susceptibility categories were associated with age at calving. The average age at calving was 775d (SD ±43.4), with the youngest heifer calving at age 669d and the oldest heifer at 858d. Advancing age at calving was associated with greater odds...

  6. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, C; Martin, O; Blavy, P; Friggens, N C; Sehested, J; Phuong, H N

    2016-11-01

    The GARUNS model is a lifetime performance model taking into account the changing physiological priorities of an animal during its life and through repeated reproduction cycles. This dynamic and stochastic model has been previously used to predict the productive and reproductive performance of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows, whereas the reproductive performance was overestimated. Cows managed for repeated 12-, 14-, or 16-mo lactation all their life were simulated and had the highest lifetime efficiency compared with shorter (repeated 10-mo lactations: scenario N-N) or longer lactations (repeated 18-, 20-, or 22-mo lactations). The pregnancy rates increased slightly from a 10-mo to a 16-mo lactation but not significantly. Cows managed for a 16-mo lactation during their first lactation, followed by 10-mo lactations for the rest of their lives (EL-N scenario), had a similar lifetime efficiency as cows managed for 16-mo lactation all of their lives (EL-EL scenario). Cows managed for a 10-mo lactation during their first lactation, followed by 16-mo lactations for the rest of their lives (N-EL scenario), had a similar lifetime efficiency as that of the N-N scenario. The pregnancy rates of these 4 scenarios (N-N, EL-EL, N-EL, and EL-N) were similar to one another. To conclude, the GARUNS model was able to fit and simulate the extended lactation of Holstein cows. The simulated outputs indicate that managing the

  7. Physicochemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk from F1 Holstein x Zebu cows fed with increasing concentrations of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanice Mendes de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the physicochemical composition and fatty acid profile of milk from F1 Holstein × Zebu cows that were fed increasing levels of urea (0%, 33%, 66% and 100%, corresponding to 0%, 0.92%, 1.84% and 2.77% CP as NPN as a substitute for soybean meal. Eight lactating F1 Holstein × Zebu cows producing an average of 10 kg of milk per day corrected to 3.5% fat, were placed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares (4 animals, 4 diets and 4 periods. Each experimental period lasted 18 days. Milk samples from each cow were collected from morning and afternoon milkings and analyzed for composition and fatty acid concentration. Milk urea nitrogen increased linearly (P < 0.05 with increasing dietary urea. Other variables including fat content, protein, fixed mineral residues, lactose, total nonfat solids, acidity, density, casein, cryoscopic index, somatic cell count, and milk fatty acid concentrations, were not affected by treatment. Thus, urea provides a viable alternative to soybean meal that does not affect the characteristics of milk from primiparous F1 Holstein × Zebu cows, producing up to 10 kg of milk corrected to 3.5% fat day-1.

  8. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  9. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  10. Is there a relationship between genetic merit and enteric methane emission rate of lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Yan, T; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Gordon, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of cow genetic merit on enteric methane (CH4) emission rate. The study used a data set from 32 respiration calorimeter studies undertaken at this Institute between 1992 and 2010, with all studies involving lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Cow genetic merit was defined as either profit index (PIN) or profitable lifetime index (PLI), with these two United Kingdom genetic indexes expressing the expected improvement in profit associated with an individual cow, compared with the population average. While PIN is based solely on milk production, PLI includes milk production and a number of other functional traits including health, fertility and longevity. The data set had a large range in PIN (n=736 records, -£30 to +£63) and PLI (n=548 records, -£131 to +£184), days in milk (18 to 354), energy corrected milk yield (16.0 to 45.6 kg/day) and CH(4) emission (138 to 598 g/day). The effect of cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) was evaluated using ANOVA and linear mixed modelling techniques after removing the effects of a number of animal and diet factors. The ANOVA was undertaken by dividing each data set of PIN and PLI into three sub-groups (PIN:£15, PLI:£67) with these being categorised as low, medium and high genetic merit. Within the PIN and PLI data sets there was no significant differences among the three sub-groups in terms of CH(4) emission per kg feed intake or per kg energy corrected milk yield, or CH(4) energy (CH(4)-E) output as a proportion of energy intake. Linear regression using the whole PIN and PLI data sets also demonstrated that there was no significant relationship between either PIN or PLI, and CH(4) emission per kg of feed intake or CH(4)-E output as a proportion of energy intake. These results indicate that cow genetic merit (PIN or PLI) has little effect on enteric CH(4) emissions as a proportion of feed intake. Instead enteric CH(4) production may mainly relate to total feed intake and

  11. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  12. The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Park, Ji Hoo; Ki, Kwang Seok; Lim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (pyield occurring in the third lactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a 4× milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (pyield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries.

  13. The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan; Park, Ji Hoo; Ki, Kwang Seok; Lim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Sang Bum; Park, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Park, Beom Young; Kim, Tae Il

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). Methods The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. Results From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (plactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a 4× milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (plactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency associated with increasing milk yield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries. PMID:28423887

  14. Predicting hyperketonemia by logistic and linear regression using test-day milk and performance variables in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T L; Pralle, R S; Dórea, J R R; Poock, S E; Oetzel, G R; Fourdraine, R H; White, H M

    2018-03-01

    Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK. Given the data available, a secondary objective was to evaluate differences in test-day milk and performance variables (continuous measurements) between Holsteins and Jerseys and between cows with or without HYK within breed. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 658 Holstein and 468 Jersey cows between 5 and 20 d in milk (DIM). Diagnosis of HYK was at a serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. Concentrations of milk BHB and acetone were predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark). Thresholds of milk BHB and acetone were tested for diagnostic accuracy, and logistic models were built from continuous variables to predict HYK in primiparous and multiparous cows within breed. Linear models were constructed from continuous variables for primiparous and multiparous cows within breed that were 5 to 11 DIM or 12 to 20 DIM. Milk ketone body thresholds diagnosed HYK with 64.0 to 92.9% accuracy in Holsteins and 59.1 to 86.6% accuracy in Jerseys. Logistic models predicted HYK with 82.6 to 97.3% accuracy. Internally cross-validated multiple linear regression models diagnosed HYK of Holstein cows with 97.8% accuracy for primiparous and 83.3% accuracy for multiparous cows. Accuracy of Jersey models was 81.3% in primiparous and 83

  15. The effect of low and high barn temperatures on behaviour and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Večeřa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out at the University Training Farm in Žabčice (the Czech Republic; location 49°0’51.081”N, 16°36’14.848”E, 179 m.a.s.l over the period of one year (1st July to 30th June. The assessment of temperature impact was based on data from 16 hottest days (H and 16 coldest days (L. The experimental group consisted of 70 cows in various stage of lactation (30d–210d and parity (1–8. The cows were housed in a section (one quarter of a free-stall barn with 77 stalls in three rows. Row A was located peripherally, close to the side wall, row B was in the middle and row C was situated centrally, close to the feed table. The cows were observed weekly on the same day at 9.00 a.m. The microclimate characteristics were recorded daily: temperature in hot (H resp. cold (L period was in average 27.1°C resp. – 1.47 °C, and relative humidity 54.4 % resp. 77.3 %, and THI 75 resp. 33.Behaviour was described by a number of cows standing or lying down, number of cows lying down on their left or right side and row preference (A, B, C in the resting area. Cow Comfort Index (CCI – a number of cows lying down at given time was calculated. A total of 1587 observations were analysed. A number of cows lying down (922 was significantly higher than that of standing cows (665. Milk production was significantly higher in hot (H period (by 1.0–1.7 kg. There was an interaction in milk production between period and standing. In H period the standing cows produced more milk, in L period vice versa. The cows with non-significant tendency towards left-side laterality produced more milk (by 1.2 kg. No interaction was found between period and laterality for milk production. All the observed parameters significantly differed between rows A, B and C. Row A was the most preferred, the cows preferring it were young (low number of lactation with greatest milk production. The cows in row C had the lowest milk production and were in late

  16. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY, fat yield (FY and protein yield (PY in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms, common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29 with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30 with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

  17. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.

    1983-03-01

    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  18. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd. PMID:25656190

  19. A Holstein cow-calf model for the transfer of ciprofloxacin through milk after a long-term intravenous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, O A; Idowu, O R; Heller, D; Smith, M; Nochetto, C; Chamberlain, P L; Gehring, R; von Bredow, J

    2013-10-01

    This study is part of an ongoing effort to develop animal models that provide milk and sufficient infant (offspring) plasma samples to fully describe a drug's pharmacokinetics to quantitate the risk to the nursing infant. Ciprofloxacin was administered to six healthy Holstein cows as a constant rate intravenous infusion (flow rate was weight adjusted) to achieve a steady-state concentration of approximately 300 ng/mL for 7 days. Plasma and milk samples were collected from the cow at regular intervals over the course of the 7 days. The plasma and milk samples were analyzed for ciprofloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography. The milk was fed to calves, and calf plasma samples were analyzed to study the lactational transfer of ciprofloxacin from dam to nursing neonate. Remarkably, concentrations of ciprofloxacin in milk were 45 times higher than plasma drug concentrations in the dam. Approximately 6% of the administered dose was transferred to the milk, resulting in an average oral dose of 0.5 mg/kg to the calves with every feeding. The drug did not accumulate in the calves, and plasma concentrations were between one-tenth and one-fifth the plasma concentrations of the dam. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Sporadic cutaneous lymphosarcoma of T-cell origin with involvement of lymph nodes and internal organs in a Holstein cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freick, M; Lapko, L; Neubert, M; Hardt, M; Behn, H; Passarge, O; Schöniger, S

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic lymphosarcomas in adult cattle are rare entities with an unknown etiology. This case report describes the course of the disease in a 3.5-year-old cow of the breed German Holstein, which was presented to the veterinarian due to multifocal nodular skin lesions. Several superficial lymph nodes (Lymphonodi mandibulares, parotidei and mammariae) were enlarged, had a tight-elastic consistency and were freely movable. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies showed the presence of multifocal cutaneous T-cell lymphosarcomas consistent with a skin leukosis. Bovine leukemia virus infection was excluded by serological investigation of a milk sample and virological examination of a tissue sample, respectively. Seven weeks after the first clinical examination, the cow deteriorated rapidly and was euthanized. A post mortem examination revealed the presence of neoplastic cells within lymph nodes (all superficial lymph nodes of the carcass and Lymphonodi pulmonales), kidney and lungs as well as a liver rupture. Additionally, an overview of the case reports of sporadic bovine cutaneous lymphosarcomas published during the previous 15 years will be provided. The legal background for a further utilization of affected animals for milk and meat production will be discussed. This case report illustrates that sporadic bovine leukosis represents an important differential diagnosis for viral-, bacterial- and parasitic-induced skin lesions and enlargement of lymph nodes in adult cattle.

  1. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  2. Genetic parameters for linear type traits and milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cows in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (-0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd.

  3. The Effect of Iodine Levels Above of NRC Recommendations on Performance and Thyroidal Hormones in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad ali nurozian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey of using iodine levels above of NRC recommendations on performance and thyroidal hormones, sixteen Holstein dairy cows with the average live body weight and daily milk production of 652 ± 43 and 32.9 ± 2.4 kg respectively, allocated to 4 treatments in a complete randomized design. The dietary treatments were 1 the basal diet (without Potassium Iodide as control diet, 2, 3 and 4, the basal diet plus 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg DM Potassium Iodide respectively. The number of replications in each treatment was 4 cows. The dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield and composition were compared between treatments. The iodine concentrations in feed, water, urine and blood as well as thyroidal hormones (T3 and T4 were determined. There were no significant differences between treatments for DMI, milk yield and compositions as well as diet efficiency. Iodine contents in blood and urine were affected by iodine supplementation and increased significantly (P

  4. Effects of health disorders on milk yield and calving interval in Italian Holstein cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Gallo; G. Bittante; B. Contiero; E. Sturaro; F. Cesarini

    2011-01-01

    ...) increased the interest towards health traits. Recording diseases of economic significance helps in containing veterinary costs, milk losses and early replacement of cows, and is needed for developing management strategies able to promote health...

  5. The Relationship between Residual Feed Intake, Dry Matter Intake, and Reproductive Performance in Holstein Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Cayford, Eleonor Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Feed represents a large portion of input costs for dairy operations. Decreasing the feed consumed, measured here as dry matter intake (DMI), would therefore be advantageous to producers. However, this decrease could result in cows that do not supply the necessary energy to maintain high production, growth, and reproduction. Measures of feed efficiency try to capture important energy expenditures to ensure that cows consume less while maintaining production. Feed efficiency in this study is me...

  6. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    Extending lactation by voluntarily delaying rebreeding aims to improve fertility and milk production in the modern dairy cow. Previous studies have shown that increased energy concentrations in the ration induced greater total milk yield and lactation persistency defined by the duration...... and the shape of the lactation curve. In this paper, we hypothesized that increasing the supply of energy during the early lactation mobilization period would have a positive carryover effect on milk production during extended lactation. A total of 53 Holstein cows completed a 16-mo lactation, including 30...... of the cow was ≥0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed...

  7. Net portal-drained visceral and hepatic metabolism of glucose, L-lactate, and nitrogenous compounds in lactating holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Huntington, G B; Tyrrell, H F; Reynolds, P J

    1988-07-01

    Net portal-drained visceral and hepatic flux of glucose, L-lactate, alpha-amino N, NH3N, urea N, glutamate, and glutamine were measured in four Holstein cows. Cows were fed a 60:40 corn silage: concentrate diet ad libitum and milked at 12-h intervals. Six to 16 d postpartum chronic catheters were established in hepatic portal, hepatic, and mesenteric veins and a carotid artery was elevated. Twelve Measurements of net flux, the mathematical product of blood flow (measured by p-aminohippurate dilution) and venous-arterial concentration difference, were obtained for each cow at hourly intervals during 1 d of wk 4 and 8 postpartum. Dry matter, N, and energy digestion trials began 1 to 2 d after blood sampling. Dry matter intake and milk yield averaged 15.6 and 32.2 kg/d. Portal-drained visceral blood flow averaged 80% of hepatic blood flow (2041 L/h). Net flux of NH3N, urea N, and alpha-amino N across portal-drained viscera represented 68, 54, and 51% of N apparently digested. There was net use of glucose by portal-drained viscera. Hepatic glucose production (3.1 kg/d) exceeded calculated mammary glucose requirements. Net hepatic removal of L-lactate, alpha-amino N, and NH3N represented 115, 43, and 101%, respectively, of their net absorption by portal-drained viscera. Net hepatic L-lactate and alpha-amino N removal could account maximally for 17.4 and 16.5% of glucose produced.

  8. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones (Pinus koraiensis) in Holstein Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jeong Kim; U Suk Jung; Seung Woo Jeon; Jae Sung Lee; Won Seob Kim; Sang Bum Lee; Youn Chil Kim; Bae Young Kim; Tao Wang; Hong Gu Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C) or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T) in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effe...

  9. Association of index of welfare and metabolism with the genetic merit of Holstein and Simmental cows after the peak of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Sgorlon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship of markers of welfare and metabolism in milk, urine and blood with the genetic merit of Holstein and Simmental cows after the peak of lactation. Cows were selected from 3 Simmental (IS and 2 Holstein (IH commercial dairy farms. Within each farm, cows were ranked according to the estimated breeding value for milk protein yield (EBVp from minus to positive and selected every 5 EBVps from minus to positive values (about 20% lactating cows for each farm. Milk was sampled and analyzed for protein, fat, lactose, cortisol contents and somatic cell count (SCC. Blood and urines were analyzed for biomarkers of metabolism and welfare. Significantly lower body condition score (BCS was observed for IH in comparison to IS. Plasma creatinine was higher in IS, whilst Zn, total antioxidant status and glutathione peroxidase was higher in IH. The creatinine N to N ratio in urine was significantly higher for IS, while the purine derivatives (PD N to creatinine N ratio was higher for IH. The EBVp was negatively related to BCS and glucose for IS and to plasma b-hydroxybutyrate in both breeds. EBVp was negatively related to urinary PD N to total N ratios for IS and to PD N to creatinine N ratio for IH. These preliminary results would indicate that the selection of cows for milk protein yield had minor effect on plasma and milk biomarkers of welfare. Instead, biomarkers of metabolism were more affected by breed and genetic merit.

  10. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  11. Bacterial diversity in the rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Holstein cow as revealed by cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuli; Ma, Songcheng; Chen, Jing; Mao, Huaming; He, Yiduo; Xi, Dongmei; Yang, Liangyu; He, Tianbao; Deng, Weidong

    2010-04-01

    Libraries of rumen bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences of Gayals (Bos frontalis) and Swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were cloned and sequenced in the present work to compare the bacterial diversity with the third published library of Holstein cow. Sequence similarity of 97% was used as the definition of operational taxonomic unit (OTU). The majority of the 470 sequences retrieved fell into the phyla of low G + C subdivision (329 sequences) and Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB, 123 sequences) with the percentages of 70 and 26.2, respectively. The remaining clones belonged to the phyla of Proteobacter, high G + C gram positive bacteria (HGCGPB) and Spirochaetes, accounting for 3.8% totally. Only 73 clones (25 OTUs, 15.5%) could be closely related to cultured representatives. However, a larger fraction was related to uncultured representatives. Holstein cow may have more representatives of cultural bacteria and there were more uncultured clones for Gayals. The percentage of cultural representatives was 24, 13.3 and 9.5 for Holstein cow, Swamp buffaloes and Gayals, respectively. Twenty-three OTUs of the 236 ones appeared in more than one library, five of which were cultural. Selenomonas ruminantium, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were found in two different libraries, while Succiniclasticum ruminis and Pseudobutyrivibrio ruminis were found in all three libraries. Some of the animal-specific bacteria that had not been described previously in the ruminal ecosystem, e.g. Allisonella histaminiformans for Gayals and Staphylococcus sciuri for Swamp buffaloes were also recovered.

  12. Timothy hay with a low dietary cation-anion difference improves calcium homeostasis in periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Tremblay, G F; Dow, T; Oba, M

    2008-05-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of feeding timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay differing in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on the capability of cows to maintain calcium homeostasis around parturition. We hypothesized that feeding low-DCAD timothy hay during the prepartum period would induce a mild metabolic acidosis prepartum and improve calcium homeostasis postpartum with no effect on dry matter intake. Forty-one dry pregnant Holstein cows entering their second lactation or greater were used in a randomized complete block design. Timothy hay was obtained from an established timothy stand under a pivot irrigation system. Low-DCAD timothy hay was produced by fertilizing the area between the second and third pivot towers at a rate of 224 kg of CaCl(2)/ha, and control timothy hay (high DCAD) was grown on the area between the fourth and fifth pivot towers of the same field. The chloride concentration was 1.07 and 0.15% on a dry matter (DM) basis, and the DCAD was 1.2 and 21.6 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy hay, respectively. Experimental diets, containing timothy hay at 63% of dietary DM, were fed ad libitum starting 30 d before the expected calving date. The DCAD values were 1.6 vs. 14.5 mEq/100 g of DM for the low- and high-DCAD timothy-based diets, respectively. At the beginning of the study, urine pH and blood bicarbonate concentration averaged 8.22 +/- 0.06 and 28.5 +/- 0.3 mM, respectively. The low-DCAD timothy diet decreased urine pH compared with the high-DCAD timothy diet on d 21 (7.75 vs. 8.31), d 14 (7.69 vs. 8.22), and d 7 (7.50 vs. 8.19) before calving, and it also decreased the prepartum blood bicarbonate concentration by 2 mM. In addition, cows fed the low-DCAD timothy diet had greater blood ionized calcium concentration prepartum (1.22 vs. 1.19 mM), greater blood ionized calcium concentration at 0 and 8 h after calving, and similar prepartum dry matter intake. These results indicate that timothy hay

  13. Production responses of Holstein dairy cows when fed supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat containing saturated free fatty acids (FA on milk performance of Holstein dairy cows. Methods A database was developed from 21 studies published between 1991 and 2016 that included 502 dairy cows and a total of 29 to 30 comparisons between dietary treatment and control without fat supplementation. Only saturated free FA (>80% of total FA was considered as the supplemental fat. Concentration of the supplemental fat was not higher than 3.5% of diet dry matter (DM. Dairy cows were offered total mixed ration, and fed individually. Statistical analysis was conducted using random- or mixed-effects models with Metafor package in R. Results Sub-group analysis showed that there were no differences in studies between randomized block design and Latin square/crossover design for dry matter intake (DMI and milk production responses to the supplemental fat (all response variables, p≥0.344. The supplemental fat across all studies improved milk yield, milk fat concentration and yield, and milk protein yield by 1.684 kg/d (p<0.001, 0.095 percent unit (p = 0.003, 0.072 kg/d (p<0.001, and 0.036 kg/d (p<0.001, respectively, but tended to decrease milk protein concentration (mean difference = −0.022 percent unit; p = 0.063 while DMI (mean difference = 0.061 kg/d; p = 0.768 remained unchanged. The assessment of heterogeneity suggested that no substantial heterogeneity occurred among all studies for DMI and milk production responses to the supplemental fat (all response variables, I2≤24.1%; p≥0.166. Conclusion The effects of saturated free FA were quantitatively evaluated. Higher milk production and yields of milk fat and protein, with DMI remaining unchanged, indicated that saturated free FA, supplemented at ≤3.5% dietary DM from commercially available fat sources, likely improved the efficiency of milk production. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to assess the

  14. Effects of rumen undegradable protein supplementation on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism in Holstein fresh cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Farahani, T Amirabadi; Farsuni, N Eslamian

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding increased dietary crude protein (CP) on productive performance and indicators of protein and energy metabolism during 21 d postpartum. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were balanced by previous lactation milk yield, body condition score (BCS) at calving, and parity and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from calving until 21 d postpartum. Dietary treatments were 16.0% CP with 5.0% rumen undegradable protein (RUP) based on dry matter (DM) (16CP), 18.7% CP with 7.0% RUP based on DM (19CP), and 21.4% CP with 9.0% RUP based on DM (21CP). Diets were similar in net energy for lactation (approximately 1.7 Mcal/kg of DM) and CP levels were increased with corn gluten meal and fish meal. Dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by increasing dietary CP levels from 16.0 to 19.0% of DM, but dietary CP beyond 19.0% had no effect on DMI. Milk yields were 4.7 and 6.5 kg/d greater in cows fed the 19CP and 21CP diets versus those fed the 16CP diet, whereas 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed the 21CP than the 16CP diet (36.0 vs. 31.4 kg/d). Milk protein content and yield, lactose yield, and milk urea nitrogen were elevated by increased dietary CP. Milk lactose content and fat yield were not different among dietary treatments, but milk fat content tended to decline with increasing content of CP in diets. High CP levels increased milk N secretion but decreased milk N efficiency. Apparent digestibility of DM, CP, and neutral detergent fiber was greater on the 19CP and 21CP diets compared with the 16CP diet. Cows fed the 19CP and 21CP diets lost less body condition relative to those fed the 16CP diet over 21 d postpartum. Feeding higher CP levels increased the concentrations of serum albumin, albumin to globulin ratio, and urea nitrogen and decreased aspartate aminotransferase, nonesterified fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate, but had no effect on globulin, glucose, cholesterol, or

  15. The relationship between milk metabolome and methane emission of Holstein Friesian dairy cows: Metabolic interpretation and prediction potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Dijkstra, J

    2017-12-28

    This study aimed to quantify the relationship between CH4 emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites, and nonvolatile metabolites in milk of dairy cows fed forage-based diets. Data from 6 studies were used, including 27 dietary treatments and 123 individual observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. These dietary treatments covered a large range of forage-based diets, with different qualities and proportions of grass silage and corn silage. Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g per day), yield (g per kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). Milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids by gas chromatography, for volatile metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for nonvolatile metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance. Dry matter intake was 15.9 ± 1.90 kg/d (mean ± SD), FPCM yield was 25.2 ± 4.57 kg/d, CH4 production was 359 ± 51.1 g/d, CH4 yield was 22.6 ± 2.31 g/kg of DMI, and CH4 intensity was 14.5 ± 2.59 g/kg of FPCM. The results show that changes in individual milk metabolite concentrations can be related to the ruminal CH4 production pathways. Several of these relationships were diet driven, whereas some were partly dependent on FPCM yield. Next, prediction models were developed and subsequently evaluated based on root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis, and random 10-fold cross-validation. The best models with milk fatty acids (in g/100 g of fatty acids; MFA) alone predicted CH4 production, yield, and intensity with a RMSEP of 34 g/d, 2.0 g/kg of DMI, and 1.7 g/kg of FPCM, and with a CCC of 0.67, 0.44, and 0.75, respectively. The CH4 prediction potential of both volatile metabolites alone and nonvolatile metabolites alone was low, regardless of the unit of CH4 emission, as evidenced by the low CCC values (emission of dairy cows. We conclude that MFA have

  16. Associations between variants of FADS genes and omega-3 and omega-6 milk fatty acids of Canadian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Akwanji, Kingsley A; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Zhao, Xin

    2014-02-17

    Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and 2 (FADS2) genes code respectively for the enzymes delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases which are rate limiting enzymes in the synthesis of polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs). Omega-3 and-6 FAs as well as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are present in bovine milk and have demonstrated positive health effects in humans. Studies in humans have shown significant relationships between genetic variants in FADS1 and 2 genes with plasma and tissue concentrations of omega-3 and-6 FAs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of sequence variations within these two genes in Canadian Holstein cows as well as the association between sequence variants and health promoting FAs in milk. Thirty three SNPs were detected within the studied regions of genes including a synonymous mutation (FADS1-07, rs42187261, 306Tyr > Tyr) in exon 8 of FADS1, a non-synonymous mutation (FADS2-14, rs211580559, 294Ala > Val) within FADS2 exon 7, a splice site SNP (FADS2-05, rs211263660), a 3'UTR SNP (FADS2-23, rs109772589), and another 3'UTR SNP with an effect on a microRNA binding site within FADS2 gene (FADS2-19, rs210169303). Association analyses showed significant relations between three out of seven tested SNPs and several FAs. Significant associations (FDR P FADS2-23 (rs109772589) and two omega-6 FAs (dihomogamma linolenic acid [C20:3n6] and arachidonic acid [C20:4n6]), FADS1-07 (rs42187261) and one omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5n3) and tricosanoic acid (C23:0), and one intronic SNP, FADS1-01 (rs136261927) and C20:3n6. Our study has demonstrated positive associations between three SNPs within FADS1 and FADS2 genes (a SNP within the 3'UTR, a synonymous SNP and an intronic SNP), with three milk PUFAs of Canadian Holstein cows thus suggesting possible involvement of synonymous and non-coding region variants in FA synthesis. These SNPs may serve as potential genetic markers in breeding programs to increase milk FAs that are of

  17. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  18. Changes in rumen bacterial communities and rumen chemistry in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to study the changes in: 1) rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) and fermentation as influenced by feeding regimen and period; and 2) pH and VFA profiles among selected cows with minimum (stable) and maximum variation (unstable) between pre- and post-parturie...

