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Sample records for chinese hamster ovary

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;

    2012-01-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens...

  2. Proteomic analysis of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N; Krag, Sharon S; Cole, Robert N; Palsson, Bernhard O; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2012-11-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using the CHO genome exclusively, which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. Five-hundred four of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications, and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  3. Methods for modeling chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    for identifying a CHO cell line having a desired genetic trait, as well as for generating a desired CHO cell line having a genetic basis for a desired phenotype. Additionally, described herein are methods for constructing and analyzing in silico models of biological networks for CHO cells.......Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods...

  4. Propranolol induced chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Sedigh-Ardekani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol (PL, a non-selective beta-blocker, is a cardiovascular drug widely used to treat hypertension. The present study was concerned with assessing the cytogenetic effects of this drug on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. MTT assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50 of the drug. The IC50 value of PL was 0.43±0.02 mM. To investigate the clastogenic effects of the drug, chromatid and chromosome breaks and polyploidy in metaphases were analyzed. CHO cells were exposed to different concentrations of the drug (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mM for 24 hours. Considering that PL has liver metabolism, experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of the metabolic activation system (S9 mix. Mitomycin-C and sodium arsenite were used as positive controls. It was observed that in cells treated with different PL concentrations as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM, the frequency of chromatid and chromosome breaks as well as polyploidy increased when compared with untreated CHO cells. The addition of S9 mix significantly decreased the chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks and polyploidy compared to the treatment of PL alone. It is concluded that, PL causes chromatid and chromosome aberrations in CHO cell line and the metabolic activation system (S9 mix, playing an important role in drug cytotoxicity reduction.

  5. Existence of an Endogenous Glutamate and Aspartate Transporter in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xunhe JI; Yuhua JIN; Yaoyue CHEN; Chongyong LI; Lihe GUO

    2007-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells show endogenous high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity. This transport activity is kinetically similar to a glutamate transporter family strategically expressed in the central nervous system and is pharmacologically unlike glutamate transporter-1 or excitatory amino acid carrier 1. The cDNA of a glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST)-like transporter was obtained and analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to human, mouse, and rat GLAST. We concluded that a GLAST-like glutamate transporter exists in Chinese hamster ovary cells that might confer the endogenous high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity evident in these cells.

  6. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin;

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most of...

  7. Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Producing Coagulation Factor VIII Using Multi-omics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder

    The first public draft of a genome from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was published in 2011, an entire decade after the first draft of the human genome. This publication of a relevant CHO reference genome, in combination with the fact that the cost for DNA sequencing has dropped more than 10,...

  8. Toward genome-scale models of the Chinese hamster ovary cells: incentives, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar;

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocessing of the important Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines used for the production of biopharmaceuticals stands at the brink of several redefining events. In 2011, the field entered the genomics era, which has accelerated omics-based phenotyping of the cell lines. In this review we des...

  9. Complementation of a methotrexate uptake defect in Chinese hamster ovary cells by DNA-mediated gene transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, T M; Flintoff, W F

    1989-01-01

    A methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in methotrexate uptake has been complemented to methotrexate sensitivity by transfection with DNA isolated from either wild-type Chinese hamster ovary or human G2 cells. Primary and secondary transfectants regained the ability to take up methotrexate in a manner similar to that of wild-type cells, and in the case of those transfected with human DNA, to contain human-specific DNA sequences. The complementation by DNA-mediated g...

  10. Selection of mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells altered glycoproteins by means of tritiated fucose suicide.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschberg, C B; Baker, R.M.; Perez, M.; Spencer, L A; Watson, D

    1981-01-01

    Mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells altered in glycoproteins have been isolated by selecting for ability to survive exposure to [6-3H]fucose. Mutagenized wild-type cells were permitted to incorporate [3H]fucose to approximately 1 cpm of trichloroacetic acid-insoluble radioactivity per cell and then frozen for several days to accumulate radiation damage. The overall viability of the population was reduced by 5- to 50-fold. Four consecutive selection cycles were carried out. The surviving cells ...

  11. Metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells: Towards a bioengineered heparin

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Jong Youn; Gasimli, Leyla; Bo YANG; Datta, Payel; Zhang, Fuming; Glass, Charles A.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    Heparin is the most widely used pharmaceutical to control blood coagulation in modern medicine. A health crisis that took place in 2008 led to a demand for production of heparin from non-animal sources. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, commonly used mammalian host cells for production of foreign pharmaceutical proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, are capable of producing heparan sulfate (HS), a related polysaccharide naturally. Since heparin and HS share the same biosynthetic pathway...

  12. Effects of Supplementation of Various Medium Components on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures Producing Recombinant Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Yun; Lee, Joon Chul; Chang, Ho Nam; Oh, Duk Jae

    2005-01-01

    Thirteen vitamins, twenty amino acids, hormones, inorganic salts, and other chemical agents, which constitute typical serum-free media, were evaluated for the development of fortified medium to enhance cell growth and productivity of recombinant antibody in the cultures of the recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. Two different rCHO cell lines, rCHO-A producing recombinant antibodies against the human platelet and rCHO-B secreting recombinant antibodies against the S surface antigen...

  13. Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Improved antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells by ATF4 overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Haredy, Ahmad M.; Nishizawa, Akitoshi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohya, Tomoshi; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    To improve antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the humanized antibody-producing CHO DP-12-SF cell line was transfected with the gene encoding activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a central factor in the unfolded protein response. Overexpression of ATF4 significantly enhanced the production of antibody in the CHO DP-12-SF cell line. The specific IgG production rate of in the ATF4-overexpressing CHO-ATF4-16 cells was approximately 2.4 times that of the parental host c...

  15. Transformation of UV-hypersensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants with UV-irradiated plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfection of UV-hypersensitive, DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines and parental, repair-proficient CHO cells with UV-irradiated pHaprt-1 or pSV2gpt plasmids resulted in different responses by recipient cell lines to UV damage in transfected DNA. Unlike results reported for human cells, UV irradiation of transfecting DNA did not stimulate genetic transformation of CHO recipient cells. In repair-deficient CHO cells, proportionally fewer transformants were produced with increasing UV damage than in repair-proficient cells in transfections with UV-irradiated hamster adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene contained in plasmid pHaprt-1. Transfection of CHO cells with UV-irradiated pSV2gpt resulted in neither decline in transformation frequencies in repair-deficient cell lines relative to repair-proficient cells nor stimulation of genetic transformation by UV damage in the plasmid. Blot hybridization analysis of DNA samples isolated from transformed cells showed no dramatic changes in copy number or arrangement of transfected plasmid DNA with increasing UV dose. The authors conclude responses of recipient cells to UV-damaged transfecting plasmids depend on type of recipient cell and characteristics of the genetic sequence used for transfection. (author)

  16. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by uv irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective

  17. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillien, R; Spehner, D; Kirn, A

    1978-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by UV irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective.

  18. Effects of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on bleomycin-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Maria Cristina P.; Dias Francisca da Luz; Kronka Sergio N.; Takahashi Catarina S.

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring antioxidants have been extensively studied for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from oxidative damage. Many plant constituents including turmeric and curcumin appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. The effects of turmeric and curcumin on chromosomal aberration frequencies induced by the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Three concentrations of each drug, turmeric (100, 250 and 500 mg/ml) and ...

  19. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor down-regulation limits the extent of inhibition of cell cycle progression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Detjen, K.; Yang, J; Logsdon, C D

    1995-01-01

    Cellular desensitization is believed to be important for growth control but direct evidence is lacking. In the current study we compared effects of wild-type and down-regulation-resistant mutant m3 muscarinic receptors on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cell desensitization, proliferation, and transformation. We found that down-regulation of m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was the principal mechanism of desensitization of receptor-activated inositol phosphate phospholipid hydrolysis in t...

  20. Isolation and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary cell variants defective in adhesion to fibronectin-coated collagen

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Variant clones of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were selected for reduced adhesion to serum-coated tissue culture plates. These clones also displayed reduced adhesion to substrata composed of collagen layers coated with bovine serum or with fibronectin (cold-insoluble globulin). Wild-type (WT) and adhesion variant (ADv) cells grew at comparable rates in suspension culture, but the adhesion variants could not be grown in monolayer culture because of their inability to attach to the substra...

  1. Overexpressed human metallothionein IIA gene protects Chinese hamster ovary cells from killing by alkylating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaina, B.; Lohrer, H.; Karin, M.; Herrlich, P. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-04-01

    Experiments were designed to detect survival advantages that cells gain by overexpressing metallothionein (MT). Chinese hamster ovary K1-2 cells and an x-ray-sensitive derivative were transfected with a bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-linked construct carrying the human metallothionein IIA (hMT-IIA) gene. Transfectants survived 40-fold higher levels of cadmium chloride, harbored at least 30 copies of hMT-IIA, and contained 25- to 166-fold more MT than the parent cells. Even under conditions of reduced glutathione synthesis, the transfectants were not more resistant to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and bleomycin than the parent cells. Thus free radicals generated by these agents cannot be scavenged efficiently by MT in vivo. The hMT-IIA transfectants, however, but not control transfectants harboring a BPV-MT promoter-neo construct, tolerated significantly higher doses of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Resistance and MT overexpression occurred irrespective of selection and cultivation in cadmium and zinc. There was no increase in resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea. MT did not affect the degree of overall DNA methylation after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment nor the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The results suggest that MT participates as a cofactor or regulatory element in repair or tolerance of toxic alkylation lesions.

  2. Characterization of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Arakawa, T.; Strickland, T.W.; Yphantis, D.A.

    1987-05-05

    Physicochemical properties of recombinant human erythropoietin were examined. This protein, produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, showed a conformation apparently identical with the natural product isolated from human urine when examined by circular dichroism, UV absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments showed the recombinant erythropoietin preparation to be essentially a single macromolecular component with a molecular weight of 30,400 and a carbohydrate content of 39%. The Stokes radius of recombinant erythropoietin was estimated to be 32 A from gel filtration, much larger than the 20-A radius calculated for a sphere of the observed molecular weight. This difference may be ascribed to the extensive glycosylation. The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra showed that the luminescent tryptophan(s) is (are) solvent-exposed and can be quenched by I/sup -/ and acrylamide but not by Cs/sup +/. On acid titration, the recombinant erythropoietin showed a conformational transition with a midpoint of pH 4.1. This suggests that the net charges on the protein moiety rather than on the whole molecule play a role in protein structure stability.

  3. Rapid amplification system for recombinant protein production in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metta, M K; Kunaparaju, R K; Tantravahi, S

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic proteins have changed the face of modern medicine in the present trend and they continue to provide innovative therapies for deadly diseases. This study describes the development of a novel stable expression system for rapid amplification of genes in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The expression system consists of a host CHO cell line and an expression vector (pUB-PyOri-D-C) which encodes for Polyomavirus (Py) Origin of Replication (PyOri) for amplification of integrated genes in the presence of Py Large T Antigen (PyLT) and Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) selectable marker gene for selection in the presence of Methotrexate (MTX). Use of both PyOri/PyLT and DHFR can reduce the number of rounds of selection and amplification required for isolation of high producing clones. The efficiency of pUB-PyOri-D-C was compared with that of pUB-D-C plasmid using Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Erythropoietin (EPO) as reporter proteins. Our results showed that pUB-PyOri-D-C-EPO can help development of high expressing clone in one round of selection/amplification as compared to multiple rounds of selection/amplification with pUB-D-C-EPO plasmid. CHO-DG44/EPO clone generated using pUB-PyOri-D-C-EPO gave a productivity of 119 mg/L in shake flask. PMID:26950459

  4. Genotoxic Effects of PAH Containing Sludge Extracts in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective Many studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxicity of chemicals and waste materials, which utilized in vivo test protocols. The use of animals for routine toxicity testing is now questioned by a growing segment of society[1]. Methods Keeping the above fact in mind, we have conducted in the present study the genotoxicity evaluation of oily sludge samples generated from a petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry and ETP sludge from petroleum refinery using DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein induction and apoptosis in short term in vitro mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary cell cultures. Results It is evident from the results that the oily sludge compounds derived from petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry could cause DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein accumulation and apoptotic cell death on exposure to oily sludge extracts in the presence of metabolic activation system (S-9 mix), however, ETP sludge extract could not cause significant genotoxicity in comparison to oily sludge extract and negative control. Conclusion The effect may be attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the samples as evidenced from GC-MS.

  5. Interaction of hyperthermia and radiation on the induction of division delay in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was used in the investigation of the interaction of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation on the induction and duration of division delay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Hyperthermia (immersion in a 45 degrees C water bath) produced a blockade of cell cycle progression with a transition point in late G2-early M, approximately at the X-ray transition point (35 min prior to selection). The duration of division delay for heated cells depended on the time of immersion: 24 minutes/minute at 45 degrees C. Radiation-induced division delay occurred at a rate of 45 minutes/gray of X-irradiation. When hyperthermic exposure and X-irradiation were combined with less than 1 minute between treatments, a division delay resulted that was approximately the sum of the delays produced by the individual treatments. As the interval between treatments was increased, the overall division delay also increased beyond that which could be accounted for solely by the postponement of the second treatment. These results indicate that hyperthermia and radiation induce division delay by different mechanisms

  6. Xbp1-based engineering of secretory capacity enhances the productivity of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Marcel; Fussenegger, Martin

    2006-05-01

    A variety of successful transcription and translation engineering strategies implemented during the past decade have driven the specific productivity of mammalian cells to an apparent limit. Restricted post-translation competence has since been considered the major bottleneck preventing mammalian cells from fully exploiting their physiologic production capacity in a biopharmaceutical manufacturing scenario. Through ectopic expression of the human transcription factor Xbp1 (X-box-binding-protein 1), evolved to manage plasma cell differentiation and coordinate the unfolded protein response, we have specifically expanded the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi of transgenic Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1)-derived cell lines with a resulting increase in overall production capacity. Xbp-1-based engineering of secretory bottlenecks was compatible with a variety of different promoter–product gene configurations suggesting that Xbp-1 induces generic production increases in CHO-K1 cell derivatives. Secretion engineering, illustrated here by Xbp1-based reprogramming of the post-translational processing machinery, provides a first insight into mastering a major system bottleneck which impacts biopharmaceutical manufacturing of secreted protein therapeutics.

  7. 31P NMR analysis of membrane phospholipid organization in viable, reversibly electropermeabilized Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were reversibly permeabilized by submitting them to short, high-intensity, square wave pulses (1.8 kV/cm, 100 μs). The cells remained in a permeable state without loss of viability for several hours at 40C. A new anisotropic peak with respect to control cells was observed on 31P NMR spectroscopic analysis of the phospholipid components. This peak is only present when the cells are permeable, and normal anisotropy is recovered after resealing. Taking into account the fusogenicity of electropermeabilized cells, comparative studies were performed on 5% poly(ethylene glycol) treated cells. The 31P NMR spectra of the phospholipids displayed the same anisotropic peak as in the case of the electropermeabilized cells. In the two cases, this anisotropic peak was located downfield from the main peak associated to the phospholipids when organized in bilayers. The localization of this anisotropic peak is very different from the one of a hexagonal phase. The authors proposed a reorganization of the polar head group region leading to a weakening of the hydration layer to account for these observations. This was also thought to explain the electric field induced fusogenicity of these cells

  8. A Chinese hamster ovary cell line hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and deficient in repair replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An X-ray-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line was isolated by means of a semi-automated procedure in which mutagenized cells formed colonies on top of agar, were X-irradiated, and were photographed at two later times. The author compared the photographs to identify colonies that displayed significant growth arrest. One of the colonies identified in this manner produced a stable line (irs1SF) that is hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. irs1SF performs only half as much X-ray-induced repair replication as the parental line, indicating a defect in excision repair. This defect is believed to be the primary cause of the line's radiosensitivity. Although irs1SF repairs DNA double-strand breaks at a normal rate, it repairs single-strand breaks more slowly than normal. irs1SF has an elevated number of spontaneous chromatid aberrations and produces significantly higher numbers of X-ray-induced chromatid aberrations after exposure during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The line is hypomutable, with X-ray exposure inducing only one-third as many 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies as the parental line. 45 refs.; 10 figs.; 1 table

  9. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant with altered regulation of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have screened approximately 10,000 colonies of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells immobilized on polyester cloth for mutants defective in [14C]ethanolamine incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable phospholipids. In mutant 29, discovered in this way, the activities of enzymes involved in the CDP-ethanolamine pathway were normal; however, the intracellular pool of phosphorylethanolamine was elevated, being more than 10-fold that in the parental CHO-K1 cells. These results suggested that the reduced incorporation of [14C]ethanolamine into phosphatidylethanolamine in mutant 29 was due to dilution of phosphoryl-[14C]ethanolamine with the increased amount of cellular phosphorylethanolamine. Interestingly, the rate of incorporation of serine into phosphatidylserine and the content of phosphatidylserine in mutant 29 cells were increased 3-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with the parent cells. The overproduction of phosphorylethanolamine in mutant 29 cells was ascribed to the elevated level of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis, because ethanolamine is produced as a reaction product on the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylserine, which is catalyzed by phospholipid-serine base-exchange enzymes. Using both intact cells and the particulate fraction of a cell extract, phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in CHO-K1 cells was shown to be inhibited by phosphatidylserine itself, whereas that in mutant 29 cells was greatly resistant to the inhibition, compared with the parental cells. As a conclusion, it may be assumed that mutant 29 cells have a lesion in the regulation of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis by serine-exchange enzyme activity, which results in the overproduction of phosphatidylserine and phosphorylethanolamine as well

  10. Removal of radiation damage by subpopulations of plateau-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific cellular radiobiology studies are often required to test aspects of the mathematical models developed in the Radiation Dosimetry program. These studies are designed to determine whether specific mathematical expressions, which characterize the expected effect of biochemical mechanisms on observable biological responses, are consistent with the behavior of selected cell lines. Since these tests place stringent requirements on the cellular system, special techniques and culture conditions are required to minimize biological variability. The use of specialized cell populations is providing data on the extent of repair following low doses, and on the changes in the types of damage that can be repaired as the cell progresses toward mitosis. The stationary-phase Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are composed primarily of G(1)-phase cells (83%), with the remainder comprising both G(2) and S phases. Removal of radiation damage by cells was studied in split-dose experiments. To date, we have observed no significant differences in cellular repair rate. This suggests, therefore, that each of the repair processes found in stationary-phase cells is cell-age independent. However, cellular radiation sensitivity does change rapidly and considerably as the cells progress from one phase to the next through the cell cycle. Since the rate of damage removal appears invariant, the change in survival must reflect the efficiency of producing that damage. The experimental data suggest that production of one or another sort of damage probably dominates during specific phases of the cell cycle, while the capacity for removal of all types of damage remains relatively constant

  11. Metabolic analysis of antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary cell culture under different stresses conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badsha, Md Bahadur; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Oga, Takushi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are commonly used as the host cell lines concerning their ability to produce therapeutic proteins with complex post-translational modifications. In this study, we have investigated the time course extra- and intracellular metabolome data of the CHO-K1 cell line, under a control and stress conditions. The addition of NaCl and trehalose greatly suppressed cell growth, where the maximum viable cell density of NaCl and trehalose cultures were 2.2-fold and 2.8-fold less than that of a control culture. Contrariwise, the antibody production of both the NaCl and trehalose cultures was sustained for a longer time to surpass that of the control culture. The NaCl and trehalose cultures showed relatively similar dynamics of cell growth, antibody production, and substrate/product concentrations, while they indicated different dynamics from the control culture. The principal component analysis of extra- and intracellular metabolome dynamics indicated that their dynamic behaviors were consistent with biological functions. The qualitative pattern matching classification and hierarchical clustering analyses for the intracellular metabolome identified the metabolite clusters whose dynamic behaviors depend on NaCl and trehalose. The volcano plot revealed several reporter metabolites whose dynamics greatly change between in the NaCl and trehalose cultures. The elastic net identified some critical, intracellular metabolites that are distinct between the NaCl and trehalose. While a relatively small number of intracellular metabolites related to the cell growth, glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium ion concentrations, the mechanism of antibody production was suggested to be very complicated or not to be explained by elastic net regression analysis. PMID:26803706

  12. Metabolic engineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells: towards a bioengineered heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jong Youn; Gasimli, Leyla; Yang, Bo; Datta, Payel; Zhang, Fuming; Glass, Charles A; Esko, Jeffrey D; Linhardt, Robert J; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2012-03-01

    Heparin is the most widely used pharmaceutical to control blood coagulation in modern medicine. A health crisis that took place in 2008 led to a demand for production of heparin from non-animal sources. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, commonly used mammalian host cells for production of foreign pharmaceutical proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, are capable of producing heparan sulfate (HS), a related polysaccharide naturally. Since heparin and HS share the same biosynthetic pathway, we hypothesized that heparin could be produced in CHO cells by metabolic engineering. Based on the expression of endogenous enzymes in the HS/heparin pathways of CHO-S cells, human N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST2) and mouse heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 1 (Hs3st1) genes were transfected sequentially into CHO host cells growing in suspension culture. Transfectants were screened using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Out of 120 clones expressing NDST2 and Hs3st1, 2 clones, Dual-3 and Dual-29, were selected for further analysis. An antithrombin III (ATIII) binding assay using flow cytometry, designed to recognize a key sugar structure characteristic of heparin, indicated that Hs3st1 transfection was capable of increasing ATIII binding. An anti-factor Xa assay, which affords a measure of anticoagulant activity, showed a significant increase in activity in the dual-expressing cell lines. Disaccharide analysis of the engineered HS showed a substantial increase in N-sulfo groups, but did not show a pattern consistent with pharmacological heparin, suggesting that further balancing the expression of transgenes with the expression levels of endogenous enzymes involved in HS/heparin biosynthesis might be necessary. PMID:22326251

  13. Bioactivation of mitomycin antibiotics by aerobic and hypoxic Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing DT-diaphorase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Hodnick, W F; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1996-06-28

    DT-Diaphorase catalyzes a two-electron reduction of mitomycin C (MC) and porfiromycin (POR) to reactive species. Many cell lines that overexpress DT-diaphorase and are sensitive to the mitomycins are protected from the aerobic cytotoxicity of these drugs by the DT-diaphorase inhibitor dicumarol. The cytoprotective properties of this relatively non-specific inhibitor, however, vanish under hypoxic conditions. To ascertain the role of DT-diaphorase in mitomycin bioactivation and cytotoxicity in living cells, a rat liver DT-diaphorase cDNA was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells. MC was equitoxic to the parental cells under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. In contrast, POR was less toxic than MC to these cells under aerobic conditions, but significantly more toxic than MC under hypoxia. Two DT-diaphorase-transfected clones displayed increases in DT-diaphorase activity of 126- and 133-fold over parental cells. The activities of other oxidoreductases implicated in mitomycin bioreduction were unchanged. MC was more toxic to both DT-diaphorase-transfected lines than to parental cells; the toxicity of MC to the transfected lines was similar in air and hypoxia. POR was also more toxic to the DT-diaphorase-elevated clones than to parental cells under oxygenated conditions. Under hypoxia, however, the toxicity of POR to the transfected clones was unchanged from that of parental cells. The findings implicate DT-diaphorase in mitomycin bioactivation in living cells, but suggest that this enzyme does not contribute to the differential toxicity of MC or POR in air and hypoxia. PMID:8687482

  14. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  15. Isolation and characterization of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    James, P F; Rizzo, W B; Lee, J.; Zoeller, R A

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line that is defective in long-chain fatty alcohol oxidation. The ability of the mutant cells to convert labeled hexadecanol to the corresponding fatty acid in vivo was reduced to 5% of the parent strain. Whole-cell homogenates from the mutant strain, FAA.1, were deficient in long-chain fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO; EC 1.1.1.192) activity, which catalyzes the oxidation of hexadecanol to hexadecanoic acid, although the intermediate...

  16. Understanding Transcriptional Enhancement in Monoclonal Antibody-Producing Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Sarah E.

    With the demand for monoclonal antibody (mAB) therapeutics continually increasing, the need to better understand what makes a high productivity clone has gained substantial interest. Monoclonal antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with different productivities were provided by a biopharmaceutical company for investigation. Gene copy numbers, mRNA levels, and mAb productivities were previously determined for two low producing clones and their amplified progeny. These results showed an increase in mRNA copy number in amplified clones, which correlated to the observed increases in specific productivity of these clones. The presence of multiple copies of mRNA per one copy of DNA in the higher productivity clones has been coined as transcriptional enhancement. The methylation status of the CMV promoter as well as transcription factor/promoter interactions were evaluated to determine the cause of transcriptional enhancement. Methylation analysis via bisulfite sequencing revealed no significant difference in overall methylation status of the CMV promoter. These data did, however, reveal the possibility of differential interactions of transcription factors between the high and low productivity cell clones. This finding was further supported by chromatin immunoprecipitations previously performed in the lab, as well as literature studies. Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) binding proteins were constructed and utilized to selectively immunoprecipitate the CMV promoter along with its associated transcription factors in the different CHO cell clones. Cells were transfected with the TALE proteins, harvested and subjected to a ChIP-like procedure. Results obtained from the TALE ChIP demonstrated the lack of binding of the protein to the promoter and the need to redesign the TALE. Overall, results obtained from this study were unable to give a clear indication as to the causes of transcriptional enhancement in the amplified CHO cell clones. Further

  17. Binding and uptake of diphtheria toxin by toxin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary and mouse cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Didsbury, J R; Moehring, J M; Moehring, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    We investigated two phenotypically distinct types of diphtheria toxin-resistant mutants of Chinese hamster cells and compared their resistance with that of naturally resistant mouse cells. All are resistant due to a defect in the process of internalization and delivery of toxin to its target in the cytosol, elongation factor 2. By cell hybridization studies, analysis of cross-resistance, and determination of specific binding sites for 125I-labeled diphtheria toxin, we showed that these cell s...

  18. Accelerated Homology-Directed Targeted Integration of Transgenes in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Via CRISPR/Cas9 and Fluorescent Enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup;

    2016-01-01

    Targeted gene integration into site-specific loci can be achieved in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology and the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. The low efficiency of HDR often requires antibiotic selection, which limits targeted integration...

  19. COMPARISON OF THE TOXICITY OF ACRYLAMIDE, CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE, CHLRODECONE, AND DIETHYLSTILBESTROL IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY (CHO) CELLS WITH THEIR TOXICITY IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to compare in vitro toxicity with in vivo toxicity, four chemicals that have been tested in the in vivo/in vitro toxicological screen proposed by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, EPA were tested in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cytotoxicity assay. Viability index,...

  20. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael;

    2015-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied...... the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up...... to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO...

  1. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production.

  2. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production. PMID:26921102

  3. In vitro neuroprotective action of recombinant rat erythropoietin produced by astrocyte cell lines and comparative studies with erythropoietin produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Seiji; Kada, Emi; Nagao, Masaya; Sasaki, Ryuzo

    1999-01-01

    In the central nervous system, astrocytes produce erythropoietin (Epo) and neurons express its receptor. To examine whether or not the brain Epo protects the in vitro cultured neurons from glutamate-induced cell death, we established rat astrocyte cell lines containing the plasmid for production of recombinant rat Epo. Epo partially purified from the culture medium showed a neuroprotective effect similar to that of rat Epo produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Comparison was made in ...

  4. Characteristic element of matrix attachment region mediates vector attachment and enhances nerve growth factor expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Zhang, J H; Sun, Q L; Yao, Z Y; Deng, B G; Guo, W Y; Wang, L; Dong, W H; Wang, F; Zhao, C P; Wang, T Y

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that a characteristic element of the matrix attachment region (MAR) in human interferon-β mediates the adhesion of vectors to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In this study, we investigated if vector adhesion increased nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in CHO cells. The MAR characteristic element sequence of human interferon-β was inserted into the multiple-cloning site of the pEGFP-C1 vector. The target NGF gene was inserted upstream of the MAR characteristic element sequence to construct the MAR/NGF expression vector. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CHO cells and stable monoclonal cells were selected using G418. NGF mRNA and protein expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Plasmid reduction experiments were used to determine the state of transfected plasmid in mammalian cells. The insertion of MAR into the vector increased NGF expression levels in CHO cells (1.93- fold) compared to the control. The recombinant plasmid expressing the MAR sequence was digested into a linear space vector. The inserted MAR and NGF sequences were consistent with those inserted into the plasmid before recombination. Therefore, we concluded that the MAR characteristic element mediates vector adhesion to CHO cells and enhances the stability and efficiency of the target gene expression. PMID:26345852

  5. Quantitative feature extraction from the Chinese hamster ovary bioprocess bibliome using a novel meta-analysis workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabgir, Aydin; Gutierrez, Jahir M; Hefzi, Hooman; Li, Shangzhong; Palsson, Bernhard O; Herwig, Christoph; Lewis, Nathan E

    2016-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grows annually due to the importance of CHO cells in industrial bioprocessing of therapeutics. In an effort to start to catalogue the breadth of CHO phenotypes, or phenome, we present the CHO bibliome. This bibliographic compilation covers all published CHO cell studies from 1995 to 2015, and each study is classified by the types of phenotypic and bioprocess data contained therein. Using data from selected studies, we also present a quantitative meta-analysis of bioprocess characteristics across diverse culture conditions, yielding novel insights and addressing the validity of long held assumptions. Specifically, we show that bioprocess titers can be predicted using indicator variables derived from viable cell density, viability, and culture duration. We further identified a positive correlation between the cumulative viable cell density (VCD) and final titer, irrespective of cell line, media, and other bioprocess parameters. In addition, growth rate was negatively correlated with performance attributes, such as VCD and titer. In summary, despite assumptions that technical diversity among studies and opaque publication practices can limit research re-use in this field, we show that the statistical analysis of diverse legacy bioprocess data can provide insight into bioprocessing capabilities of CHO cell lines used in industry. The CHO bibliome can be accessed at http://lewislab.ucsd.edu/cho-bibliome/. PMID:26948029

  6. Increased recombinant protein production owing to expanded opportunities for vector integration in high chromosome number Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Noriko; Takahashi, Mai; Ali Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kumamoto, Toshitaka; Frank, Jana; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal instability is a characteristic of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cultures of these cells gradually develop heterogeneity even if established from a single cell clone. We isolated cells containing different numbers of chromosomes from a CHO-DG44-based human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF)-producing cell line and found that high chromosome number cells showed higher hGM-CSF productivity. Therefore, we focused on the relationship between chromosome aneuploidy of CHO cells and high recombinant protein-producing cell lines. Distribution and stability of chromosomes were examined in CHO-DG44 cells, and two cell lines expressing different numbers of chromosomes were isolated from the original CHO-DG44 cell line to investigate the effect of aneuploid cells on recombinant protein production. Both cell lines were stably transfected with a vector that expresses immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), and specific antibody production rates were compared. Cells containing more than 30 chromosomes had higher specific antibody production rates than those with normal chromosome number. Single cell analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (Egfp)-gene transfected cells revealed that increased GFP expression was relative to the number of gene integration sites rather than the difference in chromosome numbers or vector locations. Our results suggest that CHO cells with high numbers of chromosomes contain more sites for vector integration, a characteristic that could be advantageous in biopharmaceutical production.

  7. ¹H NMR spectroscopy profiling of metabolic reprogramming of Chinese hamster ovary cells upon a temperature shift during culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L Wagstaff

    Full Text Available We report an NMR based approach to determine the metabolic reprogramming of Chinese hamster ovary cells upon a temperature shift during culture by investigating the extracellular cell culture media and intracellular metabolome of CHOK1 and CHO-S cells during culture and in response to cold-shock and subsequent recovery from hypothermic culturing. A total of 24 components were identified for CHOK1 and 29 components identified for CHO-S cell systems including the observation that CHO-S media contains 5.6 times the level of glucose of CHOK1 media at time zero. We confirm that an NMR metabolic approach provides quantitative analysis of components such as glucose and alanine with both cell lines responding in a similar manner and comparable to previously reported data. However, analysis of lactate confirms a differentiation between CHOK1 and CHO-S and that reprogramming of metabolism in response to temperature was cell line specific. The significance of our results is presented using principal component analysis (PCA that confirms changes in metabolite profile in response to temperature and recovery. Ultimately, our approach demonstrates the capability of NMR providing real-time analysis to detect reprogramming of metabolism upon cellular perception of cold-shock/sub-physiological temperatures. This has the potential to allow manipulation of metabolites in culture supernatant to improve growth or productivity.

  8. Template free synthesis of silver-gold alloy nanoparticles and cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles in Chinese Hamster Ovary cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Angshuman; Shah, Sunil [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat-390002 (India); Kulkarni, Vijay; Murthy, R.S.R. [G. H. Patel Pharmacy Building, TIFAC-CORE in NDDS, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat-390002 (India); Devi, Surekha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat-390002 (India)], E-mail: surekha_devi@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15

    Gold-silver alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by simultaneous reduction of varying mole fractions of HAuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} by sodium citrate in aqueous solution without using stabilizing agents such as surfactant or polymer. Appearance of single absorption peak in visible spectrum indicated formation of homogeneous gold-silver alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron micrographs also support formation of alloy nanoparticles rather than core-shell particles. The plasmon absorption bands for Au-Ag nanoparticles show linear bathochromic shift with increasing Au content. No significant change in surface plasmon band was observed on storage of samples at 25 {+-} 2 deg. C for 6 months, indicating stability of the particles. Particle size distribution, zeta-potential and conduction of these colloidal suspensions were measured by dynamic light scattering along with Zetasizer. Gold and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles exhibited fluorescence at 600 nm and in between 600 and 486 nm respectively depending on alloy composition. Gold nanoparticles were used for cell line study using liposome as a carrier. This liposome entrapped gold nanoparticles showed enhanced uptake by Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells compared to gold nanoparticles.

  9. Inhibition of DNA excision repair by methotrexate in Chinese hamster ovary cells following exposure to ultraviolet irradiation or ethylmethanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous results have suggested that methotrexate (MTX) could interfere with the repair of spontaneous DNA damage. To determine its effects on induced DNA damage, MTX was compared to hydroxyurea and arabinofuranosylcytosine (H/A), a drug combination known to block the DNA polymerase step of excision repair, for its ability to cause the accumulation of single-strand breaks (SSB) following exposure to either UV light or the alkylating agent ethylmethanesulfonate in Chinese hamster ovary cells. SSB were measured by alkaline elution 1, 2, and 6 h after exposure to either 1.8 mg/ml of ethylmethanesulfonate or 10 J/m2 of UV in cells pretreated with MTX or H/A. Following exposure to ethylmethanesulfonate, significant accumulation of SSB occurred in cells pretreated with either H/A or MTX. Coadministration of hypoxanthine and thymidine in MTX-treated cells prevented SSB accumulation, indicating that nucleotide depletion by MTX had inhibited repair synthesis. After UV irradiation, SSB accumulation was much less in MTX- than in H/A-treated cells. MTX was found to have no effect on the incision of UV damage. These results indicate that nucleotide depletion by MTX can affect the repair of DNA damage by exogenous agents, and that the extent of inhibition is dependent on the type of damage induced

  10. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  11. Chinese hamster ovary cell performance enhanced by a rational divide-and-conquer strategy for chemically defined medium development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaya; Zhang, Weiyan; Deng, Xiancun; Poon, Hong Fai; Liu, Xuping; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Li

    2015-12-01

    Basal medium design is considered one of the most important steps in process development. To optimize chemically defined (CD) media efficiently and effectively for the biopharmaceutical industry, a two-step rational strategy was applied to optimize four antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. In the first step, 48 of 52 components of our in-house medium were divided into three groups according to their characteristics. In the next step, these groups were optimized by spent medium analysis, response surface methodology and mixture design. Because these steps in our strategy involved dividing medium components into groups and subsequently adjusting the concentration of the components, we termed this medium development strategy "divide and conquer". By applying the strategy, we were able to improve the titers of CHO-S, CHO-DG44 and two CHO-K1 cell lines 1.92, 1.86, 2.92 and 1.62-fold, respectively, in 8 weeks with fewer than 60 tests. This divide-and-conquer strategy was efficient, effective, scalable and universal in our current study and offered a new approach to CD media development.

  12. Heterologous transmembrane signaling by a human insulin receptor-v-ros hybrid in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Morgan, D.O.; Jong, S.M.; Wang, L.H.; Roth, R.A.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    A hybrid receptor molecule composed of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the human insulin receptor and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic (protein-tyrosine kinase) domains of the chicken sarcoma virus UR2 transforming protein p68/sup gag-ros/ has been constructed and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The hybrid is processed normally into ..cap alpha.. and hybrid ..beta.. subunits, is expressed on the cell surface at high levels, and binds insulin with near-wild-type affinity. Furthermore, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation on tyrosine resides of the hybrid ..beta..-subunit in vivo and the phosphorylation of an exogeneous substrate (poly(Glu,Tyr)) in vitro. Thus the hybrid is capable of heterologous transmembrane signaling. However, the hybrid mediates neither the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose nor the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into DNA, suggesting that the physiological response(s) mediated by ligand-activated protein-tyrosine kinases may utilize distinct intracellular mechanisms for postreceptor signaling

  13. Heterologous transmembrane signaling by a human insulin receptor-v-ros hybrid in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid receptor molecule composed of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the human insulin receptor and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic (protein-tyrosine kinase) domains of the chicken sarcoma virus UR2 transforming protein p68/sup gag-ros/ has been constructed and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The hybrid is processed normally into α and hybrid β subunits, is expressed on the cell surface at high levels, and binds insulin with near-wild-type affinity. Furthermore, insulin stimulates the phosphorylation on tyrosine resides of the hybrid β-subunit in vivo and the phosphorylation of an exogeneous substrate [poly(Glu,Tyr)] in vitro. Thus the hybrid is capable of heterologous transmembrane signaling. However, the hybrid mediates neither the insulin-activated uptake of 2-deoxyglucose nor the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA, suggesting that the physiological response(s) mediated by ligand-activated protein-tyrosine kinases may utilize distinct intracellular mechanisms for postreceptor signaling

  14. Increased recombinant protein production owing to expanded opportunities for vector integration in high chromosome number Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Noriko; Takahashi, Mai; Ali Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kumamoto, Toshitaka; Frank, Jana; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal instability is a characteristic of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cultures of these cells gradually develop heterogeneity even if established from a single cell clone. We isolated cells containing different numbers of chromosomes from a CHO-DG44-based human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF)-producing cell line and found that high chromosome number cells showed higher hGM-CSF productivity. Therefore, we focused on the relationship between chromosome aneuploidy of CHO cells and high recombinant protein-producing cell lines. Distribution and stability of chromosomes were examined in CHO-DG44 cells, and two cell lines expressing different numbers of chromosomes were isolated from the original CHO-DG44 cell line to investigate the effect of aneuploid cells on recombinant protein production. Both cell lines were stably transfected with a vector that expresses immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), and specific antibody production rates were compared. Cells containing more than 30 chromosomes had higher specific antibody production rates than those with normal chromosome number. Single cell analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (Egfp)-gene transfected cells revealed that increased GFP expression was relative to the number of gene integration sites rather than the difference in chromosome numbers or vector locations. Our results suggest that CHO cells with high numbers of chromosomes contain more sites for vector integration, a characteristic that could be advantageous in biopharmaceutical production. PMID:26850366

  15. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  16. Expression of secreted recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkari, H; Sekkat, D; Straczek, J; Hess, K; Belleville-Nabet, F; Nabet, P

    1994-07-29

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-KI) cells were cotransfected with a plasmid pcDNAI containing the human preproinsulin-like growth factor II cDNA linked downstream to the human cytomegalovirus promoter and with a plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene (pMAM-neo). CHO neo+ were selected by growth in medium supplemented with G418 geneticin. After amplification, the neomycin-resistant clones were screened for IGF-II production. IGF-II produced was identified by dot blot and quantified by ELISA. The clones C24, C40 and C94 secreted IGF-II at about 350-400 ng per 10(6) cells per day. DNA analysis of C24 and C40 CHO cells by PCR demonstrated the presence of the IGF-II construct in the transfected cells, presumably integrated into the chromosomal DNA. IGF-II produced by CHO cells and purified by RP-HPLC was a mitogen for MCF-7 stimulating mitosis 2-fold. PMID:7765161

  17. Effects of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on bleomycin-induced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina P. Araújo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring antioxidants have been extensively studied for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from oxidative damage. Many plant constituents including turmeric and curcumin appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. The effects of turmeric and curcumin on chromosomal aberration frequencies induced by the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. Three concentrations of each drug, turmeric (100, 250 and 500 mg/ml and curcumin (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml, were combined with BLM (10 mg/ml in CHO cells treated during the G1/S, S or G2/S phases of the cell cycle. Neither turmeric nor curcumin prevented BLM-induced chromosomal damage in any phases of the cell cycle. Conversely, a potentiation of the clastogenicity of BLM by curcumin was clearly observed in cells treated during the S and G2/S phases. Curcumin was also clastogenic by itself at 10 µg/ml in two protocols used. However, the exact mechanism by which curcumin produced clastogenic and potentiating effects remains unknown.Antioxidantes de ocorrência natural têm sido exaustivamente estudados quanto a sua capacidade de proteger organimos e células contra danos oxidativos. Muitos constituintes das plantas, incluindo cúrcuma e curcumina, parecem ser potentes antimutágenos e antioxidantes. Os efeitos de cúrcuma e curcumina na freqüência de aberrações cromossômicas induzidas pelo agente radiomimético bleomicina (BLM foram investigados em células do ovário de hamster chinês (CHO. Três concentrações de cada droga, cúrcuma (100, 250 e 500 mg/ml e curcumina (2,5, 5,0 e 10 mg/ml, foram combinadas com BLM (10 mg/ml em células CHO tratadas durante as fases G1/S, S ou G2/S do ciclo celular. Nem cúrcuma nem curcumina evitaram o dano cromossômico induzido pela BLM em fase alguma do ciclo celular. Ao contrário, a potenciação da clastogenicidade da BLM pelo curcumina foi nitidamente observada em células tratadas

  18. Model-directed engineering of "difficult-to-express" monoclonal antibody production by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Leon P; Dean, Greg; West, Nathan R; Smith, Andrew; Daramola, Olalekan; Field, Ray; Wilkinson, Stephen J; James, David C

    2014-02-01

    Despite improvements in volumetric titer for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production processes using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, some "difficult-to-express" (DTE) MAbs inexplicably reach much lower process titers. These DTE MAbs require intensive cell line and process development activity, rendering them more costly or even unsuitable to manufacture. To rapidly and rationally identify an optimal strategy to improve production of DTE MAbs, we have developed an engineering design platform combining high-yielding transient production, empirical modeling of MAb synthesis incorporating an unfolded protein response (UPR) regulatory loop with directed expression and cell engineering approaches. Utilizing a panel of eight IgG1 λ MAbs varying >4-fold in volumetric titer, we showed that MAb-specific limitations on folding and assembly rate functioned to induce a proportionate UPR in host CHO cells with a corresponding reduction in cell growth rate. Derived from comparative empirical modeling of cellular constraints on the production of each MAb we employed two strategies to increase production of DTE MAbs designed to avoid UPR induction through an improvement in the rate/cellular capacity for MAb folding and assembly reactions. Firstly, we altered the transfected LC:HC gene ratio and secondly, we co-expressed a variety of molecular chaperones, foldases or UPR transactivators (BiP, CypB, PDI, and active forms of ATF6 and XBP1) with recombinant MAbs. DTE MAb production was significantly improved by both strategies, although the mode of action was dependent upon the approach employed. Increased LC:HC ratio or CypB co-expression improved cell growth with no effect on qP. In contrast, BiP, ATF6c and XBP1s co-expression increased qP and reduced cell growth. This study demonstrates that expression-engineering strategies to improve production of DTE proteins in mammalian cells should be product specific, and based on rapid predictive tools to assess the relative impact of

  19. Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by 60Co γ-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 μg/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of γ radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

  20. Activation of two new alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase activities in Chinese hamster ovary cells by 5-azacytidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, B; Stanley, P

    1991-01-01

    Several mammalian alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferases (alpha[1,3]Fuc-T) that synthesize carbohydrates containing alpha(1,3)fucosylated lactosamine units have been identified. Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells do not express alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity, the rare mutants LEC11 and LEC12, isolated after mutagenesis or DNA transfection, each express an alpha(1,3)Fuc-T that may be distinguished by several criteria. Two new CHO mutants possessing alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity (LEC29 and LEC30) have now been isolated after treatment of a CHO cell population with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), ethylnitrosourea (ENU), or 5-AzaC followed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Like LEC12, both mutants possess an N-ethylmaleimide-resistant alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity that can utilize a variety of acceptors and both express the Lewis X (Lex) determinant (Gal beta[1,4](Fuc alpha[1,3])GlcNAc beta 1)) but not the sialyl alpha(2,3)Lex determinant on cell-surface carbohydrates. However, LEC29 and LEC30 may be distinguished from LEC11 and LEC12, as well as from each other, on the basis of their unique patterns of lectin resistance and their abilities to bind the VIM-2 monoclonal antibody that recognizes carbohydrates terminating in NeuNAc alpha(2,3)Gal beta(1,4)GlcNAc beta(1,3)Gal beta(1,4)(Fuc alpha[1,3])GlcNAc beta and also by the different in vitro substrate specificities and kinetic properties of their respective alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activities. The combined data provide good evidence that the LEC29 and LEC30 alpha(1,3)Fuc-Ts are novel transferases encoded by distinct gene products. PMID:1724918

  1. Conditional expression of full-length humanized anti-prion protein antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel A; Heinig, Lars; Ramljak, Sanja; Krueger, Astrid; Schulte, Reiner; Wrede, Arne; Stuke, Andreas W

    2010-12-01

    Because of their high antigen specificity and metabolic stability, genetically engineered human monoclonal antibodies are on the way to becoming one of the most promising medical diagnostics and therapeutics. In order to establish an in vitro system capable of producing such biosimilar antibodies, we used human constant chain sequences to design the novel human antibody expressing vector cassette pMAB-ABX. A bidirectional tetracycline (tet)-controllable promotor was used for harmonized expression of immunoglobulin type G (IgG) heavy and light chains. As an example we used anti-prion protein (anti-PrP) IgGs. Therefore, the variable heavy (V(H)) and light chain (V(L)) sequences of anti-PrP antibodies, previously generated in our laboratory by DNA immunization of prion protein knock-out mice, were isolated from murine hybridoma cell lines and inserted into pMAB-ABX vector. After transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a number of stable antibody producing cell clones were selected. One cell line (pMAB-ABX-13F10/3B5) stably expressing the recombinant humanized antibody (rechuAb) 13F10/3B5 was selected for detailed characterization by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometric analyses. The full-length recombinant humanized IgG antibody showed a high level of expression in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, the new cell system described here is a suitable tool to produce functional intact full-length humanized IgG antibodies. PMID:21087094

  2. Molecular structural analysis of HPRT mutations induced by thermal and epithermal neutrons in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinashi, Y; Sakurai, Y; Masunaga, S; Suzuki, M; Takagaki, M; Akaboshi, M; Ono, K

    2000-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to thermal and epithermal neutrons, and the occurrence of mutations at the HPRT locus was investigated. The Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which has been improved for use in neutron capture therapy, was the neutron source. Neutron energy spectra ranging from nearly pure thermal to epithermal can be chosen using the spectrum shifters and thermal neutron filters. To determine mutant frequency and cell survival, cells were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons under three conditions: thermal neutron mode, mixed mode with thermal and epithermal neutrons, and epithermal neutron mode. The mutagenicity was different among the three irradiation modes, with the epithermal neutrons showing a mutation frequency about 5-fold that of the thermal neutrons and about 1.5-fold that of the mixed mode. In the thermal neutron and mixed mode, boron did not significantly increase the frequency of the mutants at the same dose. Therefore, the effect of boron as used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is quantitatively minimal in terms of mutation induction. Over 300 independent neutron-induced mutant clones were isolated from 12 experiments. The molecular structure of HPRT mutations was determined by analysis of all nine exons by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. In the thermal neutron and mixed modes, total and partial deletions were dominant and the fraction of total deletions was increased in the presence of boron. In the epithermal neutron mode, more than half of the mutations observed were total deletions. Our results suggest that there are clear differences between thermal and epithermal neutron beams in their mutagenicity and in the structural pattern of the mutants that they induce. Mapping of deletion breakpoints of 173 partial-deletion mutants showed that regions of introns 3-4, 7/8-9 and 9-0 are sensitive to the induction of mutants by neutron irradiation.

