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Sample records for chinese hamster ovary

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

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    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;

    2012-01-01

    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...

  2. Methods for modeling chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods for identify......Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods...

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  4. Mitotic spindle proteomics in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

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    Mary Kate Bonner

    Full Text Available Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells.

  5. Propranolol induced chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cell line

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    Mozhgan Sedigh-Ardekani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol (PL, a non-selective beta-blocker, is a cardiovascular drug widely used to treat hypertension. The present study was concerned with assessing the cytogenetic effects of this drug on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. MTT assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50 of the drug. The IC50 value of PL was 0.43±0.02 mM. To investigate the clastogenic effects of the drug, chromatid and chromosome breaks and polyploidy in metaphases were analyzed. CHO cells were exposed to different concentrations of the drug (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mM for 24 hours. Considering that PL has liver metabolism, experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of the metabolic activation system (S9 mix. Mitomycin-C and sodium arsenite were used as positive controls. It was observed that in cells treated with different PL concentrations as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM, the frequency of chromatid and chromosome breaks as well as polyploidy increased when compared with untreated CHO cells. The addition of S9 mix significantly decreased the chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks and polyploidy compared to the treatment of PL alone. It is concluded that, PL causes chromatid and chromosome aberrations in CHO cell line and the metabolic activation system (S9 mix, playing an important role in drug cytotoxicity reduction.

  6. Transcriptome dynamics of transgene amplification in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

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    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Le, Huong; Jacob, Nitya M; Tsao, Yung-Shyeng; Ng, Sze-Wai; Loo, Bernard; Liu, Zhong; Kantardjieff, Anne; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2014-03-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) system is used to amplify the product gene to multiple copies in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for generating cell lines which produce the recombinant protein at high levels. The physiological changes accompanying the transformation of the non-protein secreting host cells to a high producing cell line is not well characterized. We performed transcriptome analysis on CHO cells undergoing the selection and amplification processes. A host CHO cell line was transfected with a vector containing genes encoding the mouse DHFR (mDHFR) and a recombinant human IgG (hIgG). Clones were isolated following selection and subcloned following amplification. Control cells were transfected with a control plasmid which did not have the hIgG genes. Although methotrexate (MTX) amplification increased the transcript level of the mDHFR gene significantly, its effect on both hIgG heavy and light chain genes was more modest. The subclones appeared to retain the transcriptome signatures of their parental clones, however, their productivity varied among those derived from the same clone. The transcript levels of hIgG transgenes of all subclones fall in a narrower range than the product titer, alluding to the role of many functional attributes, other than transgene transcript, on productivity. We cross examined functional class enrichment during selection and amplification as well as between high and low producers and discerned common features among them. We hypothesize that the role of amplification is not merely increasing transcript levels, but also enriching survivors which have developed the cellular machinery for secreting proteins, leading to an increased frequency of isolating high-producing clones. We put forward the possibility of assembling a hyper-productivity gene set through comparative transcriptome analysis of a wide range of samples.

  7. Existence of an Endogenous Glutamate and Aspartate Transporter in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xunhe JI; Yuhua JIN; Yaoyue CHEN; Chongyong LI; Lihe GUO

    2007-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells show endogenous high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity. This transport activity is kinetically similar to a glutamate transporter family strategically expressed in the central nervous system and is pharmacologically unlike glutamate transporter-1 or excitatory amino acid carrier 1. The cDNA of a glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST)-like transporter was obtained and analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to human, mouse, and rat GLAST. We concluded that a GLAST-like glutamate transporter exists in Chinese hamster ovary cells that might confer the endogenous high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transport activity evident in these cells.

  8. Glycoengineering of Chinese hamster ovary cells for enhanced erythropoietin N-glycan branching and sialylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Bojiao; Gao, Yuan; Chung, Cheng-yu;

    2015-01-01

    -glycosylation of recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO), a human α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1) was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Sialylation increased on both EPO and CHO cellular proteins as observed by SNA lectin analysis, and HPLC profiling revealed that the sialic acid content of total glycans on EPO...

  9. Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Producing Coagulation Factor VIII Using Multi-omics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder

    The first public draft of a genome from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was published in 2011, an entire decade after the first draft of the human genome. This publication of a relevant CHO reference genome, in combination with the fact that the cost for DNA sequencing has dropped more than 10,...

  10. Toward genome-scale models of the Chinese hamster ovary cells: incentives, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar;

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocessing of the important Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines used for the production of biopharmaceuticals stands at the brink of several redefining events. In 2011, the field entered the genomics era, which has accelerated omics-based phenotyping of the cell lines. In this review we...

  11. Superoxide Mediates the Toxicity of Paraquat for Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

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    Bagley, Ann C.; Krall, Judith; Lynch, Robert E.

    1986-05-01

    The roles of superoxide and H2O2 in the cytotoxicity of paraquat were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Neither catalase nor superoxide dismutase inhibited the loss of ability to form colonies when added to the medium. When introduced into the cells, superoxide dismutase but not catalase inhibited the toxicity of paraquat. That superoxide dismutase acted by its known catalytic action is shown by the loss of inhibition when the enzyme was inactivated by H2O2 before being introduced into the cells. The lack of inhibition by catalase, by dimethyl sulfoxide, and by desferoxamine suggests that the toxicity is not mediated by a reaction between H2O2 and superoxide to engender the hydroxyl radical. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells to paraquat may be a suitable means to determine the effects of superoxide anion in cultured cells and the ways in which cells can resist this toxic action.

  12. Interaction of multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells with amphiphiles.

    OpenAIRE

    Loe, D. W.; Sharom, F J

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-active amphiphiles with a series of MDR Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines was investigated. Cross-resistance to cationic amphiphiles was observed, which was effectively sensitised by verapamil. MDR cells showed collateral sensitivity to polyoxyethylene amphiphiles (Triton X-100/Nonidet P-40), which reached a maximum at 9-10 ethylene oxide units. Resistant lines were also highly collaterally sensitive (17-fold) to dibutylphthalate. mdrl transfectants showed cro...

  13. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been st...... of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production....... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages...

  14. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang;

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been...... stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages....... This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details...

  15. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang; Nagarajan, Harish; Yerganian, George; O'Brien, Edward; Bordbar, Aarash; Roth, Anne M; Rosenbloom, Jeffrey; Bian, Chao; Xie, Min; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Ning; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Latif, Haythem; Forster, Jochen; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Famili, Iman; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2013-08-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, first isolated in 1957, are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. Although genetic heterogeneity among CHO cell lines has been well documented, a systematic, nucleotide-resolution characterization of their genotypic differences has been stymied by the lack of a unifying genomic resource for CHO cells. Here we report a 2.4-Gb draft genome sequence of a female Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus, harboring 24,044 genes. We also resequenced and analyzed the genomes of six CHO cell lines from the CHO-K1, DG44 and CHO-S lineages. This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details of this genetic diversity highlight the value of the hamster genome as the reference upon which CHO cells can be studied and engineered for protein production.

  16. Recent progress with the DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

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    Thompson, L.H.; Salazar, E.P.; Brookman, K.W.; Collins, C.C.; Stewart, S.A.; Busch, D.B.; Weber, C.A.

    1986-04-02

    Repair deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are being used to identify human genes that correct the repair defects and to study mechanisms of DNA repair and mutagenesis. Five independent tertiary DNA transformants were obtained from the EM9 mutant. In these clones a human DNA sequence was identified that correlated with the resistance of the cells to CldUrd. After Eco RI digestion, Southern transfer, and hybridization of transformant DNAs with the BLUR-8 Alu family sequence, a common fragment of 25 to 30 kb was present. 37 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Improved antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells by ATF4 overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Haredy, AM; Nishizawa, A.; Honda, K.; T. Ohya; Ohtake, H; Omasa, T

    2013-01-01

    To improve antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the humanized antibody-producing CHO DP-12-SF cell line was transfected with the gene encoding activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a central factor in the unfolded protein response. Overexpression of ATF4 significantly enhanced the production of antibody in the CHO DP-12-SF cell line. The specific IgG production rate of in the ATF4-overexpressing CHO-ATF4-16 cells was approximately 2.4 times that of the parental host c...

  18. Cloning and Expression of Luteinizing Hormone Subunits in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line

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    Zeinab Soleimanifar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Luteinizing hormone (LH was secreted by the stimulating cells of the testes and ovaries in the anterior pituitary gland. The application of this hormone is in the treatment of men and women with infertility and amenorrhea respectively.Materials and Methods: In the present study the alpha and beta subunits of human LH gene were cloned into the pEGFP-N1 expression vector and produced the recombinant LH hormone in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO eukaryotic system.Results: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were cloned between NheI and BamHI cut sites of pEGFP_N1 expression plasmid and confirmed by PCR.  Hormone expression was evaluated in CHO cell line by Western blotting using the specific antibody.Conclusion: Alpha and beta subunits of LH hormone were expressed in CHO cell line perfectly.

  19. Glycosylation analysis of an aggregated antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells in bioreactor culture.

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    Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    N-Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies contributes not only to their biological function, but also to their stability and tendency to aggregate. Here, we investigated the impact of the glycosylation status of an aggregated antibody that accumulated during the bioreactor culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that there was no apparent difference in the glycosylation patterns of monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregated forms of the antibody. In contrast, lectin binding assays, which enable the total amounts of specific sugar residues to be detected, showed that both galactose and fucose residues in dimers and large aggregates were reduced to 70-80% of the amount in monomers. These results strongly suggest that the lack of N-linked oligosaccharides, a result of deglycosylation or aglycosylation, occurred in a proportion of the dimeric and large aggregated components. The present study demonstrates that glycosylation heterogeneities are a potential cause of antibody aggregation in cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells, and that the lack of N-glycosylation promotes the formation of dimers and finally results in large aggregates.

  20. Improving the secretory capacity of Chinese hamster ovary cells by ectopic expression of effector genes: Lessons learned and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Pristovsek, Nusa; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup;

    2017-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred cell factory for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. Although efforts primarily within bioprocess optimization have led to increased product titers of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) expressed in CHO cells, post-transcriptional bottle...

  1. Cytotoxicity of refractory ceramic fibres to Chinese hamster ovary cells in culture.

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    Hart, G A; Newman, M M; Bunn, W B; Hesterberg, T W

    1992-07-01

    The toxicity/oncogenicity of refractory ceramic fibres have been tested in chronic inhalation studies in rodents. Because these studies are time consuming and expensive, there is a need to develop and validate short-term models to screen fibres for their toxicological potential. In the present study, the toxic effects of four different compositions of refractory ceramic fibres were determined using Chinese hamster ovary cells grown in culture. These refractory ceramic fibres were the same size-selected fibres that had been used in animal inhalation studies, thus facilitating a direct comparison of findings in the two systems. Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with refractory ceramic fibres 24 hr after seeding into 60-mm culture dishes in Ham's F12 medium with 10% serum. Inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation were determined after 3-5 days of fibre exposure. Crocidolite and chrysotile asbestos were used as positive controls. Concentration-dependent inhibition of both cell proliferation and colony formation was observed after treatment with refractory ceramic fibres. The LC(50) for the different refractory ceramic fibres ranged from 10 to 30 mug/cm(2). The LC(50)s for crocidolite and chrysotile were 5 mug/cm(2) and 1 mug/cm(2), respectively. To assess the genotoxic potential of these fibres, fibre-exposed Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures were stained with acridine orange and scored for the incidence of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities. The incidence of nuclear abnormalities for refractory ceramic fibres at 20 mug/cm(2) ranged from 20 to 40%. Toxic endpoints of the in vitro studies were compared with those of the chronic animal inhalation studies. The latter included induction of lung fibrosis and pleural and airway tumours. A correlation was observed between the in vitro and in vivo toxicological potencies of the respective four refractory ceramic fibres: the fibres that were most toxic in vitro were also the most toxic in the

  2. Electropermeabilization mediates a stable insertion of glycophorin A with Chinese hamster ovary cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Ouagari, K; Benoist, H; Sixou, S; Teissie, J

    1994-02-01

    Electropulsation allowed us to incorporate glycophorin A, an integral membrane protein, into mammalian nucleated cell membranes (Chinese hamster ovary cells). The induction of stable protein association is effective only when the field intensity is higher than its threshold value, creating membrane permeabilization to small molecules. Under controlled conditions, cell viability was only slightly altered by this treatment. Pulse number and duration controlled both the number of modified cells and incorporated molecules. The phenomena was temperature dependent. An average of 5 x 10(4) molecules/cell was bound. About 80% of cells in the pulsed population were observed to incorporate glycophorin. The protein incorporation was shown to be stable 48 h after electroassociation. Electrically bound proteins were shared between the cells after each division. As enhanced binding is detected if glycophorin is added after the pulses, it is the long-lived alteration of the membrane mediated by the pulses which supports the association.

  3. A Consensus Genome-scale Reconstruction of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hefzi, Hooman; Ang, Kok Siong; Hanscho, Michael

    2016-01-01

    in CHO and associated them with >1,700 genes in the Cricetulus griseus genome. The genome-scale metabolic model based on this reconstruction, iCHO1766, and cell-line-specific models for CHO-K1, CHO-S, and CHO-DG44 cells provide the biochemical basis of growth and recombinant protein production......Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells dominate biotherapeutic protein production and are widely used in mammalian cell line engineering research. To elucidate metabolic bottlenecks in protein production and to guide cell engineering and bioprocess optimization, we reconstructed the metabolic pathways...... simulations show that the metabolic resources in CHO are more than three times more efficiently utilized for growth or recombinant protein synthesis following targeted efforts to engineer the CHO secretory pathway. This model will further accelerate CHO cell engineering and help optimize bioprocesses....

  4. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin;

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most...... of the assembled scaffolds with 21 chromosomes isolated by microfluidics to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affect therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which are relevant to cell engineering and regulatory concerns....... Homologs of most human glycosylation-associated genes are present in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 of these homologs are not expressed under exponential growth conditions. Many important viral entry genes are also present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance...

  5. Versatile microscale screening platform for improving recombinant protein productivity in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Nilsson, Claes Nymand; Lund, Anne Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    of four techniques compatible with 96-well microplates: lipid-based transient transfection, cell cultivation in microplates, cell counting and antibody-independent product titer determination based on split-GFP complementation. We were able to demonstrate growth profiles and volumetric productivity of CHO......Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used as cell factories for the production of biopharmaceuticals. In contrast to the highly optimized production processes for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based biopharmaceuticals, improving productivity of non-mAb therapeutic glycoproteins is more likely...... cells in 96-half-deepwell microplates comparable with those obtained in shake flasks. In addition, we demonstrate that split-GFP complementation can be used to accurately measure relative titers of therapeutic glycoproteins. Using this platform, we were able to detect target gene-specific increase...

  6. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drillien, R; Spehner, D; Kirn, A

    1978-12-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by UV irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective.

  7. Enhanced sialylation of recombinant erythropoietin in genetically engineered Chinese-hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Tae; Choi, One; Son, Young Dok; Park, Seung Yeol; Kim, Jung Hoe

    2009-04-01

    Sialic acid, the terminal sugar in N-linked complex glycans, is usually found in glycoproteins and plays a major role in determining the circulatory lifespan of glycoproteins. In the present study we attempted to enhance the sialylation of recombinant EPO (erythropoietin) in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells. To enhance EPO sialylation, we introduced human alpha2,3-ST (alpha2,3-sialyltransferase) and CMP-SAS (CMP-sialic acid synthase) into recombinant human EPO-producing CHO cells. The sialylation of EPO was increased by the expression of alpha2,3-ST alone. Although the co-expression of alpha2,3-ST and CMP-SAS did not further increase sialylation, an increase in the intracellular pool of CMP-sialic acid was noted. On the basis of these observations, it was postulated that the transport capacity of CMP-sialic acid into the Golgi lumen was limited, thereby causing the reduced availability of CMP-sialic acid substrate for sialylation. Therefore, we co-expressed human alpha2,3-ST and CMP-SAS, as well as overexpress Chinese hamster CMP-sialic acid transporter (CMP-SAT) in CHO cells, which produced recombinant human EPO. When alpha2,3-ST, CMP-SAS, and CMP-SAT were overexpressed in CHO cells, there was a corresponding increase in sialylation compared with the co-expression of alpha2,3-ST and CMP-SAS. The present study provides a useful strategy for enhancing the sialylation of therapeutic glycoproteins produced in CHO cells.

  8. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants with multiple glycosylation defects for production of glycoproteins with minimal carbohydrate heterogeneity.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The production of glycoproteins with carbohydrates of defined structure and minimal heterogeneity is important for functional studies of mammalian carbohydrates. To facilitate such studies, several Chinese hamster ovary mutants that carry between two and four glycosylation mutations were developed. All of the lines grew readily in culture despite the drastic simplification of their surface carbohydrates. Therefore, both endogenous glycoproteins and those introduced by transfection can be obta...

  9. Fucan inhibits Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO) adhesion to fibronectin by binding to the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hugo A; Franco, Célia R; Trindade, Edvaldo S; Veiga, Silvio S; Leite, Edda L; Nader, Helena B; Dietrich, Carl P

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, sulfated fucans have emerged as an important class of natural biopolymers. In this study, the anti-adhesive activity of a fucan from the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi was analyzed using tumorigenic cells: wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and the mutant type deficient in xylosyltransferase (CHO-745). Fibronectin (FN) was used as substrate for cell attachment. For both cell types, this fucan has shown a dose-dependent anti-adhesive effect, reaching saturation at around 400 mug/mL. This effect was abolished by desulfation of the fucan. In addition, this polymer exhibited the highest inhibitory effect in comparison to other sulfated polysaccharides. The fucan was biotinylated and used as a probe to identify its action sites. Biotinylated fucan was detected in the extracellular matrix environment by confocal microscopy and flow cytometric analysis, but not at the cell surface. The results suggest that the fucan shows anti-adhesive activity by binding directly to FN, and blocking FN sites that are recognized by cell surface ligands, possibly the integrin family.

  10. Genetic effects of the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, and galangin on Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, J.H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA); Carrano, A.V.; MacGregor, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The genotoxicity of selected flavonols was evaluated by multiple endpoints in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), and forward mutation at 4 gene loci were measured in a single population of cells exposed to quercetin, kaempferol, or galangin for 15 h with and without metabolic activation. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations was significantly increased by quercetin in the absence of activation and by kaempferol and galangin with and without activation. Flavanol treatment affected SCE and mutation at the hgprt, aprt, or Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase loci only marginally, but significantly increased mutation frequencies at the tk locus. The response at the tk locus suggests that the CHO cells may behave similarly to L5178Y cells, in which the tk locus is thought to reflect chromosomal lesions in addition to point mutation. These results indicate that, at least under the conditions examined, flavonols induce chromosomal aberrations in CHO cells, but have little effect on point mutation or SCE.

  11. Effect of glutamine limitation on the death of attached Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfeliu, A.; Stephanopoulos, G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1999-07-05

    The effect of glutamine depletion on the death of attached Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was investigated. Experiments were performed using an anchorage dependent CHO cell line expressing [gamma]-IFN and a second cell line obtained by transfection of that cell line with the human bcl-2 (hbcl-2). Either cell line could grow in media devoid of glutamine with minimal cell death due to endogenous glutamine synthetase activity that allowed cells to synthesize glutamine from glutamic acid in the medium. However, compared to control cultures in glutamine-containing media, the cell growth rate in glutamine-free media was slower with an increased fraction of cells distributed in the G[sub 0]/G[sub 1] phase. The slower rate of cell cycling apparently protected the cells from entering apoptosis when they were stimulated to proliferate in an environment devoid of other protective factors, such as serum or over-expressed hbcl-2. The depletion of both glutamine and glutamic acid did cause cell death, which could be mitigated by hbcl-2 over-expression.

  12. Genotoxic Effects of PAH Containing Sludge Extracts in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective Many studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxicity of chemicals and waste materials, which utilized in vivo test protocols. The use of animals for routine toxicity testing is now questioned by a growing segment of society[1]. Methods Keeping the above fact in mind, we have conducted in the present study the genotoxicity evaluation of oily sludge samples generated from a petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry and ETP sludge from petroleum refinery using DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein induction and apoptosis in short term in vitro mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary cell cultures. Results It is evident from the results that the oily sludge compounds derived from petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry could cause DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein accumulation and apoptotic cell death on exposure to oily sludge extracts in the presence of metabolic activation system (S-9 mix), however, ETP sludge extract could not cause significant genotoxicity in comparison to oily sludge extract and negative control. Conclusion The effect may be attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the samples as evidenced from GC-MS.

  13. A Consensus Genome-scale Reconstruction of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Hefzi, Hooman

    2016-11-23

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells dominate biotherapeutic protein production and are widely used in mammalian cell line engineering research. To elucidate metabolic bottlenecks in protein production and to guide cell engineering and bioprocess optimization, we reconstructed the metabolic pathways in CHO and associated them with >1,700 genes in the Cricetulus griseus genome. The genome-scale metabolic model based on this reconstruction, iCHO1766, and cell-line-specific models for CHO-K1, CHO-S, and CHO-DG44 cells provide the biochemical basis of growth and recombinant protein production. The models accurately predict growth phenotypes and known auxotrophies in CHO cells. With the models, we quantify the protein synthesis capacity of CHO cells and demonstrate that common bioprocess treatments, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, inefficiently increase product yield. However, our simulations show that the metabolic resources in CHO are more than three times more efficiently utilized for growth or recombinant protein synthesis following targeted efforts to engineer the CHO secretory pathway. This model will further accelerate CHO cell engineering and help optimize bioprocesses.

  14. Propolis-induced genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Denise Crispim; Mazzaron Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael; Silva, Lívia Ferreira; Chacon Tonin, Conception Cortez; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2006-10-01

    Propolis has been used in folk medicine since ancient times and is known for its antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and antioxidant properties. In view of the great therapeutic interest in propolis and the small number of studies regarding its mechanism of action, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of propolis using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Parameters such as the frequency of chromosome aberrations and mitotic index were analyzed. The results showed that, on one hand, the highest propolis tested concentration displayed a small but significant increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations, and on the other hand, it was observed that the lowest tested concentration significantly reduced the chromosome damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. The present results indicate that propolis shows the characteristic of a "Janus" compound, i.e., propolis is genotoxic at higher concentrations, while at lower concentrations it display a chemopreventive effect on doxorubicin-induced mutagenicity. Flavonoids may be the components of propolis responsible for its both mutagenic and antimutagenic effects, once these compounds may act either as pro-oxidant or as free radicals scavenger, depending on its concentration.

  15. Characterization of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.M.; Arakawa, T.; Strickland, T.W.; Yphantis, D.A.

    1987-05-05

    Physicochemical properties of recombinant human erythropoietin were examined. This protein, produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells, showed a conformation apparently identical with the natural product isolated from human urine when examined by circular dichroism, UV absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments showed the recombinant erythropoietin preparation to be essentially a single macromolecular component with a molecular weight of 30,400 and a carbohydrate content of 39%. The Stokes radius of recombinant erythropoietin was estimated to be 32 A from gel filtration, much larger than the 20-A radius calculated for a sphere of the observed molecular weight. This difference may be ascribed to the extensive glycosylation. The fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra showed that the luminescent tryptophan(s) is (are) solvent-exposed and can be quenched by I/sup -/ and acrylamide but not by Cs/sup +/. On acid titration, the recombinant erythropoietin showed a conformational transition with a midpoint of pH 4.1. This suggests that the net charges on the protein moiety rather than on the whole molecule play a role in protein structure stability.

  16. Improved antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells by ATF4 overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haredy, Ahmad M; Nishizawa, Akitoshi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohya, Tomoshi; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    To improve antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the humanized antibody-producing CHO DP-12-SF cell line was transfected with the gene encoding activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a central factor in the unfolded protein response. Overexpression of ATF4 significantly enhanced the production of antibody in the CHO DP-12-SF cell line. The specific IgG production rate of in the ATF4-overexpressing CHO-ATF4-16 cells was approximately 2.4 times that of the parental host cell line. Clone CHO-ATF4-16 did not show any change in growth rate compared with the parental cells or mock-transfected CHO-DP12-SF cells. The expression levels of mRNAs encoding both the antibody heavy and light chains in the CHO-ATF4-16 clone were analyzed. This analysis showed that ATF4 overexpression improved the total production and specific production rate of antibody without affecting the mRNA transcription level. These results indicate that ATF4 overexpression is a promising method for improving recombinant IgG production in CHO cells.

  17. Expression, purification, and characterization of human recombinant thrombopoietin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszubska, W; Zhang, H; Patterson, R L; Suhar, T S; Uchic, M E; Dickinson, R W; Schaefer, V G; Haasch, D; Janis, R S; DeVries, P J; Okasinski, G F; Meuth, J L

    2000-03-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a primary regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis, a process through which megakaryocytes proliferate and mature into platelets. Recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified from the culture medium. The cDNA encoding full-length TPO, including the native signal peptide sequence, was amplified by PCR from a human fetal liver cDNA library. The product was cloned into a mammalian expression vector under the control of the SV40 early promoter and enhancer. Secreted rhTPO was purified in three conventional chromatography steps. It migrates on SDS-PAGE as a broad band, characteristic of a heavily glycosylated protein, with an average molecular mass of 85 kDa. rhTPO expressed in CHO cells is biologically active in vitro as demonstrated by its ability to stimulate the proliferation of a megakaryocytic cell line and to trigger the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. rhTPO also shows activity in vivo as judged by the elevation of platelet count in treated mice.

  18. Atomic force microscope tracking observation of Chinese hamster ovary cell mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangzhe; Cai, Jiye; Cheng, Longqiu; Xu, Yanfang; Lin, Zhiyan; Wang, Chenxi; Chen, Yong

    2006-01-01

    CHO cells possess easily identifiable karyotypes, and CHO cell chromosomes are large and few in number, making these cells ideal for mutational and drug toxicity studies and suitable for investigations of animal chromosome structure. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode for detailed visualizations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell chromosomes during various mitotic phases, including typical prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Based on our detailed observations, we were able to divide metaphase and anaphase into sub-phases: metaphase I, II and III, and anaphase I and II. Furthermore, we used the AFM error-signal mode to visualize chromosomal ultrastructures and cytokinesis. While these visualizations were all successful, we found that the image quality was affected by cellular debris, contamination. Collectively, our results show that the AFM technique has great potential for the detailed study of chromosomes and chromosomal ultrastructures during all phases of the cell cycle, but that careful standards of sample preparation must be maintained.

  19. Recovery of Chinese hamster ovary host cell proteins for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Kristin N; Schaefer, Amy K; Kempton, Hannah R; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Lee, Kelvin H

    2014-01-01

    Identification and characterization of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell protein (HCP) impurities by proteomic techniques can aid bioprocess design and lead to more efficient development and improved biopharmaceutical manufacturing operations. Recovery of extracellular CHO HCP for proteomic analysis is particularly challenging due to the relatively low protein concentration and complex composition of media. In this article, we report the development of optimized protocols that improve proteome capture for CHO HCP. Eleven precipitation protocols were screened for protein recovery and optimized for a subset of precipitants by a design of experiments (DOE) approach. Because total protein recovery does not fully replicate a proteomics experiment, or detect non-protein agents that may interfere with proteomic methods, a subset of precipitation conditions were compared by two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, with optimized recovery shown to differ between the two proteomic methods. This work demonstrates broadly applicable methods that can be applied as initial steps to optimize sample preparation of any sample type for proteomic analysis, and presents optimized precipitation protocols for extracellular CHO HCP recovery, which can vary appreciably between gel-based and shotgun proteomic methods.

  20. Trehalose suppresses antibody aggregation during the culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Tatsuzawa, Miki; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Shirai, Akihiro; Maseda, Hideaki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The aggregation of therapeutic antibodies during the manufacturing process is problematic because of the potential risks posed by the aggregates, such as an unexpected immune response. One of the hallmark effects of trehalose, a disaccharide consisting of two alpha-glucose units, is as a chemical chaperone with anti-aggregation activity. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a diabody-type bispecific antibody were cultured in medium containing trehalose and the aggregation of the secreted proteins during the culture process was analyzed. An analysis of the various forms of the antibody (monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregates) showed that trehalose decreased the relative content of large aggregates by two thirds. The aggregation kinetics indicated that trehalose directly inhibited the polymerization and aggregation steps in a nucleation-dependent aggregation mechanism. Moreover, both specific and volumetric antibody production were increased in CHO cells cultured in trehalose-containing medium. Thus, the addition of trehalose to recombinant CHO cell cultures would offer a practical strategy for quality improvement in the production of therapeutic antibodies.

  1. Construction of BAC-based physical map and analysis of chromosome rearrangement in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yihua; Kimura, Shuichi; Itoi, Takayuki; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have frequently been used in biotechnology for many years as a mammalian host cell platform for cloning and expressing genes of interest. A detailed physical chromosomal map of the CHO DG44 cell line was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) imaging using randomly selected 303 BAC clones as hybridization probes (BAC-FISH). The two longest chromosomes were completely paired chromosomes; other chromosomes were partly deleted or rearranged. The end sequences of 624 BAC clones, including 287 mapped BAC clones, were analyzed and 1,119 informative BAC end sequences were obtained. Among 303 mapped BAC clones, 185 clones were used for BAC-FISH analysis of CHO K1 chromosomes and 94 clones for primary Chinese hamster lung cells. Based on this constructed physical map and end sequences, the chromosome rearrangements between CHO DG44, CHO K1, and primary Chinese hamster cells were investigated. Among 20 CHO chromosomes, eight were conserved without large rearrangement in CHO DG44, CHO K1, and primary Chinese hamster cells. This result suggested that these chromosomes were stable and essential in CHO cells and supposedly conserved in other CHO cell lines.

  2. Interphase Death of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Exposed to Accelerated Heavy Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mehnati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy ions are nucleus of elements of iron, argon, carbon and neon that all carry positive electrical charges. For these particles to be useful in radiotherapy they need to accelerated to high energy by more than thousand mega volts. Also the cosmic environment is considered to be a complicated mixture of highly energetic photons and heavy ions such as iron. Therefore, the health risks to astronauts during long mission should be considered.  Materials and Methods: The induction of interphase death was tested on Chinese hamster ovary cells by exposing them to accelerated heavy ions (carbon, neon, argon and iron of 10-2000 linear energy transfers (LETs. The fraction of cells that underwent interphase death was determined by observing individual cells with time-lapse photography (direct method as well as by the indirect method of counting cells undergoing interphase death made visible by the addition of caffeine (indirect method. Results: The interphase death due to the exposure to X- rays is increased linearly as the dose exceeds the threshold dose of 10 Gy. Whereas the interphase death increases at a higher rate due to the exposure to high LET heavy ions and no threshold dose was observed. The range of LET values corresponding to the maximum RBE for the interphase death is 120-230 keV/µm. The probability of inducing the interphase death by a single heavy ion traversing through the nucleus is about 0.04-0.08. Discussion and Conclusion: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE of heavy ions as compared to X- rays as determined at the 50% level of induction is increased with LET. It reached a maximum value at a LET of approximately 230 keV/µm and then decreased with further increase in LET. The range of LET values corresponding to the maximum RBE appears to be narrower for interphase death than for reproductive death.

  3. Diversity in host clone performance within a Chinese hamster ovary cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Peter M; Berthelot, Maud E; Young, Robert J; Graham, James W A; Racher, Andrew J; Aldana, Dulce

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve the capabilities of individual Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell lines to synthesize recombinant therapeutic proteins (rPs). However, given the increasing variety in rP molecular types and formats it may be advantageous to employ a toolbox of CHO host cell lines in biomanufacturing. Such a toolbox would contain a panel of hosts with specific capabilities to synthesize certain molecular types at high volumetric concentrations and with the correct product quality (PQ). In this work, we examine a panel of clonally derived host cell lines isolated from CHOK1SV for the ability to manufacture two model proteins, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody (Mab) and an Fc-fusion protein (etanercept). We show that these host cell lines vary in their relative ability to synthesize these proteins in transient and stable pool production format. Furthermore, we examined the PQ attributes of the stable pool-produced Mab and etanercept (by N-glycan ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively), and uncovered substantial variation between the host cell lines in Mab N-glycan micro-heterogeneity and etanercept N and O-linked macro-heterogeneity. To further investigate the capabilities of these hosts to act as cell factories, we examined the glycosylation pathway gene expression profiles as well as the levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in the untransfected hosts. We uncovered a moderate correlation between ER mass and the volumetric product concentration in transient and stable pool Mab production. This work demonstrates the utility of leveraging diversity within the CHOK1SV pool to identify new host cell lines with different performance characteristics.