  19. Genetic analysis of atypical progesterone profiles in Holstein-Friesian cows from experimental research herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyman, S.; Johansson, K.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Wall, E.; Berglund, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variation in normal and atypical progesterone profiles and investigate if this information could be useful in an improved genetic evaluation for fertility for dairy cows. The phenotypes derived from normal profiles included cycle length traits,

  20. The use of mid-infrared spectrometry to predict body energy status of Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McParland, S.; Banos, G.; Wall, E.; Coffey, M.P.; Soyeurt, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Berry, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Energy balance, especially in early lactation, is known to be associated with subsequent health and fertility in dairy cows. However, its inclusion in routine management decisions or breeding programs is hindered by the lack of quick, easy, and inexpensive measures of energy balance. The objective

  1. Comparison of breeding values among cows with exceptional longevity and their contemporary herdmates in German Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abfalter

    2016-02-01

    whereas milk production (RZM showed a negative correlation. An increase in the number of cows with exceptional longevity may be possible through a relative total breeding value with high positive weights for RZN, RZS, and RZFit but negative weights for RZM and type (RZE.

  2. Prognostic value of plasma L-lactate concentration measured cow-side with a portable clinical analyzer in Holstein dairy cattle with abomasal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Monica D; Nydam, Daryl V; Perkins, Gillian A; Mitchell, Hilda M; Divers, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    L-Lactate has been used as a prognostic indicator for ill humans and animals. A portable analyzer that measures L-lactate could help veterinarians decide to proceed with correction of a displaced abomasum. The likelihood of a dairy cow with a displaced abomasum remaining in the herd can be predicted by lactate concentration and other variables. Thirty-four healthy early-lactation dairy cows, and 131 cows with abomasal displacements (DA) presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Plasma L-lactate was measured using a commercial analyzer (i-STAT). A cow had a positive outcome (PO) if she remained in the herd 30 days after surgical correction of the displaced abomasum and a negative outcome (NO) if she was culled or died in that time. A multivariable model with physical examination and clinicopathologic variables for predicting NO for cows with right-sided abomasal displacements was constructed. The median plasma L-lactate was 0.54 mM/L (interquartile range, 0.42-0.74) in healthy lactating Holstein cows. In cows with right-sided displaced abomasa, median plasma L-lactate concentrations were higher in cows with NO (5.88 mM/L) versus PO (3.23 mM/L) (P = .002). In a multivariable model, which identified chloride, heart rate, and L-lactate as the best fitting variables for cows with right-sided displacements, the probability of NO increased as L-lactate increased. Plasma L-lactate concentration might be a useful predictor of productive outcomes in cows with right-sided abomasal disorders.

  3. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  4. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from Holstein dairy cows fed various forage sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Chouinard, P Y; Hassanat, F; Benchaar, C; Gervais, R

    2016-02-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) profile has been previously used as a predictor of enteric CH4 output in dairy cows fed diets supplemented with plant oils, which can potentially impact ruminal fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between milk FA and enteric CH4 emissions in lactating dairy cows fed different types of forages in the context of commonly fed diets. A total of 81 observations from three separate 3×3 Latin square design (32-day periods) experiments including a total of 27 lactating cows (96±27 days in milk; mean±SD) were used. Dietary forages were included at 60% of ration dry matter and were as follows: (1) 100% corn silage, (2) 100% alfalfa silage, (3) 100% barley silage, (4) 100% timothy silage, (5) 50:50 mix of corn and alfalfa silages, (6) 50:50 mix of barley and corn silages and (7) 50:50 mix of timothy and alfalfa silages. Enteric CH4 output was measured using respiration chambers during 3 consecutive days. Milk was sampled during the last 7 days of each period and analyzed for components and FA profile. Test variables included dry matter intake (DMI; kg/day), NDF (%), ether extract (%), milk yield (kg/day), milk components (%) and individual milk FA (% of total FA). Candidate multivariate models were obtained using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and Least-Angle Regression methods based on the Schwarz Bayesian Criterion. Data were then fitted into a random regression using the MIXED procedure including the random effects of cow, period and study. A positive correlation was observed between CH4 and DMI (r=0.59, P0.19). Milk FA profile and DMI can be used to predict CH4 emissions in dairy cows across a wide range of dietary forage sources.

  5. Associations of high and low milk protein concentrations with energy allocation, milk production, and concentrations of blood plasma metabolites and hormones in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, M L; Marett, L C; Macmillan, K L; Morton, J M; Hannah, M C; Fisher, A D; Auldist, M J

    2016-12-01

    A positive association between milk protein concentration (MPC) and reproductive performance in dairy cows has been shown in several studies globally. This association may positively influence farm productivity and profitability, particularly in seasonally calving, pasture-based herds. However, the differences in milk production and energy allocation, physical characteristics, and blood plasma nutrient status between cows with differing MPC have not been examined, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain undefined. The objective of this study was to examine associations between MPC and nutrient partitioning in primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows managed under pasture-based dairying conditions, and to identify differences that may indicate the underlying mechanisms. Data were collected from 85 cows at regular intervals during the early part of the 2013 to 2014 seasonal lactation, including daily milk yield, weekly milk composition, weekly body condition score measurements, as well as weekly blood plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Cows were retrospectively separated into quartiles based on their average MPC during the first 120d of lactation, and comparisons were made between cows within the highest (high; 3.22 to 3.40%) and the lowest (low; 2.87 to 3.00%) MPC quartiles. The high-MPC cows had lower daily milk yields, yet did not differ in the daily yields of milk solids (protein + fat) compared with the low-MPC cows. After parturition, the high-MPC cows had greater blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin compared with the low-MPC cows and maintained their body condition score, despite no differences in these variables prepartum. These results indicate an increased partitioning of nutrients toward milk synthesis at the expense of body condition for cows in the low MPC quartile. However, average daily energy outputs in milk were similar in the high- and low-MPC cows. The high

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF K-CASEIN ALLELES ON MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY IN A HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN COW POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BENCSIK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk production and its composition are determined by quantitative loci, whichunder the influence of some environmental factors are producing an allelicvariability, meaning a genetic polymorphism of the gene. K-casein is a milk proteinwhose genetic polymorphism can serve as molecular marker for milk production,composition and industrial processing suitability. The allelic variants for k-casein Aand B are the most common and the most important of them. The experiments wereconducted on 24 Holstein-Friesian milking cows from a private farm in Giroc. Themilk production on a normal lactation is 8444 milk kg/305 days, with a fat percentof 3.9 and a protein percent of 3.3. The cows were divided in three groups AA, ABand BB in function of the genotyped obtained after the allelic variantsdetermination. The DNA isolation was made from hair roots and blood, the cowpopulation studied is not in genetic equilibrium fore k-casein gene, the frequency ofallele A is 0.43 and the frequency of B allele is 0.58. The highest genotype frequencywas 0.5 for CSN3-AB genotype, the BB genotype had 0.33 frequency, and the lowestfrequency was 0.17 for AA genotype. The mean daily milk production from cowswith BB genotype for k-casein is significant (p<5% higher compared to the allelicvariant AA. The fat percent is significant higher at the allelic variant AA comparedto the other allelic variants (AB and BB of the k-casein gene. Between the fatpercent of the three genotypes variants of K-casein (AA, AB and BB there are nosignificant differences.

  7. Effects of alfalfa particle size and specific gravity on chewing activity, digestibility, and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri Yansari, A; Valizadeh, R; Naserian, A; Christensen, D A; Yu, P; Eftekhari Shahroodi, F

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the effects of alfalfa particle size and functional specific gravity (FSG) on chewing activity, digestibility, rumen kinetics, and production of lactating dairy cows fed corn silage based rations. In experiment 1, water-holding capacity (WHC), insoluble dry matter, hydration rate, and FSG changes were determined in alfalfa hay (varying in particle size) and corn silage. Reduction of particle size increased bulk density, FSG, and the rate of hydration, and decreased WHC of alfalfa. In experiment 2, 9 midlactation Holstein dairy cows fed total mixed rations containing 3 sizes of alfalfa hay (with geometric mean 7.83, 4.04, and 1.14 mm) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. The diets contained 20, 20, 35, 7, 7.5, 10, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.1% of DM alfalfa, corn silage, barley, soybean meal, beet pulp, wheat bran, dicalcium phosphate, vitamin premix, and salt, respectively. The geometric means (GM) of rations were 3.34, 2.47, and 1.66 mm in long, medium, and fine alfalfa treatments, respectively. Reduction of particle size increased daily NDF intake (kg), but decreased the proportion of physically effective factor (pef) and physically effective NDF (peNDF) in the ingested rations. Reduction of particle size increased the FSG of rations and intake of DM but reduced digestibility of NDF and ash. Reduction of particle size decreased ruminal mean retention time (RMRT), but increased the ruminal particulate passage rate. Milk and FCM yield were not affected by treatments. The rumen pH, total chewing activity, rumination, eating time, and milk fat were reduced as particle size decreased, but milk protein increased. This study showed that reduction of forage particle size increased bulk density, FSG, and hydration rate of alfalfa and was the most influential factor affecting DMI, milk composition, and chewing behavior. Reduction of forage particle size had minimal impact on digestibility and milk production.

  8. Milk fatty acid composition and production performance of Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cows fed different amounts of linseed and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M K; Hymøller, L; Brask-Pedersen, D B; Weisbjerg, M R

    2012-07-01

    Fat supplements are used in diets for dairy cows to increase energy intake and milk production and the fatty acid composition of the feed affects milk fatty acid composition. A total of 74 Danish Holstein and 41 Danish Jersey cows were divided into 4 groups and the cows within each group were fed a mixed ration supplemented with 0, 3.5, 6.8, or 10.2% of dry matter of a linseed:rapeseed (1:3) mixture during lactation wk 6 to 30. Milk yield, fat, and lactose contents were not affected by treatments for Danish Holsteins, whereas these parameters increased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed to Danish Jerseys. For both breeds, milk protein content decreased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed. The milk fatty acid composition showed higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and lower concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat from Danish Jerseys compared with Danish Holsteins. Increased amounts of oilseeds in feed increased milk fat concentration of all C18 fatty acids except C18:2 n-6, whereas the content of C6 to C14, C11 to C17, and in particular, C16, decreased. This effect was more pronounced for Danish Holsteins than for Danish Jerseys. The apparent recovery of C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 decreased when increased amounts of oilseeds were fed; however, this was most likely due to increased amounts of fatty acid from feed used for other energy demands than milk production. It was concluded that up to 6.8% of oilseed supplementation can be fed without production problems and, in many cases, with positive production responses, including an improved milk fatty acid profile. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Chinese Holstein cattle and their associations with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xue, Yun; Hu, Zhigang; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Beibei; Long, Ta; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Huisheng

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene might not play a significant role in the BTB risk in Chinese Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both......The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH3 absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating...... by reduced NH3 input to hepatic urea-N synthesis caused by increased sequestration of NH3 in the hindgut and excretion in feces. Increasing the hindgut fermentation in lactating dairy cows by abomasal infusion of 1,500 g/d of oligofructose shifted some N excretion from the urine to feces and possibly reduced...

  11. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry......The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  12. The influence of feeding pattern on changes in plasma ghrelin in the Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroshi; Hojo, Nachi; Takahashi, Ryoji; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Kangawa, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    We measured the plasma ghrelin and cortisol concentrations in non-lactating cows under fixed-time feeding conditions followed by an acute or gradual fasting treatment. During the 4 days before fasting, animals in Group 1 were fed a fixed amount of rations at 0800 and 1600 hr, and those in Group 2 were fed a gradually reduced amount. Thereafter, the plasma ghrelin concentrations of each animal were measured for 40 hr. The plasma ghrelin concentrations, which were low at the onset of fasting, increased before and after 0800 during fasting in Group 1, but not in Group 2. There were no significant differences in the plasma cortisol concentration within or between the groups. It was demonstrated that acute fasting induces elevation of the plasma ghrelin concentration, but that gradual fasting does not. This result suggests that fixed-time and fixed-quantity feeding caused a daily ghrelin rhythm in the cow and that this rhythm influenced changes in plasma ghrelin.

  13. Uterine Adenocarcinoma with Pulmonary, Liver and Mesentery Metastasis in a Holstein Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stilwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and pathology features of a cow with uterine adenocarcinoma and multiple metastasis are described. Weight loss, inappetence, mild respiratory signs, and reduced milk yield were evident on clinical examination. Grossly deformed uterus, enlarged iliac lymph nodes, and rosary arranged nodules in the mesentery were felt by rectal palpation. Right side laparotomy revealed numerous small masses covering the omentum, and mesentery. Euthanasia was performed. Necropsy and histopathology exam revealed a uterine adenocarcinoma with multiple pulmonary, liver and mesentery metastasis. Uterine adenocarcinoma with metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cows showing weight loss and mild respiratory distress and palpation of numerous firm nodules in the mesentery should be suggestive of neoplasias' metastasis.

  14. Uterine Adenocarcinoma with Pulmonary, Liver and Mesentery Metastasis in a Holstein Cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, George; Peleteiro, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    The clinical and pathology features of a cow with uterine adenocarcinoma and multiple metastasis are described. Weight loss, inappetence, mild respiratory signs, and reduced milk yield were evident on clinical examination. Grossly deformed uterus, enlarged iliac lymph nodes, and rosary arranged nodules in the mesentery were felt by rectal palpation. Right side laparotomy revealed numerous small masses covering the omentum, and mesentery. Euthanasia was performed. Necropsy and histopathology exam revealed a uterine adenocarcinoma with multiple pulmonary, liver and mesentery metastasis. Uterine adenocarcinoma with metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cows showing weight loss and mild respiratory distress and palpation of numerous firm nodules in the mesentery should be suggestive of neoplasias' metastasis. PMID:20445789

  15. PLCz functional haplotypes modulating promoter transcriptional activity are associated with semen quality traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Pan

    Full Text Available The sperm-specific phospholipase C zeta (PLCz is a candidate sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor that triggers a characteristic series of physiological stimuli via cytoplasmic Ca(2+ oscillations during fertilization. The molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of PLCz gene expression remain largely unknown. To explore the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region of the PLCz gene and their common haplotypes in Chinese Holstein bulls, as well as to determine whether these variations affect bovine semen quality traits and transcriptional activity, DNA samples were collected from Chinese Holstein bulls and sequenced for the identification of genetic variants in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz. Two genetic variants were identified, and their haplotypic profiles were constructed. The two novel genetic variations (g. -456 G>A and g. +65 T>C were genotyped in 424 normal Chinese Holstein bulls. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both loci are in transcription factor binding sites of the core promoter region. The association studies revealed that the two genetic variations and their haplotype combinations significantly affected semen quality traits. Using serially truncated constructs of the bovine PLCz promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 726 bp (-641 nt to +112 nt fragment constitutes the core promoter region. Furthermore, four haplotypes, H1H1 (GTGT, H2H2 (GCGC, H3H3 (ATAT, and H4H4 (ACAC, were significantly associated with semen quality traits and successfully transfected into MLTC-1 cell lines. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the different haplotypes exhibited distinct promoter activities. Maximal promoter activity was demonstrated by the H2H2 haplotypes, as compared with the other haplotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on genetic variants and their respective haplotypes in the 5'-flanking region of PLCz gene that can influence the semen quality of Chinese Holstein bulls as

  16. Genetic polymorphism of beta-casein gene and its associations with milk traits in Holstein-Friesian cows

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    Teodor Bugeac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal breeding finding and using effective genetic markers for improving important traits it is a continuous challenge. In this respect, several genetic markers were associated in cattle with increased milk production or a better milk quality. This proved to be a useful tool for improving certain traits by selecting individuals carriers of allelic variants that have an effect on a desirable trait. In particular, positive associations between certain alleles found at the milk protein loci with some milk production traits convincingly demonstrated in several cattle breeds. Although, in some cases the results obtained in various studies were not in agreement and varied between breeds or populations. Therefore the objective of this study was to establish associations (if any between alleles found at the beta-casein (CSN2 locus and some milk production traits (milk yield and fat, protein, casein and lactose content in a Holstein-Friesian population reared in Romania. Genetic variants at CSN2 locus were identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples. In order to determine milk composition the samples were analysed with MilkoScan FT 6000. For the statistical analysis of data SPSS v.19 for Windows was used. At the CSN2 locus four alleles and seven genotypes were identified in the analyzed cattle population. The cows carriers of CSN2 A2 allele produced the highest milk yield and the highest milk protein content, this result being in agreement with other previous studies.

  17. Effect of season and herd on rennet coagulation time and other parameters of milk technological quality in Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In five herds of purebred Holstein dairy cows, altogether 220 bulk milk samples were collected with the following average parameters: rennet coagulation time (RCT 265.2 sec., titratable acidity 6.40 °SH, active acidity 6.72 pH, specific density 1.0281 kg.l−1, fat content 3.81 g.100g−1, protein content 3.28 g.100g−1, lactose content 4.72 g.100g−1, and content of solids non-fat content 8.89 g.100g−1; average values of milk batch volume per herd and diurnal air temperature were 6,072 kg and 8.02 °C, respectively. It was found out that the variable “season“ (spring, summer, autumn or winter significantly influenced nearly all parameters under study (the only exceptions were values of titratable acidity and milk batch volume. As compared with all other seasons, the significantly shortest RCT was recorded in summer. Further it was also found out that the variable “herd” influenced all parameters with the exception of average diurnal air temperature. Regardless to differences existing among individual herds, the shortest average RCT was recorded always in summer.

  18. Integrating milk metabolite profile information for the prediction of traditional milk traits based on SNP information for Holstein cows.

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    Nina Melzer

    Full Text Available In this study the benefit of metabolome level analysis for the prediction of genetic value of three traditional milk traits was investigated. Our proposed approach consists of three steps: First, milk metabolite profiles are used to predict three traditional milk traits of 1,305 Holstein cows. Two regression methods, both enabling variable selection, are applied to identify important milk metabolites in this step. Second, the prediction of these important milk metabolite from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs enables the detection of SNPs with significant genetic effects. Finally, these SNPs are used to predict milk traits. The observed precision of predicted genetic values was compared to the results observed for the classical genotype-phenotype prediction using all SNPs or a reduced SNP subset (reduced classical approach. To enable a comparison between SNP subsets, a special invariable evaluation design was implemented. SNPs close to or within known quantitative trait loci (QTL were determined. This enabled us to determine if detected important SNP subsets were enriched in these regions. The results show that our approach can lead to genetic value prediction, but requires less than 1% of the total amount of (40,317 SNPs., significantly more important SNPs in known QTL regions were detected using our approach compared to the reduced classical approach. Concluding, our approach allows a deeper insight into the associations between the different levels of the genotype-phenotype map (genotype-metabolome, metabolome-phenotype, genotype-phenotype.

  19. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

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    Makram J. Geha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e ,quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 + e and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc. The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  20. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Makram J; Keown, Jeffrey F; Van Vleck, L Dale

    2011-07-01

    Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield) of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β(0) + β(1)X + e), quadratic regression, (y = β(0) + β(1)X + β(2)X(2) + e) cubic regression (y = β(0) + β(1)X + β(2)X(2) + β(3)X(3) +e) and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc). The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  1. Indicators of induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in Danish Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, Anne Mette; Li, Shucong; Andersen, Pia H.

    2015-01-01

    periods included two cows on control diet and two cows on nutritional SARA challenge. The third period only included two cows on SARA challenge. Control diet was a conventional total mixed ration [45.5% dry matter (DM), 17.8% crude protein, 43.8% neutral detergent fibre, and 22.5% acid detergent fibre (DM...... basis)]. SARA challenge was conducted by substituting control diet with grain pellets (50% wheat/barley) over 3 days to reach 40% grain in the diet. Ruminal pH was measured continuously. Blood samples were collected once daily at 7 h after feeding. Samples of faeces and urine were collected at feeding......, and at 7 and 12 h after feeding. Blood samples were analysed for pCO2, pO2, pH, electrolytes, lactate, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV), and total plasma protein concentration. Milk composition, ruminal VFA, and pH of faeces and urine were measured. RESULTS: SARA was associated with decreased (P

  2. Performance of Holstein-Zebu cows under partial replacement of corn by coffee hulls

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    Tavares Anamaria Almeida Costa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of corn by citrus pulp or coffee hulls explores the potential of dairy cows to digest fiber-rich feedstuffs. However, for the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, replacing citrus pulp by coffee hulls may reduce milk production costs, since citrus pulp needs to be imported from another state, while coffee hulls are highly available at essentially no cost. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of crossbred cows fed concentrates containing 25% coffee hulls (Coffee or 25% citrus pulp (Pulp as a replacement for ground corn grain (Corn; 47.4% in the concentrate. Forty-two cows were blocked based on milk yield and allocated to one of the three treatments for 56 days, following a 14-day standardization period. Concentrates were fed twice a day during the milking routine, 1 kg to each 2.5 kg of the average milk yield for the block, determined at the end of the standardization period. The daily 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield was 7.5 kg for Corn, 7.9 kg for Pulp and 6.2 kg for Coffee (P 0.26. The Pulp concentrate provided the highest financial efficiency, while Coffee was the least efficient (P < 0.01. These data suggest that the potential of use of coffee hulls is low when added at rates equal to or greater than 25% of the concentrate offered during the milking routine.