  3. Oxygen and exposure kinetics as factors influencing the cytotoxicity of porfiromycin, a mitomycin C analogue, in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R S; Rauth, A M

    1988-10-15

    Some factors affecting the cytotoxicity of porfiromycin (PM), an analogue of mitomycin C (MMC), were investigated in suspension cultures of wild-type (AA8-4) and repair-deficient (UV-20) Chinese hamster ovary cells. Oxygen was an important modulator of PM toxicity in AA8-4 cells. The aerobic toxicity was significantly less, and toxicity under extremely hypoxic conditions was significantly greater for PM than MMC. Porfiromycin cytotoxicity at intermediate O2 levels was similar to that observed previously for MMC. While the aerobic/hypoxic ratio was greater for PM than MMC, survival at intermediate oxygen concentrations could limit the therapeutic utility of these drugs as adjuncts to radiotherapy. Ascorbic acid was found to increase the aerobic, but not hypoxic, cytotoxicity of PM in AA8-4 cells, as was observed previously for MMC. Investigation of various exposure times and drug concentrations revealed that drug toxicity for both aerobic and hypoxic cells was dependent on the product of drug concentration and time, and that the aerobic/hypoxic differential observed in AA8-4 cells was constant over a broad range of exposure conditions. The sensitivity of UV-20 cells was also a linear function of concentration and time, but no aerobic/hypoxic differential was observed in these cells. It is suggested that the sensitivity of UV-20 to PM and MMC, and its lack of an hypoxic/aerobic differential could result from lethality being due to a different lesion than in wild-type cells. PMID:3167822

  4. Effects of clonal variation on growth, metabolism, and productivity in response to trophic factor stimulation: a study of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing a recombinant monoclonal antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Dahodwala, Hussain; Nowey, Mark; Mitina, Tatyana; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth, metabolism, and productivity of five Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clones were explored in response to stimulation with insulin (5 mg/L) and LONG®R3IGF-I (20 μg/L or 100 μg/L). All five clones were derived from the same parental CHO cell line (DG44) and produced the same recombinant monoclonal antibody, with varying specific productivities. There was no uniform response among the clones to stimulation with the different trophic factors. One of the high productivity clones (clone D) ...

  5. Differential toxicity of mitomycin C and porfiromycin to aerobic and hypoxic Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human NADPH:cytochrome c (P-450) reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Belcourt, M F; Hodnick, W F; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1996-01-01

    Purified NADPH:cytochrome c (P-450) reductase (FpT; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.2.4) can reductively activate mitomycin antibiotics through a one-electron reduction to species that alkylate DNA. To assess the involvement of FpT in the intracellular activation of the mitomycins, transfectants overexpressing a human FpT cDNA were established from a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in dihydrofolate reductase (CHO-K1/dhfr-). The parental cell line was equisensitive to t...

  6. Establishment and Identification of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Lines with Stable Expression of Soluble CD40 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Hua-wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines with stable expression of soluble CD40 ligands (sCD40L. Methods: Recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L, enzyme digestion and sequencing identification were obtained by cloning sCD40L coding sequences into eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP from carrier pDC316-sCD40 containing sCD40L. CHO cells were transfected by electroporation, followed by screening of resistant clones with G418, after which monoclones were obtained by limited dilution assay and multiply cultured. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope were applied to observe the expression of green fluorescent protein, while sCD40L expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from aspects of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA and protein, respectively. CHO-sCD40L was cultured together with MDA-MB-231 cells to compare the expression changes of surface molecule fatty acid synthase (Fas by flow cytometer and observe the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells after Fas activated antibodies (CH-11 were added 24 h later. Results: Plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L was successfully established, and cell lines with stable expression of sCD40L were obtained with cloned culture after CHO cell transfection, which was named as B11. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope showed >90% expression of green fluorescent protein, while PCR, RT-PCR and ELISA suggested integration of sCD40L genes into cell genome DNA, transcription of sCD40L mRNA and sCD40L protein expression being (4.5±2.1 ng/mL in the supernatant of cell culture, respectively. After co-culture of B11 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the surface Fas expression of MDA-MB-231 cells was increased from (3±1.02 % to (34.8±8.75%, while the apoptosis rate 24 h after addition of CH11 from (5.4±1.32% to (20.7±5.24%, and the differences

  7. Cytotoxicity and DNA lesions produced by mitomycin C and porfiromycin in hypoxic and aerobic EMT6 and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracasso, P M; Sartorelli, A C

    1986-08-01

    Solid neoplasms may contain deficient or poorly functional vascular beds, a property that leads to the formation of hypoxic tumor cells, which form a therapeutically resistant cell population within the tumor that is difficult to eradicate by ionizing irradiation and most existing chemotherapeutic agents. As an approach to the therapeutic attack of hypoxic cells, we have measured the cytotoxicity and DNA lesions produced by the bioreductive alkylating agents mitomycin C and porfiromycin, two structurally similar antibiotics, in oxygen-deficient and aerobic cells. Mitomycin C and porfiromycin were preferentially cytotoxic to hypoxic EMT6 cells in culture, with porfiromycin producing a greater differential kill of hypoxic EMT6 cells relative to their oxygenated counterparts than did mitomycin C. Chinese hamster ovary cells were more resistant to these quinone antibiotics; although in this cell line, porfiromycin was significantly more cytotoxic to hypoxic cells than to aerobic cells, and the degree of oxygenation did not affect the toxicity of mitomycin C. Alkaline elution methodology was utilized to study the formation of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA interstrand cross-links produced by mitomycin C and porfiromycin in both EMT6 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. A negligible quantity of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA interstrand cross-links were produced in hypoxic and aerobic Chinese hamster ovary cells by exposure to mitomycin C or porfiromycin, a finding consistent with the considerably lower sensitivity of this cell line to these agents. In EMT6 tumor cells, no single-strand breaks appeared to be produced by these antitumor antibiotics under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions; however, a significant number of DNA interstrand cross-links were formed in this cell line following drug treatment, with substantially more DNA interstrand cross-linking being produced under hypoxic conditions. Mitomycin C and porfiromycin caused the same amount of cross-linking under

  8. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostes, Jr., R. F.; Sasser, L. B.; Rausch, R. J.

    1989-05-01

    The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur nustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this reoort. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HC are highly toxic in microrolar amounts. Chromosone aberration frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner over a dose range of 0. 5 to 1.0 {micro}m and SCE increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the dose range of 0.0625 to 0.25 {micro}M. Mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was sporadic, but the majority of the exoosures resulted in mutation frequencies which were 1.2 to 4.3 fold higher than the spontaneous frequencies.

  9. Evaluation of cytogenetic effects of a naturally occurring non-ice-nucleation Pseudomonas fluorescens strain in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, P; Andreozzi, L; Motta, S; Mosesso, P

    1995-01-01

    One of the main methods for eliminating ice-nucleation-active (INA+) bacteria the micro-organisms responsible for frost injuries to plants at mild freezing temperatures, is the use, as competitors, of other naturally occurring non-nucleating strains (non-INA). In the present article we investigated the cytogenetic effects of a naturally occurring non-INA strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens (MS 1640 R3), evaluating the induction of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in the absence and presence of rat S9 metabolism. The results obtained did not show any increase in either chromosomal aberrations or SCEs, both in the absence and presence of rat S9 metabolism when used as i) intact bacteria cells, ii) sonicated bacteria (i.e., potential endotoxins), or iii) metabolic bacterial products (i.e., potential exotoxins) released in the growth medium. PMID:8584981

  10. A fucan from the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi inhibits Chinese hamster ovary cell adhesion to several extracellular matrix proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha H.A.O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides present in brown seaweed, have several biological activities. Their use as drugs would offer the advantage of no potential risk of contamination with viruses or particles such as prions. A fucan prepared from Spatoglossum schröederi was tested as a possible inhibitor of cell-matrix interactions using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 and the mutant type deficient in xylosyltransferase (CHO-745. The effect of this polymer on adhesion properties with specific extracellular matrix components was studied using several matrix proteins as substrates for cell attachment. Treatment with the polymer inhibited the adhesion of fibronectin to both CHO-K1 (2 x 10(5(and CHO-745 (2 x 10(5 and 5 x 10(5 cells. No effect was detected with laminin, using the two cell types. On the other hand, adhesion to vitronectin was inhibited in CHO-K1 cells and adhesion to type I collagen was inhibited in CHO-745 cells. In spite of this inhibition, the fucan did not affect either cell proliferation or cell cycle. These results demonstrate that this polymer is a new anti-adhesive compound with potential pharmacological applications.

  11. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amie L; Joyce, Kellie; Xie, Hong; Falank, Carolyne; Hinz, John M; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-04-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation. PMID:24561002

  12. Understanding the intracellular effects of yeast extract on the enhancement of Fc-fusion protein production in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Yating; Liu, Xuping; Liu, Jintao; Zhang, Xintao; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Haibin; Tan, Wen-Song; Fan, Li

    2015-10-01

    Yeast extract (YE), as a non-animal source additive for mammalian cell culture medium, has been widely used for manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In the present study, one particular YE was found to have significantly improved the specific productivity (q p) of Fc-fusion protein in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell culture. In order to elucidate the intracellular effects of YE on protein productivity, steps of the target protein synthesis process were investigated to unveil their variations caused by YE addition. Stepwise analysis on Fc-fusion protein synthesis process showed that YE enhanced Fc-fusion protein gene transcription with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was activated to enhance the translation of Fc-fusion protein, and the block in post-translational steps of Fc-fusion protein was alleviated by YE addition as well. Our results revealed the responses of multiple protein production steps to the addition of YE and provided a practical guidance for the separation and application of active compounds from hydrolysates. PMID:26162671

  13. GeneOptimizer program-assisted cDNA reengineering enhances sRAGE autologous expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen; Kim, Ji Min; Medina, Danny; Lakatta, Edward G; Lin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a secreted mammalian protein that functions as a decoy to counter-react RAGE signaling-resultant pathological conditions, and has high therapeutic potentials. Our prior studies showed that recombinant human sRAGE expressed in Chinese hamster, Ceanothus griseus, ovary (CHO) cells is modified by specific N-glycosylation, and exhibits higher bioactivity than that expressed in other host systems including insect Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Here, we show that GeneOptimizer software program-assisted, reengineered sRAGE cDNA enhances the recombinant protein expression in CHO cells. The cDNA sequence encoding human sRAGE was optimized for RNA structure, stability, and codon usages in CHO cells. We found that such optimization augmented sRAGE expression over 2 folds of its wild-type counterpart. We also studied how individual parameter impacted sRAGE autologous expression in CHO cells, and whether sRAGE bioactivity was compromised. We found that the enhanced expression appeared not to affect sRAGE N-glycosylation and bioactivity. Optimization of sRAGE expression provides a basis for future large-scale production of this protein to meet medical needs. PMID:24373844

  14. Transfection of Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells with the gene coding for heat shock protein 70 from drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster ovary DHFR/sup -/ cells (CHO-DHFR/sup -/) were transfected with the plasmid pSV2-dhfr expressing the mouse gene coding for dhfr or with the same plasmid containing the gene coding for the Drosophila melanogaster heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), pSVd-hsp70. Three subcloned cell lines selected for expression of the dhfr gene were shown to contain either the vector sequence (G cells) or varying copies of pSVd-hsp70 (H cells). One line of H cells was shown to contain > 30 copies of the D. melanogaster hsp70 gene and to express the hsp70 RNA at significant levels. No difference between G and H cells was observed in the rate of growth, in the development of thermotolerance, or in the sensitivity of actin microfilament bundles to heat shock. However, H cells containing the transfected hsp70 gene had an altered morphology when compared to the G cells and the parental CHO-DHFR/sup -/ cells being more fibroblastic. The adhesion properties of the H cells was also decreased when compared to the G cells. These results show that insertion of the D. melanogaster gene into CHO cells does not effect growth rates or heat shock responses but may alter cell morphology and adhesion

  15. The zinc ionophore clioquinol reverses autophagy arrest in chloroquine-treated ARPE-19 cells and in APP/mutant presenilin-1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bo-Ra; Lee, Sook-Jeong; Cho, Kyung Sook; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2015-12-01

    Arrested autophagy may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Because we found that chloroquine (CQ) causes arrested autophagy but clioquinol (ClioQ), a zinc ionophore, activates autophagic flux, in the present study, we examined whether ClioQ can overcome arrested autophagy induced by CQ or mutant presenilin-1 (mPS1). CQ induced vacuole formation and cell death in adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells, but co-treatment with ClioQ attenuated CQ-associated toxicity in a zinc-dependent manner. Increases in lysosome dilation and blockage of autophagic flux by CQ were also markedly attenuated by ClioQ treatment. Interestingly, CQ increased lysosomal pH in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/mPS1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary 7WΔE9 (CHO-7WΔE9) cell line, and ClioQ partially re-acidified lysosomes. Furthermore, accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers in CHO-7WΔE9 cells was markedly attenuated by ClioQ. Moreover, intracellular accumulation of exogenously applied fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Aβ(1-42) was also increased by CQ but was returned to control levels by ClioQ. These results suggest that modulation of lysosomal functions by manipulating lysosomal zinc levels may be a useful strategy for clearing intracellular Aβ oligomers. PMID:26453000

  16. Sustained productivity in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines: proteome analysis of the molecular basis for a process-related phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammell Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of mammalian cell lines to sustain cell specific productivity (Qp over the full duration of bioprocess culture is a highly desirable phenotype, but the molecular basis for sustainable productivity has not been previously investigated in detail. In order to identify proteins that may be associated with a sustained productivity phenotype, we have conducted a proteomic profiling analysis of two matched pairs of monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell lines that differ in their ability to sustain productivity over a 10 day fed-batch culture. Results Proteomic profiling of inherent differences between the two sets of comparators using 2D-DIGE (Difference Gel Electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS resulted in the identification of 89 distinct differentially expressed proteins. Overlap comparisons between the two sets of cell line pairs identified 12 proteins (AKRIB8, ANXA1, ANXA4, EIF3I, G6PD, HSPA8, HSP90B1, HSPD1, NUDC, PGAM1, RUVBL1 and CNN3 that were differentially expressed in the same direction. Conclusion These proteins may have an important role in sustaining high productivity of recombinant protein over the duration of a fed-batch bioprocess culture. It is possible that many of these proteins could be useful for future approaches to successfully manipulate or engineer CHO cells in order to sustain productivity of recombinant protein.

  17. Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium oxide (TiO2) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using neutral red (NR), mitochondrial activity (by MTT assay), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) formation, and cell cycle kinetics techniques. Results showed a dose-related cytotoxic effect evidenced after 24 h by changes in lysosomal and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Interestingly, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of perinuclear vesicles in CHO-K1 cells after treatment with both NPs during 24 h but no NP was detected in the nuclei. Genotoxic effects were shown by MN frequencies which significantly increased at 0.5 and 1 μg/mL TiO2 and 0.5-10 μg/mL Al2O3. SCE frequencies were higher for cells treated with 1-5 μg/mL TiO2. The absence of metaphases evidenced cytotoxicity for higher concentrations of TiO2. No SCE induction was achieved after treatment with 1-25 μg/mL Al2O3. In conclusion, findings showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO2 and Al2O3 NPs on CHO-K1 cells. Possible causes of controversial reports are discussed further on.

  18. Sustained productivity in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines: proteome analysis of the molecular basis for a process-related phenotype

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meleady, Paula

    2011-07-24

    Abstract Background The ability of mammalian cell lines to sustain cell specific productivity (Qp) over the full duration of bioprocess culture is a highly desirable phenotype, but the molecular basis for sustainable productivity has not been previously investigated in detail. In order to identify proteins that may be associated with a sustained productivity phenotype, we have conducted a proteomic profiling analysis of two matched pairs of monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that differ in their ability to sustain productivity over a 10 day fed-batch culture. Results Proteomic profiling of inherent differences between the two sets of comparators using 2D-DIGE (Difference Gel Electrophoresis) and LC-MS\\/MS resulted in the identification of 89 distinct differentially expressed proteins. Overlap comparisons between the two sets of cell line pairs identified 12 proteins (AKRIB8, ANXA1, ANXA4, EIF3I, G6PD, HSPA8, HSP90B1, HSPD1, NUDC, PGAM1, RUVBL1 and CNN3) that were differentially expressed in the same direction. Conclusion These proteins may have an important role in sustaining high productivity of recombinant protein over the duration of a fed-batch bioprocess culture. It is possible that many of these proteins could be useful for future approaches to successfully manipulate or engineer CHO cells in order to sustain productivity of recombinant protein.

  19. Cytogenetic response to 1,2-dicarbonyls and hydrogen peroxide in Chinese hamster ovary AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J D; Taylor, R T; Christensen, M L; Strout, C L; Hanna, M L; Carrano, A V

    1989-10-01

    Mutagenic 1,2-dicarbonyls have been reported to occur in coffee and other beverages and in various foods. We have measured the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and endoreduplicated cells (ERCs) to determine the genotoxicity of various 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. The 1,2-dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal and kethoxal each induced highly significant increases in both SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. Glyoxal and kethoxal induced SCEs but not ERCs in human peripheral lymphocytes. In addition, hydrogen peroxide induced highly significant levels of SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. Bisulfite, which reacts with carbonyl groups to form addition products, significantly reduced the frequency of SCEs and the proportion of ERCs when glyoxal, methylglyoxal, kethoxal and diacetyl were administered to AUXB1 cells. In addition, bisulfite blocked the formation of ERCs, but not SCEs, induced by hydrogen peroxide. These in vitro results suggest that 1,2-dicarbonyls may play an important role in the genotoxicity of some foods and beverages.

  20. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures.

  1. Differential toxicity of mitomycin C and porfiromycin to aerobic and hypoxic Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human NADPH:cytochrome c (P-450) reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Hodnick, W F; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1996-01-01

    Purified NADPH:cytochrome c (P-450) reductase (FpT; NADPH-ferrihemoprotein oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.2.4) can reductively activate mitomycin antibiotics through a one-electron reduction to species that alkylate DNA. To assess the involvement of FpT in the intracellular activation of the mitomycins, transfectants overexpressing a human FpT cDNA were established from a Chinese hamster ovary cell line deficient in dihydrofolate reductase (CHO-K1/dhfr-). The parental cell line was equisensitive to the cytotoxic action of mitomycin C under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. In contrast, porfiromycin was considerably less cytotoxic to wild-type parental cells than was mitomycin C in air and markedly more cytotoxic under hypoxia. Two FpT-transfected clones were selected that expressed 19- and 27-fold more FpT activity than the parental line. Levels of other oxidoreductases implicated in the activation of the mitomycins were unchanged. Significant increases in sensitivity to mitomycin C and porfiromycin in the two FpT-transfected clones were seen under both oxygenated and hypoxic conditions, with the increases in toxicity being greater under hypoxia than in air. These findings demonstrate that FpT can bioreductively activate the mitomycins in living cells and implicate FpT in the differential aerobic/hypoxic toxicity of the mitomycins. PMID:8552660

  2. The intracellular location of NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase modulates the cytotoxicity of the mitomycins to Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Hodnick, W F; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1998-04-10

    NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase activates the mitomycins to alkylating intermediates in vitro. To investigate the intracellular role of this enzyme in mitomycin bioactivation, Chinese hamster ovary cell transfectants overexpressing rat NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase were generated. An NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase-transfected clone expressed 9-fold more enzyme than did parental cells; the levels of other mitomycin-activating oxidoreductases were unchanged. Although this enzyme activates the mitomycins in vitro, its overexpression in living cells caused decreases in sensitivity to mitomycin C in air and decreases in sensitivity to porfiromycin under both air and hypoxia. Mitomycin C cytotoxicity under hypoxia was similar to parental cells. Because NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase resides predominantly in the mitochondria of these cells, this enzyme may sequester these drugs in this compartment, thereby decreasing nuclear DNA alkylations and reducing cytotoxicity. A cytosolic form of NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase was generated. Transfectants expressing the cytosolic enzyme were restored to parental line sensitivity to both mitomycin C and porfiromycin in air with marked increases in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The results implicate NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase in the differential bioactivation of the mitomycins and indicate that the subcellular site of drug activation can have complex effects on drug cytotoxicity. PMID:9535868

  3. Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Reigosa, M. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), Calle 526 y Camino Gral. Belgrano (entre 10 y 11), La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Arnal, P.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Fernandez Lorenzo de Mele, M., E-mail: mmele@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles (NPs) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using neutral red (NR), mitochondrial activity (by MTT assay), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) formation, and cell cycle kinetics techniques. Results showed a dose-related cytotoxic effect evidenced after 24 h by changes in lysosomal and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Interestingly, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of perinuclear vesicles in CHO-K1 cells after treatment with both NPs during 24 h but no NP was detected in the nuclei. Genotoxic effects were shown by MN frequencies which significantly increased at 0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL TiO{sub 2} and 0.5-10 {mu}g/mL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SCE frequencies were higher for cells treated with 1-5 {mu}g/mL TiO{sub 2}. The absence of metaphases evidenced cytotoxicity for higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}. No SCE induction was achieved after treatment with 1-25 {mu}g/mL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In conclusion, findings showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs on CHO-K1 cells. Possible causes of controversial reports are discussed further on.

  4. Predicting the expression of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cells based on sequence features of the CDR3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Leon P; James, David C; Dean, Greg; Slidel, Tim; Hardman, Colin; Smith, Andrew; Daramola, Olalekan; Field, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Despite the development of high-titer bioprocesses capable of producing >10 g L(-1) of recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb), some so called "difficult-to-express" (DTE) MAbs only reach much lower process titers. For widely utilized "platform" processes the only discrete variable is the protein coding sequence of the recombinant product. However, there has been little systematic study to identify the sequence parameters that affect expression. This information is vital, as it would allow us to rationally design genetic sequence and engineering strategies for optimal bioprocessing. We have therefore developed a new computational tool that enables prediction of MAb titer in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells based on the recombinant coding sequence of the expressed MAb. Model construction utilized a panel of MAbs, which following a 10-day fed-batch transient production process varied in titer 5.6-fold, allowing analysis of the sequence features that impact expression over a range of high and low MAb productivity. The model identified 18 light chain (LC)-specific sequence features within complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) capable of predicting MAb titer with a root mean square error of 0.585 relative expression units. Furthermore, we identify that CDR3 variation influences the rate of LC-HC dimerization during MAb synthesis, which could be exploited to improve the production of DTE MAb variants via increasing the transfected LC:HC gene ratio. Taken together these data suggest that engineering intervention strategies to improve the expression of DTE recombinant products can be rationally implemented based on an identification of the sequence motifs that render a recombinant product DTE.

  5. Inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase in vitro and long-chain base biosynthesis in intact Chinese hamster ovary cells by. beta. -chloroalanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medlock, K.A.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1988-09-06

    The effects of ..beta..-chloroalanine (..beta..-Cl-alanine) on the serine palmitoyltransferase activity and the de novo biosynthesis of sphinganine and sphingenine were investigated in vitro with rat liver microsomes and in vivo with intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The inhibition in vitro was rapid, irreversible, and concentration and time dependent and apparently involved the active site because inactivation only occurred with ..beta..-Cl-L-alanine and was blocked by L-serine. These are characteristics of mechanism-based (suicide) inhibition. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) was also inhibited when intact CHO cells were incubated with ..beta..-Cl-alanine and this treatment inhibited (/sup 14/C)serine incorporation into long-chain bases by intact cells. The concentration dependence of the loss of SPT activity and of long-chain base synthesis was identical. The effects of ..beta..-Cl-alanine appeared to occur with little perturbation of other cell functions: the cells exhibited no loss in cell viability, (/sup 14/C)serine uptake was not blocked, total lipid biosynthesis from (/sup 14/C)acetic acid was not decreased (nor was the appearance of radiolabel in cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine), and (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into DNA was not affected. There appeared to be little effect on protein synthesis based on the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)leucine, which was only decreased by 14%. Although ..beta..-Cl-L-alanine is known to inhibit other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzymes, alanine and aspartate transaminases were not inhibited under these conditions. These results establish the close association between the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and the cellular rate of long-chain base formation and indicate that ..beta..-Cl-alanine and other mechanism-based inhibitors might be useful to study alterations in cellular long-chain base synthesis.

  6. Purification and characterization of chimeric human IgA1 and IgA2 expressed in COS and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, H C; Atkin, J D; Owens, R J; Woof, J M

    1993-11-01

    Ag-specific chimeric human IgA molecules, of the two human subclasses, IgA1 and IgA2, have been expressed in two mammalian cell systems. Analysis of the secreted IgA molecules, purified in milligram quantities from stable Chinese hamster ovary transfectants by Ag affinity chromatography, has allowed a direct comparison of the biologic properties of the two subclasses. HPLC gel filtration analysis revealed that in both subclasses, the IgA molecules associate predominantly into dimers. The monomer units are presumed to interact noncovalently, inasmuch as no dimers are evident when the antibodies are subjected to SDS-PAGE. The recombinant antibodies are glycosylated, inasmuch as a lectin blotting procedure revealed that the H chains of both subclasses are recognized by Con A. When subjected to digestion by preparations of IgA1-specific proteases secreted by two pathogenic streptococcal strains, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus oralis, the recombinant IgA molecules behave just as their natural equivalents. Thus, only the chimeric IgA1 molecule is cleaved, with the IgA2 remaining intact. In terms of interaction with natural effector molecules, both recombinant IgA isotypes were shown to interact with Fc alpha receptors on calcitriol-stimulated HL-60 cells with similar affinity, but neither antibody was found to interact with human C1q. The expression system described readily permits manipulation of the human IgA genes, which should lead to a fuller molecular understanding of how this important antibody mediates its function. PMID:8409433

  7. Down-regulation of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein does not improve hypothermic growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong Kwang; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Yoon, Sung Kwan; Lee, Gyun Min

    2007-03-01

    Discovery of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) in mouse fibroblasts suggests that growth suppression at hypothermic conditions is due to an active response by the cell rather than due to passive thermal effects. To determine the effect of down-regulated CIRP expression on cell growth and erythropoietin (EPO) production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells at low culture temperature, stable CHO cell clones with reduced CIRP expression level were established by transfecting (rCHO) cells with the CIRP siRNA vector with a target sequence of TCGTCCTTCCATGGCTGTA. For comparison of the degree of specific growth rate (micro) reduction at low culture temperature, three CIRP-reduced clones with different mu and three control clones transfected with null vector were cultivated at two different temperatures, 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Unlike mouse fibroblasts, alleviation of hypothermic growth arrest of rCHO cells by CIRP down-regulation was insignificant, as shown by statistical analysis using the t-test (P<0.18, n=3). The ratios of mu at 32 degrees C to micro at 37 degrees C of CIRP-reduced clones and control clones were 0.29+/-0.03 and 0.25+/-0.03 on an average, respectively. Furthermore, it was also found that overexpression of CIRP did not inhibit rCHO cell growth significantly at 37 degrees C. Taken together, the data obtained show that down-regulation of only CIRP in rCHO cells, unlike mouse fibroblasts, is not sufficient to recover growth arrest at low-temperature culture (32 degrees C). PMID:17239640

  8. Molecular polygamy: The promiscuity of l-phenylalanyl-tRNA-synthetase triggers misincorporation of meta- and ortho-tyrosine in monoclonal antibodies expressed by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Larraillet, Vincent; Kettenberger, Hubert; Gorr, Ingo H; Hilger, Maximiliane; Lipsmeier, Florian; Zeck, Anne; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    In-depth analytical characterization of biotherapeutics originating from different production batches is mandatory to ensure product safety and consistent molecule efficacy. Previously, we have shown unintended incorporation of tyrosine (Tyr) and leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) at phenylalanine (Phe) positions in a recombinant produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) using an orthogonal MASCOT/SIEVE based approach for mass spectrometry data analysis. The misincorporation could be avoided by sufficient supply of phenylalanine throughout the process. Several non-annotated signals in the primarily chromatographic peptide separation step for apparently single Phe→Tyr sequence variants (SVs) suggest a role for isobar tyrosine isoforms. Meta- and ortho-Tyr are spontaneously generated during aerobic fed-batch production processes using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Process induced meta- and ortho-Tyr but not proteinogenic para-Tyr are incorporated at Phe locations in Phe-starved CHO cultures expressing a recombinant mAb. Furthermore, meta- and ortho-Tyr are preferably misincorporated over Leu. Structural modeling of the l-phenylalanyl-tRNA-synthetase (PheRS) substrate activation site indicates a possible fit of non-cognate ortho-Tyr and meta-Tyr substrates. Dose-dependent misincorporations of Tyr isoforms support the hypothesis that meta- and ortho-Tyr are competing, alternative substrates for PheRS in CHO processes. Finally, easily accessible at-line surrogate markers for Phe→Tyr SV formation in biotherapeutic production were defined by the calculation of critical ratios for meta-Tyr/Phe and ortho-Tyr/Phe to support early prediction of SV probability, and finally, to allow for immediate process controlled Phe→Tyr SV prevention.

  9. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Induced Internalization of Porcine FSH Receptor in Cultured Porcine Granulosa Cells and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Transfected with Recombinant Porcine FSH Receptor cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Changhong; TIAN Hong; XIONG Zhongming; XIA Huizhu

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the fate of human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) when hormone binds to its receptor, a quick biochemical method that can differentiate between the surface-bound and internalized hormone was used to determine the internalization induced by FSH in cultured both porcine granulosa cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing recombinant porcine FSH receptor. The results showed that FSH was slowly internalized, and the internalized radioactivity (acid resistant) reached a peak 10-12 h after addition of 125I-hFSH. It was suggested that FSHR do not get internalized rapidly under physiological circumstances precisely because the appropriate sequences are absent.

  10. Evidence for cross-talk between M2 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulation of second messenger and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathways in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hornigold, David C; Mistry, Rajendra; Raymond, Pamela D; Blank, Jonathan L; John Challiss, R A

    2003-01-01

    We have examined possible mechanisms of cross-talk between the Gq/11-linked M3 muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor and the Gi/o-linked M2 mACh receptor by stable receptor coexpression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A number of second messenger (cyclic AMP, Ins(1,4,5)P3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK and JNK) responses stimulated by the mACh receptor agonist methacholine were examined in CHO-m2m3 cells and compared to those stimulated in CHO-m2 and CHO-m3 cell-lines, ex...

  11. Bioprocess development for the production of mouse-human chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor vIII antibody C12 by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Suwen; Deng, Lei; Wang, Huamao; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Siliang; Li, Zhonghai; Guo, Meijin

    2011-01-01

    The mouse-human chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII) antibody C12 is a promising candidate for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, 3 processes were successfully developed to produce C12 by cultivation of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-DG44) cells in serum-free medium. The effect of inoculum density was evaluated in batch cultures of shaker flasks to obtain the optimal inoculum density of 5 × 105 cells/mL. Then, the basic metabolic ...

  12. In vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ivermectin and its formulation ivomec on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO{sub K1}) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, G.; Soloneski, S.; Reigosa, M.A. [Catedra de Citologia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Larramendy, M.L., E-mail: m_larramendy@hotmail.com [Catedra de Citologia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-06-15

    The effects of ivermectin (IVM) and its commercial formulation ivomec (IVM 1.0%) were studied on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO{sub K1}) cells by several genotoxicity [sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] and cytotoxicity [cell-cycle progression (CCP), mitotic index (MI), proliferative replication index (PRI), 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutral red (NR)] bioassays within the 1.0-250 {mu}g/ml concentration-range. While IVM and ivomec did not modified SCE frequencies, they induced DNA-strand breaks revealed by SCGE. An enhancement of slightly damaged cells and a decrease in undamaged cells were observed in IVM-treated cultures with 5.0-50.0 {mu}g/ml. In ivomec-treated cells, while an increase in slightly damaged cells was induced with 5.0-50.0 {mu}g/ml, the damaged and undamaged cells increased and decreased only with 50.0 {mu}g/ml. Both compounds exerted a delay in CCP and a reduction in PRI when 25.0 {mu}g/ml was employed whereas cytotoxicity was observed at higher concentration than 50.0 {mu}g/ml. No MI alteration was observed with 1.0-10.0 and 1.0-5.0 {mu}g/ml of IVM and ivomec, respectively. A concentration-related trend to an increase in MI was achieved within 1.0-10.0 {mu}g/ml. An increase in the MI was induced in 10.0 {mu}g/ml ivomec-treated cultures. A marked reduction of about 89% and 62% in regard to controls was observed with 25.0 {mu}g/ml of IVM and ivomec, respectively. NR and MTT assays revealed a cell growth inhibition when 0.25-250.0 {mu}g/ml of both compounds was employed. The results highlighted that IVM and ivomec exert both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in mammalian cells in vitro, at least in CHO{sub K1} cells.

  13. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60Co γ radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 μg/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400μ/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 Gγ. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the α coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 μg/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data obtained in vitro showed a

  14. Comparison of protein patterns of xrs-5, a radiosensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and CHO-K1, its radioresistant parent, using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.M. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    X-ray sensitive strains of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines have been used to analyze radiation repair mechanisms. One cell line, xrs-5, has been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation and radical forming chemical mutagens. This sensitivity is thought to be a result a mutation in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism, and its characterization has been a goal of several repair mechanism studies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected a protein (MW approximately 55KD) in the DNA/Nuclear Matrix (nucleoid) cell fraction of CHO-Kl cells that is absent in the nucleoid fraction of xrs-5. This protein is present, however, in both CHO-Kl and xrs-5 whole cell protein maps. To determine whether the 55KD protein is responsible for the radiosensitive and defective DSB repair phenotype of xrs-5 cells, studies are now underway to analyze revertants of xrs-5 that are proficient in DSB repair. Furthermore, an effort to sequence the protein in question is planned. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Comparison of protein patterns of xrs-5, a radiosensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and CHO-K1, its radioresistant parent, using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray sensitive strains of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines have been used to analyze radiation repair mechanisms. One cell line, xrs-5, has been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation and radical forming chemical mutagens. This sensitivity is thought to be a result a mutation in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism, and its characterization has been a goal of several repair mechanism studies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected a protein (MW approximately 55KD) in the DNA/Nuclear Matrix (nucleoid) cell fraction of CHO-Kl cells that is absent in the nucleoid fraction of xrs-5. This protein is present, however, in both CHO-Kl and xrs-5 whole cell protein maps. To determine whether the 55KD protein is responsible for the radiosensitive and defective DSB repair phenotype of xrs-5 cells, studies are now underway to analyze revertants of xrs-5 that are proficient in DSB repair. Furthermore, an effort to sequence the protein in question is planned. 23 refs., 2 figs

  16. Intracellular Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by alpha(1A)-Adrenoceptor Is Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Independently of Activation of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases 1/2 and Serine-Threonine Kinases in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulu, Nadir; Henning, Robert H.; Guner, Sahika; Zoto, Teuta; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Duin, Marry; Gurdal, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AR) is implicated in contraction and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We examine whether all alpha(1)-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR and explore the mechanism of transactivation. Chinese hamster

  17. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.

    1984-12-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Radioiodinated 4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine, a system L selective artificial amino acid: molecular design and transport characterization in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: High expression of the system L amino acid transporter has been observed in clinically important tissues including tumors and the blood-brain barrier. We examined amino acid transport system L selectivity of 14C(U)-L-tyrosine (14C-Tyr), 125I-4-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (4-125I-mTyr), 125I-6-iodo-L-meta-tyrosine (6-125I-mTyr), 125I-3-iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine (125I-IMT) and 125I-3-iodo-L-tyrosine (3-125I-Tyr) using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). Methods: Cells in the exponential growth phase were incubated with 18.5 kBq of labeled amino acid in 2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline-based uptake solution and an uptake solution with/without Na+ at 37oC or 4oC. We examined the effects of the following compounds (1.0 mM) on transport: 2-(methylamino)isobutyric acid (a specific inhibitor of system A, in Na+-containing uptake solution); 2-amino-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (a specific inhibitor of system L, in Na+-free uptake solution); sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol (NaN3 and DNP, inhibitors of the generation of adenosine triphosphate); p-aminohippurate and tetraethylammonium (PAH and TEA, inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters); and L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids. Results: 14C-Tyr exhibited affinity for systems L, A and ASC. 4-125I-mTyr and 3-125I-Tyr exhibited high specificity for system L, whereas 6-125I-mTyr and 125I-IMT exhibited affinity for both systems L and ASC. Uptake of 4-125I-mTyr was markedly reduced by incubation at 4 oC, and was not significantly inhibited by NaN3, DNP, PAH or TEA. The inhibition profiles of the L- and D-isomers of natural amino acids indicated that system L mediates the transport of 4-125I-mTyr. Conclusions: 4-125I-mTyr exhibited the greatest system L specificity (93.46±0.13%) of all of the tested amino acids.

  19. Intracellular transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor by α1A-adrenoceptor is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase independently of activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 and serine-threonine kinases in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Nadir; Henning, Robert H; Guner, Sahika; Zoto, Teuta; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Duin, Marry; Gurdal, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) is implicated in contraction and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We examine whether all α1-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR and explore the mechanism of transactivation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing one subtype of α1-AR were transiently transfected with EGFR. The transactivation mechanism was examined both by coexpression of a chimeric erythropoietin (EPO)-EGFR with an extracellular EPO and intracellular EGFR domain, and by pharmacologic inhibition of external and internal signaling routes. All three α1-AR subtypes transactivated EGFR, which was dependent on the increase in intracellular calcium. The EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 [4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline] abrogated α1A-AR and α1D-AR induced phosphorylation of EGFR, but both the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by GM6001 [(R)-N4-hydroxy-N(1)-[(S)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-methylcarbamoyl-ethyl]-2-isobutyl-succinamide] or blockade of EGFR by cetuximab did not. Stimulation of α1A-AR and α1D-AR also induced phosphorylation of EPO-EGFR chimeric receptors. Moreover, α1A-AR stimulation enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and serine-threonine kinases (Akt), which were both unaffected by AG1478, indicating that ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation is independent of EGFR transactivation. Accordingly, inhibitors of ERK1/2 or Akt did not influence the α1A-AR-mediated EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Src, however, did block EGFR transactivation by α1A-AR and α1D-AR. These findings demonstrate that all α1-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR, which is dependent on an intracellular signaling route involving an increase in calcium and activation of CaMKII, PI3K, and Src, but not the of ERK1/2 and Akt pathways.

  20. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo Claudia A.; Seoane Analía I.; Dulout Fernando N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC) and potassium dichromate (PD) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM), BHT (1.0 mg/ml), or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM), BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-tel...

  1. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO; Avaliacao do efeito radiomodificador da propolis em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1) e em celulas tumorais de prostata (PC3), irradiadas com CO-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-07-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 {mu}g/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400{mu}/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 G{gamma}. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the {alpha} coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 {mu}g/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data

  2. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline-induced DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis in DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human cytochrome P4501A1 and rapid or slow acetylator N-acetyltransferase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaly, Jean; Zhao, Shuang; Neale, Jason R; Metry, Kristin J; Doll, Mark A; States, J Christopher; Pierce, William M; Hein, David W

    2007-07-01

    2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) is one of the most potent and abundant mutagens in the western diet. Bioactivation includes N-hydroxylation catalyzed by cytochrome P450s followed by O-acetylation catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). In humans, NAT2*4 allele is associated with rapid acetylator phenotype, whereas NAT2*5B allele is associated with slow acetylator phenotype. We hypothesized that rapid acetylator phenotype predisposes humans to DNA damage and mutagenesis from MeIQx. Nucleotide excision repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells were constructed by stable transfection of human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and a single copy of either NAT2*4 (rapid acetylator) or NAT2*5B (slow acetylator) alleles. CYP1A1 and NAT2 catalytic activities were undetectable in untransfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. CYP1A1 activity did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among the CYP1A1-transfected cell lines. Cells transfected with NAT2*4 had 20-fold significantly higher levels of sulfamethazine N-acetyltransferase (P = 0.0001) and 6-fold higher levels of N-hydroxy-MeIQx O-acetyltransferase (P = 0.0093) catalytic activity than cells transfected with NAT2*5B. Only cells transfected with both CYP1A1 and NAT2*4 showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase mutagenesis following MeIQx treatment. Deoxyguanosine-C8-MeIQx was the primary DNA adduct formed and levels were dose dependent in each cell line and in the following order: untransfected < transfected with CYP1A1 < transfected with CYP1A1 and NAT2*5B < transfected with CYP1A1 and NAT2*4. MeIQx DNA adduct levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in CYP1A1/NAT2*4 than CYP1A1/NAT2*5B cells at all concentrations of MeIQx tested. MeIQx-induced DNA adduct levels correlated very highly (r2 = 0.88) with MeIQx-induced mutants. These results strongly support extrahepatic activation of MeIQx by CYP1A1 and a robust effect of human NAT2 genetic polymorphism

  3. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light

  4. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.K.C.

    1982-11-01

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light.

  5. Repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells made UV light resistant by fusion with X-ray-inactivated Chinese hamster cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Karentz, D; Cleaver, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive human disease, characterized by an extreme sensitivity to sunlight, caused by the inability of cells to repair UV light-induced damage to DNA. Cell fusion was used to transfer fragments of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) chromosomes into XP cells. The hybrid cells exhibited UV resistance and DNA repair characteristics comparable to those expressed by CHO cells, and their DNA had greater homology with CHO DNA than did the DNA from XP cells. Cont...

  6. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases in Siberian hamsters impedes photostimulated recrudescence of ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Julie; Shahed, Asha; McMichael, Carling F; Young, Kelly A

    2010-12-01

    Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod for 14 weeks induces ovarian regression. Subsequent transfer to long photoperiod restores ovarian function, and 2 weeks of photostimulation increases plasma estradiol (E(2)), antral follicles, and corpora lutea (CL). Because tissue remodeling involved with photostimulated ovarian recrudescence is associated with differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), we hypothesized that inhibiting MMP activity using a broad-spectrum in vivo MMP inhibitor, GM6001, would curtail recrudescence. One group of hamsters was placed in long days (LD; 16 h light:8 h darkness) for 16 weeks. Another group was placed in inhibitory short days (SD; 8 h light:16 h darkness) for 14 weeks. A third group was placed in SD for 14 weeks and transferred to LD for 2 weeks to stimulate recrudescence. During weeks 14-16, animals were either not treated or treated daily with i.p. injections of GM6001 (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (DMSO). GM6001 reduced gelatinase activity and decreased immunohistochemical staining for MMP1, MMP2, and MMP3 compared with vehicle. No differences between controls, vehicle, or GM6001 treatment were observed among LD animals, despite a trend toward reduction in CL and E(2) with GM6001. Although SD reduced ovarian function, photostimulation of transferred controls increased uterine mass, plasma E(2), appearance of antral follicles, and CL. With GM6001 treatment, photostimulation failed to increase uterine mass, plasma E(2), antral follicles, or CL. These data show, for the first time, that in vivo GM6001 administration inhibits MMP activity in hamster ovaries during photostimulation, and indicate that this inhibition may impede photostimulated recrudescence of ovaries. This study suggests an intriguing link between MMP activity and return to ovarian function during photostimulated recrudescence.