  4. Application of a nonradioactive method of measuring protein synthesis in industrially relevant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadehbeigi, Nazanin; Dickson, Alan James

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high medical and commercial value of recombinant proteins for clinical and diagnostic purposes, the protein synthesis machinery of mammalian host cells is the subject of extensive research by the biopharmaceutical industry. RNA translation and protein synthesis are steps that may determine the extent of growth and productivity of host cells. To address the problems of utilization of current radioisotope methods with proprietary media, we have focused on the application of an alternative method of measuring protein synthesis in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. This method employs puromycin as a nonradioactive label which incorporates into nascent polypeptide chains and is detectable by western blotting. This method, which is referred to as SUnSET, successfully demonstrated the expected changes in protein synthesis in conditions that inhibit and restore translation activity and was reproducibly quantifiable. The study of the effects of feed and sodium butyrate addition on protein synthesis by SUnSET revealed an increase following 1 h feed supplementation while a high concentration of sodium butyrate was able to decrease translation during the same treatment period. Finally, SUnSET was used to compare protein synthesis activity during batch culture of the CHO cell line in relation to growth. The results indicate that as the cells approached the end of batch culture, the global rate of protein synthesis declined in parallel with the decreasing growth rate. In conclusion, this method can be used as a "snapshot" to directly monitor the effects of different culture conditions and treatments on translation in recombinant host cells.

  5. Phosphorylation of 3-deazaguanosine by nicotinamide riboside kinase in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P P; Tan, M T; Spindler, C D; Robins, R K

    1989-12-01

    The growth inhibitory activity of 3-deazaguanosine toward a mutant line (TGR-3) of Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.8) was substantially reversed by the simultaneous addition of nicotinamide riboside. The activities of most other ribonucleoside analogues tested were unaffected. The formation of cellular 3-deazaGMP and 3-deazaGTP from the ribonucleoside analogue, as measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography, was inhibited by the presence of nicotinamide riboside. The inhibition was dependent on concentration of 3-deazaguanosine and could also be demonstrated by following the metabolism of 3-deazaguanosine, labeled with 14C in the ribose moiety, to [14C]3-deazaGTP. In the presence of 100 microM nicotinamide riboside formation of the labeled triphosphate derivative of 3-deazaguanosine was undetectable. A 3-deazaguanosine phosphorylating activity was separated from other cellular kinases by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Contaminating purine nucleoside phosphorylase (EC 2.4.2.1) was subsequently removed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The resulting enzyme preparation demonstrated the greatest activities with nicotinamide riboside and 3-deazaguanosine and, in addition, could also phosphorylate tiazofurin and guanosine to lesser, but significant, degrees. These and other observations suggest that 3-deazaguanosine, and perhaps other agents such as tiazofurin, may, at least in part, be phosphorylated by a nicotinamide ribonucleoside kinase in these cells. If so, it is possible that the activity of this agent in other types of cells in vivo could be dependent upon the presence of this enzyme and that it could be influenced by cellular concentrations of the natural pyridine nucleoside.

  6. A quantitative proteomic analysis of cellular responses to high glucose media in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenke; Dai, Shujia; Bones, Jonathan; Ray, Somak; Cha, Sangwon; Karger, Barry L; Li, Jingyi Jessica; Wilson, Lee; Hinckle, Greg; Rossomando, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A goal in recombinant protein production using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells is to achieve both high specific productivity and high cell density. Addition of glucose to the culture media is necessary to maintain both cell growth and viability. We varied the glucose concentration in the media from 5 to 16 g/L and found that although specific productivity of CHO-DG44 cells increased with the glucose level, the integrated viable cell density decreased. To examine the biological basis of these results, we conducted a discovery proteomic study of CHO-DG44 cells grown under batch conditions in normal (5 g/L) or high (15 g/L) glucose over 3, 6, and 9 days. Approximately 5,000 proteins were confidently identified against an mRNA-based CHO-DG44 specific proteome database, with 2,800 proteins quantified with at least two peptides. A self-organizing map algorithm was used to deconvolute temporal expression profiles of quantitated proteins. Functional analysis of altered proteins suggested that differences in growth between the two glucose levels resulted from changes in crosstalk between glucose metabolism, recombinant protein expression, and cell death, providing an overall picture of the responses to high glucose environment. The high glucose environment may enhance recombinant dihydrofolate reductase in CHO cells by up-regulating NCK1 and down-regulating PRKRA, and may lower integrated viable cell density by activating mitochondrial- and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated cell death pathways by up-regulating HtrA2 and calpains. These proteins are suggested as potential targets for bioengineering to enhance recombinant protein production.

  7. Metabolomics-driven approach for the improvement of Chinese hamster ovary cell growth: overexpression of malate dehydrogenase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William P K; Reddy, Satty G; Yusufi, Faraaz N K; Lee, Dong-Yup; Wong, Niki S C; Heng, Chew Kiat; Yap, Miranda G S; Ho, Ying Swan

    2010-05-17

    We have established a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform to identify extracellular metabolites in the medium of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fed-batch reactor cultures. Amongst the extracellular metabolites identified, malate accumulation was the most significant. The contributing factors to malate efflux were found to be the supply of aspartate from the medium, and an enzymatic bottleneck at malate dehydrogenase II (MDH II) in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Subsequent metabolic engineering to overexpress MDH II in CHO resulted in increases in intracellular ATP and NADH, and up to 1.9-fold improvement in integral viable cell number.

  8. Impact of graphene oxide on viability of Chinese hamster ovary and mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuskaite, Danute; Grinceviciute, Nora; Snitka, Valentinas

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is a critical step in the development of graphene oxide (GO) as a new promising material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the impact of GO, with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin, on healthy (Chinese hamster ovary) and a cancer (mouse hepatoma MH-22A) cells viability and the estimation of the intracellular distribution of GO inside the cells in vitro. The viability tests were performed using a colony formation assay. The intracellular distribution of GO was estimated using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. The viability of both cell lines decreased with increasing concentration of graphene oxide (12.5-50.0 μg/ml): in the case of Chinese hamster ovary cells viability decreased from 44% to 11%, in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells--from 22% to 3%. These cell lines significantly differed in their response to GO and GO-BSA formulations. The results of viability tests correlate with results of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and imaging findings. The GO influence on cell morphology changes, cell structure, cells colony growth dynamics and GO accumulation inside the cells was higher in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

  9. Understanding Transcriptional Enhancement in Monoclonal Antibody-Producing Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Sarah E.

    With the demand for monoclonal antibody (mAB) therapeutics continually increasing, the need to better understand what makes a high productivity clone has gained substantial interest. Monoclonal antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with different productivities were provided by a biopharmaceutical company for investigation. Gene copy numbers, mRNA levels, and mAb productivities were previously determined for two low producing clones and their amplified progeny. These results showed an increase in mRNA copy number in amplified clones, which correlated to the observed increases in specific productivity of these clones. The presence of multiple copies of mRNA per one copy of DNA in the higher productivity clones has been coined as transcriptional enhancement. The methylation status of the CMV promoter as well as transcription factor/promoter interactions were evaluated to determine the cause of transcriptional enhancement. Methylation analysis via bisulfite sequencing revealed no significant difference in overall methylation status of the CMV promoter. These data did, however, reveal the possibility of differential interactions of transcription factors between the high and low productivity cell clones. This finding was further supported by chromatin immunoprecipitations previously performed in the lab, as well as literature studies. Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) binding proteins were constructed and utilized to selectively immunoprecipitate the CMV promoter along with its associated transcription factors in the different CHO cell clones. Cells were transfected with the TALE proteins, harvested and subjected to a ChIP-like procedure. Results obtained from the TALE ChIP demonstrated the lack of binding of the protein to the promoter and the need to redesign the TALE. Overall, results obtained from this study were unable to give a clear indication as to the causes of transcriptional enhancement in the amplified CHO cell clones. Further

  10. Accelerated Homology-Directed Targeted Integration of Transgenes in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Via CRISPR/Cas9 and Fluorescent Enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Grav, Lise Marie; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2016-01-01

    Targeted gene integration into site-specific loci can be achieved in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells via CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology and the homology-directed repair (HDR) pathway. The low efficiency of HDR often requires antibiotic selection, which limits targeted integration...

  11. A physiological threshold for protection against menadione toxicity by human NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.H.J.; Boerboom, A.M.J.F.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Capelle, van D.; Ruijter, de A.J.M.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) has often been suggested to be involved in cancer prevention by means of detoxification of electrophilic quinones. In the present study, a series of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing various elevated levels of human NQO1 were generated by stabl

  12. Quantitative feature extraction from the Chinese hamster ovary bioprocess bibliome using a novel meta-analysis workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golabgir, Aydin; Gutierrez, Jahir M.; Hefzi, Hooman

    2016-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grows annually due to the importance of CHO cells in industrial bioprocessing of therapeutics. In an effort to start to catalogue the breadth of CHO phenotypes, or phenome, we present the CHO bibliome. This bibliographic......, yielding novel insights and addressing the validity of long held assumptions. Specifically, we show that bioprocess titers can be predicted using indicator variables derived from viable cell density, viability, and culture duration. We further identified a positive correlation between the cumulative viable...... practices can limit research re-use in this field, we show that the statistical analysis of diverse legacy bioprocess data can provide insight into bioprocessing capabilities of CHO cell lines used in industry. The CHO bibliome can be accessed at http://lewislab.ucsd.edu/cho-bibliome/....

  13. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Che Azurahanim Che; Asanithi, Piyapong; Brunner, Eric W; Jurewicz, Izabela; Bo, Chiara; Sear, Richard P; Dalton, Alan B [Department of Physics and Surrey Materials Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Azad, Chihye Lewis; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Fang Shaoli; Lima, Marcio D; Lepro, Xavier; Collins, Steve; Baughman, Ray H, E-mail: r.sear@surrey.ac.uk [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080-3021 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is required for tissue engineering; almost all tissues consist of oriented cells. The aligned substrates are made using straightforward physical chemistry techniques from forests of multiwall nanotubes; no lithography is required to make inexpensive large-scale substrates with highly aligned nanoscale grooves. Interestingly, although the cells strongly align with the nanoscale grooves, only a few also elongate along this axis: alignment of the cells does not require a pronounced change in morphology of the cell. We also pattern the nanotube bundles over length scales comparable to the cell size and show that the cells follow this pattern.

  14. Aligned, isotropic and patterned carbon nanotube substrates that control the growth and alignment of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Che; Asanithi, Piyapong; Brunner, Eric W.; Jurewicz, Izabela; Bo, Chiara; Azad, Chihye Lewis; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Fang, Shaoli; Lima, Marcio D.; Lepro, Xavier; Collins, Steve; Baughman, Ray H.; Sear, Richard P.; Dalton, Alan B.

    2011-05-01

    Here we culture Chinese hamster ovary cells on isotropic, aligned and patterned substrates based on multiwall carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide the substrate with nanoscale topography. The cells adhere to and grow on all substrates, and on the aligned substrate, the cells align strongly with the axis of the bundles of the multiwall nanotubes. This control over cell alignment is required for tissue engineering; almost all tissues consist of oriented cells. The aligned substrates are made using straightforward physical chemistry techniques from forests of multiwall nanotubes; no lithography is required to make inexpensive large-scale substrates with highly aligned nanoscale grooves. Interestingly, although the cells strongly align with the nanoscale grooves, only a few also elongate along this axis: alignment of the cells does not require a pronounced change in morphology of the cell. We also pattern the nanotube bundles over length scales comparable to the cell size and show that the cells follow this pattern.

  15. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production.

  16. Overexpression of Serpinb1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells increases recombinant IgG productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Brooks, Jeanne; Sealover, Natalie; George, Henry J; Kayser, Kevin J

    2015-01-10

    We report the discovery and validation of a novel CHO cell engineering target for improving IgG expression, serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B, member 1 (Serpinb1). Transcriptomic studies using microarrays revealed that Serpinb1 was up-regulated in cultures with IgG heavy and light chain transcription transiently repressed compared with cultures treated with non-targeting siRNA. As proof of concept, a lentiviral vector was employed to overexpress the Chinese Hamster Serpinb1 in a CHOZN(®) Glutamine Synthetase (-/-) recombinant IgG producing CHO line. The lentiviral stable pool demonstrated 4.2-fold SERPINB1 overexpression compared with the non-transduced control. The peak viable cell density (VCD) and peak IgG volumetric productivity of the lentiviral stable pool increased 1.3 and 2.0 fold, respectively, compared with the non-transduced control. For host cell engineering, a plasmid encoding SERPINB1 was transfected into the CHOZN(®) GS (-/-) host cell line to create several stable pools. Single-cell clones isolated from the pools were characterized for their SERPINB1 expression levels and growth. The clone (SERPINB1_OE_27) with the highest SERPINB1 expression had decreased peak viable cell density and exponential phase growth rate. Selected SERPINB1 OE clones were subsequently evaluated for their IgG expression capabilities using GS selection. Clone SERPINB1_OE_42 with moderate SERPINB1 overexpression demonstrated increased IgG productivity in "bulk" selection. We conclude that manipulating Serpinb1 expression can lead to increased recombinant IgG productivity, but the effect in host cell lines may vary by clone and by overexpression level. This work represents the ongoing effort in applying "-omics" findings to novel CHO host cell line engineering.

  17. Size distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles in cell culture medium and their influence on antioxidative enzymes in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđenović Branislava U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fullerenol (C60(OH24 nanoparticles (FNP have a significant role in biomedical research due to their numerous biological activities, some of which are cytoprotective and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to measure distribution of fullerenol nanoparticles and zeta potential in cell medium RPMI 1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and to investigate the influence of FNP on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 survival, as well as to determine the activity of three antioxidative enzymes: superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-reductase and glutathione-S-transferase in mitomycin C-treated cell line. Our investigation implies that FNP, as a strong antioxidant, influence the cellular redox state and enzyme activities and thus may reduce cell proliferation, which confirms that FNP could be exploited for its use as a cytoprotective agent.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45005 i Pokrajinski Sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj Vojvodine, grant number 114-451-2056/2011-01

  18. Chinese hamster ovary cell performance enhanced by a rational divide-and-conquer strategy for chemically defined medium development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaya; Zhang, Weiyan; Deng, Xiancun; Poon, Hong Fai; Liu, Xuping; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Li

    2015-12-01

    Basal medium design is considered one of the most important steps in process development. To optimize chemically defined (CD) media efficiently and effectively for the biopharmaceutical industry, a two-step rational strategy was applied to optimize four antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. In the first step, 48 of 52 components of our in-house medium were divided into three groups according to their characteristics. In the next step, these groups were optimized by spent medium analysis, response surface methodology and mixture design. Because these steps in our strategy involved dividing medium components into groups and subsequently adjusting the concentration of the components, we termed this medium development strategy "divide and conquer". By applying the strategy, we were able to improve the titers of CHO-S, CHO-DG44 and two CHO-K1 cell lines 1.92, 1.86, 2.92 and 1.62-fold, respectively, in 8 weeks with fewer than 60 tests. This divide-and-conquer strategy was efficient, effective, scalable and universal in our current study and offered a new approach to CD media development.

  19. A Systematic Approach to Time-series Metabolite Profiling and RNA-seq Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Hsiu; Araki, Michihiro; Mochizuki, Masao; Hori, Yoshimi; Murata, Masahiro; Kahar, Prihardi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the primary host used for biopharmaceutical protein production. The engineering of CHO cells to produce higher amounts of biopharmaceuticals has been highly dependent on empirical approaches, but recent high-throughput “omics” methods are changing the situation in a rational manner. Omics data analyses using gene expression or metabolite profiling make it possible to identify key genes and metabolites in antibody production. Systematic omics approaches using different types of time-series data are expected to further enhance understanding of cellular behaviours and molecular networks for rational design of CHO cells. This study developed a systematic method for obtaining and analysing time-dependent intracellular and extracellular metabolite profiles, RNA-seq data (enzymatic mRNA levels) and cell counts from CHO cell cultures to capture an overall view of the CHO central metabolic pathway (CMP). We then calculated correlation coefficients among all the profiles and visualised the whole CMP by heatmap analysis and metabolic pathway mapping, to classify genes and metabolites together. This approach provides an efficient platform to identify key genes and metabolites in CHO cell culture. PMID:28252038

  20. ¹H NMR spectroscopy profiling of metabolic reprogramming of Chinese hamster ovary cells upon a temperature shift during culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane L Wagstaff

    Full Text Available We report an NMR based approach to determine the metabolic reprogramming of Chinese hamster ovary cells upon a temperature shift during culture by investigating the extracellular cell culture media and intracellular metabolome of CHOK1 and CHO-S cells during culture and in response to cold-shock and subsequent recovery from hypothermic culturing. A total of 24 components were identified for CHOK1 and 29 components identified for CHO-S cell systems including the observation that CHO-S media contains 5.6 times the level of glucose of CHOK1 media at time zero. We confirm that an NMR metabolic approach provides quantitative analysis of components such as glucose and alanine with both cell lines responding in a similar manner and comparable to previously reported data. However, analysis of lactate confirms a differentiation between CHOK1 and CHO-S and that reprogramming of metabolism in response to temperature was cell line specific. The significance of our results is presented using principal component analysis (PCA that confirms changes in metabolite profile in response to temperature and recovery. Ultimately, our approach demonstrates the capability of NMR providing real-time analysis to detect reprogramming of metabolism upon cellular perception of cold-shock/sub-physiological temperatures. This has the potential to allow manipulation of metabolites in culture supernatant to improve growth or productivity.

  1. Viable cell recycle with an inclined settler in the perfusion culture of suspended recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, J A; Todd, P; Kompala, D S

    1994-01-01

    The perfusion culture of suspended mammalian cells requires a cell retention device, the best of which will retain all viable cells and reject all nonviable cells and debris. The inclined settler is a passive, simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-maintain device that has been shown in the past to selectively remove single nonviable cells of hybridoma cultures. In this work, we have demonstrated the preferential return of viable recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells through the use of a three-port settler maintained at lower temperatures and vibrated to reduce cell attachment and enhance cell return to the bioreactor. The residence time of CHO cells in the cooled, vibrated settler was determined by flow-cytometric discrimination of tracer recombinant CHO cells. Cells returning to the bioreactor through the underflow had an average residence time of 1.46 h in the settler. During perfusion cultures with cell densities above 10(6) cells/mL, cells seen to be stalled within the settler were easily dislodged by periodic air bubbling using a simple back-flushing procedure in which headspace gas was brought through the settler underflow port. The resuspended cells were returned to the bioreactor within an average of 32 min after bubbling. This study demonstrates that inclined sedimentation technology can be utilized to selectively recycle viable recombinant CHO cells with only a short retention time in an inclined settler.

  2. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  3. Increased recombinant protein production owing to expanded opportunities for vector integration in high chromosome number Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Noriko; Takahashi, Mai; Ali Haghparast, Seyed Mohammad; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kumamoto, Toshitaka; Frank, Jana; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal instability is a characteristic of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Cultures of these cells gradually develop heterogeneity even if established from a single cell clone. We isolated cells containing different numbers of chromosomes from a CHO-DG44-based human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF)-producing cell line and found that high chromosome number cells showed higher hGM-CSF productivity. Therefore, we focused on the relationship between chromosome aneuploidy of CHO cells and high recombinant protein-producing cell lines. Distribution and stability of chromosomes were examined in CHO-DG44 cells, and two cell lines expressing different numbers of chromosomes were isolated from the original CHO-DG44 cell line to investigate the effect of aneuploid cells on recombinant protein production. Both cell lines were stably transfected with a vector that expresses immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3), and specific antibody production rates were compared. Cells containing more than 30 chromosomes had higher specific antibody production rates than those with normal chromosome number. Single cell analysis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (Egfp)-gene transfected cells revealed that increased GFP expression was relative to the number of gene integration sites rather than the difference in chromosome numbers or vector locations. Our results suggest that CHO cells with high numbers of chromosomes contain more sites for vector integration, a characteristic that could be advantageous in biopharmaceutical production.

  4. New cell line development for antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary cells using split green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yeon-Gu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The establishment of high producer is an important issue in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell culture considering increased heterogeneity by the random integration of a transfected foreign gene and the altered position of the integrated gene. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-based cell line development is an efficient strategy for the selection of CHO cells in high therapeutic protein production. Results An internal ribosome entry site (IRES was introduced for using two green fluorescence protein (GFP fragments as a reporter to both antibody chains, the heavy chain and the light chain. The cells co-transfected with two GFP fragments showed the emission of green fluorescence by the reconstitution of split GFP. The FACS-sorted pool with GFP expression had a higher specific antibody productivity (qAb than that of the unsorted pool. The qAb was highly correlated with the fluorescence intensity with a high correlation coefficient, evidenced from the analysis of median GFP and qAb in individual selected clones. Conclusions This study proved that the fragment complementation for split GFP could be an efficient indication for antibody production on the basis of high correlation of qAb with reconstitution of GFP. Taken together, we developed an efficient FACS-based screening method for high antibody-producing CHO cells with the benefits of the split GFP system.

  5. Efficient enrichment of high-producing recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells for monoclonal antibody by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Takeshi; Masuda, Kenji; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Miyadai, Kenji; Nonaka, Koichi; Yabuta, Masayuki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    To screen a high-producing recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell from transfected cells is generally laborious and time-consuming. We developed an efficient enrichment strategy for high-producing cell screening using flow cytometry (FCM). A stable pool that had possibly shown a huge variety of monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression levels was prepared by transfection of an expression vector for mAb production to a CHO cell. To enrich high-producing cells derived from a stable pool stained with a fluorescent-labeled antibody that binds to mAb presented on the cell surface, we set the cell size and intracellular density gates based on forward scatter (FSC) and side scatter (SSC), and collected the brightest 5% of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-positive cells from each group by FCM. The final product concentration in a fed-batch culture of cells sorted without FSC and SSC gates was 1.2-1.3-times higher than that of unsorted cells, whereas that of cells gated by FSC and SSC was 3.4-4.7-fold higher than unsorted cells. Surprisingly, the fraction with the highest final product concentration indicated the smallest value of FSC and SSC, and the middle value of fluorescence intensity among all fractionated cells. Our results showed that our new screening strategy by FCM based on FSC and SSC gates could achieve an efficient enrichment of high-producing cells with the smallest value of FSC and SSC.

  6. Genomic landscapes of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines as revealed by the Cricetulus griseus draft genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nathan E; Liu, Xin; Li, Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    . This analysis identified hamster genes missing in different CHO cell lines, and detected >3.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 551,240 indels and 7,063 copy number variations. Many mutations are located in genes with functions relevant to bioprocessing, such as apoptosis. The details...

  7. Hypothermia enhances bcl-2 expression and protects against oxidative stress-induced cell death in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slikker, W; Desai, V G; Duhart, H; Feuers, R; Imam, S Z

    2001-08-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of cellular injury. Various reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species such as superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrite, and nitric oxide are involved in the manifestations of different types of organ toxicity and the resultant syndromes, symptoms, or diseases. Hypothermic conditions have been reported to reduce the oxidative stress in various in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of lowered temperatures on oxidative stress-induced cell death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also investigated the oxidative stress-induced alterations in the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2, in CHO cells at lowered temperatures. CHO cells were incubated at four different temperatures of 30, 32, 35, and 37 degrees C (control temperature) from 1 to 4 d. In another set, the cells were incubated with 100 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) for 30 min before harvesting at different time points. The cells were harvested at 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Cell survival was significantly higher at 30 degrees C as compared to 37 degrees C over 4 d of incubation. In cells incubated with H(2)O(2), significantly higher cell viability was observed at lower temperatures as compared to the cells incubated at 37 degrees C. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) also increased significantly at lower temperatures. Lowered temperature also provided a significant increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 after 4 d of incubation. These data suggest that hypothermic conditions lowers the risk of oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and programmed cell death by increasing the activity of GSH-Px and by the induction in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2.

  8. Model-directed engineering of "difficult-to-express" monoclonal antibody production by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Leon P; Dean, Greg; West, Nathan R; Smith, Andrew; Daramola, Olalekan; Field, Ray; Wilkinson, Stephen J; James, David C

    2014-02-01

    Despite improvements in volumetric titer for monoclonal antibody (MAb) production processes using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, some "difficult-to-express" (DTE) MAbs inexplicably reach much lower process titers. These DTE MAbs require intensive cell line and process development activity, rendering them more costly or even unsuitable to manufacture. To rapidly and rationally identify an optimal strategy to improve production of DTE MAbs, we have developed an engineering design platform combining high-yielding transient production, empirical modeling of MAb synthesis incorporating an unfolded protein response (UPR) regulatory loop with directed expression and cell engineering approaches. Utilizing a panel of eight IgG1 λ MAbs varying >4-fold in volumetric titer, we showed that MAb-specific limitations on folding and assembly rate functioned to induce a proportionate UPR in host CHO cells with a corresponding reduction in cell growth rate. Derived from comparative empirical modeling of cellular constraints on the production of each MAb we employed two strategies to increase production of DTE MAbs designed to avoid UPR induction through an improvement in the rate/cellular capacity for MAb folding and assembly reactions. Firstly, we altered the transfected LC:HC gene ratio and secondly, we co-expressed a variety of molecular chaperones, foldases or UPR transactivators (BiP, CypB, PDI, and active forms of ATF6 and XBP1) with recombinant MAbs. DTE MAb production was significantly improved by both strategies, although the mode of action was dependent upon the approach employed. Increased LC:HC ratio or CypB co-expression improved cell growth with no effect on qP. In contrast, BiP, ATF6c and XBP1s co-expression increased qP and reduced cell growth. This study demonstrates that expression-engineering strategies to improve production of DTE proteins in mammalian cells should be product specific, and based on rapid predictive tools to assess the relative impact of

  9. Novel Role of ER Stress and Autophagy in Microcystin-LR Induced Apoptosis in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenshen; Liu, Chuanrui; Li, Yang; Imam, Mustapha U.; Huang, Hui; Liu, Haohao; Xin, Yongjuan; Zhang, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a ubiquitous peptide that exhibits strong reproductive toxicity, although the mechanistic basis for such toxicity remains largely unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of exposure to MC-LR in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The results showed that MC-LR inhibited the in vitro proliferation of CHO cells significantly, with an IC50 of 10 μM. Moreover, MC-LR-treated CHO cells revealed strong induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Additionally, exposure of CHO cells to MC-LR resulted in excess reactive oxygen species production and intracellular calcium release, with resultant endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERs). There was also extensive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles with the highest concentration of MC-LR used (10 μM). Furthermore, the expression of ERs (GRP78, ATF-6, PERK, IRE1, CHOP) and autophagy (Beclin1 and LC3II) proteins was increased, with concomitantly reduced expression of LC3I suggesting that ERs and autophagy were induced in CHO cells by MC-LR treatment. Conversely, pretreatment of CHO cells with 4-Phenyl butyric acid, the ERs inhibitor reduced the MC-LR-induced apoptotic cell death and cellular autophagy as evidenced by the reduced expression of Beclin1 and LC3II. Similarly, MC-LR treatment in combination with an autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine) increased apoptotic cell death compared with MC-LR alone, and induced ERs via upregulating ERs proteins. The overall results indicated that activation of ERs and autophagy are both associated with MC-LR-induced apoptosis in CHO cells. ERs may be a trigger of autophagy in this process. PMID:27877136

  10. Multi-omic profiling -of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Daniel; Seresht, Ali Kazemi; Engmark, Mikael; Magdenoska, Olivera; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied to study the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in a panel of CHO-K1 cells under growth-limited and unlimited conditions in batch and chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization of the EPO-producing cells included global transcriptome analysis, targeted metabolome analysis, including intracellular pools of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) , adenine nucleotide phosphates (ANP), and extracellular concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. Potential impact of EPO expression on the protein secretory pathway was assessed at multiple stages using quantitative PCR (qPCR), reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blots (WB), and global gene expression analysis to assess EPO gene copy numbers, EPO gene expression, intracellular EPO retention, and differentially expressed genes functionally related to secretory protein processing, respectively. We found no evidence supporting the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO productivity.

  11. Exploring the capabilities of fluorometric online monitoring on chinese hamster ovary cell cultivations producing a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Karen; Amann, Thomas; Schmid, Jakob; Handrick, René; Hesse, Friedemann

    2016-11-01

    Online monitoring of Chinese hamster ovary fed-batch cell cultures via two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2DFS) was evaluated in this work. Particular attention was directed toward different process strategies regarding the use of nutrient-rich feed media and temperature shifts. These intentionally performed process manipulations broadened the variances in the obtained fluorescence spectra and this was suspected to hamper the generation of reliable soft sensors. Principal component analysis of the obtained fluorescence data showed that temperature shift and feeding strategy had a considerable impact on the fluorescence signals. Partial least square regression models were calculated for the prediction of glucose, lactate, monoclonal antibody (mAb), and viable cell concentrations (VCC). It was aimed to integrate all 2DFS datasets in the respective calibration models regardless of the process-strategy-dependent diversity. Contrary to the expectations, it was feasible to calibrate soft sensors for the online prediction of glucose (7 latent variables (LVs), Rcal2 = 0.97, rout mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) = 1.1 g L(-1) ), lactate (5 LV; Rcal2 = 0.96; RMSEP = 0.5 g L(-1) ) and mAb concentrations (4 LV; Rcal2 = 0.99; RMSEP = 11.4 mg L(-1) ). Feeding and temperature shifts had the highest impact on the VCC model (3 LV; Rcal2 = 0.94; RMSEP 3.8 × 10(5) mL(-1) ), nevertheless the prediction of VCC from the fed-batch 2DFS data was feasible. The results strongly indicate that variances in the datasets due to the process strategy can be tolerated to some extent by the respective soft sensors. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1592-1600, 2016.

  12. Protective effect of propolis on radiation-induced chromosomal damage on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spigoti, Geyza; Bartolini, Paolo; Okazaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br; Tsutsumi, Shiguetoshi [Amazon Food Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)], e-mail: fwip5138@mb.infoweb.ne.jp

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the radioprotective capacity of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, against genotoxic damages induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). for this purpose, micronucleus induction was analyzed concerning irreparable damage, specifically related to DNA double-strand breaks, that are potentially carcinogenic. CHO-K1 cells were submitted to different concentrations of propolis (3 - 33 {mu}g/ml), 1 h before irradiation, with 1 Gy of {gamma} radiation (0.722 Gy/min). The data obtained showed a decreasing tendency in the quantity of radioinduced damage on cells previously treated with propolis. The radioprotective effect was more prominent at higher propolis concentration. The treatment with propolis alone did not induce genotoxic effects on CHO-K1 cells. Beside that, the treatment with propolis, associated or not with radiation, did not influence the kinetics of cellular proliferation. (author)

  13. Molecular structural analysis of HPRT mutations induced by thermal and epithermal neutrons in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinashi, Y; Sakurai, Y; Masunaga, S; Suzuki, M; Takagaki, M; Akaboshi, M; Ono, K

    2000-09-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to thermal and epithermal neutrons, and the occurrence of mutations at the HPRT locus was investigated. The Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which has been improved for use in neutron capture therapy, was the neutron source. Neutron energy spectra ranging from nearly pure thermal to epithermal can be chosen using the spectrum shifters and thermal neutron filters. To determine mutant frequency and cell survival, cells were irradiated with thermal and epithermal neutrons under three conditions: thermal neutron mode, mixed mode with thermal and epithermal neutrons, and epithermal neutron mode. The mutagenicity was different among the three irradiation modes, with the epithermal neutrons showing a mutation frequency about 5-fold that of the thermal neutrons and about 1.5-fold that of the mixed mode. In the thermal neutron and mixed mode, boron did not significantly increase the frequency of the mutants at the same dose. Therefore, the effect of boron as used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is quantitatively minimal in terms of mutation induction. Over 300 independent neutron-induced mutant clones were isolated from 12 experiments. The molecular structure of HPRT mutations was determined by analysis of all nine exons by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. In the thermal neutron and mixed modes, total and partial deletions were dominant and the fraction of total deletions was increased in the presence of boron. In the epithermal neutron mode, more than half of the mutations observed were total deletions. Our results suggest that there are clear differences between thermal and epithermal neutron beams in their mutagenicity and in the structural pattern of the mutants that they induce. Mapping of deletion breakpoints of 173 partial-deletion mutants showed that regions of introns 3-4, 7/8-9 and 9-0 are sensitive to the induction of mutants by neutron irradiation.