  3. Effects of supplementation with a phytobiotics-rich herbal mixture on performance, udder health, and metabolic status of Holstein cows with various levels of milk somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kadivar, M; Riasi, A; Zebeli, Q

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation of a novel phytobiotics-rich herbal mixture (PRHM) on feed intake, performance, udder health, ruminal fermentation, and plasma metabolites in cows with moderate or high somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. Twenty-four Holstein dairy cows (117 ± 26 d in milk and 46.3 ± 4.7 kg of milk/d at the start of the experiment) were blocked by parity and days in milk and split into 2 groups, based on SCC in the milk; 12 cows were with moderate SCC (260,000cows had high levels of SCC (>500,000 cells/mL) in the milk. Within each SCC group, cows were blocked by milk yield and parity, and were randomly assigned to 2 different feeding regimens. Half of the cows in each SCC group (n=6) were supplemented with PRHM (185 g/cow per day, providing 12.4 g of phenolic compounds per day), and the other half (n=6) were not supplemented in their diets. The experiment lasted 36 d, whereby the first 24 d were used for adaptation to the diets and the last 12 d for sampling. Data showed that supplementation of PRHM decreased somatic cell score in the milk, indicating improved udder health of cows with high initial SCC, but not in cows with moderate SCC. Also, cows supplemented with PRHM consumed more feed DM, produced greater amounts of milk, and showed an improvement of feed utilization efficiency. However, these cows also lost more back-fat thickness during the experiment. Supplementation of PRHM increased fat- and energy-corrected milk yields in cows with high initial SCC, but not in cows with moderate SCC. Supplementation of PRHM decreased milk fat content, whereas other milk components were not affected by PRHM feeding. The PRHM supplementation decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen fluid, but increased β-hydroxybutyrate and cholesterol concentration in the plasma, irrespective of the initial SCC level in the milk. Other plasma metabolites and liver enzymes were not affected by PRHM supplementation. Apparent

  4. Health disorders and their association with production and functional traits in Holstein Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cesarini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression models were used for studying the relationships between milk yield, body condition score (BCS,  somatic cell score and some disorders of periparturient cows (mammary edema and retained placenta with the occur-  rence of ovarian cysts, clinical mastitis and lameness. Data from milk recording (milk yield and somatic cell content col-  lected at nearly monthly intervals (time period: 35 ± 3 d were merged with BCS recorded on the same dates of milk  recording on periparturient heifers, lactating and dry cows, and with health disorders data (retained placenta, severe  mammary edema, ovarian cysts and clinical mastitis and lameness collected during regular herd activities over nearly  3.5 years. Data were from one commercial herd consisting of over 200 lactating dairy cows and exhibiting an average  305-d milk yield of nearly 10,000 kg. A total of 5,315 records from 728 lactations and 429 cows were used in the analy-  ses. The time period incidence rate was 11.9%, 6.6% and 4.6% for ovarian cysts, lameness and mastitis, respectively,  and the lactational incidence rate was 44.1%, 33.4% and 28.1% for ovarian cysts, lameness and mastitis, respectively.  Occurrence of both ovarian cysts and mastitis was more common in the early lactation than afterwards, whereas lame-  ness tended to occurr erratically during lactation. The risk of occurrence of mastitis and lameness was lower in primi-  parous when compared to multiparous cows. The increase of milk yield increased the risk of occurrence of ovarian cysts  (odds ratio: 1.32, P   between milk yield and lameness. An increase of somatic cell score was found to be a risk factor for mastitis (odds ratio:  1.36, P  ders was not related to BCS at calving, and monthly variation of BCS was related to the onset of mastitis only. Retained  placenta did not appear to present a risk factor for the occurrence of diseases of concern, whereas the presence of severe  mammary edema at

  5. Effects of glucose, propionic acid, and nonessential amino acids on glucose metabolism and milk yield in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemosquet, S; Delamaire, E; Lapierre, H; Blum, J W; Peyraud, J L

    2009-07-01

    Whole-body glucose rate of appearance (Ra) responses and milk lactose secretion were compared in dairy cows receiving duodenal infusions of glucose (Glc), a mixture of 5 nonessential amino acids (NEAAm), or ruminal infusions of propionic acid (C3). Four mid-lactation Holstein cows, fitted with both duodenum and rumen cannulas, were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Cows were fed a grass silage-based diet (Ctrl) that provided 88% of net energy of lactation and 122% of protein requirements. Concentrate was formulated with wheat (21.5%) and barley (20%) containing some starch. Isoenergetic infusions (5.15 Mcal/d of digestible energy) of Glc into the duodenum (7.7 mol/d), C3 into the rumen (14.1 mol/d), or NEAAm into the duodenum (in mol/d; Ala: 1.60; Asp: 0.60; Glu: 5.94; Gly: 1.22; Ser: 2.45) were given as a supplement to the Ctrl diet. During each period on d 13, [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose was infused into one jugular vein and blood samples were taken from the other jugular vein to measure glucose enrichment and determine Ra. Dry matter intake decreased slightly with the infusions (6%), but did not differ among them. Whole body glucose Ra averaged 502, 745, 600, and 576 mmol/h for Ctrl, Glc, C3, and NEAAm, respectively. It increased with the increase in energy supply (Ctrl vs. infusions) and differed according to the nutrients infused. The Ra response was higher with Glc and C3 than with NEAAm and higher with Glc than with C3. Plasma concentrations of insulin were not affected, but insulin-like growth factor 1 increased with infusions. Plasma glucagon increased with NEAAm, which could favor the increased Ra. Overall, milk lactose yield (137, 141, 142, and 130 mmol/h for Ctrl, Glc, C3, and NEAAm, respectively) was not modified by the infusions, but was lower with NEAAm compared with Glc and C3. Changes in lactose yield did not parallel the increase in Ra, and therefore the ratio of lactose yield to Ra decreased with the infusions and was lower in Glc

  6. Effects of clay after an aflatoxin challenge on aflatoxin clearance, milk production, and metabolism of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzberger, S A; Melnichenko, S; Cardoso, F C

    2017-03-01

    Oral supplementation of clay to dairy cattle has been reported to reduce toxicity of aflatoxin (AF) in contaminated feed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 3 concentrations of dietary clay supplementation in response to an AF challenge. Ten multiparous rumen-cannulated Holstein cows [body weight (mean ± SD) = 669 ± 20 kg and 146 ± 69 d in milk], were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design balanced to measure carryover effects. Periods (21 d) were divided in an adaptation phase (d 1 to 14) and a measurement phase (d 15 to 21). From d 15 to 17, cows received an AF challenge. The challenge consisted of 100 μg of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg of dietary dry matter intake (DMI). The material was fitted into 10-mL gelatin capsules and administered into the rumen through a rumen-cannula based on the average DMI obtained on d 12 to 14. Treatments were no clay plus an AF challenge (POS); 3 different concentrations of clay (0.5, 1, or 2% of dietary DMI) plus an AF challenge; and a control consisting of no clay and no AF challenge (C). Statistical analysis was performed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Two contrasts, CONT1 (POS vs. C) and CONT2 (POS vs. the average of 0.5, 1, and 2% clay), were compared along with the linear and quadratic treatment effects (POS, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). Cows supplemented with clay had lower AF excretion in milk as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1; 0.5% = 20.83 μg/d, 1% = 22.82 μg/d, and 2% = 16.51 μg/d) and AF transfer from rumen fluid to milk (AFM1; 0.5% = 1.01%, 1% = 0.98%, and 2% = 0.74%) compared with cows in POS (AFM1 = 27.81 μg/d and AF transfer = 1.37%, CONT2). Similarly, concentrations of AFM1 in milk (0.5% = 0.35 μg/kg, 1% = 0.30 μg/kg, 2% = 0.25 μg/kg), AFB1 in feces (0.5% = 1.79 μg/g, 1% = 1.52 μg/kg, 2% = 1.48 μg/kg), and AFB1 in rumen fluid (0.5% = 0.05 μg/kg, 1% = 0.02 μg/kg, 2% = 0.02 μg/kg) were reduced in cows fed clay compared with POS

  7. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  8. Hepatic metabolic response of Holstein cows in early and mid lactation is altered by nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic response of the liver during periods of inflammation is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on hepatic intermediate metabolism of early- and mid-lactation cows by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with stable isotope tracer. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in early (n = 6; 12 ± 4.2 d in milk) and mid (n = 6; 115 ± 13.5 d in milk) lactation were used for this study. Liver biopsies were performed on all cows. Liver slices (40-60 mg) were incubated in a 37°C water bath for 2 h with either control (phosphate buffered saline), pyruvate (PYR; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate and 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate), pyruvate + propionate (PYR+PRO; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM sodium propionate), or pyruvate + AA (PYR+AA; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM AA solution), and LPS (0.0 or 0.2 μg/mL) was added to flasks per treatment. Enrichment of isotopomers in metabolic equilibrium with Krebs cycle intermediates was assessed. Pyruvate fluxes and the enzymatic activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) versus pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were calculated. Media were analyzed for concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucose, and haptoglobin. Data were analyzed as randomized block (stage of lactation) design in a factorial arrangement of nutrient treatments by LPS dose. Challenge with LPS increased the mRNA abundance of TNF-α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A 2, and the concentration of TNF-α in media. Challenge with LPS increased mRNA abundance of PC but reduced the enrichment of (13)C1[M1] and (13)C2[M2]alanine and tended to reduce the enzymatic activity of PEPCK. Incubation with PYR+PRO and PYR+AA increased the flux of pyruvate to acetyl CoA. However, only PYR+PRO increased the enzymatic activity of PEPCK and PDH versus PC and decreased the mRNA abundance

  9. Trans-Generational Effect of Maternal Lactation during Pregnancy: A Holstein Cow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, Oscar; Ugarte, Eva; Bach, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation in mammals begins in the first stages of embryogenesis. This prenatal programming determines, in part, phenotype expression in adult life. Some species, particularly dairy cattle, are conceived during the maternal lactation, which is a period of large energy and nutrient needs. Under these circumstances, embryo and fetal development compete for nutrients with the mammary gland, which may affect prenatal programming and predetermine phenotype at adulthood. Data from a specialized dairy breed were used to determine the transgenerational effect when embryo development coincides with maternal lactation. Longitudinal phenotypic data for milk yield (kg), ratio of fat-protein content in milk during first lactation, and lifespan (d) from 40,065 cows were adjusted for environmental and genetic effects using a Bayesian framework. Then, the effect of different maternal circumstances was determined on the residuals. The maternal-related circumstances were 1) presence of lactation, 2) maternal milk yield level, and 3) occurrence of mastitis during embryogenesis. Females born to mothers that were lactating while pregnant produced 52 kg (MonteCarlo standard error; MCs.e. = 0.009) less milk, lived 16 d (MCs.e. = 0.002) shorter and were metabolically less efficient (+0.42% milk fat/protein ratio; MCs.e.lactation. The greater the maternal milk yield during embryogenesis, the larger the negative effects of prenatal programming, precluding the offspring born to the most productive cows to fully express their potential additive genetic merit during their adult life. Our data provide substantial evidence of transgenerational effect when pregnancy and lactation coincide. Although this effect is relatively low, it should not be ignored when formulating rations for lactating and pregnant cows. Furthermore, breeding, replacement, and management strategies should also take into account whether the individuals were conceived during maternal lactation because

  10. Genome Wide Association Study Identifies 20 Novel Promising Genes Associated with Milk Fatty Acid Traits in Chinese Holstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Li, Yanhua; Qiao, Lv

    2014-01-01

    Detecting genes associated with milk fat composition could provide valuable insights into the complex genetic networks of genes underling variation in fatty acids synthesis and point towards opportunities for changing milk fat composition via selective breeding. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 22 milk fatty acids in 784 Chinese Holstein cows with the PLINK software. Genotypes were obtained with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead chip and a total of 40,604 informative, high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used. Totally, 83 genome-wide significant SNPs and 314 suggestive significant SNPs associated with 18 milk fatty acid traits were detected. Chromosome regions that affect milk fatty acid traits were mainly observed on BTA1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26 and 27. Of these, 146 SNPs were associated with more than one milk fatty acid trait; most of studied fatty acid traits were significant associated with multiple SNPs, especially C18:0 (105 SNPs), C18 index (93 SNPs), and C14 index (84 SNPs); Several SNPs are close to or within the DGAT1, SCD1 and FASN genes which are well-known to affect milk composition traits of dairy cattle. Combined with the previously reported QTL regions and the biological functions of the genes, 20 novel promising candidates for C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C14 index, C18:0, C18:1n9c, C18 index, SFA, UFA and SFA/UFA were found, which composed of HTR1B, CPM, PRKG1, MINPP1, LIPJ, LIPK, EHHADH, MOGAT1, ECHS1, STAT1, SORBS1, NFKB2, AGPAT3, CHUK, OSBPL8, PRLR, IGF1R, ACSL3, GHR and OXCT1. Our findings provide a groundwork for unraveling the key genes and causal mutations affecting milk fatty acid traits in dairy cattle. PMID:24858810

  11. Effect of increasing dietary metabolizable protein on nitrogen efficiency in Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of the study was to determine the effects of increasing levels of metabolizable protein (MP on lactation performance and nitrogen (N efficiencies in lactating dairy cows. Methods Nine multiparous cows in mid lactation [113±25 days in milk] received three treatments in a 3×3 Latin square design with a period length of 21 days. The treatments were three diets, designed to provide similar energy and increasing supply of MP (g/d (2,371 [low], 2,561 [medium], and 2,711 [high] with corresponding crude protein levels [%] 15.2, 18.4, and 20.9, respectively. Results Increasing MP supplies did not modify dry matter intake, however, it increased milk protein, fat, and lactose yield linearly. Similarly, fat corrected milk increased linearly (9.3% due to an increase in both milk yield (5.2% and milk fat content (7.8%. No effects were observed on milk protein and lactose contents across the treatments. Milk nitrogen efficiency (MNE decreased from 0.26 to 0.20; whereas, the metabolic efficiency of MP decreased from 0.70 to 0.60 in low to high MP supplies, respectively. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN increased linearly in response to increasing MP supplies. Conclusion Increasing MP supplies resulted in increased milk protein yield; however, a higher BUN and low MNE indicated an efficient utilization of dietary protein at low MP supplies.

  12. Relationships between early-life growth, intake, and birth season with first-lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester-Jones, H; Heins, B J; Ziegler, D; Schimek, D; Schuling, S; Ziegler, B; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Broadwater, N

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and

  13. Bayesian estimates of genetic parameters for metritis, retained placenta, milk fever, and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cows via Gibbs sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi; Ardalan, Mehrnaz

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and genetic correlations between the liabilities of clinical mastitis (CM), milk fever (MF), metritis (MET), and retained placenta (RP) within the first three lactations of Holstein dairy cows. The records of 57,301 dairy cows from 20 large dairy herds in Iran between January 2005 and June 2009 were analysed with univariate and bivariate threshold animal models, using Gibbs sampling methodology. The final model included the fixed class effects of herd-year, season of calving, parity of dam, the linear covariate effect of age at calving, and the random direct genetic effect of animal. Posterior means of heritability for liabilities in first, second, and third lactations were 0.06, 0.08, and 0.09, respectively, for CM; 0.10, 0.12, and 0.11, respectively, for MF; 0.09, 0.07, and 0.10, respectively, for MET, and 0.07, 0.08, and 0.08, respectively, for RP. Posterior means of genetic correlations between disease liabilities were low or moderate (from -0.01 to 0.26). The results of this study indicated the importance of health traits for considering in the selection index of Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of ground corn cobs as a fiber source in total mixed ration on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition in tropical lactating crossbred Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalong Wachirapakorn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ground corn cobs (GCC as a sole fiber source in total mixed ration (TMR on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition in tropical lactating crossbred Holstein cows. Four multiparous crossbreds Holstein Friesian dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 415.5 ± 26.20 kg were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments of TMR contained a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60. The roughage source was used at different ratios of GCC to rice straw (RS at 100:0, 82.5:17.5, 67.5:32.5, and 50:50 for TMR1 to TMR4, respectively. The results revealed significant improvements in intake of dry matter, protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and metabolizable energy (ME for TMR1 and TMR2 (P  0.05. However, milk yield was significantly different among the GCC:RS ratios (P  0.05. The results imply that using GCC as a whole roughage source significantly improved nutrients intake and milk yield in dairy cows raised in tropical areas.

  15. Effects of isolation of calves on growth, behavior, and first lactation milk yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arave, C W; Albright, J L; Armstrong, D V; Foster, W W; Larson, L L

    1992-12-01

    Holstein (n = 323) calves in the herds of four experiment stations were reared individually (control) or in isolation to 70 d of age to determine whether isolation affected growth, behavior, and first lactation yield. Treatment differences were not observed for average daily gain for BW at d 28, 56 or 70. Postweaning approach distance was measured in two herds (n = 122; n = 28). Detailed pre and post-weaning behaviors were reported in one herd (n = 26). Isolation did not affect subsequent milk yield or culling percentages. In a second experiment, seven pairs of monozygous twins and a set of identical triplet calves were obtained by transferring split embryos into recipients, one member of each pair was reared in a group, and the twin was reared in isolation. Early rearing previously had been found to affect growth, feed intake, dominance rank, and learning ability of calves, and, in our study, the subsequent milk yield of calves reared in isolation tended to average more than for calves in groups. Intraclass correlations between monozygous twin pairs for milk, fat, relative value milk, and relative value fat were lower than anticipated. These data indicate that preweaning isolation did not affect first lactation milk yield traits.

  16. Estimation of genomic inbreeding coefficients based on high-density SNP markers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhan-cheng; Huang, He-tian; Yan, Qing-xia; Wang, Ya-chun; Yu, Ying; Chen, Shao-hu; Sun, Dong-xiao; Zhang, Sheng-li; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-20

    In livestock, inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree information is usually used to evaluate the level of inbreeding. Recently, with cost reduction of high-density SNP genotyping, it's possible to analyze real genomic inbreeding degree using genomic information. In this study, utilizing high-density SNP chip data, we analyzed the frequency and distribution of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 2107 Chinese Holstein cattle in Beijing area, and calculated 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients, i.e., 1) the proportion of ROH length in the total length of autosomal genome (Froh), and 2) the percentage of homozygous SNPs (Fhom). Then we analyzed the correlation between 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients and the correlation between genomic and pedigree inbreeding coefficients. We totally detected 44 676 ROHs that mainly ranged from 1 to 10 Mb. Various lengths of ROHs existed in the genome. There were more short ROHs than long ROHs. ROHs aren't evenly distributed in chromosomes. The area with most ROHs is in the middle part of chromosome 10. Strong correlation (r > 0.90) existed between 2 kinds of genomic inbreeding coefficients, but the correlation between pedigree and genomic inbreeding coefficients were much lower (r inbreeding. Genomic inbreeding measures may reflect individuals' real inbreeding, which could be a useful tool to evaluate population inbreeding.

  17. Application of imputation methods to genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Ziqing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Missing genotypes are a common feature of high density SNP datasets obtained using SNP chip technology and this is likely to decrease the accuracy of genomic selection. This problem can be circumvented by imputing the missing genotypes with estimated genotypes. When implementing imputation, the criteria used for SNP data quality control and whether to perform imputation before or after data quality control need to consider. In this paper, we compared six strategies of imputation and quality control using different imputation methods, different quality control criteria and by changing the order of imputation and quality control, against a real dataset of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results demonstrated that, no matter what imputation method and quality control criteria were used, strategies with imputation before quality control performed better than strategies with imputation after quality control in terms of accuracy of genomic selection. The different imputation methods and quality control criteria did not significantly influence the accuracy of genomic selection. We concluded that performing imputation before quality control could increase the accuracy of genomic selection, especially when the rate of missing genotypes is high and the reference population is small.

  18. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M; Jeyakumar, S; Manimaran, A; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Sivaram, M; Ramesha, K P; Das, D N; Kataktalware, Mukund A; Jayaprakash, G; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  19. CLINICAL EFFICIENCY OF APITHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF UDDER WOUNDS IN HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Čengić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey, pollen and propolis have been used since the ancient times in the treatment of infected wounds. These substances express antimicrobial activity even against microorganisms resistant to conventional antibiotics and antiseptics. The goal of the research is to answer the question of whether these substances could help in healing of the udder wounds under the real field conditions. Substances subject to research were mixed in a remedy, which was applied directly into the udder wounds once daily.The wounds were treated with “Apimelem” during May and June, 2012. “Apimelem” applied into the udder wounds gave good results in elimination of infection, prevention of reinfection and faster tissue healing. Prepared “Apimelem” proved efficient, nontoxic and financially affordable, this is especially important for poor or natural disaster- affected areas.Key words: infected wound, “Apimelem”, antimicrobic activity, udder, cow

  20. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETICAL FACTORS ON UREA CONTENT IN HOLSTEIN BREED COWS MILK

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    Draženko Budimir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to determine to which extent the environmental factors (order and stadium of lactation, age with the first calving, calving season, region and herd have the influence on the content of urea in milk, and connection of urea content in milk with other features of milk production with cows. The largest share of urea content in milk was recorded in the first lactation, in the period between 110 and 140 days, when it was around 23.6 mg/100 ml. In the end of the first lactation the average urea content in milk was around 21.6 mg/100 ml. The second lactation is chara¬cterized by somewhat bigger urea content, in the period immediately after calving when the highest values from all tracked lactations was recorded. The age of cows with their first calving also had an impact on urea con¬tent in milk. Cows that calved in the age from 24th to 26th month had the highest value of urea content, being 23.2 mg/100 ml for the stated period. The lowest value of urea content was recorded with cows that calved in the age of 18 months and it was below 20 mg/100 ml. Season of calving also influenced the urea content in milk. In winter season 2004 the lowest values of urea content in milk were recorded while in the autumn sea¬son of the same year the highest urea content in milk was measured (24 mg/100 ml. In the following calving season increase of urea content in milk followed. The differences in urea content in milk were determined between the counties. The highest value of heritabi-lity (0.08 was estimated by the model where, as a comparison group, the interaction between the herds and control day was used. In the research the share of variability was explained by the interaction herd-control day and it was 67%, while 25% of variability of urea con¬tent in milk remained unexplained. This model was used when estimating the breeding values. A model was also tested where the influence of herd was used as a comparison group, and by this

  1. Effects of environmental modification on mastitis occurrence and hormonal changes in Holstein cows

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    Juliana R.P. Arcaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of evaporative cooling in freestall on mastitis occurrence, milk production, and composition, as well as cortisol, T3 (triiodothyronine, and T4 (thyroxin levels in lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous cows averaging 70 ± 10 day postpartum were used in four treatments from January to March 2003. The treatments were: Day (cooling from 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.; Night (cooling from 7:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.; 24-hour (cooling 24-hour; and Control (no cooling. Wired cup test was used for clinical mastitis diagnosis, and the California Mastitis Test (CMT was used to identify subclinical mastitis. Blood and milk samples were taken weekly for microbiological and hormonal analyses. The cortisol levels were higher than normal values in all treatment groups, suggesting stress conditions, but T3 and T4 levels remained normal in all groups. The occurrence of subclinical mastitis was lower in Day and Night groups than in Control and 24-hour groups. Regarding the microbiological analyses, in all groups the isolation of Corynebacterium sp. from milk samples increased while negative coagulase staphylococci (CNS declined as etiological agents of subclinical mastitis. However, in Day and 24-hour groups, coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS increased mainly Staphylococcus aureus (49.8% and 47.7% respectively. The Night group showed a decrease in subclinical mastitis occurrences. Our data indicate that all animals subjected to treatments presented high levels of cortisol, indicating a stress condition. The Night treatment presented a reduction in microbial isolation, suggesting a reduced susceptibility to mastitis.

  2. Predicting methane emissions of lactating Danish Holstein cows using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N; Difford, G; Lassen, J; Løvendahl, P; Buitenhuis, A J

    2017-11-01

    Enteric methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, is among the main targets of mitigation practices for the dairy industry. A measurement technique that is rapid, inexpensive, easy to use, and applicable at the population level is desired to estimate CH4 emission from dairy cows. In the present study, feasibility of milk Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for CH4:CO2 ratio and CH4 production (L/d) is explained. The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models. The models were validated using different random test sets, which are independent from the training set by leaving out records of 20% cows for validation and keeping records of 80% of cows for training the model. The data set consisted of 3,623 records from 500 Danish Holstein cows from both experimental and commercial farms. For both CH4:CO2 ratio and CH4 production, low prediction accuracies were found when models were obtained using FT-IR spectra. Validated coefficient of determination (R(2)Val) = 0.21 with validated model error root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) = 0.0114 L/d for CH4:CO2 ratio, and R(2)Val = 0.13 with RMSEP = 111 L/d for CH4 production. The important spectral wavenumbers selected using the recursive partial least squares method represented major milk components fat, protein, and lactose regions of the spectra. When fat and protein predicted by FT-IR were used instead of full spectra, a low R(2)Val of 0.07 was obtained for both CH4:CO2 ratio and CH4 production prediction. Other spectral wavenumbers related to lactose (carbohydrate) or additional wavenumbers related to fat or protein (amide II) are providing additional variation when using the full spectral profile. For CH4:CO2 ratio prediction, integration of FT-IR with other factors such as milk yield, herd, and lactation stage showed improvement in the prediction accuracy. However, overall prediction accuracy remained modest; R(2)Val increased to 0.31 with

  3. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, C; Friggens, N C; Taghipoor, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Lehmann, J O; Sehested, J

    2016-03-01

    Extending lactation by voluntarily delaying rebreeding aims to improve fertility and milk production in the modern dairy cow. Previous studies have shown that increased energy concentrations in the ration induced greater total milk yield and lactation persistency defined by the duration and the shape of the lactation curve. In this paper, we hypothesized that increasing the supply of energy during the early lactation mobilization period would have a positive carryover effect on milk production during extended lactation. A total of 53 Holstein cows completed a 16-mo lactation, including 30% primiparous cows. The cows were divided into 2 feeding strategies: half of the cows received a high-energy density diet (HD) in early lactation followed by a lower-energy density diet (LD; strategy HD-LD). The change in diet was defined individually after 42 d of lactation, and when the live weight (LW) gain of the cow was ≥ 0 based on a 5-d average. The other half of the cows were fed the LD diet during the entire lactation (strategy LD-LD). Both groups received 3 kg of concentrates per day during milking. Weekly milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cells), daily milk production, daily feed intake, daily LW, and body condition score every second week were recorded. The fda package of R was used to model the curves of these different variables for the 53 cows that had a lactation over 400 d. The fitted values of these curves and the associated slopes were then compared for parity and treatment effects using a linear mixed-effects model. The HD-LD and LD-LD cows had a similar length of lactation (461 ± 7 d). The HD diet reduced the intensity of the mobilization period and increased the milk production of the multiparous cows in early lactation compared with the cows fed the LD diet. The primiparous cows used the extra energy to grow and gain weight, but not to produce more milk. After the shift in diet, the treatment had little short-term carryover effect on

  4. Effects of dietary betaine on milk yield and milk composition of mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, S E; Rezamand, P; Williams, J E; Price, W; Chahine, M; McGuire, M A

    2012-11-01

    Betaine, naturally found in plants and an oxidative product of choline, is converted to acetate in the rumen, which may be used for milk fat synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary betaine on milk yield and milk composition. Eighteen Holstein dairy cows (126±5 d in milk; mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments of rumen-unprotected betaine at 0, 25, 50, and 100 g/d added to a standard lactation ration in a 4×4 Latin square design. Animals were fed individually with feed intake and milk yield recorded daily. Body condition score and body weight were recorded on the last day of each period that lasted 16 d, with milk sampled on the last 2 d of each period. Milk composition was determined by a Dairy Herd Improvement Association laboratory and milk fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Data collected over the last 2 to 3 d were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Milk yield (mean ± SEM) was increased by betaine when fed at 100g/d (22.4, 22.5, 22.8, 24.1±1.19 kg/d for 0, 25, 50, and 100g of betaine/d, respectively). No effect of dietary betaine was detected on dry matter intake, feed efficiency, body weight, or body condition score. Percentages of milk fat, lactose, solids-not-fat, and somatic cell count were not altered; however, protein concentration was decreased by betaine supplementation as compared with the control (3.35, 3.28, 3.27, and 3.28±0.07% for 0, 25, 50, and 100 g of betaine/d, respectively). Daily yields of milk protein, fat, lactose, energy-corrected milk, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk did not differ with betaine supplementation. Overall, inclusion of dietary betaine at 100 g/d increased milk yield, whereas all levels of betaine supplementation decreased milk protein percent and slightly altered milk fatty acid profile. Further studies are needed to determine the ruminal fermentation characteristics and the optimum rate of

  5. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANZ

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... The analyzed population comprised 970 Polish holstein-friesian cows (PHF) and 372 Jersey cows. The database provided pedigree information on dams and their productivity. Differences between breeds in terms of longevity and culling reasons were investigated. For the group of PHF cows, the average ...