  7. 人源靶向补体抑制物CR2-CD59在中国仓鼠卵巢细胞中的稳定表达%Stable expression of targeting complement inhibitor CR2-CD59 in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦; 周育森; 寇志华; 孙世惠; 张传福; 赵光宇; 于虹; 宋宏彬; 乔飞; 陈万荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 构建人源靶向补体抑制物CR2-CD59,并筛选中国仓鼠卵巢细胞(Chinese hamster ovary cell,CHO)高效表达细胞株. 方法 运用FuGENE 6转染试剂,将含有人CR2-CD59的重组PEE14.1质粒转入CHO细胞,蛋氨酸亚氨基代砜(MSX)筛选出阳性克隆,并利用无血清培养基对CHO细胞表达株进行培养获得重组蛋白,以ELISA、SDS-PAGE和Western blot对表达蛋白进行鉴定. 结果 成功构建PEE14.1-CR2-CD59重组质粒,获得CHO细胞稳定表达株.SDS-PAGE结果 表明,重组蛋白CR2-CD59的相对分子质量同预期结果 一致.ELISA和Western blot鉴定重组蛋白CR2-CD59可与CR2、CD59多克隆抗体特异性结合.且与含血清培养基相比,无血清培养基能明显提高CHO细胞的蛋白表达量(P<0.05).结论 在CHO细胞中成功表达人源靶向补体抑制物CR2-CD59.

  8. A Study on Antitoxic Role of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 in Transgenic Chinese Hamster Overy Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶民; 丁新生; 董海蓉; 仇镇宁; 管晓虹

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the antitoxic role of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in transpgenic Chinese Hamster ovary(CHO) cell.Methods:With the technology of transgene from PC12 to CHO,MTT reduction assay was used to detect MPP+ toxic effect on wild type CHO(wtCHO) and transgenic CHO.Meanwhile,the role of reserpine was also observed in MPP+ toxic effects.Results:The sensitivity of transgenic CHO to MPP+ was much less than that of wtCHO with 0.5 mmol/L MPP+.Transgenic CHO had the same sensitivity as wtCHO if rotenone was given.WtCHO,by given reserpine alone,didn''''''''t change its sensitivity to MPP+.Conclusions:VMAT2 has protective effect on transgenic CHO by transporting MPP+ to vesicles.

  9. 胞外唾液酸酶造成工程中国仓鼠卵巢细胞株所产人源重组促红素唾液酸含量降低%Extracellular sialidase degrades sialic acid in recombinant human erythropoietin produced by an industrial Chinese hamster ovary cell strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖慰; 周祥山; 刘海峰; 宋志伟; 张元兴

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the N-glycosylation characteristics of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) produced by an industrial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that is currently used in a large scale manufacturing process, we cultured this cell strain in static mode. The produced rhEPO in the culture supernatant was analyzed using isoelectric focusing (IEF) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) lectin precipitation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sialidase activity in the serum-free supernatant were assayed as well. The analyses revealed that this cell strain could produce rhEPO with high sialic acid content, but during prolonged culture, cell viability decreased with time whilst the activity of sialidase present in the supernatant increased. The loss in rhEPO quality was due to a decrease in terminal sialic acid on the N-glycans, caused by sialidase degradation. The methods and findings in this paper serve as basis for further investigation of industrial production process.%为了对工程中国仓鼠卵巢(CHO)细胞所产人源重组促红素(rhEPO)的N-糖基化特点进行考察,静置培养工程细胞后,通过等电聚焦和凝集素共沉淀对培养上清中的rhEPO进行分析,并对无血清培养上清中乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)和唾液酸酶活性进行检测,发现这株CHO细胞可以表达唾液酸含量较高的rhEPO蛋白.但是随着培养时间的延长,细胞的存活率逐渐降低,死亡的细胞将胞内的唾液酸酶释放到胞外,唾液酸酶的降解作用会造成N-糖链分枝末端的唾液酸占有率降低,导致rhEPO蛋白糖基化形态的变化.所使用的方法及得到的结果为进一步对工业过程进行分析提供了参考.

  10. 重组乙型肝炎疫苗(中国仓鼠卵巢细胞)免疫12年的效果研究%12 Years Immunological Effects of Hepatitis B Vaccine Made by Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid Techniques in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐顺祥; 王锋; 张勇; 毕胜利; 张新江; 张建立; 张志勇; 郝志勇; 陈吉朝; 褚娟; 马景臣; 赵玉良

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究1997~1999年出生人群,接种重组乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗[Hepatitis B Vaccine Made by Recombinant Deoxyrlbonucleic Acid(DNA)Techniques in Chinese Hamster Ovary(CHO)Cell,HepB(CHO)]的免疫效果.方法 将正定县1997~1999年出生人群接种重组HepB(CHO)的三个乡作为研究现场,以户籍登记在册的全部儿童为研究对象,核实重组HepB(CHO)接种史,采集静脉血5ml,无菌分离血清,使用固相放射免疫试剂检测乙肝病毒表面抗原[Hepatitis B Virus(HBV)Surface Antigen,HBsAg]和抗乙肝病毒核心抗原抗体(Anti-HBV Core Antibody,Anti-HBc):抗乙肝病毒表面抗原抗体(Anti-HBV Surface Antibody,Anti-HBs)使用Abbott公司生产的微粒子酶免疫测定(Microparticle Enzyme lmmunoassay,MEIA)试剂定量检测.结果 免疫后10~12年的AntiHBs阳性率分别为71.0%、72.1%、68.2%,平均70.3%;Anti-HBs的几何平均浓度(Geometric Mean Concentration,GMC)分别为197.9mIU/ml(毫国际单位/毫升)、296.0mIU/ml、158.0mIU/ml,平均207.9mIU/ml.HBsAg阳性率为0.50%,Anti-HBc阳性率为2.26%.结论 重组HepB(CHO)免疫后10~12年效果良好.

  11. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo Claudia A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC and potassium dichromate (PD in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM, BHT (1.0 mg/ml, or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM, BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-telophase test, cells were cultured in cover glasses and treated 8 h before fixation with the same chemicals. An extra dose of CC (4 mM was used in this test. Both metal salts significantly increased chromosomal aberration frequencies in relation to untreated controls, and to DMSO- and BHT-treated cells. Post-treatment with BHT decreased the yield of chromosomal damage in relation to treatments performed with CC and PD. However, chromosomal aberration frequencies were significantly higher than those of the controls. In the anaphase-telophase test, CC significantly increased the yield of lagging chromosomes with the four doses employed and the frequency of lagging fragments with the highest dose. In combined treatments of CC and BHT, frequencies of the two types of alterations decreased significantly in relation to the cells treated with CC alone. No significant variation was found in the frequencies of chromatin bridges. Significant increases of numbers of chromatin bridges, lagging chromosomes and lagging fragments were found in cells treated with PD. The protective effect of BHT in combined treatments was evidenced by the significant decrease of chromatid bridges and lagging chromosomes in relation to PD-treated cells. Whereas BHT is able to induce chromosomal damage, it can also protect against oxidative damage induced by other genotoxicants.

  12. Synthesis of human prolactin in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different eukaryotic expression vectors, based on the same selectable gene marker (dhfr), have been used for dhf- CHO cells transfection to rapidly isolate stable cell lines capable of secreting high levels of recombinant human prolactin (rec-hPRL). Two vectors, one codifying a human prolactin (p658-hPRL) and the other a tag-prolactin (p658-tagPRL), contain the complete hepatitis B virus-X (HBV-X) gene coding for a viral transactivator and a sequence derived from the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that mediates selective dhfr mRNA degradation. These vectors have the advantage of rapidly obtaining stable cell lines without methotrexate amplification. The highest secretion obtained by these vectors was of approximately 10 μg hPRU106 cells/day. The other vector (pEDdc-hPRL) is based on a dicistronic expression system, containing an internal ribosome entry site isolated from the encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. This vector before amplification provided secretion levels at least 10 fold lower than that obtained with the other two vectors. However, after three steps of methotrexate amplification, it provided some clones able to secrete up to 30 μg hPRU106 cells/day. This is the first report describing the production and purification of rec-hPRL from CHO cells, obtaining secretion levels with both vectors higher than those reported so far for this hormone in other eukaryotic systems. CHO-derived rec-hPRL contained approximately 10 % of the glycosylated form, a value that is consistent with results reported for hPRL purified from the pituitary or from transformed murine C-127 cells. CHO-derived rec-hPRL was purified with good yield, obtaining also a good resolution between non-glycosylated and glycosylated prolactin. The latter, when its potency was determined via an in vitro bioassay, presented a 47 % lower bioactivity. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of these forms was also possible thanks to the setting up of a reversed-phase HPLC technique, for the first time applied to this hormone. A pilot production in a hollow fiber bioreactor provided a highly concentrated medium, though with the presence of considerable amounts of hPRL11-199 fragments, apparently the result of a proteolytic process. (author)

  13. Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes rapidly exchange contents

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    We have used cell fusion to address the question of whether macromolecules are rapidly exchanged between lysosomes. Donor cell lysosomes were labeled by the long-term internalization of the fluid- phase pinocytic markers, invertase (sucrase), Lucifer Yellow, FITC- conjugated dextran, or Texas red-conjugated dextran. Recipient cells contained lysosomes swollen by long-term internalization of dilute sucrose or marked by an overnight FITC-dextran uptake. Cells were incubated for 1 or 2 h in mark...

  14. Contamination of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, D G

    1996-01-01

    In late 1988, during production of a recombinant protein for phase I clinical trials, a failure of the cell culture production system occurred due to contamination of the cells by an orbivirus [1]. The incident occurred at Bioferon GmbH & Co, Laupheim, Germany, a joint venture of Biogen, Inc., Cambridge, MA, and Dr. Renstschler Arzneimittel GmbH & Co (Bioferon is currently a wholly owned subsidiary of Rentschler and is now known as Dr. Rentschler Biotechnologie GmbH). The investigation into, and the subsequent response to, the infection can be divided into three stages: Stage I, Investigation and initial response; Stage II, Secondary response; and Stage III: Continuing response.

  15. 蓖麻质膜水通道蛋白PIP1.3在仓鼠卵巢细胞中的转运功能%Castor Plasma Membrane Aquaporin (PIP1.3) in Vitro Transprot in Chinese Hamster Ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董乐; 戴聪杰; 王芳; 王云; 朱国立; 谢小宾; 许珊珊; 刘灿阳; 林婷

    2014-01-01

    为研究蓖麻质膜水通道蛋白PIP1.3的转运功能,采用RT-PCR技术扩增基因PIP1.3的全长编码区cDNA序列(861 bp),将该序列亚克隆至真核表达载体pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A,酶切、测序分析表明,重组质粒pcDNA3.1PIP1.3-Myc-His阅读框架正确。将pcDNA3.1PIP1.3-Myc-His和连接氯离子敏感性绿色荧光蛋白突变体(EYFP-H148Q-V163S)的pcDNA3.1Hygro-EY-FP-H148Q-V163S重组质粒稳定共转染至中国仓鼠卵巢(Chinese hamster ovary, CHO)细胞中, RT-PCR和Western blot分析表明, PIP1.3的mRNA和蛋白质在选定CHO细胞克隆中高表达。分别通过荧光法和同位素标记的14C-甘油摄入实验测定该CHO细胞对水分和甘油的通透性,结果表明,该CHO细胞表达的PIP1.3对水分子的转运能力很低,但能选择性转运甘油。%The encoding sequence of plasma membrane aquaporin gene (PIP1.3) in castor (Ricinus communis L.) was ampliifed with RT-PCR and inserted into pcDNA3.1/Myc-His A vector, double enzyme digestion analy-sis and DNA sequencing confirmed that recombination plasmid was successfully constructed. pcD-NA3.1PIP1.3-Myc-His and pcDNA3.1Hygro-EYFP-H148Q-V163S plasmids linking Cl--sensitive EYFP mutant (EYFP-H148Q-V163S) were transfected in CHO cells. The stable transfection of CHO cells was analysis with RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that PIP1.3 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in cell line screened. Permeabilities of PIP1.3 expressing CHO cells for water and glycerol were measured respectively by lfuorescence method and carbon labeling experiment. The results showed that permeability of PIP1.3 express-ing CHO cells for water was low, but high for glycerol.

  16. 人β-珠蛋白核基质附着区介导表达载体稳定附着于中国仓鼠卵巢细胞%Expression vector mediated by human β-globin matrix attachment region functions as stable episomes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴向楠; 王天云; 杨瑞; 王俪; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究人β-珠蛋白核基质附着区是否能够介导表达载体稳定附着于中国仓鼠卵巢(CHO)细胞.方法 人β-珠蛋白MAR序列克隆到pEGFP-C1构建重组质粒载体pEGFP-MAR,转染CHO细胞,使用Hirt裂解法提取细胞中附着体质粒,CaCI2法转化附着体质粒到宿主大肠杆菌DH5a中,提取质粒,酶切,测序分析.结果 还原质粒双酶切和单酶切结果均与转染前质粒酶切结果一致;测序分析得知还原质粒与转染前质粒中插入片段DNA序列相同.结论 人β-珠蛋白MAR序列重组载体在CHO细胞中以附着体形式被完整还原出来.还原质粒酶切结果和测序结果均与转染前质粒一致.%Objective To study the human β-globin matrix attachment region(MAR) sequence mediated vector whether exist as stable episomes in transfected Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cells.Methods Recombinant plasmid vector pEGFPMAR was constructed by thrusting the amplified human β-globin MAR sequence into the parental pEGFP-C1.CHO cells were transfected both with pEGFP-C1 and reconstructed vector.Episomal vectors from the stable monoclonal cell lines were extracted by modificated Hirt cracking protocol.Then CaCl2 method was performed to transform episomal vectors into the host bacteria E.coli DH5α,and the plasmid from the transformed E.coli DH5α was extracted.In the end,enzyme digestion identification and sequencing analysis were performed to detect the rescued plasmid and the original plasmid.Results Both double enzyme and single enzyme to completely digested the rescued plasmids and the original plassmid showed the same result.The sequencing analysis showed that the inserted sequence of rescued plasmid was identical to the original DNA sequence.Conclusion Human β-globin MAR characteristic sequence-based vector can be completely rescued from cultured CHO cells.The results of enzyme digestion identification and sequencing analysis are consistent in the rescued plasmids and the original plasmid.

  17. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W

    2015-01-01

    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  18. Study on the immuno-effects and influencing factors of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell hepatitis B vaccine among adults, under different dosages%不同剂量国产重组酵母乙型肝炎疫苗成年人免疫效果及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 马建新; 张海燕; 王晨; 杨鹏; 李辉; 孙美平; 贺雄; 庞星火; 林长缨; 韩莉莉; 李立秋; 高培; 林晖; 龚晓红; 黄芳; 唐雅清

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immuno-effect and related influencing factors on 10 μg and 20 μg Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell hepatitis B vaccine, using the randomized double-blind controlled trials in adult population. Methods A total of 642 adults aged 18-45 years old, non-vaccinated against hepatitis B, and negative on five blood indicators for hepatitis B, were selected as the study objects from four districts in Beijing. The study objects were randomly divided into two groups, and then accepted 10 tg and 20 μg recombinant CHO hepatitis B vaccination by 0-1-6 month schedule. Influencing factors were investigated by means of questionnaire. Blood samples were collected one month after the third dose of vaccination. Anti-HBs level was detected by Abott chemiluminescence detection method. For the anti-HBs negative person, fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to find out if the person had been infected with HBV. Logistic regression analysis was used to find out the influencing factors of anti-HBs seroconversion on every studied subject. Results The anti-HBs seroconversion rates on 10 μg and 20 μg dose groups were 88.8%(95%CI: 85.4%-92.2%) and 95.3%(95%CI: 93.0%-97.6%)respectively. Taking the anti-HBs level<100 mIU/ml as the low/non-response standard, the low response and non-response rates were 34.3% and 17.4% respectively. The geometric mean titers(GMT)of anti-HBs were 173.42 mIU/ml for the 10 μg dose group and 588.51 mIU/ml for the 20 μg dose group. Data from the Multivariate analysis showed that: diabetes, spouses infected with hepatitis B virus and old age were unfavorable factors for anti-HBs Seroconversion. 20 μg dose of the vaccine was conducive to seroconversion.Conclusion 20 μg CHO hepatitis B vaccine seemed better than 10 μg CHO hepatitis B vaccine while many factors need to be taken into account for evaluation on hepatitis B vaccines.%目的 通过随机双盲对照试验,评价10μg和20μg国产重组酵母(CHO)乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫

  19. Complementary histological and genomic analyses reveal marked differences in the developmental trajectories of ovaries in Siberian hamsters raised in long- and short-day lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Un; Bernstein, Adrien N; Place, Ned J

    2014-03-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) delay sexual development when raised in short-day (SD; 10 hr light: 14 hr dark) conditions, which leads to delayed onset of estrous cycles and ovulations as compared to females raised in long-day (LD; 16 hr light: 8 hr dark) conditions. In addition to the absence of pre-ovulatory follicles and corpora lutea, the ovaries of SD-reared Siberian hamsters are characterized by an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs) that surround atretic oocytes. To determine the age at which the histology of LD and SD ovaries first diverge, including the initial appearance of HGCs in SD conditions, we examined hamster ovaries histologically at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age. After identifying subtle differences in LD and SD ovarian histology at 4 weeks of age, we searched for differences in ovarian gene expression at 3 and 8 weeks of age, which correspond to the ages when ovarian histology do not differ (3 weeks) versus the earliest age when HGCs were observed (8 weeks). At 3 weeks, only 14 genes were differentially expressed in LD and SD ovaries, whereas 183 genes were differentially expressed at 8 weeks. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ovarian development under SD conditions is not simply arrested at an early stage of LD development, but rather utilizes a developmental path that is distinct from that used in LD ovaries.

  20. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36 in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Estradiol-17β (E plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36, a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  1. Induction of chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster cells after heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of structural chromosome changes in V 79-Chinese hamster cells following heavy ion irradiation is studied. Asynchronous exponentially growing cells are exposed to the heavy ion beams at the Unilac, Darmstadt and the Ganil, Caen. The induction of chromosome aberrations was measured as a function of time after exposure. (orig./MG)

  2. Interspecific complementation between mouse and Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids were formed between mouse and Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and their radiosensitivities were examined. Chinese hamster cell mutants irs1, irs2 and irs3 and mouse mammary carcinoma cell mutants SX9 and SX10 have been found to belong to five different complementation groups. A radiosensitive mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y-S has been demonstrated to be different from the X-ray sensitive mouse cell mutants M10 and LX830, both of which are derived from L5178Y cells, in their complementation groups. L5178Y-S is also distinct from SX9 and SX10. (author)

  3. Repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells made UV light resistant by fusion with X-ray-inactivated Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive human disease, characterized by an extreme sensitivity to sunlight, caused by the inability of cells to repair UV light-induced damage to DNA. Cell fusion was used to transfer fragments of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) chromosomes into XP cells. The hybrid cells exhibited UV resistance and DNA repair characteristics comparable to those expressed by CHO cells, and their DNA had greater homology with CHO DNA than did the DNA from XP cells. Control experiments consisted of fusion of irradiated and unirradiated XP cells and repeated exposure of unfused XP cells to UV doses used for hybrid selection. These treatments did not result in an increase in UV resistance, repair capability, or homology with CHO DNA. The hybrid cell lines do not, therefore, appear to be XP revertants. The establishment of these stable hybrid cell lines is an initial step toward identifying and cloning CHO DNA repair genes that complement the XP defect in human cells. The method should also be applicable to cloning genes for other diseases, such as ataxia-telangiectasia and Fanconi's anemia

  4. 5-Azacytidine Induces Transgene Silencing by DNA Methylation in Chinese Hamster Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Broday, Limor; Lee, Yong-Woo; Costa, Max

    1999-01-01

    The cytosine analog 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) is a demethylating agent that is also known to induce mutagenesis in mammalian cells. In this study, the mutagenic potential of this drug was tested in the G10 and G12 transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines, which have a single bacterial gpt gene integrated into the genome at different sites, with its expression driven by a simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter. We show that the mutation frequencies following a 48-h exposure to different concentrations of 5...

  5. Recovery from DNA synthesis in V 79 chinese hamster cells irradiated with UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammalian cells recover from DNA synthesis inhibition by UV light before most of the pyrimidine dimers have been removed from the genome. Most of the rodent cells show a deficient dimer excision repair compared with normal human fibroblasts. Despite this fact they recover efficiently from DNA synthesis inhibition after UV. In Chinese hamster V 79 cells was found that this recovery takes place in the absence of a significant excision repair, and it seems to be directly coupled to a recovery in the rate of movement of the replication fork. 120 refs, 31 figs. (author)

  6. Calculation of response of Chinese hamster cells to ions based on track structure theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiao-Wei; ZhangChun-Xiang

    1997-01-01

    Considering biological cells as single target two-hit detectors,an analytic formula to calculate the response of cells to ions is developed based on track structure theory.In the calculation,the splitting deposition energy between ion kill mode and γ kill mode is not used.The results of calculation are in agreement with the experimental data for response of Chinese hamster cells,whose response to γ rays can be described by the response function of single target two hit detector to ions.

  7. Subcellular distribution of Pu-239 in the liver of rat, mouse, Syrian and Chinese hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our studies was to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the differences in the biological half life of actinides in the liver of different mammalian species. Rats and mice were chosen as models for rapid elimination, and Syrian and Chinese hamsters as models for slow elimination. To distinguish between fixation in lysosomes and mitochondria, the lysosomes were isolated following injection of Triton WR1339 6 days after 239Pu administration. The animals were sacrificed 4 days later. In order to study the possible association with ferritin, 59Fe was also injected. Liver homogenates were subjected to differential and isopycnic centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The typical shift in the density of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase from rho approximately 1.2 to rho approximately 1.1 following Triton WR1339 injection was observed in all species. It was possible therefore to separate lysosomes from other cell organelles, especially mitochondria. It was concluded that: 1) Mitochondria can virtually be excluded as binding sites in all four species; 2) Lysosomes are one important storage site in rats, mice and Syrian hamsters; 3) If 239Pu is bound to another cell constituent in addition to lysosomes in the hamster species (which is not yet proven) its density should be approximately 1.17. (H.K.)

  8. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door acrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro vanaf 0,1 mg/ml (1,4 mmol/l), zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metaboliosche activering (S9). Tevens induceerde acrylamide in deze cellen een significante

  9. Isolation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-defective mutants in Chinese hamster V79 cells by tritium suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium suicide was shown to be a highly efficient method for isolating mutants defective in hypoxanthine incorporation in the Chinese hamster lung of one kill cycle were used for the next kill cycle. The kill cycles involved incorporation of (3H) hypoxanthine for 5 or 10 min, followed by storage of 3H-labelled cells at -700C for 4-10 days. 12 clones that survived the 3rd kill cycle were tested for incorporation of (3H)hypoxanthine and all were found to be defective. At least 6 of the clones have defective hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity. One mutant, H19, chosen for further characterization, had HPRT with a 13-fold elevation in apparent Ksub(m) for phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Thin-layer chromatography of cell extracts showed that this mutant was incapable of converting intracellular hypoxanthine to IMP or to other purine metabolites. In addition, H19 was resistant to 6-thioguanine. (orig.)

  10. Further characterization of chinese hamster mutagen sensitive mutants using calicheamycin and neocarcinostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To further characterize mutagen sensitive Chinese hamster V79 mutant cell lines two new radiomimetic agents i.e. calicheamycin (CAL) and neocarcinostatin (NCS) were used. Whereas X-rays produces a variety of non-specific lesions in the DNA, mainly single strand breaks (SSB), CAL induces only double strand breaks (DSB) at sequence specific sites (TCCT). NCS, on the other hand, causes SSB and to a much lesser extent apurinic sites at AGC sequences in the DNA. The obtained results demonstrate in most of the mutants and expected parallelism between X-ray sensitivity and sensitivity to the antitumor antibiotics CAL and NCS. Furthermore, enhanced sensitivities for chromosomal aberrations are overall and not due to specific types of aberrations. At present an explanation for the recorded chromosomal hypo-sensitivity of V-H1 cells for NCS awaits further experimentation. (authors)

  11. Silver stained core-like structures in chinese hamster metaphase Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiserman, M Z; Burkholder, G D

    1980-01-01

    Chinese hamster metaphase chromosomes, subjected to prolonged hypotonic pretreatment and subsequently stained with ammoniacal silver, contained a darkly-stained core-like structure in each chromatid, surrounded by a halo of dispersed chromatin which was pale yellow to brown in color. The core was variable in its appearance, ranging from a continuous linear configuration to a spiral structure or a discontinuous, particulate structure. Within the centromeric regions, the cores frequently appeared more intensely stained than elsewhere in the chromosome. The nucleolus organizers also stained darkly and appeared to be attached to the core-like structures. It remains to be determined whether the cores represent a real component of metaphase chromosome structure, or whether they are artifacts resulting from abnormal chromatin aggregation arising at the time of chromosome preparation. PMID:6165446

  12. Genetic analysis of tumorigenesis: a conserved region in the human and Chinese hamster genomes contains genetically identified tumor-suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional chromosome homologies were found in a comparison of human 11p with Chinese hamster 3p. By use of probes that recognize six genes of human 11p (INS, CAT, HBBC, CALC, PTH, and HRAS), the corresponding genes were localized by in situ hybridization on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. INS and CAT were located close to the centromere on 3p, whereas HBBC, CALC, and PTH were at 3q3-4 and HRAS at 3q4. Extensive prior data from chromosome studies of tumorigenic and tumor-derived Chinese hamster cells have suggested the presence of a tumor-suppressor gene on 3p. Two tumor-suppressor genes have been described on human 11p, one linked to CAT and one to INS. The present study raises the possibility that the Chinese hamster suppressor may be closely linked to INS or CAT

  13. The subcellular distribution of 239Pu, 241Am and 59Fe in the liver of rat and Chinese hamster as dependent on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu, 241Am and iron in rat and Chinese hamster liver has been investigated by sucrose-, metrizamide- and Percoll-density gradients. In rat liver, the transuranium elements become and remain bound to typical lysosomes primary storage organelle in Chinese hamster liver. However, their apparent density in sucrose decreases with time, which possible indicates transition into telolysomes. The transuranium nuclides show a subcellular distribution which is quite different from that of iron. (orig.)

  14. Versatile microscale screening platform for improving recombinant protein productivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Nilsson, Claes Nymand; Lund, Anne Mathilde;

    2015-01-01

    to reduce production costs significantly. The aim of this study was to establish a versatile target gene screening platform for improving productivity for primarily non-mAb glycoproteins with complete interchangeability of model proteins and target genes using transient expression. The platform consists...... of four techniques compatible with 96-well microplates: lipid-based transient transfection, cell cultivation in microplates, cell counting and antibody-independent product titer determination based on split-GFP complementation. We were able to demonstrate growth profiles and volumetric productivity of CHO...... cells in 96-half-deepwell microplates comparable with those obtained in shake flasks. In addition, we demonstrate that split-GFP complementation can be used to accurately measure relative titers of therapeutic glycoproteins. Using this platform, we were able to detect target gene-specific increase...

  15. Expression of recombinant rat Neurotrophin-3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季爱民; 舒斯云; 包新民; 邹恒琴; 张忠义; 李明

    1999-01-01

    The CHO cell line stably producing recombinant rat NT-3 was established. The insertion of rNT-3 cDNA into transferred cell gonome was analyzed with Southern blot. The expressed protein was identified by Dot ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blot. Western blot showed a clear specifie band of about 14 ku for NT-3. The mean level of rNT-3 in four NT-3eDNA/CHO cell lines was about 2 100 ng/10~6 cells/48 h determined by EIA. The conditioned-medium (CM) of NT-3cDNA/CHO cells could promote the fiber outgrowth of the dissociated dorsal root ganglion of 8-day-old chick embryos, which shows a dose-response relationship. A half-maximal concentration of the biological activity (EC50) of the recombinant protein was approximately 16.7 ng/mL. The MoAb 3W3 of NT-3 could neutralize the biological activity of the rNT-3.

  16. A theoretical estimate for nucleotide sugar demand towards Chinese Hamster Ovary cellular glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Ioscani Jimenez; Polizzi, Karen M.; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation greatly influences the safety and efficacy of many of the highest-selling recombinant therapeutic proteins (rTPs). In order to define optimal cell culture feeding strategies that control rTP glycosylation, it is necessary to know how nucleotide sugars (NSs) are consumed towards host cell and rTP glycosylation. Here, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the reported glycoproteome of CHO cells, the number of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosylation sites on individual host cell proteins (HCPs), and the carbohydrate content of CHO glycosphingolipids to estimate the demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation. We have identified the most abundant N-linked and O-GalNAc CHO glycoproteins, obtained the weighted frequency of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosites across the CHO cell proteome, and have derived stoichiometric coefficients for NS consumption towards CHO cell glycosylation. By combining the obtained stoichiometric coefficients with previously reported data for specific growth and productivity of CHO cells, we observe that the demand of NSs towards glycosylation is significant and, thus, is required to better understand the burden of glycosylation on cellular metabolism. The estimated demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation can be used to rationally design feeding strategies that ensure optimal and consistent rTP glycosylation. PMID:27345611

  17. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Branco Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher’s patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr− cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa and secreted (63–69 kDa form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources.

  18. Glycoengineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells for enhanced erythropoietin N-glycan branching and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Bojiao; Gao, Yuan; Chung, Cheng-yu;

    2015-01-01

    increased by 26%. The increase in sialic acid content was further verified by detailed profiling of the N-glycan structures using mass spectra (MS) analysis. In order to enhance antennarity/branching, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-1,3-D-mannoside β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTIV/Mgat4) and UDP...

  19. Transfection of normal human and Chinese hamster DNA corrects diepoxybutane-induced chromosomal hypersensitivity of Fanconi anemia fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured cells from individuals affected with Fanconi anemia (FA) exhibit spontaneous chromosome breakage and hypersensitivity to the cell killing and clastogenic effects of the difunctional alkylating agent diepoxybutane (DEB). The authors report here the correction of both of these DEB-hypersensitivity phenotypes of FA cells achieved by cotransfection of normal placental of Chinese hamster lung cell DNA and the plasmid pSV2-neo-SVgpt. Transfectants were selected for clonogenic survival after treatment with DEB at a dose of 5 μgml. At this dose of DEB, the clonogenicity of normal fibroblasts was reduced to 50% and that of FA fibroblasts was reduced to zero. DEB-resistant (DEB/sup r/) colonies selected in this system exhibited a normal response to DEB-induced chromosome breakage and resistance to repeated DEB treatment. The neo and gpt sequences were detected by Southern blot analysis of DNA from one of four DEB/sup r/ colonies independently derived from transfection of human DNA and one of three DEB/sup r/ colonies independently derived from transfection of Chinese hamster DNA. The results demonstrate that DNA sequences that complement the two hallmark cellular phenotypes (cellular and chromosomal hypersensitivity to alkylating agents) of FA are present in human as well as Chinese hamster DNA. The cloning of these genes using transfection strategies can be expected to enable molecular characterization of FA

  20. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accclerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5, 200 and 700 keV/μm were measured, respectively. Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves. They are 7.86±0.17, 10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.58 μm2 in turn. With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value, relative biological effectiveness at 10%, 20%, 50% and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions. The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5 keV/μm had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs. It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200 keV/μm for carbon ions.

  1. Characterization of ultraviolet light-induced ouabain-resistant mutations in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouabain-resistant mutations in Chinese hamster cells have been quantitatively characterized. The mutation frequencies were found to be induced curvilinearly with treatments of increasing doses of ultraviolet light (UV). For the range of UV doses tested (5-20 J/m2), the observed mutation frequency, Y, as a function of UV dose X, follows a curvilinear function, Y=(-28+13.37X - 1.52X2+0.08 X3).10-6. The frequencies of UV-induced mutations were directly correlated with cell survival, indicating a similar causal relationship between cell killing and mutation induction. Under the same experimental conditions, X-rays induced 6-thioguanine-, but not ouabain-, resistant mutations, UV-induced ouabain-resistant (ouasup(r)) mutants exhibit a selection disadvantage. Their phenotypic expressions are modifiable by various agents. Wild type and 16 ouasup(r) mutants were compared with respect to their sensitivity to ouabain inhibition of 86Rb uptake by whole cells. All the ouasup(r) mutants assayed are less sensitive to the drug than are wild-type cells. In the absence of ouabain, the Na+-K+-ATPase activities can be significantly higher or lower than that of the wild-type cells. (Auth.)

  2. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQiang; ZHOUGuang-Ming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5,200 and 700keV/um were measured,respectively,Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves.They are 7.86±0.17,10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.59um2 in turn.With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value,relative biological effectiveness at 10%,20%,50%and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions,The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5keV/um had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs.It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200keV/um for carbon ions.

  3. Interactive cytotoxicity of etoposide and radiation on cultured Chinese hamster V-79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etoposide is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin and is an active antitumor agent. The interactive cytotoxic effect of Etoposide and radiation was investigated using cultured Chinese hamster V-79 cells. The surviving fraction of the cells was reduced by only 20%, when the cells were exposed to 5μg/ml of Etoposide for 30 min. Etoposide at this concentration reduced the width of the shoulder of the radiation survival curve. The change became more significant with increase in the concentration of Etoposide. The Dqs (quasithreshold doses) of the radiation survival curves were 5.39, 3.28, 2.13 and 0.54Gy, although the Dos (37% dose slopes) of the radiation survival curves were 2.55, 2.49, 2.39 and 2.18 Gy, when combination treatment with radiaiton and 0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml of Etoposide, respectively, was carried out. The cytotoxic effect became increased when fractional treatments with Etoposide and radiation were performed. The results obtained suggest that the mechanism of the interactive cytotoxic effect of this combination treatment involves a reciprocal action of Etoposide and sublethal damage by the radiation to the cells. (author)

  4. Interactive cytotoxicity of etoposide and radiation on cultured Chinese hamster V-79 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Shimada, Yuji; Kamata, Rikisaburo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-10-01

    Etoposide is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin and is an active antitumor agent. The interactive cytotoxic effect of Etoposide and radiation was investigated using cultured Chinese hamster V-79 cells. The surviving fraction of the cells was reduced by only 20%, when the cells were exposed to 5mug/ml of Etoposide for 30 min. Etoposide at this concentration reduced the width of the shoulder of the radiation survival curve. The change became more significant with increase in the concentration of Etoposide. The Dqs (quasithreshold doses) of the radiation survival curves were 5.39, 3.28, 2.13 and 0.54Gy, although the Dos (37% dose slopes) of the radiation survival curves were 2.55, 2.49, 2.39 and 2.18 Gy, when combination treatment with radiaiton and 0, 5, 10 and 20 mug/ml of Etoposide, respectively, was carried out. The cytotoxic effect became increased when fractional treatments with Etoposide and radiation were performed. The results obtained suggest that the mechanism of the interactive cytotoxic effect of this combination treatment involves a reciprocal action of Etoposide and sublethal damage by the radiation to the cells. (author).

  5. Resistance to DNA denaturation in irradiated Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts is linked to cell shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79-171b lung fibroblasts seeded at high density on plastic (approximately 7 x 10(3) cells/cm2) flatten, elongate, and produce significant amounts of extracellular fibronectin. When lysed in weak alkali/high salt, the rate of DNA denaturation following exposure to ionizing radiation is exponential. Conversely, cells plated at low density (approximately 7 x 10(2) cells/cm2) on plastic are more rounded 24 h later, produce little extracellular fibronectin, and display unusual DNA denaturation kinetics after X-irradiation. DNA in these cells resists denaturation, as though constraints to DNA unwinding have developed. Cell doubling time and distribution of cells in the growth cycle are identical for both high and low density cultures as is cell survival in response to radiation damage. The connection between DNA conformation and cell shape was examined further in low density cultures grown in conditioned medium. Under these conditions, cells at low density were able to elongate, and DNA denaturation of low density cultures was identical to that of high density cultures. Conversely, cytochalasin D, which interferes with actin polymerization causing cells to round up and release fibronectin, allowed development of constraints in high density cultures. These results suggest that DNA conformation is sensitive to changes in cell shape which result when cells are grown in different environments. However, these changes in DNA conformation detected by the DNA unwinding assay do not appear to play a direct role in radiation-induced cell killing

  6. Radiation Survival in Synchronous and Asynchronous Chinese Hamster Cells In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronized mammalian cells enable radiation responses to be examined as a function of the position of the cell within its generation cycle. However, synchrony techniques are limited by the random distribution of generation rates in cell populations and, because of the techniques employed, stages such as G2 and mitosis are difficult to examine. Superposing on the mitotic selection technique high-specific- activity tritiated thymidine to inactivate resistant S cells enables the average sensitivity of G2 and mitotic cells to be established. The changes in sensitivity during the cell cycle for Chinese hamster cells are considerable, at least as great as the effect of the presence or absence of oxygen. G2 and mitosis are the most sensitive cells, followed by G1, early S and finally late S cells as the most resistant. With this data the response of an asynchronous population can be estimated and compared with experimental data. Calculation and experiment agree well. The selection + tritiated thymidine technique is still limited in resolution to a one-hour period. Experiments varying the interval between irradiation and selection indicate that there is, very probably, a brief phase more sensitive than the average in the selected mitotic population which should be examined further. Experiments with Janus (fission) neutrons indicate that the changes in response during the cell cycle are smaller than for X-rays and the shapes of the survival curves are different. The RBE of these neutrons is shown to vary with both dose level and position in the cell cycle. (author)

  7. 5-Azacytidine Induces Transgene Silencing by DNA Methylation in Chinese Hamster Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, Limor; Lee, Yong-Woo; Costa, Max

    1999-01-01

    The cytosine analog 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) is a demethylating agent that is also known to induce mutagenesis in mammalian cells. In this study, the mutagenic potential of this drug was tested in the G10 and G12 transgenic Chinese hamster cell lines, which have a single bacterial gpt gene integrated into the genome at different sites, with its expression driven by a simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter. We show that the mutation frequencies following a 48-h exposure to different concentrations of 5-AzaC were 10 to 20 times higher than those of any of the other numerous mutagens that have been tested in the G10-G12 system. Moreover, the mutation frequencies were much higher in the G10 cell line than in the G12 cells. Detailed molecular analysis of the 6-thioguanine (6-TG)-resistant variants demonstrated that transgene silencing by de novo DNA methylation and increased chromatin condensation in the SV40 promoter was the major factor responsible for this high level of 6-TG resistance. As would be expected, exposure to 5-AzaC lowered the overall genomic DNA methylation levels, but it unexpectedly caused hypermethylation and increased chromatin condensation of the transgene in both the G10 and G12 cell lines. These results provide the first evidence that 5-AzaC may also induce transgene-specific DNA methylation, a phenomenon that can further be used for the elucidation of the mechanism that controls silencing of foreign DNA. PMID:10082586

  8. Heterologous expression of active human uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 in Chinese hamster lung cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Kun Chen; Xin Li; Shu-Qing Chen; Su Zeng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To obtain the active human recombinant uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 (UGT1A3) enzyme from Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells.METHODS: The full-length UGT1A3 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)using total RNA from human liver as template. The correct fragment confirmed by sequencing was subcloned into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1 (+), and the recombinant vector was transfected into CHL cells using a calcium phosphate method. Expressed UGT1A3 protein was prepared from CHL cells resistant to neomycin (G418). Then the protein was added into a reaction mixture for glucuronidation of quercetin. The glucuronidation activity of UGT1A3 was determined by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD). The quercetin glucuronide was confirmed by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase. Control experiments were performed in parallel. The transcriptions of recombinants were also determined by RT-PCR.RESULTS: The gene was confirmed to be an allele (UGT1A3-3) of UGT1A3 by DNA sequencing. The fragment was introduced into pcDNA3.1 (+) successfully. Several colonies were obtained under the selection pressure of G418.The result of RT-PCR showed transcription of recombinants in mRNA level. Glucuronidation assay and HPLC analysis indicated UGT1A3 expressed heterologously in CHL cells was in an active form, and one of the gulcuronides corresponding to quercetin was also detected.CONCLUSION: Correct sequence of UGT1A3 gene can be obtained, and active UGT1A3 enzyme is expressed heterologously in CHL cells.

  9. Association of TRB3 Q84R polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Binbin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribbles 3 (TRB3 affects insulin signalling by inhibiting insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation. A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the second extron of the human TRB3 gene is thought to be associated with insulin resistance. The latter is a core abnormality in PCOS independent of obesity. The present study was designed to clarify the relationships of TRB3 Q84R polymorphism with PCOS in a Chinese women group. Methods A case-control study with two groups: PCOS group (n = 336 and control group of infertility women for tubal and/or male factor (n = 116 was performed. Genotyping of the TRB3 R84 variant was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Results The frequency of genotype QQ in PCOS women was significantly lower, while genotype QR and RR were significantly higher than that in control group (p Conclusions TRB3 Q84R polymorphism is associated with obesity and especially glucose metabolism and not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome because of compositional characteristics of phenotype in Chinese PCOS women.

  10. [Experimental therapy in Chinese hamsters and rats infected with larval Echinococcus multilocularis by using mebendazole, albendazole and ivermectin with brief review of chemotherapy of human multilocular echinococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, T; Nakao, M; Ohnishi, K; Kutsumi, H

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the mebendazole, albendazole and ivermectin on secondary multilocular echinococcosis in Chinese hamsters infected with intraperitoneal inoculation of protoscolices and in rats infected with transportal inoculation of protoscolices were investigated. A reduction in weight of the hydatids greater than 95% was recorded in Chinese hamsters intraperitoneally injected with mebendazole suspension. Oral administration of mebendazole moderately inhibited the development of the hydatids. Albendazole was less effective than mebendazole. Ivermectin was ineffective. The treatment with mebendazole of larval E. multilocularis inhibited the growth of the hydatids but it could not completely kill the parasite tissues. The present status of chemotherapy of the human multilocular echinococcosis was briefly discussed. PMID:3546045

  11. The subcellular distribution of 239Pu, 241Am and 59Fe in the liver of rat and Chinese hamster as dependent on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subcellular distribution of monomeric 239Pu, 241Am and iron in rat and Chinese hamster liver has been investigated by sucrose-, metrizamide- and Percoll-density gradients. In rat liver, the transuranium elements become and remain bound to typical lysosomes up to several months after incorporation. Lysosomes are also the primary storage organelle in Chinese hamster liver. However, their apparent density in sucrose decreases with time, which possibly indicates transition into telolysomes. The transuranium nuclides show a subcellular distribution which is quite different from that of iron. (orig.)

  12. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  13. Conditionally lethal mutations in chinese hamster cells. Characterization of a cell line with a possible defect in the Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, L; Werntz, D; Scheffler, I E

    1975-04-01

    A variant Chinese hamster cell line has been isolated from a mutagenized population that has a markedly reduced ability to oxidize a variety of substrates via the Krebs cycle. The production of 14CO2 from 14C-labeled compounds was measured using pyruvate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, palmitate and glutamate, and in all cases it was neglibible in the mutant. In contrast to this, significant amounts of 14CO2 were produced from 14C-aspartate and 14C-succinate which suggest that some reactions of the Krebs cycle can take place and this conclusion is supported by tracer experiments with labeled compounds. The rate of respiration measured with a Clark oxygen electrode in the mutant was compared to several normal Chinese hamster cell lines and was found to be only 8%. Mitochondria appear to be present in normal numbers and with only minor differences in morphology. The measurement of difference spectra between oxidized and reduced states permits us to conclude that the cytochromes are all present and functional. These results lead us to believe that there may be a defect in the Krebs cycle between alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate. Alternatively a defect in a structural component of the mitochondria or in the electron-transport chain itself may be causing pleiotropic effects in the Krebs cycle and respiration.

  14. Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells: implications for mechanisms regulating metallothionein gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.; Griffith, B.B.; Griffith, J.K.; Hanners, J.L.; Longmire, J.L.; Munk, A.C.; Stallings, R.L.; Tesmer, J.G.; Walters, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The authors describe here the derivation, characterization, and use of clonal cadmium-resistance (Cd/sup r) strains of the Chinese hamster cell line CHO which differ in their metallothionein (MT) induction capacity. By nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel electrophoresis, the authors showed that the stable Cd/sup r/ phenotype is correlated with the augmented expression of both isometallothioneins (MTI and MTII). In cells resistant to concentrations of CdCl2 exceeding 20 M, coordinate amplifications of genes encoding both isometallothioneins was demonstrated by using cDNA MT-coding sequence probes and probes specific for 3'-noncoding regions of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes. Molecular and in situ hybridization analyses supported close linkage of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes, which the authors have mapped previously to Chinese hamster chromosome 3. This suggests the existence of a functionally related MT gene cluster in this species. Amplified Cd/sup r/ variants expressing abundant MT and their corresponding Cd/sup s/ parental CHO cells should be useful for future studies directed toward elucidating the mechanisms that regulate expressions of the isometallothioneins. 59 references, 8 figures.