  14. Reduced cytotoxicity in PCB-exposed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells pretreated with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murati, Teuta; Šimić, Branimir; Pleadin, Jelka; Vukmirović, Maja; Miletić, Marina; Durgo, Ksenija; Kniewald, Jasna; Kmetič, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of vitamin E (50 -150 μM) in ovary cells upon cytotoxic effects induced by two structurally distinct PCB congeners - planar "dioxin-like" PCB 77 and non-planar di-ortho-substituted PCB 153 with an emphasis on identifying differences in the mechanism of vitamin E action depending on the structure of congeners. Application of three bioassays confirmed that PCBs decrease ovarian cell proliferation with slightly profound effects of PCB 77. PCB - induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation were significant for both congeners with also more noticeable effect for PCB 77. Vitamin E pre-incubation has improved viability of cells, reduced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation induced by PCBs' treatment. Preincubation with vitamin E was more effective when cells where treated with non-planar PCB 153. Altogether, vitamin E action was protective, congener specific and more effective when ovary cells were exposed to ortho-substituted PCB congener.

  15. Short hairpin RNA targeted to dihydrofolate reductase enhances the immunoglobulin G expression in gene-amplified stable Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suh-Chin; Hong, Willy W L; Liu, Jin-Hwang

    2008-09-08

    The dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr)/methotrexate (MTX) selection is a common method to conduct gene amplification in stable clones of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We previously reported the use of a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector targeted to the dhfr gene resulted in improving the intracellular antigen expression in gene-amplified stable CHO cells [Hong, W.W., Wu, S.C., 2007. A novel RNA silencing vector to improve antigen expression and stability in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Vaccine 25 (20), 4103-4111]. Here we investigated the use of the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector for immunoglobulin G (IgG) expression in gene-amplified stable CHO cells. With the use of the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector, the gene-amplified CHO/dhFr(-) cells were found to increase IgG expression at 1.0 microM MTX by more than 100% and to improve the genomic stability of IgG expression in MTX-free cultures by approximately 30%. The use of the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector can enhance the IgG expression in the gene-amplified stable CHO cells and uphold the IgG expression in MTX-free cultures. Utilizing the dhfr-targeted shRNA vector may provide an alternative way to maneuver CHO cell factories for IgG production in cultures.

  16. Establishment and Identification of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Lines with Stable Expression of Soluble CD40 Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Hua-wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines with stable expression of soluble CD40 ligands (sCD40L. Methods: Recombinant plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L, enzyme digestion and sequencing identification were obtained by cloning sCD40L coding sequences into eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP from carrier pDC316-sCD40 containing sCD40L. CHO cells were transfected by electroporation, followed by screening of resistant clones with G418, after which monoclones were obtained by limited dilution assay and multiply cultured. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope were applied to observe the expression of green fluorescent protein, while sCD40L expression was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA from aspects of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA and protein, respectively. CHO-sCD40L was cultured together with MDA-MB-231 cells to compare the expression changes of surface molecule fatty acid synthase (Fas by flow cytometer and observe the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells after Fas activated antibodies (CH-11 were added 24 h later. Results: Plasmid pIRES2-EGFP-sCD40L was successfully established, and cell lines with stable expression of sCD40L were obtained with cloned culture after CHO cell transfection, which was named as B11. Flow cytometer and reverted fluorescence microscope showed >90% expression of green fluorescent protein, while PCR, RT-PCR and ELISA suggested integration of sCD40L genes into cell genome DNA, transcription of sCD40L mRNA and sCD40L protein expression being (4.5±2.1 ng/mL in the supernatant of cell culture, respectively. After co-culture of B11 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the surface Fas expression of MDA-MB-231 cells was increased from (3±1.02 % to (34.8±8.75%, while the apoptosis rate 24 h after addition of CH11 from (5.4±1.32% to (20.7±5.24%, and the differences

  17. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells with and without Metabolic Activation, Test Article: 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-one (NTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-30

    3110 Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an accompanying...chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an...Test for Chemical fuduction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test

  18. Relationship between tissue plasminogen activator production and specific growth rate in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultured in mannose at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Julio; Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Bazán, Consuelo; Altamirano, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, producing human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), were grown with mannose (5, 20 and 40 mM) instead of glucose at 31, 33 and 37 degrees C. The highest tPA concentration (1.5 mg l(-1) at 144 h of cultivation) and tPA specific production rate (47 ng 10(-6) cell h(-1)) were obtained at 31 degrees C and 40 mM mannose. Regardless of the temperature or mannose concentration used, an inverse relationship between the specific growth rate and tPA specific production rate was observed, suggesting that tPA production rate would be directly controlled by the growth rate.

  19. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostes, Jr., R. F.; Sasser, L. B.; Rausch, R. J.

    1989-05-01

    The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur nustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this reoort. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HC are highly toxic in microrolar amounts. Chromosone aberration frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner over a dose range of 0. 5 to 1.0 {micro}m and SCE increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the dose range of 0.0625 to 0.25 {micro}M. Mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was sporadic, but the majority of the exoosures resulted in mutation frequencies which were 1.2 to 4.3 fold higher than the spontaneous frequencies.

  20. Human delta opioid receptor: functional studies on stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells after acute and chronic treatment with the selective nonpeptidic agonist SNC-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatynska, E; Wang, Y; Knapp, R J; Waite, S; Calderon, S; Rice, K; Hruby, V J; Yamamura, H I; Roeske, W R

    1996-09-01

    The SNC-80 series of nonpeptidic agonists for the delta-opioid receptor are being developed as potential analgesic drugs. It is important to understand their acute and chronic effects at human delta-opioid receptors. Thus, we measured the ability of SNC-80 and [D-Pen2,4'-Cl-Phe4,D-Pen5]enkephalin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human delta-opioid receptor. The calculated EC50 values for [D-Pen2,4'-Cl-Phe4,D-Pen5]enkephalin and SNC-80 were 0.6 +/- 0.1 nM and 6.3 +/- 0.1 nM, respectively. Pretreatment of these cells with SNC-80 (100 nM) for 24 hr produced 1) a time-dependent reduction of delta receptor density, as measured by radioligand binding studies with [3H]naltrindole; 2) a shift in the EC50 value of SNC-80 from 7.7 +/- 4.2 nM to 44.1 +/- 12 nM, as measured by the cyclic AMP assay; 3) a reduction in the maximum inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity from 86% to 48%; 4) a marked increase in the forskolin stimulation of basal cyclic AMP accumulation by nearly 100% (from 442 pmol/mg of protein to 824 pmol/mg of protein); and 5) a 5-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation after addition of naltrindole. These studies showed that SNC-80 produced desensitization and down-regulation of human delta-opioid receptors in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells after chronic treatment and that this effect was associated with an increase in adenylyl cyclase activity.

  1. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell engineering to increase sialylation of recombinant therapeutic proteins by modulating sialyltransferase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Mascarenhas, Joaquina; Sealover, Natalie R; George, Henry J; Brooks, Jeanne; Kayser, Kevin J; Gau, Brian; Yasa, Isil; Azadi, Parastoo; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    N-Glycans of human proteins possess both α2,6- and α2,3-linked terminal sialic acid (SA). Recombinant glycoproteins produced in Chinese hamster overy (CHO) only have α2,3-linkage due to the absence of α2,6-sialyltransferase (St6gal1) expression. The Chinese hamster ST6GAL1 was successfully overexpressed using a plasmid expression vector in three recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG)-producing CHO cell lines. The stably transfected cell lines were enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression using FITC-Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin that preferentially binds α2,6-linked SA. The presence of α2,6-linked SA was confirmed using a novel LTQ Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (LTQ MS) method including MSn fragmentation in the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27. Furthermore, the total SA (mol/mol) in IgG produced by the enriched ST6GAL1 Clone 27 increased by 2-fold compared to the control. For host cell engineering, the CHOZN(®) GS host cell line was transfected and enriched for ST6GAL1 overexpression. Single-cell clones were derived from the enriched population and selected based on FITC-SNA staining and St6gal1 expression. Two clones ("ST6GAL1 OE Clone 31 and 32") were confirmed for the presence of α2,6-linked SA in total host cell protein extracts. ST6GAL1 OE Clone 32 was subsequently used to express SAFC human IgG1. The recombinant IgG expressed in this host cell line was confirmed to have α2,6-linked SA and increased total SA content. In conclusion, overexpression of St6gal1 is sufficient to produce recombinant proteins with increased sialylation and more human-like glycoprofiles without combinatorial engineering of other sialylation pathway genes. This work represents our ongoing effort of glycoengineering in CHO host cell lines for the development of "bio-better" protein therapeutics and cell culture vaccine production.

  2. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberration in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article: N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl Ethanediamine (TMEDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    union. d Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an accompanying...Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test...number. 1. REPORT DATE 26 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome

  3. A fucan from the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi inhibits Chinese hamster ovary cell adhesion to several extracellular matrix proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A.O. Rocha

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Fucans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides present in brown seaweed, have several biological activities. Their use as drugs would offer the advantage of no potential risk of contamination with viruses or particles such as prions. A fucan prepared from Spatoglossum schröederi was tested as a possible inhibitor of cell-matrix interactions using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 and the mutant type deficient in xylosyltransferase (CHO-745. The effect of this polymer on adhesion properties with specific extracellular matrix components was studied using several matrix proteins as substrates for cell attachment. Treatment with the polymer inhibited the adhesion of fibronectin to both CHO-K1 (2 x 10(5(and CHO-745 (2 x 10(5 and 5 x 10(5 cells. No effect was detected with laminin, using the two cell types. On the other hand, adhesion to vitronectin was inhibited in CHO-K1 cells and adhesion to type I collagen was inhibited in CHO-745 cells. In spite of this inhibition, the fucan did not affect either cell proliferation or cell cycle. These results demonstrate that this polymer is a new anti-adhesive compound with potential pharmacological applications.

  4. A fucan from the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi inhibits Chinese hamster ovary cell adhesion to several extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, H A; Franco, C R; Trindade, E S; Carvalho, L C; Veiga, S S; Leite, E L; Dietrich, C P; Nader, H B

    2001-05-01

    Fucans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides present in brown seaweed, have several biological activities. Their use as drugs would offer the advantage of no potential risk of contamination with viruses or particles such as prions. A fucan prepared from Spatoglossum schröederi was tested as a possible inhibitor of cell-matrix interactions using wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and the mutant type deficient in xylosyltransferase (CHO-745). The effect of this polymer on adhesion properties with specific extracellular matrix components was studied using several matrix proteins as substrates for cell attachment. Treatment with the polymer inhibited the adhesion of fibronectin to both CHO-K1 (2 x 10(5)) and CHO-745 (2 x 10(5) and 5 x 10(5)) cells. No effect was detected with laminin, using the two cell types. On the other hand, adhesion to vitronectin was inhibited in CHO-K1 cells and adhesion to type I collagen was inhibited in CHO-745 cells. In spite of this inhibition, the fucan did not affect either cell proliferation or cell cycle. These results demonstrate that this polymer is a new anti-adhesive compound with potential pharmacological applications.

  5. High zinc ion supplementation of more than 30 μM can increase monoclonal antibody production in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary DG44 cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Gyun; Park, Hong Woo

    2016-03-01

    Effects of high ZnSO4·7H2O supplementation on cell growth and monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in chemically defined suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) DG44 cells were examined. The supplementation of ZnSO4·7H2O up to 120 μM gradually increased specific mAb production rate of rCHO DG44 cells in the early growth phase (0-4 days of culture). The ZnSO4·7H2O concentration for enhancing mAb production without any cytotoxic effects on cell growth was 30-60 μM. In addition of 60 μM ZnSO4·7H2O to in-house protein-free medium and in-house chemically defined medium, mAb production was increased 2.0-fold and 6.5-fold, respectively. Moreover, addition of ZnSO4·7H2O to three kinds of commercial chemically defined media yielded a greater than 1.2-fold enhancement of mAb production. These data indicate that simple supplementation of a relatively high zinc ion concentration to cell culture media without significant changes of rCHO DG44 cell culture process can be useful for achieving high production of mAb.

  6. Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, A L; Reigosa, M; Arnal, P M; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, M

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium oxide (TiO(2)) and aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) nanoparticles (NPs) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using neutral red (NR), mitochondrial activity (by MTT assay), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) formation, and cell cycle kinetics techniques. Results showed a dose-related cytotoxic effect evidenced after 24h by changes in lysosomal and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Interestingly, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of perinuclear vesicles in CHO-K1 cells after treatment with both NPs during 24h but no NP was detected in the nuclei. Genotoxic effects were shown by MN frequencies which significantly increased at 0.5 and 1 microg/mL TiO(2) and 0.5-10 microg/mL Al(2)O(3). SCE frequencies were higher for cells treated with 1-5 microg/mL TiO(2). The absence of metaphases evidenced cytotoxicity for higher concentrations of TiO(2). No SCE induction was achieved after treatment with 1-25 microg/mL Al(2)O(3). In conclusion, findings showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) NPs on CHO-K1 cells. Possible causes of controversial reports are discussed further on.

  7. Sustained productivity in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines: proteome analysis of the molecular basis for a process-related phenotype

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meleady, Paula

    2011-07-24

    Abstract Background The ability of mammalian cell lines to sustain cell specific productivity (Qp) over the full duration of bioprocess culture is a highly desirable phenotype, but the molecular basis for sustainable productivity has not been previously investigated in detail. In order to identify proteins that may be associated with a sustained productivity phenotype, we have conducted a proteomic profiling analysis of two matched pairs of monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that differ in their ability to sustain productivity over a 10 day fed-batch culture. Results Proteomic profiling of inherent differences between the two sets of comparators using 2D-DIGE (Difference Gel Electrophoresis) and LC-MS\\/MS resulted in the identification of 89 distinct differentially expressed proteins. Overlap comparisons between the two sets of cell line pairs identified 12 proteins (AKRIB8, ANXA1, ANXA4, EIF3I, G6PD, HSPA8, HSP90B1, HSPD1, NUDC, PGAM1, RUVBL1 and CNN3) that were differentially expressed in the same direction. Conclusion These proteins may have an important role in sustaining high productivity of recombinant protein over the duration of a fed-batch bioprocess culture. It is possible that many of these proteins could be useful for future approaches to successfully manipulate or engineer CHO cells in order to sustain productivity of recombinant protein.

  8. Engineering the cellular protein secretory pathway for enhancement of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells: effects of CERT and XBP1s genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Azam; Vaziri, Behrouz; Moazzami, Reza; Nematollahi, Leila; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Kokabee, Leila; Adeli, Ahmad; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2013-08-01

    Cell line development is the most critical and also the most time-consuming step in the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. In this regard, a variety of vector and cell engineering strategies have been developed for generating high-producing mammalian cells; however, the cell line engineering approach seems to show various results on different recombinant protein producer cells. In order to improve the secretory capacity of a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, we developed cell line engineering approaches based on the ceramide transfer protein (CERT) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) genes. For this purpose, CERT S132A, a mutant form of CERT that is resistant to phosphorylation, and XBP1s were overexpressed in a recombinant t-PA-producing CHO cell line. Overexpression of CERT S132A increased the specific productivity of t-PA-producing CHO cells up to 35%. In contrast, the heterologous expression of XBP1s did not affect the t-PA expression rate. Our results suggest that CERTS132A- based secretion engineering could be an effective strategy for enhancing recombinant t- PA production in CHO cells.

  9. Contribution to the validation of the anaphase-telophase test: aneugenic and clastogenic effects of cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate and nickel chloride in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoane A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that aneuploidy during mitosis may be a factor in the etiology of somatic malignancy. The analysis of alterations in anaphase-telophase of mitosis is a useful test for evaluating the aneuploidogenic and clastogenic ability of chemicals. Several metals have been found to be carcinogenic to humans and animals. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study the aneugenic and clastogenic abilities of cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate and nickel chloride were analyzed using the anaphase-telophase test. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells cultured for two cycles were treated with the desired compound for 8 h before cell harvesting. The frequency of cells with chromatin bridges, lagging chromosomes and lagging chromosomal fragments was scored. The mitotic index was determined by counting the number of mitotic cells per 1,000 cells on each coverslip and was expressed as a percentage of the number of mitotic plates. Statistical comparisons were done using the "G" method. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to evaluate variations of the mitotic index. Chromium and cadmium were clastogenic and aneugenic and increased the frequencies of the three types of aberrations scored; nickel had only aneugenic activity because it increased the frequency of lagging chromosomes. These results indicate that the anaphase-telophase test is sufficiently sensitive to detect dose-response relationships that can distinguish clastogenic and/or aneugenic activities and that the results obtained using the anaphase-telophase test were similar to those obtained by chromosome counting.

  10. Generation of high-producing cell lines by overexpression of cell division cycle 25 homolog A in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Tsutsui, Tomomi; Honda, Kohsuke; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of conventional gene amplification systems, the effect of cell cycle modification during the gene amplification process on IgG production was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The full-length cDNA of CHO cell division cycle 25 homolog A (Cdc25A) was introduced into CHO DG44 cells and the effects of CDC25A overexpression on the cell cycle, transgene copy number and IgG productivity were examined. Both wild-type and mutated CDC25A-overexpressing CHO cells showed a rapid increase in transgene copy number compared with mock cells during the gene amplification process, in both cell pools and individual clones. High-producing clones were obtained with high frequency in CDC25A-overexpressing cell pools. The specific production rate of the isolated clone CHO SD-S23 was up to 2.9-fold higher than that of mock cells in the presence of 250 nM methotrexate (MTX). Cell cycle analysis revealed that the G2 to M phase transition rate was increased ∼1.5-fold in CDC25A-overexpressing CHO cells under MTX treatment. Our results show the improvement of conventional gene amplification systems via cell cycle engineering at an early stage of cell line development.

  11. Improved gene amplification by cell-cycle engineering combined with the Cre-loxP system in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Rima; Tsutsui, Tomomi; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    The dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification system is widely used in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. To enhance the efficiency of conventional gene amplification systems, we previously presented a novel method using cell-cycle checkpoint engineering. Here, we constructed high-producing and stable cells by the conditional expression of mutant cell division cycle 25 homolog B (CDC25B) using the Cre-loxP system. A bispecific antibody-producing CHO DG44-derived cell line was transfected with floxed mutant CDC25B. After inducing gene amplification in the presence of 250 nM methotrexate, mutant CDC25B sequence was removed by Cre recombinase protein expression. Overexpression of the floxed mutant CDC25B significantly enhanced the efficiency of transgene amplification and productivity. Moreover, the specific production rate of the isolated clone CHO Cre-1 and Cre-2 were approximately 11-fold and 15-fold higher than that of mock-transfected clone CHO Mock-S. Chromosomal aneuploidy was increased by mutant CDC25B overexpression, but Cre-1 and Cre-2 did not show any changes in chromosome number during long-term cultivation, as is the case with CHO Mock-S. Our results suggest that high-producing and stable cells can be constructed by conditionally controlling a cell-cycle checkpoint integrated in conventional gene amplification systems.

  12. Cytogenetic response to 1,2-dicarbonyls and hydrogen peroxide in Chinese hamster ovary AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J D; Taylor, R T; Christensen, M L; Strout, C L; Hanna, M L; Carrano, A V

    1989-10-01

    Mutagenic 1,2-dicarbonyls have been reported to occur in coffee and other beverages and in various foods. We have measured the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and endoreduplicated cells (ERCs) to determine the genotoxicity of various 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AUXB1 cells and human peripheral lymphocytes. The 1,2-dicarbonyls glyoxal, methylglyoxal and kethoxal each induced highly significant increases in both SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. Glyoxal and kethoxal induced SCEs but not ERCs in human peripheral lymphocytes. In addition, hydrogen peroxide induced highly significant levels of SCEs and ERCs in AUXB1 cells. Bisulfite, which reacts with carbonyl groups to form addition products, significantly reduced the frequency of SCEs and the proportion of ERCs when glyoxal, methylglyoxal, kethoxal and diacetyl were administered to AUXB1 cells. In addition, bisulfite blocked the formation of ERCs, but not SCEs, induced by hydrogen peroxide. These in vitro results suggest that 1,2-dicarbonyls may play an important role in the genotoxicity of some foods and beverages.

  13. Monitoring utilizations of amino acids and vitamins in culture media and Chinese hamster ovary cells by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Chan, Pik Kay; Bondarenko, Pavel V

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring amino acids and vitamins is important for understanding human health, food nutrition and the culture of mammalian cells used to produce therapeutic proteins in biotechnology. A method including ion pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed and optimized to quantify 21 amino acids and 9 water-soluble vitamins in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and culture media. By optimizing the chromatographic separation, scan time, monitoring time window, and sample preparation procedure, and using isotopically labeled (13)C, (15)N and (2)H internal standards, low limits of quantitation (≤0.054 mg/L), good precision (amino acids showed a zigzag pattern with maxima at the feeding days, and 9 non-essential amino acids displayed a smoothly changing profile as they were mainly products of cellular metabolism. Five of 9 vitamins accumulated continuously during the culture period, suggesting that they were fed in access. The method serves as an effective tool for the development and optimization of mammalian cell cultures.

  14. Effect of temperature shift on levels of acidic charge variants in IgG monoclonal antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishishita, Shohei; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Nagashima, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2015-06-01

    During the production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), not only enhancement of mAb productivity but also control of quality attributes is critical. Charge variants, which are among the most important quality attributes, can substantially affect the in vitro and in vivo properties of mAbs. During process development for the production of mAbs in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, we have observed that an improvement in mAb titer is accompanied by an increase in the content of acidic charge variants. Here, to help maintain comparability among mAbs, we aimed to identify the process parameters that controlled the content of acidic charge variants. First, we used a Plackett-Burman design to identify the effect of selected process parameters on the acidic charge variant content. Eight process parameters were selected by using a failure modes and effects analysis. Among these, temperature shift was identified from the Plackett-Burman design as the factor most influencing the acidic charge variant content. We then investigated in more detail the effects of shift temperature and temperature shift timing on this content. The content decreased with a shift to a lower temperature and with earlier timing of this temperature shift. Our observations suggest that Plackett-Burman designs are advantageous for preliminary screening of bioprocess parameters. We report here for the first time that temperature downshift is beneficial for effective control of the acidic peak variant content.

  15. A novel regulatory element (E77) isolated from CHO-K1 genomic DNA enhances stable gene expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shin-Young; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Kang, Seunghee; Lee, Hong Weon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2016-05-01

    Vectors flanked by regulatory DNA elements have been used to generate stable cell lines with high productivity and transgene stability; however, regulatory elements in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which are the most widely used mammalian cells in biopharmaceutical production, are still poorly understood. We isolated a novel gene regulatory element from CHO-K1 cells, designated E77, which was found to enhance the stable expression of a transgene. A genomic library was constructed by combining CHO-K1 genomic DNA fragments with a CMV promoter-driven GFP expression vector, and the E77 element was isolated by screening. The incorporation of the E77 regulatory element resulted in the generation of an increased number of clones with high expression, thereby enhancing the expression level of the transgene in the stable transfectant cell pool. Interestingly, the E77 element was found to consist of two distinct fragments derived from different locations in the CHO genome shotgun sequence. High and stable transgene expression was obtained in transfected CHO cells by combining these fragments. Additionally, the function of E77 was found to be dependent on its site of insertion and specific orientation in the vector construct. Our findings demonstrate that stable gene expression mediated by the CMV promoter in CHO cells may be improved by the isolated novel gene regulatory element E77 identified in the present study.

  16. Comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of titanium oxide and aluminium oxide nanoparticles in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Reigosa, M. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), Calle 526 y Camino Gral. Belgrano (entre 10 y 11), La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Arnal, P.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); Fernandez Lorenzo de Mele, M., E-mail: mmele@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64, Correo 16, Suc. 4, La Plata 1900 (Argentina)

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles (NPs) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells using neutral red (NR), mitochondrial activity (by MTT assay), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN) formation, and cell cycle kinetics techniques. Results showed a dose-related cytotoxic effect evidenced after 24 h by changes in lysosomal and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Interestingly, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of perinuclear vesicles in CHO-K1 cells after treatment with both NPs during 24 h but no NP was detected in the nuclei. Genotoxic effects were shown by MN frequencies which significantly increased at 0.5 and 1 {mu}g/mL TiO{sub 2} and 0.5-10 {mu}g/mL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. SCE frequencies were higher for cells treated with 1-5 {mu}g/mL TiO{sub 2}. The absence of metaphases evidenced cytotoxicity for higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}. No SCE induction was achieved after treatment with 1-25 {mu}g/mL Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In conclusion, findings showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs on CHO-K1 cells. Possible causes of controversial reports are discussed further on.

  17. Effect of Temperature Downshift on the Transcriptomic Responses of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using Recombinant Human Tissue Plasminogen Activator Production Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya-López, Andrea; Estrada, Karel; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Ramírez, Octavio T; Altamirano, Claudia; Segovia, Lorenzo; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are widely used as biopharmaceuticals, but their production by mammalian cell culture is expensive. Hence, improvement of bioprocess productivity is greatly needed. A temperature downshift (TDS) from 37°C to 28-34°C is an effective strategy to expand the productive life period of cells and increase their productivity (qp). Here, TDS in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures, initially grown at 37°C and switched to 30°C during the exponential growth phase, resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in the qp of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rh-tPA). The transcriptomic response using next-generation sequencing (NGS) was assessed to characterize the cellular behavior associated with TDS. A total of 416 (q > 0.8) and 3,472 (q > 0.9) differentially expressed transcripts, with more than a 1.6-fold change at 24 and 48 h post TDS, respectively, were observed in cultures with TDS compared to those at constant 37°C. In agreement with the extended cell survival resulting from TDS, transcripts related to cell growth arrest that controlled cell proliferation without the activation of the DNA damage response, were differentially expressed. Most upregulated genes were related to energy metabolism in mitochondria, mitochondrial biogenesis, central metabolism, and avoidance of apoptotic cell death. The gene coding for rh-tPA was not differentially expressed, but fluctuations were detected in the transcripts encoding proteins involved in the secretory machinery, particularly in glycosylation. Through NGS the dynamic processes caused by TDS were assessed in this biological system.

  18. Understanding of altered N-glycosylation-related gene expression in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells subjected to elevated ammonium concentration by digital mRNA counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min

    2015-08-01

    To understand the effects of ammonium on N-glycosylation, recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells that produce the Fc-fusion protein were cultivated in serum-free suspension cultures with 10 mM ammonium addition. The addition of ammonium to the cultures reduced the relative proportion of acidic isoforms and sialic acid content of an Fc-fusion protein. Fifty two N-glycosylation-related gene expressions were assessed by the NanoString nCounter system, which provides a digital readout using custom-designed color-coded probes. Among these queried genes, thirteen genes (gale, nans, gpi, man2a1, b4galt5, b4galt7, st3gal2, st3gal5, glb1, hexa, hexb, neu1, and neu3) were up-regulated over 1.5 times in the culture with ammonium addition after 5 days of culture; however, none of the 54 genes were significantly different after 3 days of culture. In particular, the expression level of neu1 (sialidase-1) and neu3 (sialidase-3), which play a role in reduction of sialylation, increased over 2 times. Likewise, the protein expression levels of sialidase-1 and sialidase-3 determined by Western blot analysis were also increased significantly in the culture with ammonium addition. Transient transfection of neu-1 or neu3-targeted siRNAs significantly improved the sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein in the culture with ammonium addition, indicating that the decreased sialic acid content was in part due to the increased expression level of sialidase. Taken together, the results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the detrimental effect of ammonium on N-glycosylation, especially sialylation, in rCHO cells.

  19. Molecular polygamy: The promiscuity of l-phenylalanyl-tRNA-synthetase triggers misincorporation of meta- and ortho-tyrosine in monoclonal antibodies expressed by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Larraillet, Vincent; Kettenberger, Hubert; Gorr, Ingo H; Hilger, Maximiliane; Lipsmeier, Florian; Zeck, Anne; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    In-depth analytical characterization of biotherapeutics originating from different production batches is mandatory to ensure product safety and consistent molecule efficacy. Previously, we have shown unintended incorporation of tyrosine (Tyr) and leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) at phenylalanine (Phe) positions in a recombinant produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) using an orthogonal MASCOT/SIEVE based approach for mass spectrometry data analysis. The misincorporation could be avoided by sufficient supply of phenylalanine throughout the process. Several non-annotated signals in the primarily chromatographic peptide separation step for apparently single Phe→Tyr sequence variants (SVs) suggest a role for isobar tyrosine isoforms. Meta- and ortho-Tyr are spontaneously generated during aerobic fed-batch production processes using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Process induced meta- and ortho-Tyr but not proteinogenic para-Tyr are incorporated at Phe locations in Phe-starved CHO cultures expressing a recombinant mAb. Furthermore, meta- and ortho-Tyr are preferably misincorporated over Leu. Structural modeling of the l-phenylalanyl-tRNA-synthetase (PheRS) substrate activation site indicates a possible fit of non-cognate ortho-Tyr and meta-Tyr substrates. Dose-dependent misincorporations of Tyr isoforms support the hypothesis that meta- and ortho-Tyr are competing, alternative substrates for PheRS in CHO processes. Finally, easily accessible at-line surrogate markers for Phe→Tyr SV formation in biotherapeutic production were defined by the calculation of critical ratios for meta-Tyr/Phe and ortho-Tyr/Phe to support early prediction of SV probability, and finally, to allow for immediate process controlled Phe→Tyr SV prevention.

  20. The impact of homologous recombination repair deficiency on depleted uranium clastogenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells: XRCC3 protects cells from chromosome aberrations, but increases chromosome fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Amie L. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Joyce, Kellie [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Xie, Hong [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Department of Applied Medical Science, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Falank, Carolyne [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth St., P.O. Box 9300, Portland, ME 04104-9300, United States of America (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The role of homologous recombination repair in DU-induced toxicity was examined. • Loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. • XRCC3 protects cell from DU-induced chromosome breaks and fusions. • XRCC3 plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation of the X chromosome. - Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is extensively used in both industry and military applications. The potential for civilian and military personnel exposure to DU is rising, but there are limited data on the potential health hazards of DU exposure. Previous laboratory research indicates DU is a potential carcinogen, but epidemiological studies remain inconclusive. DU is genotoxic, inducing DNA double strand breaks, chromosome damage and mutations, but the mechanisms of genotoxicity or repair pathways involved in protecting cells against DU-induced damage remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of homologous recombination repair deficiency on DU-induced genotoxicity using RAD51D and XRCC3-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Cells deficient in XRCC3 (irs1SF) exhibited similar cytotoxicity after DU exposure compared to wild-type (AA8) and XRCC3-complemented (1SFwt8) cells, but DU induced more break-type and fusion-type lesions in XRCC3-deficient cells compared to wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Surprisingly, loss of RAD51D did not affect DU-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. DU induced selective X-chromosome fragmentation irrespective of RAD51D status, but loss of XRCC3 nearly eliminated fragmentation observed after DU exposure in wild-type and XRCC3-complemented cells. Thus, XRCC3, but not RAD51D, protects cells from DU-induced breaks and fusions and also plays a role in DU-induced chromosome fragmentation.