  6. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIRST THREE LACTATIONS OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate relationship between milk yield in the first three lactations regarding levels of milk yield in the first lactation and levels of age at the first calving. Prediction of milk yield in later lactation based on milk yield in the earlier one was also carried out. The data used in this study were 5743 lactation yields collected from 1995 to 2003. All cows finished the first three lactations. Mean value of milk yield in the first lactation was 5283.5 kg, 6033.5 kg in the second and 6338.4 kg the third one. The milk yield estimation coefficients between the first and second lactation was 1.164, between the first and third was 1.231, and 1.079 between the second and third. The levels of milk yield in the first lactation highly significant influenced the value of estimation coefficient between first three lactations, while the age at first calving influenced less significantly. Determination coefficient (R2 values for models used in prediction ranged from 0.348 to 0.396.

  8. Fertility of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Fricke, P M

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284). Pregnancy status was determined 33 ± 3 d after insemination and was reconfirmed 63 ± 3 d after insemination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). By design, days in milk at first insemination did not differ between treatments (76.9 ± 0.2 vs. 76.7 ± 0.3 for DO vs. EST cows, respectively), but more DO cows were inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period than EST cows (100.0 vs. 77.5%). Overall, DO cows had more P/AI than EST cows at both 33 d (49.0 vs. 38.6%) and 63 d (44.6 vs. 36.4%) after insemination, but pregnancy loss from 33 to 63 d after insemination did not differ between treatments. Primiparous cows had more P/AI than multiparous cows 33 and 63 d after insemination, but the treatment by parity interaction was not significant. Synchronization rate to the hormonal protocols was 85.3%, which did not differ between treatments; however, synchronized DO cows had more P/AI 33 d after insemination than synchronized EST cows (54.7 vs. 44.5%). In summary, submission of lactating Holstein cows to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and TAI for first insemination increased the percentage of cows inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period and increased P/AI at 33 and 63 d after first insemination resulting in 64 and 58% more pregnant cows, respectively, than submission of cows for first AI after detection

  9. A SNP in the 3'-untranslated region of AMPKγ1 may associate with serum ketone body and milk production of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Zargaran, Amir; Amini, Hamid-Reza; Assadi, Assad; Vajdi Hokmabad, Reza; Eghbalsaied, Shahin

    2015-12-10

    AMPK is the key switch for providing the energy balance between cellular anabolic and catabolic processes. In this study, we aimed to screen the PRKAG1 (AMPKγ1) gene in high, moderate, and low producing Holstein dairy cows. A sample of 100 pregnant dairy cows, comprising 41 high, 33 moderate, and 26 low milk yields were selected from three large dairy herds in Isfahan province of Iran. Body condition score (BCS) was estimated before parturition while beta hydroxyl butyric acid (BHBA) as a measure of ketone bodies was measured at the fifth day postpartum. In addition, using three primer pairs covering exons 2-11 and 3'-UTR of the PRKAG1 gene, a random sample of 10 high milk yield dairy cows were amplified and sequenced. The sequencing results showed the presence of a T12571C mutation in intron 6 and a T14280C mutation in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the PRKAG1 gene. Following a PCR reaction for amplification of the 3'-UTR amplicons, single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay was implemented for discrimination of the mutation in the studied population. Then, we evaluated if the mutation associates with the BCS, serum BHBA level, and production traits. The experimental analysis showed that the mutated allele significantly increased the BHBA level, BCS, as well as milk and protein yield. Bioinformatic study revealed that this 3'-UTR mutation distorts the target site of mir-423-5p microRNA which is one of the most highly expressed microRNAs in the bovine mammary gland, liver, and kidney. Given the role of AMPK in energy metabolism, the newly identified 3'-UTR mutation highlights the importance of AMPK and suggests a role of miRNAs for regulation of cellular metabolism, metabolism disorders, and production traits in Holstein dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em pastagem de coastcross Performance of Holsteins cows on coastcross pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Vilela

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa mantidas em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears fertilizada, irrigada e suplementada com 3 ou 6 kg de concentrado/vaca/dia. Dados de 108 lactações coletados durante três anos consecutivos (outubro/2000 a outubro/2003 foram analisados em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com duas repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se nove animais por área e 18 por tratamento, com lotação fixa de cinco vacas/ha. Adotou-se o sistema de pastejo em lotação rotacionada, com um dia de ocupação e 25 e 35 dias de descanso dos piquetes, nas estações chuvosa e seca, respectivamente. A pastagem foi irrigada nos meses de menor precipitação e fertilizada com adubo formulado (NPK, distribuído a lanço em seis aplicações anuais. A disponibilidade de matéria seca foi de 7.280 e 6.167 kg/ha no início do pastejo, com resíduo pós-pastejo de 4.885 e 3.994 kg/ha, nas estações chuvosa (primavera/verão e seca (outono/inverno, respectivamente. Durante parte do período experimental, algumas características morfogênicas da pastagem foram avaliadas, registrando-se disponibilidade de 83,9; 125,6 e 89,5 kg de MS de lâminas foliares/ha, nas estações de primavera, verão e outono, respectivamente. As produções médias diárias de leite (corrigidas para 3,5% de gordura foram de 15,5 e 19,1 kg/vaca e de 77,8 e 94,0 kg/ha, quando foram fornecidos, para cada vaca, 3 e 6 kg de concentrado, respectivamente. Pastagem de coastcross, quando fertilizada e manejada adequadamente, viabiliza elevadas produtividades de leite por animal e por área, podendo ser recomendada para produção de leite em pastagens.The productive performance of Holstein cows grazing fertilized coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pears pasture, strategically irrigated and supplemented with either 3 or 6 kg of concentrate/cow/day, was evaluated in this trial. The data were collected for three years (October/2000 to

  11. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sathiyabarathi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus cows (n=19 were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature and udder skin surface temperature (USST before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC, Electrical Conductivity (EC, and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD body (37.23±0.08°C and USST (37.22±0.04°C of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (p37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cowside diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows.

  12. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  13. Peripartum back fat thickness of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with displacement of the abomasum or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Aoki, Takahiro; Matsui, Motozumi; Yamada, Kazutaka; Ishii, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows.

  14. Comparative analysis of milk yield and reproductive traits of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and kept on farms under the Turkish-ANAFI project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Akbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkeyor imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at firstcalving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposalrecords from 50 farms in the provinces of I•zmir, Manisa and Aydın under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Leastsquares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry,and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively.Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months(P0.05, 6761 and 6897 kg (Pdays (P0.10, and 21.6 and 36.1 months (Pof Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, therewere reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey comparedto cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tendedto keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.

  15. Genetic parameters of rumination time and feed efficiency traits in primiparous Holstein cows under research and commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Fogh, A; Løvendahl, P

    2017-12-01

    Feed efficiency has the potential to be improved both through feeding, management, and breeding. Including feed efficiency in a selection index is limited by the fact that dry matter intake (DMI) recording is only feasible under research facilities, resulting in small data sets and, consequently, uncertain genetic parameter estimates. As a result, the need to record DMI indicator traits on a larger scale exists. Rumination time (RT), which is already recorded in commercial dairy herds by a sensor-based system, has been suggested as a potential DMI indicator. However, RT can only be a DMI indicator if it is heritable, correlates with DMI, and if the genetic parameters of RT in commercial herd settings are similar to those in research facilities. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate genetic parameters for RT and the related traits of DMI in primiparous Holstein cows, and to compare genetic parameters of rumination data between a research herd and 72 commercial herds. The estimated heritability values were all moderate for DMI (0.32-0.49), residual feed intake (0.23-0.36), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield (0.49-0.70), and RT (0.14-0.44) found in the research herd. The estimated heritability values for ECM were lower for the commercial herds (0.08-0.35) than that for the research herd. The estimated heritability values for RT were similar for the 2 herd types (0.28-0.32). For the research herd, we found negative individual level correlations between RT and DMI (-0.24 to -0.09) and between RT and RFI (-0.34 to -0.03), and we found both positive and negative correlations between RT and ECM (-0.08 to 0.09). For the commercial herds, genetic correlations between RT and ECM were both positive and negative (-0.27 to 0.10). In conclusion, RT was not found to be a suitable indicator trait for feed intake and only a weak indicator of feed efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  17. Tissue protein nitration and peripheral blood endotoxin activity are indicative of the severity of systemic organ compromise in naturally-occurring clinical cases of bacterial mastitis in Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this survey study was to determine a relationship between the intensity of tissue protein tyrosine nitration measured in samples of mammary gland, liver, pancreas and lung compared to estimated blood endotoxin (LPS) activity. Blood was collected from nine multiparous Holstein cows...

  18. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam S. Vafa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control, 2% fish oil (FO, 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO, or 2% canola oil (CO according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001 and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05, but dry matter intake (DMI was lower (p0.05. The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids of short chain fatty acids (SCFA decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA increased (p0.05. The proportion of trans(t-18:1 increased (p<0.01 in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c-11 18:1 (p<0.01. The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 increased (p<0.05 in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of milk.

  19. Fatty acid intake and rumen fatty acid composition is affected by pre-grazing herbage mass and daily herbage allowance in Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Palladino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of level of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM and daily herbage allowance (DHA on the fatty acid (FA intake and composition of ruminal content of grazing dairy cows. Four rumen fistulated Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to either a high or low HM (1700 vs 2600 kg DM ha-1 and within herbage mass treatment further allocated to a high or low DHA (20 vs 16 kg of DM cow-1 day-1 in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Total FA intake and linolenic acid (LNA intake was higher for cows on high DHA (p<0.05. Ruminal oleic acid, linoleic and LNA were not affected by treatments. Ruminal stearic acid (C18:0 and vaccenic acid (VA concentrations were higher at low HM (43.6 and 14.8 g/100 gof FA respectively; p<0.01 compared to high HM (42.0 and 12.5 g/100 gof FA respectively for C18:0 and VA. Cows grazing high DHA had higher ruminal concentration of VA (15.3 g/100 gof FA; p<0.01 than low DHA (12.1 g/100 gof FA. Regarding milk FA composition, only some of the milk FA varied across treatments, being the VA and LNA concentrations higher at low HM (p<0.05. These data suggest that low HM and high DHA, at least within the range studied here, promotes the accumulation of ruminal VA which could be available for subsequent conversion within the mammary gland to the human health promoting c9,t11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid.

  20. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  1. Influence of energy and nutrient supply pre and post partum on performance of multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, L; Urdl, M; Obritzhauser, W; Schauer, A; Häusler, J; Steiner, B

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre partum (PRE) and post partum (POST) dietary energy and nutrient supply (E) and their interactions on feed intake, performance and energy status in dairy cows of three breeds. In this experiment, the effects of three energy and nutrient supply levels (low (L), medium (M), high (H)), both pre-calving and post-calving, were investigated, using a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. In both phases (84 days pre- and 105 days post-calving) E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n=27 for each breed), were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE). Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted, if energy intake exceeded target values. Pre partum DMI and energy intake were different as designed, liveweight and body condition score (BCS) of SI cows were higher, but EB was lower, compared to BS and HF cows. Milk yield and composition were influenced by all three main experimental factors (EPRE, EPOST, breed). Energy-corrected milk yield was 25.6, 28.6 and 30.1 kg/day for LPRE, MPRE and HPRE as well as 21.5, 30.1 and 32.6 kg/day for LPOST, MPOST and HPOST, respectively. Numerically, only for milk protein content the interactions EPRE×EPOST and EPRE×breed reached significance. Impact of energy supply pre-calving was more pronounced when cows had lower energy supply post-calving and vice versa. On the other hand, milk yield response of cows to energy supply above requirements was greater for cows that were fed on a low energy level pre partum. Impact of energy level pre partum was higher for HF cows, showing that their milk production relies to a greater extent on mobilization of body reserves. Increasing energy supply pre partum led to a more negative energy balance post partum, mainly by increasing milk yield and content, whereas feed intake was slightly reduced. Increasing energy supply post

  2. Pregnancy success of lactating Holstein cows after a single administration of a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez CG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results regarding the use of bovine somatotropin for enhancing fertility in dairy cattle are variable. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single injection of a sustained-release preparation of bovine somatotropin (bST during the preovulatory period would improve pregnancy success of lactating dairy cows at first service. Results The first experiment was conducted in a temperate region of Mexico. Cows inseminated following natural estrus or timed artificial insemination were given a single injection of bST or a placebo injection at insemination (n = 100 cows per group. There was no significant difference between bST and control groups in the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant (29 vs 31% pregnant. The second experiment was performed during heat stress in Florida. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization regimen for first insemination. Cows treated with bST received a single injection at 3 days before insemination. Controls received no additional treatment. As expected, bST did not increase vaginal temperature. Treatment with bST did not significantly increase the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant although it was numerically greater for the bST group (24.2% vs 17.8%, 124–132 cows per group. There was a tendency (p = 0.10 for a smaller percent of control cows to have high plasma progesterone concentrations (≥ 1 ng/ml at Day 7 after insemination than for bST-treated cows (72.6 vs 81.1%. When only cows that were successfully synchronized were considered, the magnitude of the absolute difference in the percentage of inseminated cows that were diagnosed pregnant between bST and control cows was reduced (24.8 vs 22.4% pregnant for bST and control. Conclusion Results failed to indicate a beneficial effect of bST treatment on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  3. Phenotypic, genetic, and single nucleotide polymorphism marker associations between calf diseases and subsequent performance and disease occurrences of first-lactation German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M; Yin, T; Brügemann, K; König, S

    2017-03-01

    A total of 31,396 females born from 2010 to 2013 in 43 large-scale Holstein-Friesian herds were phenotyped for calf and cow disease traits using a veterinarian diagnosis key. Calf diseases were general disease status (cGDS), calf diarrhea (cDIA), and calf respiratory disease (cRD) recorded from birth to 2 mo of age. Incidences were 0.48 for cGDS, 0.28 for cRD, and 0.21 for cDIA. Cow disease trait recording focused on the early period directly after calving in first parity, including the interval from 10 d before calving to 200 d in lactation. For cows, at least one entry for the respective disease implied a score = 1 (sick); otherwise, score = 0 (healthy). Corresponding cow diseases were first-lactation general disease status (flGDS), first-lactation diarrhea (flDIA), and first-lactation respiratory disease (flRD). Additional cow disease categories included mastitis (flMAST), claw disorders (flCLAW), female fertility disorders (flFF), and metabolic disorders (flMET). A further cow trait category considered first-lactation test-day production traits from official test-days 1 and 2 after calving. The genotype data set included 41,256 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 9,388 females with phenotypes. Linear and generalized linear mixed models with a logit link-function were applied to Gaussian and categorical cow traits, respectively, considering the calf disease as a fixed effect. Most of the calf diseases were not significantly associated with the occurrence of any cow disease. By trend, increasing risks for the occurrence of cow diseases were observed for healthy calves, indicating mechanisms of disease resistance with aging. Also by trend, occurrence of calf diseases was associated with decreasing milk, protein, and fat yields. Univariate linear and threshold animal models were used to estimate heritabilities and breeding values (EBV) for all calf and cow traits. Heritabilities for cGDS and cRD were 0.06 and 0.07 for cDIA. Genetic correlations among all

  4. Effect of time duration of ruminal urea infusions on ruminal ammonia concentrations and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea-N in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    investigated. Three Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were randomly allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were ventral ruminal infusion of water for 24h (water INF), 24-h infusion of 15g...... concentration was observed. The portal flux of urea-N was not affected by treatment (i.e., even the combination of low ruminal ammonia and high arterial urea-N concentration with 6-h INF was not used by the cow to increase the uptake of urea-N across the PDV). Arterial urea-N extraction across the PDV......The effects of a 6 versus 24h ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in N on ruminal ammonia concentration, arterial urea-N concentration, net portal-drained viscera (PDV) urea-N flux, arterial urea-N extraction across the PDV, and renal urea-N kinetics were...

  5. Effects of supplementation with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester on splanchnic amino acid metabolism and essential amino acid mobilization in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbach, Kristine Foged; Larsen, Mogens; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2011-01-01

    in the study. Cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with factor 1: control (calcium carbonate) versus HMBi [1.5 g of HMBi/kg of dry matter (DM)] and factor 2: high dietary ethanol (19 g/kg of DM) versus high dietary propanol (16 g/kg of DM). Only factor 1 data...... by difference: EAA excretion in milk protein − net portal absorption of EAA or net splanchnic release of EAA. Eight Holstein cows fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery in the dry period preceding second parturition were used...... are presented. Treatments were administered in 4 total mixed rations and initiated on the day of parturition. Cows were sampled 14 d before expected parturition and 4, 15, and 29 d after parturition. Supplementation with HMBi tended to increase milk fat content but not fat yield, tended to impose a slower rate...

  6. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones ( in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05. In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05. Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution.

  7. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones (Pinus koraiensis) in Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Jung, U Suk; Jeon, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Won Seob; Lee, Sang Bum; Kim, Youn Chil; Kim, Bae Young; Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C) or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T) in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (pmilk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution.

  8. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NE L /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NE L /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Genetic analysis of production traits of Holstein cows in the Mediterranean climate of Iran using random regression and animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jabarzadeh Ivrigh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Productive traits such as milk production and fat and protein percentage have economic importance in the livestock industry. Accurate prediction of breeding value of animals is one of the best tools available for maximizing response to selection program. It is a fact that the main objective of the breeding program, is to achieve the maximum economic benefit. For breeders of dairy cattle, milk, fat, and protein are the main sources of income that are the most important traits in the firm goals. For evaluating the dairy cattle based on these traits (milk production, fat, and protein percentage, prediction of breeding values is essential. The present study was performed in order to estimate the genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of production traits in the Mediterranean climate of Iran (including; Ardebil, Hamadan, East and West Azerbaijan and Zanjan provinces using 105118 records for Test Day and 30985 records for 305-day lactation records Related 8808 Herd of first lactation Holstein Cattle calving between 2003 to 2013. All records collected by Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Materials and Methods Records were edited using Fox pro 8.0 and ACCESS 2010 software and the wrong and unusual records were removed from the dataset. All analyses were performed using the RR (random regression routine of the WOMBAT software package using AIREML algorithm on Linux operation system. Test day records were analyzed with the following random regression model (RRM: Where; Pk; kth fixed effect of province, YSl; lth fixed effect of year-season of calving, Yklimnptv; test day record i obtained at dimt of cow p calved at the nth age group in herd-test day m, HTDm; fixed effect of mth herd-test date, Cf; The fth fixed regression coefficient for calving age, agen; The nth calving age, k; The order of fit for fixed regression coefficients (k=4, βr; The rth fixed regression coefficient, ka; The order of fit for additive

  10. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  11. Effects of feeding crude glycerin on performance and ruminal kinetics of lactating Holstein cows fed corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based, low-fiber diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Wang, D; Kim, S C; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to determine whether crude glycerin could partially replace concentrate ingredients in corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based diets formulated to support minimal milk fat production without reducing milk production. Multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=24; 116 ± 13d in milk) were assigned to dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design; namely, 2 dietary roughage sources (cottonseed hulls or corn silage) and 3 dietary concentrations of glycerin [0, 5, or 10% on a dry matter (DM) basis]. Four different cows received each dietary treatment in each of 3 periods such that each diet was evaluated using 12 cows. Crude glycerin, produced using soybean oil, contained 12% water, 5% oil, 6.8% sodium chloride, and 0.4% methanol. Glycerin partially replaced ground corn, corn gluten feed, and citrus pulp. Diets of minimum fiber concentrations were fed to lactating dairy cows and resulted in low concentrations of milk fat (averaging 3.12% for cows fed diets without glycerin). The effects of glycerin on cow performance and ruminal measurements were the same for both dietary roughage sources with the exception of feed efficiency. Replacing concentrate with crude glycerin at 5% of dietary DM increased DM intake without increasing milk yield. Concentration and yield of milk fat were reduced when glycerin was fed at 10% of dietary DM. This was accompanied by a 30% reduction in apparent total-tract digestion of dietary neutral detergent fiber. Crude glycerin affected the microbial population in the rumen as evidenced by increased molar proportions of propionic, butyric, and valeric acids and decreased molar proportions of acetic acid. Efficiency of N utilization was improved as evidenced by lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and ruminal ammonia-N. Cows fed cottonseed hull-based diets consumed 5.3 kg/d more DM but produced only 1.7 kg/d more milk, resulting in reduced efficiency. Increased production of ruminal microbial protein, molar

  12. The Effect of Supplementation Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinical Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nurdin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A research about “The Effect of Supplementation Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinic Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows” had been done in a small farm at Nagrak Kulon Valley, Lembang-Bandung. The aim of this research is to know about the effect of supplementation Sunflower and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat (SNF, Total Solid (TS and Milk Acidity (pH of sub-clinic Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows.  This research using 16 Holstein Dairy Cows with 2-4 lactation periode and 2-4 lactation month. The method that using in this research is Random groups method with 4 treatment such as R0 (control, R1 (0.01% body weight of sunflowers, R2 (100 gram of BIOPLUS and R3 (R1 + R2.  As the result of this research is no effect (P>0.05 of supplementation sunflowers and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinical Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows. SNF is 8.50 % - 8.75 %, TS is 12.51 % - 12.65 % and pH is 6.72 – 6.85. (Animal Production 9(2: 79-81 (2007   Key Words : Sunflowers, BIOPLUS, Sub-clinical Mastitis, SNF, TS, pH

  13. The Effect of Supplementation Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinical Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nurdin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A research about “The Effect of Supplementation Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L. and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinic Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows” had been done in a small farm at Nagrak Kulon Valley, Lembang-Bandung. The aim of this research is to know about the effect of supplementation Sunflower and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat (SNF, Total Solid (TS and Milk Acidity (pH of sub-clinic Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows. This research using 16 Holstein Dairy Cows with 2-4 lactation periode and 2-4 lactation month. The method that using in this research is Random groups method with 4 treatment such as R0 (control, R1 (0.01% body weight of sunflowers, R2 (100 gram of BIOPLUS and R3 (R1 + R2. As the result of this research is no effect (P>0.05 of supplementation sunflowers and BIOPLUS to the Solid Non Fat, Total Solid and Milk Acidity of Sub-clinical Mastitis’s Holstein Dairy Cows. SNF is 8.50 % - 8.75 %, TS is 12.51 % - 12.65 % and pH is 6.72 – 6.85. (Animal Production 9(2: 79-81 (2007 Key Words : Sunflowers, BIOPLUS, Sub-clinical Mastitis, SNF, TS, pH

  14. Distinct composition of bovine milk from Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows with good, poor or non-coagulation properties as reflected in protein genetic variants and isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Bak; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Kell Kleiner

    2012-01-01

    of minerals (Ca, P, Mg) were identified in poorly coagulating and noncoagulating milk in comparison with milk with good coagulation properties. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of a great variety of genetic variants of the major milk proteins, namely, αS1......The objective of this study was to examine variation in overall milk, protein, and mineral composition of bovine milk in relation to rennet-induced coagulation, with the aim of elucidating the underlying causes of milk with impaired coagulation abilities. On the basis of an initial screening of 892...... milk samples from 42 herds with Danish Jersey and Holstein-Friesian cows, a subset of 102 samples was selected to represent milk with good, poor, or noncoagulating properties (i.e., samples that within each breed represented the most extremes in regard to coagulation properties). Milk with good...