  15. Association of polymorphisms of interleukin-18 gene promoter region with polycystic ovary syndrome in chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei-zhi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS may have an association with low-grade chronic inflammation, and that PCOS may induce an increase in serum interleukin-18 (IL-18 levels. Methods To investigate the polymorphisms of the IL-18 gene promoters with PCOS, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter of the IL-18 gene (at positions -607C/A and -137G/C in 118 Chinese women with PCOS and 79 controls were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results No significant differences were found in the genotype distribution, allele frequency and haplotype frequency between the PCOS and control groups. Further analysis demonstrated a relationship between IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms and PCOS insulin resistance (IR. Regarding the -137 allele frequency, G and C allele frequencies were 93.5% and 6.5%, respectively, in the PCOS with IR patients; G and C allele frequencies were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, in PCOS patients without IR (chi2 = 3.601, P = 0.048. Conclusions The presence of a polymorphism in the IL-18 gene was found to have no correlation with the occurrence of PCOS. Carriage of the C allele at position -137 in the promoter of the IL-18 gene may play a protective role from the development of PCOS IR.

  16. Serum metabolomics study of Traditional Chinese medicine formula intervention to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Caixia; Zhao, Xinjie; Li, Yan; Li, Yanjie; Yuan, Chengkun; Xu, Fang; Meng, Xiaoyu; Hou, Lihui; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a most common, heterogeneous, complex endocrinopathy disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the treatment of PCOS for many years. However, the mechanism underlying TCM remains obscure and challenging. In this study, 30 PCOS subjects were separated into normoinsulinemic group (NI=13) and hyperinsulinemic group (HI=17), and treated for three menstrual cycles with TCM Formula, Bushen Huatan Formula (BHF). A metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with linear ion trap Orbi-trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbi-trap MS) is used to investigate serum metabolic changes of TCM intervention to PCOS. After BHF intervention for three menstrual cycles, the serum levels of glycerophosphorylethanolamine (GPEA), creatine, creatinine decreased in both NI and HI groups. Furthermore, in NI group, the main manifestation was the changes of phospholipid metabolism. While in HI group, lysine, phenol sulfate, phe-phe etc. decreased, and ornithine, proline, betaine, acetylcholine etc. increased. Combined with clinical biochemical data, BHF was proved effective to PCOS by reducing the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. This study also illustrates that the LC-MS based metabolomic approach is a helpful tool to evaluate curative effect and to understand the mechanisms of TCM. PMID:26730509

  17. Influence of heterogenous alpha irradiation of Chinese hamster liver on survival and the induction of cancer. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of risk to the human liver from deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides currently is based on epidemiological data accumulated from patients that received injections of the X-ray contrast medium Thorotrast. These exposures resulted in highly focal distributions of radiation dose, primarily around the liver sinusoids. It is, important to understand the applicability of these human data for extrapolating risk to people that are exposed to other liver-seeking alpha emitters, such as plutonium (Pu), where the distribution of alpha dose may be much more uniform and uncomplicated by the presence of large colloid masses in the liver tissue. In this study, Chinese hamsters received intravenous injections of Thorotrast (7.4, 1.5 or 0.30 Bq/g body weight) or monomeric 239Pu citrate (7.4 Bq/g), and were held for life-span observation. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis of the dose response for several neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions observed in the liver, it was found that the relative risk for each endpoint was increased in a dose related manner for all three dose levels of Thorotrast, and that the risks for the Pu-injected animals (7.4 Bq/g) were similar to those of the hamsters injected with 1.5 Bq/g Thorotrast. Dosimetry and pathological analyses are being continued to examine the dose-response relationships for these two patterns of alpha irradiation in greater detail, particularly as they affect the liver. (author)

  18. Influence of DMSO on Carbon K ultrasoft X-rays induced chromosome aberrations in V79 Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasoft X-rays have been shown to be very efficient in inducing chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the modifying effects of DMSO (a potent scavenger of free radicals) on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by soft X-rays. Confluent held G1 Chinese hamster cells (V79) were irradiated with Carbon K ultrasoft X-rays in the presence and absence of 1 M DMSO and frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the first division cells were determined. DMSO reduced the frequencies of exchange types of aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) by a factor of 2.1-3.5. The results indicate that free radicals induced by ultrasoft X-rays contribute to a great extent to the induction of chromosome aberrations. The possible implications of these results in interpreting the mechanisms involved in the high efficiency of ultrasoft X-rays in the induction of chromosome aberrations are discussed.

  19. Temperature dependence of anisotonic NaC1 effect on radiosensitization and ultrastructure of V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, J G; Raaphorst, G P; Lobreau, A U; Azzam, E I; Copps, T P

    1983-01-01

    Isodose radiation survival of V79 Chinese hamster cells, pretreated with strongly hypertonic concentrations of NaC1 at 22 degrees C, or at 37 degrees C, has been determined and correlated with ultrastructural changes within the nucleus. After an exposure of less than 10 min to 1.5 M NaC1, at both temperatures, the cells are radioprotected, but after longer exposures, the cells treated at 37 degrees C are radiosensitive, whereas those treated at 22 degrees C still show protection. The cells are radiosensitized at both temperatures by pretreatment with 0.5 M and 0.05 M NaC1. The ultrastructure of the nucleus observed after the anisotonic treatments suggests that contraction or swelling of chromatin may be associated with the observed variation in radiation sensitivity.

  20. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J; Thompson, L H; Bedford, J S; Little, J B

    2007-10-26

    We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.

  1. The influence of non-uniform α-irradiation of Chinese hamster liver on chromosome damage and the induction of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Chinese hamsters received intravenous injections of Thorotrast (7.4, 1.5 or 0.30 Bq/g body weight) or monomeric 239Pu citrate (7.4 Bq/g), and were either sacrificed for cytogenetic analysis or held for lifespan dose-response observation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations observed in Thorotrast-exposed animals was 0.47 aberrations/cell Gy, similar to that in 239Pu citrate-injected hamsters. Using Cox proportional hazards analysis of the dose-response for several neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions observed in the liver, it was found that the relative risk for each endpoint was increased in a dose-related manner for all three dose levels of Thorotrast, and that risks for the plutonium-injected animals (7.4 Bq/g) were similar to those of hamsters injected with 1.5 Bq/g Thorotrast. (author)

  2. Protective effect of enzymatic hydrolysates from highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Senevirathne, Mahinda; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Blueberry was enzymatically hydrolyzed using selected commercial food grade carbohydrases (AMG, Celluclast, Termamyl, Ultraflo and Viscozyme) and proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Kojizyme, Neutrase and Protamex) to obtain water soluble compounds, and their protective effect was investigated against H2O2-induced damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line (V79-4) via various published methods. Both AMG and Alcalase hydrolysates showed higher total phenolic content as well as higher ce...

  3. The effect of dexamethasone on the radiation survival response and misonidazole-induced hypoxic-cell cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster cells V-79-753B in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overnight exposure of Chinese hamster cells, V-79-753B, to microgram quantities of the synthetic corticosteroid, dexamethasone, resulted in a decrease in sensitivity towards radiation, both in air and in hypoxia. The effect was dose-modifying and the oxygen enhancement ratio did not change appreciably. Similarly, when dexamethasone-treated hypoxic cells were irradiated in the presence of misonidazole, a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, there was a decrease in radiation sensitivity compared with untreated hypoxic cells irradiated with misonidazole. (author)

  4. Effect of Wortmannin on the repair profiles of DNA double-strand breaks in the whole genome and in interstitial telomeric sequences of Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) procedure was applied to analyze the effect of Wortmannin (WM) in the rejoining kinetics of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the whole genome and in the long interstitial telomeric repeat sequence (ITRS) blocks from Chinese hamster cell lines. The results indicate that the ITRS blocks from wild-type Chinese hamster cell lines, CHO9 and V79B, exhibit a slower initial rejoining rate of ionizing radiation-induced DSBs than the genome overall. Neither Rad51C nor the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) activities, involved in homologous recombination (HR) and in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways of DSB repair respectively, influenced the rejoining kinetics within ITRS in contrast to DNA sequences in the whole genome. Nevertheless, DSB removal rate within ITRS was decreased in the absence of Ku86 activity, though at a lower affectation level than in the whole genome, thus homogenizing both rejoining kinetics rates. WM treatment slowed down the DSB rejoining kinetics rate in ITRS, this effect being more pronounced in the whole genome, resulting in a similar pattern to that of the Ku86 deficient cells. In fact, no WM effect was detected in the Ku86 deficient Chinese hamster cells, so probably WM does not add further impairment in DSB rejoining than that resulted as a consequence of absence of Ku activity. The same slowing effect was also observed after treatment of Rad51C and DNA-PKcs defective hamster cells by WM, suggesting that: (1) there is no potentiation of the HR when the NHEJ is impaired by WM, either in the whole genome or in the ITRS, and (2) that this impairment may probably involve more targets than DNA-PKcs. These results suggest that there is an intragenomic heterogeneity in DSB repair, as well as in the effect of WM on this process

  5. Synthesis of human prolactin in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells; Sintese de prolactina humana em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Roberto Jorge

    2000-07-01

    Three different eukaryotic expression vectors, based on the same selectable gene marker (dhfr), have been used for dhf- CHO cells transfection to rapidly isolate stable cell lines capable of secreting high levels of recombinant human prolactin (rec-hPRL). Two vectors, one codifying a human prolactin (p658-hPRL) and the other a tag-prolactin (p658-tagPRL), contain the complete hepatitis B virus-X (HBV-X) gene coding for a viral transactivator and a sequence derived from the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that mediates selective dhfr mRNA degradation. These vectors have the advantage of rapidly obtaining stable cell lines without methotrexate amplification. The highest secretion obtained by these vectors was of approximately 10 {mu}g hPRU10{sup 6} cells/day. The other vector (pEDdc-hPRL) is based on a dicistronic expression system, containing an internal ribosome entry site isolated from the encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. This vector before amplification provided secretion levels at least 10 fold lower than that obtained with the other two vectors. However, after three steps of methotrexate amplification, it provided some clones able to secrete up to 30 {mu}g hPRU10{sup 6} cells/day. This is the first report describing the production and purification of rec-hPRL from CHO cells, obtaining secretion levels with both vectors higher than those reported so far for this hormone in other eukaryotic systems. CHO-derived rec-hPRL contained approximately 10 % of the glycosylated form, a value that is consistent with results reported for hPRL purified from the pituitary or from transformed murine C-127 cells. CHO-derived rec-hPRL was purified with good yield, obtaining also a good resolution between non-glycosylated and glycosylated prolactin. The latter, when its potency was determined via an in vitro bioassay, presented a 47 % lower bioactivity. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of these forms was also possible thanks to the setting up of a reversed-phase HPLC technique, for the first time applied to this hormone. A pilot production in a hollow fiber bioreactor provided a highly concentrated medium, though with the presence of considerable amounts of hPRL{sub 11-199} fragments, apparently the result of a proteolytic process. (author)

  6. Characterization of alanine to valine sequence variants in the Fc region of nivolumab biosimilar produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Fu, Tuo; Liu, Tao; Guo, Huaizu; Guo, Qingcheng; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Dapeng; Qian, Weizhu; Dai, Jianxin; Li, Bohua; Guo, Yajun; Hou, Sheng; Wang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Nivolumab is a therapeutic fully human IgG4 antibody to programmed death 1 (PD-1). In this study, a nivolumab biosimilar, which was produced in our laboratory, was analyzed and characterized. Sequence variants that contain undesired amino acid sequences may cause concern during biosimilar bioprocess development. We found that low levels of sequence variants were detected in the heavy chain of the nivolumab biosimilar by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry. It was further identified with UPLC-MS/MS by IdeS or trypsin digestion. The sequence variant was confirmed through addition of synthetic mutant peptide. Subsequently, the mixing base signal of normal and mutant sequence was detected through DNA sequencing. The relative levels of mutant A424V in the Fc region of the heavy chain have been detected and demonstrated to be 12.25% and 13.54%, via base peak intensity (BPI) and UV chromatography of the tryptic peptide mapping, respectively. A424V variant was also quantified by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) at the DNA and RNA level, which was 19.2% and 16.8%, respectively. The relative content of the mutant was consistent at the DNA, RNA and protein level, indicating that the A424V mutation may have little influence at transcriptional or translational levels. These results demonstrate that orthogonal state-of-the-art techniques such as LC- UV- MS and RT-PCR should be implemented to characterize recombinant proteins and cell lines for development of biosimilars. Our study suggests that it is important to establish an integrated and effective analytical method to monitor and characterize sequence variants during antibody drug development, especially for antibody biosimilar products. PMID:27050807

  7. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic traits characteristic of high-performance clones and enables informed decisions on which clones provide a good match for a particular process platform. The proposed approach also provides a mechanistic link between observed clone phenotype, process setup, and feeding regimes, and thereby offers concrete starting points for subsequent process optimization. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2005-2019. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26913695

  8. Radioprotective efficacy and cytogenetic effect of an organoselenium derivative: an in vitro evaluation in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increase in applications of ionizing radiation in medical practices (radiotherapy and nuclear medicine) and also potential accidental exposures to ionizing radiation in various areas of radiation applications such as industrial, nuclear power plants and applications in armed forces, the development of effective radio protector is of great significance and need. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro radioprotective efficacy and cytogenetic effect of a novel synthetic organoselenium compound, 3,3'-Diselenodipropionic acid (DSePA), a diselenide and a derivative of selenocystine against damage induced by exposure to 60Co gamma radiation. We have made an attempt to reduce biological damage to as low a level as reasonably possible. The study was carried out by pretreatment (2 hr before irradiation) of test compound to exponentially grown CHO cell cultures at concentrations from 0 to 10 μg/ml. The results have shown that all concentrations tested reduced radiation-induced chromosomal damage compared with cells with no treatment. Maximum protection against radiation damage was observed at the concentration of 2 to 3 μg/ml. The reduction in cytogenetic damage with the radiation dose administered reached to 48%, which represents a significant reduction in gamma-ray induced chromosomal damage. This degree of protection is comparable with that obtained with amifostine, a radioprotective compound used in radiotherapy which is the only FDA approved drug, but characterized by its high cyto-toxicity. DSePA inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, measured as decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) indicating protective effects on the cellular membrane system. In addition, DSePA treatment scavenged the free radicals and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) level thus protected CHO cells from free-radical-induced oxidative stress. Our results also reflected that DSePA induced the rate of proliferation and attenuated the phenomenon of apoptosis and necrosis. Cytotoxic indexes (Mitotic and Proliferation Index) disclosed that the lowermost concentrations could augment the cell proliferation rates whereas the highest one could adversely affect to in vitro, CHO cell growth and proliferation. Present study findings concluded that DSePA offered a potent radioprotective effect with a valid antioxidant activity. (author)

  9. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  10. Erythropoietin enhancer stimulates production of a recombinant protein by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells under hypoxic condition

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Sung-Kwon; Takeuchi, Shunsuke; Kambe, Taiho; Tsuchiya, Terumasa; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Sasaki, Ryuzo

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen is a limiting nutrient in animal cell culture and its supply is still worthy of improvement for production of useful proteins with a high efficiency. From a different point of view, development of the system by which a high productivity can be maintained even under hypoxic condition as well as under normoxic condition may be important. A number of hypoxia-inducible genes have been found in eucaryotic cells and the induction in most cases, if not all, is due to hypoxic activation of the...

  11. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy of BODIPY-cholesterol reveals anomalous sterol diffusion in chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, F. W.; Lomholt, M. A.; Solanko, L. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholesterol is an important membrane component, but our knowledge about its transport in cells is sparse. Previous imaging studies using dehydroergosterol (DHE), an intrinsically fluorescent sterol from yeast, have established that vesicular and non-vesicular transport modes contribute...... to sterol trafficking from the plasma membrane. Significant photobleaching, however, limits the possibilities for in-depth analysis of sterol dynamics using DHE. Co-trafficking studies with DHE and the recently introduced fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol) suggested that the latter...... are possible. Two-photon temporal image correlation spectroscopy (2P-TICS) provided evidence for spatially heterogeneous diffusion constants of BChol varying over two orders of magnitude from the cell interior towards the plasma membrane, where D similar to 1.3 mu m(2)/s. Number and brightness (N&B) analysis...

  12. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy of BODIPY-cholesterol reveals anomalous sterol diffusion in chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Frederik W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is an important membrane component, but our knowledge about its transport in cells is sparse. Previous imaging studies using dehydroergosterol (DHE, an intrinsically fluorescent sterol from yeast, have established that vesicular and non-vesicular transport modes contribute to sterol trafficking from the plasma membrane. Significant photobleaching, however, limits the possibilities for in-depth analysis of sterol dynamics using DHE. Co-trafficking studies with DHE and the recently introduced fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol suggested that the latter probe has utility for prolonged live-cell imaging of sterol transport. Results We found that BChol is very photostable under two-photon (2P-excitation allowing the acquisition of several hundred frames without significant photobleaching. Therefore, long-term tracking and diffusion measurements are possible. Two-photon temporal image correlation spectroscopy (2P-TICS provided evidence for spatially heterogeneous diffusion constants of BChol varying over two orders of magnitude from the cell interior towards the plasma membrane, where D ~ 1.3 μm2/s. Number and brightness (N&B analysis together with stochastic simulations suggest that transient partitioning of BChol into convoluted membranes slows local sterol diffusion. We observed sterol endocytosis as well as fusion and fission of sterol-containing endocytic vesicles. The mobility of endocytic vesicles, as studied by particle tracking, is well described by a model for anomalous subdiffusion on short time scales with an anomalous exponent α ~ 0.63 and an anomalous diffusion constant of Dα = 1.95 x 10-3 μm2/sα. On a longer time scale (t > ~5 s, a transition to superdiffusion consistent with slow directed transport with an average velocity of v ~ 6 x 10-3 μm/s was observed. We present an analytical model that bridges the two regimes and fit this model to vesicle trajectories from control cells and cells with disrupted microtubule or actin filaments. Both treatments reduced the anomalous diffusion constant and the velocity by ~40-50%. Conclusions The mobility of sterol-containing vesicles on the short time scale could reflect dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, while directed transport of sterol vesicles occurs likely along both, microtubules and actin filaments. Spatially varying anomalous diffusion could contribute to fine-tuning and local regulation of intracellular sterol transport.

  13. Heat shock protein 47 stress responses in Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to raw and reclaimed wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Nogoshi, Yosuke; Ben Fredj, Fahmi; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2012-01-01

    As wastewater reclamation and reuse becomes more widespread, risks of exposure to treated wastewater increase. Moreover, an unlimited number of pollutants can be identified in wastewater. Therefore, comprehensive toxicity assessment of treated wastewater is imperative. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive toxicity assessment of wastewater treatment systems using stress response bioassays. This powerful tool can comprehensively assess the toxicity of contaminants. In this...

  14. Expression of a functional human insulin receptor from a cloned cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebina, Y; Edery, M; Ellis, L; Standring, D; Beaudoin, J; Roth, R A; Rutter, W J

    1985-01-01

    We have placed human insulin receptor cDNA into a vector under the control of the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter and tested its function by transient expression in microinjected Xenopus oocytes and by expression in stably transformed CHO cells. The precursor and the alpha and beta subunits of the receptor were detected by immunoprecipitation from extracts of these cells. The human insulin receptor expressed in CHO cells specifically binds 125I-labeled insulin but not insulin-like growt...

  15. Identifying bottlenecks in transient and stable production of recombinant monoclonal-antibody sequence variants in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Megan; Sweeney, Bernadette; Cain, Katharine; Stephens, Paul; Sharfstein, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for antibody-based therapeutics has emphasized the need for technologies to improve recombinant antibody titers from mammalian cell lines. Moreover, as antibody therapeutics address an increasing spectrum of indications, interest has increased in antibody engineering to improve affinity and biological activity. However, the cellular mechanisms that dictate expression and the relationships between antibody sequence and expression level remain poorly understood. Fundamenta...

  16. Quantitative feature extraction from the Chinese hamster ovary bioprocess bibliome using a novel meta-analysis workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golabgir, Aydin; Gutierrez, Jahir M.; Hefzi, Hooman;

    2016-01-01

    compilation covers all published CHO cell studies from 1995 to 2015, and each study is classified by the types of phenotypic and bioprocess data contained therein. Using data from selected studies, we also present a quantitative meta-analysis of bioprocess characteristics across diverse culture conditions...

  17. Sensitization by wortmannin of heat- or X-ray induced cell death in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we found that wortmannin sensitized Chinese hamster V79 cells to hyperthermic treatment at 44.0 deg C as determined either by colony formation assay or by dye exclusion assay. Wortmannin enhanced heat-induced cell death accompanying cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP). Additionally, the induction of heat shock protein HSP70 was suppressed and delayed in wortmannin-treated cells. Heat sensitizing effect of wortmannin was obvious at more than 5 or 10 μM of final concentrations, while radiosensitization was apparent at 5 μM. Requirement for high concentration of wortmannin, i.e., order of μM, suggests a possible role of certain protein kinases, such as DNA-PK and/or ATM among PI3-kinase family. The sensitization was minimal when wortmannin was added at the end of heat treatment. This was similar to the case of X-ray. Since heat-induced cell death and PARP cleavage preceded HSP70 induction phenomenon, the sensitization to the hyperthermic treatment was considered mainly caused by enhanced apoptotic cell death rather than secondary to suppression or delay by wortmannin of HSP70 induction. Further, in the present system radiosensitization by wortmannin was also at least partly mediated through enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (author)

  18. Dose dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) in radiation inactivation of Chinese hamster V79-171 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) has been examined through multiple measurements of the response of Chinese hamster V79-171 cells to low and high doses of radiation under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. In this series of experiments the cells were maintained at 37 degrees C throughout the gassing and irradiation periods, to simulate normal physiological conditions. Flow cytometry and cell sorting techniques were used to facilitate accurate measurement of cell survival throughout the dose range, but particularly at low dose. The OER was found to decrease significantly at low dose, qualitatively confirming earlier reports from this laboratory, though the decrease was somewhat smaller in the present series. This difference may be a temperature effect since in the earlier experiments irradiation was at 0 degree C. This report shows that the OER decreases from a value of 2.87 ± 0.16 (standard deviation of mean) at S = 0.01 to 2.36 ± 0.19 at S = 0.80. Both alpha and beta are altered by the presence of oxygen. The OER is presented as a function of dose in nitrogen

  19. Interlaboratory studies with the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to detect tumor-promoting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrman, J.S.; Burg, J.R.; Elmore, E.; Gulati, D.K.; Barfknecht, T.R.; Niemeier, R.W.; Dames, B.L.; Toraason, M.; Langenbach, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the usefulness of the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to predict the tumor-promoting activity of selected chemical. Twenty-three chemicals of different chemical structures (phorbol esters, barbiturates, phenols, artificial sweeteners, alkanes, and peroxides) were chosen for testing based on in vivo promotion activities, as reported in the literature. Assay protocols and materials were standardized, and the chemicals were coded to facilitate unbiased evaluation. A chemical was tested only once in each laboratory, with one of the three laboratories testing only 15 out of 23 chemicals. Dunnett's test was used for statistical analysis. Chemicals were scored as positive (at least two concentration levels statistically different than control), equivocal (only one concentration statistically different), or negative. For 15 chemicals tested in all three laboratories, there was complete agreement among the laboratories for nine chemicals. For the 23 chemicals tested in only two laboratories, there was agreement on 16 chemicals. With the exception of the peroxides and alkanes, the metabolic cooperation data were in general agreement with in vivo data. However, an overall evaluation of the V79 cell system for predicting in vivo promotion activity was difficult because of the organ specificity of certain chemicals and/or the limited number of adequately tested nonpromoting chemicals.

  20. Anticancer Effects of Fusion Protein CAtin on DMBA-induced Carcinogenesis in Buccal Pouch of Chinese Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jie-ying; LI Xiao; LI Chang; ZHANG Xiao-fei; LI Zhi-xin; ZHAO Shuang; LIU Xiao; ZENG Lin; CHI Bao-rong

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant expression ofcarcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)is a common feature for multiple types of cancer,which makes it an attractive target for anticancer therapy.CAtin is a novel dual cancer-specific fusion protein,composed of an anti-CEA single-chain disulfide-stabilized Fv antibody(scdsFv)and Apoptin,a tumor-specific apoptosis-inducing protein.Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC)is an important healthcare problem in the clinic.To evaluate the anticancer effects of CAtin on OSCC,7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene(DMBA)was used to induce oral carcinogenesis and premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of Chinese hamster,and the antitumor effects of CAtin were determined in pre-cancer,cancer and post-operatative cancer models,respectively.The results show that the administration of CAtin delayed the malignant transformation of early stage cancerous lesions,inhibited the growth of established solid oral tumors and reduced the post-operatative relapse of lesions,with no significant systemic toxicity.This study demonstrates that CAtin may have potential for the treatment of OSCC,and the development of preventive strategies based on CAtin may offer a practical approach for the treatment of human oral tumors.

  1. Effects of 2'-chlorothymidine on Chinese hamster cells irradiated with x-rays and ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of 2'-chlorothymidine (2'-Cl-TdR) and its mother compound, thymidine (TdR), on cell killing induced by X- and UV-irradiation have been investigated. Chinse hamster V-79 (TK+) cells as well as thymidine kinase deficient (TK-) variant cells, which were isolated from parental V-79 cells following stepwise treatment with BUdR, were incubated in a medium containing 2'-Cl-TdR and TdR after X- and UV-irradiation. In the TK+ cells, both 2'-Cl-TdR and TdR enhanced the killing efficiency of X-rays and ultraviolet light. On the other hand, in the TK- cells, only 2'-Cl-TdR enhanced the killing efficiency of X- and UV-irradiation, and no effect of TdR was observed. These results suggest that phosphorylation of TdR by the enzyme is essential for its ability to modify radiation response, while the enhancement of cell killing by 2'-Cl-TdR must be explained by a mechanism at least partly independent of phosphorylation. (author)

  2. A three-step purification strategy for isolation of hamster TIG2 from CHO cells: characterization of two processed endogenous forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busmann, Annette; Walden, Michael; Wendland, Martin; Kutzleb, Christian; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; John, Harald

    2004-11-25

    We have recently isolated a bioactive, circulating protein of human tazarotene-induced gene-2 (TIG2) as the natural ligand of the orphan receptor ChemR23. Here we describe a simplified method for the isolation of hamster TIG2 protein from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell supernatant. Using a heparin-affinity column followed by two reversed phase chromatography steps resulted in the isolation of pure biologically active material. Two processed bioactive forms of Chinese hamster TIG2 were identified by Edman sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) mass fingerprint analysis, representing the amino acid residues T20 to F156, and T20 to A155 of the 163 amino acid propeptide. Comparison with the predicted aa-sequence indicates a mutation or modification within the C-terminal end of the peptide. PMID:15522723

  3. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors-anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15)-across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for 2 (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or 8 weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-α, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (P hamsters to stimulatory long photoperiod for 8 weeks returned AMH and GDF9 mRNA levels to LD-treated levels, and further increased mRNA levels for inhibin-α and BMP15. Immunostaining for AMH, inhibin-α, GDF9, and BMP15 proteins was most intense in preantral/antral follicles and oocytes. The overall immunostaining extent for AMH and inhibin-α generally mirrored the mRNA data, though no changes were observed for GDF9 or BMP15 immunostaining. Shifts in mRNA and protein levels across photoperiod conditions suggest possible syncretic roles for these folliculogenic factors in photo-stimulated recrudescence via potential regulation of follicle recruitment, preservation, and development.

  4. The effects of differential polyadenylation on expression of the dihydrofolate reductase-encoding gene in Chinese hamster lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Hussain, A; Melera, P W

    1995-10-01

    Three differently sized mRNAs are expressed from each of two DHFR (encoding dihydrofolate reductase) alleles present in the Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cell line, DC-3F. The relative abundancy of the transcripts produced from each allele differs dramatically as a result of differential utilization of the multiple poly(A) sites present in the DHFR DHFR gene and a genetic polymorphism located within the third poly(A) signal of one allele. We sought to determine whether such differences in polyadenylation affect the steady-state levels of DHFR and mRNAs expressed from either allele and, in a more general sense, to ask whether differences in 3' end RNA processing in a gene containing multiple poly(A) sites affects the final level of gene expression. An SV40 promoter-based transient expression system producing chimeric cat::DHFR transcripts was developed to regenerate the in vivo mRNA polyadenylation patterns associated with each of the two DHFR alleles. The results demonstrate that the total amount of polyadenylated RNA expressed from each of these constructs in vitro is the same regardless of the differential utilization of the poly(A) signals that occurs between them. Moreover, measurement of the individual turnover rates of the DHFR mRNAs expressed in vivo from each allele, as determined by pulse-chase labeling and actinomycin D inhibition studies, revealed no significant allele-specific differences in transcript half-lives. Finally, measuring the steady-state levels of DHFR poly(A)+ mRNA in parental DC-3F cells demonstrated that both alleles are expressed to the same extent during normal growth. Thus, even though dramatic allele-specific differences in 3' end processing of DHFR transcripts occur in vivo, such differences do not appear to influence the steady-state levels of DHFR gene expression. PMID:7590264

  5. Development of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-tz Ou

    Full Text Available To develop the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.This cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. Eighty women who met the criteria were enrolled: female, age range of 18-45 years, competent in the Chinese language, had been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, and were regularly followed at outpatient clinics (defined as at least two outpatient visits before enrollment. The PCOSQ was translated and culturally adapted according to standard procedures. A semi-structured interview was applied to assess face validity. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was applied to determine scale constructs. Measurements of internal consistency via Cronbach's α, test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, construct validity, and discriminative validity were performed.Five additional items, representing the issues of acne, hair loss, and fear of getting diabetes, were incorporated into the original scale. A six-factor structure emerged as a result of the EFA, explaining 71.9% of the variance observed. The reliability analyses demonstrated satisfactory results for Cronbach's α ranging from 0.78-0.96, and for ICC ranging from 0.73-0.86. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation between the domains of the Chi-PCOSQ and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL measures (WHOQOL-BREF, EQ-5D and clinical parameters (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure. The known-group analysis indicated that the Chi-PCOSQ is a discriminative tool that differentiates patients according to their HRQoL.The Chi-PCOSQ seems internally consistent, culturally acceptable, and our preliminary evidence suggests that it may be reliable and valid. The Chi-PCOSQ is a promising assessment tool to address the HRQoL of women affected by PCOS in Chinese-speaking countries and to further identify ethnic/cultural differences in the HRQoL of

  6. Increased risk of psychiatric disorders in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Li; Shi Yu-hua; Hao cui-fang; Chen Zi-jiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the psychological health status and quality of everyday life of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: A total of 846 patients were assessed with Self-Rating Anxiety Scales (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS) (292 of PCOS patients, 294 of non-PCOS infertile patients and 260 of healthy control). Specific questionnaires were employed to rate the quality of everyday life and adverse effects of different psychiatric factors. Results: The scores of SDS and SAS of PCOS patients were higher than those of non-PCOS infertile patients and healthy control. In addition, the negative psychiatric and psychological impact of PCOS was severe. The quality of everyday life in PCOS patients was undermined to certain extents. Conclusions: The features of polycystic ovary syndrome bring stress to patients, causing psychological disorder. The quality of everyday life in affected women is impaired partly. These results implicate that psychological support should be considered in the treatment of PCOS-associated infertility.

  7. Restoration of Chinese hamster cell radiation resistance by the human repair gene ERCC-5 and progress in molecular cloning of this gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uv-sensitive Chinese hamster cell uv-135 is being used to identify and isolate the human gene, ERCC-5, which corrects nucleotide excision repair in this incision-defective mutant. A cosmid library, constructed from a 30 transformant of uv-135, has been screened for transfected gpt and human Alu family sequences. An ordered physical map of overlapping positives cosmids has been determined. Molecular evidence suggests a region of this map of <40 Kbp contains the ERCC-5 gene. 10 refs., 2 figs

  8. Genetic determinants of growth phase-dependent and adenovirus 5-responsive expression of the Chinese hamster thymidine kinase gene are contained within thymidine kinase mRNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J. A.; Matkovich, D A

    1986-01-01

    We have constructed a chimeric thymidine kinase (TK) minigene, pHe delta 6Ha, which combines the complete coding and 3' noncoding regions of a Chinese hamster TK cDNA with the promoter region and 5' untranslated region of the TK gene of herpes simplex virus type 1. We have transformed rat 4 cells to Tk+ with this gene and analyzed the pattern of TK gene expression in these transformants under various conditions of in vitro cell culture. We find that TK gene expression in these Tk+ transforman...

  9. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Ou, Huang-tz; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ). Research Design and Method This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18–45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ. Results With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49) = 5.20; p PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088). The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time. Conclusion Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS. PMID:27124836

  10. Role of 239Pu-induced chromosome alterations and mutated Ki-v-ras oncogene during liver-cancer induction in Chinese hamsters and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations and mutated oncogenes can cause important changes during carcinogenesis. Model systems are being studied in which defined cellular and molecular changes can be quantitated and altered, and tumor frequency, type, and time of appearance can be evaluated. Dose-response relationships for Pu Citrate-induced chromosome aberrations and liver cancer were measured in Chinese hamsters. Chromosome aberrations increased linearly according to dose, with a slope of 4.8 x 10-1 aberrations/cell/Gy; liver-tumor incidence was 1.1 x 10-1 tumors/animal/Gy. The dose was calculated at the 50% survival time. The interaction between Pu and Ki-v-ras, an altered, dominant-acting oncogene, on the induction of liver cancer was measured in B6C3F1 mice. The neo oncogene was used as a negative control in these studies. The Ki-v-ras oncogene was inserted into a viral vector and incorporated into the livers of mice either 30 days before or after the incorporation of 239Pu. Compared with both the controls and the mice injected with a single insult, mortality increased in groups of animals that received combined exposure to oncogenes, CCl4, and 239Pu. The relationships between molecular and cellular damage and the induction of cancer is being defined in both mice and Chinese hamsters

  11. Protective Effect of Boric Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage In Chinese Hamster Lung Fibroblast V79 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SezenYılmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have been published on the antioxidative effects of boric acid (BA and sodium borates in in vitro studies. However, the boron (B concentrations tested in these in vitro studies have not been selected by taking into account the realistic blood B concentrations in humans due to the lack of comprehensive epidemiological studies. The recently published epidemiological studies on B exposure conducted in China and Turkey provided blood B concentrations for both humans in daily life and workers under extreme exposure conditions in occupational setting. The results of these studies have made it possible to test antioxidative effects of BA in in vitro studies within the concentration range relevant to humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of BA against oxidative DNA damage in V79 (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells. The concentrations of BA tested for its protective effect was selected by taking the blood B concentrations into account reported in previously published epidemiological studies. Therefore, the concentrations of BA tested in this study represent the exposure levels for humans in both daily life and occupational settings. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, comet assay and neutral red uptake (NRU assay methods were used to determinacy to toxicity and genotoxicity of BA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Results: The results of the NRU assay showed that BA was not cytotoxic within the tested concentrations (3, 10, 30, 100 and 200 μM. These non-cytotoxic concentrations were used for comet assay. BA pre-treatment significantly reduced (P<0.05, one-way ANOVA the DNA damaging capacity of H2O2 at each tested BA concentrations in V79 cells. Conclusion: Consequently, pre-incubation of V79 cells with BA has significantly reduced the H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in V79 cells. The protective effect of BA against oxidative DNA damage in V79 cells at 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 μM (54

  12. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml.A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1% completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98 normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98 overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98 had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only.Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  13. Association between CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 Polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Long

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported the association of the SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene with hyperandrogenism, which is one of the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. These studies suggest that SNP rs2414096 may be involved in the etiopathogenisis of PCOS. To investigate whetherthe CYP19 gene SNP rs2414096 polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to PCOS, we designed a case-controlled association study including 684 individuals. Methods A case-controlled association study including 684 individuals (386 PCOS patients and 298 controls was performed to assess the association of SNP rs2414096 with PCOS. Genotyping of SNP rs2414096 was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method that was performed on genomic DNA isolated from blood leucocytes. Results were analyzed in respect to clinical test results. Results The genotypic distributions of rs2414096 (GG, AG, AA in the CYP19 gene (GG, AG, AA in women with PCOS (0.363, 0.474, 0.163, respectively were significantly different from that in controls (0.242, 0.500, 0.258, respectively (P = 0.001. E2/T was different between the AA and GG genotypes. Age at menarche (AAM and FSH were also significantly different among the GG, AG, and AA genotypes in women with PCOS (P = 0.0391 and 0.0118, respectively. No differences were observed in body mass index (BMI and other serum hormone concentrations among the three genotypes, either in the PCOS patients or controls. Conclusions Our data suggest that SNP rs2414096 in the CYP19 gene is associated with susceptibility to PCOS.

  14. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population.Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, were analyzed. Women with PCOS were found to have significantly higher fasting insulin (FI levels, as well as Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR (P < 0.05. Identically, markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, Nitric oxide (NO and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP were markedly increased when compared to controls (P < 0.05. Elevated serum Hsp70 was positively correlated with IR, oxidative stress and inflammation in PCOS, even after adjustment for age, BMI and gynecologic inflammation (GI. The receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis yielded notably different discriminative value for PCOS, with or without an addition of Hsp70 (areas under the curves were 0.884 (95% CI 0.822-0.946 vs. 0.822 (95% CI 0.744-0.900; P for difference = 0.015.Increased serum Hsp70 levels are associated with the combination of IR, oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS individuals, which provides supportive evidence that Hsp70 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of circulating Hsp70, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of PCOS and its long-term health cost.

  15. Induction of apoptosis by ionizing radiation in Chinese hamster V79 cells and a radioresistant cell strain derived from V79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, R; Sengupta, S; Bhattacharyya, N P

    1996-09-01

    DNA fragmentation into nucleosome ladder, a hall mark of apoptosis, could be obtained by as low as 0.58 Gy of gamma irradiation within 6 hr of irradiation which increased appreciably after 48 hr in V79 cells. In the same condition condensation of the nucleus and marginalization of the cytoplasm the characteristic morphology of apoptotic death were observed. Unirradiated controls had approximately 2% apoptotic cells. When cells were irradiated with 0.58 Gy, approximately 10% of the cells had the apoptotic morphology. This number increased to approximately 29% at 3.5 Gy dose. At a higher dose, apoptotic and necrotic cells were visualized. In radio resistant cells higher doses were required to induce morphological changes. The results indicated that gamma irradiation can induce apoptosis in Chinese hamster V79, fibroblast cell line and the radioresistant cell strain derived from V79 cells is also resistant to induction of apoptosis.

  16. The effect of oxygen on low-dose hypersensitivity and increased radioresistance in Chinese hamster V79-379A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster V79 cells irradiated in air are hypersensitive to X-ray doses less than 0.5 Gy and show an increased radioresistance over the dose range 0.5-1 Gy. Of considerable interest from both a mechanistic and clinical viewpoint is the response of hypoxic cells over this dose range. The data presented here indicate that hypoxic cells are also hypersensitive to low X-ray doses and exhibit an increased radioresistant response, albeit triggered at a somewhat higher dose (0.69 Gy, SEM ± 0.18 Gy) than observed in oxygenated cells (0.5 Gy, SEM ± 0.21 Gy). These data indicate that the triggering event for increased radioresistance may be independent of oxygen. As reported by others previously, the oxygen enhancement ratio was found to decrease with a decreasing X-ray dose. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Species differences in the immunoreactive expression of oxytocin, vasopressin, tyrosine hydroxylase and estrogen receptor alpha in the brain of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus and Chinese striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Species differences in neurochemical expression and activity in the brain may play an important role in species-specific patterns of social behavior. In the present study, we used immunoreactive (ir labeling to compare the regional density of cells containing oxytocin (OT, vasopressin (AVP, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα staining in the brains of social Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus and solitary Chinese striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis. Multiple region- and neurochemical-specific species differences were found. In the anterior hypothalamus (AH, Mongolian gerbils had higher densities of AVP-ir and ERα-ir cells than Chinese striped hamsters. In the lateral hypothalamus (LH, Mongolian gerbils also had higher densities of AVP-ir and TH-ir cells, but a lower density of OT-ir cells, than Chinese striped hamsters. Furthermore, in the anterior nucleus of the medial preoptic area (MPOAa, Mongolian gerbils had higher densities of OT-ir and AVP-ir cells than Chinese striped hamsters, and an opposite pattern was found in the posterior nucleus of the MPOA (MPOAp. Some sex differences were also observed. Females of both species had higher densities of TH-ir cells in the MPOAa and of OT-ir cells in the intermediate nucleus of the MPOA (MPOAi than males. Given the role of these neurochemicals in social behaviors, our data provide additional evidence to support the notion that species-specific patterns of neurochemical expression in the brain may be involved in species differences in social behaviors associated with different life strategies.

  18. Effect of oxygen-radiosensitizer mixtures on the radiation response of Chinese hamster cells, line V-79-753B, in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, B.C.; Fielden, E.M.; Steele, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The present data show that the maximum yield of single-strand breaks (ssb) in the cellular DNA of Chinese hamster cells V-79-753B is produced at a concentration of oxygen that produces an enhancement ratio for cell survival of 1.9. The relationship between the oxygen concentration and enhancement ratio for survival in this cell line is biphasic with a plateau at ER = 1.9 over the range of 1.5 to 7 ..mu..M O/sub 2/. For concetrations of oxygen below 1.5 ..mu..M a linear relationship between 1/D/sub 0/ and the initial yield of ssb is found. Electron affinic and free radical radiosensitizers operate by different mechanisms which are reflected at the level of ssb production; electron affinic compounds increase the yield of ssb in anoxia and in the presence of low concentrations of oxygen, whereas free radical radiosensitizers do not. The observation that TMPN can compete with oxygen or misonidazole in reactions that lead to changes in radiosensitivity but not ssb production indicates that the relationship between the two parameters must be casual and not casual.

  19. Chromium(VI)-induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Change of Plasma Membrane Potential and Dissipation of Mitochondria Membrane Potential in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine whether Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is generated, and whether plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential are depolarized in Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cell lines exposed to Cr (VI). Methods CHL cells were incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 μmol/L, 2.5 μmol/L, 0.65 μmol/L for 3 and 6 hours, respectively. The production of ROS was performed by using 2,7_dichlorofluorescin diacetate; The changes in plasma membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent cationic dye DiBAC4; And the changes in mitochondria membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123. Results The ROS levels in CHL cells increased in all treated groups compared with the control group (P<0.01); The plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cells dissipated after incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 μmol/L for 3 hours and 6 hours (P<0.01), at 2.5 μmol/L for 6 hours (P<0.01 or 0.05). Conclusion Cr(VI) causes the dissipation of plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cell cultures, and Cr(VI)_induced ROS may play a role in the injuries.

  20. Chromium(VI)—induces Production of Reactive Oxygen Species,Change of Plasma Membrane Potential and Dissipation of Mitochondria Membrane otential in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEYI; ZHUANGZHI-XIONG

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS) is generated,and whether plasma membrane potential and mitochnodrial membrane potential are depolarized in Chinese Hamster Lung(CHL)cell lines exposed to Cr(VI),Methods:CHL Cells were incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 umol/L,2.5umol/L,0.65umol/L for 3 and 6 hours,respectively.The rpoduction of ROS was performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin discetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin discetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent cationic dye DiBAC4;And the changes in mitochondria membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123,Results:The ROS levels in CHL cells increased in all treated groups compared with the control group(P<0.01);The plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cells dissipated after incubated with Cr(VI) at 10umol/L for 3 hours and 6 hours(P<0.01),at 2.5umol/L for 6 hours(P<0.01 or 0.05),Conclusion:Cr(VI) causes the dissipation of plasma membrane potential and mitochnodrial membrane otential in CHL cell cultrues,and Cr(VI)-induced ROS may play a role in the injuries.

  1. The effects of captan and captafol on different bacterial strains and on c-mitosis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahden-Staroń, I; Szumiło, M; Ziemkiewicz, P

    1994-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of captan and captafol was tested using Ames strains and strains showing an SOS response. Captafol was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA102 (uvr+) and captan in strain TA104 (uvrB). Both captan and captafol elicit damages in DNA recognized by correndonuclease II, as shown by the repair test, and induced the SOS repair system in E. coli PQ37 (uvrA) strain. Only captafol induced the SOS system in PQ35 (uvr+). The lack of induction of beta-galactosidase at nonpermissive temperature in E. coli MD332 (dnaCs uvrA) strain showed that neither chemical was able to produce DNA breaks. In V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts higher induction of c-mitosis by captafol than by captan (22% and 15% over the control, respectively) was accompanied by a higher decrease in nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH (41% and 77%, respectively). The content of protein sulfhydryl groups was decreased by either fungicide to a similar extent.