  1. Predicting the expression of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cells based on sequence features of the CDR3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pybus, Leon P; James, David C; Dean, Greg; Slidel, Tim; Hardman, Colin; Smith, Andrew; Daramola, Olalekan; Field, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Despite the development of high-titer bioprocesses capable of producing >10 g L(-1) of recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb), some so called "difficult-to-express" (DTE) MAbs only reach much lower process titers. For widely utilized "platform" processes the only discrete variable is the protein coding sequence of the recombinant product. However, there has been little systematic study to identify the sequence parameters that affect expression. This information is vital, as it would allow us to rationally design genetic sequence and engineering strategies for optimal bioprocessing. We have therefore developed a new computational tool that enables prediction of MAb titer in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells based on the recombinant coding sequence of the expressed MAb. Model construction utilized a panel of MAbs, which following a 10-day fed-batch transient production process varied in titer 5.6-fold, allowing analysis of the sequence features that impact expression over a range of high and low MAb productivity. The model identified 18 light chain (LC)-specific sequence features within complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) capable of predicting MAb titer with a root mean square error of 0.585 relative expression units. Furthermore, we identify that CDR3 variation influences the rate of LC-HC dimerization during MAb synthesis, which could be exploited to improve the production of DTE MAb variants via increasing the transfected LC:HC gene ratio. Taken together these data suggest that engineering intervention strategies to improve the expression of DTE recombinant products can be rationally implemented based on an identification of the sequence motifs that render a recombinant product DTE.

  2. Comparison of the carbohydrate moieties of recombinant soluble Fc epsilon receptor (sFc epsilon RII/sCD23) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Different O-glycosylation sites are used by yeast and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, I; Schneider, F J; Geyer, R; Ahorn, H; Maurer-Fogy, I

    1992-08-01

    Recombinant human soluble low affinity receptor for the Fc portion of IgE (sFc epsilon RII/sCD23) was produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Chinese hamster ovary cells and subjected to carbohydrate analysis. Applied methods included analytical SDS-PAGE, reversed phase HPLC, methylation analysis and sequential degradation with exoglycosidases. The results revealed that sFc epsilon RII derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells is glycosylated exclusively at Ser-147, containing mainly the trisaccharide Sia(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc, whereas the yeast derived glycoprotein was glycosylated at Ser-167 and contained only alpha-mannosyl residues. It is shown here for the first time that different amino acids of a given protein can be O-glycosylated when expressed in yeast or Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  3. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Induced Internalization of Porcine FSH Receptor in Cultured Porcine Granulosa Cells and Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Transfected with Recombinant Porcine FSH Receptor cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Changhong; TIAN; Hong; XIONG; Zhongming; XIA; Huizhu

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the fate of human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) when hormone binds to its receptor, a quick biochemical method that can differentiate between the surface-bound and internalized hormone was used to determine the internalization induced by FSH in cultured both porcine granulosa cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing recombinant porcine FSH receptor. The results showed that FSH was slowly internalized, and the internalized radioactivity (acid resistant) reached a peak 10-12 h after addition of 125I-hFSH. It was suggested that FSHR do not get internalized rapidly under physiological circumstances precisely because the appropriate sequences are absent.

  4. In vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ivermectin and its formulation ivomec on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO{sub K1}) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, G.; Soloneski, S.; Reigosa, M.A. [Catedra de Citologia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Larramendy, M.L., E-mail: m_larramendy@hotmail.com [Catedra de Citologia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-06-15

    The effects of ivermectin (IVM) and its commercial formulation ivomec (IVM 1.0%) were studied on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO{sub K1}) cells by several genotoxicity [sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)] and cytotoxicity [cell-cycle progression (CCP), mitotic index (MI), proliferative replication index (PRI), 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutral red (NR)] bioassays within the 1.0-250 {mu}g/ml concentration-range. While IVM and ivomec did not modified SCE frequencies, they induced DNA-strand breaks revealed by SCGE. An enhancement of slightly damaged cells and a decrease in undamaged cells were observed in IVM-treated cultures with 5.0-50.0 {mu}g/ml. In ivomec-treated cells, while an increase in slightly damaged cells was induced with 5.0-50.0 {mu}g/ml, the damaged and undamaged cells increased and decreased only with 50.0 {mu}g/ml. Both compounds exerted a delay in CCP and a reduction in PRI when 25.0 {mu}g/ml was employed whereas cytotoxicity was observed at higher concentration than 50.0 {mu}g/ml. No MI alteration was observed with 1.0-10.0 and 1.0-5.0 {mu}g/ml of IVM and ivomec, respectively. A concentration-related trend to an increase in MI was achieved within 1.0-10.0 {mu}g/ml. An increase in the MI was induced in 10.0 {mu}g/ml ivomec-treated cultures. A marked reduction of about 89% and 62% in regard to controls was observed with 25.0 {mu}g/ml of IVM and ivomec, respectively. NR and MTT assays revealed a cell growth inhibition when 0.25-250.0 {mu}g/ml of both compounds was employed. The results highlighted that IVM and ivomec exert both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in mammalian cells in vitro, at least in CHO{sub K1} cells.

  5. Stable expression of human H1-histamine-receptor cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pharmacological characterisation of the protein, tissue distribution of messenger RNA and chromosomal localisation of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguilevsky, N; Varsalona, F; Noyer, M; Gillard, M; Guillaume, J P; Garcia, L; Szpirer, C; Szpirer, J; Bollen, A

    1994-09-01

    A cDNA clone for the histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a human lung cDNA library; it encoded a protein of 487 amino acids which showed characteristic features of G-protein-coupled receptors. The percentages of identity of the deduced amino acid sequence with bovine, rat and guinea pig H1 histamine receptors were 82.6%, 79.4% and 73.3%, respectively, whereas these percentages decreased to 74.6%, 66% and 56.7% for the amino acid sequence of the third intracellular loop. The human H1-receptor cDNA was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) via an eukaryotic expression vector; the receptor protein present on cell membranes specifically bound [3H]mepyramine with a Kd of 3.7 nM. The binding was displaced by H1-histamine-receptor antagonists and histamine. Northern blot analysis indicated the presence of two histamine H1 receptor mRNAs of 3.5 kb and 4.1 kb in various human tissues and an additional mRNA of 4.8 kb restricted to the human brain. Finally, by means of somatic cell hybrids segregating either human or rat chromosomes, the gene for histamine H1 receptor was found to reside on human chromosome 3 and rat chromosome 4.

  6. Comparison of protein patterns of xrs-5, a radiosensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and CHO-K1, its radioresistant parent, using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.M. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA). Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    X-ray sensitive strains of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines have been used to analyze radiation repair mechanisms. One cell line, xrs-5, has been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation and radical forming chemical mutagens. This sensitivity is thought to be a result a mutation in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism, and its characterization has been a goal of several repair mechanism studies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected a protein (MW approximately 55KD) in the DNA/Nuclear Matrix (nucleoid) cell fraction of CHO-Kl cells that is absent in the nucleoid fraction of xrs-5. This protein is present, however, in both CHO-Kl and xrs-5 whole cell protein maps. To determine whether the 55KD protein is responsible for the radiosensitive and defective DSB repair phenotype of xrs-5 cells, studies are now underway to analyze revertants of xrs-5 that are proficient in DSB repair. Furthermore, an effort to sequence the protein in question is planned. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Intracellular Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by alpha(1A)-Adrenoceptor Is Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Independently of Activation of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases 1/2 and Serine-Threonine Kinases in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulu, Nadir; Henning, Robert H.; Guner, Sahika; Zoto, Teuta; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Duin, Marry; Gurdal, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AR) is implicated in contraction and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We examine whether all alpha(1)-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR and explore the mechanism of transactivation. Chinese hamster

  8. Assignment of genes encoding metallothioneins I and II to Chinese hamster chromosomes 3. Evidence for the role of chromosome rearrangement in gene amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.L.; Munk, A.C.; Longmire, J.L.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.

    1984-12-01

    Cadmium resistant (Cd/sup r/) variants with coordinately amplified metallothionein I and II (MTI and MTII) genes have been derived from both Chinese hamster ovary and near-euploid Chinese hamster cell lines. Cytogenetic analyses of Cd/sup r/ variants consistently revealed breakage and rearrangement involving chromosome 3p. In situ hybridization with Chinese hamster MT-encoding cDNA probe localized amplified MT gene sequences near the translocation breakpoint involving chromosome 3p. These observations suggested that both functionally related, isometallothionein loci are linked on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. Southern blot analyses of DNAs isolated from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids which segregate hamster chromosomes confirmed that both MTI and MTII are located on chromosome 3. The authors speculate that rearrangement of chromosome 3p could be causally involved with the amplification of MT genes in Cd/sup r/ hamster cell lines. 34 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  9. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Chen, Ji-Yao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Pei-Nan; Guo, Jia; Yang, Wu-Li; Wang, Chang-Chun; Peng, Qian

    2007-10-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe3O4@SiO2@CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 °C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 °C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 °C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 °C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 °C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe3O4) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm-1. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD photodetection and magnetic manipulation in diagnosis and

  10. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jia [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen Jiyao [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Pu [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Peinan [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo Jia [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang Wuli [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Changchun [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Peng Qian [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-17

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} - SiO{sub 2} - CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 deg. C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 deg. C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 deg. C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 deg. C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 deg. C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm{sup -1}. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD

  11. Intracellular transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor by α1A-adrenoceptor is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase independently of activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1/2 and serine-threonine kinases in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Nadir; Henning, Robert H; Guner, Sahika; Zoto, Teuta; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Duin, Marry; Gurdal, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) is implicated in contraction and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We examine whether all α1-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR and explore the mechanism of transactivation. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing one subtype of α1-AR were transiently transfected with EGFR. The transactivation mechanism was examined both by coexpression of a chimeric erythropoietin (EPO)-EGFR with an extracellular EPO and intracellular EGFR domain, and by pharmacologic inhibition of external and internal signaling routes. All three α1-AR subtypes transactivated EGFR, which was dependent on the increase in intracellular calcium. The EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 [4-(3'-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline] abrogated α1A-AR and α1D-AR induced phosphorylation of EGFR, but both the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by GM6001 [(R)-N4-hydroxy-N(1)-[(S)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-methylcarbamoyl-ethyl]-2-isobutyl-succinamide] or blockade of EGFR by cetuximab did not. Stimulation of α1A-AR and α1D-AR also induced phosphorylation of EPO-EGFR chimeric receptors. Moreover, α1A-AR stimulation enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and serine-threonine kinases (Akt), which were both unaffected by AG1478, indicating that ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation is independent of EGFR transactivation. Accordingly, inhibitors of ERK1/2 or Akt did not influence the α1A-AR-mediated EGFR transactivation. Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Src, however, did block EGFR transactivation by α1A-AR and α1D-AR. These findings demonstrate that all α1-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR, which is dependent on an intracellular signaling route involving an increase in calcium and activation of CaMKII, PI3K, and Src, but not the of ERK1/2 and Akt pathways.

  12. Understanding of decreased sialylation of Fc-fusion protein in hyperosmotic recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell culture: N-glycosylation gene expression and N-linked glycan antennary profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyun; Jeong, Yeong Ran; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Lee, Gyun Min

    2017-03-07

    To understand the effects of hyperosmolality on protein glycosylation, recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells producing the Fc-fusion protein were cultivated in hyperosmolar medium resulting from adding NaCl (415 mOsm/kg). The hyperosmotic culture showed increased specific Fc-fusion protein productivity (qFc ) but a decreased proportion of acidic isoforms and sialic acid content of the Fc-fusion protein. The intracellular and extracellular sialidase activities in the hyperosmotic cultures were similar to those in the control culture (314 mOsm/kg), indicating that reduced sialylation of Fc-fusion protein at hyperosmolality was not due to elevated sialidase activity. Expression of 52 N-glycosylation-related genes was assessed by the NanoString nCounter system, which provides a direct digital readout using custom-designed color-coded probes. After three days of hyperosmotic culture, nine genes (ugp, slc35a3, slc35d2, gcs1, manea, mgat2, mgat5b, b4galt3, and b4galt4) were differentially expressed over 1.5-fold of the control, and all these genes were down-regulated. N-linked glycan analysis by anion exchange and hydrophilic interaction HPLC showed that the proportion of highly sialylated (di-, tri-, tetra-) and tetra-antennary N-linked glycans was significantly decreased upon hyperosmotic culture. Addition of betaine, an osmoprotectant, to the hyperosmotic culture significantly increased the proportion of highly sialylated and tetra-antennary N-linked glycans (P ≤ 0.05), while it increased the expression of the N-glycan branching/antennary genes (mgat2 and mgat4b). Thus, decreased expression of the genes with roles in the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway correlated with reduced sialic acid content of Fc-fusion protein caused by hyperosmolar conditions. Taken together, the results obtained in this study provide a better understanding of the detrimental effects of hyperosmolality on N-glycosylation, especially sialylation, in rCHO cells. This article is protected

  13. Fluoride does not induce DNA breakage in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro Flúor não induz danos ao DNA em células de ovário de hamster chinês in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Araki Ribeiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride has been widely used in dentistry because it is a specific and effective caries prophylactic agent. However, excess fluoride may represent a hazard to human health, especially by causing injury to genetic material. Genotoxicity tests represent an important part of cancer research to assess the risk of potential carcinogens. In the current study, the potential DNA damage associated with exposure to fluoride was assessed by the single cell gel (comet assay in vitro. Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF at final concentration ranging from 7 to 100 µg/ml for 3 h, at 37°C. The results pointed out that NaF in all concentrations tested did not contribute to DNA damage as depicted by the mean tail moment and tail intensity. These findings are clinically important since they represent an important contribution to a correct evaluation of the potential health risk associated with the exposure to dental agents.O flúor tem sido amplamente usado na Odontologia, pois é um agente profilático efetivo e específico contra a cárie dentária. Entretanto, o flúor em excesso pode representar perigos à saúde humana, especialmente por causar agressão ao material genético. Testes de genotoxicidade representam uma importante parte da pesquisa do câncer para a avaliação de risco de possíveis carcinógenos. Neste presente estudo, danos ao DNA associados à exposição ao flúor foram avaliados pelo teste de células individualizadas em gel de agarose (teste do cometa in vitro. Células de ovário de hamster chinês foram expostas ao fluoreto de sódio (NaF nas concentrações finais de 7 a 100 µg/ml, durante 3 h, a 37°C. Os resultados mostraram que o NaF não contribuiu para os danos no DNA em todas as concentrações testadas, conforme demonstrado pelas médias do momento da cauda e da intensidade da cauda dos cometas. Esses achados são clinicamente importantes, uma vez que representam uma importante contribui

  14. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO; Avaliacao do efeito radiomodificador da propolis em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1) e em celulas tumorais de prostata (PC3), irradiadas com CO-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-07-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 {mu}g/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400{mu}/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 G{gamma}. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the {alpha} coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 {mu}g/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data

  15. Augmenting Chinese hamster genome assembly by identifying regions of high confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Nandita; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan A; Fu, Hsu-Yuan; Sharma, Mohit; Johnson, Kathryn C; Mudge, Joann; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Onsongo, Getiria; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Jacob, Nitya M; Le, Huong; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2016-09-01

    Chinese hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines are the dominant industrial workhorses for therapeutic recombinant protein production. The availability of genome sequence of Chinese hamster and CHO cells will spur further genome and RNA sequencing of producing cell lines. However, the mammalian genomes assembled using shot-gun sequencing data still contain regions of uncertain quality due to assembly errors. Identifying high confidence regions in the assembled genome will facilitate its use for cell engineering and genome engineering. We assembled two independent drafts of Chinese hamster genome by de novo assembly from shotgun sequencing reads and by re-scaffolding and gap-filling the draft genome from NCBI for improved scaffold lengths and gap fractions. We then used the two independent assemblies to identify high confidence regions using two different approaches. First, the two independent assemblies were compared at the sequence level to identify their consensus regions as "high confidence regions" which accounts for at least 78 % of the assembled genome. Further, a genome wide comparison of the Chinese hamster scaffolds with mouse chromosomes revealed scaffolds with large blocks of collinearity, which were also compiled as high-quality scaffolds. Genome scale collinearity was complemented with EST based synteny which also revealed conserved gene order compared to mouse. As cell line sequencing becomes more commonly practiced, the approaches reported here are useful for assessing the quality of assembly and potentially facilitate the engineering of cell lines.

  16. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.K.C.

    1982-11-01

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light.

  17. Discovery of transcription start sites in the Chinese hamster genome by next-generation RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Tobias; Brinkrolf, Karina; Tauch, Andreas; Noll, Thomas; Stoye, Jens; Pühler, Alfred; Goesmann, Alexander

    2014-11-20

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines are one of the major production tools for monoclonal antibodies, recombinant proteins, and therapeutics. Although many efforts have significantly improved the availability of sequence information for CHO cells in the last years, forthcoming draft genomes still lack the information depth known from the mouse or human genomes. Many genes annotated for CHO cells and the Chinese hamster reference genome still are in silico predictions, only insufficiently verified by biological experiments. The correct annotation of transcription start sites (TSSs) is of special interest for CHO cells, as these directly define the location of the eukaryotic core promoter. Our study aims to elucidate these largely unexplored regions, trying to shed light on promoter landscapes in the Chinese hamster genome. Based on a 5' enriched dual library RNA sequencing approach 6547 TSSs were identified, of which over 90% were assigned to known genes. These TSSs were used to perform extensive promoter studies using a novel, modular bioinformatics pipeline, incorporating analyses of important regulatory elements of the eukaryotic core promoter on per-gene level and on genomic scale.

  18. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases in Siberian hamsters impedes photostimulated recrudescence of ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Julie; Shahed, Asha; McMichael, Carling F; Young, Kelly A

    2010-12-01

    Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod for 14 weeks induces ovarian regression. Subsequent transfer to long photoperiod restores ovarian function, and 2 weeks of photostimulation increases plasma estradiol (E(2)), antral follicles, and corpora lutea (CL). Because tissue remodeling involved with photostimulated ovarian recrudescence is associated with differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), we hypothesized that inhibiting MMP activity using a broad-spectrum in vivo MMP inhibitor, GM6001, would curtail recrudescence. One group of hamsters was placed in long days (LD; 16 h light:8 h darkness) for 16 weeks. Another group was placed in inhibitory short days (SD; 8 h light:16 h darkness) for 14 weeks. A third group was placed in SD for 14 weeks and transferred to LD for 2 weeks to stimulate recrudescence. During weeks 14-16, animals were either not treated or treated daily with i.p. injections of GM6001 (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (DMSO). GM6001 reduced gelatinase activity and decreased immunohistochemical staining for MMP1, MMP2, and MMP3 compared with vehicle. No differences between controls, vehicle, or GM6001 treatment were observed among LD animals, despite a trend toward reduction in CL and E(2) with GM6001. Although SD reduced ovarian function, photostimulation of transferred controls increased uterine mass, plasma E(2), appearance of antral follicles, and CL. With GM6001 treatment, photostimulation failed to increase uterine mass, plasma E(2), antral follicles, or CL. These data show, for the first time, that in vivo GM6001 administration inhibits MMP activity in hamster ovaries during photostimulation, and indicate that this inhibition may impede photostimulated recrudescence of ovaries. This study suggests an intriguing link between MMP activity and return to ovarian function during photostimulated recrudescence.

  19. 人源靶向补体抑制物CR2-CD59在中国仓鼠卵巢细胞中的稳定表达%Stable expression of targeting complement inhibitor CR2-CD59 in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦; 周育森; 寇志华; 孙世惠; 张传福; 赵光宇; 于虹; 宋宏彬; 乔飞; 陈万荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 构建人源靶向补体抑制物CR2-CD59,并筛选中国仓鼠卵巢细胞(Chinese hamster ovary cell,CHO)高效表达细胞株. 方法 运用FuGENE 6转染试剂,将含有人CR2-CD59的重组PEE14.1质粒转入CHO细胞,蛋氨酸亚氨基代砜(MSX)筛选出阳性克隆,并利用无血清培养基对CHO细胞表达株进行培养获得重组蛋白,以ELISA、SDS-PAGE和Western blot对表达蛋白进行鉴定. 结果 成功构建PEE14.1-CR2-CD59重组质粒,获得CHO细胞稳定表达株.SDS-PAGE结果 表明,重组蛋白CR2-CD59的相对分子质量同预期结果 一致.ELISA和Western blot鉴定重组蛋白CR2-CD59可与CR2、CD59多克隆抗体特异性结合.且与含血清培养基相比,无血清培养基能明显提高CHO细胞的蛋白表达量(P<0.05).结论 在CHO细胞中成功表达人源靶向补体抑制物CR2-CD59.

  20. A Study on Antitoxic Role of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 in Transgenic Chinese Hamster Overy Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶民; 丁新生; 董海蓉; 仇镇宁; 管晓虹

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the antitoxic role of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in transpgenic Chinese Hamster ovary(CHO) cell.Methods:With the technology of transgene from PC12 to CHO,MTT reduction assay was used to detect MPP+ toxic effect on wild type CHO(wtCHO) and transgenic CHO.Meanwhile,the role of reserpine was also observed in MPP+ toxic effects.Results:The sensitivity of transgenic CHO to MPP+ was much less than that of wtCHO with 0.5 mmol/L MPP+.Transgenic CHO had the same sensitivity as wtCHO if rotenone was given.WtCHO,by given reserpine alone,didn''''''''t change its sensitivity to MPP+.Conclusions:VMAT2 has protective effect on transgenic CHO by transporting MPP+ to vesicles.

  1. 胞外唾液酸酶造成工程中国仓鼠卵巢细胞株所产人源重组促红素唾液酸含量降低%Extracellular sialidase degrades sialic acid in recombinant human erythropoietin produced by an industrial Chinese hamster ovary cell strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖慰; 周祥山; 刘海峰; 宋志伟; 张元兴

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the N-glycosylation characteristics of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) produced by an industrial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that is currently used in a large scale manufacturing process, we cultured this cell strain in static mode. The produced rhEPO in the culture supernatant was analyzed using isoelectric focusing (IEF) and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) lectin precipitation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sialidase activity in the serum-free supernatant were assayed as well. The analyses revealed that this cell strain could produce rhEPO with high sialic acid content, but during prolonged culture, cell viability decreased with time whilst the activity of sialidase present in the supernatant increased. The loss in rhEPO quality was due to a decrease in terminal sialic acid on the N-glycans, caused by sialidase degradation. The methods and findings in this paper serve as basis for further investigation of industrial production process.%为了对工程中国仓鼠卵巢(CHO)细胞所产人源重组促红素(rhEPO)的N-糖基化特点进行考察,静置培养工程细胞后,通过等电聚焦和凝集素共沉淀对培养上清中的rhEPO进行分析,并对无血清培养上清中乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)和唾液酸酶活性进行检测,发现这株CHO细胞可以表达唾液酸含量较高的rhEPO蛋白.但是随着培养时间的延长,细胞的存活率逐渐降低,死亡的细胞将胞内的唾液酸酶释放到胞外,唾液酸酶的降解作用会造成N-糖链分枝末端的唾液酸占有率降低,导致rhEPO蛋白糖基化形态的变化.所使用的方法及得到的结果为进一步对工业过程进行分析提供了参考.

  2. Absence of interaction between X-rays and UV light in inducing ouabain- and thioguanine-resistant mutants in Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, J E

    1978-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated with X-rays at times from 0 to 17 h before being irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. No synergism was observed between the two radiations for the production of mutants resistant to either ouabain or 6-thioguanine. These experiments were designed to test whether X-rays induced an error-prone repair system that would increase the frequency of mutations produced by UV light, but no such system was detected.

  3. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article. Diethylene triamine trinitrate (DETN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    chromatid interchanges between chromosomes leading to four-armed configurations. This could be asymmetrical with formation of a dicentric and an acentric...fragment which may be misaligned and a shortened monocentric chromosome , and where there is no sister chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical...Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test

  4. Characterization of a Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell line with increased system L amino acid transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton, C D; Moreno, A; Oxender, D L

    1984-03-01

    We have studied leucine transport in several Chinese hamster-human hybrid cell lines obtained by fusion of a temperature-sensitive line of Chinese hamster ovary cells, ts025C1, and normal human leukocytes. A hybrid cell line exhibiting a twofold increase in L-leucine uptake over that in the parental cell line was found. This hybrid cell line, 158CnpT-1, was temperature resistant, whereas the parental Chinese hamster ovary mutant, ts025C1, contained a temperature-sensitive leucyl-tRNA synthetase mutation. An examination of the different amino acid transport systems in this hybrid cell line revealed a specific increase of system L activity with no significant changes in systems A and ASC. The Vmax for L-leucine uptake exhibited by the hybrid 158CnpT-1 was twice that in the CHO parental mutant, ts025C1. Cytogenetic analysis showed that the hybrid 158CnpT-1 contains four complete human chromosomes (numbers 4, 5, 10, and 21) and three interspecific chromosomal translocations in a total complement of 34 chromosomes. Biochemical and cytogenetic analysis of segregant clones obtained from hybrid 158CnpT-1 showed that the primary temperature resistance and high system L transport phenotypes can be segregated from this hybrid independently. The loss of the primary temperature resistance was associated with the loss of the human chromosome 5, as previously reported by other laboratories, whereas the loss of the high leucine transport phenotype, which is associated with a lesser degree of temperature resistance, was correlated with the loss of human chromosome 20.

  5. Contamination of genetically engineered Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, D G

    1996-01-01

    In late 1988, during production of a recombinant protein for phase I clinical trials, a failure of the cell culture production system occurred due to contamination of the cells by an orbivirus [1]. The incident occurred at Bioferon GmbH & Co, Laupheim, Germany, a joint venture of Biogen, Inc., Cambridge, MA, and Dr. Renstschler Arzneimittel GmbH & Co (Bioferon is currently a wholly owned subsidiary of Rentschler and is now known as Dr. Rentschler Biotechnologie GmbH). The investigation into, and the subsequent response to, the infection can be divided into three stages: Stage I, Investigation and initial response; Stage II, Secondary response; and Stage III: Continuing response.

  6. CD147 overexpression promotes tumorigenicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yu-Le; Liao, Cheng-Gong; Wei, Ding; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2016-04-01

    CD147 overexpresses in many epithelium-originated tumors and plays an important role in tumor migration and invasion. Most studies aim at the role of CD147 in tumor progression using tumor cell models. However, the influence of abnormal overexpression of CD147 on neoplastic transformation of normal cells is unknown. Here, the role of CD147 in malignant phenotype transformation in CHO cells was investigated. Three CHO cell lines that stably overexpressed CD147 (CHO-CD147), EGFP-CD147 (CHO-EGFP-CD147), and EGFP (CHO-EGFP) were generated by transfection of plasmids containing human CD147, EGFP-human CD147, and EGFP genes into CHO cells. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell matrix penetration assay. Trypan blue exclusion, MTT, cell cycle analysis, and BrdU cell proliferation assay were used to detect cell viability and cell proliferation. Annexin V-FITC analysis was performed to detect apoptosis. We found that CD147 overexpression promoted the migration and invasion of CHO cells. CD147 accelerated the G1 to S phase transition and enhanced the CHO cell proliferation. Overexpression of CD147 inhibited both early- and late-stages of apoptosis of CHO-CD147 cells, which is caused by serum deprivation. CHO-EGFP-CD147 cells showed an increased anchorage-independent growth compared with CHO-EGFP cells as detected by soft-agar colony formation assay. The tumors formed by CHO-CD147 cells in nude mice were larger and coupled with higher expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 than that of CHO cells. In conclusion, human CD147 overexpression induces malignant phenotype in CHO cells.

  7. Hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, G.J.D.M.; Haye, la M.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The common hamster occurs locally in the central and Southern part of Limburg. Its habitat is limited to loess and loam soils, which it constructs underground burrows. Changes in Agricultural land use sparked a steady decline from the 1970s onwards, By the end of the 1990s, the common hamster had al

  8. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W

    2015-01-01

    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  9. Complementary histological and genomic analyses reveal marked differences in the developmental trajectories of ovaries in Siberian hamsters raised in long- and short-day lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Un; Bernstein, Adrien N; Place, Ned J

    2014-03-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) delay sexual development when raised in short-day (SD; 10 hr light: 14 hr dark) conditions, which leads to delayed onset of estrous cycles and ovulations as compared to females raised in long-day (LD; 16 hr light: 8 hr dark) conditions. In addition to the absence of pre-ovulatory follicles and corpora lutea, the ovaries of SD-reared Siberian hamsters are characterized by an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs) that surround atretic oocytes. To determine the age at which the histology of LD and SD ovaries first diverge, including the initial appearance of HGCs in SD conditions, we examined hamster ovaries histologically at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of age. After identifying subtle differences in LD and SD ovarian histology at 4 weeks of age, we searched for differences in ovarian gene expression at 3 and 8 weeks of age, which correspond to the ages when ovarian histology do not differ (3 weeks) versus the earliest age when HGCs were observed (8 weeks). At 3 weeks, only 14 genes were differentially expressed in LD and SD ovaries, whereas 183 genes were differentially expressed at 8 weeks. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ovarian development under SD conditions is not simply arrested at an early stage of LD development, but rather utilizes a developmental path that is distinct from that used in LD ovaries.

  10. Expression of estrogen receptor α 36 (ESR36 in the hamster ovary throughout the estrous cycle: effects of gonadotropins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Estradiol-17β (E plays an important role in ovarian follicular development. Evidence indicates that some of the effect of E is mediated by the transmembrane estrogen receptor. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of recently discovered ERα36 (ESR36, a splice variant of Esr1 and a receptor for non-genomic E signaling, in the hamster ovary during the estrous cycle and the role of gonadotropins and ovarian steroid hormones in ESR36 expression. ESR36 expression was high on estrus (D1:0900 h and declined precipitously by proestrus (D4:0900 h and remained low up to D4:1600 h. Immunofluorescence findings corroborated immunoblot findings and revealed that ESR36 was expressed only in the cell membrane of both follicular and non-follicular cells, except the oocytes. Ovarian ESR36 was capable of binding to the E-affinity matrix, and have different molecular weight than that of the ESR1 or GPER. Hypophysectomy (Hx resulted in a marked decline in ESR36 protein levels. FSH and LH, alone or combined, markedly upregulated ESR36 protein in Hx hamsters to the levels observed in D1 hamsters, but neither E nor P had any effect. Inhibition of the gonadotropin surge by phenobarbital treatment on D4:1100 h attenuated ESR36 expression in D1:0900 h ovaries, but the decline was restored by either FSH or LH replacement on D4 afternoon. This is the first report to show that ESR36, which is distinct from ESR1 or GPER is expressed in the plasma membrane of ovarian follicular and non-follicular cells, binds to E and its expression is regulated directly by the gonadotropins. In light of our previous findings, the results suggest that ovarian cells contain at least two distinct membrane estrogen receptors, such as GPER and ESR36, and strongly suggest for a non-genomic action of E regulating ovarian follicular functions.

  11. Calculation of response of Chinese hamster cells to ions based on track structure theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXiao-Wei; ZhangChun-Xiang

    1997-01-01

    Considering biological cells as single target two-hit detectors,an analytic formula to calculate the response of cells to ions is developed based on track structure theory.In the calculation,the splitting deposition energy between ion kill mode and γ kill mode is not used.The results of calculation are in agreement with the experimental data for response of Chinese hamster cells,whose response to γ rays can be described by the response function of single target two hit detector to ions.

  12. The evolution of chromosomal instability in Chinese hamster cells: a changing picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaiya, B.; Limoli, C. L.; Corcoran, J.; Kaplan, M. I.; Hartmann, A.; Morgan, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the kinetics of chromosomal instability induced in clones of Chinese hamster cells following X-irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: X-irradiated clones of GM10115, human-hamster hybrid cells containing a single human chromosome 4 (HC4), have been previously established. These clones were defined as unstable if they contained > or = three subpopulations of cells with unique rearrangements of HC4 as detected by FISH. Stable and unstable clones were analysed by FISH and Giemsa staining at various times post-irradiation. RESULTS: While most of the stable clones continued to show chromosomal stability of HC4 over time, one became marginally unstable at approximately 45 population doublings post-irradiation. Clones exhibiting chromosomal instability had one of several fates. Many of the unstable clones were showed similar levels of instability over time. However, one unstable clone became stable with time in culture, while another became even more unstable over time. Cytogenetic analyses of all clones after Giemsa staining indicated that in some clones the hamster chromosomes were rearranged independent of HC4, demonstrating increased frequencies of chromatid breaks and dicentric chromosomes. The majority of the unstable clones also had higher yields of chromatid gaps. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the dynamic nature of chromosomal instability as measured by two different cytogenetic assays.