  15. Aspectos radiográficos de periostite ossificante em metatarso de vaca Holandesa Radiografic aspects of ossifying periostitis in metatarsus of Holstein cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Meneses

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Periostite ossificante é uma neoformação óssea inflamatória extensa, frequentemente oriunda de infecção de tecidos moles adjacentes ao osso afetado, sendo mais proeminente nos bovinos, especialmente em animais jovens. Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de periostite ossificante no osso metatársico III direito de uma vaca Holandesa após trauma. O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clínicos e radiográficos e confirmado cirurgicamente.Ossifying periostitis is an extensive inflamatory new bone formation frequently extensive from soft tissue infection next to these bones. It is more observed in young bovines. A case of pos traumatic ossifying periostitis in the right metatarsus of a Holstein cow is described. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiographic findings and confirmed cirurgically.

  16. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes previously related to genetic variation in fertility with phenotypic measurements of reproductive function in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M Sofia; Denicol, Anna C; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Taylor, Jeremy F; Schnabel, Robert D; Hansen, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Many genetic markers related to health or production traits are not evaluated in populations independent of the discovery population or related to phenotype. Here we evaluated 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes previously associated with genetic merit for fertility and production traits for association with phenotypic measurements of fertility in a population of Holstein cows that was selected based on predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for daughter pregnancy rate (DPR; high, ≥1, n = 989; low, ≤ -1.0, n = 1,285). Cows with a high PTA for DPR had higher pregnancy rate at first service, fewer services per conception, and fewer days open than cows with a low PTA for DPR. Of the 68 SNP, 11 were associated with pregnancy rate at first service, 16 with services per conception, and 19 with days open. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes (BDH2, BSP3, CAST, CD2, CD14, FUT1, FYB, GCNT3, HSD17B7, IBSP, OCLN, and PCCB) had significant associations with 2 fertility traits, and SNP in 4 genes (CSPP1, FCER1G, PMM2, and TBC1D24) had significant associations with each of the 3 traits. Results from this experiment were compared with results from 2 earlier studies in which the SNP were associated with genetic estimates of fertility. One study involved the same animals as used here, and the other study was of an independent population of bulls. A total of 13 SNP associated with 1 or more phenotypic estimates of fertility were directionally associated with genetic estimates of fertility in the same cow population. Moreover, 14 SNP associated with reproductive phenotype were directionally associated with genetic estimates of fertility in the bull population. Nine SNP (located in BCAS, BSP3, CAST, FUT1, HSD17B7, OCLN, PCCB, PMM2, and TBC1D24) had a directional association with fertility in all 3 studies. Examination of the function of the genes with SNP associated with reproduction in more than one study indicates the importance of steroid hormones

  17. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Paula; Carriquiry, Mariana; Meikle, Ana

    2013-02-14

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle.

  18. The relationship among vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin A, progesterone and oestradiol 17-beta concentrations in plasma and cyst fluid of Holstein cows with ovarian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloglu, S; Erdem, H; Serpek, B; Tekeli, T; Bulut, Z

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of the progesterone, oestradiol-17-beta, vitamin A, C and beta-carotene in plasma and cyst fluid and to relate these values with cystic diameter and membrane thickness of Holstein cattle with ovarian luteal cyst. 1650 Holstein cows were examined for the presence of the ovarian cyst and luteal and follicular cystic ovaries were obtained following slaughtering in personal slaughterhouse in Konya-Turkey. 15 Luteal and 15 follicular cystic ovaries were distinguished by rectal palpation and by post mortem ultrasonographic examination. Plasma and cyst fluid, hormone and vitamin analyses were carried out by EIA method and spectrophotometric measurement respectively. Although there was no relationship between beta-carotene and vitamin A in plasma and cyst fluid of both cyst type and hormone concentrations, the vitamin C concentration of cyst fluid was found significantly higher in luteal cyst than in follicular cyst. Moreover, there is a positive correlation among values of the vitamin C concentrations of cyst fluid and cystic membrane thickness, plasma and the cyst fluid progesterone concentrations, but there is a negative correlation among the vitamin C concentrations of cystic fluid and oestradiol 17beta levels of plasma and cyst fluid. In conclusion, vitamin C concentration of cyst fluid supported ultrasonographic and endocrinologic findings. Also, it can be postulated that vitamin C is probably effective on progesterone synthesis in the luteal tissue of cyst.

  19. Relationship between somatic cell count and functional longevity assessed using survival analysis in Italian Holstein-Friesian cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoré, A.B.; Schneider, M.D.P.; Canavesi, F.; Bagnato, A.; Groen, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between somatic cell scores (SCS) and longevity was assessed for Italian Holstein–Friesian dairy cows using survival analysis. The data of somatic cell count (SCC) test day information of 512 979 cows were provided by nine provinces from Northern Italy. Pedigree information was

  20. Development of nitrogen and methane losses in the first eight weeks of lactation in Holstein cows subjected to deficiency of utilisable crude protein under restrictive feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Franz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Low-protein diets are increasingly being used in dairy cow nutrition to minimise noxious nitrogen (N) emissions. However, at parturition, the lower milk yield at that time may mask deficiency in dietary utilisable crude protein (uCP; equivalent to metabolisable protein). Under restrictive feeding conditions, farmers would limit the feed allowance to match the lower measured milk yield, thereby exacerbating the deficiency. The consequences for N emission intensity per kg milk yield and methane emissions are unknown. In this study, two diets were fed to nine Holstein cows each from parturition onwards. One diet was complete and the other was calculated as 20% deficient in uCP. Feed allowance was always oriented towards the measured milk yield. In each of the first eight lactation weeks, intake and excretion were measured for 5 d. On the last 2 d of this period, methane emission was measured in respiration chambers. The statistical model included treatment, week and interaction as effects. The real levels of uCP and energy supply across the 8 weeks were 33% and 15% below requirements, respectively, in the Deficient cows. In addition, the Deficient cows consumed 18% less dry matter (caused by substantial refusals in week 1, where energy supply was according to requirements) and produced 25% less milk (26 vs. 34 kg/d). Cows in both groups used dietary N with similar efficiency for milk protein synthesis and excreted similar proportions of the N ingested via urine and faeces. This resulted in both treatments having similar N emission intensities per kg milk N and similar urinary N as a proportion of total excreta N, suggesting a similar potential for gaseous N emissions from the manure per kg of milk. The Deficient cows emitted 22% less methane overall but had similar methane yield and emission intensity to the Controls. In conclusion, a reduction in crude protein intake immediately after parturition does not reduce N emission per unit of milk when associated with u

  1. A single nucleotide polymorphism in COQ9 affects mitochondrial and ovarian function and fertility in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single missense mutation at position 159 of COQ9 (GàA) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondr...

  2. Penentuan Keberhasilan Involusi Uterus Sapi Perah Friesian Holstein Berdasarkan Kadar Estrogen Setelah Beberapa Penginjeksian Selenium-Vitamin E (DETERMINATION OF THE SUCCESS UTERINE INVOLUTION IN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN DAIRY COW BASED ESTROGEN LEVELS AFTER MU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Ayu Prasdini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of selenium-vitamin ETM to the increasedlevels of estrogen as a sign of completion uterine involution process in dairy cows Frisian Holstein (FHafter calving. Twenty pragnant FH cows were used in this experiment. The cows devided into four groups.The first group (as control, P0 was not given selenium-vitamin ETM, the second group (P1 was given 0.5mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mL vitamin ETM, the third group (P2 was given 1,5 mg/mL selenium + 50 mg/mLvitamin ETM and the fourth group (P3 was given 2 mg/mL selenium + 100 mg/mL vitamin ETM. Theadministration of selenium-vitamin ETM performed at the 7th months of pragnancy, 8th month of pragnancy,two weeks before calving, 7 and 14 days after calving intramuscularly. After calving, the serum of dairycows were taken for analysis of estrogen levels on the 25th day, the 45th, the 65th and current first postpartumestrus in the position of standing heat using Bovine Estrogen ELISA Kit (EST methode . The results of theanalysis of high estrogen levels on day 25, the 45th, the 65th and current first estrus days after giving birthin units of pg / mL found in treatment 3 (P3, which were a 8.94 ± 0.22; 9.64 ± 0.55; 9.86 ± 0.67and 10.14 ±0.84 respectively, but the fastest uterine involution based estrogen levels was in treatment 2 (P2 on the45th day with 9.12 ± 0.94 for the estrogen levels.. The conclusions of the study was the addition of seleniumand vitamin E at the 7th month of pragnancy until the 14th day after calving may significantly affecton theincreased levels of estrogen which indicates the success of uterine involution in dairy cows FH.

  3. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaart Tanel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14 and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14 cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB. Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P P P P P P th min nadir (P th min postinfusion (P Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows.

  4. Net metabolism of volatile fatty acids, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterifield fatty acids, and blood gasses by portal-drained viscera and liver of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Huntington, G B; Tyrrell, H F; Reynolds, P J

    1988-09-01

    Net flux of VFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, and blood gasses across portal-drained viscera and liver was measured in four lactating Holstein cows fed a 60:40 corn silage: concentrate diet ad libitum and milked at 12-h intervals. Twelve consecutive hourly measurements of net flux (venous-arterial concentration difference times blood flow) were obtained during wk 4 and 8 postpartum for each cow. Milk yield and DM intake averaged 32.2 and 15.6 kg/d. On a net basis, hepatic tissues produced acetate and removed 63 to 101% of other VFA absorbed by portal-drained viscera. Hepatic and portal-drained visceral tissues produced 60 and 40%, respectively, of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate produced by splanchnic tissues. Hepatic tissues removed 9.3% of nonesterified fatty acids in portal vein and hepatic arterial blood. Oxygen use was greater by liver than for portal-drained viscera (3062 vs. 2394 mmol/h). Net portal-drained visceral flux of VFA, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, alpha-amino nitrogen, L-lactate, and oxygen together accounted for 84.9% of calculated metabolizable energy intake. Net hepatic removal of propionate, L-lactate, and alpha-amino nitrogen maximally accounted for 55.1, 17.4, and 16.5% of carbon in glucose produced by hepatic tissues.

  5. Use of test-day records to predict first lactation 305-day milk yield using artificial neural network in Kenyan Holstein-Friesian dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njubi, D M; Wakhungu, J W; Badamana, M S

    2010-04-01

    The study is focused on the capability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict next month and first lactation 305-day milk yields (FLMY305) of Kenyan Holstein-Friesian (KHF) dairy cows based on a few available test days (TD) records in early lactation. The developed model was compared with multiple linear regressions (MLR). A total of 39,034 first parity TD records of KHF dairy cows collected over 102 herds were analyzed. Different ANNs were modeled and the best performing number of hidden layers and neurons and training algorithms retained. The best ANN model had one hidden layer of logistic transfer function for all models, but hidden nodes varied from 2 to 7. The R (2) value for ANNs for training, validation, and test data were consistently high showing that the models captured the features accurately. The R (2), r, and root mean square were consistently superior for ANN than MLR but significantly different (p > 0.05). The prediction equation with four variables, i.e., first, second, third, and fourth TD milk yield, gave adequate accuracy (79.0%) in estimating the FLMY305 from TD yield. It emerges from this study that the ANN model can be an alternative for prediction of FLMY305 and monthly TD in KHF.

  6. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  7. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V Michael

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production.

  8. Effect of systematic parturition induction of long gestation Holstein dairy cows on calf survival, cow health, production, and reproduction on a commercial farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Aurora; Lane, V. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of parturition induction on dairy cattle with long gestation (past due-date) single pregnancies on calf survivability, cow health, production, and reproduction. There was an induction period during which all cows and heifers reaching 282 days of gestation were induced with dexamethasone (n = 614). Control cows calved the year after, had a gestation length > 282 d and were not induced (n = 508). As the induced and non-induced groups were not contemporaneous, data were standardized using the ratio between the herd baselines for each period. Multivariate analyses of the data showed that induced cows were 1.41 times more likely (P = 0.020) to become pregnant in the lactation following the studied calving than non-induced cows with long gestation. There was no difference in the risk of difficult calvings, stillbirths, culling due to reproductive reasons, average milk production, average days open or risk of abortion in the following lactation between induced and non-induced cows. There seemed to be a relationship between parturition induction and a lower risk of post-partum death, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.162), because including induction as a factor in the model markedly improved the fit of the data. There was no information on incidence of retained placenta (RP) for the non-induced group. In conclusion, parturition induction resulted in more cows becoming pregnant and a seemingly lower risk of post-spartum death without affecting calving difficulty, calf viability, or milk production. PMID:20592844

  9. Investigation of body and udder skin surface temperature differentials as an early indicator of mastitis in Holstein Friesian crossbred cows using digital infrared thermography technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabarathi, M.; Jeyakumar, S.; Manimaran, A.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Sivaram, M.; Ramesha, K. P.; Das, D. N.; Kataktalware, Mukund A.; Jayaprakash, G.; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technique and its interrelationship with conventional mastitis indicators for the early detection of mastitis in Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 quarters of lactating HF crossbred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows (n=19) were monitored for body temperature (i.e., eye temperature) and udder skin surface temperature (USST) before milking using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) i5 camera. Milk samples were collected from each quarter and screened for mastitis using Somatic Cell Count (SCC), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and California mastitis test. Thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR Quick Report 1.2 image analysis software. Data on body and USST were compiled and analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 and Sigmaplot 11. Results: The mean±standard deviation (SD) body (37.23±0.08°C) and USST (37.22±0.04°C) of non-mastitic cow did not differ significantly; however, the mean USST of the mastitis-affected quarters were significantly higher than the body temperature and USST of unaffected quarters (psubclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis-affected quarters were 38.08±0.17 °C and 38.25±0.33 °C, respectively, which is 0.72 and 1.05 °C higher than the USST temperature of unaffected quarters. The USST was positively correlated with EC (r=0.95) and SCC (r=0.93). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed a higher sensitivity for USST in early prediction of SCM with a cut-off value of >37.61°C. Conclusion: It is concluded that infrared thermal imaging technique could be used as a potential noninvasive, quick cow-side diagnostic technique for screening and early detection of SCM and clinical mastitis in crossbred cows. PMID:28096610

  10. Expression of genes involved in energy homeostasis in the duodenum and liver of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey cows and their F(1) hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Tanweer; Kenny, David A; Sweeney, Torres; Buckley, Frank; Prendiville, Robert; McGee, Mark; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-02-01

    Differences in feed intake and production efficiency in lactating Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (JE), and JE × HF (F(1)) dairy cows have been reported. The liver-gut axis is important in the regulation of energy homeostasis, appetite behaviour, and production efficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the effect of dairy cow genotype on the expression profiles of genes involved in energy homeostasis in duodenal and hepatic tissue, and 2) the association between the expression of these genes across both tissues and with economically important production efficiency traits. The expression of 27 candidate genes involved in energy homeostasis, feed intake, and energy storage was measured by qPCR. Duodenal expression of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) genes was highest in HF. In contrast, hepatic expression of the leptin receptor (LEPR), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 1 (AMPKB1), and POMC genes was highest in the F(1) cross. In the duodenum, positive correlations were observed between mRNA expression of anorectic peptides (POMC and GLP1R), whereas a negative correlation was detected between orexigenic (ghrelin) and anorectic (peptide YY) gene expression. A negative correlation was observed between duodenal POMC gene expression and both residual feed intake and milk production efficiency traits, while GLP1R gene expression was negatively correlated with milk production efficiency traits. A heterotic effect was observed in hepatic expression of AMKPB1, IGF1R, LEPR, POMC in the F(1) genotype, possibly mediating improved feed efficiency in cross-bred cows. In conclusion, key genes involved in energy homeostasis and appetite behaviour are differentially expressed due to cow genotype in a tissue-dependent fashion. POMC and GLP1R are potential candidate genes for the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms

  11. Efeito da suplementação de vitamina A sobre a incidência de mastite em vacas da raça Holandesa Effect of vitamin A on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Paschoal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the influence of prepartum vitamin A supplementation on incidence of mastitis in Holstein cows. Forty two cows were randomly distributed into blocks according to the parity and divided in two treatments: control and supplemented with 180,000IU vit.A/day. The supplementation started 30 days before probable parturition date up to parturition. The Tamis test was performed weekly for clinical mastitis detection, and milk samples were collected for somatic cell counts. Vitamin A treatment decreased the incidence of clinical mastitis (P<0.05, however no effect on milk somatic cell count was observed.

  12. A side effect of decreased fertility associated with vaccination against bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovici, Simon; Seegers, Henri; Joly, Alain; Beaudeau, François; Fourichon, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Inactivated virus vaccines have been widely used to control bluetongue after introduction of serotype 8 of the bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe in 2006. To evaluate vaccination, quantitative knowledge of its possible side effects is needed. One current adverse reaction with inactivated vaccines is a rise in body temperature, which could reduce cow reproductive performance. The objective of this study was to quantify a possible side effect of vaccination on fertility before the implantation of the embryo of dairy cows under field conditions. The study was performed on herds that were not exposed to BTV. Fertility was assessed by return-to-service following artificial insemination (AI). Biological assumptions for a possible side effect of vaccination were conception failure and embryonic death. Associations between return-to-service rates and vaccine injections were assessed using mixed-logistic regression models and survival analysis. Two models were considered: a 3-week-return-to-service model comparing cows vaccinated between 3 days before and 16 days after AI and unvaccinated cows (assuming an effect on conception failure or early embryonic death), and a 90-day-return-to-service model comparing cows vaccinated between 3 days before and 42 days after AI and unvaccinated cows (assuming an effect on conception failure, early or late embryonic death). Only cows receiving a second vaccine injection between 2 and 7 days after AI had a significantly higher risk of 3-week-return-to-service (RR=1.19 [1.07-1.33]). This corresponds to an increase of return-to-service by 4 percentage points. A side effect of vaccination could be due to early embryonic death. The slight side effect on fertility associated with vaccination was low compared to effects of BTV-8 exposure on fertility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  14. Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Mei, Gui; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Yuan; Yin, Cengceng; Chen, Huiyong; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2012-11-02

    We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P milk production traits in our samples. Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits.

  15. Jugular-infused methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids does not improve milk production in Holstein cows experiencing heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassube, K R; Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; McFadden, J W; Ríus, A G

    2017-12-01

    Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14. The basal diet was composed of ryegrass silage and hay, and a concentrate mix. This diet supplied 44 g of methionine, 125 g of lysine, 167 g of leucine, 98 g of isoleucine and 109 g of valine per day to the small intestine of THN cows. Temperature-humidity index was maintained below 66 for the THN environment, whereas the index was maintained above 68, peaking at 76, for 14 continuous h/day for the HS environment. Heat stress conditioning increased the udder temperature from 37.0°C to 39.6°C. Cows that received the ML+BCAA treatment had greater p.m. rectal and vaginal temperatures (0.50°C and 0.40°C, respectively), and respiration rate (8 breaths/min) compared with those on the NC treatment and exposed to a HS environment. However, neither NC nor ML+BCAA affected rectal or vaginal temperatures and respiration rates in the THN environment. Compared with THN, the HS environment reduced dry matter intake (1.48 kg/day), milk yield (2.82 kg/day) and milk protein yield (0.11 kg/day). However, compared with NC, the ML+BCAA treatment increased milk protein percent by 0.07 points. For the THN environment, the ML+BCAA treatment increased concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. For the HS environment, the ML

  16. Age at calving in heifers and level of milk production during gestation in cows are associated with the birth size of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, M M; Van Eetvelde, M; Depreester, E; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate environmental and dam factors associated with birth size of Holstein calves. Data of 1,594 births from dairy herds in Belgium and Germany were analyzed in a retrospective cross-sectional study. Immediately after birth, the birth weight of the calves was measured. On the next day, the heart girth (HG), withers height, and diagonal length of the dams and calves were measured. Parity, body condition score, gestation length (GL), and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open, lactation length, length of the dry period, and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation that took place during gestation was quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. After descriptive analyses, mixed models were used to identify factors that are significantly associated with the birth weight (most consistent measure of size at birth) of the calves born to both heifers and cows. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in heifers (n=540), calf sex, season of calving, GL, HG, withers height, diagonal length, and age at calving were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to heifers was estimated to be 41.3±1.01kg. In comparison to calves born to old (25.5 to 37.3mo; n=99) heifers, the birth weight was estimated to be 2.75, 3.29, and 2.35kg heavier when the calves were born to very young (20.3 to <22mo; n=98), young (22 to <23.5mo; n=145), and standard aged (23.5 to <25.5mo; n=198) heifers, respectively. Of the variables offered to the offspring birth weight model in cows (n=1,054), calf sex, season of calving, GL, parity, dry period, and MGEST were significant. The mean birth weight of the calves born to cows was estimated to be 44.1±0.99kg. For cows having an identical HG, the birth weight of the calves was estimated to

  17. Replacing alfalfa hay with dry corn gluten feed and Chinese wild rye grass: Effects on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X Y; Gao, H; Wang, X Y; Zhang, G N; Zhang, Y G

    2017-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance when a portion of alfalfa was replaced with combinations of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) and Chinese wild rye grass in the diet of lactating cows. Six multiparous and 3 primiparous Chinese Holsteins were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment for 21-d periods. The animals were fed 1 of 3 treatment diets during each period: (1) 0% DCGF (0DCGF); (2) 6.5% DCGF (7DCGF); and (3) 11% DCGF (11DCGF). Diets were isonitrogenous, and a portion of alfalfa hay was replaced with DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass, with similar concentrate mixtures and corn silage contents. The dry matter intake was greater for 11DCGF (21.9 kg/d) than for 0DCGF (20.7 kg/d) or 7DCGF (21.2 kg/d). The treatment diets did not result in difference in milk production, fat and lactose concentration, or yield. Compared with 0DCGF, the ration containing 11% DCGF improved the milk protein concentration. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater for 7DCGF (62.7% and 45.6%) and 11DCGF (63.1% and 47.2%) than for 0DCGF (59.4% and 42.3%), and the nitrogen digestibility was similar for the 3 treatments. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in cows fed the 11DCGF diet than in those fed the 0DCGF diet, with no difference between the 7DCGF and 11DCGF diets. The estimated microbial crude protein yield was greater for the 11DCGF diet (1985.1 g/d) than for the 0DCGF diet (1745.0 g/d), with no difference between the 0DCGF and 7DCGF diets. Thus, it appears that feeding DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass in combination can effectively replace a portion of alfalfa hay in the rations of lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Phorns in Holstein dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Fixed Regression and Random Regression Test-Day Models for genetic evaluation of milk yield trait in Holstein cows Razavi Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Shamshirgaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fixed Regression Test-Day Model (FRM and Random Regression Test-Day Model (RRM for genetic evaluation of milk yield trait of dairy cattle in Khorasan Razavi province were studied. Breeding values and genetic parameters of milk yield trait from two models were compared. A total of 164391 monthly test day milk records (three times milking per day obtained from 19217 Holstein cows distributed in 172 herds and calved from 1991 to 2008, were used to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values. The contemporary group of herd- year- month of production was fitted as fixed effects in the models. Also linear and quadratic forms of age at calving and Holstein gene percentage were fitted as covariate. The random factors of the models were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. In the random regression model, orthogonal legendre polynomial up to order 4(cubic was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. Heritability estimates resulted from the FRM was 0.15. The average heritability estimates resulted from the RRM of monthly test day milk production for the second half of the lactation was higher than that of the first half of lactation period. The highest and lowest heritability values were found for the first (0.102 and sixth (0.235 month of lactation. Breeding value of animals predicted from FRM and RRM were also compared. The results showed similar ranking of animals based on their breeding values from both models.

  20. Urea and short-chain fatty acids metabolism in Holstein cows fed a low-nitrogen grass-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, B A; Lund, P; Kristensen, N B

    2008-01-01

    Three ruminally cannulated and multicatheterised lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of different supplement strategies to fresh clover grass on urea and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism in a zero-grazing experiment with 24-h blood and ruminal samplings.......Three ruminally cannulated and multicatheterised lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of different supplement strategies to fresh clover grass on urea and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism in a zero-grazing experiment with 24-h blood and ruminal samplings....