  2. A simple and reliable in vitro test system for the analysis of induced aneuploidy as well as other cytogenetic end-points using Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although aneuploidy is a serious human health problem, the experimental methodology devised until now to study the mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy and for the screening of aneuploidy-inducing agents has not been so much employed to have the necessary validation. A procedure using primary cell cultures of Chinese hamster embryo cells grown on cover glasses is described. To avoid the excessive scattering and subsequent loss of chromosomes, a hypotonic treatment with a 0.17% sodium chloride solution, at room temperature, followed by in situ fixation has been standardized. This procedure improves the method through the reduction of the spontaneous frequency of aneuploid cells. Experiments carried out with cells treated with X-rays, X-rays plus caffeine, and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) demonstrated the accuracy of the system since the average chromosome number remained constant in spite of the induction of high frequencies of aneuploid cells. Moreover, the method allows for the analysis of other cytogenetic endpoints such as anaphase-telophase alterations, structural chromosome aberrations or sister chromatid exchanges. (author)

  3. Association of the polymorphism of codon 121 in the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the association of polymorphism of codon 121 in the ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphastase/phosphodiesterase 1 (E-NPP1/PC-1) gene in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 51 PCOS patients and 61 healthy women from Chinese Han population from the Center Reproductive Medicine of Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University from June 2005 to July 2006 were recruited for the determination of the polymorphism of the E-NPP/PC-1 gene. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood monocytes of patients and controls and genotyping of the gene was performed by using polymerase chain reaction, which was followed by sequencing. The frequency of the 121Q allele was 13 and 18%, respectively, in PCOS patients and healthy women, while the frequency of the 121K allele was 87 and 82% in the 2 groups. There is no significant difference in the E-NPP1/PC-1 polymorphism between PCOS patients and healthy controls among Chinese Han women. ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 polymorphism has no association with PCOS. Further studies are still needed to elucidate whether or not the E-NPP1/PC-1 gene has a functional role in PCOS. (author)

  4. Role of the Pentanucleotide (tttta)n Polymorphisms of CYP11α Gene in the Pathogenesis of Hyperandrogenism in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To determine the (tttta)n repeat polymorphisms at the promoter region of CYP11α gene,and study its linkage to hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Chinese women, a case-control study was conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Zhengzhou, China). 96 PCOS patients and 78 healthy control women were included. CYP11α (tttta)n repeat-polymorphism genotyping analysis was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum pituitary hormone and total testosterone levels were measured by ELISA. 4 different CYP11α (tttta)n allelles were identified, corresponding to 4-, 6-, 8-, and 9-repeat-unit alleles. The frequency and distribution of these alleles are 0. 16,0.33, 0.38, and 0. 13 respectively in PCOS patients, as compared with 0. 20, 0.34, 0. 35, and 0.11 respectively in healthy controls. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Moreover, no correlation between the polymorphism of CYP11α gene and serum testosterone level of patients with PCOS and controls was observed. It is concluded that microsatellite polymorphism (tttta)n of gene CYP11α exists in Chinese women and the polymorphism of CYP11α gene does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with PCOS, especially in patients with hyperandrogenism.

  5. Changes in the Number of Double-Strand DNA Breaks in Chinese Hamster V79 Cells Exposed to γ-Radiation with Different Dose Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyan N. Osipov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation of the induction of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs in the Chinese hamster V79 cells by γ-radiation at dose rates of 1, 10 and 400 mGy/min (doses ranged from 0.36 to 4.32 Gy was performed. The acute radiation exposure at a dose rate of 400 mGy/min resulted in the linear dose-dependent increase of the γ-H2AX foci formation. The dose-response curve for the acute exposure was well described by a linear function y = 1.22 + 19.7x, where “y” is an average number of γ-H2AX foci per a cell and “x” is the absorbed dose (Gy. The dose rate reduction down to 10 mGy/min lead to a decreased number of γ-H2AX foci, as well as to a change of the dose-response relationship. Thus, the foci number up to 1.44 Gy increased and reached the “plateau” area between 1.44 and 4.32 Gy. There was only a slight increase of the γ-H2AX foci number (up to 7 in cells after the protracted exposure (up to 72 h to ionizing radiation at a dose rate of 1 mGy/min. Similar effects of the varying dose rates were obtained when DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay. In general, our results show that the reduction of the radiation dose rate resulted in a significant decrease of DSBs per cell per an absorbed dose.

  6. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of UV-A- and UV-B-induced delayed and early mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jostein; Noordhuis, Paul; Stokke, Trond; Svendsrud, Debbie Hege; Kvam, Egil

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that approximately 10% of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast populations clonally derived from single cells immediately after irradiation with either ultraviolet B (UV-B, 290-320 nm, mainly 311 nm) or ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm, mainly 350-390 nm) radiation exhibit genomic instability. The instability is revealed by relatively high mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene up to 23 cell generations after irradiation. These delayed mutant clones exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress than normal cells. Therefore, persistently increased oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for UV-induced genomic instability. This study investigates whether this mechanism is reflected in the deletion spectrum of delayed mutant clones. Eighty-eight percent of the delayed mutant clones derived from UV-A-irradiated populations were found to have total deletion of the hprt gene. Correspondingly, 81% of UV-A-induced early mutations (i.e. detected shortly after irradiation) also had total deletions. Among delayed UV-B-induced mutant clones, 23% had total deletions and 8% had deletion of one exon, whereas all early UV-B events were either point mutations or small deletions or insertions. In conclusion, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction deletion screen showed that there were explicit differences in the occurrence of large gene alterations between early and delayed mutations induced by UV-B radiation. For UV-A radiation the deletion spectra were similar for delayed and early mutations. UV-A radiation is, in contrast to UV-B radiation, only weakly absorbed by DNA and probably induces mutation almost solely via production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that persistent increase in oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of UV-induced genomic instability.

  7. Cell killing, nuclear damage and apoptosis in Chinese hamster V79 cells after irradiation with heavy-ion beams of (16)O, (12)C and (7)Li.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Sarma, Asiti; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2007-08-15

    Chinese hamster V79 cells were exposed to high LET (linear energy transfer) (16)O-beam (625keV/mum) radiation in the dose range of 0-9.83Gy. Cell survival, micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and induction of apoptosis were studied as a follow up of our earlier study on high LET radiations ((7)Li-beam of 60keV/mum and (12)C-beam of 295keV/mum) as well as (60)Co gamma-rays. Dose dependent decline in surviving fraction was noticed along with the increase of MN frequency, CA frequency as well as percentage of apoptosis as detected by nuclear fragmentation assay. The relative intensity of DNA ladder, which is a useful marker for the determination of the extent of apoptosis induction, was also increased in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, expression of tyrosine kinase lck-1 gene, which plays an important role in response to ionizing radiation induced apoptosis, was increased with the increase of radiation doses and also with incubation time. The present study showed that all the high LET radiations were generally more effective in cell killing and inflicting other cytogenetic damages than that of low LET gamma-rays. The dose response curves revealed that (7)Li-beam was most effective in cell killing as well as inducing other nuclear damages followed by (12)C, (16)O and (60)Co gamma-rays, in that order. The result of this study may have some application in biological dosimetry for assessment of genotoxicity in heavy ion exposed subjects and in determining suitable doses for radiotherapy in cancer patients where various species of heavy ions are now being generally used.

  8. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40/sub 0/C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G/sub 1/-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Functional capacity of XRCC1 protein variants identified in DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines and the human population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berquist, Brian R; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Fan, Jinshui;

    2010-01-01

    XRCC1 operates as a scaffold protein in base excision repair, a pathway that copes with base and sugar damage in DNA. Studies using recombinant XRCC1 proteins revealed that: a C389Y substitution, responsible for the repair defects of the EM-C11 CHO cell line, caused protein instability; a V86R...... mutation abolished the interaction with POLbeta, but did not disrupt the interactions with PARP-1, LIG3alpha and PCNA; and an E98K substitution, identified in EM-C12, reduced protein integrity, marginally destabilized the POLbeta interaction, and slightly enhanced DNA binding. Two rare (P161L and Y576S......, but did reduce DNA-binding ability. When expressed in HeLa cells, the XRCC1 variants-excluding E98K, which was largely nucleolar, and C389Y, which exhibited reduced expression-exhibited normal nuclear distribution. Most of the protein variants, including the V86R POLbeta-interaction mutant, displayed...

  10. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, was compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-SC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal X-ray damage. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Distinct perturbations in the cell-cycle progression were noted following heat alone or heat with radiation. A delay in the progression of synchronized G/sub 1/-phase and S-phase cells was demonstrated autoradiographically after inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, treated S-phase cells showed a transient increase in the percent labelled cells after the cells were returned to their normal growth temperature of 35/sup 0/C. This observation was suggestive of an unusual pattern of DNA synthesis during the recovery period. Split-dose experiments were done using incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. Both the chemical and thermal inhibition of protein synthesis substantiate its necessity for the repair of sublethal damage.

  11. Reversal of typical multidrug resistance by cyclosporin and its non-immunosuppressive analogue SDZ PSC 833 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the mdr1 phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.W. Boekhorst; J. van Kapel (Jan); M. Schoester (Martijn); P. Sonneveld (Pieter)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary The new non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC) is a potent agent used to overcome typical multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of themdr1 gene encoding for a P-170 glycoprotein. In the present study, the efficacy of PSC as compar

  12. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 400C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 400C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 400C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G1-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 350C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Titer of trastuzumab produced by a Chinese hamster ovary cell line is associated with tricarboxylic acid cycle activity rather than lactate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yoichi; Imamoto, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Rie; Tsukahara, Masayoshi; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-04-01

    Achieving high productivity and quality is the final goal of therapeutic antibody development, but the productivity and quality of antibodies are known to be substantially dependent on the nature of the cell lines expressing the antibodies. We characterized two contrasting cell lines that produce trastuzumab, namely cell line A with a high titer and a low aggregate content and cell line B with a low titer and a high aggregate content to identify the causes of the differences. We observed the following differences: cell growth (A > B), proportion of defucosylated oligosaccharides on antibodies (A B). Our results suggest that the high monoclonal antibody (mAb) titers in cell line A is associated with the high proliferation and is not caused by the lactate metabolism shift (switching from lactate production to net lactate consumption). Rather, these differences can be accounted for by the following: levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates (A > B), ammonium ion levels (A ≤ B), and oxidative stress (A > B). PMID:25449760

  14. Exploring the mechanistic aspects of mitomycin antibiotic bioactivation in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing NADPH:cytochrome C (P-450) reductase and DT-diaphorase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Hodnick, W F; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1998-01-01

    We have directly demonstrated the involvement of human NADPH: cytochrome c (P-450) reductase in the aerobic/hypoxic differential toxicity of mitomycin C and porfiromycin in living cells by varying only this enzyme in a transfected cell line. In the same manner, we have implicated rat DT-diaphorase in the aerobic and hypoxic activation of mitomycin C, but found only a minor role for this enzyme in the aerobic activation of porfiromycin. DT-Diaphorase does not cause the production of an aerobic/hypoxic differential toxicity by mitomycin C, but rather activates this agent through an oxygen insensitive pathway. The evidence suggests that DT-diaphorase activates mitomycin C more effectively than porfiromycin, with porfiromycin being preferentially activated through a one-electron reductive pathway. The therapeutic potential of mitomycin antibiotics in the treatment of cancer can be envisioned to be enhanced for those tumors containing elevated levels of the bioreductive enzymes. However, cytogenetic heterogeneity within the tumor cell population and the various environmental factors which impact on bioreductive enzyme function, including pH and oxygen tension, may subvert this approach. Moreover, if high tumor levels of a drug activating enzyme reflect high levels in the normal tissues of the patient, normal tissue damage may also be enhanced with possibly no improvement in the therapeutic ratio. Approaches utilizing gene therapy, whereby a specific bioreductive catalyst is introduced into the tumor cell population via a targeting vehicle to activate a particular prodrug, may be more effective in that not only will the prodrug of choice be specifically activated in the tumor, but the source of the catalyst, be it bacterial, rodent, or human, will not be important. In fact, in the case of DT-diaphorase and mitomycin C, the rat form of the enzyme could be advantageous because it is more effective in activating mitomycin C than is the human form of this enzyme. Assuming targeted gene delivery to malignant cells, a non-host enzyme which is more effective at activating mitomycin C than the analogous host enzyme might also result in less drug activation in normal tissue and, hence, less normal tissue toxicity. PMID:9762350

  15. Expression of TRPC3 in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in calcium-activated cation currents not related to store depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitt, C; Obukhov, A G; Strübing, C; Zobel, A; Kalkbrenner, F; Lückhoff, A; Schultz, G

    1997-09-22

    TRPC3 (or Htrp3) is a human member of the trp family of Ca2+-permeable cation channels. Since expression of TRPC3 cDNA results in markedly enhanced Ca2+ influx in response to stimulation of membrane receptors linked to phospholipase C (Zhu, X., J. Meisheng, M. Peyton, G. Bouley, R. Hurst, E. Stefani, and L. Birnbaumer. 1996. Cell. 85:661-671), we tested whether TRPC3 might represent a Ca2+ entry pathway activated as a consequence of depletion of intracellular calcium stores. CHO cells expressing TRPC3 after intranuclear injection of cDNA coding for TRPC3 were identified by fluorescence from green fluorescent protein. Expression of TRPC3 produced cation currents with little selectivity for Ca2+ over Na+. These currents were constitutively active, not enhanced by depletion of calcium stores with inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate or thapsigargin, and attenuated by strong intracellular Ca2+ buffering. Ionomycin led to profound increases of currents, but this effect was strictly dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Likewise, infusion of Ca2+ into cell through the patch pipette increased TRPC3 currents. Therefore, TRPC3 is stimulated by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism. Studies on TRPC3 in inside-out patches showed cation-selective channels with 60-pS conductance and short (ionomycin to cells increased channel activity in cell-attached patches. Increasing the Ca2+ concentration on the cytosolic side of inside-out patches (from 0 to 1 and 30 microM), however, failed to stimulate channel activity, even in the presence of calmodulin (0.2 microM). We conclude that TRPC3 codes for a Ca2+-permeable channel that supports Ca2+-induced Ca2+-entry but should not be considered store operated. PMID:9298988

  16. Expression of TRPC3 in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Results in Calcium-activated Cation Currents Not Related to Store Depletion

    OpenAIRE

    Zitt, Christof; Obukhov, Alexander G.; Strübing, Carsten; Zobel, Andrea; Kalkbrenner, Frank; Lückhoff, Andreas; Schultz, Günter

    1997-01-01

    TRPC3 (or Htrp3) is a human member of the trp family of Ca2+-permeable cation channels. Since expression of TRPC3 cDNA results in markedly enhanced Ca2+ influx in response to stimulation of membrane receptors linked to phospholipase C (Zhu, X., J. Meisheng, M. Peyton, G. Bouley, R. Hurst, E. Stefani, and L. Birnbaumer. 1996. Cell. 85:661–671), we tested whether TRPC3 might represent a Ca2+ entry pathway activated as a consequence of depletion of intracellular calcium stores. CHO cells express...

  17. Ovary fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Estrada Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ovary fibroma is a solid tumor of very low frequency, scarcely from 1 to 4 % of all benign neoplasms in that gonad. The condition can be asymptomatic or with scarce manifestations, at the time it has been confused with malignant lesions. This is the case of a postmenopausal woman with an increase of volume of her lower right abdomen; at palpation, an immotile and hard tumoral mass of about 10 cm in diameter was found. To the vaginal touch, the volume increase, predominantly solid, was located in the right annex. The ultrasound reported a bladder slightly out of its place. The abdominal computed tomography showed that the colon and the bladder were compressed and moved up to the left by the lesion. The patient underwent surgery and the biopsy informed an ovary fibroma, as well as other disorders of that side of the uterus and the ovary.

  18. Overleeft de hamster?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, van R.C.; Klein Douwel, C.; Thomas, P.

    1999-01-01

    Een analyse van de achteruitgang van de hamster (Cricetus cricetus) in Europa en Limburg, de oorzaken (veranderingen in de landbouw; versnippering van leefgebieden), en oplossingsrichtingen voor een duurzaam overleven van de hamster in Limburg (kernpopulaties in duurzame populatienetwerken)

  19. Association Analysis between the Polymorphisms of HSD11B1 and H6PD and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of HSD11B1 (rs846908 and H6PD (rs6688832 and rs17368528 are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in Chinese population.A case-control study was implemented to investigate the association between HSD11B1 and H6PD polymorphisms and PCOS. Patients with PCOS (n = 335 and controls (n = 354 were recruited in this study. Genetic variants of HSD11B1 (rs846908 and H6PD (rs6688832 and rs17368528 were analyzed by TaqMan method.We found a significantly 0.79-fold lower risk of G allele of rs6688832 in control group compared with the patients with PCOS (adjusted OR, 0.79; 95%CI = 0.63-0.99; P = 0.040. Additionally, significant difference in the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH was observed between AA and AG genotype in rs6688832. The rs6688832 AG genotype was associated with lower level of FSH (P = 0.039 and higher risk of hyperandrogenism (P = 0.016 in patients with PCOS. When all subjects were divided into different subgroups according to age and body mass index (BMI, we found that the frequency of G allele of rs6688832 was significantly higher in controls than that in PCOS patients in the subgroup of BMI > 23 (adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50-0.98; P = 0.037.Our findings showed a statistical association between H6PD rs6688832 and PCOS risk in Chinese population. The G allele of rs6688832 in H6PD might exert potential genetic protective role against the development of PCOS, especially in overweight women. PCOS patients with AG genotype of rs6688832 might confer risk to the phenotype of hyperandrogenemia of PCOS.

  20. Recombinant expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase protects V79 Chinese hamster cells from styrene oxide- but not from ethylene oxide-induced DNA strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M E; Arand, M; Hengstler, J G; Oesch, F

    1997-01-01

    Styrene 7,8-oxide and ethylene oxide are widely used genotoxic bulk chemicals, which have been associated with potential carcinogenic hazard for occupationally exposed workers. Both epoxides alkylate DNA preferentially at the N-7 position of guanine and consequently produce single-strand breaks and alkali labile sites in the DNA of exposed cells. In order to study the role of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (hmEH) in protecting cells against genotoxicity of styrene 7,8-oxide and ethylene oxide, we expressed the cDNA of hmEH in V79 Chinese hamster cells. We obtained a number of cell clones that expressed functionally active epoxide hydrolase. Among these, the clone 92hmEH-V79 revealed an especially high enzymatic mEH activity toward styrene 7,8-oxide (10 nmol converted per mg of protein per min, measured in the 9,000 x g supernatant of the cell homogenate), that was 100 times higher than that determined in mock-transfected cells and within the range of mEH activity in human liver. Styrene 7,8-oxide-induced DNA single-strand breaks/alkali labile sites (dose range 10 microM to 1 mM styrene 7,8-oxide) measured by the alkaline elution technique were significantly lower in the 92hmEH-V79 cells as compared to the mock-transfected cells. The protection against styrene 7,8-oxide genotoxicity in 92hmEH-V79 cells could be abolished by addition of valpromide, a selective inhibitor of microsomal epoxide hydrolase. These results clearly show that the metabolism of styrene 7,8-oxide by hmEH in 92hmEH-V79 cells was responsible for the protection against styrene 7,8-oxide genotoxicity. On the other hand, no protective effect of epoxide hydrolase expression could be observed on ethylene oxide-induced DNA damage with the recombinant cell line over a dose range of 0.5-2.5 mM ethylene oxide. This selectivity of the protective effect on epoxide genotoxicity thus appears to be an important factor that must be taken into account for the prediction of the genotoxic risk of epoxides

  1. 多囊卵巢综合征中西医病理机制研究进展%Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳宁; 曹佩霞

    2012-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是妇科常见的一种内分泌疾病,在育龄期妇女多发,严重影响女性生理及心理健康.其发病机制仍不清楚.研究发现瘦素可从多方面导致多囊卵巢综合征的发生.中医认为肾虚、痰湿是其发病的主要病理机制.%Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disease in gynecology, especially in reproductive age. It is seriously affect the women's physiological and psychological health. Its pathogenesis is still not clear. Studies have found that Leptin can lead to polycystic ovary syndrome in many ways. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, kidney deficiency and phlegm is the main pathogenesis of pathological mechanism.

  2. Elk3 from hamster--a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortoe, Gertrud Malene; Weilguny, Dietmar; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    Elk3 belongs to the Ets family of transcription factors, which are regulated by the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway. In the absence of Ras, this protein is a strong inhibitor of transcription and may be directly involved in regulation of growth by downregulating the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3 is a target of the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway, and cotransfections with constitutively active H-ras relieves its negative transcriptional activity. No cells stably expressing exogenous Elk3 could be obtained, possibly due to an unspecified toxic or growth retarding effect. These findings support a possible role for Elk3 in growth regulation and reveal a high degree of homology for this protein across species. PMID:15684718

  3. 肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征中西医治疗进展%Chinese and Western Medicine Treatment Progress of Obese - polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国华; 陈霞

    2011-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是以高雄激素血症、排卵障碍以及多囊卵巢为特征的症候群,是育龄期女性不排卵性不孕的主要原因之一,其中肥胖者约占50%,并有月经失调、不孕等近期困扰及出现多种远期并发症的风险,且患病人群日渐增多,治疗相对棘手.作者就目前从生活方式调整、中医药、西药、手术及联合治疗等方面治疗肥胖型PCOS的研究进展进行综述.%Polyeystic ovary syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. It's one of the main reasons for women's anovulation infertility of reproductive age, in which obesity accounts for about 50%. And it causes menstrual disorders, infertility and other problems and a variety of long-term complications. Treatment is relatively difficult, with the increasing number of patients. This is an overview of the treatment of obese PCOS based on lifestyle adjustment, traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, surgery and combined therapy.

  4. The role of non-protein sulphydryls in determining the chemical repair rates of free radical precursors of DNA damage and cell killing in Chinese hamster V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts were irradiated in the gas explosion apparatus and the chemical repair rates of the oxygen-dependent free radical precursors of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) and lethal lesions measured using filter elution (pH 9.6) and a clonogenic assay. Depletion of cellular GSH levels, from 4.16 fmol/cell to 0.05 fmol/cell, by treatment with buthionine sulphoximine (50 μmol dm-3; 18 h), led to sensitization as regards DNA dsb induction and cell killing. This was evident at all time settings but was particularly pronounced when the oxygen shot was given 1 ms after the irradiation pulse. A detailed analysis of the chemical repair kinetics showed that depletion of GSH led to a reduction in the first-order rate constant for dsb precursors from 385 s-1 to 144 s-1, and for lethal lesion precursors from 533 s-1 to 165 s-1. (Author)

  5. THINDOWN IN RADIOBIOLOGY:E.COLI B/r,Bs—1,B.SUBTILUS SPORES,AND V—79 CHINESE HAMSTER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯祥; RobertKatz

    1995-01-01

    Track theory rested on the foundation of the radial distribution of dose from δ rays as the central contribution of atomic physics to heavy ion radiobiology,Here,a new calculation of the radial distribution of dose is applied,in which the classical angular distribtuion of dose of delta rays and a logarithmic polynomial representation of the electron range-energy relation are used.to form the basis of the present thindown calculation.Calculations of inactivation cross sections for heavy ions in the track width regime displaying thindown for E.Coli B/r and Bs-1,and for Bacillus Subtilus are straightforward for these are 1-hit detectors.Calculations for V-79 hamster cells are more complex.They follow the orginal development of this model for eucaryotic cells,and make use of the cross sections calculated for hypothetical internal targets which are then asserted to be proportional to the measured ceelular inactivation cross sections.The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental ,data.

  6. Survey of Distribution Characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征患者中医体质分布特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞丽; 傅金英; 杜蕾; 于胜男; 徐萌萌

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者的中医体质分布特征.方法:收集980例多囊卵巢征患者,填写调查表和中医体质量表,归纳本病的体质分布特征.结果:被调查的多囊卵巢综合征患者瘀血体质占13.9%,平和体质占3.9%,气虚体质占5.7%,阳虚体质占20.4%,痰湿体质占16.3%,湿热体质占5.1%,阴虚体质占11.2%,特禀体质占10.2%,气郁体质占13.3%.结论:PCOS中医体质分布以阳虚体质、痰湿体质、瘀血体质、气郁体质为多,为该病的预防和治疗提供了依据.%Objective:To explore the distribution characteristic of traditional Chinese medicine constitution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients.Methods:Collected 980 cases of patients with PCOS,filled in questionnaires and the constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire (CCMQ),and concluded the distribution characteristic of constitution of PCOS.Results:Blood stasis constitution accounts for 13.9%,peace constitution accounts for 3.9%,qi deficiency constitution accounts for 5.7%,yang deficiency constitution accounts for 20.4%,phlegm-damp constitution accounts for 16.3%,dampness-heat constitution accounts for 5.1%,yin deficiency constitution accounts for 11.2%,specific endowment constitution accounts for 10.2%,and qi depression constitution accounts for 13.3% in invested polycystic ovary syndrome patients.Conclusion:The majority of TCM constitution distributions in PCOS patients are yang deficiency constitution,phlegm-damp constitution,blood stasis constitution and qi depression constitution,which provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.

  7. Superiority and Characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Prevention and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中医药防治多囊卵巢综合征的优势及特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁冰; 侯丽辉; 郝松莉; 吴效科; 李妍; 孙淼; 苏丹

    2013-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是最常见的女性内分泌和代谢紊乱性疾病,其发病机制至今尚不清楚,但由其所导致的病理生理改变却影响和覆盖女性一生,是带有“生殖标志”的女性慢病.由于病因不明确,使得西医关于PCOS的治疗停滞于对症治疗的阶段,不能完全解决患者所有的问题.从四个方面总结和讨论了中医药防治多囊卵巢综合征的优势及特色:(1)中医药调体预防青春期PCOS;(2)生育期治疗PCOS排卵障碍提高妊娠率;(3)孕期预防及控制妊娠糖尿病、妊娠期高血压疾病发生;(4)预防和治疗PCOS远期并发糖尿病及心血管疾病.%The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine and metabolic disorder, and its pathogenesis is still unclear, but the pathophysiology changes influence and coverage the whole life of females. Because the cause is not clear, the western medicine treatment on PCOS arrests in the symptomatic treatment of stage, and can not solve all the problems. In this paper, from four aspects, it summarizes and discusses the advantages and characteristics of prevention and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with traditional Chinese medicine: (1) Chinese medicine can regulate body and prevent adolescent PCOS; ( 2) growth period of ovulation PCOS can increase pregnancy rate; (3) prevention and control of gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension disease (4) prevention and treatment of P-COS long — term complicated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Structural analysis of the sialylated N- and O-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Sialylation patterns and branch location of dimeric N-acetyllactosamine units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Hokke, C.H.; Bergwerff, A.A.; Dedem, G.W.K. van; Kamerling, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The N-linked carbohydrate chains of recombinant human erythropoietin expressed in CHO cells were quantitatively released with peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase F, separated from the remaining O-glycoprotein by gel-permeation chromatography, and subsequently fractionated via F

  9. Enzyme Therapy in Non-classic Pompe’s Disease: Safety and efficacy of recombinant human a-glucosidase from milk of transgenic rabbits and from Chinese hamster ovary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P.F. Winkel (Léon)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPompe’s disease is an inherited metabolic illness, caused by an inherited deficiency of an enzyme, called acid a-glucosidase. Acid a-glucosidase is a protein that breaks down glycogen (a chain of glucose molecules) into glucose (a single molecule), in a specific compartment of the cel

  10. 中药温肾涤痰法为基础配合中药周期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕%Traditional Chinese Medicine Warming Kidney and Removing Phlegm Method Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy Treatment of ;Infertility Due to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周睿

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome with traditional Chinese medicine on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine therapy.Method:80 cases of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome were randomly divided into observation group(n=45) and control group(n=35),respectively with Chinese herbal medicine for warming kidney phlegm based cycle therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine the treatment and Western medicine treatment,compared two groups before and after the treatment of sex hormone level and clinical curative effect.Result:After treatment,the two groups FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T than before treatment were significantly changed(P<0.05),and the observation group after treatment,the changes of the above indicators were greater than the control group(P<0.05).The observation group ovulation cycle the rate(51.1%) was significantly higher than the control group(34.3%)(P<0.05).The patients in the observation group the pregnancy rate(37.8%) was significantly higher than the control group(22.9%)(P<0.05).After 3 months,the total efficiency of the observation group(93.3%) was significantly higher than the control group(77.1%)(P<0.05). Conclusion:The treatment of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome by using the method of warming kidney and removing phlegm and removing phlegm, which can regulate the level of sex hormones,improve the endocrine environment,improve pregnancy rate,has a good clinical application value.%目的:观察以中药温肾涤痰法为基础配合中药周期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕的效果。方法:将80例多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕患者随机分为观察组(n=45)和对照组(n=35),分别采用以中药温肾涤痰法为基础配合中药周期疗法进行治疗和西药治疗,比较两组治疗前后性激素水平和临床效果。结果:治疗后两组FSH、LH、PRL、E2、T较

  11. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.

  12. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may lead to menstrual cycle changes, cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, and other health changes. In PCOS, mature eggs are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they can form very small cysts in the ovary. These changes can contribute to infertility. Common symptoms of PCOS include Menstrual disorders, Infertility, High levels of testosterone and Metabolic syndrome. Obesity, sedentary life style with inadequate physical activity, stress, junk food consumption are thought to be contributing factors in addition to genetic origin. In recent years many of the girls and women are suffering from PCOS because of wrong eating habits, stressful living conditions and lack of physical activity. Weight loss has been the major recommendation by physicians for women with PCOS. Lifestyle modifications including stress reduction, moderate exercise, and group support, along with a decrease in total calorie intake and avoiding junk food consumption have had positive results. A decrease of only 5% of total body weight is associated with decreased insulin levels, increased fertility, reduced hirsutism and acne, and lower testosterone levels. Whole grains, fruits and vegetables with foods containing protein and natural fat along with vitamins and minerals are beneficial.

  13. 卵巢早衰中西医治疗前后的血流动力学变化%Hemodynamics changes of ovary in patients with premature ovarian failure before and after treatment by traditional Chinese combined western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉萍; 杨鹰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the hemodynamics changes of ovary in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) before and after treatment by combining traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine .Methods The clinical data of 40 patients with POF were analyzed.Clinical symptoms, ovarian volume, artery systolic peak flow velocity ( PSV1 ), systolic arterial vessels of ovarian stroma (PSV2), resistance index (RI), time of acceleration (TA), and acceleration (ACC) were measured and compared before and after Chinese and western medicine treatment .Results Menstruation situation , hot flash, sweating and vaginal dryness pain were significantly improved after treatment (χ2 value was 21.98, 7.04, 13.73 and 5.00, respectively, all P<0.05).Ovarian volume was significantly increased after treatment (t=12.74,P<0.05), but PSV1, RI, TA and ACC decreased significantly(t value was 19.30, 6.46, 7.82 and 4.33, respectively, all P<0.01).PSV2 was significantly increased after treatment (t=6.63,P<0.01).Conclusion Combining Chinese and western medicine can improve ovarian vascular compliance , reduce RI, and thus improve ovarian blood flow and function .%目的:探讨卵巢早衰( POF)患者采用中西医结合方法治疗前后卵巢的血流动力学变化。方法分析重庆市沙坪坝区新桥医院40例卵巢早衰患者的临床资料,比较治疗前后患者临床症状、卵巢体积、卵巢内动脉血管收缩期的峰值流速(PSV1)、卵巢内基质动脉血管收缩期的峰值流速(PSV2)、阻力指数(RI)、加速时间(TA)和加速度(ACC)。结果治疗后患者月经情况、潮热、出汗、阴道干涩疼痛较治疗前显著改善(χ2值分别为21.98、7.04、13.73、5.00,均P<0.05)。患者治疗后卵巢体积较治疗前显著增大(t=12.74,P<0.05),而PSV1、RI、TA、ACC显著降低(t值分别为19.30、6.46、7.82、4.33,均P<0.01),治疗后POF患者的PSV2

  14. Enhanced susceptibility of ovaries from obese mice to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18 weeks of age, for 14 days. Total ovarian RNA and protein were isolated and abundance of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm), X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (Xrcc6), breast cancer type 1 (Brca1), Rad 51 homolog (Rad51), poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (Parp1) and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (Prkdc) were quantified by RT-PCR or Western blot. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) level was determined by Western blotting. Obesity decreased (P < 0.05) basal protein abundance of PRKDC and BRCA1 proteins but increased (P < 0.05) γH2AX and PARP1 proteins. Ovarian ATM, XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and PARP1 proteins were increased (P < 0.05) by DMBA exposure in lean mice. A blunted DMBA-induced increase (P < 0.05) in XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and BRCA1 was observed in ovaries from obese mice, relative to lean counterparts. Taken together, DMBA exposure induced γH2AX as well as the ovarian DDR, supporting that DMBA causes ovarian DNA damage. Additionally, ovarian DDR was partially attenuated in obese females raising concern that obesity may be an additive factor during chemical-induced ovotoxicity. - Highlights: • DMBA induces markers of ovarian DNA damage. • Obesity induces low level ovarian DNA damage. • DMBA-induced DNA repair response is altered by obesity

  15. Enhanced susceptibility of ovaries from obese mice to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Nteeba, Jackson, E-mail: nteeba@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2014-12-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18 weeks of age, for 14 days. Total ovarian RNA and protein were isolated and abundance of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm), X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (Xrcc6), breast cancer type 1 (Brca1), Rad 51 homolog (Rad51), poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (Parp1) and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (Prkdc) were quantified by RT-PCR or Western blot. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) level was determined by Western blotting. Obesity decreased (P < 0.05) basal protein abundance of PRKDC and BRCA1 proteins but increased (P < 0.05) γH2AX and PARP1 proteins. Ovarian ATM, XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and PARP1 proteins were increased (P < 0.05) by DMBA exposure in lean mice. A blunted DMBA-induced increase (P < 0.05) in XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and BRCA1 was observed in ovaries from obese mice, relative to lean counterparts. Taken together, DMBA exposure induced γH2AX as well as the ovarian DDR, supporting that DMBA causes ovarian DNA damage. Additionally, ovarian DDR was partially attenuated in obese females raising concern that obesity may be an additive factor during chemical-induced ovotoxicity. - Highlights: • DMBA induces markers of ovarian DNA damage. • Obesity induces low level ovarian DNA damage. • DMBA-induced DNA repair response is altered by obesity.

  16. Vaccination against hepatitis B: the Chinese experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi-hua; WU Chao; ZHUANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the implementation of mass vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine and its critical role in prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in China. Data sources The data were mainly from PubMed, China Hospital Knowledge Database, and other popular Chinese journals published from 1980 to 2008. The search term was "hepatitis B vaccine". Study selection Original studies conducted in China and critical reviews authored by principal investigators in the field of hepatology in China were selected. Results Chinese investigators started to develop hepatitis B vaccine in late 1970s. The first home-made plasma-derived vaccine became available in 1986, which has been completely replaced by the domestically produced recombinant (yeast or Chinese hamster ovary cell) vaccine since 2001. China health authority recommended vaccinating all infants in 1992. From then on, China has put tremendous efforts in implementation of mass vaccination. The overall coverage of hepatitis B vaccine in infants has increased steadily and reached more than 95.0% in urban and 83.0%--97.0% in rural areas. The chronic HBV carrier rate in children <10 years of age decreased from 10.0% before the mass vaccination to 1.0%-2.0% in 2006, and that in general population decreased from 10.0% to 7.2%; overall, the nationwide mass hepatitis B vaccination has reduced more than 30 million of chronic HBV infections and HBV related severe sequlae. Conclusion The Chinese successful experience in control of hepatitis B by mass vaccination offers an example for any unindustrialized country whoever is committed to control this disease.

  17. 血清抗苗勒管激素水平在基于2012年中国多囊卵巢综合征诊断标准患者中的初步研究%A pilot study of serum anti-Mullerian hormone in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome based on 2012 Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨诗源; 阮洁; 黄薇; 谭婧; 张向卉; 冯雪; 刘冬; 傅璟; 周璐

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究血清抗苗勒管激素(AMH)在基于2012年中国多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)诊断标准患者中的水平,初步评价血清AMH检测在PCOS诊断中的临床意义.方法 采集2015年4月至8月四川大学华西第二医院217例PCOS评分患者(PCOS组)及204例输卵管或男性因素不孕患者(对照组)的临床资料,计算体质指数,评价多毛、痤疮评分,检测血清AMH、性激素、糖脂代谢指标的水平,B超测定卵巢体积及卵泡数.采用Spearman相关性检验进行相关性分析,通过受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)评价AMH的诊断效能.结果 血清AMH水平在PCOS组[105.46(78.11 ~ 135.37) pmol/L]明显高于对照组[26.28(20.00~ 43.63) pmol/L],两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Spearman相关性分析显示,血清AMH水平与多毛评分(r=0.526,P<0.01)、痤疮评分(r=0.359,P<0.01)、总睾酮(r=0.514,P<0.01)、LH/FSH比值(r=0.542,P<0.01)、空腹血糖(r=0.373,P<0.01)、空腹胰岛素(r=0.168,P=0.008)、胰岛素抵抗指数(r=0.182,P=0.004)、总胆固醇(r=0.247,P<0.01)、甘油三酯(r=0.235,P<0.01)、卵巢体积(r=0.204,P=0.008)、卵泡数目(r=0.693,P<0.01)呈正相关.在月经紊乱的情况下,血清AMH水平用于诊断PCOS的ROC曲线下面积为0.954(P<0.01),当AMH>57.76 pmol/L时,诊断的敏感度为95.1%,特异度为89.3%.结论 依据中国2012年PCOS诊断标准,血清AMH水平在PCOS患者中明显升高,并与临床和(或)生化高雄状况、卵巢体积、卵泡数目有较好的相关性.%Objective Based on 2012 Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis criteria, we detect the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in PCOS patients, to evaluate the diagnosis value of AMH for PCOS.Methods Totally 217 PCOS patients were chosen as study group and 204 non-PCOS women were as controls.Their clinical information (body weight, score for acne and hirsutism), ultrasonography for ovarian volume and the number of small follicle

  18. 肥胖对多囊卵巢综合征患者非酒精性脂肪性肝病的影响%Effect of obesity on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲中玉; 石玉华; 赵冬妮; 姜晶晶; 马增香; 陈子江

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of obesity on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods The patient data were acquired from 306 women with PCOS by Rotterdam consensus criteria and 286 women selected as controls. Basal endocrine, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin release test, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were tested. The essays of liver chemistries, B-hepatitis and c-hepatitis were performed and alcoholic liver diseases excluded. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasound. Results Patients with PCOS showed a higher prevalence of NAFLD than control group (30. 7% vs 17. 5% ), including 56 mild cases (59.6%), 34 moderate cases (36. 2% ) and 4 severe cases (4. 2% ). The prevalence of NAFLD in PCOS increased with BMI, waist hip ratio, triglyceride and HOMA-IR. The prevalence of NAFLD in abdominal obese PCOS patients was significantly higher than those with normal waist. In addition to the prevalence of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome in PCOS women significantly increased with BMI. Conclusion These findings indicate that Chinese women with PCOS have a high prevalence of NAFLD, especially in abdominal and Ⅱ obese PCOS patients. The prevalence and severity of NAFLD are positively correlated with BMI. It seems that insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities are closely associated with NAFLD in PCOS. It is essential to give a high priority to the screening and treatment of NAFLD in obese PCOS patients.%目的 研究肥胖对多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者中非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)发病的影响.方法 对306例PCOS患者及286例对照者进行基础内分泌、口服糖耐量试验及胰岛素释放试验、肝功、血脂等检查,B超诊断脂肪肝.结果 306例PCOS患者中诊断NAFLD 94例,占30.7%,明显高于对照组发病率17.5%(P<0.05);PCOS患者中NAFLD轻度56例(59.6%),中度34例(36.2%),重度4例(4.2%).PCOS患者中NAFLD发病率随着

  19. Ovary and uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Roger G

    2008-12-01

    Ovarian and uterine transplantation are procedures gaining more attention again because of potential applications in respectively fertility preservation for cancer and other patients and, more tentatively, women with uterine agenesis or hysterectomy. Cryopreservation of tissue slices, and possibly whole organs, is providing opportunities for banking ovaries for indefinite periods before transplanting them back to restore fertility. The natural plasticity of this organ facilitates grafting to different sites where they can be revascularized and rapidly restore the normal physiology of secretion and ovulation. Ischemic damage is a chief limitation because many follicles are lost, at least in avascular grafts, and functional longevity is reduced. Nevertheless, grafts of young ovarian tissue, even after cryopreservation, can be highly fertile in laboratory rodents and, in humans, autografts have functioned for up to 3 years before needing replacement. Transplantation by vascular anastomosis provides potentially longer function but it is technically much more demanding and riskier for the recipient. It is the only practicable method with the uterus, and has enabled successful pregnancies in several species, but not yet in humans. Contrary to claims made many years ago, neither organ is privileged immunologically, and allografts become rapidly rejected except in hosts whose immune system is deficient or suppressed pharmacologically. All in all, transplantation of these organs, especially the ovary, provides a broad platform of opportunities for research and new applications in reproductive medicine and conservation biology.

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, Ricardo; Carmina, Enrico; Chen, ZiJiang; Dunaif, Andrea; Laven, Joop S E; Legro, Richard S; Lizneva, Daria; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara; Teede, Helena J; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide. The condition is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) - with excessive androgen production by the ovaries being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected individuals. PCOS increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and PCOM. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and potentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protection, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This Primer summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of the disorder.

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, Ricardo; Carmina, Enrico; Chen, ZiJiang; Dunaif, Andrea; Laven, Joop S E; Legro, Richard S; Lizneva, Daria; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara; Teede, Helena J; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide. The condition is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) - with excessive androgen production by the ovaries being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected individuals. PCOS increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and PCOM. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and potentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protection, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This Primer summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of the disorder. PMID:27510637

  2. Varying levels of radioprotection from the effects of JANUS neutrons in repair-deficient xrs-5 hamster cells treated with azacytidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of cell lines have been generated from the radiation-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary line xrs-5 by treatment with azacytidine. Several of these lines have been shown to be resistant to γ radiation. Survival curves have been generated for several of these lines and the parental lines after exposure to 0 to 5 Gy of JANUS neutrons in the presence or absence of a 30-min pretreatment with the aminothiol radioprotector WR-1065. These studies were performed to determine whether the parental xrs-5 cell line was radioresistant to exposure to JANUS neutrons and whether reversion to a neutron-resistant phenotype correlated with recovery of aminothiol radioprotection. Exposure to 4 mM WR-1065 enhanced survival after exposure to neutron radiation for most open-quotes revertantclose quotes lines, although the increase in survival varied. The xrs-5 cell line was sensitive to JANUS neutrons and showed no protection by WR-1065. These data indicate that xrs-5 cells are also sensitive to neutron radiation, that azacytidine-induced revertants for γ-ray survival demonstrate the wild-type phenotype for survival after neutron exposure, and that the gene product that is defective is responsible for repairing only a small portion of neutron-induced damage. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases during stimulated ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salverson, Trevor J; McMichael, Greer E; Sury, Jonathan J; Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2008-02-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix-cleaving enzymes involved in ovarian remodeling. In many non-tropical species, including Siberian hamsters, ovarian remodeling is necessary for the functional changes associated with seasonal reproduction. We evaluated MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), during photoperiod-induced ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters. Hamsters were transferred from long day (LD; 16:8) to short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods for 14weeks, and then returned to LD for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8weeks for collection of ovaries and plasma. Post-transfer (PT) LD exposure increased body and ovarian mass. Number of corpora lutea and antral, but not preantral follicles increased in PT groups. Plasma estradiol concentrations were lower in PT weeks 0-4, and returned to LD levels at PT week 8. No change was observed in relative MMP/TIMP mRNA levels at PT week 0 (SD week 14) as compared to LD. Photostimulation increased MMP-2 mRNA at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-1. MMP-14 mRNA expression peaked at PT weeks 1-2 as compared to LD levels, while MMP-13 expression was low during this time. TIMP-1 mRNA peaked at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-4. No changes were noted in MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. In general, MMP/TIMP protein immunodetection followed the same patterns with most staining occurring in granulosa cells of follicles and corpora lutea. Our data suggest that mRNA and protein for several members of the MMP/TIMP families are expressed in Siberian hamster ovaries during recrudescence. Because of the variation observed in expression patterns, MMPs and TIMPs may be differentially involved with photostimulated return to ovarian function.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, M; Naver, Klara; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this multicenter study is to evaluate the relative impact of insulin resistance (IR) and body mass index (BMI) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on (1) Key hemodynamic/thrombogenic variables, (2) Oocyte quality and early embryo development, (3......) Fetal growth, placental function and adverse obstetric outcome. Secondary objective: To establish a PCOS database and biobank facilitating future basic and interventional research related to PCOS. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study at four University Hospitals in Denmark. Population...... inclusion: About 200 women fulfilling the Rotterdam Criteria and 100 women without PCOS recruited from 2010 to 2012. Methods: The impact of PCOS, as well as the impact of IR and BMI on the hormonal, metabolic and hemostatic key variables will be analyzed combining conventional, molecular techniques...

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes J; Faber, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the impact of insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI) on inflammatory and hemostatic variables associated with long-term risk of...... cardiovascular disease in women with PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 149 premenopausal women with PCOS were recruited consecutively from April 2010 to February 2012 at three Danish University Hospitals. The study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Herlev University Hospital, Denmark. PCOS...... measures were the biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and von Willebrand factor antigen. RESULTS: Normal weight insulin-resistant PCOS women were characterized by abdominal obesity and elevated levels of plasma PAI-1. Overweight/obese insulin-resistant PCOS women...

  6. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Mas-Oliva

    Full Text Available Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2 associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+ in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event.

  7. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-01-01

    augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal...... rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes...... and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the c...

  8. APOPTOSIS IN WHOLE MOUSE OVARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoptosis in Whole Mouse Ovaries Robert M. Zucker Susan C. Jeffay and Sally D. Perreault Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27711.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi factorial heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism Diagnosis is based on clinical or laboratory evidence of nbsp; hyperandrogenism nbsp; For diagnosis at least two of the three Rotterdam criteria oligo anovulation clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism polycystic ovaries nbsp; should be ensured Clinical symptoms usually begin around menarche nbsp; Oligomenorrhea amenorrhea hirsutism acne alopecia can be ass...