  13. Thresholds for phosphatidylserine externalization in Chinese hamster ovarian cells following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Vincelette

    Full Text Available High-amplitude, MV/m, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF have been hypothesized to cause nanoporation of the plasma membrane. Phosphatidylserine (PS externalization has been observed on the outer leaflet of the membrane shortly after nsPEF exposure, suggesting local structural changes in the membrane. In this study, we utilized fluorescently-tagged Annexin V to observe the externalization of PS on the plasma membrane of isolated Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells following exposure to nsPEF. A series of experiments were performed to determine the dosimetric trends of PS expression caused by nsPEF as a function of pulse duration, τ, delivered field strength, ED, and pulse number, n. To accurately estimate dose thresholds for cellular response, data were reduced to a set of binary responses and ED50s were estimated using Probit analysis. Probit analysis results revealed that PS externalization followed the non-linear trend of (τ*ED (2(-1 for high amplitudes, but failed to predict low amplitude responses. A second set of experiments was performed to determine the nsPEF parameters necessary to cause observable calcium uptake, using cells preloaded with calcium green (CaGr, and membrane permeability, using FM1-43 dye. Calcium influx and FM1-43 uptake were found to always be observed at lower nsPEF exposure parameters compared to PS externalization. These findings suggest that multiple, higher amplitude and longer pulse exposures may generate pores of larger diameter enabling lateral diffusion of PS; whereas, smaller pores induced by fewer, lower amplitude and short pulse width exposures may only allow extracellular calcium and FM1-43 uptake.

  14. Restriction of human adenovirus replication in Chinese hamster cell lines and their hybrids with human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radna, R L; Foellmer, B; Feldman, L A; Francke, U; Ozer, H L

    1987-11-01

    We have found that the replication of human adenovirus (Ad2) is restricted in multiple Chinese hamster cell lines including CHO and V79. The major site of restriction involves differential accumulation of late viral proteins as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with and without prior immunoprecipitation. Synthesis of fiber and penton base are markedly reduced, whereas others, such as the 100K polypeptide, are synthesized efficiently. This pattern of restriction is similar to that previously reported for Ad2 infection of several monkey cell lines; however, the restriction is more marked in the Chinese hamster cell lines. The restriction is most likely due to a deficient cellular function since stable cell hybrids between V79 or CHO and human cells are permissive for virus replication. By analysis of a series of hybrids with reduced numbers of human chromosomes, fiber synthesis was correlated with the presence of the short arm of human chromosome 3. More hybrids showed restoration of fiber synthesis than production of progeny virus, suggesting that more than one unlinked function is required for the latter.

  15. Onderzoek naar de inductie van chromosoomafwijkingen en "sister- chromatid exchanges" door acrylamide met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap; A.G.A.C.; Bergkamp; W.G.M.; Groot; M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Acrylamide bleek een clastogene werking te hebben in een test op chromosoomafwijkingen met Chinese hamster cellen in vitro vanaf 0,1 mg/ml (1,4 mmol/l), zowel in aan- als afwezigheid van een systeem voor metaboliosche activering (S9). Tevens induceerde acrylamide in deze cellen een significante

  16. [Susceptibility of the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) to parasitic infection (3). Experimental infection with Hymenolepis nana or Trichuris muris to the cortisone treated Chinese hamster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsumi, H; Miyamoto, K; Inaoka, T

    1989-07-01

    Susceptibility of Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) of Asahikawa Colony (CHA) to Hymenolepis nana or Trichuris muris infection was compared in the feces-egg examination with that of mice as the control animals. Though CHA were resistant to the infection of H. nana, they were found to become susceptible to H. nana by the treatment with cortisone. A half number of CHA was infected with H. nana and the eggs were detected from each animal only in 4 or 6 days in the periods of examination more than 40 days. Mice with or without cortisone treatment were equally susceptible to H. nana infection. In another experiment, CHA with or without cortisone treatment were completely resistant to Trichuris muris infection. Mice, as the control animals, were found to be infected with T. muris in both of cortisone-treated and non-treated groups. Results from the fecal examination, it was confirmed that T. muris were expelled naturally from the animals on the weeks of 11 to 33 after infection.

  17. Effects of antioxidants on V79 Chinese hamster cells treated with ferric nitrilotriacetate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehara,Yoshiki

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic effects of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA have been considered to be caused by free radicals produced by the drug. The present study was carried out to determine whether or not cytotoxic effects of Fe-NTA on cell growth and lipoperoxide formation of Chinese hamster cells were reduced by antioxidants. Using a spin trapping technique, we found that hydroxyl radical formation in the cells increased in the presence of Fe-NTA. Antioxidants, with the exception of superoxide dismutase, slightly inhibited production of the hydroxyl radical. Mannitol significantly reduced lipoperoxide formation, but other antioxidants did not. However, the growth inhibitory effects of Fe-NTA were not attenuated by these antioxidants. These results indicated that the cytotoxic effects of Fe-NTA may be mostly due to unknown factors other than oxygen free radicals.

  18. Inhaled ozone as a mutagen. II - Effect on the frequency of chromosome aberrations observed in irradiated Chinese hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelac, R. E.; Cromroy, H. L.; Bolch, W. E., Jr.; Dunavant, B. G.; Bevis, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Exposure-adjusted break frequencies for chromosome aberrations produced in Chinese hamster circulating blood lymphocytes were the quantitative indicator of damage from 5 hrs of exposure to X-radiation and/or to ozone. Radiation produced 5.51 x 0.0001 breaks/cell rad for cells withdrawn 2 weeks after exposure, a reasonable value when compared with data from in vivo exposure of human lymphocytes and Chinese hamster bone marrow cells. Animals exposed to the two agents simultaneously exhibited more than 70% of the total breaks anticipated assuming the expected equal contributions to be additive. Extending to humans, at presently permitted levels, exposure to ozone would be much more detrimental than exposure to radiati*n.

  19. Trends and approaches in N-Glycosylation engineering in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    will summarize a group of recent strategies andapproaches and come up with case studies for N-glycosylation engineering in CHO cells and show several examples of relevantstudy cases from our research: 1) media and feed design, 2) culture process optimization, 3) substrate addition, 4) geneticengineering, 5...

  20. Trends and approaches in N-Glycosylation engineering in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    , in particular, of those as drug substances, is extremely concerned in drug development andapproval, as it will largely affect their stability, efficacy, clearance rate and immunogenicity. Therefore to engineering N-glycosylationof CHO cell-derived recombinant proteins are extremely important. Here, we...

  1. Matrix attachment region combinations increase transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Peng; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Chang-Zheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Jun-He; Chen, Shao-Nan; Jia, Yan-Long; Wang, Tian-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human β-interferon and β-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus (SV) 40 promoter. These were transfected into CHO-K1 cells, which were screened with geneticin; eGFP expression was detected by flow cytometry. The presence of MAR elements increased transfection efficiency and transient and stably expression of eGFP expression under both promoters; the level was higher when the two MARs differed (i.e., iMAR and gMAR) under the CMV but not the SV40 promoter. For the latter, two gMARs showed the highest activity. We also found that MARs increased the ratio of stably transfected positive colonies. These results indicate that combining the CMV promoter with two different MAR elements or the SV40 promoter with two gMARs is effective for inducing high expression level and stability of transgenes. PMID:28216629

  2. Generation of a Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Line Producing Recombinant Human Glucocerebrosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Branco Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCR results in the inherited metabolic disorder known as Gaucher disease. Current treatment consists of enzyme replacement therapy by administration of exogenous GCR. Although effective, it is exceptionally expensive, and patients worldwide have a limited access to this medicine. In Brazil, the public healthcare system provides the drug free of charge for all Gaucher’s patients, which reaches the order of $ 84 million per year. However, the production of GCR by public institutions in Brazil would reduce significantly the therapy costs. Here, we describe a robust protocol for the generation of a cell line producing recombinant human GCR. The protein was expressed in CHO-DXB11 (dhfr− cells after stable transfection and gene amplification with methotrexate. As expected, glycosylated GCR was detected by immunoblotting assay both as cell-associated (~64 and 59 kDa and secreted (63–69 kDa form. Analysis of subclones allowed the selection of stable CHO cells producing a secreted functional enzyme, with a calculated productivity of 5.14 pg/cell/day for the highest producer. Although being laborious, traditional methods of screening high-producing recombinant cells may represent a valuable alternative to generate expensive biopharmaceuticals in countries with limited resources.

  3. Survival of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Following Ultrahigh Dose Rate Electron and Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    47Patricia K. Holahan , Ph.D. Martin L. Meltz, Ph.D. University qf Texas Health Science Center 7703 Floyd Curl Drive San Antonio, TX 78284 DTIC A~riI 1q9...AUTHOR(S) Holahan , Patricia K.; and Meltz, Martin L. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT l3b TME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT ’Year. :7’-󈧕 5 C . Final O.- 88/9/28 To89/2

  4. Characterization of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Producing Coagulation Factor VIII Using Multi-omics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder

    ,000 fold over the last couple of years due to the revolution of next-generation sequencing (NGS), has dramatically accelerated CHO-omics from virtually non-existent to a vibrant growing field. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the impact of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) production in CHO cells...... for analysis and engineering of industrially relevant CHO cells. Full implementation of such tools for generating specifically engineered CHO production cell lines may allow significant cost-reductions in production of complex biopharmaceuticals such as FVIII....

  5. In Vitro Chromosome Aberrations Study in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    activity offE-13. The mouse bone micronucleus assay is an in vivo test system which can determine the ability of a compound to induce micronuclei...CELLS Project No. ILS A073-004 Sponsor’s Study Number DAADOS-91-C-00 18 Test Substance FE-13 ILS Repository No. 96-01 Final Report Date May...24, 1996 Sponsor U.S. CHPPM Bldg. E-21 00 Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Testing Facility Integrated Laboratory Systems 800-12 Capitola

  6. A theoretical estimate for nucleotide sugar demand towards Chinese Hamster Ovary cellular glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Ioscani Jimenez; Polizzi, Karen M.; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation greatly influences the safety and efficacy of many of the highest-selling recombinant therapeutic proteins (rTPs). In order to define optimal cell culture feeding strategies that control rTP glycosylation, it is necessary to know how nucleotide sugars (NSs) are consumed towards host cell and rTP glycosylation. Here, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the reported glycoproteome of CHO cells, the number of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosylation sites on individual host cell proteins (HCPs), and the carbohydrate content of CHO glycosphingolipids to estimate the demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation. We have identified the most abundant N-linked and O-GalNAc CHO glycoproteins, obtained the weighted frequency of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosites across the CHO cell proteome, and have derived stoichiometric coefficients for NS consumption towards CHO cell glycosylation. By combining the obtained stoichiometric coefficients with previously reported data for specific growth and productivity of CHO cells, we observe that the demand of NSs towards glycosylation is significant and, thus, is required to better understand the burden of glycosylation on cellular metabolism. The estimated demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation can be used to rationally design feeding strategies that ensure optimal and consistent rTP glycosylation. PMID:27345611

  7. Heterologous expression of rat testis GABAA receptor βt variant in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-FengLi; Yu-GuangChen; Yuan-ChangYan; Yi-PingLi

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the characteristics and possible retention functionof specific sequence in the 5'-end of rat testis GABAA receptor β 3t variant, Methods: Rat testis GABAA receptor β 3t variant cDNA was cloned and inserted into two eukaryotic expression vectors of pEGFP-N1 and pEGFP-C1 respectively, which have EGFP reporter gene.

  8. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accclerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5, 200 and 700 keV/μm were measured, respectively. Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves. They are 7.86±0.17, 10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.58 μm2 in turn. With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value, relative biological effectiveness at 10%, 20%, 50% and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions. The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5 keV/μm had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs. It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200 keV/μm for carbon ions.

  9. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQiang; ZHOUGuang-Ming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5,200 and 700keV/um were measured,respectively,Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves.They are 7.86±0.17,10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.59um2 in turn.With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value,relative biological effectiveness at 10%,20%,50%and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions,The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5keV/um had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs.It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200keV/um for carbon ions.

  10. Effect of PGE2 on radiation response of chinese hamster V79 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, E.V.; Blakely, W.F.; Walden, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Several recent investigations have reported that 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) can protect murine intestinal epithelial cells and hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) in vivo from ionizing radiation. It has been postulated that PGE2 may also increase radiation resistance in vitro by stimulating free-radical scavenging or repair systems for oxidative damage. This study reports on the effect of PGE2 in modifying radiation sensitivity in an in vitro mammalian cell line. Chinese hamster V79A03 cells were cultured. Exponentially growing cells were incubated before exposure to graded doses of 250-kVp X rays. Cells were assayed for variations in intracellular levels of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), total protein, and glutathione (GSH), and radiation sensitivity was measured by cell survival before and after PGE2 treatment. An acute (2-hr) exposure induced a 25% increase in cAMP content with no significant change in intracellular GSH or protein and no effect on cell survival after exposure to radiation. Chronic exposure to PGE2 increased intracellular GSH, protein, and cAMP levels by 82%, 3%, and 74%, respectively. However, no increase in radiation resistance was apparent following chronic exposure to PGE2. The increased radiation resistance observed in vitro may be due to modifications such as localized tissue or organ-system hypoxia.

  11. Association between Common Genetic Variants and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Risk in a Chinese Han Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Yuan, Yi; Yang, Hua; Li, Jingjie; Feng, Tian; Ouyang, Yongri; Jin, Tianbo; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting 5-7% of reproductive age women worldwide. The aim of our study was to explore the PCOS-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations between common genetic variants and PCOS risk in a Han Chinese women population. Methods: In this case-control study, 285 Chinese Han women aged 28.50±6.858 years with PCOS and 299 controls of a mean age of 32.66±7.018 years were compared. We selected recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) which identified several genetic loci in PCOS. All the SNPs were genotyped by Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Associations between the gene and the risk of PCOS were tested using various genetic models by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and Plink. Results: We found that rs705702 in the RAB5B/SUOX was associated with PCOS (odds ratio=1.42; 95% confidence interval=1.08-1.87, p=0.011) and increased the PCOS risk. The genotypic model analysis also showed that rs705702 was associated with PCOS risk. Conclusion: Our results suggest that SNPs rs705702 in gene RAB5B/SUOX was associated with PCOS in Han Chinese women. PMID:27217259

  12. Heterologous expression of active human uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 in Chinese hamster lung cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Kun Chen; Xin Li; Shu-Qing Chen; Su Zeng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To obtain the active human recombinant uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 (UGT1A3) enzyme from Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells.METHODS: The full-length UGT1A3 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)using total RNA from human liver as template. The correct fragment confirmed by sequencing was subcloned into the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3.1 (+), and the recombinant vector was transfected into CHL cells using a calcium phosphate method. Expressed UGT1A3 protein was prepared from CHL cells resistant to neomycin (G418). Then the protein was added into a reaction mixture for glucuronidation of quercetin. The glucuronidation activity of UGT1A3 was determined by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD). The quercetin glucuronide was confirmed by hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase. Control experiments were performed in parallel. The transcriptions of recombinants were also determined by RT-PCR.RESULTS: The gene was confirmed to be an allele (UGT1A3-3) of UGT1A3 by DNA sequencing. The fragment was introduced into pcDNA3.1 (+) successfully. Several colonies were obtained under the selection pressure of G418.The result of RT-PCR showed transcription of recombinants in mRNA level. Glucuronidation assay and HPLC analysis indicated UGT1A3 expressed heterologously in CHL cells was in an active form, and one of the gulcuronides corresponding to quercetin was also detected.CONCLUSION: Correct sequence of UGT1A3 gene can be obtained, and active UGT1A3 enzyme is expressed heterologously in CHL cells.

  13. Association of TRB3 Q84R polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Binbin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tribbles 3 (TRB3 affects insulin signalling by inhibiting insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation. A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the second extron of the human TRB3 gene is thought to be associated with insulin resistance. The latter is a core abnormality in PCOS independent of obesity. The present study was designed to clarify the relationships of TRB3 Q84R polymorphism with PCOS in a Chinese women group. Methods A case-control study with two groups: PCOS group (n = 336 and control group of infertility women for tubal and/or male factor (n = 116 was performed. Genotyping of the TRB3 R84 variant was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Results The frequency of genotype QQ in PCOS women was significantly lower, while genotype QR and RR were significantly higher than that in control group (p Conclusions TRB3 Q84R polymorphism is associated with obesity and especially glucose metabolism and not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome because of compositional characteristics of phenotype in Chinese PCOS women.

  14. Conditionally lethal mutations in chinese hamster cells. Characterization of a cell line with a possible defect in the Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, L; Werntz, D; Scheffler, I E

    1975-04-01

    A variant Chinese hamster cell line has been isolated from a mutagenized population that has a markedly reduced ability to oxidize a variety of substrates via the Krebs cycle. The production of 14CO2 from 14C-labeled compounds was measured using pyruvate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, palmitate and glutamate, and in all cases it was neglibible in the mutant. In contrast to this, significant amounts of 14CO2 were produced from 14C-aspartate and 14C-succinate which suggest that some reactions of the Krebs cycle can take place and this conclusion is supported by tracer experiments with labeled compounds. The rate of respiration measured with a Clark oxygen electrode in the mutant was compared to several normal Chinese hamster cell lines and was found to be only 8%. Mitochondria appear to be present in normal numbers and with only minor differences in morphology. The measurement of difference spectra between oxidized and reduced states permits us to conclude that the cytochromes are all present and functional. These results lead us to believe that there may be a defect in the Krebs cycle between alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate. Alternatively a defect in a structural component of the mitochondria or in the electron-transport chain itself may be causing pleiotropic effects in the Krebs cycle and respiration.

  15. Effects of Different Pollination Treatments on Nutrition Changes of the Ovary in Chinese Chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume has noteworthy ecological, economic and cultural importance in the Northern Hemisphere. The low yield of chestnut often affect the economic efficiency. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Changes in nutrient contents during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as material. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 days to determine N, P, K, fat, total soluble sugar, crude protein and starch contents. The results indicated that the contents of total soluble sugar, starch and fat increased constantly in ovaries after self-and cross-pollination, but protein, N and K contents first increased in 20 DAP (day after pollination and after that decreased in the stage of young fruit development. The changes of P has two peak values, one was in 40 DAP and the other was in 50 DAP. P and crude protein were not significantly after pollination treatments. However, N, sugar, starch, fat and K were significantly higher in cross-pollination treatment it seems that these nutrient has a decisive role during ovary development in chestnut. The characteristics of these nutrition changes provide a basis information for spraying N, P, K etc during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  16. Elk3 from hamster-a ternary complex factor with strong transcriptional repressor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, G.M.; Weilguny, D.; Willumsen, Berthe Marie

    2005-01-01

    the transcription of genes that are activated during entry into G1. We have isolated the Cricetulus griseus Elk3 gene from the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and investigated the transcriptional potential of this factor. Transient transfections revealed that, in addition to its regulation of the c......-fos promoter, Elk3 from CHO cells seems to inhibit other promoters controlling expression of proteins involved in G1/S phase progression; Cyclin D1 and DHFR. As has been described for the Elk3 homologs Net (Mouse) and Sap-2 (Human), the results of the present study further indicate that hamster Elk3...

  17. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Gao; Jie Meng; Mengjing Xu; Shun Zhang; Bishwajit Ghose; Jun Liu; Ping Yao; Hong Yan; Di Wang; Liegang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population. Methods and Results Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, ...

  18. Coordinate amplification of metallothionein I and II genes in cadmium-resistant Chinese hamster cells: implications for mechanisms regulating metallothionein gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, B.D.; Enger, M.D.; Griffith, B.B.; Griffith, J.K.; Hanners, J.L.; Longmire, J.L.; Munk, A.C.; Stallings, R.L.; Tesmer, J.G.; Walters, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1985-02-01

    The authors describe here the derivation, characterization, and use of clonal cadmium-resistance (Cd/sup r) strains of the Chinese hamster cell line CHO which differ in their metallothionein (MT) induction capacity. By nondenaturing polyacrylaminde gel electrophoresis, the authors showed that the stable Cd/sup r/ phenotype is correlated with the augmented expression of both isometallothioneins (MTI and MTII). In cells resistant to concentrations of CdCl2 exceeding 20 M, coordinate amplifications of genes encoding both isometallothioneins was demonstrated by using cDNA MT-coding sequence probes and probes specific for 3'-noncoding regions of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes. Molecular and in situ hybridization analyses supported close linkage of Chinese hamster MTI and MTII genes, which the authors have mapped previously to Chinese hamster chromosome 3. This suggests the existence of a functionally related MT gene cluster in this species. Amplified Cd/sup r/ variants expressing abundant MT and their corresponding Cd/sup s/ parental CHO cells should be useful for future studies directed toward elucidating the mechanisms that regulate expressions of the isometallothioneins. 59 references, 8 figures.

  19. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  20. Association of polymorphisms of interleukin-18 gene promoter region with polycystic ovary syndrome in chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei-zhi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research shows that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS may have an association with low-grade chronic inflammation, and that PCOS may induce an increase in serum interleukin-18 (IL-18 levels. Methods To investigate the polymorphisms of the IL-18 gene promoters with PCOS, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter of the IL-18 gene (at positions -607C/A and -137G/C in 118 Chinese women with PCOS and 79 controls were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results No significant differences were found in the genotype distribution, allele frequency and haplotype frequency between the PCOS and control groups. Further analysis demonstrated a relationship between IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms and PCOS insulin resistance (IR. Regarding the -137 allele frequency, G and C allele frequencies were 93.5% and 6.5%, respectively, in the PCOS with IR patients; G and C allele frequencies were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, in PCOS patients without IR (chi2 = 3.601, P = 0.048. Conclusions The presence of a polymorphism in the IL-18 gene was found to have no correlation with the occurrence of PCOS. Carriage of the C allele at position -137 in the promoter of the IL-18 gene may play a protective role from the development of PCOS IR.

  1. Serum metabolomics study of Traditional Chinese medicine formula intervention to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Caixia; Zhao, Xinjie; Li, Yan; Li, Yanjie; Yuan, Chengkun; Xu, Fang; Meng, Xiaoyu; Hou, Lihui; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a most common, heterogeneous, complex endocrinopathy disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in the treatment of PCOS for many years. However, the mechanism underlying TCM remains obscure and challenging. In this study, 30 PCOS subjects were separated into normoinsulinemic group (NI=13) and hyperinsulinemic group (HI=17), and treated for three menstrual cycles with TCM Formula, Bushen Huatan Formula (BHF). A metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with linear ion trap Orbi-trap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbi-trap MS) is used to investigate serum metabolic changes of TCM intervention to PCOS. After BHF intervention for three menstrual cycles, the serum levels of glycerophosphorylethanolamine (GPEA), creatine, creatinine decreased in both NI and HI groups. Furthermore, in NI group, the main manifestation was the changes of phospholipid metabolism. While in HI group, lysine, phenol sulfate, phe-phe etc. decreased, and ornithine, proline, betaine, acetylcholine etc. increased. Combined with clinical biochemical data, BHF was proved effective to PCOS by reducing the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress. This study also illustrates that the LC-MS based metabolomic approach is a helpful tool to evaluate curative effect and to understand the mechanisms of TCM.

  2. Temperature dependence of anisotonic NaC1 effect on radiosensitization and ultrastructure of V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, J G; Raaphorst, G P; Lobreau, A U; Azzam, E I; Copps, T P

    1983-01-01

    Isodose radiation survival of V79 Chinese hamster cells, pretreated with strongly hypertonic concentrations of NaC1 at 22 degrees C, or at 37 degrees C, has been determined and correlated with ultrastructural changes within the nucleus. After an exposure of less than 10 min to 1.5 M NaC1, at both temperatures, the cells are radioprotected, but after longer exposures, the cells treated at 37 degrees C are radiosensitive, whereas those treated at 22 degrees C still show protection. The cells are radiosensitized at both temperatures by pretreatment with 0.5 M and 0.05 M NaC1. The ultrastructure of the nucleus observed after the anisotonic treatments suggests that contraction or swelling of chromatin may be associated with the observed variation in radiation sensitivity.

  3. Influence of DMSO on Carbon K ultrasoft X-rays induced chromosome aberrations in V79 Chinese hamster cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Adayapalam T., E-mail: natarajan@live.nl [University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Palitti, Fabrizio [University of Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Hill, Mark A. [CRUK/MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD (United Kingdom); Stevens, David L. [MRC Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, Harwell, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD (United Kingdom); Ahnstroem, Gunnar [Department of Microbiology and Genetic Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-09-10

    Ultrasoft X-rays have been shown to be very efficient in inducing chromosomal aberrations in mammalian cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the modifying effects of DMSO (a potent scavenger of free radicals) on the frequencies of chromosome aberrations induced by soft X-rays. Confluent held G1 Chinese hamster cells (V79) were irradiated with Carbon K ultrasoft X-rays in the presence and absence of 1 M DMSO and frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the first division cells were determined. DMSO reduced the frequencies of exchange types of aberrations (dicentrics and centric rings) by a factor of 2.1-3.5. The results indicate that free radicals induced by ultrasoft X-rays contribute to a great extent to the induction of chromosome aberrations. The possible implications of these results in interpreting the mechanisms involved in the high efficiency of ultrasoft X-rays in the induction of chromosome aberrations are discussed.

  4. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J; Thompson, L H; Bedford, J S; Little, J B

    2007-10-26

    We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.

  5. Anticancer Effects of Fusion Protein CAtin on DMBA-induced Carcinogenesis in Buccal Pouch of Chinese Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jie-ying; LI Xiao; LI Chang; ZHANG Xiao-fei; LI Zhi-xin; ZHAO Shuang; LIU Xiao; ZENG Lin; CHI Bao-rong

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant expression ofcarcinoembryonic antigen(CEA)is a common feature for multiple types of cancer,which makes it an attractive target for anticancer therapy.CAtin is a novel dual cancer-specific fusion protein,composed of an anti-CEA single-chain disulfide-stabilized Fv antibody(scdsFv)and Apoptin,a tumor-specific apoptosis-inducing protein.Oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC)is an important healthcare problem in the clinic.To evaluate the anticancer effects of CAtin on OSCC,7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene(DMBA)was used to induce oral carcinogenesis and premalignant lesions in the buccal pouch of Chinese hamster,and the antitumor effects of CAtin were determined in pre-cancer,cancer and post-operatative cancer models,respectively.The results show that the administration of CAtin delayed the malignant transformation of early stage cancerous lesions,inhibited the growth of established solid oral tumors and reduced the post-operatative relapse of lesions,with no significant systemic toxicity.This study demonstrates that CAtin may have potential for the treatment of OSCC,and the development of preventive strategies based on CAtin may offer a practical approach for the treatment of human oral tumors.

  6. Interlaboratory studies with the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to detect tumor-promoting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrman, J.S.; Burg, J.R.; Elmore, E.; Gulati, D.K.; Barfknecht, T.R.; Niemeier, R.W.; Dames, B.L.; Toraason, M.; Langenbach, R.

    1988-01-01

    Three laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the usefulness of the Chinese hamster V79 cell metabolic cooperation assay to predict the tumor-promoting activity of selected chemical. Twenty-three chemicals of different chemical structures (phorbol esters, barbiturates, phenols, artificial sweeteners, alkanes, and peroxides) were chosen for testing based on in vivo promotion activities, as reported in the literature. Assay protocols and materials were standardized, and the chemicals were coded to facilitate unbiased evaluation. A chemical was tested only once in each laboratory, with one of the three laboratories testing only 15 out of 23 chemicals. Dunnett's test was used for statistical analysis. Chemicals were scored as positive (at least two concentration levels statistically different than control), equivocal (only one concentration statistically different), or negative. For 15 chemicals tested in all three laboratories, there was complete agreement among the laboratories for nine chemicals. For the 23 chemicals tested in only two laboratories, there was agreement on 16 chemicals. With the exception of the peroxides and alkanes, the metabolic cooperation data were in general agreement with in vivo data. However, an overall evaluation of the V79 cell system for predicting in vivo promotion activity was difficult because of the organ specificity of certain chemicals and/or the limited number of adequately tested nonpromoting chemicals.

  7. Identification of a functional antioxidant responsive element in the promoter of the Chinese hamster carbonyl reductase 3 (Chcr3) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takeshi; Taketomi, Ayako; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-01

    CHCR3, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, is a carbonyl reductase 3 enzyme in Chinese hamsters. Carbonyl reductase 3 in humans has been believed to involve the metabolism and/or pharmacokinetics of anthracycline drugs, and the mechanism underlying the gene regulation has been investigated. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of the Chcr3 promoter was originally determined, and its promoter activity was characterised. The proximal promoter region is TATA-less and GC-rich, similar to the promoter region of human carbonyl reductase 3. Cobalt stimulated the transcriptional activity of the Chcr3 gene. The results of a luciferase gene reporter assay demonstrated that cobalt-induced stimulation required an antioxidant responsive element. Forced expression of Nrf2, the transcription factor that binds to antioxidant responsive elements, enhanced the transcriptional activity of the Chcr3 gene. These results suggest that cobalt induces the expression of the Chcr3 gene via the Nrf2-antioxidant responsive element pathway.

  8. Synthesis of human prolactin in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells; Sintese de prolactina humana em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Carlos Roberto Jorge

    2000-07-01

    Three different eukaryotic expression vectors, based on the same selectable gene marker (dhfr), have been used for dhf- CHO cells transfection to rapidly isolate stable cell lines capable of secreting high levels of recombinant human prolactin (rec-hPRL). Two vectors, one codifying a human prolactin (p658-hPRL) and the other a tag-prolactin (p658-tagPRL), contain the complete hepatitis B virus-X (HBV-X) gene coding for a viral transactivator and a sequence derived from the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that mediates selective dhfr mRNA degradation. These vectors have the advantage of rapidly obtaining stable cell lines without methotrexate amplification. The highest secretion obtained by these vectors was of approximately 10 {mu}g hPRU10{sup 6} cells/day. The other vector (pEDdc-hPRL) is based on a dicistronic expression system, containing an internal ribosome entry site isolated from the encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus. This vector before amplification provided secretion levels at least 10 fold lower than that obtained with the other two vectors. However, after three steps of methotrexate amplification, it provided some clones able to secrete up to 30 {mu}g hPRU10{sup 6} cells/day. This is the first report describing the production and purification of rec-hPRL from CHO cells, obtaining secretion levels with both vectors higher than those reported so far for this hormone in other eukaryotic systems. CHO-derived rec-hPRL contained approximately 10 % of the glycosylated form, a value that is consistent with results reported for hPRL purified from the pituitary or from transformed murine C-127 cells. CHO-derived rec-hPRL was purified with good yield, obtaining also a good resolution between non-glycosylated and glycosylated prolactin. The latter, when its potency was determined via an in vitro bioassay, presented a 47 % lower bioactivity. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of these forms was also possible thanks to the setting up of a reversed-phase HPLC technique, for the first time applied to this hormone. A pilot production in a hollow fiber bioreactor provided a highly concentrated medium, though with the presence of considerable amounts of hPRL{sub 11-199} fragments, apparently the result of a proteolytic process. (author)

  9. Similar [DE]XXXL[LI] motifs differentially target GLUT8 and GLUT12 in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Flessner, Lauren B.; Kelle H Moley

    2008-01-01

    The transport of glucose across cell membranes is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters. The recently identified Class III glucose transporter GLUT12 is predominantly expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues such as heart, fat, and skeletal muscle. We examined the subcellular localization of GLUT12 in CHO and HEK293 cells stably expressing murine GLUT12. We have previously shown that another Class III glucose transporter, GLUT8, contains a [DE]XXXL[LI] motif that directs it to late endo...