  1. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchiyama Hirofumi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Findings Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 105/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Conclusions Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β–(1 → 3,(1 → 6-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be

  2. A small scale study on the effects of oral administration of the β-glucan produced by Aureobasidium pullulans on milk quality and cytokine expressions of Holstein cows, and on bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese black calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hirofumi; Iwai, Atsushi; Asada, Yukoh; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Aoki, Shiho; Kawata, Koji; Kusano, Kisato; Nagashima, Koji; Yasokawa, Daisuke; Okabe, Mitsuyasu; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2012-06-19

    The β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan extracellularly produced by Aureobasidium pullulans exhibits immunomodulatory activity, and is used for health supplements. To examine the effects of oral administration of the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan to domestic animals, a small scale study was conducted using Holstein cows and newborn Japanese Black calves. Holstein cows of which somatic cell count was less than 3 x 10⁵/ml were orally administered with or without the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D-glucan-enriched A. pullulans cultured fluid (AP-CF) for 3 months, and the properties of milk and serum cytokine expression were monitored. Somatic cell counts were not significantly changed by oral administration of AP-CF, whereas the concentration of solid non fat in the milk tended to increase in the AP-CF administered cows. The results of cytokine expression analysis in the serum using ELISA indicate that the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in all cows which were orally administered with AP-CF became slightly lower than that of control cows after the two-month treatment. On the other hand, IL-8 expression tended to indicate a moderately higher level in all treated cows after the three-month administration of AP-CF in comparison with that of the control cows. Peripartum Japanese Black beef cows and their newborn calves were orally administered with AP-CF, and bacterial flora in the intestines of the calves were analyzed by T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism). The results suggest that bacterial flora are tendentiously changed by oral administration of AP-CF. Our data indicated the possibility that oral administration of the β-(1 → 3),(1 → 6)-D- glucan produced by A. pullulans affects cytokine expressions in the serum of Holstein cows, and influences bacterial flora in the intestines of Japanese Black calves. The findings may be helpful for further study on the efficacies of oral

  3. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjen, B A; Theil, P K; Kristensen, N B

    2011-05-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did not increase when urea infusion was decreased. Arterial urea-N extraction across the portal-drained viscera and rumen wall increased linearly with decreasing urea infusion (2.46, 3.65, and 4.32 ± 0.31% and 7.5, 11.5, and 16.9 ± 0.9%, respectively), indicating that cows responded to the changes in N supply. The relative urea-N extraction across the ruminal wall increased compared with the total portal-drained viscera extraction. We observed a postprandial decrease in ruminal extraction of arterial urea-N that might reflect that the activity of the protein, presumably facilitating urea-N transport, is regulated by ruminal ammonia. The urea-N clearance by the kidneys decreased (35, 30, and 25 ± 2L/h) and the urea-N reabsorbed by the kidney increased (42, 51 and 56 ± 3%) with decreasing urea infusion, indicating that the kidneys salvaged urea-N with low-N supply. The urea transporter B mRNA abundance in rumen papillae (papillae harvested at sampling days) was not affected by dietary N supply. The study showed, that rumen wall extraction of arterial urea-N is subjected to both long- and

  4. Short communication: Milk fat depression induced by conjugated linoleic acid and a high-oil and low-fiber diet occurs equally across the day in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Cook, K L; Bauman, D E; Harvatine, K J

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a circadian rhythm of milk and milk component synthesis has been characterized that is partially dependent on the timing of feed intake. Our objective was to determine if inhibition of milk fat synthesis during diet-induced milk fat depression occurred to a higher degree during certain phases of the day. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 2 experiments that induced milk fat depression while milking cows 3 times per day at equal intervals. The response at each milking was analyzed using mixed model ANOVA with repeated measures. In experiment 1, nine multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a 3×3 Latin square design, and treatments were control, 3-d intravenous infusion of 10 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and a low-forage and high-fat diet for 10 d. In experiment 2, ten multiparous ruminally cannulated cows were arranged in a replicated design and milk samples were collected during a control period or after 5 d of abomasal infusion of 10 g/d of CLA. The daily pattern of milk fat concentration and yield did not differ between treatments in either experiment. In experiment 1, an effect was found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and yield. Similarly, in experiment 2, main effects were found of treatment and milking time on milk fat concentration and an effect of treatment, but no effect of milking time on milk fat yield. Milk fat percent was increased from 3.41 to 4.06% and 3.25 to 3.48% from the morning to the afternoon milking in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Additionally, milk fatty acid profile, including trans intermediates, was changed over the day in experiment 1, but the magnitude of the changes were small and the pattern did not differ among treatments. A daily rhythm of milk fat concentration and yield was observed in cows milked 3 times a day, but milk fat depression decreases milk fat yield equally over the day. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  5. Epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of Holstein cows with different responses to a long-term subacute ruminal acidosis diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, S U; Mann, E; Pourazad, P; Qumar, M; Pinior, B; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Wagner, M; Schmitz-Esser, S; Zebeli, Q

    2017-03-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a prevalent metabolic disorder in cattle, characterized by intermittent drops in ruminal pH. This study investigated the effect of a gradual adaptation and continuously induced long-term SARA challenge diet on the epimural bacterial community structure in the rumen of cows. Eight rumen-cannulated nonlactating Holstein cows were transitioned over 1 wk from a forage-based baseline feeding diet (grass silage-hay mix) to a SARA challenge diet, which they were fed for 4 wk. The SARA challenge diet consisted of 60% concentrates (dry matter basis) and 40% grass silage-hay mix. Rumen papillae biopsies were taken at the baseline, on the last day of the 1-wk adaptation, and on the last day of the 4-wk SARA challenge period; ruminal pH was measured using wireless sensors. We isolated DNA from papillae samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Illumina MiSeq. Sequencing results of most abundant key phylotypes were confirmed by quantitative PCR. Although they were fed similar amounts of concentrate, cows responded differently in terms of ruminal pH during the SARA feeding challenge. Cows were therefore classified as responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4): only responders met the SARA criterion of a ruminal pH drop below 5.8 for longer than 330 min/d. Data showed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant phyla, and at genus level, Campylobacter and Kingella showed highest relative abundance, at 15.5 and 7.8%, respectively. Diversity analyses revealed a significant increase of diversity after the 1-wk adaptation but a decrease of diversity and species richness after the 4-wk SARA feeding challenge, although without distinction between responders and nonresponders. At the level of the operational taxonomic unit, we detected diet-specific shifts in epimural community structure, but in the overall epimural bacterial community structure, we found no differences between responders and nonresponders

  6. Effect of feeding alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage with or without a cellulase enzyme on performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G

    2010-11-01

    Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although

  7. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P < 0.05). The LD group consumed 1.3 kg/d (DM) more diet compared with HD group in the last 24 h before calving. The milk yield and the postpartum DMI were increased by the reduced energy density diet prepartum (P < 0.05). The changes in BCS and BW prepartum and postpartum were not affected by prepartum diets. HD group had higher milk fat content and lower lactose content compared with LD group during the first 3 wk of lactation (P < 0.05). The energy consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum.

  8. (MTHFR) gene polymorphism is associated with abortion in Chinese

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... of MTHFR polymorphism on cow abortion were investigated. The PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing were applied to detect the polymorphisms in exon 4 and 7 of MTHFR gene in a total of 569 Chinese Holstein cattles. The homocysteine levels during various periods of pregnancy were detected by HPLC.

  9. Individual animal variability in ruminal bacterial communities and ruminal acidosis in primiparous Holstein cows during the periparturient period

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate variability among individual cows for their susceptibility to ruminal acidosis (RA) pre- and postpartum, and determine whether this variability was related to differences in their ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC). Variability in susceptibilit...

  10. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  11. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  12. Effects of Alfalfa Particle Size and Soybean Oil on Digestibility, Chewing Activity, ‎Milk Yield and Compositions of Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kh Arjmandi

    2012-01-01

    Eight Holstein cows in early lactating stage were used in a 4×4 change-over design within 4 periods of 21-d to determine the effects of alfalfa hay particle size and soybean oil supplementation on intake, digestibility, ruminal and blood metabolites, chewing activity, milk yield and compositions. Four total mixed rations containing 20, 20 and 60% corn silage, alfalfa hay and concentrate respectively were fed to cows twice daily at 0800 and 2000 h. The rations were prepared based on differences in percentage of soybean oil in the concentrate and particle size of alfalfa hay: 1 0% soybean oil, long-cut alfalfa; 2 4% soybean oil, long-cut alfalfa; 3 4% soybean oil, alfalfa powder; 3 4 4% soybean, alfalfa powder. Soybean oil had no effect on DMI, but digestibility of NDF, ADF, EE and ash decreased and crude protein digestibility was increased. Reduction of hay particle size, increased DM, and OM intake but decreased the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, EE and ash. Milk yield was increased, but milk fat and protein percentage decreased with addition of soybean oil. Reduction of particle size and addition of soybean oil, decreased time spent ruminating and total chewing activity. The addition of soybean oil to fine alfalfa had a synergism effect on decrease of intake time, rumination time and total chewing activity. Decreased particle size and addition of soybean oil declined rumen NH3-N concentration. Reduction of particle size significantly increased ruminal particulate passage rate, and decreased ruminal mean retention time, however, oil supplementation had no significant effect on passage rate, and ruminal mean retention time. Oil supplementation significantly increased milk yield, but decreased its fat and protein content. When particle size of hay decreased, with no effect on milk fat and protein content, milk yield significantly increased in treatments those contained oil supplementation. The oil supplementation in rations not only did not increase fat of milk

  13. Adipose tissue angiopoietin-like protein 4 messenger RNA changes with altered energy balance in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltes, D A; Spurlock, D M

    2012-11-01

    Negative energy balance at the onset of lactation is unfavorably associated with fitness traits in high-producing dairy cows. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is an adipokine that has been associated with the regulation of lipid metabolism through the inhibition of lipoprotein lipase activity and regulation of lipolysis. Expression of ANGPTL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) increases during early lactation, but its regulation with changing energy status is currently unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to determine whether ANGPTL4 mRNA abundance is responsive to declining energy balance induced by the transition from pregnancy to lactation, feed restriction, and GH administration in lactating dairy cows. The mRNA abundance of leptin, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor 2 were also measured to compare adipokine mRNA profiles during changes in energy metabolism. Repeated adipose tissue biopsies were taken from different cows during transition from late pregnancy to lactation (n = 26), feed restriction (n = 19), and GH administration (n = 20). As expected, milk yield increased with the onset of lactation and GH administration (P Energy balance declined in each experiment, resulting in negative energy balance at the onset of lactation and after feed restriction. Abundance of ANGPTL4 mRNA expression increased 2- to 6-fold with declining energy balance in each experiment. Leptin mRNA declined with feed restriction, and adiponectin mRNA decreased with the onset of lactation. The consistency and magnitude of the increase in ANGPTL4 mRNA across multiple models of altered energy balance identifies it as an adipokine that is uniquely responsive to changes in energy balance in the lactating dairy cow. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Milk Production of Adapted Saudi Holstein Cows in Relation to Body Condition Scores across Different Stages of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    F.S. Al-Hur

    2013-01-01

    Milk yield from adapted cows is facing problems due to varying climatic conditions and adaptability of imported animals. The main objective of study was to describe the relationships between body condition scores and daily milk yield across different days in milk. Genetic (co) variances between Body Condition Score (BCS) and test-day milk yield (TDMkkg) were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. A cubic random regression was sufficient to mo...

  15. Optimal barn characteristics for high-yielding Holstein cows as derived by a new heat-stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Hetzroni, A

    2013-01-01

    Meticulous planning is required to minimize heat-stress conditions in barns. The objective of this study was to determine optimum barn characteristics for high-yielding dairy cows under Israeli (Mediterranean) summer ambient conditions, by using a new stress model that takes ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity into account. During the summers of 2004 and 2005, three meteorological stations were alternately installed in 39 barns: two stations inside the barn at the prevailing downwind direction, and a third station outside the upwind end of the barn. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction were measured and recorded every 10 min for 3 to 5 consecutive days at each barn in turn. The data were collected at different geographical and climatic conditions. Therefore, the data collected by an outside station were used as covariates. A heat-stress model was used to determine the threshold temperature (THRT) at which a cow begins to increase its respiratory rate; THRT was the response variable in the statistical model. The THRT model takes in account assumed values of a cow's physiological characteristics: daily milk yield of 45 kg, containing 3.5% fat, and 3 mm fur depth. The independent variables were: orientation, barn type, roof slope, roof ridge, marginal height, roof type (fixed or sliding) and barn width. Results showed that the optimal barn for high-yielding cows is the loose-housing type, oriented with its long axis perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Advantageous to the design would be an open ridge or pagoda with marginal height of over 4.7 m for north-south orientation and over 5 m for east-west orientation, roof slope over 11%, and barn width between 43 and 51 m for north-south orientation but lower than 42 m for east-west orientation. A sliding roof was also found to be an excellent solution when outside yards are banned by environmental regulations.

  16. Application of Wilmink’s Exponential Function in Genetic Analysis of 305-d Milk Production and Lactation Persistency in Holstein Cows of Razavi Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Izadkhah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To estimate heritability and genetic trend for 305-d milk production and lactation persistency, a total of 130,668 monthly test day milk yields belonging to 15,183 first lactation Holstein cows in 131 herds and calved from 2000 to 2009 were used. To calculate 305-d milk yield as well as lactation persistency, estimated parameters of Wilmink’s exponential function were applied. The parameters of the function were estimated by SAS software. Genetic and environmental variance components and heritability of the traits were estimated by single trait animal model using DMU software. Genetic trend was estimated based upon weighted simple linear regression of average breeding values on calving year. Heritability estimate of 305-d milk yield and lactation persistency were found to be 0.184 and 0.05, respectively. A positive significant phenotypic trend (166.11 kg per year was observed for 305-d milk yield while a non-significant genetic trend (-2.0107 was revealed for the trait. For the lactation persistency, there were no significant phenotypic (0.054 % per year and genetic (0.003 % per year trends over the period of time.

  17. Cheese and milk quality of F1 Holstein x Zebu cows fed different levels of banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio Parrela de Melo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of different levels of sun-dried banana peel in the diet for crossbred cows on the quality of Minas fresh cheese and milk. Diets consisted of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% replacement of sorghum silage with banana peel. Ten cows were assigned to two 5 x 5 Latin squares experimental design. Milk samples were taken from each cow and analyzed for composition. Milk was pasteurized for the production of Minas fresh cheese, which was weighed to determine the yield and analyzed for texture, physical and chemical characteristics and consumer acceptance test. Milk urea nitrogen had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 43.76% replacement of silage with banana peel. The remaining items evaluated in the composition of milk and cheese and the consumer acceptance test were not influenced by diets with banana peel. The replacement of up to 60% sorghum silage with banana peel is a viable alternative because it causes no alteration in physical and chemical composition of milk and Minas fresh cheese, as well as consumer acceptance.

  18. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we reported a previously-undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker region...

  19. Evaluation of tickGARD(PLUS), a novel vaccine against Boophilus microplus, in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Matschoss, A L; Pepper, P; Green, P E; Albrecht, M S; Hungerford, J; Ansell, J

    2000-03-01

    The effects of vaccination with the Bm 86 vaccine TickGARD(PLUS) against infestation with cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) and of holding cattle on a feedpad until 09:00 hours after the morning milking was tested on 40 mid lactation Holstein cattle using a factorial design. Vaccination resulted in a 56% reduction in tick numbers in the field over one generation, and a 72% reduction in laboratory measures of the reproductive efficiency of ticks. The liveweight gain of vaccinated cattle over 27 weeks was 18.6 kg higher than that of controls, and vaccinated cattle tended to have lower somatic cell count in milk (SCC). There were no other significant differences in measures of production. Cattle kept on the feedpad after the morning milking carried 26% more ticks than those returned immediately to their paddocks.

  20. Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Results Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P protein percentage (F=4.15; P=0.0418 and fat percentage (F=5.18~7.25; P=0.0072~0.0231. Finally, by using an in vitro expression assay, we demonstrated that the A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1of UGDH significantly decreases the expression of UGDH by 68.0% at the RNA, and 50.1% at the protein level, suggesting that SNP Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 represent two functional polymorphisms affecting expression of UGDH and may partly contributed to the observed association of the gene with milk production traits in our samples. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits.

  1. Effect of g.9476869G>A myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene polymorphism on the antioxidant activity of milk from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows of the Black-and-White variety (HO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska, Joanna; Poskart, Karolina; Kułaj, Dominika; Ochrem, Andrzej; Dusza, Magdalena; Gil, Zygmunt; Świętek, Ewa; Makulska, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important enzyme, which is one of the components of the antibacterial system in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO participates in the inflammatory response in multiple locations in the body, including the mammary glands. As a result of the activity of MPO, many oxidising compounds as well as reactive oxygen species are generated. It seems that myeloperoxidase may be a marker linking inflammation processes and oxidative stress. So far, there are no literature data on the association between the MPO gene polymorphism and the antioxidant properties of milk. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of g.9476869G > A polymorphism of myeloperoxidase (MPO) gene and age of cows on the antioxidant activity of milk and other milk traits in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Polymorphism of MPO gene was identified by the PCR-RFLP method using the HphI endonuclease. The total antioxidant capacity of milk samples was measured by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) method. It was found that the GG genotype was the most frequent (0·606). The genotype at the tested MPO locus and the age of the animals affected the antioxidant activity of milk. Milk from cows with the GA genotype was characterised by a significantly higher antioxidant activity than milk from cows with the GG genotype (P antioxidant activity compared with younger cows with the same genotype (P < 0·0001), as well as cows with the GG genotype of all ages (P < 0·0001).

  2. Preoperative cow-side lactatemia measurement predicts negative outcome in Holstein dairy cattle with right abomasal disorders.

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    Boulay, G; Francoz, D; Doré, E; Dufour, S; Veillette, M; Badillo, M; Bélanger, A-M; Buczinski, S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were (1) to determine the gain in prognostic accuracy of preoperative l-lactate concentration (LAC) measured on farm on cows with right displaced abomasum (RDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV) for predicting negative outcome; and (2) to suggest clinically relevant thresholds for such use. A cohort of 102 cows with on-farm surgical diagnostic of RDA or AV was obtained from June 2009 through December 2011. Blood was drawn from coccygeal vessels before surgery and plasma LAC was immediately measured by using a portable clinical analyzer. Dairy producers were interviewed by phone 30 d following surgery and the outcome was determined: a positive outcome if the owner was satisfied of the overall evolution 30 d postoperatively, and a negative outcome if the cow was culled, died, or if the owner reported being unsatisfied 30 d postoperatively. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for LAC was 0.92 and was significantly greater than the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of heart rate (HR; 0.77), indicating that LAC, in general, performed better than HR to predict a negative outcome. Furthermore, the ability to predict a negative outcome was significantly improved when LAC measurement was considered in addition to the already available HR data (area under the curve: 0.93 and 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 0.99). Important inflection points of the misclassification cost term function were noted at thresholds of 2 and 6 mmol/L, suggesting the potential utility of these cut-points. The 2 and 6 mmol/L thresholds had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for predicting a negative outcome of 76.2, 82.7, 53.3, and 93.1%, and of 28.6, 97.5, 75, and 84%, respectively. In terms of clinical interpretation, LAC ≤2 mmol/L appeared to be a good indicator of positive outcome and could be used to support a surgical treatment decision. The

  3. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

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    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  4. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

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    Shao-Hua Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (BTA-55340-no-rsb located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077. Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01. In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program.

  5. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  6. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference on aspects of peripartum mineral and energy metabolism and performance of multiparous Holstein cows.

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    Leno, B M; Ryan, C M; Stokol, T; Kirk, D; Zanzalari, K P; Chapman, J D; Overton, T R

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of decreasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; (Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + S2-)] of the prepartum diet on aspects of mineral metabolism, energy metabolism, and performance of peripartum dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 89) were enrolled between 38 and 31 d before expected parturition and randomized to treatments in a completely randomized design (restricted to balance for previous 305-d mature equivalent milk production, parity, and body condition score) at 24 d before expected parturition. Treatments consisted of a low-K ration without anion supplementation [CON; n = 30, DCAD = +18.3 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM)]; partial anion supplementation to a low-K ration (MED; n = 30, DCAD = +5.9 mEq/100 g of DM); and anion supplementation to a low-K ration to reach a targeted average urine pH between 5.5 and 6.0 (LOW; n = 29, DCAD = -7.4 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows were fed a common postpartum diet and data collected through 63 d in milk. Urine pH (CON = 8.22, MED = 7.89, and LOW = 5.96) was affected quadratically by decreasing prepartum DCAD. A linear relationship between urine pH and urine Ca:creatinine ratio was observed (r = -0.81). Plasma Ca concentrations in the postpartum period (d 0 to 14; CON = 2.16, MED = 2.19, and LOW = 2.27 mmol/L) were increased linearly with decreasing prepartum DCAD. A treatment by parity (second vs. third and greater) interaction for postpartum plasma Ca concentration suggested that older cows had the greatest response to the low DCAD diet and older cows fed LOW had decreased prevalence of hypocalcemia after calving. A quadratic effect of decreasing DCAD on prepartum DMI was observed (CON = 13.6, MED = 14.0, and LOW = 13.2 kg/d). Milk production in the first 3 wk postpartum was increased linearly with decreasing DCAD (CON = 40.8, MED = 42.4, and LOW = 43.9 kg/d) and DMI in this period also tended to linearly increase (CON = 20.2, MED = 20.9, and LOW = 21.3 kg/d). Overall, effects

  7. Determination of steroid hormones in bovine milk by LC-MS/MS and their levels in Swiss Holstein cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, Alexandre; Cai, Julia Zhenzhen; Kraehenbuehl, Karin; Hartmann, Christoph; Shao, Bing; Mottier, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic and natural steroid hormones have attracted some attention in recent years as endocrine active substances (EAS) that interact or interfere with the endocrine system. Endogenous hormones occur naturally in food of animal origin, among which bovine milk represents an important source. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of steroid hormones (oestrogens, androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids) in cow's milk samples from three farms in Switzerland. An isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of 12 hormones in milk. Some hormonal levels from individual cows showed large variations. The average levels of the hormones analysed (17α-estradiol = 31 ng kg(-)(1), 17β-estradiol = 6 ng kg(-)(1), estrone = 159 ng kg(-)(1), 4-androstenedione = 684 ng kg(-)(1), progesterone = 15486 ng kg(-)(1), 17-hydroxyprogesterone = 214 ng kg(-)(1), cortisone = 112 ng kg(-)(1), and cortisol = 235 ng kg(-)(1)) were comparable with literature data. Estriol, testosterone and androstenediols were not detected at their respective limit of quantification. No significant differences of hormonal content among milk from cows at different lactation/calving numbers were evidenced, except for progesterone and 4-androstenedione. Due to confounding parameters linked to the physiological stage of the animal, like pregnancy and gestational stage (pregnancy trimester), the causal correlation between the variation of the levels for these two hormones and the lactation/calving number could not be unambiguously demonstrated.

  8. Adding a second prostaglandin F2α treatment to but not reducing the duration of a PRID-Synch protocol increases fertility after resynchronization of ovulation in lactating Holstein cows.

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    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Crump, P M; Fricke, P M

    2016-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a second PGF2α treatment and duration of an Ovsynch protocol that included a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) on progesterone (P4) concentrations and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) after resynchronization of ovulation and timed artificial insemination (TAI). Lactating Holstein cows (n=821) were assigned randomly at a nonpregnancy diagnosis (d 0) to 3 resynchronization protocols: (1) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; GnRH, d 9.5 (7D1PGF); (2) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9.5); (7D2PGF); or (3) GnRH, d 2; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9.5 (5D2PGF). All cows received a PRID at the first GnRH treatment of the resynchronization protocol, which was removed at the first PGF2α treatment, and all cows received TAI approximately 16h after the second GnRH treatment. Blood samples were collected from a subgroup of cows at each treatment of the resynchronization protocols. At 32 d after TAI, cows receiving a second PGF2α treatment (7D2PGF + 5D2PGF cows) had more P/AI (42.6 vs. 35.7%) than cows receiving a single PGF2α treatment (7D1PGF cows). For cows treated with a second PGF2α treatment, decreasing the duration of the protocol did not increase P/AI (41.4 vs. 43.8% for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). At 60 d after TAI, P/AI did not differ between cows treated with the 1 PGF2α (7D1PGF cows) or 2 PGF2α (7D2PGF + 5D1PGF cows) treatments (32.5 vs. 37.9%, respectively). In addition, reducing the duration of the protocol did not increase P/AI at 60 d after TAI (37.8 vs. 38.5% for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). Pregnancy loss from 32 to 60 d after TAI was not affected by the number of PGF2α treatments (8.5 vs. 10.6%, for 7D1PGF vs. 7D2PGF + 5D2PGF cows) or the duration of the protocol (9.1 vs. 12.1%, for 7D2PGF vs. 5D2PGF cows). The percentage of cows with incomplete luteal regression at the second GnRH treatment tended to differ among treatments and was lowest for 7D2PGF cows, intermediate for 5D2PGF

  9. Effects of a perennial ryegrass diet or total mixed ration diet offered to spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows on methane emissions, dry matter intake, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B F; Deighton, M H; O'Loughlin, B M; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M; Lewis, E

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the enteric methane (CH4) emissions and milk production of spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered either a grazed perennial ryegrass diet or a total mixed ration (TMR) diet for 10 wk in early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments for 10 wk: 1) grass or 2) TMR. The grass group received an allocation of 17 kg of dry matter (DM) of grass per cow per day with a pre-grazing herbage mass of 1,492 kg of DM/ha. The TMR offered per cow per day was composed of maize silage (7.5 kg of DM), concentrate blend (8.6 kg of DM), grass silage (3.5 kg of DM), molasses (0.7 kg of DM), and straw (0.5 kg of DM). Daily CH4 emissions were determined via the emissions from ruminants using a calibrated tracer technique for 5 consecutive days during wk 4 and 10 of the study. Simultaneously, herbage dry matter intake (DMI) for the grass group was estimated using the n-alkane technique, whereas DMI for the TMR group was recorded using the Griffith Elder feeding system. Cows offered TMR had higher milk yield (29.5 vs. 21.1 kg/d), solids-corrected milk yield (27.7 vs. 20.1 kg/d), fat and protein (FP) yield (2.09 vs. 1.54 kg/d), bodyweight change (0.54 kg of gain/d vs. 0.37 kg of loss/d), and body condition score change (0.36 unit gain vs. 0.33 unit loss) than did the grass group over the course of the 10-wk study. Methane emissions were higher for the TMR group than the grass group (397 vs. 251 g/cow per day). The TMR group also emitted more CH4 per kg of FP (200 vs. 174 g/kg of FP) than did the grass group. They also emitted more CH4 per kg of DMI (20.28 vs. 18.06 g/kg of DMI) than did the grass group. In this study, spring-calving cows, consuming a high quality perennial ryegrass diet in the spring, produced less enteric CH4 emissions per cow, per unit of intake, and per unit of FP than did cows offered a standard TMR diet. Copyright © 2011 American

  10. A genome-wide association study for clinical mastitis in first parity US Holstein cows using single-step approach and genomic matrix re-weighting procedure.