  10. NON EPITHELIAL TUMORS OF OVARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non epithelial tumors of ovary are uncommon tumors and may generate difficulty in establishing a diagnosis. Small cell carcinoma (SCC of the female genital tract and primary lymphoma of ovary is even rarer, constituting less than 1% of all gynecologic malignancies. These tumors have poor prognosis. In the present study an effort was made to review these tumors in our Institute. AIMS: To know the prevalence, age distribution, clinical presentation and morphological appearance of these tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyzed 34 cases of non - epithelial tumors of ovary received in the department of pathology during a period of three years. Specimens were grossed, routinely processed under standardized conditions for paraffin embedding and stained with hematoxylin and eosin using standard procedures. Special stains and Immunohistochemistry was done where ever necessary. RESULTS: A total of ovarian tumors received during this period were 136. Non epithelial tumors of ovary constituted 34/136 (25%, of the ovarian neoplasms. Germ cell tumors constituted 23/34(67.64% followed by sexcord stromal tumors 7/34 (20.58%. Among the rare tumors we encountered a case of small cell carcinoma, primary lymphoma of ovary and 2 cases of Krukenberg tumors of ovary 2/34 (5.88%. CONCLUSION: Small cell carcinoma and primary lymphoma are morphologically similar to sex cord stromal tumors and germ cell tumors, may pose significant problems in establishing the correct diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry is a must to diagnose these lesions as they have grave prognosis.

  11. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used. PMID:26486483

  12. [Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, A; Fernandez, H

    2007-09-01

    Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female hormonal disorders. Its multiple components--reproductive, metabolic, neoplasic and cardiovascular--have a major impact on the public health. Androgen excess and resistance to insulin, probably from genetic origin, are responsible for most of the clinical symptomatology. Resistance to insulin seems to be accompanied by a greater risk of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, lipidic anomalies and can involve the development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, sleep apnea syndrome is more progressively described in PCOS. Infertility, menses disorders and hirsutism often push these patients to consult their physician. A better understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms led to the emergence of new therapeutic options increasing the sensitivity to insulin. Besides the pregnancy wishes, cares aim to attenuate the marks of the hyper-androgenism (hormonal treatment and cosmetic) and to correct cardiovascular, respiratory and gynaecological risk factors. In case of infertility by anovulation, cares must be performed by trained experts to minimize the risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. A gradation from loose weight to clomiphene citrate ovulation induction, ovarian drilling, low dose gonadotropin, in vitro fertilisation, or in vitro maturation of oocytes should bring back good reproduction potential.

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (Tp); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of Tp were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Bayar, Ulku; Erdem, L. Oktay; Barut, Aykut; Gundogdu, Sadi; Kaya, Erdal

    2004-07-01

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (T{sub p}); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of T{sub p} were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS.

  15. Clinical Observation on the Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Typing%多囊卵巢综合征中西医结合分型治疗的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凌; 陈娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同类型的多囊卵巢综合征患者治疗后的排卵率及怀孕率。方法:选取2011年5月-2012年9月在广州仁爱医院治疗的多囊卵巢综合征患者245例,分为观察组和对照组。其中观察组包括高雄激素型、高雄激素合并高胰岛素型、高LH型和非典型型,共158例。对照组符合多囊卵巢综合征诊断标准的各型患者采用随机法纳入,共87例。结果:观察组分型治疗后患者排卵率94.94%,怀孕率63.27%,对照组排卵率91.83%,怀孕率44.63%。观察组排卵率及怀孕率明显高于对照组。结论:多囊卵巢综合征患者采取分型治疗效果显著,可以在临床上推广。%Objective:To investigate the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after treatment of the different types of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Method:The study consisted of 245 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,who were treated in Renai Hospital of Guangzhou from May 2011 to September 2012. The patients were divided into an observation group and a control group. The observation group included hyperandrogenism type,hyperandrogenism combined hyperinsulinism type,high LH type and atypical type,a total of 158 cases. The control group collected 87 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome with various types,at random. Result:In the observation group,after treatment with typing,patients had the ovulation rate of 94.94%and the pregnancy rate of 63.27%,in the control group,the ovulation rate was 91.83%and the pregnancy rate was 44.63%. Ovulation rate and pregnancy rate of the observation group was significantly higher. Conclusion:It is significantly effective to treat polycystic ovary syndrome patients with typing and it is recommended for clinical promotion.

  16. Research status of traditional Chinese medicine for polycystic ovary syndrome with insulin resistance%多囊卵巢综合征伴胰岛素抵抗的中医药研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游芳凝; 曹文富

    2015-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是临床常见的生殖内分泌代谢障碍疾病,有出现糖尿病、心血管疾病等并发症的风险。在多囊卵巢综合征中,胰岛素抵抗、高胰岛素血症起着重要的病理生理作用。中医辨证论治在改善多囊卵巢综合征患者的生殖功能、调节糖脂代谢及预防并发症方面有良好的疗效。%Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common clinical disease characterized by reproductive en-docrine and metabolic abnormalities, which even has the risk of developing complications such as diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases. The insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play an important role in the pathophysiologic process of polycystic ovary syndrome. Syndrome differentiation and treatment are intended to improve the reproductive func-tion in women with PCOS, and has obtained good curative effect on regulating glucolipid metabolism and preventing complications.

  17. Pulmonary deposition, translocation and clearance of inhaled neutron-activated talc in hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation and clearance of inhaled talc, 10-wk-old hamsters received a single 2-hr nose-only exposure to neutron activated talc. Over a period of 4 months, the hamsters were killed in groups of four. Lungs liver, kidneys, ovaries, skinned carcass and 2-day and 4-day excreta were collected for γ-ray analysis. The isotope 60Co was used to calculate the quantity of talc in all samples; in addition, the isotope 46Sc was used in a number of samples to check the validity of 60Co as a tracer for talc. From 20 to 80 μg talc, an estimated 6 to 8% of the inhaled quantity, was deposited in the alveoli. The biological half-life of the talc deposited in the alveoli was 7 to 10 days. Alveolar clearance was essentially complete 4 months after exposure. No translocation of talc to liver, kidneys, ovaries or other parts of the body was found. Several hundred micrograms of talc were found in the faecal samples. Results of a leaching study to be described elsewhere suggest that the picogram quantities of 60Co found in the urine probably represented leached 60Co absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract. (author)

  18. Establishment of a hamster lymphoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe,Shinji

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a hamster lymphoma cell line was attempted. Simple mincing and trypsinization of lymphoma tissue resulted in a high degree of cell degeneration. The ascitic tumor cells produced by intraperitoneal transplantation of lymphoma tissue gave a better result. These ascitic cells grew and were cultured successively in medium consisting of RPMI 1640 and 20% fetal calf serum. Cells were round and grew in suspension. Accelerated cell growth was observed one month after starting the culture. In the stained preparations, cells were lymphoblastic. Cells were transplantable into new-born hamsters and produced tumors, but not in young adult hamsters.

  19. Intraovarian expression of GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA and protein levels in Siberian hamsters during the estrus cycle and photoperiod induced regression/recrudescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2011-01-15

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the key reproductive regulator in vertebrates. While gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating (FSH), and luteinizing (LH) hormones are primarily produced in the hypothalamus and pituitary, they can be synthesized in the gonads, suggesting an intraovarian GnRH-gonadotropin axis. Because these hormones are critical for follicle maturation and steroidogenesis, we hypothesized that this intraovarian axis may be important in photoperiod-induced ovarian regression/recrudescence in seasonal breeders. Thus, we investigated GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA and protein expression in Siberian hamster ovaries during (1) the estrous cycle; where ovaries from cycling long day hamsters (LD;16L:8D) were collected at proestrus, estrus, diestrus I, and diestrus II and (2) during photoperiod induced regression/recrudescence; where ovaries were collected from hamsters exposed to 14 weeks of LD, short days (SD;8L:16D), or 8 weeks post-transfer to LD after 14 weeks SD (PT). GnRH-1, LHβ, FSHβ, and common α subunit mRNA expression was observed in cycling ovaries. GnRH-1 expression peaked at diestrus I compared to other stages (p 0.05). SD exposure decreased ovarian mass and plasma estradiol concentrations (p<0.05) and increased GnRH-1, LHβ, FSHβ, and α subunit mRNA expression as compared to LD and, except for LH, compared to PT (p < 0.05). GnRH and gonadotropin protein was also dynamically expressed across the estrous cycle and photoperiod exposure. The presence of cycling intraovarian GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA suggests that these hormones may be locally involved in ovarian maintenance during SD regression and/or could potentially serve to prime ovaries for rapid recrudescence.

  20. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism rs2479106 and PCOS in Caucasian patients with PCOS or hirsutism as referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette B; Brusgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women.......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women....

  1. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  2. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis

  3. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced hydrocephalus in hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, D F; Chinookoswong, N; Wang, J

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was induced in neonatal hamsters after intracerebral inoculation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Examination of the ependyma from affected animals by electron microscopy did not reveal mycoplasma. However, in an ependymal organ culture system, M. pneumoniae cytadsorbed to ependymal cells.

  4. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide reduces fertility in female Siberian hamsters when treated during their reproductively active and quiescent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Kristen A; Mukai, Motoko; Place, Ned J

    2015-01-01

    The industrial compound 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian follicles and reduces fertility in rodents, but to date VCD has not been tested in species that experience seasonal anestrus. To determine if VCD destroys follicles when administered during reproductive quiescence, Siberian hamsters were treated with VCD (240mg/kg i.p. daily for 10 days) during short days, and outcomes were compared with reproductively active females that were maintained and treated in long days. Primordial follicle numbers were significantly reduced by VCD under both day lengths, and reproductive quiescence in short days did not appear to render the ovaries less susceptible to VCD-induced follicle depletion. Independent of day length and reproductive state, VCD-treated hamsters weaned substantially fewer offspring than controls. These results suggest that time of year may not be an important consideration for optimizing use of VCD in the field when the target pest species is a seasonally breeding rodent.

  5. Ovarian matrix metalloproteinases are differentially regulated during the estrous cycle but not during short photoperiod induced regression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrooman Lisa A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are implicated as mediators for ovarian remodeling events, and are involved with ovarian recrudescence during seasonal breeding cycles in Siberian hamsters. However, involvement of these proteases as the photoinhibited ovary undergoes atrophy and regression had not been assessed. We hypothesized that 1 MMPs and their tissue inhibitors, the TIMPs would be present and differentially regulated during the normal estrous cycle in Siberian hamsters, and that 2 MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels would increase as inhibitory photoperiod induced ovarian degeneration. Methods MMP-2, -9, -14 and TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA and protein were examined in the stages of estrous (proestrus [P], estrus [E], diestrus I [DI], and diestrus II [DII] in Siberian hamsters, as well as after exposure to 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of inhibitory short photoperiod (SD. Results MMP-9 exhibited a 1.6-1.8 fold decrease in mRNA expression in DII (p Conclusions Although MMPs appear to be involved in the normal ovarian estrus cycle at the protein level in hamsters, those examined in the present study are unlikely to be key players in the slow atrophy of tissue as seen in Siberian hamster ovarian regression.

  6. [Diagnostics of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazúrová, Ivica; Figurová, Jana; Lazúrová, Zora

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most frequent endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age and the most frequent cause of menstruation cycle disorders. It is marked by a hyperandrogenic state (clinical and/or biochemical) and ovulatory dysfunction (anovulation and/or ultrasonographic finding of polycystic ovaries), which are also criteria for its diagnosis according to Androgen Excess and PCOS Society. The syndrome has multiple phenotypic expressions, among them besides the above characteristics also a metabolic syndrome, primarily obesity and insulin resistance. Diagnosing of PCOS may be rather exacting in clinical practice and it remains to be a diagnosis per exclusionem, following elimination of other causes of hyperandrogenic state and chronic oligo-anovulation. It requires a close cooperation between a gynecologist and endocrinologist and with regard to frequent metabolic complications also with an internist, diabetologist and possibly cardiologist. PMID:27124971

  7. Sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrawati B. Gargade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing stromal tumor is rare benign ovarian sex cord stromal tumour which occurs predominantly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with irregular menstruation and pelvic pain. She underwent panhysterectomy as USG revealed a solid and cystic 15 cm right ovarian tumour with increased vascularity with raised CA125. Hysterectomy specimen revealed a benign sclerosing stromal tumour of right ovary. We present this rare case to emphasis the awareness of benign sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary in young female to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2037-2040

  8. 多囊卵巢综合征糖脂代谢紊乱的中西医研究%Polycystic ovary syndrome glucolipid metabolic disorder of Chinese and western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔小娇; 许小凤

    2015-01-01

    polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)is a degree of abnormal sex hormones,insulin and hypertension,and obesi-ty,and glucolipid metabolic abnormalities is closely related to the above factors,play an important role in the develop-ment of PCOS. The treatment of PCOS Coolidge metabolic abnormalities should be to reduce weight,adjusting menstrual cycle for short - term goals and treatment of hyperinsulinemia,prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease for future goals. TCM syndrome differentiation and acupuncture treatment such therapy in improving the PCOS glucolipid metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic disorders,reduce long - term complications has obtained certain effect.%多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者大多存在一定程度的性激素异常,胰岛素抵抗以及高血压和肥胖,而糖脂代谢异常与上述因素密切相关,在 PCOS 的发生发展中起重要作用。PCOS 糖脂代谢异常的治疗应以减轻体质量,调整月经周期和治疗高胰岛素血症为近期目标,预防糖尿病和心血管疾病为远期目标。中医辨证论治、针灸疗法等在改善 PCOS 糖脂代谢异常患者的代谢紊乱,减少远期并发症方面均获得肯定疗效。

  9. Metformin and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Omran, Maha Yousef Soliman

    2007-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation, affects 4–7% of women). Etiology of PCOS remains largely unknown, familial aggregation of cases suggests genetic susceptibility to the disorder. Though genes involved remain unknown, recent evidence points to a gene of the insulin receptor. Genes implicated in ovarian follicular development may also play a role. A fundamental aspect of the syndrome seems to be a defect in insulin metabolism....

  10. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Buggs, Colleen; Rosenfield, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome of variable combinations of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism or acne, and obesity. It can be diagnosed in adolescence and has early childhood antecedents. PCOS is the single most common endocrine cause of anovulatory infertility and a major risk factor for the metabolic syndrome and, in turn, development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in women. Thus, it appears that PCOS increases a woman’s risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefor...

  11. Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Huei Peng; Ting-Chang Chang; Swei Hsueh

    2003-01-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare ovarian disease with prevalence of 1.5%to 6% of ovarian stromal tumors. We present a 24-year-old woman with irregular menstruationfor 6 months and a self-palpable lower abdominal mass. Enucleation of the left ovariantumor was undertaken. Gross examination showed a soft elastic tumor with a smooth outersurface and diffusely white edematous stroma with scattered yellowish nodular areas on thecut surface. Histologic study showed that the cellular n...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy. PMID:26280343

  13. SV40 DNA amplification and reintegration in surviving hamster cells after 60Co γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells were exposed to 60Co γ-irradiation and the fate of the integrated SV40 sequences was pursued over a period of 20 days following radiation exposure. As shown by colony hybridization, integrated SV40 sequences were amplified in surviving and non-surviving cells. At later times, however, clonal sublines of surviving cells grown for 20-30 cell generations after irradiation had lost most of their amplified SV40 copies but showed altered restriction fragment patterns indicating reintegration of SV40 sequences at new sites of the hamster genome. This suggest that 60Co γ-irradiation can generate mutations by inducing over-replication of chromosome segments that are then substrates of enzymatic rearrangements. (author)

  14. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  15. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis

  16. Decreased adult neurogenesis in hibernating Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier; Ávila, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles. In this article, we study the neurogenesis that takes place during the hibernation of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Using a variety of standard neurogenesis markers and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, we describe a preferential decrease in the proliferation of newborn neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the hibernating hamsters (torpor) rather than in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proliferative capacity is recovered after 3-4days of torpor when arousal is triggered under natural conditions (i.e., not artificially provoked). In addition, we show that tau3R, a tau isoform with three microtubule-binding domains, is a suitable marker to study neurogenesis both in the SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the Syrian hamster brain. PMID:27436535

  17. Contribution to the normal fecal flora of the hamster: Proteus mirabilis in normal feces of hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis must be considered a normal inhabitant of the intestine of hamsters. It is also found in the vaginal secretion of females of this animal, when in oestrus.1 Os hamsters são parasitados pelos Proteus. 2 As amostras isoladas foram identificadas ao Pr. mirabilis de Hauser. 3 O Proteus isolado não revelou ação patogênica sôbre camundongos mas se mostrou patogênico para cobaias. 4 O germen era presente na secreção vaginal de hamsters, na época do cio.

  18. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycystic ovaries). PCOS has been associated with a variety of health complications of reproductive, metabolic, and psychological nature. Although PCOS is predominantly diagnosed in women of reproductiv...

  19. THYROID PATHOLOGY IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Dumăchiţǎ-Şargu; Voichiţa Mogoş; Florentina Pricop

    2010-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined by a chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, in the presence of polycystic ovaries and the absence of the other causes. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of thyroid pathology in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This study is a retrospective one and was made from January 2003 to December 2009 in the Endocrinology Clinic of “Saint Spiridon” Hospital and included a number of 483 ...

  20. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Roumimper, Hailey; Oberfield, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial heterogeneous disorder affecting 6% to 10% of reproductive-age women. The use of criteria developed for adult women is problematic for the adolescent girl because the clinical features associated with PCOS are normal pubertal events. The recent consensus statement on PCOS in adolescents stated that hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea need to persist for at least 2 years to consider the diagnosis of PCOS. Although insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and obesity are often associated with PCOS, these features are not considered valid diagnostic criteria. Recent genomewide association studies implicate genetic loci involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:27241968

  1. STATINS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Patel*, T. D. Goswami, A. D. Sharma and B. S. Arora

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors with intrinsic antioxidant properties, exert profound and broad-reaching effects on various types of tissues. By blocking an early step of the mevalonate pathway, statins inhibit proliferation of several cell types including vascular smooth muscles, hepatocytes, and several neoplastic cell lines. The pleiotropic effects of statins may be due to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Some common treatments lifestyle changes, insulin-sensitizing agents.

  2. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of female infertility. It affects 5-10% of reproductive-age women. ... Related Links Established Drug Bests Newcomer in Treating Female Infertility Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Overview Polycystic Ovary Syndrome ...

  3. Psammocarcinoma of ovary with serous cystadenofibroma of contralateral ovary: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Pallavi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Psammocarcinoma of ovary is a rare serous neoplasm characterized by extensive formation of psammoma bodies, invasion of ovarian stroma, peritoneum or intraperitoneal viscera, and moderate cytological atypia. Extensive medlar search showed presence of only 28 cases of psammocarcinoma of ovary reported till date. Case presentation We herein report a case of psammocarcinoma of ovary with serous cystadenofibroma of contralateral ovary in a 55 year old Asian Indian female. Conclusion To the best of author's knowledge, ours is the rare case describing coexistence of this very rare malignant serous epithelial tumor with a benign serous cystadenofibroma of contralateral ovary.

  4. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  5. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaugema, Tambet

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  6. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycy

  7. 中药天癸胶囊治疗多囊卵巢综合征的随机对照疗效观察%Efficacy of Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素璇; 王文君; 归绥琪

    2011-01-01

    Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder and one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities in women.Recently,many studies have been conducted assessing Chinese herbal medicine as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS,it is,therefore,worthwhile to analyze and observe the curative effects of traditional Chinese medicine treatment in PCOS.Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of the Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule,in women with PCOS and compare its effects with metformin and ethinyl estradiol plus cyproterone acetate (Diane-35).Design,setting,participants and intervention:A total of 47 PCOS outpatients from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were randomly divided into 3 groups.Patients in group A (n =19) were given Tian Gui Capsule,patients in group B (n =17) were given metformin,and patients in group C (n=11) were given Diane-35.The 3 groups of patients were treated for 3 months.Main outcome measures:Serum testosterone (T),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels,free androgen index (FAI),fasting blood glucose (FPG),fasting insulin (FINS),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),insulin sensitive index (ISI) and left and right ovary volumes of the 3 groups were evaluated before and after treatment.Results:After 3 months of treatment,when compared with before treatment data,group A patients showed decreased serum T and SHBG levels,FAI,FINS,and left and right ovary volumes (P<0.05),and increased serum DHEA-S (P<0.05),while the FPG level showed no significant change.Although the level of serum T and FINS among the 3 groups after the treatment were similar,group A demonstrated better results than group B in reducing the FAI and increasing the serum SHBG,but less significant results than group C besides,group B was the only group showed improved insulin sensitivity.Although the level of FPG of the 3 groups after

  8. Metabolism of radiohafnium in rats and hamsters: a possible analog of plutonium for metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of radiohafnium (175Hf + 181Hf) was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats and Chinese hamsters for periods of up to 168 days. The results were compared with similar data for 239Pu in the same rat strain. In rats and hamsters the radiohafnium organ distribution was skeleton > skin > muscle > liver at about 7 days postinjection. Retention of radiohafnium and plutonium was similar in plasma and liver, as were the retention time observed for other organs: Absorption of radiohafnium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats was <0.05%. Biochemical studies showed that the radiohafnium was bound mainly to the iron-transport protein, transferrin, in blood plasma and in the liver cytosol of both the rat and the hamster, as has been observed also for plutonium. The metabolic behavior of radiohafnium mimics, to a large extent, that of plutonium, and it is suggested that radiohafnium can serve as a non-α-particle-emitting analog of plutonium for metabolic, biochemical, and selected human investigations

  9. The metabolism of radiohafnium in rats and hamsters: a possible analog of plutonium for metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of radiohafnium (175Hf + 181Hf) was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats and Chinese hamsters for periods of up to 168 days. The results were compared with similar data for 239Pu in the same rat strain. In rats and hamsters the radiohafnium organ distribution was skeleton greater than skin greater than muscle greater than liver at about 7 days postinjection. Retention of radiohafnium and plutonium was similar in plasma and liver, as were the retention times observed for other organs: Absorption of radiohafnium from the gastrointestinal tract of rats was less than 0.05%. Biochemical studies showed that the radiohafnium was bound mainly to the iron-transport protein, transferrin, in blood plasma and in the liver cytosol of both the rat and the hamster, as has been observed also for plutonium. The metabolic behavior of radiohafnium mimics, to a large extent, that of plutonium, and it is suggested that radiohafnium can serve as a non-alpha-particle-emitting analog of plutonium for metabolic, biochemical, and selected human investigations

  10. DNA repair in human xeroderma pigmentosum and chinese hamster cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, B.

    1980-01-01

    An important feature of living cells is their capacity to maintain the integrity of their hereditary material, the DNA. DNA can be damaged by a variety of physical and chemical agents, among which ultraviolet radiation (UV), ion1z1ng radiation and chemical carcinogens as 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4N

  11. DNA repair in human xeroderma pigmentosum and Chinese hamster cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Zelle (Bauke)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractAn important feature of living cells is their capacity to maintain the integrity of their hereditary material, the DNA. DNA can be damaged by a variety of physical and chemical agents, among which ultraviolet radiation (UV), ion1z1ng radiation and chemical carcinogens as 4-nitroquinoline

  12. Photoperiod-gonadotropin mismatches induced by treatment with acyline or FSH in Siberian hamsters: impacts on ovarian structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysling, D A; Park, S-U; McMillan, E L; Place, N J

    2012-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders time their reproductive efforts to specific times of the year to ensure adequate resources for the production and care of young. For long-day (LD) breeders, females born before the summer solstice (LDs) reach sexual maturity quickly and often breed that same year, whereas females born after the summer solstice (short days (SDs)) may delay reproductive development to the following spring when environmental conditions are favorable for reproduction. In Siberian hamsters, development in SD is associated with structural and functional differences in the ovary compared with females held in LD, including a greater number of primordial follicles and an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs), which are immunoreactive for anti-Müllerian hormone. The goal of this study was to determine whether SD-induced gonadotropin suppression is responsible for these phenotypic differences. Gonadotropin levels were suppressed in LD hamsters using the GNRH antagonist acyline. Conversely, to determine whether the SD ovarian phenotype is completely reversed by gonadotropin stimulation, recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) was administered. Our treatments were successful in mimicking FSH concentrations of the opposite photoperiod, but they did not produce a comparable change in the ovarian phenotype. Most notable was the lack of HGCs in the ovaries of acyline-treated LD females. Similarly, HGCs were maintained in the ovaries of SD females treated with rhFSH. Our data suggest that gonadotropins alone do not account for the SD ovarian phenotype. Future studies will determine whether SD-induced changes in other factors underlie these phenotypic changes.

  13. Primary lymphoma of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elharroudi Tijani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the ovary by malignant lymphoma is a well-known late manifestation of disseminated nodal disease. Primary ovarian lymphoma is rare. We report a case of primary ovarian non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma with bilateral involvement which was managed by surgery and chemotherapy. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of an ovarian cancer. Computed tomography revealed an abdominal tumor measuring 20 cm in diameter, without enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was established after bilateral adnexectomy and histological study of the excised tissue. The tumor was classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient has been advised 8 cycles of standard CHOP regimen and is presently on treatment. She has now been without disease for 7 months after the surgery. According to previous reports the treatment principles and prognosis of primary ovarian lymphoma is the same as that of other nodal lymphomas.

  14. Overweight in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Haugen, A G; Glintborg, D

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women affecting 5-10%. Nearly 50% are overweight or obese, which result in a more severe phenotype of PCOS. Weight loss is therefore considered the first line treatment in overweight women with PCOS....... The aim of this study was to appoint evidence based and clinically applicable advises on weight loss in overweight women with PCOS. Methods: A review of the existing literature on weight loss through lifestyle modification and/or metformin treatment in overweight women with PCOS. The primary outcome...... style changes, preferably a low calorie diet, should be the first line treatment in overweight/obese women with PCOS. Metformin can be considered as an additional treatment but has subtle additive effect....

  15. Association of common variants of FTO in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Hongxi; Zhao, Han; Zhao, Yueran; Liu, Xin; Chen, Zijiang; Ma, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex multisystemic genetic disease. Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PCOS has found several potentially causative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Han Chinese population. The goal of present investigation was to assess the potential association between rs1121980, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs8050136 SNPs and PCOS. In order to make a better elucidation of this disease, further investigations of association betw...

  16. Bioactivation of diethylstilbestrol by the Syrian hamster kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Male Syrian golden hamsters chronically exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) develop renal adenocarcinomas with an incidence approaching 100%. The ability of the hamster kidney to bioactivate DES was assessed using hamster kidney slices. The male hamster renal cortex has a 2- to 5-fold greater capacity to irreversibly bind ({sup 3}H)DES as compared with female hamster renal cortex and with male hamster renal medulla. Incubation of the tissue under anaerobic conditions inhibited the metabolism and irreversible binding of ({sup 3}H)DES. Gel electrophoresis analysis of covalently modified proteins revealed several radioactive peaks indicating that specific adduct formation had occurred. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitors SKF 525-A, metyrapone, carbon monoxide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and dicumarol decreased the irreversible binding of ({sup 3}H)DES to renal cortical protein by 38 to 72%.

  17. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  18. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  19. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities.

  20. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  1. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Amna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder, and a major cause of infertility in women. An excessive amount of androgen hormones are produced by polycystic ovaries in PCOS with irregular menstruation and anovulation as result. The most common early symptoms are infertility, hirsutism and acne. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and possibly cardiovascular disease and endometrial carcinoma are all associated as lifelong implications with t...

  2. Optional exon in the 5'-untranslated region of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase gene: conserved sequence and splicing pattern in humans and hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase (hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, EC 4.1.3.5) is a negatively regulated enzyme in the synthetic pathway for cholesterol, isopentenyl tRNA, and other isoprenoids. The 5'-untranslated region of the mRNA for Chinese hamster hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase contains an optional exon of 59 nucleotides located 10 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site. About 50% of the mRNAs contain this exon, and the other 50% lack it owing to differential intron splicing. The authors show that the two transcripts are found in similar ratios in multiple tissues of the Syrian hamster, including the brain. The relative amounts of the two transcripts in brain and liver are constant from day 0 to day 75 of life. A similar alternative splicing pattern for hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase was observed in three human tissues: cultured fibroblasts, fetal adrenal gland, and fetal liver. A cDNA for human synthase had 90% homology to the hamster sequence in the region corresponding to the optional exon. This sequence contains a 20 out of 26 nucleotide match with the sequence immediately upstream of the initiator AUG codon in the mRNA for hamster hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase, the enzyme that follows the synthase in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. These findings raise the possibility that the optional exon plays an important, conserved functional role in humans and hamsters

  3. Radiation-induced anorexia in Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of Syrian hamsters after split dose application (interval 11 days) was studied on the basis of the weight response and of food uptake. Two periods of weight loss and anorexia can be distinguished, an early one immediately after irradiation and a secondary one 6-10 days later. The secondary response is a function of the radiation dose and allows to distinguish survivors from non-survivors, since it is much more pronounced and longerlasting in the latter than in the former. The first response appears not to be influenced by a previous conditioning irradiation. (orig.)

  4. Radiation-induced anorexia in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindt, A.; Sattler, E.L.; Schraub, A.

    1980-10-01

    The recovery of Syrian hamsters after split dose application (interval 11 days) was studied on the basis of the weight response and of food uptake. Two periods of weight loss and anorexia can be distinguished, an early one immediately after irradiation and a secondary one 6-10 days later. The secondary response is a function of the radiation dose and allows to distinguish survivors from non-survivors, since it is much more pronounced and longerlasting in the latter than in the former. The first response appears not to be influenced by a previous conditioning irradiation.

  5. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-04-01

    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  6. Rapid changes in ovarian mRNA induced by brief photostimulation in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; McMichael, Carling F; Young, Kelly A

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to characterize the rapid intraovarian mRNA response of key folliculogenic factors that may contribute to the restoration of folliculogenesis during 2-10 days of photostimulation in Siberian hamsters. Adult hamsters were exposed to short photoperiod (8L:16D) for 14 weeks (SD). A subset were then transferred to long photoperiod (16L:8D) for 2 (PT day-2), 4 (PT day-4), or 10 days (PT day-10). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure intraovarian mRNA expression of: gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone β-subunit (FSHβ-subunit), luteinizing hormone β-subunit (LHβ-subunit), FSH and LH receptors, estrogen receptors α and β (Esr1 and Esr2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α subunit, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Compared to SD, plasma FSH concentrations increased on PT day-4 and the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased on PT day-10. FSHR and inhibin-α mRNA expression also increased on PT day-4, whereas LHR and proliferation marker PCNA both increased on PT day-10 as compared to SD. Esr1 mRNA increased on PT day-2 and remained significantly increased as compared to SD, whereas Esr1 mRNA increased only on PT day-2, similar to FGF-2 and MMP-2 results. No differences were observed in mRNA expression in ovarian GnRH, FSHβ- and LHβ-subunits, AMH, and MMP-9 mRNA with 2-10 days of photostimulation. Rapid increases in intraovarian FSHR and inhibin-α mRNA and antral follicle/corpora lutea numbers suggest that the ovary is primed to react quickly to the FSH released in response to brief periods of photostimulation.

  7. Re-torsion of the ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B;

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases....... The main outcome measures were re-torsion and viability of ovary with fixation measures. A total of 38 publications including 71 girls, 363 fertile women, and 69 pregnant women were found to be relevant. All studies were case reports or case series, sometimes with non-randomized controls. The studies show...... considerable heterogeneity in design, population, management and outcome. Only four studies included more than 50 cases. In pregnancy the risk of re-torsion was as high as 19.5-37.5%; among fertile women it was 28.6%. Most articles concluded that fixation of the ovaries to the pelvic sidewall or plication...

  8. Deciduoma of the ovary complicating pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy Vedavalli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 24 yr old Primigravida who conceived spontaneously came with two months amenorrhea for confirmation of pregnancy and routine checkup. Her 1st trimester scan, showed a single intra – uterine viable pregnancy of 8-9 weeks, with a right adnexal mass of about 10.7x7.7x10.3 cm with solid and cystic areas with internal echoes. In view of the size of the tumor and its varying echogenicity, pathological condition of the ovary was suspected. She reported at 24 weeks with abdominal pain. Partial torsion was suspected and Laprotomy was done. Right ovary was enlarged to 10 cm with varying consistency. Right ovariotomy was done. Postoperative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination showed extensive decidual changes in the ovary, forming tumor like lesions in the cystic areas. The pregnancy progressed without any complication. At term, she delivered a healthy female baby. The case is being presented for its extreme rarity.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy; Mortada, Rami; Porter, Samuel

    2016-07-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations. PMID:27419327

  10. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Moxibustion in Treating 128 Cases of Spleen Kidney Yang Deficiency Type Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced Infertility%中药加艾灸治疗脾肾阳虚型多囊卵巢综合征不孕128例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许玉刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with moxibustion therapy on pa-tients with spleen kidney yang deficiency type of polycystic ovary syndrome induced infertility.Methods:Two hundred and fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into observation group (n=128)and control group (n=122).The control group a-dopted Ethinylestradiol and Cyproterone Acetate Tablets treatment,and observation group gave patients warming kidney and invigorating spleen herbs (Xianmao,Ligustrum lucidum,medlar,dodder seed,polygonatum rhizome,dangshen,wine,vinegar Rhizoma Cyperi,epime-dium,angelica,licorice root,Cornu Cervi degelatinatum)combined with Moxibustion (Guan Yuan,Qihai and Zusanli)treatment.The hormone levels (T,LH,FSH,and E2 ),follicle number,basal body temperature changes and pregnancy rates were ovserved.Results:The clinical curative rates of the observation group and the control group were respectively 42.97%and 20.49%,and the total effective rate were 87.50%and 74.59%;the normal rate of recovery of basal body temperature were 67.97%and 40.98%;pregnancy rate were re-spectively 53.13% and 26.23%;all the above indicators between the two groups showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01).T,LH and FSH levels decreased after treatment in both groups,and E2 levels were elevated,and the differences were statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05 ).After treatment,left and right side ovarian antral follicle number of patients in the obser-vation group was lower than the control group,group comparison,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 ).Conclusion:Wenshen Jianpi herbs combined with moxibustion therapy on spleen kidney yang deficiency type of polycystic ovary syndrome shows bet-ter clinical curative effect than ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate tablets in patients with infertility,it can significantly improve hor-mone levels,basal body temperature,reduce the

  11. 中国汉族肿瘤坏死因子α基因rs3179060C/A多态与多囊卵巢综合征高雄激素血症关系研究%Relationship between the rs3179060C/A polymorphism in TNF- gene and the pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovary syndrome in Han Chinese racial origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭翠英; 龙兴宇; 卢光琇

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究肿瘤坏死因子α基因外显子1中rs3179060C/A多态与多囊卵巢综合征高雄激素血症形成的关系.方法 应用On/off Switch-聚合酶链反应及琼脂糖凝胶电泳分离技术分析130例多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者及175例对照组妇女TNF-α基因rs3179060C/A多态,比较rs3179060C/A两组等位基因及基因型与PCOS及其高雄激素之间的关系.结果 研究人群TNF-α 基因rs3179060C/A多态显示C,A两种等位基因及CC,CA,AA三种基因型;PCOS组及对照组C,A 基因频率分布为70.0%,30.O%和80.9%,19.1%,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 肿瘤坏死因子α基因rs3179060C/A多态CA和从基因型及A等位基因可能是中国汉族人群PCOS发病的遗传因素之一,但rs3179060C/A多态对PCOS高雄激素血症的形成可能无明显影响.%Objective To explore the association between rs3179060C/A polymorphism in the ex-on 1 of TNF-a gene and hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods One hundred thirty PCOS women and one hundred seventy five normal women as controls were enrolled in this study. The genotypes were screened by polymerase chain reaction-On/off switch and the product was isolated by e-lectrophoresis on a 2. 5% agarose gel containing ethidium bromide and visualized using an ultraviolet transil-luminator. The relationship of TNF-a alleles to serum testosterone level was analyzed in PCOS patients. Results Three genotypes were identified, corresponding to CC, CA, AA, and two alleles were screened, corresponding to C and A. The frequencies of the CC, CA, AA genotypes were 58. 4% ,23.1% ,18.5% vs. 72. 0% , 17.7% , 10. 3% in PCOS group and control group, showing statistically significant difference between two groups( P 0.05). Conclusions The TNF-a gene rs3179060C/A polymorphism may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of P-COS in Chinese women, but it was not effect on hyperandrogenism in PCOS women.

  12. 高雄激素血症与多囊卵巢综合征中非酒精性脂肪性肝病的关系%Hyperandrogenemia Relation to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲中玉; 石玉华; 陈子江

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨高雄激素血症(HT)与多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)发病的关系.方法:对306例PCOS患者进行基础内分泌、口服糖耐量试验及胰岛素释放试验、肝功能、血脂等检查,B超诊断脂肪肝.结果:306例PCOS患者中诊断出NAFLD 94例,发病率为30.7%;其中NAFLD轻度56例(59.6%),中度34例(36.2%),重度4例(4.2%).PCOS患者NAFLD的发病率与HA无明显相关性,与稳态模型评估胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、甘油三酯(TG)呈正相关.PCOS合并NAFLD组胰岛素抵抗(IR)发生率明显高于PCOS不合并NAFLD组,P<0.05;PCOS高雄激素血症(PCOS-HA)组IR发生率与PCOS非高雄激素血症(PCOS-NHA)组无明显差异,P>0.05.结论:PCOS患者NAFLD发病率较高,PCOS患者NAFLD的发生与IR、代谢异常密切相关,与HA无明显相关.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between hyperandrogenemia (HA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Patients data came from 306 women with PCOS by Rotterdam consensus criteria.Basal endocrine, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin release test, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were tested.Liver chemistries, B-hepatitis and C-hepatitis were performed, and alcoholic liver diseases were excluded.Fatty liver was diagnosed according to ultrasound.Results: The overall incidence of NAFLD in PCOS was 30.7% (94/306), 56 cases (59.6%) in mild degree, 34 cases (36.2%) in moderate degree, 4 cases (4.2%) in severe degree.Hyperandrogenemia was not associated with the development of NAFLD in women with PCOS.HOMA-IR and TG had positively correlation with NAFLD complicating PCOS.The presence of IR in PCOS women with NAFLD was significantly higher than that in the group without NAFLD (P<0.05).However, there was no significant difference in the presence of IR between PCOS women with hyperandrogenemia and those without hyperandrogenemia

  13. Torpor shortens the period of Siberian hamster circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E M; Jewett, M E; Zucker, I

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the influence of ambient and body temperature (Ta and Tb) on circadian rhythms of gonadectomized male Siberian hamsters. Animals that entered torpor (Tb circadian periods (tau s) than did nontorpid hamsters at a Ta of 13 degrees C (24.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 24.33 +/- 0.04 h). The tau s of homeothermic hamsters were not affected by Ta change. Short-term decreases in Tb, rather than changes in Ta, appear to affect tau. Access to activity wheels inhibited expression of torpor in short daylengths and was associated with significant increases in body mass. Running wheel activity can mask or block specific short-day responses.

  14. Identification of Sheep Ovary Genes Potentially Associated with Off-season Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Chen; Ka Liu; Zongsheng Zhao; Hugh T. Blair; Peng Zhang; Daquan Li; Runlin Z. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry.Hu sheep,an indigenous Chinese sheep breed,demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment.The genetic basis behind these traits,however,is not well understood.In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction,we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver.A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH.We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing,of which 8 were previously known,93 were reported for the first time in sheep,and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases.Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division,signal transduction,structure,metabolism,or cell defense.To validate the results of SSH,6 genes (Ntrk2,Ppap2b,Htral,Nidl,Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR),and two of them (Htral and Foxola) were verified by Northern blot.All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu.It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs.This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary.

  15. Effects of tanshinone on hyperandrogenism and the quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yuehui; Li, Wei; Cong, Jing; Zhou, Ying; Ng, Ernest H.Y.; Wu, XiaoKe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in reproductive-age women. Chinese herbal medicine has been used for the treatment of PCOS, but the evidence for its efficacy and safety is minimal. Tanshinones are a class of bioactive molecules isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, a commonly used herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of tanshinones on hyperandrogenism and quality of life in women with PCOS who d...

  16. Immunohistochemistry of Paraffin Sections from Mouse Ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Tepekoy, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an efficient technique to detect cellular localizations of the proteins in paraffin-embedded tissues. It allows specific proteins to be visualized by the interaction of antibodies with an enzyme-substrate-chromogen system. Here, we describe indirect immunohistochemistry method for paraffin-embedded mouse ovaries fixed with Bouin's Fixative. PMID:27557588

  17. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Carmen Imma; Nori, Stefania Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms an...

  18. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting. PMID:27287621

  19. Oncological repercussions of polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de França Neto, Antônio H; Rogatto, Silvia; Do Amorim, Melania M R;

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine disorder that has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has suggested that PCOS may be associated with the appearance of certain types of cancer, particularly endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer...

  20. Leiomyosarcoma of ovary--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Preethi, Joseph; Remadevi, A V

    2005-01-01

    Leiomyosarcomas are rare to arise in ovary and only 23 cases have been reported so far. They are considered to arise from components supporting the vascular elements in the hilar region. We report the case of a 75 year old lady, who was treated by resection of the tumour with hysterectomy and oophorectomy for ovarian leiomyosarcoma and followed up to six months. PMID:16758777

  1. Expression of FSH receptor in ovary tissue of rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein in ovary tissue in rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to provide experimental data for the model application. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=20), in PCOS model group letrozole was administered once daily during 21 d, and in control group without any treatment. The gonadal hormone concentrations in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, the histologic changes in ovaries were observed by HE staining, the expression of FSH receptor gene in ovary tissue was detected by realtime -PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with control group, estradiol (E2) and progesterone in model group showed a considerable reduction (P0.05). Compared with control group, the ovaries from model group showed high incidence of subcapsular ovarian cyst and capsular thickening and decreased number of corpora lute a. The expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein were significantly higher in model group than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of FSH receptor gene in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries is similar with that of PCOS women, the rat model is proved to be an ideal PCOS animal model to study the pathophysiology of PCOS. (authors)

  2. Neuropeptide Y induces torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Freeman, David A; Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John

    2005-09-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the effect of ICV injected NPY on Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a species that naturally undergoes daily torpor in which Tb decreases by as much as 15-20 degrees C. Minimum effective dose was determined in preliminary testing then various doses of NPY were tested in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters while food was withheld. NPY markedly reduced Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. In addition, the reduction in Tb in 63% of the observations was sufficient to reach the criterion for daily torpor (Tb Siberian hamster. NPY treatment may be activating hypothalamic systems that normally integrate endogenous torpor-producing signals and initiate torpor.

  3. Transfection of an expressive construct including IgG1 and Fv1 genes in ovary cell line for infliximab expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Sarabinejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infeliximab is a form of chimeric antibody which neutralizes the most important inflammatory cytokine, TNF-a, in inflammatory disorders. The aim of current study was to pilot expression of chimeric infliximab in Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO cells. Methods: In this research study, pVITRO2-neo-mcs vector that consist of infliximab light chain and heavy chain was used to transform into the E.coli by CaCl2 method. The plasmid was then purified and transfected to cultured CHO cells by Lipofectamine 2000® (Invitrogen GmbH, Germany. Transfected cells were selected upon G-418 treatment after 2 weeks and the level of expression, based on standard curve, was measured using IgG ELISA kit after 48 hours for each clone. High level expressed clone was then cultured in roller bottles and recombinant chimeric product was purified by protein A affinity chromatography. The purity of the product was analyzed by 10% gel SDS-PAGE from eluted samples. The efficacy of the purification was analyzed by ELISA before and after purification step. This article is a master's student thesis from February 2015 to August 2016 in pharmaceutical technology development center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Results: The purified plasmid was analyzed on 2% agarose gel. After selective pressure of G-418, 10 stable transfect clones were assessed for infliximab secretion by IgG ELISA kit at 450 nm. The maximum and minimum expression which detected by ELISA were 23 ng/ml and 6 ng/ml, respectively. The band width of infliximab fraction during purification procedure was observed at 0.7-0.8 min. The efficiency of the purification by ELISA was 70%. On SDS-PAGE analysis, two bands, 25 and 50 kDa, respect to light and heavy chains of Infliximab, was confirmed the expression of recombinant protein. Conclusion: In the current study, the construct for infliximab monoclonal antibody production was designed using genetic engineering techniques and the expression

  4. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after...

  5. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yunan Wang; Abudurexiti Kayoumu; Guotao Lu; Pengfei Xu; Xu Qiu; Liye Chen; Rong Qi; Shouxiong Huang; Weiqin Li; Yuhui Wang; George Liu

    2016-01-01

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase acti...

  6. Fasting-induced daily torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wan, Xin-Rong; Geiser, Fritz; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Daily torpor is frequently expressed in small rodents when facing energetically unfavorable ambient conditions. Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii, ~20g) appear to be an exception as they have been described as homeothermic. However, we hypothesized that they can use torpor because we observed reversible decreases of body temperature (Tb) in fasted hamsters. To test this hypothesis we (i) randomly exposed fasted summer-acclimated hamsters to ambient temperatures (Tas) ranging from 5 to 30°C or (ii) supplied them with different rations of food at Ta 23°C. All desert hamsters showed heterothermy with the lowest mean Tb of 31.4±1.9°C (minimum, 29.0°C) and 31.8±2.0°C (minimum, 29.0°C) when fasted at Ta of 23°C and 19°C, respectively. Below Ta 19°C, the lowest Tb and metabolic rate increased and the proportion of hamsters using heterothermy declined. At Ta 5°C, nearly all hamsters remained normothermic by increasing heat production, suggesting that the heterothermy only occurs in moderately cold conditions, perhaps to avoid freezing at extremely low Tas. During heterothermy, Tbs below 31°C with metabolic rates below 25% of those during normothermia were detected in four individuals at Ta of 19°C and 23°C. Consequently, by definition, our observations confirm that fasted desert hamsters are capable of shallow daily torpor. The negative correlation between the lowest Tbs and amount of food supply shows that heterothermy was mainly triggered by food shortage. Our data indicate that summer-acclimated desert hamsters can express fasting-induced shallow daily torpor, which may be of significance for energy conservation and survival in the wild. PMID:27215346

  7. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  8. Vessel Ultrasound Sonographic Assessment of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Efficacy in a Rat Balloon Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Tae, DVM, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sonograph results are consistent with those obtained from histology; that is, sRAGE produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells has significantly higher efficacy than insect cell-originated sRAGE cells.