  10. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A hybrid approach identifies metabolic signatures of high-producers for chinese hamster ovary clone selection and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Oliver; Müller, Dirk; Didzus, Katharina; Paul, Wolfgang; Lipsmeier, Florian; Kirchner, Florian; Niklas, Jens; Mauch, Klaus; Beaucamp, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    In-depth characterization of high-producer cell lines and bioprocesses is vital to ensure robust and consistent production of recombinant therapeutic proteins in high quantity and quality for clinical applications. This requires applying appropriate methods during bioprocess development to enable meaningful characterization of CHO clones and processes. Here, we present a novel hybrid approach for supporting comprehensive characterization of metabolic clone performance. The approach combines metabolite profiling with multivariate data analysis and fluxomics to enable a data-driven mechanistic analysis of key metabolic traits associated with desired cell phenotypes. We applied the methodology to quantify and compare metabolic performance in a set of 10 recombinant CHO-K1 producer clones and a host cell line. The comprehensive characterization enabled us to derive an extended set of clone performance criteria that not only captured growth and product formation, but also incorporated information on intracellular clone physiology and on metabolic changes during the process. These criteria served to establish a quantitative clone ranking and allowed us to identify metabolic differences between high-producing CHO-K1 clones yielding comparably high product titers. Through multivariate data analysis of the combined metabolite and flux data we uncovered common metabolic traits characteristic of high-producer clones in the screening setup. This included high intracellular rates of glutamine synthesis, low cysteine uptake, reduced excretion of aspartate and glutamate, and low intracellular degradation rates of branched-chain amino acids and of histidine. Finally, the above approach was integrated into a workflow that enables standardized high-content selection of CHO producer clones in a high-throughput fashion. In conclusion, the combination of quantitative metabolite profiling, multivariate data analysis, and mechanistic network model simulations can identify metabolic traits characteristic of high-performance clones and enables informed decisions on which clones provide a good match for a particular process platform. The proposed approach also provides a mechanistic link between observed clone phenotype, process setup, and feeding regimes, and thereby offers concrete starting points for subsequent process optimization. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2005-2019. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Efficient production and purification of extracellular domain of human FGFR-Fc fusion proteins from Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowska-Wedzina, Aleksandra; Borek, Aleksandra; Chudzian, Julia; Jakimowicz, Piotr; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Otlewski, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    The family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) plays an important role in cell growth, survival, differentiation and angiogenesis. The three immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains of FGFR (D1, D2, and D3) are critical for ligand binding and specificity towards fibroblast growth factor and heparan sulfate. Fibroblast growth factor receptors are overexpressed in a wide variety of tumors, such as breast, bladder, and prostate cancer, and therefore they are attractive targets for different types of anticancer therapies. In this study, we have cloned, expressed in CHO cells and purified Fc-fused extracellular domains of different types of FGFRs (ECD_FGFR1a-Fc, ECD_FGFR1b-Fc, ECD_FGFR2a-Fc, ECD_FGFR2b-Fc, ECD_FGFR3a-Fc, ECD_FGFR3b-Fc, ECD_FGFR4a-Fc, ECD_FGFR4b-Fc), which could be used as molecular targets for the selection of specific antibodies. The fusion proteins were analyzed using gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and mass spectrometry. To facilitate their full characterization, the fusion proteins were deglycosylated using PNGase F enzyme. With an optimized transient transfection protocol and purification procedure we were able to express the proteins at a high level and purify them to homogeneity.

  13. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  14. Effects of preventing O-glycosylation on the secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a member of a family of heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones that have a common alpha subunit but differ in their hormone-specific beta subunits. The beta subunit of hCG (hCG beta) is unique among the beta subunits in that it contains four mucin-like O-linked oligosaccharides attached to a carboxyl-terminal extension. To study the effects of O-glycosylation on the secretion and assembly of hCG, expression vectors containing either the hCG beta gene alone o...

  15. PDADMAC flocculation of Chinese hamster ovary cells: enabling a centrifuge-less harvest process for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Thomas; Thomas, Anne; Senczuk, Anna; Petty, Krista; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Piper, Rob; Carvalho, Juliane; Hammond, Matthew; Sawant, Satin; Bussiere, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    High titer (>10 g/L) monoclonal antibody (mAb) cell culture processes are typically achieved by maintaining high viable cell densities over longer culture durations. A corresponding increase in the solids and sub-micron cellular debris particle levels are also observed. This higher burden of solids (≥15%) and sub-micron particles typically exceeds the capabilities of a continuous centrifuge to effectively remove the solids without a substantial loss of product and/or the capacity of the harvest filtration train (depth filter followed by membrane filter) used to clarify the centrate. We discuss here the use of a novel and simple two-polymer flocculation method used to harvest mAb from high cell mass cell culture processes. The addition of the polycationic polymer, poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) to the cell culture broth flocculates negatively-charged cells and cellular debris via an ionic interaction mechanism. Incorporation of a non-ionic polymer such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the PDADMAC flocculation results in larger flocculated particles with faster settling rate compared to PDADMAC-only flocculation. PDADMAC also flocculates the negatively-charged sub-micron particles to produce a feed stream with a significantly higher harvest filter train throughput compared to a typical centrifuged harvest feed stream. Cell culture process variability such as lactate production, cellular debris and cellular densities were investigated to determine the effect on flocculation. Since PDADMAC is cytotoxic, purification process clearance and toxicity assessment were performed.

  16. Multi-omic profiling of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Kazemi Seresht, Ali; Engmark, Mikael;

    2015-01-01

    to study the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in a panel of CHO-K1 cells under growth-limited and unlimited conditions in batch and chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization of the EPO-producing cells included global transcriptome analysis, targeted metabolome analysis, including intracellular...... pools of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+, adenine nucleotide phosphates (ANP), and extracellular concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. Potential impact of EPO expression on the protein secretory pathway was assessed at multiple stages using quantitative PCR (qPCR), reverse...... transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blots (WB), and global gene expression analysis to assess EPO gene copy numbers, EPO gene expression, intracellular EPO retention, and differentially expressed genes functionally related to secretory protein processing, respectively. We found no evidence supporting...

  17. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy of BODIPY-cholesterol reveals anomalous sterol diffusion in chinese hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Frederik W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is an important membrane component, but our knowledge about its transport in cells is sparse. Previous imaging studies using dehydroergosterol (DHE, an intrinsically fluorescent sterol from yeast, have established that vesicular and non-vesicular transport modes contribute to sterol trafficking from the plasma membrane. Significant photobleaching, however, limits the possibilities for in-depth analysis of sterol dynamics using DHE. Co-trafficking studies with DHE and the recently introduced fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol suggested that the latter probe has utility for prolonged live-cell imaging of sterol transport. Results We found that BChol is very photostable under two-photon (2P-excitation allowing the acquisition of several hundred frames without significant photobleaching. Therefore, long-term tracking and diffusion measurements are possible. Two-photon temporal image correlation spectroscopy (2P-TICS provided evidence for spatially heterogeneous diffusion constants of BChol varying over two orders of magnitude from the cell interior towards the plasma membrane, where D ~ 1.3 μm2/s. Number and brightness (N&B analysis together with stochastic simulations suggest that transient partitioning of BChol into convoluted membranes slows local sterol diffusion. We observed sterol endocytosis as well as fusion and fission of sterol-containing endocytic vesicles. The mobility of endocytic vesicles, as studied by particle tracking, is well described by a model for anomalous subdiffusion on short time scales with an anomalous exponent α ~ 0.63 and an anomalous diffusion constant of Dα = 1.95 x 10-3 μm2/sα. On a longer time scale (t > ~5 s, a transition to superdiffusion consistent with slow directed transport with an average velocity of v ~ 6 x 10-3 μm/s was observed. We present an analytical model that bridges the two regimes and fit this model to vesicle trajectories from control cells and cells with disrupted microtubule or actin filaments. Both treatments reduced the anomalous diffusion constant and the velocity by ~40-50%. Conclusions The mobility of sterol-containing vesicles on the short time scale could reflect dynamic rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, while directed transport of sterol vesicles occurs likely along both, microtubules and actin filaments. Spatially varying anomalous diffusion could contribute to fine-tuning and local regulation of intracellular sterol transport.

  18. Two-photon time-lapse microscopy of BODIPY-cholesterol reveals anomalous sterol diffusion in chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, F. W.; Lomholt, M. A.; Solanko, L. M.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholesterol is an important membrane component, but our knowledge about its transport in cells is sparse. Previous imaging studies using dehydroergosterol (DHE), an intrinsically fluorescent sterol from yeast, have established that vesicular and non-vesicular transport modes contribute...... to sterol trafficking from the plasma membrane. Significant photobleaching, however, limits the possibilities for in-depth analysis of sterol dynamics using DHE. Co-trafficking studies with DHE and the recently introduced fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol) suggested that the latter...

  19. Chronic exposure to nanosized, anatase titanium dioxide is not cyto- or genotoxic to Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Hunter, Lindsey A; Arslan, Zikri; Wilkerson, Michael G; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K

    2011-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO(2) ) are widely used in cosmetics, skin care products, paints, and water treatment processes. Disagreement remains regarding the safety of nano-TiO(2) , and little epidemiological data is available to provide needed resolution. Most studies have examined effects using acute exposure experiments with relatively few studies using a chronic exposure design. We examined cyto- and genotoxicity in CHO-K1 cells following 60 days of continuous exposure to defined levels of nano-TiO(2) (0, 10, 20, or 40 μg/ml). Oxidative stress increased in a concentration-dependent manner in short- (2 days) and long-term cultures, but long-term cultures had lower levels of oxidative stress. The primary reactive oxygen species appeared to be superoxide, and ROS indicators were lowered with the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD). No cyto- or genotoxic effects were apparent using the XTT, trypan-blue exclusion, and colony-forming assays for viability and the Comet and Hprt gene mutation assays for genotoxicity. Nano-TiO(2) increased the percentage of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, but this effect did not appear to influence cell viability or cell division. Cellular Ti content was dose-dependent, but chronically exposed cells had lower amounts than acutely exposed cells. CHO cells appear to adapt to chronic exposure to nano-TiO(2) and detoxify excess ROS possibly through upregulation of SOD in addition to reducing particle uptake.

  20. Molecular cloning of two Arabidopsis UDP-galactose transporters by complementation of a deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.; Routier, F.; Oelmann, S.; Jordi, W.J.R.M.; Lommen, A.; Gerardy-Schahn, R.; Bosch, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) form a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins that transport nucleotide-sugars from the cytoplasm to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi lumen. In these organelles, activated sugars are substrates for various glycosyltransferases involved in oligo-

  1. Designing and Screening of Microsatellite Primers in Chinese Hamster%中国地鼠微卫星DNA引物的设计及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国华; 耿佳宁; 贾若愚; 岳文斌; 刘田福; 胡松年

    2012-01-01

    本研究旨在筛选中国地鼠微卫星位点,为中国地鼠遗传分析提供遗传标记.根据建立的中国地鼠微卫星富集文库,对筛选的含微卫星DNA序列的克隆应用引物设计软件Primer 3.0设计引物135对,选择合成11对理论上易出现影子带的引物,用20个中国地鼠个体对这些引物进行了评估.结果显示,11对引物均能扩增出谱带,这11条带的平均多态信息含量(PIC)为0.4195,平均观察杂合度(Ho)为0.3895,平均期望杂合度(He)为0.4565,每个位点的平均等位基因数为5.818.筛选出的微卫星位点均可用于中国地鼠种群遗传结构分析,这将为中国地鼠品种选育、种系评估提供更多的微卫星遗传标记信息.%The objectives of the present study were to screen new microsatellite loci in Chinese hamster to develop genetic markers for genetic analysis. A library of partial small size fractionated genomic DNA was constructed with the Chinese hamster. 135 pairs of primers were designed with the software Primer 3. 0 for rnicrosatellites positive clones obtained. 11 pairs primers that the stutter bands easily in theory were synthesized and 20 samples were tested with them. The results showed 10 of the 11 loci were found to be polymorphic,and PIC, the mean observed heterozygosities (Ho) , the mean expected heterozy-gosities( He) were 0. 4195, 0. 3895 and 0. 4565, respectively. The microsatellite markers would be useful for further studying on accessions identification and breeding of Chinese hamster,which would provide some evaluable tools for marker-assisted selection breeding and gene mapping in Chinese hamster.

  2. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15) mRNA and protein are influenced by photoperiod-induced ovarian regression and recrudescence in Siberian hamster ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2013-11-01

    Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors-anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15)-across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for 2 (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or 8 weeks (PTw8). Ovaries were collected and fixed in formalin for immunohistochemistry or frozen in liquid nitrogen for real-time PCR. AMH, inhibin-α, GDF9, and BMP15 mRNA and protein were detected in all stages of the estrus cycle. Fourteen weeks of SD exposure increased (P hamsters to stimulatory long photoperiod for 8 weeks returned AMH and GDF9 mRNA levels to LD-treated levels, and further increased mRNA levels for inhibin-α and BMP15. Immunostaining for AMH, inhibin-α, GDF9, and BMP15 proteins was most intense in preantral/antral follicles and oocytes. The overall immunostaining extent for AMH and inhibin-α generally mirrored the mRNA data, though no changes were observed for GDF9 or BMP15 immunostaining. Shifts in mRNA and protein levels across photoperiod conditions suggest possible syncretic roles for these folliculogenic factors in photo-stimulated recrudescence via potential regulation of follicle recruitment, preservation, and development.

  3. Development of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-tz Ou

    Full Text Available To develop the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.This cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan. Eighty women who met the criteria were enrolled: female, age range of 18-45 years, competent in the Chinese language, had been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, and were regularly followed at outpatient clinics (defined as at least two outpatient visits before enrollment. The PCOSQ was translated and culturally adapted according to standard procedures. A semi-structured interview was applied to assess face validity. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was applied to determine scale constructs. Measurements of internal consistency via Cronbach's α, test-retest reliability via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, construct validity, and discriminative validity were performed.Five additional items, representing the issues of acne, hair loss, and fear of getting diabetes, were incorporated into the original scale. A six-factor structure emerged as a result of the EFA, explaining 71.9% of the variance observed. The reliability analyses demonstrated satisfactory results for Cronbach's α ranging from 0.78-0.96, and for ICC ranging from 0.73-0.86. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation between the domains of the Chi-PCOSQ and generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL measures (WHOQOL-BREF, EQ-5D and clinical parameters (body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure. The known-group analysis indicated that the Chi-PCOSQ is a discriminative tool that differentiates patients according to their HRQoL.The Chi-PCOSQ seems internally consistent, culturally acceptable, and our preliminary evidence suggests that it may be reliable and valid. The Chi-PCOSQ is a promising assessment tool to address the HRQoL of women affected by PCOS in Chinese-speaking countries and to further identify ethnic/cultural differences in the HRQoL of

  4. Increased risk of psychiatric disorders in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Li; Shi Yu-hua; Hao cui-fang; Chen Zi-jiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the psychological health status and quality of everyday life of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: A total of 846 patients were assessed with Self-Rating Anxiety Scales (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS) (292 of PCOS patients, 294 of non-PCOS infertile patients and 260 of healthy control). Specific questionnaires were employed to rate the quality of everyday life and adverse effects of different psychiatric factors. Results: The scores of SDS and SAS of PCOS patients were higher than those of non-PCOS infertile patients and healthy control. In addition, the negative psychiatric and psychological impact of PCOS was severe. The quality of everyday life in PCOS patients was undermined to certain extents. Conclusions: The features of polycystic ovary syndrome bring stress to patients, causing psychological disorder. The quality of everyday life in affected women is impaired partly. These results implicate that psychological support should be considered in the treatment of PCOS-associated infertility.

  5. Validation of Chinese Version of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available To evaluate the responsiveness, longitudinal validity, and measurement invariance of the Chinese version of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Health-related Quality of Life Questionnaire (Chi-PCOSQ.This prospective study was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. 102 women aged 18-45 years and diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled. Objective indicators for clinical changes of PCOS included assessing the 2-hour glucose and insulin levels before and after treatment. The responsiveness of Chi-PCOSQ and WHOQOL-BREF was analyzed using paired t-tests and the standard response mean. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ.With improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels, we also found significantly increased Chi-PCOSQ total and individual domain scores (total score: t (49 = 5.20; p < 0.001, domain scores: t (49 = 2.72 to 3.87; p < 0.01, except for hair growth. Half of the domains scores (3 of 6 and the total score of Chi-PCOSQ had a medium responsiveness, but WHOQOL-BREF was not sufficiently responsive to clinical changes of PCOS. Improved PCOS-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL, as indicated by Chi-PCOSQ scores, was significantly associated with improved 2-hour glucose and insulin levels. All indices of the data-model fit of the Chi-PCOSQ structure were satisfactory, except for the slightly high standardized root mean square residual values (0.087 to 0.088. The measurement invariance of Chi-PCOSQ was supported across time.Chi-PCOSQ is sufficiently sensitive in detecting clinical changes and its measurement structure is suitable for Chinese women with PCOS. It is thus a promising tool for assessing the HRQoL of ethnic Chinese women with PCOS.

  6. Protective Effect of Boric Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage In Chinese Hamster Lung Fibroblast V79 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SezenYılmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many studies have been published on the antioxidative effects of boric acid (BA and sodium borates in in vitro studies. However, the boron (B concentrations tested in these in vitro studies have not been selected by taking into account the realistic blood B concentrations in humans due to the lack of comprehensive epidemiological studies. The recently published epidemiological studies on B exposure conducted in China and Turkey provided blood B concentrations for both humans in daily life and workers under extreme exposure conditions in occupational setting. The results of these studies have made it possible to test antioxidative effects of BA in in vitro studies within the concentration range relevant to humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of BA against oxidative DNA damage in V79 (Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells. The concentrations of BA tested for its protective effect was selected by taking the blood B concentrations into account reported in previously published epidemiological studies. Therefore, the concentrations of BA tested in this study represent the exposure levels for humans in both daily life and occupational settings. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, comet assay and neutral red uptake (NRU assay methods were used to determinacy to toxicity and genotoxicity of BA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Results: The results of the NRU assay showed that BA was not cytotoxic within the tested concentrations (3, 10, 30, 100 and 200 μM. These non-cytotoxic concentrations were used for comet assay. BA pre-treatment significantly reduced (P<0.05, one-way ANOVA the DNA damaging capacity of H2O2 at each tested BA concentrations in V79 cells. Conclusion: Consequently, pre-incubation of V79 cells with BA has significantly reduced the H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in V79 cells. The protective effect of BA against oxidative DNA damage in V79 cells at 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 μM (54

  7. No association of the insulin gene VNTR polymorphism with polycystic ovary syndrome in a Han Chinese population

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    Gao Guihua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder associated with an increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus. The results of previous research about the association of the VNTR polymorphism in 5-prime flanking region of the insulin (INS gene with PCOS have been inconsistent. The present study was to investigate the association of the INS-VNTR polymorphism with PCOS in a Han Chinese population. Methods The -23/HphI polymorphism as a surrogate marker of the INS-VNTR length polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP in 216 PCOS patients and 192 non-PCOS women as a control group. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between patients and controls, and these results were analyzed in respect to clinical test data. Results No significant differences were observed between the cases and controls groups either in allele (P = 0.996 or genotype (P = 0.802 frequencies of INS-VNTR polymorphism; Regarding anthropometric data and hormone levels, there were no significant differences between INS-VNTR genotypes in the PCOS group, as well as in the non-PCOS group. Conclusion The present study demonstrated for the first time that the INS-VNTR polymorphism is not a key risk factor for sporadic PCOS in the Han Chinese women. Further studies are needed to give a global view of this polymorphism in pathogenesis of PCOS in a large-scale sample, family-based association design or well-defined subgroups of PCOS.

  8. Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Qing Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and adverse birth outcomes. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study including 2389 pregnant women, the medical records of 352 women diagnosed with PCOS were evaluated. Outcomes included GDM, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, and being small and large for gestational age. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the risk for GDM and adverse birth outcomes with PCOS after adjusting for confounders. Results. Women previously diagnosed with PCOS had a higher risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.09. A strong association was seen between PCOS and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08–2.67. On stratified analysis, the adjusted OR for GDM among women with PCOS undergoing assisted reproductive technology was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.03–1.92 and among women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously was 1.60 (1.18–2.15. No increased risk for other adverse birth outcomes was observed. Conclusions. Women with PCOS were more likely to experience GDM and preterm birth.

  9. A Single Arm Pilot Study of Effects of Berberine on the Menstrual Pattern, Ovulation Rate, Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Anovulatory Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of berberine on the menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Berberine 0.4 g three times per day was given for four months to 102 anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The menstrual pattern, ovulation rate, hormonal and metabolic profiles were compared before and after the berberine treatment. Ovulation was confirmed by serum progesterone level ≥10 ng/ml.A total of 98 of 102 subjects (96.1% completed the four month treatment, including 69 (70.4%, 69/98 normal weight and 29 (29.6%, 29/98 overweight/obese. Fourteen women (14.3%, 14/98 had regained regular menses after berberine treatment and there was no significant difference between normal weight and overweight/obese groups. The ovulation rate was 25.0% over four months in the whole group, 22.5% in the normal weight group and 31.0% in the overweight/obese group. Sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, total triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased after berberine treatment in the normal weight group only.Our study found that administration of berberine alone may improve the menstrual pattern and ovulation rate in anovulatory Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Berberine can also decrease sex hormone binding globulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome women.Chictr.org ChiCTR-OO-13003943.

  10. Recovery and Utilization of Golden Hamster Ovary Oocytes After Superovulation%金黄地鼠超排后未排卵泡卵母细胞的成熟度和受精能力的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婧; 唐元凤; 曲洪磊; 何宇乾; 宋学雄

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims at characterizing the mature degree and fertilization ability of unovulation follecle in golden hamster after superovulation. The experiment workd on the basis of four times superovulation treatment with gonadotropin PMSG and HCG and obtained the oocytes in oviducts and unovulation follicle from 12 low superovulat-ed hamster,so as to observe the mature degree and fertilization ability. The average amount of oocytes obtained from the oviducts was 22.6 7. 8 per hamster,while the oocytes with expanded cumulus and the unexpanded ones from the unovulation follecle were respectively 23. 2 3.9 and 13.43.7 per hamster. After the treatment with 0. 1% hyaluron-idase, 86. 1 % of the oocytes were naked and 11.52.4% had corona. Among the naked oocytes, 80.4 2. 3% were matured with polar body while 5.7 0. 8% had no polar body. After two hours cultures in vitro, the maturation rate reached 100% for naked oocytes with no polar body, 6. 3 9.4% of the oocytes with corona and no maturation were observed from oocytes with a compact cumulus. The penetration test with human spermatozoa shows no significant difference (P > 0.05 ) in the fertilization rate between matured oocytes (44.1 ±6.0%) and that of ovulated mature oocytes (45.4 ±4.1% ). Similar number of mature oocytes could be retrieved from the ovaries as from that of oviducts, and those oocytes have the potentiality to be used for the zona -free hamster oocytes penetration test ( HOP) and study for correlative development biology.%为了证实金黄地鼠超排后卵巢中未排卵卵泡卵母细胞的成熟程度和受精能力,用促性腺激素PMSG和HCG进行4次超排处理,其中选择12只超排效率低下的金黄地鼠,回收输卵管和卵巢卵母细胞,观察卵母细胞的成熟程度、体外培养成熟能力及体外受精能力.结果显示,输卵管中回收超排卵数平均为22.6±7.8枚/只,从超排后卵巢中回收卵丘扩展卵数平均为23.2±3.9枚/只,卵

  11. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals.

  12. Culture of Population Inbreed Line of Chinese hamster in Shanxi Medical University%中国地鼠山医群体近交系的培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘田福

    2003-01-01

    @@ 中国地鼠(Chinese hamster)是黑线仓鼠(Cricetulus barabensis Pallas)的俗称.原产于中国,分布在河北、北京、辽宁、山东、山西、河南、安徽和江苏等地.身体被毛,背部、尾基部背面和四条腿背面的毛为灰褐色、土黄色或黄褐色(毛基部黑色,毛尖褐色),自耳基部到尾部前端的背中央有一条很细的纵行黑毛(从毛根到毛尖全黑),背脊好像隐约有一条黑线故名黑线仓鼠.

  13. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population.

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    Hui Gao

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population.Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, were analyzed. Women with PCOS were found to have significantly higher fasting insulin (FI levels, as well as Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR (P < 0.05. Identically, markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, Nitric oxide (NO and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP were markedly increased when compared to controls (P < 0.05. Elevated serum Hsp70 was positively correlated with IR, oxidative stress and inflammation in PCOS, even after adjustment for age, BMI and gynecologic inflammation (GI. The receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis yielded notably different discriminative value for PCOS, with or without an addition of Hsp70 (areas under the curves were 0.884 (95% CI 0.822-0.946 vs. 0.822 (95% CI 0.744-0.900; P for difference = 0.015.Increased serum Hsp70 levels are associated with the combination of IR, oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS individuals, which provides supportive evidence that Hsp70 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of circulating Hsp70, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of PCOS and its long-term health cost.

  14. Biological characteristics of Chinese hamster infected with Babesia%巴贝西虫感染黑线仓鼠生物学特性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶莉; 白杰英; 马帅; 王昱佳; 郑珺文; 王冬平; 李桂军; 范君文; 时彦胜; 张小飞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a Chinese hamster model of babesia infection, to find the changing pattern of organs and biochemical parameters in Chinese hamster infected with Babesia, and to promote the detection and treatment of babesiosis.Methods Healthy 5-week old Chinese hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal injection of blood containing Babesia.Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 23, 30, and 37 days after infection from 5 hamsters at each time point.Blood smears were prepared to detect the parasites using Giemsa staining.ELISA assay was employed to test the IL-2 concentration.The blood biochemical indexes were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer.DNA was extracted from the whole blood and REAL-TIME RCR was performed to determine the reproduction of Babesia.Aftert the animals were sacrificed, the heart, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney were taken to analyze the changes of organ coefficients.Results The highest level of Babesia in the hamsters occurred on day 4 after the Babesia injection, and then showing a decreasing tendency.However, there was a transient increase on the 12th day after infection.The liver and spleen displayed most extensive response to the infection showing hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, but the variation of heart and kidneys coefficients was within the norm.There were prominent changes of blood cells, especially leucocytes, with two peaks at day 10 and 23 after the Babesia infection.The peak changes of blood biochemical indexes occurred at day 12 after infection.The concentration of serum IL-2 reached a peak on the 10th day after infection.Conclusions The Chinese hamsters display typical characteristics of tick-borne diseases such as hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.The immunological system is activated along with the infection and reaches a highest stage in the second week.Afterwards the Babesia can live in the hamster body for a long period of time.The results of this study provide useful information

  15. Metabolism of radiohafnium in marmosets and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.M.; Seidel, A.; Doerfel, H.

    1985-01-01

    The whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf was studied in marmosets (Callithrex jacchus) and found to be closely similar to that in rats and Chinese hamsters. Limited tissue distribution studies suggest a higher uptake in liver and much lower deposition in skin and muscle in the marmoset as compared to the rat or Chinese hamster. Studies in Chinese hamsters showed that treatment with the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid resulted in only a small reduction in the whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf. The absorption of orally administered /sup 181/Hf, in various chemical forms, was found to be between 0.04 and 0.13% of the ingested dose and was unaffected by age between 5 and 21 months but was increased by fasting. The measured absorption of /sup 181/Hf in Chinese hamsters and in rats was similar to that of plutonium suggesting that radiohafnium could be used as a surrogate for plutonium for selected studies in human volunteers.

  16. Construction and identification of DNA libraries enriched for microsatellite repeat sequences of Chinese hamster%中国地鼠基因组微卫星富集文库的构建与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国华; 耿佳宁; 贾若愚; 岳文斌; 刘田福; 胡松年

    2011-01-01

    目的 筛选中国地鼠微卫星位点,为中国地鼠种质资源的分类、进化等遗传研究奠定基础.方法中国地鼠基因组DNA经超声打碎,用2%琼脂糖凝胶电泳回收500~1000 bp的DNA片段,与SNX连接头连接,连接产物与生物素标记的14种微卫星探针变性及退火,再通过链亲和素偶联磁珠亲和捕捉,经吸附、洗涤及洗脱,然后以洗脱产物为模板,通过PCR扩增,与pGEM-T载体连接,转化大肠杆菌DH10B,构建中国地鼠微卫星DNA富集文库.结果 测序结果发现,微卫星DNA序列的阳性克隆占70.3%.结论 中国地鼠微卫星文库的建立和微卫星的筛选将为下一步进行中国地鼠遗传连锁图谱的构建、分子进化和系统发育研究提供大量的微卫星标记.%Objective To screen the microsatellite loci of Chinese hamster DNA to serve the genetic studies of germplasm resources, classification and evolution of Chinese hamsters. Methods Genomic DNAs from Chinese hamster was fragmented by ultrasonication. The fragments in size from 500 bp to 1000 bp were recovered by 2% agarose gel electro-phoresis and ligated to SNX linkers with T4 DNA ligase, then denatured and hybridized to 14 biotinylated oligonucleotides. The biotinylated hybrids were retained on magnetic beads according to the strong afinity between biotin and streptavidin. The products was amplified by PCR and cloned into pGEM-T plasmid vector, and then transformed into Escherichia coli DH10B to construct DNA libraries enriched for microsatellite repeat sequences of Chinese hamster. Results The results of sequencing showed that sequences contained microsatellites indicating a high degree of microsatellite enrichment. Conclusions The new polymorphic microsatellite markers identified and characterized in this study may serve the Chinese hamster genetic linkage mapping, molecular evolution and phylogenetic studies.

  17. Effect of PD 128763, a new potent inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, on X-ray-induced cellular recovery processes in Chinese hamster V79 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arundel-Suto, C.M.; Scavone, S.V.; Turner, W.R.; Suto, M.J.; Sebolt-Leopold, J.S. (Warner-Lambert Company, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The modifying effects of PD 128763 (3,4-dihydro-5-methyl-1(2H)-isoquinolinone), a potent inhibitor of poly(adenosine-diphosphate (ADP)-ribose) polymerase, on radiation-induced cell killing were examined in Chinese hamster V79 cells. This compound has an IC50 value against the purified enzyme approximately 50X lower than 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), a widely used specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Exposure of exponentially growing cells to a noncytotoxic concentration (0.5 mM) of PD 128763 for 2 h immediately following X irradiation increased their radiation sensitivity, modifying both the shoulder and the slope of the survival curve. When recovery from sublethal damage and potentially lethal damage was examined in exponential and plateau-phase cells, respectively, postirradiation incubation with 0.5 mM PD 128763 was found not only to inhibit both these processes fully, but also to enhance further the level of radiation-induced cell killing. This is in contrast to the slight effect seen with the less potent inhibitor, 3-AB. The results presented suggest that the mechanism of radiosensitization by PD 128763 is related to the potent inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by this compound.

  18. The effects of captan and captafol on different bacterial strains and on c-mitosis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahden-Staroń, I; Szumiło, M; Ziemkiewicz, P

    1994-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of captan and captafol was tested using Ames strains and strains showing an SOS response. Captafol was mutagenic in S. typhimurium strain TA102 (uvr+) and captan in strain TA104 (uvrB). Both captan and captafol elicit damages in DNA recognized by correndonuclease II, as shown by the repair test, and induced the SOS repair system in E. coli PQ37 (uvrA) strain. Only captafol induced the SOS system in PQ35 (uvr+). The lack of induction of beta-galactosidase at nonpermissive temperature in E. coli MD332 (dnaCs uvrA) strain showed that neither chemical was able to produce DNA breaks. In V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts higher induction of c-mitosis by captafol than by captan (22% and 15% over the control, respectively) was accompanied by a higher decrease in nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, mainly GSH (41% and 77%, respectively). The content of protein sulfhydryl groups was decreased by either fungicide to a similar extent.

  19. Effect of oxygen-radiosensitizer mixtures on the radiation response of Chinese hamster cells, line V-79-753B, in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, B.C.; Fielden, E.M.; Steele, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The present data show that the maximum yield of single-strand breaks (ssb) in the cellular DNA of Chinese hamster cells V-79-753B is produced at a concentration of oxygen that produces an enhancement ratio for cell survival of 1.9. The relationship between the oxygen concentration and enhancement ratio for survival in this cell line is biphasic with a plateau at ER = 1.9 over the range of 1.5 to 7 ..mu..M O/sub 2/. For concetrations of oxygen below 1.5 ..mu..M a linear relationship between 1/D/sub 0/ and the initial yield of ssb is found. Electron affinic and free radical radiosensitizers operate by different mechanisms which are reflected at the level of ssb production; electron affinic compounds increase the yield of ssb in anoxia and in the presence of low concentrations of oxygen, whereas free radical radiosensitizers do not. The observation that TMPN can compete with oxygen or misonidazole in reactions that lead to changes in radiosensitivity but not ssb production indicates that the relationship between the two parameters must be casual and not casual.