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    Francesco Tiezzi

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis (CM is one of the health disorders with large impacts on dairy farming profitability and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS for CM in first-lactation Holstein. Producer-recorded mastitis event information for 103,585 first-lactation cows were used, together with genotype information on 1,361 bulls from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Single-step genomic-BLUP methodology was used to incorporate genomic data into a threshold-liability model. Association analysis confirmed that CM follows a highly polygenic mode of inheritance. However, 10-adjacent-SNP windows showed that regions on chromosomes 2, 14 and 20 have impacts on genetic variation for CM. Some of the genes located on chromosome 14 (LY6K, LY6D, LYNX1, LYPD2, SLURP1, PSCA are part of the lymphocyte-antigen-6 complex (LY6 known for its neutrophil regulation function linked to the major histocompatibility complex. Other genes on chromosome 2 were also involved in regulating immune response (IFIH1, LY75, and DPP4, or are themselves regulated in the presence of specific pathogens (ITGB6, NR4A2. Other genes annotated on chromosome 20 are involved in mammary gland metabolism (GHR, OXCT1, antibody production and phagocytosis of bacterial cells (C6, C7, C9, C1QTNF3, tumor suppression (DAB2, involution of mammary epithelium (OSMR and cytokine regulation (PRLR. DAVID enrichment analysis revealed 5 KEGG pathways. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway (cell proliferation and apoptosis and the 'Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction' (cytokine and interleukines response to infectious agents are co-regulated and linked to the 'ABC transporters' pathway also found here. Gene network analysis performed using GeneMania revealed a co-expression network where 665 interactions existed among 145 of the genes reported above. Clinical mastitis is a complex trait and the different genes regulating immune response are known to be pathogen

  11. Influence of age, body weight and body condition score before mating start date on the pubertal rate of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers and implications for subsequent cow performance and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H; Shalloo, L; Kennedy, E; Pierce, K M; Buckley, F

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of age, body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) of maiden Holstein-Friesian heifers before mating start date (MSD) on the rate of puberty, subsequent production and longevity and their implications with regard to farm profitability. Data were available on 871 Holstein-Friesian heifers from 48 herds. BW was recorded electronically and BCS was recorded by a single operator on a scale of 1 to 5. Heifer age was calculated as the number of days from birth to the day of visit. All of the independent variables of interest were grouped into three or four categories. Three age categories (thirtiles), four BW categories (quartiles) and four BCS categories (≤ 2.75, 3.00, 3.25 and ≥ 3.50) were formed. Heifers with an identifiable corpus lutuem (CL) in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs and with a plasma progesterone (P4) concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were classified as pubertal. In addition, heifers without an identifiable CL in the presence or absence of large follicles and peri-ovulatory signs but with a P4 concentration ≥ 1 ng/ml were also classified as pubertal. Age, BW and BCS at MSD were all found to be significantly associated with pubertal rate (P cow performance. BW at MSD was favourably associated with subsequent calving date (P cow BW (P cow BW of ∼550 kg.

  12. The evaluation of genetic parameters of the type of calving in the population of Holstein Friesian cows

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    Đedović Radica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters (heritability coefficients and genetic correlations of the type of calving, number of stillbirths and birth weight have been evaluated in the population of Holstein Friesian cattle breed. Data sets have been analysed by means of the Mixed Least Square Model (LSMLMW. Besides a random effect of bull-sires, the model has also included the fixed effects of farm, season, sex, the evaluation of viability of calves and types of birth. Estimated heritability values and heritability errors for the type of calving (TC, number of stillbirths (SB and birth weight (BWT were low: 0.190 ± 0.062; 0.018 ± 0.006 and 0.149 ± 0.051, respectively. Heritabilities of the analysed traits were evaluated on the grounds of the calves` bull-sires additive value (direct heritability. The values of the genetic correlation coefficients between examined traits ranged from - 0.251 (correlation between the type of calving and number of stillbirths to 0.340 (correlation between the number of stillbirths and birth weight. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086 i br. TR 46006

  13. Effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm oil and chromium-propionate on insulin sensitivity and productive and reproductive traits of mid- to late-lactating Holstein × Gir dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Bertin, R D; Colombo, E A; Miranda, V F B; Lourenço, L A C; Rodrigues, S M B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-25

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity, milk production, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows consuming excessive energy during mid to late lactation and receiving in a 2 × 2 factorial design (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n = 20) or including 8% (DM basis) of Ca salts of palm oil (CSPO; n = 20), and (2) supplemented (n = 20) or not (n = 20) with 2.5 g/d of Cr-propionate. During the experiment (d 0-203), 40 multiparous, nonpregnant, lactating 3/4 Holstein × 1/4 Gir cows (initial days in milk = 81 ± 2; mean ± SE) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily net energy for lactation requirements. From d -15 to 203, milk production was recorded daily, blood samples collected weekly, and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) recorded on d 0 and 203. For dry matter intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 5 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 6 times/group. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on d -3, 100, and 200. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on d -1, 98, and 198. Mean DMI, net energy for lactation intake, as well as BW and BCS change were similar across treatments. On average, cows gained 40 kg of BW and 0.49 BCS during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, CRN cows had lower serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and insulin-to-glucose ratio compared with CSPO cows, suggesting increased insulin sensitivity in CRN cows. During the GTT, insulin-sensitivity traits were also greater in CRN versus CSPO cows. Supplemental Cr-propionate resulted in lower serum insulin concentrations and insulin-to-glucose ratio within CRN cows only, indicating that Cr-propionate improved basal insulin sensitivity in CRN but not in CSPO

  14. Effect of Milk Yield on Economic Profitability of Holstein Friesian Cows under Intensive Production System in Egypt

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    H. G. El-Awady

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of productive and reproductive traits of 1961 of lactation records were obtained from 763 Dutch Friesian cows grew up at Wadi El-Sharkia farm, El-Salheia, Egypt. These data were analyzed to empirical comparison between the profitability of three herds under intensive production system in Egypt. The second herd (H2 produced average milk yield of 8619 kg/lactation, followed by first herd (H1 (5138 kg/lactation which was lower than the H2 by at least one standard deviation (SD = 2935 kg. The third herd (H3 produced high milk yield equal to the average of H2 plus at least one standard deviation. Traits studied were milk yield per day (M/D, kg, total milk yield (TMY, kg, lactation period (LP, day, dry period (DP, day, annual milk yield (AMY, kg, days open (DO, day, number of services per conception (NSPC, calving interval (CI, day, number of lactation completed (NLC and age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis of variance showed highly significant (P<0.01 effects of all factors on all traits studied except the effect of month and year of calving on NSPC that was non-significant. For comparing between the three herds, the deterministic model was used to estimate the annual gross margin and benefit/cost ratio as economic parameters. Prices of inputs and outputs were based on market and farm gate prices during the period from 1998 to 2007. DO, CI and NSPC were increased in H3 vs. H2 and H1, indicating poorer reproductive efficiency of high yielding herd. Moreover, H3 gave 1.03 and 1.5 parity less for each cow than that of H2 and H1, respectively. Economic evaluations indicated that the annual variable cost were (LE (Egyptian pound = 0.17 USD and = 0.13 EUR 5136, 6910 and 7845 of H1, H2 and H3, respectively. However, the annual gross margin of H3 was higher than that of H1 and H2 by 79 and 24%, respectively, and the benefit/cost ratio of H3 was 1.90 relative to 1.63 and 1.68 for H1 and H2, respectively. The profit per cow during the

  15. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  16. Effect of time duration of ruminal urea infusions on ruminal ammonia concentrations and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea-N in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjen, B A; Kristensen, N B

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a 6 versus 24h ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in N on ruminal ammonia concentration, arterial urea-N concentration, net portal-drained viscera (PDV) urea-N flux, arterial urea-N extraction across the PDV, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Three Danish Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were randomly allocated to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were ventral ruminal infusion of water for 24h (water INF), 24-h infusion of 15 g of urea/kg of dry matter intake (DMI; 24-h INF), and 6-h infusion of 15 g of urea/kg of DMI (6-h INF). The 6-h INF was initiated 0.5h after the afternoon feeding, and ran until 2230 h. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, and hepatic blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5h after feeding (i.e., 9 to 15.5h after the 6h infusion was terminated). A substantial decrease in DMI for 6-h INF compared with 24-h INF and water INF was observed, and it has to be recognized that DMI may have confounding effects. However, the experimental setting plan was met (i.e., to cause changes in the daily pattern of ruminal ammonia and blood urea-N concentrations). The arterial urea-N concentration for 24-h INF and 6-h INF were greater than the arterial urea-N concentration with water INF throughout the sampling window. However, the arterial urea-N concentration for 6-h INF decreased steadily with sampling time reflecting a carryover effect from the ruminal urea infusion. The ruminal ammonia concentration and net portal flux of ammonia for 6-h INF were not different from water INF; hence, no carryover effect on ruminal ammonia concentration was observed. The portal flux of urea-N was not affected by treatment (i.e., even the combination of low ruminal ammonia and high arterial urea-N concentration with 6-h INF was

  17. The influence of thermal conditions on rectal temperature, respiration rate and pulse rate of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuga, J. D.

    1992-09-01

    The effect of minimum, maximum and mean ambient air temperatures and the temperature-humidity index (THI) of the same and the previous day on morning (a.m.) and afternoon (p.m.) rectal temperatures (RT), respiration rates (RR) and pulse rates (PR) were studied in 17 Holstein-Friesian cows over the first 125 days in the 3rd and 4th lactations. Physiological responses showed a diurnal pattern, being lower in the mornings than the afternoons: 38.6 vs 39.0° C for RT, 52.2 vs 60.7 breaths/min for RR and 58.1 vs 64.1 beats/min for PR. Correlations between RT and RR ( r = - 0.043 to -0.046) and RT and PR ( r = -0.178 to -0.261) were low ( P> 0.05). Correlations between RR and PR ( r = 0.353 to 0.365) were moderate ( P<0.05). Weather variables, especially ambient temperature of the previous day, were more important and influenced physiological responses to a greater extent than other thermal factors the same day. Generally, physiological responses were influenced to a greater extent by ambient temperature than THI. Weather variables explained variations in RT (5.1 59.6%), in RR (13.0 17.8%) and in PR (22.1 25.4%). Relationships between weather variables the previous day and physiological responses were contradictory, with minimum and maximum values showing a negative relationship in contrast with a positive relationship for mean values.

  18. Changes in Holstein cow milk and serum proteins during intramammary infection with three different strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Robert Claude

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy cattle. Intramammary infection of dairy cows with S. aureus is often subclinical, due to the pathogen's ability to evade the innate defense mechanisms, but this can lead to chronic infection. A sub-population of S. aureus, known as small colony variant (SCV, displays atypical phenotypic characteristics, causes persistent infections, and is more resistant to antibiotics than parent strains. Therefore, it was hypothesized that the host immune response will be different for SCV than its parental or typical strains of S. aureus. In this study, the local and systemic immune protein responses to intramammary infection with three strains of S. aureus, including a naturally occurring bovine SCV strain (SCV Heba3231, were characterized. Serum and casein-depleted milk cytokine levels (interleukin-8, interferon-γ, and transforming growth factor-β1, as well as serum haptoglobin concentrations were monitored over time after intramammary infection with each of the three S. aureus strains. Furthermore, comparative proteomics was used to evaluate milk proteome profiles during acute and chronic phases of S. aureus intramammary infection. Results Serum IL-8, IFN-γ, and TGF-β1 responses differed in dairy cows challenged with different strains of S. aureus. Changes in overall serum haptoglobin concentrations were observed for each S. aureus challenge group, but there were no significant differences observed between groups. In casein-depleted milk, strain-specific differences in the host IFN-γ response were observed, but inducible IL-8 and TGF-β1 concentrations were not different between groups. Proteomic analysis of the milk following intramammary infection revealed unique host protein expression profiles that were dependent on the infecting strain as well as phase of infection. Notably, the protein, component-3 of the proteose peptone (CPP3, was

  19. A dose-response evaluation of rumen-protected niacin in thermoneutral or heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungruang, S; Collier, J L; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H; de Veth, M J; Collier, R J

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four multiparous high-producing dairy cows (40.0±1.4kg/d) were used in a factorial design to evaluate effects of 2 environments [thermoneutral (TN) and heat stress (HS)] and a dose range of dietary rumen-protected niacin (RPN; 0, 4, 8, or 12g/d) on body temperature, sweating rate, feed intake, water intake, production parameters, and blood niacin concentrations. Temperature-humidity index values during TN never exceeded 68 (stress threshold), whereas temperature-humidity index values during HS were above 68 for 24h/d. The HS environment increased hair coat and skin, rectal, and vaginal temperatures; respiration rate; skin and hair coat evaporative heat loss; and water intake and decreased DMI (3.5kg/d), milk yield (4.1kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (2.7kg/d), and milk protein yield (181.7g/d). Sweating rate increased during HS (12.7g/m(2) per h) compared with TN, but this increase was only 10% of that reported in summer-acclimated cattle. Niacin supplementation did not affect sweating rate, dry-matter intake, or milk yield in either environment. Rumen-protected niacin increased plasma and milk niacin concentrations in a linear manner. Heat stress reduced niacin concentration in whole blood (7.86 vs. 6.89μg/mL) but not in milk. Reduced blood niacin concentration was partially corrected by dietary RPN. An interaction existed between dietary RPN and environment; dietary RPN linearly increased water intake in both environments, but the increase was greater during HS conditions. Increasing dietary RPN did not influence skin temperatures. During TN, supplementing 12g/d of RPN increased hair coat (unshaved skin; 30.3 vs. 31.3°C at 1600h) but not shaved skin (32.8 vs. 32.9°C at 1600h) temperature when compared with 0g/d at all time points, whereas the maximum temperature (18°C) of the room was lower than skin temperature. These data suggest that dietary RPN increased water intake during both TN and HS and hair coat temperature during TN; however, core body

  20. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  1. Pharmacokinetics and milk secretion of gabapentin and meloxicam co-administered orally in Holstein-Friesian cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malreddy, Pradeep R.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Gehring, Ronette

    2012-01-01

    Management of neuropathic pain in dairy cattle could be achieved by combination therapy of gabapentin, a GABA analog and meloxicam, an NSAID. This study was designed to determine specifically the depletion of these drugs into milk. Six animals received meloxicam at 1 mg/kg and gabapentin at 10 mg/kg while another group (n=6) received meloxicam at 1 mg/kg and gabapentin at 20 mg/kg. Plasma and milk drug concentrations were determined over 7 days post-administration by HPLC/MS followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analyses. The mean (± SD) plasma Cmax and Tmax for meloxicam (2.89 ± 0.48 μg/ml and 11.33 ± 4.12 hours) were not much different from gabapentin at 10 mg/kg (2.87 ± 0.2 μg/ml and 8 hours). The mean (± SD) milk Cmax for meloxicam (0.41 ± 0.16 μg/ml) were comparable to gabapentin at 10 mg/kg (0.63 ± 0.13 μg/ml and 12 ± 6.69 hours). The mean plasma and milk Cmax for gabapentin at 20 mg/kg P.O. were almost double the values at 10 mg/kg. The mean (± SD) milk to plasma ratio for meloxicam (0.14 ± 0.04) was lower than for gabapentin (0.23 ± 0.06). The results of this study suggest that milk from treated cows will have low drug residue concentration soon after plasma drug concentrations have fallen below effective levels. PMID:22372845

  2. Altered molecular expression of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway were differentially expressed. Of these genes, 19 were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated in mastitis tissue compared to normal, healthy tissue. Statistical analysis of transcript and protein level expression changes indicated that 10 genes, namely TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and IL-10, were up-regulated, while, CD14, TNF-α, MD-2, IL-β, NF-κB, and IL-12 were significantly down-regulated in mastitis tissue in comparison with normal tissue. Analyses using bioinformatics database resources, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO) for term enrichment analysis, suggested that these differently expressed genes implicate different regulatory pathways for immune function in the mammary gland. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence for better understanding the differential expression and mechanisms of the TLR4 /NF-κB signaling pathway in Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis.

  3. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Pavani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W can affect dairy cow (Holstein fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5 from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706 were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C, HS1 (39.5°C and HS2 (40.5°C. Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001 was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5% while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR ranged from 78.4% (±8.0 to 44.3% (±8.1, while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8 to 36.3% (±3.3 in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05 on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising

  4. Evaporative cooling and cutaneous surface temperature of Holstein cows in tropical conditions Resfriamento evaporativo e temperatura cutânea de vacas Holandesas em ambiente tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gomes da Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of skin temperature (T S on the rate of heat loss by cutaneous evaporation (E S in Holstein cows chronically exposed to sun, considering hair coat colour were studied. Sixteen purebred cows were measured for E S and T S at 01:00 p.m. after 6 hours of exposure to sun, on three body regions (flank, neck and gluteus and considering dark and white spots separately. Sweating rate (S and E S were measured by means of a ventilated capsule. Black skin areas presented mean S (138.9 ± 8.5 gm-2 h-1, E S (93.3 ± 5.7 Wm-2, and T S (33.1 ± 0.2°C higher than those in the white areas (109.5 ± 9.7 gm-2h-1, 73.6 ± 6.5 Wm-2 and 32.6 ± 0.2°C, respectively. There is an exponential relationship among cutaneous temperature and cutaneous evaporation, which can be represented by the equation: E S = 31.5 + exp{(T S - 27.9/2.19115}, with coefficient of determination r² = 0.68. Cutaneous evaporative heat loss remains almost constant around 48 Wm-2 until T S reaches nearly 31°C.Foram estudados os efeitos da temperatura cutânea (Ts sobre a taxa de termólise por evaporação cutânea (Es de vacas Holandesas cronicamente expostas ao sol, considerando a pigmentação do pelame. Dezesseis vacas puras de origem foram medidas quanto à evaporação e à temperatura cutâneas às 13 h, após 6 horas de exposição ao sol, no mesmo local (flanco, pescoço e glúteo e considerando separadamente as malhas negras e as brancas. A evaporação cutânea foi medida por meio de cápsula ventilada. Nas áreas negras a taxa de sudação (138,9 ± 8,5 g.m-2.h-1, a taxa de termólise por evaporação cutânea (93,3 ± 5,7 W.m-2 e a temperatura da superfície cutânea (33,1 ± 0,2°C foram maiores que nas áreas brancas (109,5 ± 9,7 g.m-2.h-1, 73,6 ± 6,5 W.m-2 e 32,6 ± 0,2°C, respectivamente. Há uma relação exponencial entre evaporação e temperatura cutâneas, que pode ser representada pela equação Es = 31,5+3,67 exp{(Ts-27,9/2,19115}, com coeficiente de

  5. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  6. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  7. Administration of prostaglandin F2α 14 d before initiating a G6G or a G7G timed artificial insemination protocol increased circulating progesterone prior to artificial insemination and reduced pregnancy loss in multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirandeh, E; Roodbari, A Rezaei; Gholizadeh, M; Deldar, H; Masoumi, R; Kazemifard, M; Colazo, M G

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of PGF2α treatment 14 d before the initiation of a G6G or G7G (PGF2α, 2 d, GnRH, 6 or 7 d, Ovsynch) protocol on ovarian response, synchronization protocol on ovarian response, progesterone (P4) concentration, pregnancy per AI (P/AI), and pregnancy loss in multiparous Holstein cows. Cows (3.6±1.1 lactations and yielding >30kg/d of milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocols: 1) G6G (n=240), one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 2 d later and a 7-d Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d, PGF2α, 56 h, GnRH 16 h TAI) was initiated 6 d later; 2) PG6G (n=250), PGF2α 14 d before the initiation of the G6G protocol; 3) G7G (n=200), one injection of PGF2α, GnRH 2 d later, and a 7-d Ovsynch protocol initiated 7 d later; and (4) PG7G (n=200), a PGF2α injection 14 d before the initiation of the G7G protocol. Blood samples from a subset of 269 cows were collected at the times of first and second GnRH, and PGF2α of the Ovsynch protocol to measure P4. Ultrasound examinations were performed to evaluate ovarian response to GnRH and PGF2α of Ovsynch, and to determine pregnancy status at 32 and 60 d after TAI. The proportion of cows with high (≥1ng/mL) P4 at first GnRH of Ovsynch was greater for PG6G and PG7G compared with G6G and G7G groups (combined 79.7 vs. 59.3%). In addition, mean (±SEM) plasma P4 concentration (ng/mL) at PGF2α of Ovsynch was also greater in PG6G (6.5±0.2) and PG7G (6.7±0.3) compared with G6G (5.1±0.2) and G7G (5.0±0.2). Cows given PGF2α 14 d before initiating a G6G or a G7G TAI (PG6G and PG7G) tended to have a greater P/AI at 32 d compared with those cows not receiving PGF2α (G6G and G7G). However, P/AI at 60 d was greater in cows subjected to PG6G and PG7G protocols (31.1 vs. 39.2%), with a lower pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 d (11.65 vs. 19.7%). In summary, administration of PGF2α 14 d before initiating a G6G or a G7G TAI protocol increased P4 concentrations

  8. Effects of rumen-protected choline and dry propylene glycol on feed intake and blood parameters for Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Brown, N E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Varga, G A

    2009-06-01

    A 6 x 6 Latin square design was used to test 3 sets of comparisons simultaneously to study response in dry matter intake, milk yield, and blood parameters to propylene glycol (PG) supplementation delivered by 2 methods [incorporating PG into the total mixed ration (TMR) vs. top dressing; comparison I]; individual or combined dietary choline and PG supplementation as a 2 x 2 factorial (comparison II); or increasing amounts of dietary choline (comparison III). Six multiparous (lactation number = 1.5 +/- 0.8 SD) Holstein dairy cows were at 41 d in milk (+/- 9 SD) at the start of the experiment. Propylene glycol used was a dry product containing 65% PG, and choline was a rumen-protected choline product (RPC; estimated to be 50% rumen-protected) containing 50% choline chloride. In comparison I, treatments compared were 1) control: no PG; 2) PG-TMR: 250 g/d of dry PG (corresponding to 162.5 g/d of PG) incorporated into the TMR; and 3) PG-top dress: 250 g/d of dry PG top-dressed onto the TMR. In comparison II, treatments compared were 1) control: no PG and no RPC; 2) PG: 250 g/d of dry PG incorporated into the TMR; 3) RPC: 50 g/d of RPC top-dressed onto the TMR; and 4) PG+RPC: combination of treatments 2 and 3. In comparison III, treatments compared were 0, 25, and 50 g/d of RPC top-dressed onto the TMR. Each experimental period lasted 10 d with 9 d of adaptation followed by 1 d of serial blood sampling. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. During the serial blood sampling, jugular blood was sampled every 20 min for the first 4 h and at 8 and 12 h after treatment administration. Results obtained from comparison I showed that feeding 250 g/d of PG as a dry product decreased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration (mean +/- SEM) from 701 +/- 81 (control) to 564 +/- 76 micromol/L without affecting serum insulin, plasma glucose, or plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Top-dressing PG decreased plasma BHBA concentrations more than by

  9. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  10. Mapping a quantitative trait locus for the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin in milk, and the effect of beta-lactoglobulin genetic variants on the composition of milk from Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbred cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S D; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Beattie, E M; Davis, S R; Adams, L F; Thomas, N L; Ankersmit-Udy, A E; Stanfield, A M; Lehnert, K; Ward, H E; Arias, J A; Spelman, R J; Snell, R G

    2010-02-01

    To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin in milk, and to evaluate the effect of beta-lactoglobulin genetic variants on the concentration of fat, protein and casein in bovine milk. A herd of 850 F2 Holstein-Friesian x Jersey crossbred cows was produced through mating six Holstein-Friesian x Jersey F1 bulls of high genetic merit with F1 cows from the national herd. A total of 1,610 herd-test records from 556 second-parity crossbreds were analysed. The concentration of fat, protein and casein in milk was measured at peak, mid- and late lactation, during the production seasons of 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Liveweight was measured daily. DNA from the F2 animals, their F1 dams and sires, and selected grandsires was genotyped across the genome, initially with 285 microsatellite markers, and subsequently with 6,634 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A highly significant QTL for the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin in milk was identified, which coincided with the position of the beta-lactoglobulin gene on bovine Chromosome 11. No other consistently significant QTL for the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin in milk were detected. Cows with the BB beta-lactoglobulin genotype produced milk with a 30% lower concentration of beta-lactoglobulin than cows with the AA genotype. The beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism also explained variation in the proportion of casein in total protein. In addition, the percentage of fat was higher for BB than AA animals, whereas the percentage of total protein, mean daily milk yield and liveweight did not differ between AA and BB animals. A significant QTL determining the concentration of beta-lactoglobulin in milk was identified. Selection of animals for the beta-lactoglobulin B-allele may enable the production of milk naturally enriched for casein, thus allowing a potential increase in the yield of cheese. There may be additional future value in production of bovine milk more like human milk