  9. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-07-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction.

  10. Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

  11. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and disordered gonadotropin secretion, often associated with insulin resistance. The syndrome, which modulates both hormonal and metabolic processes, is the most common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women and increases a woman's risk of infertility, endometrial pathology, and cardiometabolic disease. As it is currently defined, PCOS most likely encompasses several distinct diseases with similar clinic...

  12. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Badawy; Abubaker Elnashar

    2011-01-01

    Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfun...

  13. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific gen...

  14. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Rosalbino; Raffone Emanuela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR). The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two ...

  15. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    David H Abbott; Nicol, Lindsey E.; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. L...

  16. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findi...

  17. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure.

  18. The effects of phthalates on the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHannon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic

  19. The pathogenetic enigma of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S. Speca; Napolitano, C.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease with heterogeneous clinical and anatomical features that were first described in 1721 by Antonio Vallisneri. There is still a lack of consensus regarding the criteria to be used for diagnosis of PCOS. Transvaginal ultrasonography with Doppler studies of the ovarian and pelvic vasculature plays an important role in its diagnosis, but findings must be interpreted in light of the patient's symptoms and laboratory findings.

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome: symptomatology, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzick, D

    1998-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome seek health care for 3 major reasons: infertility, menstrual irregularity, and androgen excess. The infertility is associated with anovulation. The menstrual irregularity is typically chronic, beginning with menarche. Although amenorrhea may sometimes occur, the more common presentation is irregular bleeding characteristic of anovulation. Androgen excess may be manifested by varying degrees of hirsutism. Patients may also report acne. The rapid development of virilizing signs, such as deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass, and temporal balding, should prompt a search for a tumor and lead one away from a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Typically treatment is directed at alleviating the symptoms: ovulation induction for infertility, oral contraceptives or a progestin for menstrual irregularity, and oral contraceptives or spironolactone for hirsutism. On the basis of recent epidemiologic data suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk among women with polycystic ovary syndrome, such treatment might be complemented by a long-term approach that addresses the underlying pathophysiology of insulin resistance. PMID:9855614

  1. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviračević Branko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumours of germ origin. In adolescent patients under 20 years of age diagnosed to have ovarian tumour, these tumours originate from germ cells in about 70% of cases. Depending on the stage of the disease, medical treatment and age, the death rate ranges from 25% to 84%. A special group of germ tumours are mixed germ cells tumours built of two or more different types of germ tumours. Case report. This paper gives a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure and the clinical picture with the course and outcome of the decease in a nineteen-year old patient with a mixed malignant germ tumour (dysgerminoma, choriocarcinoma, immature teratoma found in one of the ovaries. It also deals with the appearance and development, some characteristics and histological build of the tumours diagnosed in this case. Conclusion. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and develop in female population under 30 years of age. They are characterized by a high degree of malignity. They are resistant to cytostatic treatment, they spread very quickly with the lethal outcome. The course of the disease is not characteristic and is usually masked under some other acute gynaecological disease. The definitive diagnosis is made after laparotomy and pathohistological analysis of the tumour tissue.

  2. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  3. Social thermoregulation and torpor in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Głabska, Marta; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2011-04-01

    Social thermoregulation and huddling bring about energy benefits to animals sharing a nest because of the smaller surface-to-volume ratio of a huddle and the higher local temperature in the nest. We tested whether living in groups and huddling affect daily torpor, metabolic rate and seasonal changes in the body mass of a small heterothermic rodent, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), housed under semi-natural conditions both singly and in groups of four litter-mates. We predicted that in hamsters housed in groups: (1) synchronized torpor bouts would be longer and deeper than non-synchronized ones but shallower than in solitary hamsters, (2) seasonal variations in metabolic rate would be lower than in solitary hamsters, and (3) the winter decrease in body mass would be smaller in grouped than in singly housed hamsters. We found that group housing led to a smaller decrease in body mass in winter, and affected the length and depth of daily torpor. In group-living hamsters more than 50% of all torpor episodes were synchronized and torpid animals were often found in huddles formed of all cage-mates. The longest and deepest torpor bouts in groups were recorded when all animals in a group entered torpor simultaneously. Although the minimum body temperature during torpor was higher, torpor duration was slightly longer than in solitary hamsters. We did not record significant differences in the body mass-adjusted rate of oxygen consumption between solitary and grouped animals, either in the cold or at the lower critical temperature. We conclude that social thermoregulation enables maintenance of a larger body mass, and thus a larger body fat content, which can ensure better body condition at the beginning of the reproductive season.

  4. Evolutionary determinants of polycystic ovary syndrome: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlütürk, Uğur; Sezgin, Efe; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex genetic disorder that develops under varying degrees of hyperandrogenemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions that cause phenotypic variability ranging from mild hirsutism to anovulation and infertility. In addition to increased risk of reproductive disability, PCOS is associated with metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar prevalence rates and shared genetic susceptibility of PCOS among different populations suggest that genetic risk factors were already present in the ancestors of humans. Contemporary human genetic studies inform us that the origin of human ancestors is from Africa. Sharing common susceptibility loci between Chinese and European ancestry suggests that PCOS may have persisted for more than 50,000 years, before the migration of humans out of Africa. Although PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility, its high prevalence is still a paradox. From an evolutionary perspective, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PCOS might be candidate factors for survival advantage of the human being. Former compensatory advantageous factors may become pathogenic mechanisms underlying complex metabolic disease with prolonged life expectancy and transition to sedentary lifestyle. PMID:27238626

  5. Adaptation of the interspersed repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction to the isolation of mouse DNA probes from somatic cell hybrids on a hamster background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategy for the rapid isolation of DNA probes from radiation-fusion Chinese hamster cell hybrids containing overlapping portions of the murine X chromosome based on the interspersed repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (IRS-PCR) previously used with human somatic cell hybrids has been developed. This specific amplification of mouse DNA on a hamster background depends on the use of primers directed to the B2 short interspersed repeat element family and the R repeat, from the long interspersed repeat element family, L1. Two sets of amplification conditions, which gave specific amplification of mouse DNA from either a mouse X-monochromosomal hybrid or irradiation-fusion hybrids having reduced X content, were defined. The mouse X-only chromosome hybrid yielded approximately 20 discrete reproducible bands, while the irradiation-fusion hybrids yielded between 1 and 10 discrete products. Comparison of different irradiation-fusion hybrids has allowed the definition of both specific and shared products corresponding to different regions within the overlapping X-chromosome fragments present within these hybrids. Use of such hybrids and the IRS-PCR technique has allowed the isolation of probes corresponding to the central region of the mouse X chromosome that contains the X-inactivation center. The method should be widely applicable to the isolation of mouse DNA sequences from mouse hybrid cell lines on either human or Chinese hamster backgrounds

  6. Involvement of nitric oxide in inflammation of ovaries in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Barbara; Andronowska, Aneta; Kucharski, Jan

    2002-03-01

    NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and an inducible type of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were demonstrated in porcine ovaries after unilateral infusion of bacteria into the hilus of an ovary. In group I one ml of saline was infused into the hilus of each ovary from the 15th day to the 19th day of the estrous cycle. In group II one ml of bacterial suspension (10(9) colony forming units of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium pyogenes, in a proportion 1:1:1, respectively) in saline was infused into the hilus of one ovary on days corresponding to those of the control group (gr. I), whereas saline was infused into the contralateral ovary. The ovaries were collected on the 7th day of the next estrous cycle. In the bacteria-treated ovary, the activity of NADPH-d was higher in the endothelium of blood vessels, corpora lutea and follicular walls in comparison to that observed in the respective structures of the contralateral ovary. The highest activity of NADPH-d was found in the vascular endothelium in the bacteria-infused ovary. Vascular smooth muscle cells found in both ovaries of the bacteria-treated gilts were more intensely stained for NADPH-d than those in control animals. After bacteria administration, the intensity of NADPH-d reaction in all the structures of both ovaries in group II was higher than in control group. The strongest immunostaining for iNOS was observed in all structures of the bacteria-infused ovary. In the contralateral ovary, iNOS-immunoreactivity was weaker but still stronger than that in control group. The present results revealed that infusions of bacteria into the hilus of one ovary enhanced the activity of NADPH-d and immunoreactivity for iNOS in both porcine ovaries. However, the activity of both enzymes was higher in the bacteria-infused ovary than in the contralateral one. These data suggest that locally synthesized NO can mediate an inflammatory effect of bacteria in the porcine ovaries. PMID:14666163

  7. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  8. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster’s alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure t...

  9. A novel homozygous mutation p.E25X in the HSD3B2 gene causing salt wasting 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases deficiency in a Chinese pubertal girl: a delayed diagnosis until recurrent ovary cysts%HSD3B2基因p.E25X新纯合突变致失盐型3β-羟类固醇脱氢酶缺乏症一例及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永兰; 郑纪鹏; 谢婷; 肖青; 卢少媚; 李秀珍; 程静; 陈励和; 刘丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3βHSD),a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulted from mutations in the HSD3B2 gene that impair steroidogenesis in both adrenals and gonads.We report clinical features and the results of HSD3B2 gene analysis of a Chinese pubertal girl with salt wasting 3βHSD deficiency.Method We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentations and steroid profiles of the patient diagnosed in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center in 2013.PCR and direct sequencing were used to identify any mutation in the HSD3B2 gene.Result A 13-year-old girl was diagnosed as CAH after birth because of salt-wasting with mild clitorimegaly and then was treated with glucocorticoid replacement.Breast and pubic hair development were normal,and menarche occurred at 12 yr,followed by menstrual bleeding about every 45 days.In the last one year laparoscopic operation and ovariocentesis were performed one after another for recurrent ovary cysts.Under corticoid acetate therapy,ACTH 17.10 pmol/L (normal 0-10.12),testosterone 1.31 nmol/L (normal < 0.7),dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 13.30 μmol/L (normal 0.95-11.67),cortisol 720 nmol/L (normal 130-772.8),androstenedione,17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were normal.Estradiol 461 pmol/L,follicle-stimulating hormone 3.04 IU/L,luteinizing hormone 8.52 IU/L in follicular phase.A pelvic ultrasound showed lateral ovaries cysts (58 mm × 50 mm × 35 mm) and a midcycle-type endometrium.A novel nonsense mutation c.73G > T (p.E25X) was identified in HSD3B2 gene.The girl was homozygous and her mother was heterozygous,while her father was not identified with this mutation.Conclusion A classic 3βHSD deficiency is characterized by salt wasting and mild virilization in female.Ovary cysts may be the one of features of gonad phenotype indicating ovary 3βHSD deficiency.A novel homozygous mutation c.73G > T(p.E25X) was related to the classical phenotype.%目的 总结一例失盐型3

  10. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  11. Genitourinary changes in hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrine-Santos Marlene

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors describe genitourinary changes in male hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Changes in genital organs have been described in human and in experimental chagasic infection. Genital dysfunctions in chronic chagasic patients affect ejaculation, libido and sexual potency, and testis biopsies may show arrested maturation of germ cells, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Sixty-five male hamsters were inoculated and reinoculated with 2x10³ trypomastigotes of T. cruzi VIC strain, and 22 non-infected animals constituted the control group. Animals were necropsied and fragments from testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and bladder were collected and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Peroxidase anti-peroxidase procedure was utilized to detect tissue parasitism. T. cruzi nests were found in testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle of these hamsters. Such parasitism plays a role in the origin of genital lesions observed in humans and laboratory animals during chronic chagasic infection.

  12. Is change in ovary carbon status a cause or a consequence of maize ovary abortion in water deficit during flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Oury, Vincent; Caldeira, Cecilio Frois; Prodhomme, Duyên; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, Francois; TURC, OLIVIER

    2016-01-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabo...

  13. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in arrhythmic Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yokogawa, Tohei; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-07-01

    Sleep is regulated by independent yet interacting circadian and homeostatic processes. The present study used a novel approach to study sleep homeostasis in the absence of circadian influences by exposing Siberian hamsters to a simple phase delay of the photocycle to make them arrhythmic. Because these hamsters lacked any circadian organization, their sleep homeostasis could be studied in the absence of circadian interactions. Control animals retained circadian rhythmicity after the phase shift and re-entrained to the phase-shifted photocycle. These animals displayed robust daily sleep-wake rhythms with consolidated sleep during the light phase beginning about 1 h after light onset. This marked sleep-wake pattern was circadian in that it persisted in constant darkness. The distribution of sleep in the arrhythmic hamsters over 24 h was similar to that in the light phase of rhythmic animals. Therefore, daily sleep amounts were higher in arrhythmic animals compared with rhythmic ones. During 2- and 6-h sleep deprivations (SD), it was more difficult to keep arrhythmic hamsters awake than it was for rhythmic hamsters. Because the arrhythmic animals obtained more non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the SD, they showed a diminished compensatory response in NREMS EEG slow-wave activity during recovery sleep. When amounts of sleep during the SD were taken into account, there were no differences in sleep homeostasis between experimental and control hamsters. Thus loss of circadian control did not alter the homeostatic response to SD. This supports the view that circadian and homeostatic influences on sleep regulation are independent processes.

  14. Autonomic nervous dysfunction in hamsters infected with West Nile virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical studies and case reports clearly document that West Nile virus (WNV can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI complications. Other functions controlled by the autonomic nervous system may also be directly affected by WNV, such as bladder and cardiac functions. To investigate how WNV can cause autonomic dysfunctions, we focused on the cardiac and GI dysfunctions of rodents infected with WNV. Infected hamsters had distension of the stomach and intestines at day 9 after viral challenge. GI motility was detected by a dye retention assay; phenol red dye was retained more in the stomachs of infected hamsters as compared to sham-infected hamsters. The amplitudes of electromygraphs (EMGs of intestinal muscles were significantly reduced. Myenteric neurons that innervate the intestines, in addition to neurons in the brain stem, were identified to be infected with WNV. These data suggest that infected neurons controlling autonomic function were the cause of GI dysfunction in WNV-infected hamsters. Using radiotelemetry to record electrocardiograms and to measure heart rate variability (HRV, a well-accepted readout for autonomic function, we determined that HRV and autonomic function were suppressed in WNV-infected hamsters. Cardiac histopathology was observed at day 9 only in the right atrium, which was coincident with WNV staining. A subset of WNV infected cells was identified among cells with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 (HCN4 as a marker for cells in the sinoatrial (SA and atrioventricular (AV nodes. The unique contribution of this study is the discovery that WNV infection of hamsters can lead to autonomic dysfunction as determined by reduced HRV and reduced EMG amplitudes of the GI tract. These data may model autonomic dysfunction of the human West Nile neurological disease.

  15. Asbestos cement dust inhalation by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

    1978-12-01

    Two groups of 96 male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to respirable asbestos cement aerosol at concentrations of approximately 1 and approximately 10 micrograms/liter, respectively, 3 hours/day, 5 days/week. Average fiber counts ranged from 5 to about 120 fibers/cm3. Each group was randomly divided into six subgroups of 16 animals. The first subgroup was sacrificed after 3 months of exposure, the second after 6 months, and the third after 15 months. The fourth subgroup was withdrawn from exposure after 3 months, observed for an additional 3 months, and then sacrificed. The fifth and sixth subgroups were withdrawn after 3 and 6 months of exposure, respectively, and maintained for observation up to the 15-month exposure point of the third subgroup at which time all surviving animals were sacrificed. All other experimental procedures were similar to those delineated in a previous publication describing the development of an animal model, techniques, and an exposure system for asbestos cement dust inhalation. The asbestos cement exposures had no significant effect on body weight and mortality of the animals. Higher aerosol concentration and longer exposure times increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies found in the lungs of the exposed animals. Recovery periods had no effect on the incidence of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. The incidence of very slight to slight fibrosis in the animals sacrificed after 15 months of exposure shows a significant (P less than 0.01) trend when the untreated control group and the 1 and 10 microgram/liter dose level groups are compared, indicating a dose-response relationship. Development of minimal fibrosis continued in animals withdrawn from exposure. No primary carcinomas of the lung and respiratory tract and no mesotheliomas were found.

  16. Use of CB hamsters in the study of Treponema pertenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, R F; Le Frock, J L; Babu, J P; Chan, J K

    1979-10-01

    The CB/Ss LAK strain of inbred hamster was used as a model for studies of infection with Treponema pertenue and of acquired resistance to it. When infected, this strain developed cutaneous lesions which lasted for six to seven months, even in the presence of peak titres of antitreponemal antibody. The rate of appearance and resolution of these lesions varied with the size of the inoculum. The infected hamsters' inguinal lymph nodes increased significantly in weight and teemed with treponemes for several weeks. Animals infected for eight or 10 weeks obtained quick resolution of their lesions by treatment with penicillin and were thereafter resistant to reinfection. PMID:509189

  17. Mixed malignant germ cell tumor of ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Sviračević Branko; Sedlar Srđan; Malobabić Dragan; Ćuk Dragomir

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Malignant tumours of ovary germ epithelium are very rare and account for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumours of germ origin. In adolescent patients under 20 years of age diagnosed to have ovarian tumour, these tumours originate from germ cells in about 70% of cases. Depending on the stage of the disease, medical treatment and age, the death rate ranges from 25% to 84%. A special group of germ tumours are mixed germ cells tumours built of two or more different types of germ t...

  18. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  19. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  20. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of rats with polycystic ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Lombardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative, apoptotic and steroidogenic enzyme markers in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: twenty rats were divided into two groups: GCtrl - estrous phase, and PCOS - with polycystic ovaries. The GCtrl animals were subjected to a lighting period from 7 am to 7 pm, while the animals with PCOS group remained with continuous lighting for 60 days. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized, the ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde, prior to paraffin embedding. Sections were stained using H.E. or subjected to immunohistochemical methods for the detection of Ki-67, cleaved caspase-3, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < 0,05. Results: morphological results showed evidence of interstitial cells originating from the inner theca cells of degenerating ovarian cysts in PCOS. Immunoexpression of Ki-67 was higher in the granulosa cells in GCtrl, and the theca interna cells in PCOS, while cleaved caspase-3 was higher in granulosa cells of ovarian cysts from PCOS and in the theca interna cells of GCtrl. Immunoreactivity of CYP11A1 in the theca interna, granulosa and interstitial cells was similar between the two groups, while CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were higher in the granulosa and interstitial cells in the PCOS group. Conclusion: the results indicate that the interstitial cells are derived from the theca interna and that enzymatic changes occur in the theca interna and interstitial cells in ovaries of rats with PCOS, responsible for the high levels of androgens and estradiol.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed. PMID:18089592

  2. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-bing; SUN Zheng; CHEN Xiao-xin; WU Hong-ru; ZHANG Xin-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer.However,the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP,a Chinese herbal drug,on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters.The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis.Methods DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6-8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors.Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks.Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination.Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels.The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting.Results Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation.Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights.Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P <0.01) and 22.9% (P <0.01)respectively.Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK.In addition,ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production.Conclusion The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating

  3. Obesity and hormonal status of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome is commonly associated with hyperandrogenism and anovulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity on hormonal status in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Material and methods The study was performed at the Ward of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the General Hospital in Subotica. A retrospective investigation comprised 39 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome . All patients were in the fertile age-range: 18-38 years. Following ultrasonographic examination and anamnestic data, patients underwent hormonal analyses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone, prolactin and insulin obtained from the pooled serum sample. Results Values of testosterone and insulin in the group of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were significantly higher than in normal weight patients. Patients with normal body weight index had significantly increased levels of LH in regard to those with increased body weight index. Values of FSH, prolactin and LH/FSH ratio were not significantly different in both groups of polycystic ovary syndrome patients. Increased values of insulin were recorded in 43% of obese and 18.2% of normal weight patients. Conclusion Analysis of investigated results confirmed that obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance have been a special clinical entity, whereas an open question remains whether obesity is directly connected with polycystic ovary syndrome or it is only an additional factor interfering with metabolic and hormonal status of genetically predisposed and phenotypically indoctrinated women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  4. Adnexal torsion: MR imaging findings of viable ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of torsed ovarian cystic tumor, in which contrast-enhanced high-resolution MR images accurately contributed to the diagnosis of torsion despite the lack of symptoms and to the preoperative evaluation of viability of the edematous ovary. Accurate preoperative assessment by MR images and prompt conservative surgical approach succeeded in salvaging the involved ovary. (orig.)

  5. Cardiometabolic abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome : Pharmacotherapeutic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, H. E.; Hoogendoorn, M.; de Jong, A. W. F.; Goverde, A. J.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of all premenopausal women. It is diagnosed by a combination of oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism (NIH criteria) or by the presence of two out of three of: oligo-amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound (Rotterdam criteria)

  6. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome : Genetic determinants of the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Valkenburg (Olivier)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first described in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal as an association of amenorrhoea, obesity and a typical, polycystically enlarged, appearance of the ovaries at laparatomy1. Taking into account the absence of advanced imaging techni

  7. Adipose expression of adipocytokines in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines.......To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines....

  8. Bone morphogenetic proteins and the polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.A.F. van Houten (Leonie); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); A. McLuskey; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); J.A. Visser (Jenny)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is defined by two out of the following three criteria being met: oligo- or anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Affected women are often obese and insulin resistant. Although the etiology is still unknown, members of the Tran

  9. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with PCOS: a cross- sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rong; Yu, Geng; Yang, Dongzi; Li, Shangwei; Lu, Shulan; Wu, XiaoKe; Wei, Zhaolian; Song, Xueru; Wang, Xiuxia; Fu, Shuxin; Qiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition estimated to affect 5.61% of Chinese women of reproductive age, but little is known about the prevalence and predictors in Chinese PCOS patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of the metabolic abnormalities in Chinese women with and without PCOS. Methods A large-scale national epidemiological investigation was conducted in reproductive age women (19 to 45 years) across China. 833 reproductive aged ...

  10. Research Progress of the Effect of Melatonin and Its Receptor on Ovary and Intervention with Traditional Chinese Medicine%松果腺褪黑素及其受体对卵巢作用及中医药干预的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    堵吉

    2012-01-01

    松果体在人脑百会穴下,双眉之间,印堂之后深处,位于第三脑室.其分泌的主要效应物质褪黑素具有调节生物钟、生殖和抗氧化等作用.尽管褪黑素对下丘脑-垂体-卵巢轴整体呈现抑制作用,但其对卵巢局部仍具有一定的保护作用,这种保护作用是通过清除自由基抗氧化损伤,抑制细胞凋亡实现的.现就褪黑素及其受体的理化性质、生物学功能以及褪黑素及其受体对卵巢的作用予以综述.%The pineal gland is below the Baihui point in the human brain, between the eye brows, deeply behind the Yintang piont, located in the third ventricle. The pineal gland secrets melatonin, which has an important influence on human's biological clock,reproduction,and antioxidation. The efforts of melatonin on hy-pothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are inhibitory in overall, but it still has a protective effort to ovary, through scavenging free radicals,antioxidant effect,and inhibiting apoptosis. Here is to make a review on the properties, biological functions,especially the effects on the ovary,of melatonin and its receptor.

  11. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  12. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM

    1992-01-01

    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the

  13. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  14. DOSE RESPONSE OF ELASTASE-INDUCED EMPHYSEMA IN HAMSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elastase-induced emhysema in hamsters was studied using pulmonary function tests in an effort to develop techniques for determining the effects of air pollutants on the progression of this disease. It appears that as little as 6 units of elastase produces mild emphysema in hamste...

  15. Seasonal aspects of sleep in the Djungarian hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deboer Tom

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod.

  16. Mucinous carcinoid of the ovary: report of a case with metastasis in the contralateral ovary after ten years

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    Patricia C. Ewing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monodermal teratomas of the ovary can take the form of carcinoid tumors of which there are several types, mucinous carcinoid being the least common. Very few cases of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary have been reported in the literature and the behavior of these tumors over the long term is unclear. We describe a case of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary in a 39-year-old woman treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, where a metastasis occurred in the contralateral ovary ten years later. This case demonstrates that mucinous carcinoid of the ovary can metastasize even after a long interval, and careful follow-up of patients, particularly those treated conservatively, is appropriate.

  17. [Cystic formations of ovaries in women: clinical and morphological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic formations of ovaries are an urgent problem of medicine due to the high incidence of these diseases in women, the difficulties of differential diagnosis and a high percentage of diagnostic and tactical mistakes leading to disruption of reproductive function. Objective: to identify the clinical and morphological features of cystic formations of ovaries in women of Kharkiv region on the basis of the analysis of archival material. Methods. The material of this study was archival materials of pathological anatomy department of The Municipal Health Care Institution «Regional Clinical Hospital – The Center of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine» during 2013 y. 354 cases of histological examination of surgical material – deleted fragments of ovaries due to cystic formations or ovaries in complex with uterus and fallopian tubes due to leiomyoma of uterus – were analyzed. The slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were studied on the microscope «Olympus BX-41». Digital data were processed using statistical methods of investigation. Results. 1. It was established that in women of Kharkiv region among all cystic formations of ovaries tumor-like processes (in order of frequency of occurrence – yellow bodies cysts, follicular cysts, simple cysts, endometrial cysts occur 5.5 times more frequently in comparison with tumor processes (in order of frequency of occurrence – dermoid cysts, cystadenomas, cystadenocarcinoma. 2. Tumor and tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries occur 4.6 times more frequently in right ovary in comparison with the left. 3. Tumor and tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries were characterized by a certain age. Tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries were typical for younger women (average age of women – 31.03±0.49 year and tumor cystic formations – for older women (average age of women – 37.70±1.53 years. Among all tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries yellow bodies cysts were typical

  18. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner. PMID:15380144

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Obesity, and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joham, Anju E; Palomba, Stefano; Hart, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to one in five reproductive-aged women. It is underpinned by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism and is associated with metabolic, reproductive, and psychological features. Women with PCOS have higher rates of obesity and central adiposity compared with women without PCOS, and weight strongly influences prevalence and clinical severity of PCOS. Women with PCOS may have subfertility and women should be aware of factors affecting fertility, in particular the impact of obesity and age. Once pregnant, women with PCOS have significantly increased risk of pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders, premature delivery, and delivery by cesarean section. The offspring of women with PCOS may have increased risk of congenital abnormalities and hospitalization in childhood. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk and screen, prevent, and manage accordingly. PMID:26854709

  20. MMATURE TERATOMA OF OVARY- A CASE REPORT

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    Devarmani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immature teratoma is the currently preferred term f or the malignant ovarian teratoma composed of a mixture of embryonal and adult tissues derived from all three germ layers, regardless of its gross appear ance. AIM: to distinct mature and immature teratoma when dealing with ovarian germ cell tumors . CASE SUMMARY: a 30 year female presented with intra abdominal mass and ascitis. Gro ssly, variable size nodule and cystic areas are seen. Microscopically, carcinoid like lesion, th yroid tissue immature neural tissue and glandular tissue noted. Diagnosis of immature terat oma grade 3 was made. DISCUSSION: immature teratoma of ovary accounts for 10-20% of a ll ovarian tumors and is considered second most common germ cell tumor following mature teratoma. It is usually seen in children and adolescents. CONCLUSION: A thorough search for immature elements in a terat oma is necessary for proper grading, management and assessin g prognosis of cases with immature teratoma.

  1. Primary Nongestational Choriocarcinoma of the Ovary

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    AMM Shariful Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure primary ovarian choriocarcinoma is an extremely rare and aggressive tumor. It can be of gestational or nongestational in origin. The gestational type can arise from an ovarian pregnancy or can be of metastatic origin from uterine choriocarcinoma. The nongestational type is a very rare germ cell neoplasm. It is important to distinguish between two types of choriocarcinomas as nongestational origin is highly malignant and has worse prognosis than gestational type. But it is very difficult to differentiate by routine histological examination. Nongestational choriocarcinoma has been found to be resistant to single agent chemotherapy. It occurs usually around 13 years of age and is mainly confined to females under 20. Here we report a case of primary pure nongestational choriocarcinoma of the ovary in an unmarried girl of 14 years, diagnosed in 2001 and treated successfully with surgery and combination chemotherapy and remained disease-free till last reporting in September 2013.

  2. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5-7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success.

  3. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes J; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...... cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two major University Hospitals in the Capital region of Denmark. PATIENTS: Hundred forty-eight European women with PCOS were consecutively recruited during April 2010-February 2012. Clinical examination, blood sampling, and DEXA scan were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES......: Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS: PCOS women with phenotype BMI > 25 + IR have increased potential of thrombin generation. ETP is associated with total body fat mass, IR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Obese and insulin resistant women with PCOS have elevated level of ETP corresponding to increased risk...

  4. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Ahmed Badawy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms.Keywords: treatment, polycystic ovary

  5. Does ovary need D-chiro-inositol?

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    Isabella Rosalbino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is a multifactorial pathology that affects 10% of the women in reproductive age being the main cause of infertility due to menstrual dysfunction. Since 1980, it is known that PCOS is associated with insulin resistance (IR. The recognition of this association has prompted extensive investigation on the relationship between insulin and gonadal function, and has turned insulin sensitizer agent as the main therapeutic choice. In particular two different polyalcohol myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been shown to improve insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism and to induce ovulation in PCOS women. In particular, while data on myo-inositol and restored ovulation were consistent, data on D-chiro-inositol were not . Recently, a comparative study, proposed a D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary of PCOS patients hypothesizing that only myo-inositol has a specific ovarian action. In the present study we aim to further study the role played by D-chiro-inositol at ovarian level. Methods A total of 54 women, aged Results Total r-FSH units increased significantly in the two groups that received the higher doses of DCI. The number of immature oocytes was significantly increased in the three groups that received the higher doses of DCI. Concurrently, the number of MII oocytes was significantly lower in the D group compared to placebo group. Noteworthy, the number of grade I embryos was significantly reduced by DCI supplementation. Conclusions Indeed, increasing DCI dosage progressively worsens oocyte quality and ovarian response.

  6. Computer-generated ovaries to assist follicle counting experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Skodras

    Full Text Available Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries, with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units.

  7. Successful cryopreservation of buffalo ovaries using in situ oocyte cryopreservation

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    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovaries, we developed a new method termed in situ oocyte (ISO cryopreservation. ISO cryopreservation is a multistep procedure that involves aspiration of follicular fluid and then perfusion of antral follicles and diffusion of whole buffalo ovaries with cryoprotectant agent (CPA, rapid cooling, storage, thawing and, finally, dilution and removal of the CPA with return to physiological environment. Our study compared ISO cryo ovaries with cryo-diffused ovaries. We systematically examined the effects of ISO cryo and diffuse cryo on ovaries by morphological examination and with viability tests. The percentages of morphologically normal and viable follicular oocytes from ISO cryo were significantly higher than those that resulted from the cryo-diffused method (p<0.01. The quality of follicular oocytes from ISO cryo ovaries appeared better than that achieved from cryo-diffused ovaries. In conclusion, this study shows that ISO cryo is highly efficient for cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue.

  8. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

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    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  9. Proposal on the diagnosis and classification of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the treatment outcome and facilitate the clinical practice, a diagnostic classification of heterogeneous disease-polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is proposed.PCOS is classified into 2 main types (Ⅰ ,Ⅱ ) and 4 subtypes ( Ⅰ a,Ⅰb,Ⅱa, Ⅱb) : PCOS Ⅰ refers to eases with hyperandrogenemia derived from the ovary ( Ⅰa) or from both the ovary and the adrenal cortex ( Ⅰ b).PCOS Ⅱ refers to cases with both hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia, while Ⅱb being severer than Ⅱ a, like hyperthecosis.Better efficacy of integrative medicine treatment on this classification is mentioned.

  10. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurdan; Erol; Aysu; Turkmen; Karaagac; Nicholas; G; Kounis

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome.

  11. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  12. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ [a] ANTHRACENE-INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  13. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  14. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, D; Di Giuseppe, M; Deli, G; De Caro Carella, C

    2016-01-01

    A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis. PMID:27540515

  15. Treatments to Relieve Symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L. A., Cedars, M. I., et al. (2011). Physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Prevalence, predictors, and positive health associations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , 204, 352.e1–352. ...

  16. Oral implantation of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus and Eikenella corrodens in conventional hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahata, T; Kiyoshige, T; Tomono, S; Abe, R; Sasaki, S.; Takazoe, I

    1982-01-01

    Oral implantation of Bacteroides asaccharolyticus 381-R' and Eikenella corrodens 1073S-R, which are highly resistant to streptomycin, was examined in conventional hamsters. The hamsters' first molars were ligatured with cotton threads preimmersed in bacterial suspensions. Bacterial inoculation was performed daily for 1 week, followed by a single weekly inoculation for 7 more weeks. Hamsters were fed Keyes' diet no. 2000 or ordinary powdered diet. Bacterial recovery, gingival histological chan...

  17. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  18. Photoperiodic regulation of adrenal hormone secretion and aggression in female Syrian hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gutzler, Stephanie J.; Karom, Mary; Erwin, W. Daniel; ALBERS, H. Elliott

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal changes in the length of the daily photoperiod induce significant changes in social behavior. Hamsters housed in winter-like short photoperiods (SP) can express significantly higher levels of aggression than hamsters housed in long photoperiods (LP) that mimic summer. The mechanisms responsible for increasing aggressiveness in SP-exposed female hamsters are not well understood but may involve seasonal changes in the endocrine system. In experiment 1, the effects of SP exposure on the...

  19. Inhibition of caries in hamsters treated with staphylococcin 1580.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, R J; Morhart, R E; Marquez, C; Adams, B. O.

    1986-01-01

    Littermate hamsters were infected orally with cariogenic Streptococcus mutans NS-50S and maintained on a high-sucrose diet to induce dental caries. Individual groups of animals were treated by single daily instillation of staphylococcin 1580 (100 micrograms) in the cheek pouches. Other groups were treated similarly with bacitracin (60 or 120 U) or saline. After 35 days on the caries test regimen, animals treated with staphylococcin 1580 had 49 or 60% less caries than the saline controls in tw...

  20. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ'), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters.

  1. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Patel, Priyesh N; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2014-03-15

    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors.

  2. Antibody Prophylaxis and Therapy against Nipah Virus Infection in Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, V; Contamin, H.; Loth, P.; Grosjean, I.; Courbot, M. C. Georges; Deubel, V.; Buckland, R; Wild, T F

    2006-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes a zoonotic infection in which the reservoir, the fruit bat, may pass the infection to pigs and eventually to humans. In humans, the infection leads to encephalitis with >40 to 70% mortality. We have previously shown that polyclonal antibody directed to either one of two glycoproteins, G (attachment protein) or F (fusion protein), can protect hamsters from a lethal infection. In the present study, we have developed monoclonal an...

  3. Insulin and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Catherine G.; Battista, Marie-Claude; Trottier, Andréanne; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, and/or polycystic ovaries. But most experts consider that hyperandrogenism is the main characteristic of PCOS. Several theories propose different mechanisms to explain PCOS manifestations: (1) a primary enzymatic default in the ovarian and/or adrenal steroidogenesis; (2) an impairment in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion that pr...

  4. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Nicholas G Kounis

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female wi...

  5. Obesity Differentially Affects Phenotypes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Moran; Monica Arriaga; Gustavo Rodriguez; Segundo Moran

    2012-01-01

    Obesity or overweight affect most of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Phenotypes are the clinical characteristics produced by the interaction of heredity and environment in a disease or syndrome. Phenotypes of PCOS have been described on the presence of clinical hyperandrogenism, oligoovulation and polycystic ovaries. The insulin resistance is present in the majority of patients with obesity and/or PCOS and it is more frequent and of greater magnitude in obese than in non obese...

  6. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmans SM; Pate KA

    2013-01-01

    Susan M Sirmans, Kristen A PateDepartment of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and...

  7. Goitre and wasting induced in hamsters by hexachlorobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Syrian hamsters were treated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in their diet at levels of 100 ppm for 28 weeks, 200 ppm for 18 and 28 weeks, and 500 ppm for 6 weeks. All treatments caused at least a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in thyroid size, mainly by enlargement of some follicles. Serum thyroxine (T4) levels were unchanged, whereas levels of triiodothyronine (T3) eventually became depressed by >60%. Uptake of 131I into thyroids was induced approximately 3-fold when estimated after feeding HCB (500 ppm) for 3 or 6 weeks. Hamsters also lost weight by depletion of adipose tissue, leading to 50% mortality in longer experiments. Results were distinct from the effects of the known antithyroid agent 3-aminotriazole or amitrole (200 ppm for 28 weeks), which did not affect survival and although causing thyroid enlargement depressed serum T4 and significantly elevated T3. The effects of HCB in hamsters were also different from those in rats (500 ppm HCB for 6 weeks) in which there was only a small increase in thyroid size (1.3-fold), serum levels of T3 were only slightly depressed but T4 levels were reduced by 74%. These studies are discussed with reference to the effects of other polyhalogenated aromatic chemicals on the thyroid, serum thyroid hormone levels and lethality. (orig.)

  8. Effects of hyperthermia on the hamster immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous studies, the authors have shown that hyperthermia can enhance antibody-complement chytotoxicity of hamster and human tumor cells. Moreover, whole body microwave exposure of hamsters resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages to a viricidal state and transient suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity. In this study, the authors compare the effects of whole body heating by microwaves or by an environmental chamber (hot air) on the hamster immune system. Microwave exposure (25mW/cm/sup 2/; 1 hr) caused viricidal activation of peritoneal macrophages which resulted in restriction of vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virs (VSV) growth. However, heating in an environmental chamber (410C; 1 hr) did not activate macrophages to a viricidal state. Both microwave and hot air hyperthermia caused significant augmentation of antibody producing spleen cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), using the Jerne hymolytic plaque assay, four days post exposure and immunization with SRBC. Natural killer spleen cell cytotoxicity was suppressed by microwave and hot air hyperthermia showing that NK lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. These alterations in cellular immune response due to hyperthermia could be of significance in treatment of tumors and viral infections

  9. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  10. Experience-independent development of the hamster circadian visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Kampf-Lassin

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent functional plasticity is a hallmark of the primary visual system, but it is not known if analogous mechanisms govern development of the circadian visual system. Here we investigated molecular, anatomical, and behavioral consequences of complete monocular light deprivation during extended intervals of postnatal development in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were raised in constant darkness and opaque contact lenses were applied shortly after eye opening and prior to the introduction of a light-dark cycle. In adulthood, previously-occluded eyes were challenged with visual stimuli. Whereas image-formation and motion-detection were markedly impaired by monocular occlusion, neither entrainment to a light-dark cycle, nor phase-resetting responses to shifts in the light-dark cycle were affected by prior monocular deprivation. Cholera toxin-b subunit fluorescent tract-tracing revealed that in monocularly-deprived hamsters the density of fibers projecting from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN was comparable regardless of whether such fibers originated from occluded or exposed eyes. In addition, long-term monocular deprivation did not attenuate light-induced c-Fos expression in the SCN. Thus, in contrast to the thalamocortical projections of the primary visual system, retinohypothalamic projections terminating in the SCN develop into normal adult patterns and mediate circadian responses to light largely independent of light experience during development. The data identify a categorical difference in the requirement for light input during postnatal development between circadian and non-circadian visual systems.

  11. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  12. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  13. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  14. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Esra Bahar; Karadeniz, Muammer; Turan, Guluzar Arzu

    2015-07-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive age women. Experimental research and clinical observations suggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stages of development, possibly even during intrauterine life. This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmitted or is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in the intrauterine microenvironment. Although familial cases support the role of genetic factors, no specific genetic pattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidate genes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but none can specifically be implicated in PCOS development. Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterine environment on PCOS development can be grouped into two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotype hypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritional restriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretion and, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance. Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment can affect the methylation of some specific genes, which can also trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates that fetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changes in differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype to develop in adult life. This review aimed to examine the role of fetal programming in development of PCOS. PMID:26185601

  15. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinedisorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive agewomen. Experimental research and clinical observationssuggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stagesof development, possibly even during intrauterine life.This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmittedor is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in theintrauterine microenvironment. Although familial casessupport the role of genetic factors, no specific geneticpattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidategenes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, butnone can specifically be implicated in PCOS development.Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterineenvironment on PCOS development can be groupedinto two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotypehypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritionalrestriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretionand, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance.Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment canaffect the methylation of some specific genes, which canalso trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates thatfetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changesin differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype todevelop in adult life. This review aimed to examine therole of fetal programming in development of PCOS.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a transgenerational evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L M A; Elton, S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome has a common association with anovulatory infertility, while the physical symptoms are often associated with the increased androgens that are part of the endocrine profile. There is a well-recognised association with lipid and glucose metabolism anomalies and, when undergoing ovulation induction, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This common condition is familial, but a contributory gene has yet to be found. The question of why a gene that predisposes to anovulation, diabetes and heart disease might have perpetuated so frequently is addressed. Three hypotheses for evolutionary advantage are discussed. The food deprivation hypothesis considers the role of the observed increase in ovulation when women with the condition lose weight in relation to seasonality. The refeeding hypothesis considers the androgenic and slightly enhanced anabolic metabolism in relation to periods of privation and the advantage of preferential early ovulation when refeeding after a period of privation. The transgenerational privation hypothesis considers the effect of persistent, severe, yet subfatal privation on individuals both in utero and throughout life. While an androgenic, anabolic state would improve efficiency in the use of food for protein synthesis and fat storage, benefiting the fetus both in relation to its in utero development and neonatal survival, survival and reproductive capacity as an adult benefits by a genotype expressing itself in women of successive generations.