  20. Chromium(VI)—induces Production of Reactive Oxygen Species,Change of Plasma Membrane Potential and Dissipation of Mitochondria Membrane otential in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEYI; ZHUANGZHI-XIONG

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS) is generated,and whether plasma membrane potential and mitochnodrial membrane potential are depolarized in Chinese Hamster Lung(CHL)cell lines exposed to Cr(VI),Methods:CHL Cells were incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 umol/L,2.5umol/L,0.65umol/L for 3 and 6 hours,respectively.The rpoduction of ROS was performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin discetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin discetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent cationic dye DiBAC4;And the changes in mitochondria membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123,Results:The ROS levels in CHL cells increased in all treated groups compared with the control group(P<0.01);The plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cells dissipated after incubated with Cr(VI) at 10umol/L for 3 hours and 6 hours(P<0.01),at 2.5umol/L for 6 hours(P<0.01 or 0.05),Conclusion:Cr(VI) causes the dissipation of plasma membrane potential and mitochnodrial membrane otential in CHL cell cultrues,and Cr(VI)-induced ROS may play a role in the injuries.

  1. Chromium(VI)-induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Change of Plasma Membrane Potential and Dissipation of Mitochondria Membrane Potential in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine whether Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is generated, and whether plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential are depolarized in Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cell lines exposed to Cr (VI). Methods CHL cells were incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 μmol/L, 2.5 μmol/L, 0.65 μmol/L for 3 and 6 hours, respectively. The production of ROS was performed by using 2,7_dichlorofluorescin diacetate; The changes in plasma membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent cationic dye DiBAC4; And the changes in mitochondria membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123. Results The ROS levels in CHL cells increased in all treated groups compared with the control group (P<0.01); The plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cells dissipated after incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 μmol/L for 3 hours and 6 hours (P<0.01), at 2.5 μmol/L for 6 hours (P<0.01 or 0.05). Conclusion Cr(VI) causes the dissipation of plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cell cultures, and Cr(VI)_induced ROS may play a role in the injuries.

  2. Role of the Pentanucleotide (tttta)n Polymorphisms of CYP11α Gene in the Pathogenesis of Hyperandrogenism in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To determine the (tttta)n repeat polymorphisms at the promoter region of CYP11α gene,and study its linkage to hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Chinese women, a case-control study was conducted in the Reproductive Medical Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Zhengzhou, China). 96 PCOS patients and 78 healthy control women were included. CYP11α (tttta)n repeat-polymorphism genotyping analysis was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum pituitary hormone and total testosterone levels were measured by ELISA. 4 different CYP11α (tttta)n allelles were identified, corresponding to 4-, 6-, 8-, and 9-repeat-unit alleles. The frequency and distribution of these alleles are 0. 16,0.33, 0.38, and 0. 13 respectively in PCOS patients, as compared with 0. 20, 0.34, 0. 35, and 0.11 respectively in healthy controls. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Moreover, no correlation between the polymorphism of CYP11α gene and serum testosterone level of patients with PCOS and controls was observed. It is concluded that microsatellite polymorphism (tttta)n of gene CYP11α exists in Chinese women and the polymorphism of CYP11α gene does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese patients with PCOS, especially in patients with hyperandrogenism.

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment Overview of Traditional Chinese Medicine%多囊卵巢综合征中医治疗概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 施艳秋

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome ( PCOS ) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age syndrome, because of its complex pathogenesis, modern medicine for its therapeutic effect is not satisfactory.The PCOS pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation and treatment, Tiaozhou therapy, experience of famous, with combined acupuncture and medicine etc, right in recent years to traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome were reviewed the status.%多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是育龄妇女最常见的内分泌紊乱综合征,因其发病机制复杂,现代医学对其治疗效果尚不令人满意,文章就PCOS的病因病机、辨证论治、调周疗法、名家经验、针药结合等方面,对近年来国内中医药在治疗多囊卵巢综合征方面的状况加以综述.

  4. Family-Based Association Study of rs17300539 and rs12495941 Polymorphism in Adiponectin Gene and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianchang; Wu, Xingguo; Duan, Yunmin; Liu, Guanghai; Yu, Xinyan; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2017-01-01

    Backgriond Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease that has both genetic and environmental components. Adiponectin plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) variants (rs12495941 and rs17300539) of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) families. Material/Methods We recruited 197 PCOS probands, their biological parents, and 192 controls. Anthropometric variables, including hip circumference (HC) and waist circumference (WC), were measured in all subjects during their first visit to the outpatient department. Serum T, FBG, FINS, TC, TG, LDL, and HDL levels were measured. PCOS patients were divided into 2 groups based on BMI: group A (BMI <25 kg/m2) and group B (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Parents of PCOS were accordingly categorized into group C and group D (fathers), and group E and group F (mothers). The associations among ADIPOQ rs12495941, rs17300539, and PCOS were analyzed using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). Results A significant association was found between SNP rs17300539 and PCOS in our Chinese population. The levels of TG and FINS and the genotype frequencies of rs17300539 are significantly different between overweight and lean PCOS. No significant association was detected for rs12495941. Conclusions TDT confirms that rs17300539 of ADIPOQ is strongly associated with the risk of PCOS in a Chinese Han population, but rs12495941 of ADIPOQ is not associated with the occurrence of PCOS. PMID:28060790

  5. Feature gene selection for Chinese hamster classification based on support vector machine%基于支持向量机的中国地鼠分类特征基因选取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊丽; 刘田福

    2011-01-01

    针对中国地鼠基因表达谱数据维数高和样本小的特点,提出一种基于支持向量机(SVM)的分类特征基因选取方法.该方法利用改进的Fisher判别(FDR)基因特征计分准则剔除分类无关基因,提出由空间距离和功能距离组成的新距离作为相似性度量的标准进行冗余基因的剔除,采用SVM作为分类器检验特征基因的分类性能.实验结果表明,该方法有效地剔除了分类无关基因和冗余基因,选取的特征基因满足对中国地鼠正确分类的最小基因数.%Concerning the gene expression profile of Chinese hamster feature, such as high-dimension and small sample,a method of feature selection for Chinese hamster classification based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) was proposed in this paper. The method used improved FDR gene feature score criterion to remove the genes irrelevant to the classification. A new distance composed by space distance and function distance was proposed as the criterion of comparability to remove redundant genes. A SVM was used as classifier to validate the classification performance of the feature genes selected. The experimental results show that this method effectively removes the irrelevant and redundant genes, and selected the feature genes that meet the needs of least feature genes which classify accurately on Chinese hamster.

  6. Changes in the Number of Double-Strand DNA Breaks in Chinese Hamster V79 Cells Exposed to γ-Radiation with Different Dose Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyan N. Osipov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative investigation of the induction of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs in the Chinese hamster V79 cells by γ-radiation at dose rates of 1, 10 and 400 mGy/min (doses ranged from 0.36 to 4.32 Gy was performed. The acute radiation exposure at a dose rate of 400 mGy/min resulted in the linear dose-dependent increase of the γ-H2AX foci formation. The dose-response curve for the acute exposure was well described by a linear function y = 1.22 + 19.7x, where “y” is an average number of γ-H2AX foci per a cell and “x” is the absorbed dose (Gy. The dose rate reduction down to 10 mGy/min lead to a decreased number of γ-H2AX foci, as well as to a change of the dose-response relationship. Thus, the foci number up to 1.44 Gy increased and reached the “plateau” area between 1.44 and 4.32 Gy. There was only a slight increase of the γ-H2AX foci number (up to 7 in cells after the protracted exposure (up to 72 h to ionizing radiation at a dose rate of 1 mGy/min. Similar effects of the varying dose rates were obtained when DNA damage was assessed using the comet assay. In general, our results show that the reduction of the radiation dose rate resulted in a significant decrease of DSBs per cell per an absorbed dose.

  7. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of UV-A- and UV-B-induced delayed and early mutations in V79 Chinese hamster cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Jostein; Noordhuis, Paul; Stokke, Trond; Svendsrud, Debbie Hege; Kvam, Egil

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that approximately 10% of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast populations clonally derived from single cells immediately after irradiation with either ultraviolet B (UV-B, 290-320 nm, mainly 311 nm) or ultraviolet A (UV-A, 320-400 nm, mainly 350-390 nm) radiation exhibit genomic instability. The instability is revealed by relatively high mutation frequencies in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene up to 23 cell generations after irradiation. These delayed mutant clones exhibited higher levels of oxidative stress than normal cells. Therefore, persistently increased oxidative stress has been proposed as a mechanism for UV-induced genomic instability. This study investigates whether this mechanism is reflected in the deletion spectrum of delayed mutant clones. Eighty-eight percent of the delayed mutant clones derived from UV-A-irradiated populations were found to have total deletion of the hprt gene. Correspondingly, 81% of UV-A-induced early mutations (i.e. detected shortly after irradiation) also had total deletions. Among delayed UV-B-induced mutant clones, 23% had total deletions and 8% had deletion of one exon, whereas all early UV-B events were either point mutations or small deletions or insertions. In conclusion, the multiplex polymerase chain reaction deletion screen showed that there were explicit differences in the occurrence of large gene alterations between early and delayed mutations induced by UV-B radiation. For UV-A radiation the deletion spectra were similar for delayed and early mutations. UV-A radiation is, in contrast to UV-B radiation, only weakly absorbed by DNA and probably induces mutation almost solely via production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the present results support the hypothesis that persistent increase in oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of UV-induced genomic instability.

  8. Cell killing, nuclear damage and apoptosis in Chinese hamster V79 cells after irradiation with heavy-ion beams of (16)O, (12)C and (7)Li.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rupak; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Sarma, Asiti; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2007-08-15

    Chinese hamster V79 cells were exposed to high LET (linear energy transfer) (16)O-beam (625keV/mum) radiation in the dose range of 0-9.83Gy. Cell survival, micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and induction of apoptosis were studied as a follow up of our earlier study on high LET radiations ((7)Li-beam of 60keV/mum and (12)C-beam of 295keV/mum) as well as (60)Co gamma-rays. Dose dependent decline in surviving fraction was noticed along with the increase of MN frequency, CA frequency as well as percentage of apoptosis as detected by nuclear fragmentation assay. The relative intensity of DNA ladder, which is a useful marker for the determination of the extent of apoptosis induction, was also increased in a dose dependent manner. Additionally, expression of tyrosine kinase lck-1 gene, which plays an important role in response to ionizing radiation induced apoptosis, was increased with the increase of radiation doses and also with incubation time. The present study showed that all the high LET radiations were generally more effective in cell killing and inflicting other cytogenetic damages than that of low LET gamma-rays. The dose response curves revealed that (7)Li-beam was most effective in cell killing as well as inducing other nuclear damages followed by (12)C, (16)O and (60)Co gamma-rays, in that order. The result of this study may have some application in biological dosimetry for assessment of genotoxicity in heavy ion exposed subjects and in determining suitable doses for radiotherapy in cancer patients where various species of heavy ions are now being generally used.

  9. Thought of Chinese Medicine Treatment for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征不孕中医助孕思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利侠

    2012-01-01

    It is to investigate the pathogenesis mechanism of infertility which is caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. From the perspective of Chinese medicine, the author thinks the weakness of kidney and depression of liver are the basic reasons, at the same time, blood stasis and phlegm are the surface reasons of pathogenesis. The way of Chinese medicine treatment is nourishing kidney yin and warming kidney yang in order to help follicular developing; clearing the stagnation of liver, getting rid of phlegm and dredging the meridian in order to promote ovulation. Both warming kidney is as the main method and dredging the liver is as the assistant way to enhance the function of corpus luteum.%探讨多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕的发病机制,认为肾虚肝郁是致病之本,血瘀、痰湿乃发病之标.中医治疗宜滋肾阴佐以温肾阳助卵泡发育,疏肝化瘀祛痰通络促卵子排出,温肾佐以疏肝助黄体功能.

  10. Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征的中西医药物疗法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于胜君; 徐莲薇

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome drug therapy aspects of medication in Chinese and Western medicine, and pays more comprehensive attention to the characteristics of various treatments in recent years. According to the literature reports, in recent years, Western medicine mainly through reducing serum androgen levels, decreasing LH level, to improve insulin resistance and induce ovulation methods to alleviate the symptoms. According to syndrome differentiation, TCM treat PCOS mainly via filling kidney essence, regulating and supplementing the Chong and Ren, dissipating phlegm and dampness, moving qi and promoting blood, soothing liver and relieving qi depression, clearing away heat. Many gynecologists cure PCOS combining yin/yang and qi/blood changes in the menstrual cycle to achieve better effect. However, no matter Chinese or Western medicine clinical applications in the treatment of PCOS have some limitations.Combining Chinese and Western medicine in treating polycystic ovary syndrome, can improve the physical environment for pregnancy by traditional Chinese medicine and promote ovulation by Western conception.By complementary strengths of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine, it improves the clinical efficacy. Currently, the more commonly used methods of combined Chinese and Western medicine are TCM combined dyne -35, TCM combined clomiphene citrate; TCM cycle-therapy in combination with clomiphene citrate, TCM combined Metformin. The following we will discuss the various treatment methods.%文章旨在复习相关报道,整理分析多囊卵巢综合征的中西医药物疗法及其特点和进展.近年来中西医学者分别对本病的治疗展开深入探讨,西医主要通过降低血雄激素水平、降低LH水平、改善PCOS的胰岛素抵抗和诱发排卵等治疗改善症状.中医治疗根据辨证论治通过补肾填精,调补冲任;或燥湿除痰,理气行滞;或疏肝解郁,清热泻火;或行气导滞,活血化瘀

  11. Bioengineered Chinese hamster ovary cells with Golgi-targeted 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 biosynthesize heparan sulfate with an antithrombin-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Payel; Li, Guoyun; Yang, Bo; Zhao, Xue; Baik, Jong Youn; Gemmill, Trent R; Sharfstein, Susan T; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-12-27

    HS3st1 (heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform-1) is a critical enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the antithrombin III (AT)-binding site in the biopharmaceutical drug heparin. Heparin is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan that shares a common biosynthetic pathway with heparan sulfate (HS). Although only granulated cells, such as mast cells, biosynthesize heparin, all animal cells are capable of biosynthesizing HS. As part of an effort to bioengineer CHO cells to produce heparin, we previously showed that the introduction of both HS3st1 and NDST2 (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase isoform-2) afforded HS with a very low level of anticoagulant activity. This study demonstrated that untargeted HS3st1 is broadly distributed throughout CHO cells and forms no detectable AT-binding sites, whereas Golgi-targeted HS3st1 localizes in the Golgi and results in the formation of a single type of AT-binding site and high anti-factor Xa activity (137 ± 36 units/mg). Moreover, stable overexpression of HS3st1 also results in up-regulation of 2-O-, 6-O-, and N-sulfo group-containing disaccharides, further emphasizing a previously unknown concerted interplay between the HS biosynthetic enzymes and suggesting the need to control the expression level of all of the biosynthetic enzymes to produce heparin in CHO cells.

  12. Functional capacity of XRCC1 protein variants identified in DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines and the human population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berquist, Brian R; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Fan, Jinshui

    2010-01-01

    ) and two frequent (R194W and R399Q) amino acid population variants had little or no effect on XRCC1 protein stability or the interactions with POLbeta, PARP-1, LIG3alpha, PCNA or DNA. One common population variant (R280H) had no pronounced effect on the interactions with POLbeta, PARP-1, LIG3alpha and PCNA...

  13. Isolation of monoclonal antibody from a Chinese hamster ovary supernatant. II: dynamics of the integrated separation on ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Wojciech; Muca, Renata; Woś, Sylwia; Piątkowski, Wojciech; Antos, Dorota

    2013-08-30

    Dynamics of the purification process of a CHO derived monoclonal antibody by ion exchange chromatography (IEC), hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and their integration has been investigated. To quantify the adsorption behavior of the target protein (IgG1) and impurities contained in the supernatant, their elution course on IEC and HIC columns has been analyzed versus pH and/or the salt concentration in the mobile phase. A short-cut method has been proposed for mathematical modeling and determining underlying kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The accuracy of the model predictions has been verified by comparing the simulated and experimental band profiles recorded in both chromatographic processes. After verification, the model was used to optimize operating conditions for the column loading and chromatographic elution in the integrated process IEC/HIC. Two alternative loading techniques based on the upstream and downstream feed dilution were taken into account in the optimization routine. In the first one the feed stream was diluted with the loading buffer prior to the column loading, while in the latter one the feed dilution was realized inside the column using the multiple-injection technique. It was shown that the downstream dilution allowed significant reduction of the contact time between the protein and the loading buffer.

  14. 3-nitropropionic acid inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) activity in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells: antagonism by L-carnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallet, Andrew C; Haley, Raney L; Scallet, Dori M; Duhart, Helen M; Binienda, Zbigniew K

    2003-05-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is an inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, a part of complex II) that links the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to the respiratory electron transport chain. 3-NPA inactivates SDH by covalently and irreversibly binding to its active site. We previously examined the effects of 3-NPA on the histochemical activity of SDH in vivo, by using the reduction of a yellow tetrazolium dye (nitro blue tetrazolium) to a blue formazan as an indicator. In studies of cultured cells, the related dye methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) has commonly been used as an indicator of the presence and number of viable cells; that is cells that are capable of producing energy via the TCA cycle. Here we observed that doses of 3-NPA as low as 10(-8) M inhibited formazan production in an in vitro model system using CHO cells. This effect was antagonized by l-carnitine, which greatly increased the production of formazan, indicating a considerable improvement in energy production by the cultured cells. CHO cells appear to be a convenient model for the evaluation of therapeutic compounds that may modulate cellular bioenergetics.

  15. Survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells following ultrahigh-dose-rate electron and bremsstrahlung radiation. Final report, September 1988-February 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, P.K.; Meltz, M.L.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of this research was to measure cellular effects of ultrahigh dose rate X rays associated with high-power microwave devices. The intent was to detect differences in effect of ultrahigh dose-rate X rays compared to conventional dose-rate X rays at equivalent total doses. Cell survivability was used as the measure. No differences were noted until a dose of 4 Gray or greater was achieved.

  16. Reversal of typical multidrug resistance by cyclosporin and its non-immunosuppressive analogue SDZ PSC 833 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the mdr1 phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.W. Boekhorst; J. van Kapel (Jan); M. Schoester (Martijn); P. Sonneveld (Pieter)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary The new non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin derivative SDZ PSC 833 (PSC) is a potent agent used to overcome typical multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with overexpression of themdr1 gene encoding for a P-170 glycoprotein. In the present study, the efficacy of PSC as compar

  17. The impact of cell adaptation to serum-free conditions on the glycosylation profile of a monoclonal antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rita; Withers, Joanne; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; McLoughlin, Niaobh; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Rudd, Pauline M; Azeredo, Joana

    2013-06-25

    N-glycosylation is one of the most crucial parameters affecting the biological activity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and should therefore be closely monitored and controlled to guarantee a consistent and high-quality product in biopharmaceutical processes. In the present work, the effect of the time-consuming step of gradual cell adaptation to serum-free conditions on the glycosylation profile of a mAb produced by CHO-K1 cells was evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed important changes in mAb glycosylation patterns in all steps of serum reduction. These changes could be grouped in two distinct phases of the process of adaptation: middle (2.5 to 0.15% serum) and final (0.075 and 0% serum). For intermediate levels of serum, a desirable increase of galactosylation and decrease of fucosylation, but an undesirable increase in sialylation were observed; while the inverse was obtained at the final stages of adaptation. These divergences may be related to the reduction of serum supplementation, to variations in the levels of cell density and viability achieved at these stages, and to the natural shift of the cell growth mode during adaptation from adherent to suspended. The divergent glycan profiles obtained in this study demonstrate a strong influence of the adaptation process on mAb glycosylation, suggesting that control and monitoring of product quality should be implemented at the early stages of process development.

  18. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article: Dimethylamine-2-2ethyl azide (DMAZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-26

    chromosomes leading to four-armed configurations. This could be asymmetrical with formation of a dicentric and an acentric chromatid, ifunion is complete...chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting in a chromosome with two centromeres with or without an...no sister chromatid union. ’ d - Dicentric - an asymmetrical exchange between two chromosomes resulting, r dm in a chromosome with two centromeres

  19. Role of protein synthesis in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage in a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yezzi, M.J.

    1985-04-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant for protein synthesis, CHO-TSH1, has been compared to the wild-type cell, CHO-sC1, in single- and split-radiation-dose schemes. When the exponentially growing TS mutant and the wild-type cells were treated at 40/sub 0/C for up to 2 hrs prior to graded doses of x rays, the survival curves were identical and were the same as those obtained without heat treatment. If the cultures were incubated at 40/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and maintained at 40/sup 0/C during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval, repair of radiation damage was reduced in the mutant compared to the wild type. These observations implied that a pool of proteins was involved in the repair of sublethal x-ray damage. However, if repair was measured by the alkaline-unwinding technique under the same time and temperature schemes, no difference in the kientics of DNA strand rejoining was observed. Misrepair processes may permit restoration of DNA strand integrity but not allow functional repair. The effect of diminished repair under conditions of inhibition of protein synthesis was found to be cell-cycle dependent in survival studies with synchronized mutant cell populations. Repair was found to be almost completely eliminated if the temperature sequence described above was applied in the middle of the DNA synthetic phase. Treatment of cell populations in the middle of G/sub 1/-phase yielded repair inhibition comparable to that observed with the asynchronous cells. Splitdose experiments were done using pre-incubation with cycloheximide to chemically inhibit protein synthesis. WT cells and TS cells were treated with cycloheximide at 35/sup 0/C for 2 hrs before a first dose and during a 2 hr dose fractionation interval. 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. 中国地鼠线粒体D-loop基因的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Mitochondrial D-loop Gene in Chinese Hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国华; 陈朝阳; 庞文彪; 高继萍; 岳文斌

    2013-01-01

    The primer was designed according to the closest animal published partial sequences, the PCR products were se-quenced and determined. Combined with the known D-loop region sequence of other rodents,nucleotide composition were analyzed with DNAStar and genetic distance was analyzed with MEGA 4. 1. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbor-joining methods (NJ) and minimum-evolution methods (ME). The D-loop sequence of Chinese hamster had 867 bp, the nucleotide composition were relatively T(31. 49%) , C(26.07%), A(29.53%), and G(12. 92%). The different clustering methods all showed a similar result. Chinese hamsters had the closest relationship with golden hamsters, but had relatively large difference from mice and rats, basically consistent with the traditional taxonomic status. D-loop gene might be genetic marker among species. The results of this study might be of importance for studies on evolution, structure and function of the mitochondria in Chinese hamsters.%本试验根据已知相近物种动物基因序列设计引物,PCR扩增获得中国地鼠线粒体D-loop基因序列.采用DNAS-tar软件计算序列碱基组成,分析遗传变异情况.用MEGA 4.1软件计算物种间遗传距离,采用邻接法(NJ)、最小进化法(ME)构建系统进化树.结果表明,中国地鼠线粒体D-loop区序列全长为867 bp,碱基A、T、C、G的含量分别为29.53%、31.49%、26.07%、12.92%,中国地鼠与啮齿类动物有相似的碱基组成.系统进化树结果显示,中国地鼠与金黄地鼠亲缘关系较近,与大鼠的关系最远,与传统的分类相一致.所获得的中国地鼠D-loop基因可作为种间遗传变异研究的标记,研究结果为进一步研究中国地鼠的群体遗传结构奠定了基础.

  1. Progress of Chinese Medicine Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syn-drome Diagnosis and Treatment%中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征诊断与治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高众辉; 吴效科

    2015-01-01

    探讨中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征的研究进展,为临床治疗提供依据。中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征有独特的治疗优势,无论从辨证论治、理法方药、针灸治疗等方面均有一定的治疗效果,充分体现了中医药治疗的特点。现将近十年中医药治疗多囊卵巢综合征的治疗方法进行综述。%To investigate the progress of medical treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, provide the basis for clinical treatment. Chinese medicine treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome has a u-nique therapeutic advantages, in terms of diagnosis and treatment, hair cut herbs, acupuncture, etc. have a certain therapeutic effect, fully embodies the characteristics of Chinese medicine treatment. Now nearly a decade treatment of Chinese medicine treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome were reviewed.

  2. Recombinant expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase protects V79 Chinese hamster cells from styrene oxide- but not from ethylene oxide-induced DNA strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M E; Arand, M; Hengstler, J G; Oesch, F

    1997-01-01

    Styrene 7,8-oxide and ethylene oxide are widely used genotoxic bulk chemicals, which have been associated with potential carcinogenic hazard for occupationally exposed workers. Both epoxides alkylate DNA preferentially at the N-7 position of guanine and consequently produce single-strand breaks and alkali labile sites in the DNA of exposed cells. In order to study the role of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase (hmEH) in protecting cells against genotoxicity of styrene 7,8-oxide and ethylene oxide, we expressed the cDNA of hmEH in V79 Chinese hamster cells. We obtained a number of cell clones that expressed functionally active epoxide hydrolase. Among these, the clone 92hmEH-V79 revealed an especially high enzymatic mEH activity toward styrene 7,8-oxide (10 nmol converted per mg of protein per min, measured in the 9,000 x g supernatant of the cell homogenate), that was 100 times higher than that determined in mock-transfected cells and within the range of mEH activity in human liver. Styrene 7,8-oxide-induced DNA single-strand breaks/alkali labile sites (dose range 10 microM to 1 mM styrene 7,8-oxide) measured by the alkaline elution technique were significantly lower in the 92hmEH-V79 cells as compared to the mock-transfected cells. The protection against styrene 7,8-oxide genotoxicity in 92hmEH-V79 cells could be abolished by addition of valpromide, a selective inhibitor of microsomal epoxide hydrolase. These results clearly show that the metabolism of styrene 7,8-oxide by hmEH in 92hmEH-V79 cells was responsible for the protection against styrene 7,8-oxide genotoxicity. On the other hand, no protective effect of epoxide hydrolase expression could be observed on ethylene oxide-induced DNA damage with the recombinant cell line over a dose range of 0.5-2.5 mM ethylene oxide. This selectivity of the protective effect on epoxide genotoxicity thus appears to be an important factor that must be taken into account for the prediction of the genotoxic risk of epoxides

  3. Ovary fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Estrada Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ovary fibroma is a solid tumor of very low frequency, scarcely from 1 to 4 % of all benign neoplasms in that gonad. The condition can be asymptomatic or with scarce manifestations, at the time it has been confused with malignant lesions. This is the case of a postmenopausal woman with an increase of volume of her lower right abdomen; at palpation, an immotile and hard tumoral mass of about 10 cm in diameter was found. To the vaginal touch, the volume increase, predominantly solid, was located in the right annex. The ultrasound reported a bladder slightly out of its place. The abdominal computed tomography showed that the colon and the bladder were compressed and moved up to the left by the lesion. The patient underwent surgery and the biopsy informed an ovary fibroma, as well as other disorders of that side of the uterus and the ovary.

  4. Association of rs10830963 and rs10830962 SNPs in the melatonin receptor (MTNR1B) gene among Han Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Shi, Yuhua; You, Li; Wang, Laicheng; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the 'melatonin receptor (MTNR1B)' gene polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10830963 and rs10830962, in the MTNR1B gene were detected in 526 patients with PCOS and 547 healthy Chinese Han women. The association between MTNR1B gene variants and plasma glucose and insulin levels during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hormone levels was investigated. The frequencies of three genotypes and two allelotypes of the SNP, rs10830963, differed significantly between women with PCOS and healthy controls (P insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; P = 0.027). No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele distributions of rs10830962 polymorphisms between the PCOS and the control groups (P = 0.311 and P = 0.178, respectively). There was no significant difference in the clinical and the metabolic characteristics in women with PCOS with different genotypes in the SNP, rs10830962 (all P > 0.005). The present study suggest that the SNP, rs10830963, in the MTNR1B gene is not only associated with susceptibility to PCOS, but also contributes to the PCOS phenotype.

  5. 多囊卵巢综合征中西医病理机制研究进展%Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳宁; 曹佩霞

    2012-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是妇科常见的一种内分泌疾病,在育龄期妇女多发,严重影响女性生理及心理健康.其发病机制仍不清楚.研究发现瘦素可从多方面导致多囊卵巢综合征的发生.中医认为肾虚、痰湿是其发病的主要病理机制.%Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disease in gynecology, especially in reproductive age. It is seriously affect the women's physiological and psychological health. Its pathogenesis is still not clear. Studies have found that Leptin can lead to polycystic ovary syndrome in many ways. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine, kidney deficiency and phlegm is the main pathogenesis of pathological mechanism.

  6. First genotoxicity study of Paraná river water from Argentina using cells from the clam Corbicula fluminea (Veneroida Corbiculidae and Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus Rodentia, Cricetidae K1 cells in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline D. Caffetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of xenobiotics from urban and industrial wastes have contributed to the contamination of many aquatic environments. We used the comet assay to evaluate the genotoxic potential of water collected from the River Paraná, which receives a great deal of waste, at three points (Puerto Piray, Eldorado and Montecarlo in the Misiones Province of Argentina. The in vivo comet assay used 40 freshwater clams (Corbicula fluminea while the in vitro comet assay used Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus K1 cell (CHO-K1 cultures with the mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS as the positive control and phosphate buffered saline (PBS as the negative control. Both assays showed statistically significant differences between the three sampling sites in relation to the negative control, the results of this preliminary study indicating that at these three sites water from the Paraná River presents genotoxic potential.

  7. Standardised versus individualised multiherb Chinese herbal medicine for oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised feasibility and pilot study in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrew; Prescott, Philip; Wing, Trevor; Moore, Michael; Lewith, George

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore feasibility of a randomised study using standardised or individualised multiherb Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), to pilot study methods and to obtain clinical data to support sample size calculations. Design Prospective, pragmatic, randomised feasibility and pilot study with participant and practitioner blinding. Setting 2 private herbal practices in the UK. Participants 40 women diagnosed with PCOS and oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea following Rotterdam criteria. Intervention 6 months of either standardised CHM or individualised CHM, 16 g daily taken orally as a tea. Main outcome measures Our primary objective was to determine whether oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea were appropriate as the primary outcome measures for the main study. Estimates of treatment effects were obtained for menstrual rate, body mass index (BMI), weight and hirsutism. Data were collected regarding safety, feasibility and acceptability. Results Of the 40 participants recruited, 29 (72.5%) completed the study. The most frequently cited symptoms of concern were hirsutism, weight and menstrual irregularity. Statistically significant improvements in menstrual rates were found at 6 months within group for both standardised CHM (mean difference (MD) 0.18±0.06, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.29; p=0.0027) and individualised CHM (MD 0.27±0.06, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.39; phirsutism scores found within group for both groups were not statistically significant between group (p=0.09). Liver and kidney function and adverse events data were largely normal. Participant feedback suggests changing to tablet administration could facilitate adherence. Conclusions A CHM randomised controlled trial for PCOS is feasible and preliminary data suggest that both individualised and standardised multiherb CHMs have similar safety profiles and clinical effects on promoting menstrual regularity. These data will inform the design of

  8. Effect of Ginsenoside Rd on Chromosome Aberration in Chinese Hamster Lung Cells%人参皂苷Rd对中国仓鼠肺细胞染色体畸变作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梅; 曹冲; 朱春花; 曲保恩

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究人参皂苷Rd致中国仓鼠肺细胞(Chinese hamster lung cells,CHL)染色体畸变的作用.方法 细胞计数法测定人参皂苷Rd对CHL细胞的半数抑制浓度(IC50),根据IC50设立不同剂量组,进行染色体畸变试验,分别观察人参皂苷Rd染毒6、24h及加S9后染毒6h CHL细胞染色体的数目及结构变化,进行染色体畸变分析.结果 人参皂苷Rd染毒6、24h及加S.后染毒6h CHL细胞染色体畸变为阴性.结论 在本试验条件下,人参皂苷Rd不能引起CHL细胞染色体产生畸变.%Objective To explore the effect of ginsenoside Rd on chromosome aberration in Chinese hamster lung cells(CHL). Methods We used the method of cell counting to determine the IC50, of ginsenoside Rd on CHL cells,then to establish the range of doses according to the IC50 and to do the cell chromosome aberration experiment. When the CHL cells were exposured to ginsenoside Rd at 6h and 24h and plused S9 mixture at 6h respectively, we observed the changes of chromosome number and structure, then to judge the chromosome aberration results. Results Negative response was found at 6h and 24h after the treatment with ginsenoside Rd and at 6h after the addition of S9 mixture. Conclusion Under the condition of this experiment, ginsenoside Rd does not induce chromosome aberration in CHL cells.