  11. Relationships between methane emission of Holstein Friesian dairy cows and fatty acids, volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastelen, van S.; Antunes-Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between methane (CH4) emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites (V) and non-volatile metabolites (NV) in milk of dairy cows. Data from an experiment with 32 multiparous dairy cows and four diets were used. All diets had a roughage : concentrate ratio of

  12. Extension model of lactation curves to evaluate the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield in Holstein cows Modelo de extensão de curvas de lactação para avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palacios-Espinosa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An extension model of lactation curves was used to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST-r on milk yield in Holstein dairy cattle. This model use the fitted values obtained by the Wood model, and was tested on the records of 66 cows. The milk yield predicted with the extension model and the observed yield were compared and no significant differences were observed (P>0.05. Once the extension model was validated, the milk yield tests of 199 cows were used. The cows received bST-r 500mg by subcutaneous injections. The injections were applied after 100 days in milk at 14-day intervals (seven injections. The observed milk yield was compared with the yield expected by the extension model. An increase of 5.3% was observed in milk yield in response to the bST-r. This increase is lower than that reported in the literature in response to the growth hormone in dairy cattle. It is concluded that extension model used in the present work is reliable for extending the lactation curve in Holstein cows, and the increase in milk yield in response to the application of bST-r, determined in the same animal using the extension model, was lower than that reported by other authors.Um modelo de extensão de curvas de lactância foi utilizado para determinar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST-r sobre a produção de leite em vacas Holstein. Este modelo, que utiliza os valores ajustados obtidos pelo modelo de Wood, foi testato nos registros de 66 vacas. A produção de leite predita com o modelo de extensão e a produção observada foram comparadas e não se observaram diferenças significativas (P>0,05. Uma vez validado o modelo de extensão, utilizaram-se os controles de produção de leite (de cada 15 dias de 199 vacas. As vacas receberam injeções de 500mg de bST-r via subcutânea. As injeções fora aplicadas a partir dos 100 dias de lactação a intervalos de 14 dias (sete injeções. A produção de leite observada foi

  13. Evaluación de vacas de doble propósito de genotipos Holstein x Cebú en sistemas de pastoreo arborizado: II. Bíparas Evaluation of double purpose Holstein x Zebu cows in grazing systems with trees: II. Biparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo y reproductivo de vacas bíparas de doble propósito de los cruzamientos Holstein x Cebú, se utilizaron 75 vacas en un diseño totalmente aleatorizado, 25 por grupo de los genotipos Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Cebú, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ C y Siboney mestizo (5/8 H x 3/8 C, las cuales integraron un rebaño común con acceso al mismo manejo y alimentación, en una vaquería de producción de la granja Supervaca de la Empresa Pecuaria Genética de Matanzas. La carga fue de 1,6 UGM/ha y rotaron en 28 cuartones. Mensualmente se midió la disponibilidad de pastos y la oferta diaria de los forrajes y los suplementos. Se apreció la condición corporal al inicio y al final de cada estación, la producción de leche por vaca se midió quincenalmente, y se determinó la duración y producción por lactancia y los indicadores de reproducción. La mejor condición corporal (3,97 favoreció al Siboney mestizo (PIn order to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of biparous double-purpose Holstein x Zebu cows, 75 cows were used in a completely randomized design, 25 per group, from genotypes Siboney (5/8 Holstein x 3/8 Zebu, Mambí (3/4 H x ¼ Z and crossbred Siboney (5/8 H x 3/8 Z, which integrated a common herd with access to the same management and feeding, in a production dairy unit of the Supervaca farm, Genetic Livestock Production Firm of Matanzas. The stocking rate was 1,6 animals/ha and they rotated in 28 paddocks. Pasture availability and daily offer of forages and supplements were monthly measured. The body condition was estimated at the beginning and end of each season, milk production per cow was fortnightly measured, and the duration and production per lactation and the reproduction indicators were determined. The best body condition (3,97 favored crossbred Siboney (P<0,01; while no significant differences were found in the duration and production of milk per lactation. Likewise

  14. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  15. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  16. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, A; Aliarabi, H; Tabatabaei, M M; Saki, A A; Valizadeh, R; Zamani, P

    2012-04-01

    Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing -100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed -100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows.

  17. Effects of dietary nitrogen concentration on messenger RNA expression and protein abundance of urea transporter-B and aquaporins in ruminal papillae from lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    lactating dairy cows. Ruminal papillae were harvested from cows fed low N (12.9% crude protein) and high N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design with 21-d periods. The mRNA expression was determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and protein abundance by immunoblotting. The m......RNA expression of UT-B was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas mRNA expression of AQP3, 7, and 10 were greater in the high N compared with the low N fed cows. Using peptide-derived rabbit antibodies to cow AQP3, 7, and 8, immunoblotting revealed bands of approximately 27, 27, and 24 kDa in ruminal...... papillae, respectively. A peptide-derived chicken antibody to cow UT-B detected a band of approximately 30 to 32 kDa in ruminal papillae. The abundance of UT-B and AQP3 and 7 were not affected by dietary treatment. In contrast, the abundance of AQP8 was greater in high N compared with low N diets...

  18. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Razzaghi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing −100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed −100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows.

  19. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  20. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim of...

  1. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  2. Concentrações de imunoglobulinas G em colostro de vacas mestiças holandês-zebu Colostral immunoglobulin G concentrations in crossbred holstein-zebu dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins Soares Filho

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oitenta e oito vacas leiteiras mestiças holandês-zebu (HZ foram distribuídas de acordo com a percentagem de grau de sangue holandês em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 = animais com menos de 70% de grau de sangue holandês (19 vacas; Grupo 2 = animais com 75% de grau de sangue holandês, que equivale a ¾ HZ (46 vacas; Grupo 3 = mestiços entre 80 e 90% de grau de sangue holandês, que corresponderam a 13/16 HZ e 7/8 HZ (11 vacas; Grupo 4 = vacas com mais de 90% de grau de sangue holandês (12 vacas. Após o parto, amostras de colostro da primeira ordenha foram colhidas e, posteriormente, submetidas à imunodifusão radial simples para determinações dos níveis de imunoglobulinas G (IgG. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que as concentrações de IgG não são influenciadas pelos graus de sangue estudados e seus valores médios (145,94mg/m são muito superiores aos relatados para animais de raças taurinas puras. Por esse motivo, não se justifica o emprego de métodos artificiais de fornecimento do colostro em se tratando de mestiços HZ. Ademais, o nível elevado de IgG observado no colostro sugere que a adoção da prática da mamada natural assistida seja adequada para assegurar que, na maioria das vezes, os neonatos não venham a apresentar falhas de transferência de imunidade passiva.Eighty-eight healthy crossbred holstein-zebu (HZ dairy cows were distributed in four groups as follow: Group 1 = less than 70% HZ (19 cows; Group 2 = 75% HZ animals, corresponding to ¾ HZ (46 cows; Group 3 = crossbred animals between 80 to 90% HZ, corresponding to 13/16 HZ and 7/8 HZ (11 cows; Group 4 = cows more than 90% HZ (12 animals. After birth, colostrum samples were obtained from each cow and than were analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG concentration by single radial immunodifusion assay. IgG colostral concentrations were not influenced by group of crossbred HZ and its mean concentration (145.97mg/m were higher than that related for purebreds Bos

  3. Influência de um ordenhador aversivo sobre a produção leiteira de vacas da raça Holandesa An aversive milker causes fear, but does not influence milk yield of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Hötzel

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi testada a hipótese de que o medo de seres humanos é duradouro e pode prejudicar a produção leiteira de vacas da raça Holandesa. Um tratador aversivo realizou duas sessões diárias de um tratamento hostil (duas palmadas na região posterior e um grito forte, durante 21 dias, e um tratador neutro ordenhou as vacas, durante o mesmo período, não oferecendo nenhuma ameaça. A distância de fuga na presença do tratador aversivo e do neutro foi medida antes e 14 e 180 dias após o início do tratamento. As produções total e residual de leite (após aplicação i.v. de ocitocina na veia caudal foram medidas a partir da ordenha realizada pelo tratador aversivo ou ou pelo neutro, entre os dias 14 e 24 do experimento. Todas as vacas (n=13 participaram dos dois tratamentos, constituindo um delineamento experimental do tipo "cross-over". Com exceção do período anterior ao experimento, as vacas mantiveram maior distância de fuga do tratador aversivo que do neutro, mesmo 180 dias após o último contato com os tratadores. Entretanto, não houve efeito do tratamento sobre a produção total ou residual de leite. Os resultados corroboram outros estudos que comprovaram que vacas discriminam tratadores aversivos de neutros. Entretanto, o tratamento aqui aplicado não afetou as produções total ou residual de leite.In the present study the hypothesis that fear of humans is long-lasting and may influence milk production in Holstein cows was tested. One person (the aversive handler carried out two daily sessions of an aversive treatment during 21 days, where each cow received two slaps on the rump and a strong yell. The control handler walked around the cows not menacing the cows. Flight distance from both handlers was measured before the treatments were imposed and 14 and 180 days later. Total and residual milk (measured after an i.v. oxytocin injection in the caudal vein were measured when either the aversive or the neutral handler

  4. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  5. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage - or corn silage-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastelen, van S.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Klop, G.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid (FA) concentrations, and milk FA composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted

  6. Splicing-related single nucleotide polymorphism of RAB, member of RAS oncogene family like 2B (RABL2B) jeopardises semen quality in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuge; Cui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Haisheng; Ju, Zhihua; Liu, Deyu; Jiang, Qiang; Yang, Chunhong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Changfa; Huang, Jinming; Zhu, Huabin

    2017-11-01

    RAB, member of RAS oncogene family like 2B (RABL2B) is a member of a poorly characterised clade of the RAS GTPase superfamily, which plays an essential role in male fertility, sperm intraflagellar transport and tail assembly. In the present study, we identified a novel RABL2B splice variant in bovine testis and spermatozoa. This splice variant, designated RABL2B-TV, is characterised by exon 2 skipping. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namely c.125G>A, was found within the exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) motif, indicating that the SNP caused the production of the RABL2B-TV aberrant splice variant. This was demonstrated by constructing a pSPL3 exon capturing vector with different genotypes and transfecting these vectors into murine Leydig tumour cell line (MLTC-1) cells. Expression of the RABL2B-TV transcript was lower in semen from high- versus low-performance bulls. Association analysis showed that sperm deformity rate was significantly lower in Chinese Holstein bulls with the GG or GA genotype than in bulls with the AA genotype (Pquality in bulls with different RABL2B genotypes is generated via an alternative splicing mechanism caused by a functional SNP within the ESE motif.

  7. The g.-165 T>C Rather than Methylation Is Associated with Semen Motility in Chinese Holstein Bulls by Regulating the Transcriptional Activity of the HIBADH Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    Full Text Available The 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase (HIBADH is regarded as a human sperm-motility marker. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of expression of the HIBADH gene in bulls remain largely unknown. HIBADH was detected in the testis, epididymis, and sperm via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. It is also expressed in the seminiferous epithelium, spermatids, and the entire epididymis, as detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, HIBADH was expressed in the neck-piece and mid-piece of bull spermatids, as shown in the immunofluorescence assay. Using serially truncated bovine HIBADH promoters and luciferase constructs, we discovered an 878 bp (-703 bp to +175 bp fragment that constitutes the core promoter region. One SNP g.-165 T>C of HIBADH was identified and genotyped in 307 Chinese Holstein bulls. Correlation analysis revealed that bulls with the TT genotype had higher initial sperm motility than those with the CC genotype (P C rather than methylation in the 5'-flanking region could affect the bovine sperm motility through the regulation of HIBADH gene transcriptional activity.

  8. The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland and Jersey cows on complete diets during summer in a temperate climate. C.J.C. Muller* and J.A. Botha. Department of Agriculture: Western Cape, Private Bag X1, Elsenburg,. 7607 Republic of South Africa. Received 7 April 1997; accepted 20 May 1998.

  9. Study of citrullinaemia disorder in Khuzestan Holstein cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the occurrence of autosomal recessive genetic disease, citrullinaemia, in Khuzestan native cows and Iranian Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of the cows (n = 330). The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was ...

  10. Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Akbar

    Full Text Available In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration. In experiment 2, cows in control (CON or receiving 50 g/d of L-carnitine (C50 from -14 through 21 d had increased FGF21, PPARA, and NFIL3 on d 10 compared with d 2 postpartum. In contrast, compared with CON and C50, 100 g/d L-carnitine (C100 resulted in lower FGF21, KLB, ANGPTL4, and ARNTL expression on d 10. In experiment 3, cows were fed during the dry period either a higher-energy (OVE; 1.62 Mcal/kg DM or lower-energy (CON; 1.34 Mcal/kg DM diet and received 0 (OVE:N, CON:N or 200 μg of LPS (OVE:Y, CON:Y into the mammary gland at d 7 postpartum. For FGF21 mRNA expression in CON, the LPS challenge (CON:Y prevented a decrease in expression between d 7 and 14 postpartum such that cows in CON:N had a 4-fold lower expression on d 14 compared with d 7. The inflammatory stimulus induced by LPS in CON:Y resulted in upregulation of PPARA on d 14 to a similar level as cows in OVE:N. In OVE:Y, expression of PPARA was lower than CON:N on d 7 and remained unchanged on d 14. On d 7, LPS led to a 4-fold greater serum FGF21 only in OVE but not in CON cows. In fact, OVE:Y reached the same serum FGF21 concentration as CON:N, suggesting a carryover effect of dietary energy level on signaling mechanisms within liver. Overall, results indicate that nutrition, ketosis, and inflammation during the peripartal period can alter hepatic FGF21, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes to various extents. The functional outcome of these changes merits

  11. Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Haji; Batistel, Fernanda; Drackley, James K; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration. In experiment 2, cows in control (CON) or receiving 50 g/d of L-carnitine (C50) from -14 through 21 d had increased FGF21, PPARA, and NFIL3 on d 10 compared with d 2 postpartum. In contrast, compared with CON and C50, 100 g/d L-carnitine (C100) resulted in lower FGF21, KLB, ANGPTL4, and ARNTL expression on d 10. In experiment 3, cows were fed during the dry period either a higher-energy (OVE; 1.62 Mcal/kg DM) or lower-energy (CON; 1.34 Mcal/kg DM) diet and received 0 (OVE:N, CON:N) or 200 μg of LPS (OVE:Y, CON:Y) into the mammary gland at d 7 postpartum. For FGF21 mRNA expression in CON, the LPS challenge (CON:Y) prevented a decrease in expression between d 7 and 14 postpartum such that cows in CON:N had a 4-fold lower expression on d 14 compared with d 7. The inflammatory stimulus induced by LPS in CON:Y resulted in upregulation of PPARA on d 14 to a similar level as cows in OVE:N. In OVE:Y, expression of PPARA was lower than CON:N on d 7 and remained unchanged on d 14. On d 7, LPS led to a 4-fold greater serum FGF21 only in OVE but not in CON cows. In fact, OVE:Y reached the same serum FGF21 concentration as CON:N, suggesting a carryover effect of dietary energy level on signaling mechanisms within liver. Overall, results indicate that nutrition, ketosis, and inflammation during the peripartal period can alter hepatic FGF21, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes to various extents. The functional outcome of these changes merits further study

  12. Effects of lactation and pregnancy on gene expression of endometrium of Holstein cows at day 17 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, R L A; Thompson, I M; Kim, I H; Ealy, A D; Hansen, P J; Staples, C R; Li, J L; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W

    2012-10-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of lactation and pregnancy on endometrial gene expression on d 17 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Heifers (n=33) were assigned randomly after parturition to lactating (L, n=17) or nonlactating (NL, n=16) groups. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization program for a timed artificial insemination (TAI); 10 cows in L and 12 in NL were inseminated. Slaughter occurred 17 d after the day equivalent to TAI, and intercaruncular endometrial tissues were collected. Gene expression was determined by DNA microarray analysis for pregnant (L, n=8; NL, n=6) and noninseminated cyclic (L, n=7; NL, n=4) cows. Differentially expressed genes were selected with a P-value 40. In addition, a fold effect >1.5 was used as a criterion for genes affected by pregnancy. In total, 210 genes were differentially regulated by lactation (136 downregulated and 74 upregulated), and 702 genes were differentially regulated by pregnancy (407 downregulated and 295 upregulated). The interaction effect of pregnancy and lactation affected 61 genes. Genes up- and downregulated in pregnant cows were associated with several gene ontology terms, such as defense response and interferon regulatory factor, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix. The gene ontology analyses of up- and downregulated genes of lactating cows revealed terms related to immunoglobulin-like fold, immune response, COMM domain, and non-membrane-bounded organelle. Several genes upregulated by lactation, such as IGHG1, IGLL1, IGK, and TRD, were related to immune function, particularly for B cells and γδ T cells. Developmental genes related to limb and neural development and glucose homeostasis (e.g., DKK1, RELN, PDK4) were downregulated by lactation, whereas an interaction was also detected for RELN. The stated genes associated with immune function and developmental genes expressed in the endometrium affected by lactational state are possible candidate genes for interventions to improve

  13. The association between occurrence and severity of subclinical and clinical mastitis on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, M J; Fricke, P M; Ruegg, P L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine associations between occurrence and severity of clinical (CM) and subclinical mastitis (SM) during a defined breeding risk period (BRP, 3d before to 32d after artificial insemination) on pregnancies per artificial insemination at first service (P/AI1). Dairy cows (n=3,144) from 4 Wisconsin herds were categorized based on the occurrence of one or more CM or SM events during and before the BRP: (1) healthy, (2) mastitis before BRP, (3) SM during BRP, (4) chronic SM, (5) CM during BRP, or (6) chronic CM. Clinical mastitis cases were categorized based on etiology (gram-negative, gram-positive, and no growth) and severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.56, 0.67, and 0.75 for cows experiencing chronic CM, CM, or SM during the BRP, respectively. The occurrence of chronic SM was not associated with reduced probability of P/AI1. Compared with healthy cows, the odds of pregnancy were 0.71 and 0.54 for cows experiencing mild or moderate-severe cases of CM during the BRP, respectively. The odds of pregnancy for cows experiencing CM caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria during the BRP were 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. The occurrence of CM that resulted in no growth of bacteria in cultured milk samples was not associated with reductions in P/AI1. Regardless of etiology, microbiologically positive cases of CM with moderate or severe symptoms were associated with substantial reductions in P/AI1. Etiology, severity, and timing of CM were associated with decreases in the probability of pregnancy at first artificial insemination. Severity of the case was more important than etiology; however, regardless of severity, microbiologically negative cases were not associated with reduced probability of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving genetic evaluation using a multitrait single-step genomic model for ability to resume cycling after calving, measured by activity tags in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Fogh, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of estimated breeding values for ability to recycle after calving by using information of genomic markers and phenotypic information of correlated traits. The traits in this study were the interval from calving to first...... insemination (CFI), based on artificial insemination data, and the interval from calving to first high activity (CFHA), recorded from activity tags, which could better measure ability to recycle after caving. The phenotypic data set included 1,472,313 records from 820,218 cows for CFI, and 36,504 records from...... 25,733 cows for CFHA. The genomic information was available for 3,159 progeny-tested sires, which were genotyped using Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Heritability estimates were 0.06 for the interval from calving to first insemination and 0.14 for the interval from calving...

  15. Effect of level of metabolizable protein on milk production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, J X; Yuan, Z P; Wu, Y M; Zhai, S W; Ye, H W

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the level of metabolizable protein (MP) on milk production and nitrogen utilization in Chinese Holstein dairy cows. Forty multiparous dairy cows (body weight = 590 kg; days in milk = 135; average milk yield = 30.2 kg/d) were assigned to treatments randomly within groups based on days in milk and milk production. Animals were offered diets with different levels of MP: 8.3% (diet A), 8.9% (diet B), 9.7% (diet C), and 10.4% (diet D) of dry matter. The MP level in diet A was designed to meet the current Chinese National Station of Animal Production and Health guidelines, whereas that in diet D was based on the National Research Council (2001) model. The experiment lasted for 7 wk. Milk yield and milk composition (fat, protein, and lactose) were recorded, and urea nitrogen concentrations in serum, urine, and milk were measured during the experiment. Milk yield and milk protein percentage increased as the MP increased up to 9.7% of dry matter, and then leveled off. Concentrations of nitrogen in urine, serum, and milk increased linearly as the amount of MP was increased, indicating decreased efficiency of nitrogen utilization. Milk lactose percentage and total solids percentage showed no significant differences among the 4 diets. We concluded that the optimal dietary MP level was at 9.6% of dry matter for Chinese Holstein dairy cows producing 30 kg of milk per day.

  16. Ingestão de concentrado e concentração plasmática de progesterona em vacas da raça Holandesa Concentrate intake and plasmatic progesterone concentration in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacas da raça Holandesa não-lactantes (n=7, que receberam 4kg/dia de concentrado durante 28 dias e pasto ad libitum, foram sincronizadas com protocolo Ovsynch. No dia 0 (segunda aplicação de GnRH, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos: as do grupo 2kg receberam 2kg/dia, e as do grupo 8kg receberam 8kg/dia de concentrado, oferecido duas vezes/dia. Os animais foram sincronizados novamente na fase 2. Aqueles que receberam 2kg de concentrado na primeira fase passaram a receber 8kg na segunda fase e vice-versa. As estruturas ovarianas foram avaliadas diariamente por ultra-sonografia. Amostras de sangue para dosagem de progesterona (P4, por radioimunoensaio, foram colhidas diariamente, antes do fornecimento do concentrado e quatro horas depois, até o dia 16 do ciclo estral. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao diâmetro do folículo ovulatório no dia 0 e ao diâmetro do maior folículo no dia 16. O diâmetro do corpo lúteo foi maior (PNon-lactating Holstein cows (n=7 fed 4kg/day of concentrate for 28 days and kept on pasture were synchronized by Ovsynch protocol. On day 0 (day of 2nd GnRH injection, the cows were distributed in two groups: Group2 = 2kg/day and Group8 = 8kg/day of concentrate, fed twice a day. One replicate was performed (phase 1 and 2. Animals were synchronized again at the beginning of phase-2 and those that fed 2kg of concentrate on phase-1, fed 8kg on phase-2 and vice-versa. The ovarian structures were daily evaluated by ultrasound. Blood samples for progesterone (P4dosage by RIA were collected daily, just before feeding the concentrate and 4 hours afterwards, until day 16 of the estrous cycle. No difference was detected between the groups in ovulatory follicle diameter on day 0 and in diameter of the largest follicle on day 16. The CL diameter was higher (P<0.05 in Group 8 on day 16 of the estrous cycle. There was an interaction (P<0.05 between the amount of concentrate intake and the day of blood sampling

  17. Influência da retenção dos anexos fetais no hemograma de fêmeas bovinas da raça Holandesa The influence of retained fetal membranes on the hemogram of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.E. Saut

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o hemograma de 177 amostras de sangue de fêmeas bovinas da raça Holandesa nos primeiros 90 dias pós-parto. As amostras foram colhidas de vacas não reagentes ao antígeno (GP 51 do vírus da leucose dos bovinos, distribuídas em dois grupos (I: puerpério fisiológico; II: puerpério com retenção dos anexos fetais e subdivididas em quatro grupos de acordo com o momento de colheita. Nos primeiros 10 dias após o parto, o eritrograma não sofreu influência da retenção dos anexos fetais. Com a evolução do puerpério, observou-se, nas vacas com retenção dos anexos fetais, anemia de grau leve entre o 10º e 30º dia pós-parto. O leucograma dos animais com retenção dos anexos fetais foi predominantemente linfocitário, caracterizado por leucopenia, neutropenia com desvio à esquerda degenerativo e eosinopenia. A partir do 10º dia após o parto, o leucograma não foi influenciado pela retenção dos anexos fetais.Hematological profiles of 177 blood samples from Holstein cows were determined during the first 90 days after parturition. Blood samples were collected from cows that were non-reactive to the bovine leukosis virus (GP 51 antigen. The animals were divided into two groups (group I: physiological puerperium and group II: puerperim with retained fetal membranes, and subdivided into four groups, based on the time that the samples were collected. During the first 10 days after parturition, retained fetal membranes did not influence the erythrogram. However, with the evolution of the puerperium period, a mild anemia was observed from the 10th to the 30th day postpartum in cows with retained fetal membranes. The leukocyte profile was predominantly lymphocytic, characterized by leucopenia induced by neutropenia with a left degenerative shift and eosinopenia. From the 10th day postpartum, the retained fetal membranes did not influence the leukogram.

  18. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or