  17. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  18. Is Change in Ovary Carbon Status a Cause or a Consequence of Maize Ovary Abortion in Water Deficit during Flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, Vincent; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Prodhomme, Duyên; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Gibon, Yves; Tardieu, François; Turc, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Flower or grain abortion causes large yield losses under water deficit. In maize (Zea mays), it is often attributed to a carbon limitation via the disruption of sucrose cleavage by cell wall invertases in developing ovaries. We have tested this hypothesis versus another linked to the expansive growth of ovaries and silks. We have measured, in silks and ovaries of well-watered or moderately droughted plants, the transcript abundances of genes involved in either tissue expansion or sugar metabolism, together with the concentrations and amounts of sugars, and with the activities of major enzymes of carbon metabolism. Photosynthesis and indicators of sugar export, measured during water deprivation, suggested sugar export maintained by the leaf. The first molecular changes occurred in silks rather than in ovaries and involved genes affecting expansive growth rather than sugar metabolism. Changes in the concentrations and amounts of sugars and in the activities of enzymes of sugar metabolism occurred in apical ovaries that eventually aborted, but probably after the switch to abortion of these ovaries. Hence, we propose that, under moderate water deficits corresponding to most European drought scenarios, changes in carbon metabolism during flowering time are a consequence rather than a cause of the beginning of ovary abortion. A carbon-driven ovary abortion may occur later in the cycle in the case of carbon shortage or under very severe water deficits. These findings support the view that, until the end of silking, expansive growth of reproductive organs is the primary event leading to abortion, rather than a disruption of carbon metabolism. PMID:27208256

  19. Androgen dependence in hamsters: overdose, tolerance, and potential opioidergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K D; Wood, R I

    2005-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are drugs of abuse. However, the potential for steroid reward and addiction remains largely unexplored. This study used i.c.v. testosterone self-administration and controlled infusions of testosterone or vehicle in hamsters to explore central mechanisms of androgen overdose. Forty-two hamsters used nose-pokes to self-administer 1 microg/microl testosterone i.c.v. 4 h/day in an operant chamber. During 1-56 days of androgen self-administration, 10 (24%) hamsters died. Deaths correlated with peak daily intake of testosterone. Of the hamsters that self-administered a peak intake of testosterone intake peaked at 20-60 microg/day. Only 30% (three of 10) survived when daily testosterone intake exceeded 60 microg/day. Deaths are not due to volume or vehicle because i.c.v. infusions of 80 mul vehicle had no effect. Testosterone overdose resembles opiate intoxication. When male hamsters received infusions of 40 microg testosterone, locomotion (25.1+/-18.8 grid-crossings/10 min), respiration (72.7+/-5.4 breaths/min) and body temperature (33.5+/-0.4 degrees C) were significantly reduced, compared with males receiving vehicle infusions (186.1+/-8.1 crossings/10 min, 117.6+/-1.0 breaths/min, 35.9+/-0.1 degrees C, Ptestosterone infusion. After 15 days, locomotion (170.2+/-6.3 crossings), respiration (118.4+/-1.3 breaths/min), and body temperature (35.3+/-0.3 degrees C) in testosterone-infused males were equivalent to that in vehicle controls (P>0.05). The depressive effects of testosterone infusion are blocked by the opioid antagonist, naltrexone. With naltrexone pre-treatment (10 mg/kg s.c.), locomotion (183.7+/-1.8 crossings/10 min), respiration (116.9+/-0.3 breaths/min), and body temperature (36.1+/-0.4 degrees C) during testosterone infusion were equivalent to vehicle controls. Likewise, naltrexone prevents the reinforcing effects of i.c.v. testosterone self-administration. These results indicate that testosterone at high doses causes central autonomic

  20. Adiponectin and its receptors in the ovary: further evidence for a link between obesity and hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, characterized by ovarian androgen excess, is the commonest endocrine disorder in women. Obesity increases androgen synthesis, a phenomenon attributed to the accompanying hyperinsulinemia. Our hypothesis was that adipokines, fat cell-derived hormones, play a direct role in modulating ovarian androgen secretion. Therefore, the aims of this study were to explore the effects of adipokines (in particular, adiponectin on ovarian steroidogenesis and compare the expression of adiponectin receptors in ovaries from women with and without PCO. Sections of archived human ovaries (nine from women with normal ovaries and 16 with PCOS, classified histologically, with reference to menstrual history and ultrasound were analysed by quantitative morphometry and the proportion of positive-labelling cells compared. In addition, studies of androgen production in relation to adipokine function in primary bovine theca cell culture were also performed. A significantly lower proportion of theca cells expressed adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 in polycystic ovaries than in normal ovaries. In cultured theca cells, adiponectin suppressed androstenedione production and gene expression of LH receptor and key enzymes in the androgen synthesis pathway. Moreover, knockdown of genes for AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 was associated with increased androstenedione secretion by bovine theca cells. These results provide evidence for a direct link between fat cell metabolism and ovarian steroidogenesis, suggesting that disruption of adiponectin and/or its receptors plays a key role in pathogenesis of hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  1. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gerard Hampton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the autonomic nervous system imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ~9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n=10 and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n=10. Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P<0.01. Time domain heart rate variability, an index of parasympathetic tone, was lower in TO-2 hamsters (12.2 ± 3.7 bpm vs. 38.2 ± 6.8, P<0.05, as was the coefficient of variance of the RR interval (2.8 ± 0.9 % vs. 16.2 ± 3.4 %, P<0.05 compared to control hamsters. Power spectral analysis demonstrated reduced high frequency and low frequency contributions, indicating autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the delta-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  2. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  3. Serum Visfatin in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Hussaien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a peptide that is predominantly expressed and secreted from adipose tissue and exerts insulinmimicking effects through activation of an insulin receptor. The aim of this study to evaluated serum visfatin level in both lean and obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS subjects before and after treatment with metformin . This study included (80 women, 20 lean with PCOS (BMI 30 kg m-2 and (group C include 40 healthy normally menstruating women (20 lean and 20 obese are control. All these groups were detected after treatment with metformin for 3 months. Metformin was given at doses up to 1500 mg/day for three month; the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were attended to obstetrics and gynecology outpatient and primary health care outpatient in Al – Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, and Kamal-Al-Samaraae Hospital. The control subjects were recruited mainly from medical students and staff. Serum visfatin was estimated before and after treatment. A results showed that significant high increase in mean serum visfatin level in lean polycystic ovary syndrome compared to control lean (6.35±1.07 ng/ml versus 0.26±0.11 ng/ml, P=0.0001* ,and also in obese polycystic ovary syndrome showed a significant increase compared to control obese(1.31±0.39 ng/ml versus 0.29±0.08 ng/ml, P=0.0001*. Serum visfatin was reduced in both lean and obese polycystic ovary syndrome after treatment with metformin. By this study, we can conclude Serum Visfatin level increased in polycystic ovary syndrome groups and this increment is high in lean group. These findings might suggest that visfatin could play a role in pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Metformin decrease serum visfatin level in both lean and obese groups.

  4. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  5. A Lethal Disease Model for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters Infected with Sin Nombre Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Brocato, Rebecca L.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Bell, Todd M.; Wells, Jay B.; Queen, Laurie A.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs ...

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome and environmental toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Zofia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-09-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, heterogeneous, and multifactorial endocrine disorder in premenopausal women. The pathophysiology of this endocrinopathy is still unclear; however, the heterogeneity of its features within ethnic races, geographic location, and families suggests that environment and lifestyle are of prime importance. This work is mainly focused on the possible role of the most common and studied environmental toxins for this syndrome in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Plasticizers, such as bisphenol A (BPA) or phthalates, which belong to the categories of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), affect humans' health in everyday, industrialized life; therefore special attention should be paid to such exposure. Timing of exposure to EDCs is crucial for the intensity of adverse health effects. It is now evident that fetuses, infants, and/or young children are the most susceptible groups, especially in the early development periods. Prenatal exposure to EDCs that mimic endogenous hormones may contribute to the altered fetal programming and in consequence lead to PCOS and other adverse health effects, potentially transgenerationally. Acute or prolonged exposure to EDCs and AGEs through different life cycle stages may result in destabilization of the hormonal homeostasis and lead to disruption of reproductive functions. They may also interfere with metabolic alterations such as obesity, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia that can exacerbate the PCOS phenotype and contribute to PCOS consequences such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Since wide exposure to environmental toxins and their role in the pathophysiology of PCOS are supported by extensive data derived from diverse scientific models, protective strategies and strong recommendations should be considered to reduce human exposure to protect present and future generations from their adverse health effects. PMID

  7. Polycystic ovaries and infertility: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rajashekar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common (15-20% endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. Although it is a major cause of infertility, its etiology remains unknown and its treatment difficult. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with PCOS. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: PCOS patients (914 of the 1057 attending the outpatient department (OPD from June 2003 to February 2008 were evaluated for this study. Of the 914 patients investigated, 814 came for treatment and these patients were studied for hormonal disturbances and their response to various modalities of treatment. Results: Of the 2270 infertility patients, 46.50% (1057 had PCOS, out of these, 86.47% (914 were investigated and 77% (814 came for treatment. Our overall pregnancy rate was 48.40% (394/814. The pregnancy rate per cycle with timed intercourse (TI was 44.77% (47/105, 17.09% (286/1673 with intrauterine insemination (IUI, 29.82% (51/171 with in vitro fertilization (IVF and 22.22% (10/45 with frozen embryo transfer (FET. The maximum number of pregnancies (85.29%, 284/333 were achieved in the first three treatment cycles. The abortion rate was 19.01% (73/384 and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 5.47% (21/384. Complications seen were in the form of ovarian hyperstimulation (OHSS, retention cyst on day two and multiple pregnancies in 11.71% (228/1946 of the total treatment cycles. Conclusion: Most PCOS symptoms could be adequately controlled or eliminated with proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, ovulation induction (OI protocols and treatment modalities must be balanced for optimal results.

  8. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  9. CARBENDAZIM (MBC) DISRUPTS OOCYTE SPINDLE FUNCTION AND INDUCES ANEUPLOIDY IN HAMSTERS EXPOSED DURING FERTILIZATION (MEIOSIS II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri-fertilization exposure to Carbendazim (MBC; a microtubule poison) induces infertility and early pregnancy loss (EPL) in hamsters. resently, both in vivo and in vitro techniques were employed to characterize the effects of MBC on cellular aspects of fertilization in hamsters....

  10. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster.

  11. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  12. Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger JJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joshua J Berger, G Wright Bates JrUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility, metformin, ovarian drilling, ovulation induction, subfertility

  13. Fenvalerate-induced Alterations in Calcium Homeostasis in Rat Ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of fenvalerate on calcium homeostasis in rat ovary. Methods Female SpragueDawley rats were orally given fenvalerate at daily doses of 0.00, 1.91, 9.55, and 31.80 mg/kg for four weeks. The ovary ultrastucture was observed by electron microscopy. Serum free calcium concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The activities of phosphorylase a in rat ovary were evaluated by the chromatometry. The total content of calmodulin in ovary was estimated by ELISA at each stage of estrous cycle. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to evaluate the level of serum progesterone. Results Histopathologically, damages of ovarian corpus luteum cells were observed. An increase in serum free calcium concentration was observed in rats treated with 31.80mg/kg fenvalerate. The activities of phosphorylase a enhanced in all treated groups, and fenvalerate increased the total content of calmodulin significantly in estrus period. Serum progesterone levels declined in fenvalerate exposed rats in diestrus. Conclusion Fenvalerate interferes with calcium homeostasis in rat ovary. Also, the inhibitory effects of fenvalerate on serum progesterone levels may be mediated partly through calcium signals.

  14. Melatonin attenuates photic disruption of circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, N F; Kang, T; Heller, H C

    1997-10-01

    Body temperature (Tb) was recorded via a biotelemetry system from 28 adult male Siberian hamsters maintained in a light-dark (LD) cycle of 16 h light/day for several months. After Tb was recorded for 3 wk, the LD cycle was phase delayed by extending the light phase by 5 h for 1 day; animals remained on a 16:8 LD cycle for the remainder of the experiment. Hamsters were injected daily with melatonin or vehicle solution for several weeks, beginning either 2 mo after (experiment 1) or on the day of (experiment 2) the phase shift; injections occurred within 30 min of dark onset. In experiment 1, 75% of animals free ran with circadian periods >24 h, beginning on the day of the phase shift, and never reentrained to the LD cycle; no hamsters unambiguously entrained to daily injections. In contrast, 78% of animals in experiment 2 entrained to melatonin injections, and 71% of those animals subsequently reentrained to the photocycle when the injection regimen ended. No vehicle-treated animals entrained to the injection schedule. Melatonin had no effect on daily mean Tb and Tb rhythm amplitude in either experiment; however, melatonin doubled the duration of a hyperthermic response that occurred after each injection. Thus melatonin can prevent loss of entrainment induced by a phase shift of the LD cycle but cannot restore entrainment to free-running animals. Failure to reentrain in the presence of two appropriately coordinated entraining agents also suggests that a phase shift of the photocycle can diminish the sensitivity of the circadian system to both photic and nonphotic input.

  15. Photoperiodic regulation of FGF21 production in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Ricardo J; Fowler, Maxine J; Cooper, Scott; Emmerson, Paul; Coskun, Tamer; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Tsintzas, Kostas; Ebling, Francis J P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". FGF21 is an endocrine member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily that has been shown to play an important role in the physiological response to nutrient deprivation. Food restriction enhances hepatic FGF21 production, which serves to engage an integrated response to energy deficit. Specifically, elevated FGF21 levels lead to reduced gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic ketogenesis. However, circulating FGF21 concentrations also paradoxically rise in states of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity. Furthermore, multiple peripheral tissues also produce FGF21 in addition to the liver, raising questions as to its endocrine and paracrine roles in the control of energy metabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma FGF21 concentrations in the Siberian hamster, a rodent which undergoes a seasonal cycle of fattening and body weight gain in the long days (LD) of summer, followed by reduction of appetite and fat catabolism in the short days (SD) of winter. Groups of adult male hamsters were raised in long days, and then exposed to SD for up to 12 weeks. Chronic exposure of LD animals to SD led to a significant increase in circulating FGF21 concentrations. This elevation of circulating FGF21 was preceded by an increase in liver FGF21 protein production evident as early as 4 weeks of exposure to SD. FGF21 protein abundance was also increased significantly in interscapular brown adipose tissue, with a positive correlation between plasma levels of FGF21 and BAT protein abundance throughout the experimental period. Epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) also produced FGF21, but levels did not change in response to a change in photoperiod. In summary, a natural programmed state of fat catabolism was associated with increased FGF21 production in the liver and BAT, consistent with the view that FGF21 has a role in adapting hamsters to the hypophagic winter state.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome resembling histopathological alterations in ovaries from prenatal androgenized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 6-10% of women of reproductive age and is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that dictate androgen overproduction is lacking, which may account for inconsistencies between measures of androgen excess and clinical presentation in individual cases. Methods A rat model of PCOS was established by injecting dehydroepiandrosterone sulfoconjugate (DHEAS into pregnant females. Rats were administered with DHEAS (60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously (s.c. for all 20 days of pregnancy (Group A, or for the first 10 days (Group B, or from day 11 to day 20 (Group C. Controls were administered with injection oil (0.2 ml/day s.c. throughout pregnancy (Group D. The litter rate, abortion rate, and offspring survival rate in each group were recorded. Serum androgen and estrogen were measured and the morphological features of the ovaries were examined by light and electron microscopy in the offspring of each group. Results We found that rats injected with DHEAS throughout pregnancy (group A lost fertility. Rats injected with DHEAS during early pregnancy (group B exhibited more serious aberrations in fertility than both Group C, in which rats were injected with DHEAS during late pregnancy (P  Conclusions Our results indicate that androgen excess during pregnancy can decrease rat fertility. Excess androgen at the early stage of pregnancy causes high reproductive toxicity, leading to abnormality of ovarian morphology and functions in female offspring.

  17. Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported. PMID:26874987

  18. PRIMARY TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE OVARY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with a history of progressively enlarging abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography showed a pelvic mass involving both the ovaries and omentum. CA-125 was normal. Staging surgery was performed and the histopathological diagnosis of Transitional Cell Carcinoma was made and later confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and patient’s outcomes after chemotherapy are better than for other types of ovarian cancers.

  19. INFLUENCE OF TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII ON OVARY AND UTERUS ENDOMETRIUM OF MOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIATai-He; WANGXiao-Xu; WULi; XIUHe-Ming; DINGWei-Dong; HAOXiao-Dong; LIXiang-Fu; SUNHui-Chen; LEIJian-Zhang; WANGGeng-Xin; YINGGuo-Hua

    1989-01-01

    An observation was performed on ovary and uterus endometrium of female mice after administration of a syrup containing root extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.F,( TWH ) for 6 months with light and electron micoscopics. Ovaries were enlarged for 3

  20. Stem cell factor and c-Kit in human primordial germ cells and fetal ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Byskov, Anne Grete; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry......Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry...

  1. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise.

  2. Constant darkness restores entrainment to phase-delayed Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F; Joshi, Nirav; Heller, H Craig

    2002-12-01

    Over 90% of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase delay of a 16:8-h photocycle. Because constant darkness (DD) restores rhythms disrupted by constant light, we tested whether DD could also restore entrainment. DD began 0, 5, or 14 days after a 5-h phase delay, and the light-dark cycle was reinstated 14 days later. All hamsters exposed to DD on day 0 reentrained, whereas 42% reentrained irrespective of whether DD began 5 or 14 days later. For these latter two groups, tau (tau) and alpha (alpha) in DD predicted reentrainment; animals that reentrained had a mean tau and alpha of 24.1 and 8.9 h, respectively, whereas those that failed to reentrain maintained a mean tau and alpha of 25.0 and of 7.1 h, respectively. Restoration of entrainment by DD is somewhat paradoxical because it suggests that reentrainment to the photocycle was prevented by continued exposure to that same photocycle. The dichotomy of circadian responses to DD suggests "entrainment" phenotypes that are similar to those of photoperiodic responders and nonresponders.

  3. Rift Valley fever virus infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionna Scharton

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a formidable pathogen that causes severe disease and abortion in a variety of livestock species and a range of disease in humans that includes hemorrhagic fever, fulminant hepatitis, encephalitis and blindness. The natural transmission cycle involves mosquito vectors, but exposure can also occur through contact with infected fluids and tissues. The lack of approved antiviral therapies and vaccines for human use underlies the importance of small animal models for proof-of-concept efficacy studies. Several mouse and rat models of RVFV infection have been well characterized and provide useful systems for the study of certain aspects of pathogenesis, as well as antiviral drug and vaccine development. However, certain host-directed therapeutics may not act on mouse or rat pathways. Here, we describe the natural history of disease in golden Syrian hamsters challenged subcutaneously with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Peracute disease resulted in rapid lethality within 2 to 3 days of RVFV challenge. High titer viremia and substantial viral loads were observed in most tissues examined; however, histopathology and immunostaining for RVFV antigen were largely restricted to the liver. Acute hepatocellular necrosis associated with a strong presence of viral antigen in the hepatocytes indicates that fulminant hepatitis is the likely cause of mortality. Further studies to assess the susceptibility and disease progression following respiratory route exposure are warranted. The use of the hamsters to model RVFV infection is suitable for early stage antiviral drug and vaccine development studies.

  4. Stereolithographic biomodeling of equine ovary based on 3D serial digitizing device

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Junpei; Kakusho, Nobunori; Yamazawa, Kenji; Hirano, Yuuko; NAMBO, Yasuo; Yokota, Hideo; Himeno, Ryutaro

    2009-01-01

    The 3D internal structure microscopy (3D-ISM) was applied to the equine ovary, which possesses peculiar structural characteristics. Stereolithography was applied to make a life-sized model by means of data obtained from 3D-ISM. Images from serially sliced surfaces contributed to a successful 3D reconstruction of the equine ovary. Photopolymerized resin models of equine ovaries produced by stereolithography can clearly show the internal structure and spatial localizations in the ovary. The und...

  5. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX485215,SRX1149373,SRX485203,...X215623,SRX215627 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX101478,SRX485215,SRX264599,S...215627,SRX1165009 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX201903,SRX485216,SRX201902,S...X215627,SRX485205 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Ovary [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Ovary dm3 All antigens Adult Ovary SRX485220,SRX485219,SRX1134696,...X485205,SRX661228 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Ovary.bed ...

  9. Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile Protects Hamsters against Challenge with Historic and Epidemic Strains of Toxigenic BI/NAP1/027 C. difficile

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaro, Kristin J.; Phillips, S. Tyler; Cheknis, Adam K.; Sambol, Susan P.; Zukowski, Walter E.; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N.

    2013-01-01

    Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile (NTCD) has been shown to prevent fatal C. difficile infection in the hamster model when hamsters are challenged with standard toxigenic C. difficile strains. The purpose of this study was to determine if NTCD can prevent C. difficile infection in the hamster model when hamsters are challenged with restriction endonuclease analysis group BI C. difficile strains. Groups of 10 hamsters were given oral clindamycin, followed on day 2 by 106 CFU of spores of NTCD ...

  10. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A

    1999-02-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  11. Bioavailability and disposition of 3H-solanine in rat and hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, K; Pereboom-de Fauw, D P; Besamusca, P; Beekhof, P K; Speijers, G J; Derks, H J

    1993-09-01

    1. The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration in rat and hamster were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The i.v. dose was 54 micrograms/kg; the oral dose was 170 micrograms/kg. 2. After i.v. administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rat and hamster. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rat than in hamster. The half-lives of distribution and of the terminal phase of unchanged alpha-solanine were not different between rat and hamster, whereas the systemic and metabolic clearance were, respectively, about 1.6 and 2.7 times higher in rat than in hamster. The clearance of unchanged alpha-solanine is more effective than of total radioactivity. 3. After p.o. administration in rat and hamster, the mean bioavailability of total radioactivity is about 29 and 57%, respectively. The bioavailability of unchanged alpha-solanine is only 1.6 and 3.2%, respectively, when compared with i.v. administration. 4. T1/2el of alpha-solanine after p.o. administration was in rats a factor of four and in hamsters a factor of two shorter than after i.v. administration. A strong retention of radioactivity was seen in the hamsters after p.o. administration; only 40% of the dose was excreted within 7 days versus 90% in rat. 5. Based on these and toxicological data from literature, it was decided that the hamster is a more appropriate model in (sub)-chronic toxicity studies with alpha-solanine than the rat.

  12. Determination of elements in blood of golden hamster by NAA; Determinacao de elementos em sangue de hamster dourado usando AAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Rodrigo Oliveira de

    2009-07-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis technique has been used to determine, simultaneously, some element concentrations of clinical relevance in whole blood samples of golden hamster. The normal range for Br, Ca, Cl K, Mg, Na and S considering 2 {sigma} (Two Standard deviations) was 0.011 0.047 gL{sup -1} (Br); 0.11 0.35 gL{sup -1} (Ca); 2.11 3.75 gL{sup -1} (Cl); 1.35 2.79 gL{sup -1} (K), 0.026 0.090 gL{sup -1} (Mg), 1.03 2.51 gL{sup -1} (Na) e 0.97 2.01 gL{sup -1} (S). The knowledge of these limits became possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood. The comparison with the results from human being whole blood estimation (Hamster and human) became possible to check the similarities or physiologic differences, an important data for animal experimentation. (author)

  13. Impact of Obesity on the Risk for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Bulent O.; Knochenhauer, Eric S.; Azziz, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Context: Although it is well established that adiposity increases the severity of the clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the data regarding the prevalence of PCOS in obese women and the change in body weight women presented with PCOS over time are scarce.

  14. Calcified cavernous hemangioma of the ovary: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Ovarian hemangiomas are very uncommon and most are of the cavernous type. A few reports have described the radiologic findings of this neoplasm, but as far as the author is aware, the literature contains no description of calcified cavernous hemangioma. A case in which this condition involved the ovary is now reported.

  15. Calcified cavernous hemangioma of the ovary: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian hemangiomas are very uncommon and most are of the cavernous type. A few reports have described the radiologic findings of this neoplasm, but as far as the author is aware, the literature contains no description of calcified cavernous hemangioma. A case in which this condition involved the ovary is now reported

  16. Circulating hormone concentrations in hypothyroid rats with induced polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M T; Adams, W C; Bruot, B C

    1991-11-01

    The induction of polycystic ovaries in hypothyroid rats by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been studied for many years. A complete understanding of this phenomenon requires information regarding the circulating levels of the hormones of the hypophyseal-gonadal axis. In this study, serum prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay at intervals during the 40-day period in which large ovarian cysts were induced in hypothyroid rats by daily injections of hCG. After 20 injections, ovaries increased in weight 10-fold, and well-developed ovarian cysts were present, accompanied by lutein tissue; cyst development continued for the subsequent 20 days of hCG. Both PRL and LH rose during the first 5 days of treatment and were maintained at high levels from day 20 on. The pattern of change of gonadal steroids showed greater increases with hCG in hypothyroid than in euthyroid rats. Levels of estradiol in hypothyroid, hCG-injected rats increased in parallel to ovarian hypertrophy, whereas progesterone was high in initial stages and then declined. Testosterone increased in both euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, with no clear pattern coincident with cyst formation. The data suggest that the formation of polycystic ovaries in the hypothyroid rat is associated with high levels of PRL and LH followed by elevations of estradiol, which may serve to maintain continuous PRL, as well as LH, stimulation of the ovary. PMID:1924408

  17. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  18. Polycystic ovary syndrome : preconception, pregnancy and offspring health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, M.A. de

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with a reported population incidence between 6-15%. PCOS is a heterogeneous reproductive disorder, which is diagnosed when at least two out of the three following criteria are present: oligo- or anov

  19. Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franik, S.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Farquhar, C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) and absence of periods (amenorrhoea). It affects about 4% to 8% of women worldwide and often leads to anovulatory subfertility. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a novel class of drugs that wer

  20. The phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome ameliorates with aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Zoe A.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Fong, Sharon Lie; Valkenburg, Olivier; Birnie, Erwin; de Jong, Frank H.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of aging on the features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Design: Retrospective longitudinal follow-up study. Setting: Tertiary care center. Patient(s): Patients with PCOS, diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, who visited the outpatient clinic on c

  1. POLYCYSTIC OVARIES WITH STROMAL HYPERTHECOSIS: A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting a 47-year-old peri-menopausal lady with hypomenorrhoea, temporal baldness, alopecia, hirsutism. The histopathology was polycystic ovaries with stromal hyperthecosis. Hughesdon described hyperthecosis as a severe form of PCOS. Hyperthecosis is rare in young women, with clinical features similar to PCOS. However, these women are usually more virilised.

  2. Placental characteristics in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Maria P H; de Wilde, Marlieke A; Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M; Houben, ML; Nikkels, Peter G J; van Rijn, Bas B; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are macroscopic and microscopic placental characteristics in a heterogeneous group of women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) different from those of a low-risk general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with PCOS have significantly different microscopic placental charac

  3. The effects of polycystic ovary syndrome on gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktun, Hale Lebriz; Yorgunlar, Betul; Acet, Mustafa; Aygun, Banu Kumbak; Karaca, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the inter-relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes mellitus, and demonstrate maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a case-control study in 1360 pregnant women who received a diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus between 24 and 28 weeks of gestational age. Among all diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus, 150 pregnant women had received a polycystic ovary syndrome, and 160 women who did not have polycystic ovary syndrome were designated as controls. The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was 26.3% and 12% in the case and control groups, respectively. Preeclampsia was seen at an incidence of 12% and 6% in case and in control groups, respectively. The difference in neonatal hypoglycemia between the two groups was statistically significant, with an incidence of 17% and 5% in the case and in control groups, respectively. This study demonstrated that the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome along with gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of pregnancy induced hypertension by 2.4 fold, preeclampsia by 2 fold and neonatal hypoglycemia by 3.2 fold, compared to gestational diabetes mellitus alone.

  4. A comparative study of the pulmonary effects of NO2 in the rat and hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J R; Cottrell, R C; Herod, I. A.; Atkinson, H. A.; Miller, K

    1985-01-01

    A study of the response of rat and hamster to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) under identical conditions has been undertaken. Exposure to 20 parts/IO6 NO2 for 24 h produced a mild cytotoxic effect on the terminal bronchiole and proximal alveoli in the rat, whereas the hamster developed a moderate to severe bronchiolitis and alveolitis. Electron microscopic examination of tissue sections showed accumulation of surfactant in lamellar bodies of the alveolar type II cell in the rat but not in the hamster,...

  5. In vitro metabolism of cannabinol in rat, mouse, rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N K; Harvey, D J

    1990-01-01

    Metabolism of cannabinol (CBN) was studied in hepatic microsomal incubates from mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, cat, hamster and gerbil. Metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate, concentrated by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and identified by GC/MS as TMS derivatives. Six monohydroxy metabolites were identified. These had hydroxy groups at C-11 and at all positions of the pentyl side-chain. Metabolism varied considerably between the species. 11-Hydroxylation was the most prominent route in the majority of species, but in the hamster and cat the major metabolic pathway was 4'-hydroxylation. Metabolites hydroxylated in the pentyl chain were generally more abundant in guinea pig, hamster and cat. PMID:2253656

  6. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  7. Kisspeptin and the seasonal control of reproduction in hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonneaux, Valérie; Ansel, Laura; Revel, Florent G;

    2008-01-01

    Reproduction is a complex and energy demanding function. When internal and external conditions might impair reproductive success (negative energy balance, stress, harsh season) reproductive activity has to be repressed. Recent evidence suggests that these inhibitory mechanisms operate on Kiss1......-expressing neurons, which were recently shown to be implicated in the regulation of GnRH release. Hamsters are seasonal rodents which are sexually active in long photoperiod and quiescent in short photoperiod. The photoperiodic information is transmitted to the reproductive system by melatonin, a pineal...... hormone whose secretion is adjusted to night length. The photoperiodic variation in circulating melatonin has been shown to synchronize reproductive activity with seasons, but the mechanisms involved in this effect of melatonin were so far unknown. Recently we have observed that Kiss1 mRNA level in the...

  8. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  9. Fluoxetine disrupts motivation and GABAergic signaling in adolescent female hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; DuBois, Dustin W; Fincher, Annette S; Vela, Alejandra M; Henry, Morgan M; Wellman, Paul J; Frye, Gerald D; Morgan, Caurnel

    2016-08-01

    Initial antidepressant treatment can paradoxically worsen symptoms in depressed adolescents by undetermined mechanisms. Interestingly, antidepressants modulate GABAA receptors, which mediate paradoxical effects of other therapeutic drugs, particularly in females. Although the neuroanatomic site of action for this paradox is unknown, elevated GABAA receptor signaling in the nucleus accumbens can disrupt motivation. We assessed fluoxetine's effects on motivated behaviors in pubescent female hamsters - anhedonia in the reward investigational preference (RIP) test as well as anxiety in the anxiety-related feeding/exploration conflict (AFEC) test. We also assessed accumbal signaling by RT-PCR and electrophysiology. Fluoxetine initially worsened motivated behaviors at puberty, relative to adulthood. It also failed to improve these behaviors as pubescent hamsters transitioned into adulthood. Low accumbal mRNA levels of multiple GABAA receptor subunits and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, GAD67, assessed by RT-PCR, suggested low GABAergic tone at puberty. Nonetheless, rapid fluoxetine-induced reductions of α5GABAA receptor and BDNF mRNA levels at puberty were consistent with age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine and disruption of the motivational state. Whole-cell patch clamping of accumbal slices also suggested low GABAergic tone by the low amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) at puberty. It also confirmed age-related differences in GABAergic responses to fluoxetine. Specifically, fluoxetine potentiated mIPSC amplitude and frequency at puberty, but attenuated the amplitude during adulthood. These results implicate GABAergic tone and GABAA receptor plasticity in adverse motivational responses and resistance to fluoxetine during adolescence. PMID:27068049

  10. Retention of inhaled particles in hamsters with pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol retention was studied in hamsters 30, 60, and 90 days after the initiation of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis by a combination of bleomycin (bleo), 0.16 U/100 g body weight given intratracheally, and O2, for 72 h. Groups of bleo-O2-treated and control animals were exposed (awake) for 25 min to a 99mTc-labeled insoluble aerosol (activity median aerodynamic diameter, 0.45 micron; geometric standard deviation, 1.3). Within 5 min after exposure, the hamsters were killed and their lungs were excised and dried at total lung capacity, and sliced into 1-mm sections. Slices were dissected into pieces, and an evenness index (EI) was calculated for each piece (formula: see text). With uniformity of retention, all Els would be 1. The distribution of Els in control animals had a mean of 1.0 and a SD of 0.27; 0% of the Els were less than or equal to 0.20. Total retention diminished and was less uniform in bleo-O2-treated animals. At 30 days, the SD increased to 0.62, and 6% of the Els were less than or equal to 0.20. At 60 and 90 days, nonuniformity decreased but was still greater than that in the control animals (SD60 . 0.42, SD90 . 0.36). When examined histologically, individual pieces with low Els had more disease than those with high Els. Local decreases in compliance caused by fibrosis may have altered regional ventilation and retention. Our data also correlate with the progression of fibrosis from a focal lesion at 30 days to a more diffuse lesion at 90 days

  11. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  12. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF POSSIBLE AGE EFFECTS ON MEIOTIC CHROMOSOMAL RECOMBINATION AND SEGREGATION IN ARMENIAN HAMSTER SPERMATOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male Armenian hamsters (Cricetulus migratorius; 2N:22) were evaluated for age effects upon meiotic recombination and aneuploidy incidence. Primary spermatocytes from young and old animals revealed similar chiasma frequencies. The incidence of terminal-type chiasmata in sex bivale...

  14. Seasonal adaptation of dwarf hamsters (Genus Phodopus): differences between species and their geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D; Hauer, J; Schöttner, K; Fritzsche, P; Weinert, D

    2015-12-01

    The genus Phodopus consists of three species--P. campbelli (Pc), P. sungorus (Ps), and P. roborovskii (Pr). They inhabit steppes, semi-deserts, and deserts in continental Asia with a climate changing from a moderate to a hard Continental one with extreme daily and seasonal variations. These different environmental challenges are likely to have consequences for hamsters' morphology, physiology, and behavior. Hamsters of all three species were investigated during the course of the year in the laboratory though using natural lighting and temperature conditions. Motor activity and body temperature were measured continuously, and body mass, testes size, and fur coloration every 1-2 weeks. With regard to the pattern of activity, nearly twice as many Pc as Ps hamsters (25 vs. 14%) failed to respond to changes of photoperiod, whereas all Pr hamsters did. Body mass and testes size were high in summer and low in winter, with the biggest relative change in Ps and the lowest in Pr hamsters. Changes of fur coloration were found in Ps hamsters only. All responding animals (that is excluding Pr), exhibited regular torpor bouts during the short winter days. In autumn, seasonal changes started considerably earlier in Ps hamsters. To investigate the putative causes of these different time courses, a further experiment was performed, to identify the critical photoperiod. Hamsters were kept for 10 weeks under different photoperiods, changing from 16 to 8 h light per day. Motor activity was recorded continuously, to identify responding and non-responding animals. Body mass was measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment, testes mass only at the end. The critical photoperiod was found to be similar in all three species. Though in a further experiment, Pc and Pr hamsters showed a delayed response, whereas the changes in Ps hamsters started immediately following transfer to short-day conditions. The results show that interspecific differences in seasonal adaptation exist, even

  15. Observations on the right ovary of birds of prey: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodler, D; Stein, K; Korbel, R

    2015-06-01

    In most avian species, only the left ovary and oviduct are developed in the adult bird. Right ovaries and oviducts usually do not mature further after hatching and remain only rudimentary. However, occurrence of a functional right ovary is frequently found in several species of birds of prey. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of the right ovaries and their morphology in these bird species. Four examined wild bird species possessed a right ovary: long-eared owl, common buzzard, sparrow hawk and goshawk. We used histological and immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate structural differences of the gonads and tried to correlate the findings with folliculogenesis and endocrine functions. The right ovaries showed different sizes and shapes. Cytoskeletal elements (tubulin and vimentin) and α-smooth muscle actin have been detected in different structures of the right ovaries, but their staining intensity was weaker compared with the left ovary. This shows that also the right ovary is mechanically able to ovulate. We could also demonstrate the expression of oestrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor in the right ovaries, which indicates that also the right ovary can respond to steroid hormone stimuli. We assume that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the presumptive gonad is still sufficient to mediate the development of a right ovary in the studied species. We conclude that the expression of steroid hormone receptors in the right ovary is involved in its post-natal development. The histological and immunohistochemical data also imply that in the right ovary, folliculogenesis and ovulation can occur. PMID:24895012

  16. Seasonal pelage changes are synchronized by simulated natural photoperiods in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus)

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Matthew P.; Zucker, Irving

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which changing day lengths synchronize the seasonal molt was assessed in nine cohorts of male and female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) born into a simulated natural photoperiod (SNP) beginning 4 weeks before and ending 12 weeks after the summer solstice. Hamsters in early cohorts displayed rapid somatic and gonadal growth and early puberty, whereas those in later cohorts delayed puberty until the next spring. Despite the varying birth dates and puberty strategies, the se...

  17. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism by 3-methylcholanthrene-induced hamster hepatic cytochrome P-450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T S; Chiang, J Y

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the activation of aflatoxin B1 by hamster liver microsomes and purified hamster cytochrome P-450 isozymes using a umu mutagen test. The hamster liver microsomes or S-9 fractions were much more active than rat liver microsomes or S-9 fractions in the activation of umu gene expression by aflatoxin B1 metabolites. 3-Methyl-cholanthrene treatment increased aflatoxin B1 activation by hamster liver microsomes. Two major 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes, P-450 MC1 (IIA) and P-450 MC4 (IA2), were purified from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes, and the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by these two cytochromes was studied. In the reconstituted enzyme system, both P-450 MC1 and P-450 MC4 were highly active in the activation of aflatoxin B1, and antibodies against these P-450s specifically inhibited these activities. Antibody against P-450 MC1 inhibited the activation of aflatoxin B1 by 20% in the presence of 3-methyl-cholanthrene-treated hamster liver microsomes. In contrast, antibody against P-450 MC4 stimulated the activity by 175%. These results indicated that hamster P-450 MC1 might convert aflatoxin B1 to more toxic metabolite(s), whereas P-450 MC4 might convert aflatoxin B1 to less toxic metabolite(s), than aflatoxin B1 in liver microsomes. The metabolite(s) produced by both hamster cytochrome P-450 MC1 and MC4 were genotoxic in the umu mutagen test. PMID:2126562

  18. Use of hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Alice H

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apoB-100 and intestinal apoB-48 secretion, and uptake of the majority of LDL cholesterol via the LDL receptor pathway. Early work suggested hamsters fed high cholesterol and saturated fat diets responded similarly to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism and aortic lesion morphology. Recent work has not consistently replicated these findings. Reviewed was the literature related to controlled hamster feeding studies that assessed the effect of strain, background diet (non-purified, semi-purified and dietary perturbation (cholesterol and/or fat on plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion formation. F1B hamsters fed a non-purified cholesterol/fat-supplemented diet had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles (nHDL-C > HDL-C than other hamster strains or hamsters fed cholesterol/fat-supplemented semi-purified diets. However, fat type; saturated (SFA, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA had less of an effect on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Cholesterol- and fish oil-supplemented semi-purified diets yielded highly variable results when compared to SFA or n-6 PUFA, which were antithetical to responses observed in humans. Dietary cholesterol and fat resulted in inconsistent effects on aortic lipid accumulation. No hamster strain was reported to consistently develop lesions regardless of background diet, dietary cholesterol or dietary fat type amount. In conclusion, at this time the Golden-Syrian hamster does not appear to be a useful model to determine the mechanism(s of diet-induced development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  19. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    ThomasGerardHampton; AjitKale; HemmiBhagavan

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness a...

  20. Effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation.

    OpenAIRE

    DomingaLapi; LinaSabatino; GiovannaAltobelli

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Propionyl-L-carnitine (pLc) exerts protective effects in different experimental models of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of intravenously and topically applied pLc on microvascular permeability increase induced by I/R in the hamster check pouch preparation. Methods The hamster check pouch microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Microvascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to venular walls, perfus...

  1. Adaptation to short photoperiods augments circadian food anticipatory activity in Siberian hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Sean P.; Prendergast, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Both the light-dark cycle and the timing of food intake can entrain circadian rhythms. Entrainment to food is mediated by a food entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO) that is formally and mechanistically separable from the hypothalamic light-entrainable oscillator. This experiment examined whether seasonal changes in day length affect the function of the FEO in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters housed in long (LD; 15 h light/day) or short (SD; 9 h light/day) photoperiods w...

  2. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation.

  3. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are...

  4. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Arthur S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9. Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine APMV serotypes in hamsters. The hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for clinical disease, pathology, histopathology, virus replication, and seroconversion. On the basis of one or more of these criteria, each of the APMV serotypes was found to replicate in hamsters. The APMVs produced mild or inapparent clinical signs in hamsters except for APMV-9, which produced moderate disease. Gross lesions were observed over the pulmonary surface of hamsters infected with APMV-2 & -3, which showed petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, respectively. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 was confirmed in the nasal turbinates and lungs, indicating a tropism for the respiratory tract. Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi. All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology.

  5. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [3H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [3H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [3H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [3H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  6. Individual differences in circadian waveform of Siberian hamsters under multiple lighting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Because the circadian clock in the mammalian brain derives from a network of interacting cellular oscillators, characterizing the nature and bases of circadian coupling is fundamental to understanding how the pacemaker operates. Various phenomena involving plasticity in circadian waveform have been theorized to reflect changes in oscillator coupling; however, it remains unclear whether these different behavioral paradigms reference a unitary underlying process. To test whether disparate coupling assays index a common mechanism, we examined whether there is covariation among behavioral responses to various lighting conditions that produce changes in circadian waveform. Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, were transferred from long to short photoperiods to distinguish short photoperiod responders (SP-R) from nonresponders (SP-NR). Short photoperiod chronotyped hamsters were subsequently transferred, along with unselected controls, to 24-h light:dark:light: dark cycles (LDLD) with dim nighttime illumination, a procedure that induces bifurcated entrainment. Under LDLD, SP-R hamsters were more likely to bifurcate their rhythms than were SP-NR hamsters or unselected controls. After transfer from LDLD to constant dim light, SP-R hamsters were also more likely to become arrhythmic compared to SP-NR hamsters and unselected controls. In contrast, short photoperiod chronotype did not influence more transient changes in circadian waveform. The present data reveal a clear relationship in the plasticity of circadian waveform across 3 distinct lighting conditions, suggesting a common mechanism wherein individual differences reflect variation in circadian coupling.

  7. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  8. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  9. Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Kim, Yong Soo; Hahm, Chang Kok [School of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare benign neoplasm, with distinctive clinical and pathologic features. It occurs predominantly in females during the second and third decades of life. Histologically, it is composed of cellular and acellular collagenized areas, and edematous stromal areas, and at ultrasonography and computed tomography is seen as a distinctive mixed solid and cystic mass lesion. We report a case of sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a 15-year-old girl with a history of menorrhagia since menarche. Ultrasonography revealed the tumor as a well-defined, lobulated, heterogenous echogenic pelvic mass, while at CT, a huge pelvic mass 9 x 9 x 10 cm in size, was seen. This comprised a well-enhanced internal solid portion, a capsule, septa, and a non-enhanced cystic portion.

  10. A life course perspective on polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez N

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninive SanchezSchool of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a major public health problem in the US. Worldwide, the public is largely unaware of the condition and health care providers do not seem to fully understand it. Research on PCOS has primarily focused on its etiology and clinical characteristics and less on the psychosocial aspects of human development associated with PCOS. This paper posits that a life course perspective provides a framework for further understanding the psychosocial experiences of women with PCOS and the contexts in which they live. The paper discusses how life course principles of human development, constraints on agency, interdependence of lives, time and place, and timing of events and experiences are relevant to the management of PCOS and prevention of its complications.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, psychosocial, mental health, multidisciplinary, life course, adolescence

  11. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on mi......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  12. MicroRNAs Related to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff; Salö, Sofia;

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common, though heterogeneous, endocrine aberration in women of reproductive age, with high prevalence and socioeconomic costs. The syndrome is characterized by polycystic ovaries, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, as well as being associated with...... resistance, inflammation and various cancers. Studies have shown that circulating miRNAs are present in whole blood, serum, plasma and the follicular fluid of PCOS patients and that they might serve as potential biomarkers and a new approach for the diagnosis of PCOS. In this review, recent work on mi......RNAs with respect to PCOS will be summarized. Our understanding of miRNAs, particularly in relation to PCOS, is currently at a very early stage, and additional studies will yield important insight into the molecular mechanisms behind this complex and heterogenic syndrome...

  13. Value of qualitative research in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongxia; Liang Huiling; Gao Jingshu; Ma Hongli; Liu Jianping; Ng Hungyu Ernest; Billhult Annika

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aims to introduce the benefits of qualitative research and to discuss how such research can be applied to the study of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Data sources Relevant articles were published in English as of May 2013 from Pubmed.Terms "polycystic ovary syndrome/PCOS,qualitative research and methodology" were used for searching.Study selection Articles studying PCOS with qualitative methods were reviewed.Articles associated with the use of qualitative research in clinical research were cited.Results Six qualitative studies related to PCOS were found in the literature search.These studies addressed different aspects in PCOS women including their womanhood,lived experience,information need,and experience of treatment with acupuncture.Five of these six studies used phenomenology as guiding theory.Conclusion Quantitative research has been the dominant approach in the field so far,qualitative research is relevant to the advancement of PCOS.

  14. Primary pleomorphic sarcoma of the ovary with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Sumana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old patient presented with a right ovarian mass, which, on microscopy, showed to consist of haphazardly oriented large pleomorphic cells with abundant cytoplasm. Periodic acid Schiff stain was positive but negative with diastase digestion. Immunohistochemical staining with Desmin showed intense cytoplasmic positivity in almost all the cells. Cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle actin, HMB-45, S-100 and neurone-specific enolase were negative. Immunohistochemical staining with Myogenin showed intense nuclear positivity. There was no other primary tumor on extensive search. A diagnosis of primary sarcoma of the ovary with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation was made. The incidence of similar tumors of the ovary are low and therefore little data are available on this uniformly lethal tumor. Thus, such cases need to be reported to pool experience so that the tumor can be diagnosed early.

  15. Clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome in Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita J. Ramanand; Balasaheb B Ghongane; Jaiprakash B Ramanand; Milind H Patwardhan; Ghanghas, Ravi R.; Jain, Suyog S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. Many studies have tried to characterize the exact presentation of the disease. In this study we studied clinical features of PCOS in Indian women to characterize different phenotypes of this syndrome. Prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) as surrogate marker of insulin resistance, obesity, hirsutism and hypothyroidism in PCOS wo...

  16. A comprehensive approach in diagnosing the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Renato; Gambineri, Alessandra

    2015-07-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome is the commonest hyperandrogenic and dysmetabolic disorder in women that, by definition, may present with different phenotypes, including the classic forms and those with a milder presentation. Its diagnosis is mainly based on careful clinical judgment, although it may require additional investigation by blood testing or imaging techniques in the differential diagnosis of androgen excess. This article summarizes the most important aspects of the diagnostic procedure and suggests how to apply them in clinical practice. PMID:25756387

  17. Relationship between serum cystatin C and polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Gholamhosseinian, Ahmad; Musavi, Fatemeh; Mashrouteh, Mahdieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes an increased risk of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Also, cystatin C serum levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Objective: To investigate the relationship between cystatin C in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: 35 women with PCOS were compared to 35 women with healthy matched age and body mass index. They all underwent tests to determine plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP)...

  18. Relationship between serum cystatin C and polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Gozashti; Ahmad Gholamhosseinian; Fatemeh Musavi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes an increased risk of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Also, cystatin C serum levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Objective: To investigate the relationship between cystatin C in PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: 35 women with PCOS were compared to 35 women with healthy matched age and body mass index. They all underwent tests to determine plasma levels of C-reactive prot...

  19. Lipid Parameters in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Ioan IUHAS; Nicolae COSTIN; Mihu, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the lipid profile in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: a retrospective review of the medical records of female patients addressing for a consultation in a private healthcare network in Cluj-Napoca between 2009 and 2011 was performed. Patients with complete lipid profile and without previous treatment were included in the PCOS group. PCOS was diagnosed using Rotterdam criteria for PCOS. Healthy female patients matched for age ...

  20. Is interleukin-18 associated with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Li Rong; Qiao Jie; Yang Yan; Li Mei-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research show that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may have an association with low-grade chronic inflammation, IL-18 is considered as a strong risk marker of inflammation. Methods To investigate serum IL-18 concentrations in PCOS patients and focus on its relationship between obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Sixty consecutive women with PCOS and thirty controls were recruited. Serum level of IL-18 and fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, follicle-stimulatin...