  9. 多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症中西医结合治疗效果观察%Curative effect observation on chinese and western medicine treating polycystic ovary syndrome of infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯发雨

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析行中西医结合疗法的多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症患者的临床效果。方法调查对象从我院2011年5月至2014年7月接收多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症患者中抽选,将100例分成不同处理组,即:西医组(西医疗法,克罗米芬)、中西医组(中西医疗法,克罗米芬加中药自拟汤剂),治疗后对结果进行评定。结果中西医组患者治疗后疾病缓解率为92.0%,和西医组缓解率的72.0%相比高,两者之间存在差异(P<0.05)。结论临床针对多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症患者行中西医结合疗法作用突出,可促进卵泡发育,增强临床效果,值得推广应用。%Objective to analyze clinical effect of chinese and western medicine treating polycystic ovary syndrome of infertility. Methods choose survey objects from infertility patients with polycystic ovary syndrome treated in our hospital from May 2011 to July 2014, 100 cases were divided into different treatment groups, namely: Western medicine group (Western medicine therapy, clomiphene), traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine group (combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine, clomiphene and self-made traditional Chinese medicine decoction), evaluate treatment results.Results remission rate was 92% of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine group after treatment, and that was 72% of western medicine group, there was difference between two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine therapy has outstanding effect polycystic ovary syndrome infertility patients, which can promote follicular development and enhance clinical effect. It is worthy of promotion and application.

  10. Clinical Research on Combined Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Treatment of Infertility with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中西医结合治疗多囊卵巢综合征致不孕临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕霞

    2014-01-01

    To study the clinical curative effect of combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment of infer-tility with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods:50 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome infertility were randomly divided into two groups. The control group of 25 cases was given western medicine treatment,and the observation group of 25 cases was treated with com-bined traditional Chinese and western medicine treatment. The treatment results of two groups of patients were analyzed and compared. Results:After treatment,the effective rate of observation group was 82% ,the control group was 60% ;the clinical curative effect of ob-servation group was better than that of the control group(P 0. 05),and there was signifi-cant difference between two groups of patients of pregnancies in statistical analysis(P 0.05),两组患者的妊娠情况经过统计学分析,有显著的差异(P <0.05)。结论:中西医结合治疗多囊卵巢综合征致不孕的临床疗效显著。

  11. 2型糖尿病中国地鼠脂肪肝相关胰岛素抵抗的形成机制%Mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic steatosis-related insulin resistance in Chinese hamsters with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 刘栩晗; 黄澜; 朱华; 刘亚莉; 马春梅

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the development of hepatic steatosis-related insulin resistance in Chinese hamsters with type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Insulin-resistant obese Chinese hamsters and Chinese hamsters with type 2 diabetes were generated by feeding a high-fat diet with or without low-dose streptozotocin. Then we investigated the alterations in hepatic gene expression profiles by microarray analysis followed by real-time RT-PCR confirmation.RFESULTS: Microarray analysis indicated that,in insulin-resistant obese Chinese hamsters and those with type 2 diabetes, differentially expressed metabolism-related genes were mainly associated with hepatic glycolipid metabolism and related signaling pathways. Real-time RTPCR analysis verified that the expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) γ was increased (all P < 0.05),the expression of liver X receptor αr (LXRα),PPARα, and PPARβ/δ was decreased (all P < 0.05), and the expression of LXR β was unchanged in the liver of hamster models. The expression of hepatic LXR α, SREBPs, PPARs and their target genes in insulin-resistant hamsters significantly differed from that in type 2 diabetic hamsters (all P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Altered expression of LXR α,SREBPs and PPARs may be involved in the development of hepatic steatosis-related insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic Chinese hamsters.%目的:研究2型糖尿病中国地鼠脂肪肝相关胰岛素抵抗的形成机制.方法:采用高脂饮食及结合小剂量链脲菌素(STZ)的方法建立肥胖胰岛素抵抗地鼠和2型糖尿病中国地鼠模型.应用基因表达芯片技术检测模型地鼠肝脏中基因表达谱的变化,并应用实时定量PCR进行验证.结果:基因芯片结果显示在胰岛素抵抗地鼠和糖尿病地鼠脂肪变的肝脏中,代谢相关差异表达的基因主要与肝脏糖脂代谢及相关信号通路和转录因子/

  12. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120 resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity.

  13. Etoposide; colchicine; mitomycin C and cyclophosphamide tested in the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus test (MNvit) in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells at Covance laboratories; Harrogate UK in support of OECD draft Test Guideline 487.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul; Whitwell, James; Jeffrey, Laura; Young, Jamie; Smith, Katie; Kirkland, David

    2010-10-29

    The following genotoxic chemicals were tested in the in vitro micronucleus assay, at Covance Laboratories, Harrogate, UK in the Chinese hamster lung cell line CHL. Etoposide (a topoisomerase inhibitor), colchicine (an aneugen), mitomycin C (a DNA cross linking agent) and cyclophosphamide (an alkylating agent requiring metabolic activation) were treated with and without cytokinesis block (by addition of cytochalasin B). This work formed part of a collaborative evaluation of the toxicity measures recommended in the draft OECD Test Guideline 487 for the in vitro micronucleus test. The toxicity measures used, detecting both cytostasis and cell death, were relative population doubling, relative increase in cell counts and relative cell counts for treatments in the absence of cytokinesis block, and replication index or cytokinesis blocked proliferation index in the presence of cytokinesis block. All of the chemicals tested gave significant increases in the percentage of micronucleated cells with and without cytokinesis block at concentrations giving approximately 60% toxicity (cytostasis and cell death) or less by all of the toxicity measures used. The outcomes from this series of tests support the use of relative increase in cell counts and relative population doubling, as well as relative cell counts, as appropriate measures of cytotoxicity for the non-cytokinesis blocked in vitro micronucleus assay.

  14. 肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征中西医治疗进展%Chinese and Western Medicine Treatment Progress of Obese - polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国华; 陈霞

    2011-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是以高雄激素血症、排卵障碍以及多囊卵巢为特征的症候群,是育龄期女性不排卵性不孕的主要原因之一,其中肥胖者约占50%,并有月经失调、不孕等近期困扰及出现多种远期并发症的风险,且患病人群日渐增多,治疗相对棘手.作者就目前从生活方式调整、中医药、西药、手术及联合治疗等方面治疗肥胖型PCOS的研究进展进行综述.%Polyeystic ovary syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. It's one of the main reasons for women's anovulation infertility of reproductive age, in which obesity accounts for about 50%. And it causes menstrual disorders, infertility and other problems and a variety of long-term complications. Treatment is relatively difficult, with the increasing number of patients. This is an overview of the treatment of obese PCOS based on lifestyle adjustment, traditional Chinese medicine, Western medicine, surgery and combined therapy.

  15. THINDOWN IN RADIOBIOLOGY:E.COLI B/r,Bs—1,B.SUBTILUS SPORES,AND V—79 CHINESE HAMSTER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯祥; RobertKatz

    1995-01-01

    Track theory rested on the foundation of the radial distribution of dose from δ rays as the central contribution of atomic physics to heavy ion radiobiology,Here,a new calculation of the radial distribution of dose is applied,in which the classical angular distribtuion of dose of delta rays and a logarithmic polynomial representation of the electron range-energy relation are used.to form the basis of the present thindown calculation.Calculations of inactivation cross sections for heavy ions in the track width regime displaying thindown for E.Coli B/r and Bs-1,and for Bacillus Subtilus are straightforward for these are 1-hit detectors.Calculations for V-79 hamster cells are more complex.They follow the orginal development of this model for eucaryotic cells,and make use of the cross sections calculated for hypothetical internal targets which are then asserted to be proportional to the measured ceelular inactivation cross sections.The results are in reasonable agreement with experimental ,data.

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may lead to menstrual cycle changes, cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, and other health changes. In PCOS, mature eggs are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they can form very small cysts in the ovary. These changes can contribute to infertility. Common symptoms of PCOS include Menstrual disorders, Infertility, High levels of testosterone and Metabolic syndrome. Obesity, ...

  17. Beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haye, la M.J.J.; Jansman, H.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Alterra-Concept van het beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010. De hamster is in het meest westelijke deel van het Europese verspreidingsgebied bedreigd. De kennis die in de afgelopen periode is opgedaan van de hamster en de maatregelen die in het veld zijn uitgevoerd vormen de basis voor dit tweede Bes

  18. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome With Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine%中西医结合治疗多囊卵巢综合征的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨中西医结合治疗多囊卵巢综合征的临床应用价值。方法选择2013年3月~2015年2月经我院确诊的多囊卵巢综合征65例患者。对照组32例,采用达英-35联合来曲唑治疗,观察组33例在对照组治疗的基础上加用补肾活血方。结果治疗后,观察组妊娠率高于对照组,中医证候评分及子宫内膜厚度低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论中西医结合治疗可改善多囊卵巢综合征患者的激素水平及症状、减小子宫内膜厚度,提高妊娠率。%Objective To explore the clinical application value of Traditional Chinese and Western medicine in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods 65 cases of polycystic ovary syndrome were diagnosed in our hospital from March 2013 to February 2015. Control group (32 cases) was treated with Diane-35 combined to letrozole, observe group (33 cases) was treated with Bushen Huoxue Decoction and iane-35 combined to letrozole. ResultsAfter treatment, pregnancy rate in the observation group was higher than that in the control group, TCM syndrome score and endometrial thickness were lower than the control group, the differences were statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion The combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine can improve the hormone levels and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, reduce the endometrial thickness, and improve the pregnancy rate.

  19. [Determination the Change of Main Trace Elements in the Ovary with Self- and Cross-Pollination of Chinese Chestnut by ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feng; Guo, Su-Juan; Wang, Jing; Peng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Peng, Ya-Qin

    2015-10-01

    Castanea mollissima Blume has potential as an non-wood forest trees that have been cultivated for thousands of years in China. In order to elucidate the trace elements of chestnut ovary, the major trace elements of self- and cross-pollination chestnut ovary were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that self- and cross-pollination 5-50 d, six trace elements trends showed fluctuations. After cross-pollination 20 d, the content of Ca was up to 6.50 mg x g(-1), while the self-pollination 10 d, the content of Ca reached up to 7.77 mg x g(-1). After cross- and self-pollination pollination 30 d, the content of Mg were highest, 4.19 and 4.69 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross-pollination 5 d, the content of Zn reached the highest, 0.038 7 mg x g(-1), while self-pollination 10d the content of Zn was 0.039 9 mg x g(-1). After self- and cross-pollination 35 d, the content of Fe were 0.022, 0.019 mg x g(-1), respectively. After cross- and self-pollination 20 d, the content of Cu were 0.056, 0.045 mg x g(-1), respectively. After self-pollination 40d, the content of Mn reaching the highest was 1.204 mg x g(-1), while cross-pollination 30 d, the content of Mn reached its maximum 0.845 mg x g(-1). The results can provide a reference for spraying fertilizer on the ovary development, thereby improving chestnut production.

  20. Characterization of new G protein-coupled adenine receptors in mouse and hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Dominik; Knospe, Melanie; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; Moutinho, Miguel; Alsdorf, Bernt B A; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Schiedel, Anke C; Müller, Christa E

    2013-09-01

    The nucleobase adenine has previously been reported to activate G protein-coupled receptors in rat and mouse. Adenine receptors (AdeR) thus constitute a new family of purine receptors, for which the designation "P0-receptors" has been suggested. We now describe the cloning and characterization of two new members of the AdeR family from mouse (MrgA10, termed mAde1R) and hamster (cAdeR). Both receptors were expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and radioligand binding studies were performed using [(3)H]adenine. Specific binding of the radioligand was detected in transfected, but not in untransfected cells, and K D values of 286 nM (mAde1R, B max 1.18 pmol/mg protein) and 301 nM (cAdeR, B max 17.7 pmol/mg protein), respectively, were determined. A series of adenine derivatives was investigated in competition binding assays. Minor structural modifications generally led to a reduction or loss of affinity, with one exception: 2-fluoroadenine was at least as potent as adenine itself at the cAdeR. Structure-activity relationships at all AdeR orthologs and subtypes investigated so far were similar, but not identical. For functional analyses, the cAdeR was homologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, while the mAde1R was heterologously expressed in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Like the previously described AdeRs from rat (rAdeR) and mouse (mAde2R), the mAde1R (EC50 9.77 nM) and the cAdeR (EC50 51.6 nM) were coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In addition, the cAdeR from hamster expressed in CHO cells produced an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations (EC50 6.24 nM) and was found to be additionally coupled to Gq proteins.

  1. Survey of Distribution Characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征患者中医体质分布特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞丽; 傅金英; 杜蕾; 于胜男; 徐萌萌

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者的中医体质分布特征.方法:收集980例多囊卵巢征患者,填写调查表和中医体质量表,归纳本病的体质分布特征.结果:被调查的多囊卵巢综合征患者瘀血体质占13.9%,平和体质占3.9%,气虚体质占5.7%,阳虚体质占20.4%,痰湿体质占16.3%,湿热体质占5.1%,阴虚体质占11.2%,特禀体质占10.2%,气郁体质占13.3%.结论:PCOS中医体质分布以阳虚体质、痰湿体质、瘀血体质、气郁体质为多,为该病的预防和治疗提供了依据.%Objective:To explore the distribution characteristic of traditional Chinese medicine constitution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients.Methods:Collected 980 cases of patients with PCOS,filled in questionnaires and the constitution in Chinese medicine questionnaire (CCMQ),and concluded the distribution characteristic of constitution of PCOS.Results:Blood stasis constitution accounts for 13.9%,peace constitution accounts for 3.9%,qi deficiency constitution accounts for 5.7%,yang deficiency constitution accounts for 20.4%,phlegm-damp constitution accounts for 16.3%,dampness-heat constitution accounts for 5.1%,yin deficiency constitution accounts for 11.2%,specific endowment constitution accounts for 10.2%,and qi depression constitution accounts for 13.3% in invested polycystic ovary syndrome patients.Conclusion:The majority of TCM constitution distributions in PCOS patients are yang deficiency constitution,phlegm-damp constitution,blood stasis constitution and qi depression constitution,which provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.

  2. Superiority and Characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Prevention and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中医药防治多囊卵巢综合征的优势及特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁冰; 侯丽辉; 郝松莉; 吴效科; 李妍; 孙淼; 苏丹

    2013-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是最常见的女性内分泌和代谢紊乱性疾病,其发病机制至今尚不清楚,但由其所导致的病理生理改变却影响和覆盖女性一生,是带有“生殖标志”的女性慢病.由于病因不明确,使得西医关于PCOS的治疗停滞于对症治疗的阶段,不能完全解决患者所有的问题.从四个方面总结和讨论了中医药防治多囊卵巢综合征的优势及特色:(1)中医药调体预防青春期PCOS;(2)生育期治疗PCOS排卵障碍提高妊娠率;(3)孕期预防及控制妊娠糖尿病、妊娠期高血压疾病发生;(4)预防和治疗PCOS远期并发糖尿病及心血管疾病.%The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine and metabolic disorder, and its pathogenesis is still unclear, but the pathophysiology changes influence and coverage the whole life of females. Because the cause is not clear, the western medicine treatment on PCOS arrests in the symptomatic treatment of stage, and can not solve all the problems. In this paper, from four aspects, it summarizes and discusses the advantages and characteristics of prevention and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with traditional Chinese medicine: (1) Chinese medicine can regulate body and prevent adolescent PCOS; ( 2) growth period of ovulation PCOS can increase pregnancy rate; (3) prevention and control of gestational diabetes and gestational hypertension disease (4) prevention and treatment of P-COS long — term complicated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... happens when a woman's ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. PCOS causes cysts (fluid-filled sacs) to grow on the ovaries. Symptoms include Irregular menstrual periods Infertility Pelvic pain Excess hair growth on the face, chest, stomach, or thighs Weight ...

  4. VEGF siRNA致中国仓鼠肺细胞染色体畸变的研究%Research of chromosome aberration in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast induced by VEGF siRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆春霞; 张洹; 杨光; 吴赤蓬; 何林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of VECF siRNA on chromosome aberration in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (CHL). Methods The chromosome aberrations were observed after CHL were transfected with VECF siRNA for 24 hours and 48h. Results There were a questionable positive in 100nmol/L VEGF siRNA after VECF siRNA were transfected for 24h and the chromosome aberration rate was 6 percentages. Both 50nmol/L VEGF siRNA and 100nmol/L VECF siRNA caused the questionable positive after VEGF siRNAs were transfected for 48h, and the chromosome aberration rates was 6 percentages and 10 percentages separately. There were no the chromosome aberration in 25nmol/L VEGF siRNA. The types of chromosomal aberration induced by VEGF siRNAs included break, Dicentric grain, polyploid, gap, and three trajectories. Conclusion lOOnmol/L VEGF siRNA might cause CHL chromosome aberration.%目的 研究VEGF siRNA对中国仓鼠肺细胞(CHL)的染色体畸变作用.方法 采用25、50和100nmol/L的VEGF siRNA转染中国仓鼠的肺细胞,分别观察24h、48h后的染色体畸变情况.结果 在VEGFsiRNA转染24小时,仅100nmol/L VEGF siRNA产生可疑阳性反应,其染色体的畸变率为6%;在VEGFsiRNA转染48小时后,50nmol/L的VEGF siRNA和100nmol/L的VEGF siRNA均产生可疑阳性反应,染色体的畸变率分别为6%和10%.而25nmol/L的VEGF siRNA无论是在转染后24h还是48h,均未产生染色体的畸变作用.VEGF siRNA产生的染色体畸变类型有断裂、双着丝粒、多倍体、裂隙、三射体.结论 100nmol/L的VEGFsiRNA分子可引起CHL细胞产生染色体畸变.

  5. 中药治疗卵巢巧克力囊肿剥除术后临床观察%Clinical Observation on Treating Chocolate Cyst of Ovary Stripping Postoperation with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓庆; 史玉林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effects on treating chocolate cyst of ovary stripping postoperation patients with traditional Chinese medicine. Methcnls : To divide 56 laparoscope postoperal ion patients into two groups randomly. The first group is the control group, which are given treatment with only western medicine. The second group is the treatment group, which are treated with traditional Chinese medicine. Both of them are arranged for follow -up on clinical symptoms and pregnancy situation. Results : The total effective rate of the second group is 92.5 percent, and that of the first group is 89.6 percent. Total effectiveness of two group is no significant differences. Pregnancy rate of the second group is 37.0 percent, and that of the first group is 17.2 percent. It is obvious that pregnancy rate of the second group is higher than the first group. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine group in the treatment of ovarian chocolate cyst after strip has obvious advantages.%目的:探讨卵巢巧克力囊肿剥除术后患者中药治疗的效果.方法:将56例腹腔镜术后巧囊患者随机分成两组:第1组为对照组,术后单纯用西药治疗;第2组为治疗组,术后单纯用中药治疗.两组治疗后均随访临床症状及妊娠情况.结果:中药组总有效率92.5%,西药组总有效率89.6%,两组总有效率比较无显著性差异;中药组受孕率37.0%,西药组受孕率17.2%,受孕率中药组明显高于西药组.结论:中药组在治疗卵巢巧克力囊肿剥除术后具有明显优势.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lipid level Pregnancy test (serum HCG) Prolactin level Thyroid function tests Your doctor may also order the following imaging test or surgeries to look at your ovaries: Vaginal ultrasound Pelvic laparoscopy

  7. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine system disorder among women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS ... and symptoms and then rules out other possible disorders. During this ... An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical ...

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? • What causes PCOS? • What is insulin resistance? • What can high levels of androgens lead to? • What can irregular menstrual periods lead ...

  9. Overproductive ovaries (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... imbalance can be caused by tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands, or by polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hyperandrogenism may include growth of excess body and facial hair, acne, amenorrhea (loss of menstrual periods), and changes in ...

  10. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on cell viability of chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) irradiated with {sup 60}CO gamma-rays using differential staining technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marcos P.M. de; Castro, Renato F. de; Okazaki, Kayo; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: dpvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of present study was to assess the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08) on CHO-K1 cells irradiated with {sup 60}Co, through the differential staining technique, using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The cells were pre-incubated with different concentrations of propolis (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 24h and irradiated with 5 Gy, analyzed at 24 and 48h after exposure. This technique is based on the cell capacity to incorporate fluorescent DNA dyes, where the viable (green), apoptotic (orange/yellow) and necrotic (red) cells can be identified through fluorescence microscopy. Digital high-resolution images were acquired from at least 5 visualization fields, and cells were analyzed using ImageJ and Flowing software. This approach permitted to analyze a large number of cells/sample with the time reduction, much easier and faster, proportioning more statistical power of the technique. The treatment with propolis only was not cytotoxic at 24 and 48h, except for the higher concentration of 200 μg/mL associated or not with radiation, increasing apoptotic and mainly necrotic cells (p<0.001). The data showed a promising use of propolis as well as technique used, pointing out that 200 μg/mL of propolis was cytotoxic, but at lower one (50 μg/mL) presented a radioprotective effect in irradiated CHO-K1 cells. (author)

  11. Enzyme Therapy in Non-classic Pompe’s Disease: Safety and efficacy of recombinant human a-glucosidase from milk of transgenic rabbits and from Chinese hamster ovary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P.F. Winkel (Léon)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPompe’s disease is an inherited metabolic illness, caused by an inherited deficiency of an enzyme, called acid a-glucosidase. Acid a-glucosidase is a protein that breaks down glycogen (a chain of glucose molecules) into glucose (a single molecule), in a specific compartment of the cel

  12. 中药温肾涤痰法为基础配合中药周期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕%Traditional Chinese Medicine Warming Kidney and Removing Phlegm Method Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapy Treatment of ;Infertility Due to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周睿

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome with traditional Chinese medicine on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine therapy.Method:80 cases of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome were randomly divided into observation group(n=45) and control group(n=35),respectively with Chinese herbal medicine for warming kidney phlegm based cycle therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine the treatment and Western medicine treatment,compared two groups before and after the treatment of sex hormone level and clinical curative effect.Result:After treatment,the two groups FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T than before treatment were significantly changed(P<0.05),and the observation group after treatment,the changes of the above indicators were greater than the control group(P<0.05).The observation group ovulation cycle the rate(51.1%) was significantly higher than the control group(34.3%)(P<0.05).The patients in the observation group the pregnancy rate(37.8%) was significantly higher than the control group(22.9%)(P<0.05).After 3 months,the total efficiency of the observation group(93.3%) was significantly higher than the control group(77.1%)(P<0.05). Conclusion:The treatment of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome by using the method of warming kidney and removing phlegm and removing phlegm, which can regulate the level of sex hormones,improve the endocrine environment,improve pregnancy rate,has a good clinical application value.%目的:观察以中药温肾涤痰法为基础配合中药周期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕的效果。方法:将80例多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕患者随机分为观察组(n=45)和对照组(n=35),分别采用以中药温肾涤痰法为基础配合中药周期疗法进行治疗和西药治疗,比较两组治疗前后性激素水平和临床效果。结果:治疗后两组FSH、LH、PRL、E2、T较

  13. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2013-10-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts.

  14. Study on hprt locus mutation in Chinese hamster lung cells induced by 1-bromopropane%1-溴丙烷致中国仓鼠肺细胞hprt基因位点突变作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏玲; 殷霄; 王海兰; 赵娜; 王恰; 宋向荣; 越飞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) on hprt locus mutation in Chinese hamster lung cells. Methods The hprt locus mutation was examined at different dose levels of 1 -BP in absence and presence of S9 ( - S9 and + S9 ) metabolic activation system. V79 cells were treated with 1 -BP at the doses of 3. 375 , 6. 750,13. 500 g/L for 6 hours respectively. 1.000 g/L EMS ( -S9) and 0.001 g/L MNNG ( +S9) were given as the positive control groups, while serum free medium was designed to the negative control groups. The mutant frequency was counted by cell-cloning. Results Under the condition of - S9 metabolic activation system, the differences of mutant frequency among all treatment groups and solvent control group were not significant ( P > 0. 05). When S9 metabolic activation system was added, the mutant frequencies in 3. 375 g/L and 6. 750 g/L treatment groups were significantly higher than those in solvent control group (P < 0. 01 ) , but without dose-response relationship. Conclusion In the presence of S9 metabolic activation system, 1 -BP might induce hprt locus mutation in V79 cells.%目的 探讨1-溴丙烷(1-BP)对中国仓鼠肺细胞(V79)次黄嘌呤鸟嘌呤磷酸核糖转移酶(hprt)基因位点的致突变作用.方法 将V79分为大鼠肝微粒体混合功能氧化酶(S9)代谢活化系和非S9代谢活化系,每系各设3.375、6.750、13.500 g/L3个不同质量浓度的1-BP实验组;另设1.000 g/L甲磺酸乙酯阳性对照组(非S9代谢活化系)、0.001g/L甲基硝基亚硝基胍阳性对照组(S9代谢活化系)和溶剂对照组,溶剂对照组加等体积的无血清培养基.染毒时间为6h.应用细胞克隆检测法检测V79 hprt基因位点的突变率.结果 非S9代谢活化系,1-BP实验组突变率与溶剂对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);S9代谢活化系,3.375、6.750 g/L 1-BP实验组突变率均高于溶剂对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01),但不存在剂量-反应关系.结论 1-BP

  15. Vaccination against hepatitis B: the Chinese experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi-hua; WU Chao; ZHUANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the implementation of mass vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine and its critical role in prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in China. Data sources The data were mainly from PubMed, China Hospital Knowledge Database, and other popular Chinese journals published from 1980 to 2008. The search term was "hepatitis B vaccine". Study selection Original studies conducted in China and critical reviews authored by principal investigators in the field of hepatology in China were selected. Results Chinese investigators started to develop hepatitis B vaccine in late 1970s. The first home-made plasma-derived vaccine became available in 1986, which has been completely replaced by the domestically produced recombinant (yeast or Chinese hamster ovary cell) vaccine since 2001. China health authority recommended vaccinating all infants in 1992. From then on, China has put tremendous efforts in implementation of mass vaccination. The overall coverage of hepatitis B vaccine in infants has increased steadily and reached more than 95.0% in urban and 83.0%--97.0% in rural areas. The chronic HBV carrier rate in children <10 years of age decreased from 10.0% before the mass vaccination to 1.0%-2.0% in 2006, and that in general population decreased from 10.0% to 7.2%; overall, the nationwide mass hepatitis B vaccination has reduced more than 30 million of chronic HBV infections and HBV related severe sequlae. Conclusion The Chinese successful experience in control of hepatitis B by mass vaccination offers an example for any unindustrialized country whoever is committed to control this disease.

  16. Enhanced susceptibility of ovaries from obese mice to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Nteeba, Jackson, E-mail: nteeba@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2014-12-01

    7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18 weeks of age, for 14 days. Total ovarian RNA and protein were isolated and abundance of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm), X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (Xrcc6), breast cancer type 1 (Brca1), Rad 51 homolog (Rad51), poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (Parp1) and protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide (Prkdc) were quantified by RT-PCR or Western blot. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) level was determined by Western blotting. Obesity decreased (P < 0.05) basal protein abundance of PRKDC and BRCA1 proteins but increased (P < 0.05) γH2AX and PARP1 proteins. Ovarian ATM, XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and PARP1 proteins were increased (P < 0.05) by DMBA exposure in lean mice. A blunted DMBA-induced increase (P < 0.05) in XRCC6, PRKDC, RAD51 and BRCA1 was observed in ovaries from obese mice, relative to lean counterparts. Taken together, DMBA exposure induced γH2AX as well as the ovarian DDR, supporting that DMBA causes ovarian DNA damage. Additionally, ovarian DDR was partially attenuated in obese females raising concern that obesity may be an additive factor during chemical-induced ovotoxicity. - Highlights: • DMBA induces markers of ovarian DNA damage. • Obesity induces low level ovarian DNA damage. • DMBA-induced DNA repair response is altered by obesity.

  17. 卵巢早衰中西医治疗前后的血流动力学变化%Hemodynamics changes of ovary in patients with premature ovarian failure before and after treatment by traditional Chinese combined western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉萍; 杨鹰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the hemodynamics changes of ovary in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF) before and after treatment by combining traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine .Methods The clinical data of 40 patients with POF were analyzed.Clinical symptoms, ovarian volume, artery systolic peak flow velocity ( PSV1 ), systolic arterial vessels of ovarian stroma (PSV2), resistance index (RI), time of acceleration (TA), and acceleration (ACC) were measured and compared before and after Chinese and western medicine treatment .Results Menstruation situation , hot flash, sweating and vaginal dryness pain were significantly improved after treatment (χ2 value was 21.98, 7.04, 13.73 and 5.00, respectively, all P<0.05).Ovarian volume was significantly increased after treatment (t=12.74,P<0.05), but PSV1, RI, TA and ACC decreased significantly(t value was 19.30, 6.46, 7.82 and 4.33, respectively, all P<0.01).PSV2 was significantly increased after treatment (t=6.63,P<0.01).Conclusion Combining Chinese and western medicine can improve ovarian vascular compliance , reduce RI, and thus improve ovarian blood flow and function .%目的:探讨卵巢早衰( POF)患者采用中西医结合方法治疗前后卵巢的血流动力学变化。方法分析重庆市沙坪坝区新桥医院40例卵巢早衰患者的临床资料,比较治疗前后患者临床症状、卵巢体积、卵巢内动脉血管收缩期的峰值流速(PSV1)、卵巢内基质动脉血管收缩期的峰值流速(PSV2)、阻力指数(RI)、加速时间(TA)和加速度(ACC)。结果治疗后患者月经情况、潮热、出汗、阴道干涩疼痛较治疗前显著改善(χ2值分别为21.98、7.04、13.73、5.00,均P<0.05)。患者治疗后卵巢体积较治疗前显著增大(t=12.74,P<0.05),而PSV1、RI、TA、ACC显著降低(t值分别为19.30、6.46、7.82、4.33,均P<0.01),治疗后POF患者的PSV2

  18. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which a woman has an imbalance of female sex hormones. This may lead to menstrual cycle changes, cysts in the ovaries, trouble getting pregnant, and other health changes. In PCOS, mature eggs are not released from the ovaries. Instead, they can form very small cysts in the ovary. These changes can contribute to infertility. Common symptoms of PCOS include Menstrual disorders, Infertility, High levels of testosterone and Metabolic syndrome. Obesity, sedentary life style with inadequate physical activity, stress, junk food consumption are thought to be contributing factors in addition to genetic origin. In recent years many of the girls and women are suffering from PCOS because of wrong eating habits, stressful living conditions and lack of physical activity. Weight loss has been the major recommendation by physicians for women with PCOS. Lifestyle modifications including stress reduction, moderate exercise, and group support, along with a decrease in total calorie intake and avoiding junk food consumption have had positive results. A decrease of only 5% of total body weight is associated with decreased insulin levels, increased fertility, reduced hirsutism and acne, and lower testosterone levels. Whole grains, fruits and vegetables with foods containing protein and natural fat along with vitamins and minerals are beneficial.

  19. 中医论治青春期肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征的疗效观察%Observation on therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on poly-cystic ovary syndrome in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛彩琴; 张蜀; 雷枭; 张团笑

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察中医治疗青春期肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征的临床疗效。方法:选取经西医治疗后仍月经稀发或闭经患者共19例,给予口服苍附导痰汤配合针灸治疗,比较治疗前后的相关指标。结果:治疗3个月后,显效者10例(53%);有效者6例(32%);无效者3例(15%);总有效率为85%。结论:采用苍附导痰汤配合针灸治疗,可以重建正常的月经周期,有效降低雄激素水平,改善患者卵巢功能、胰岛素抵抗及临床症状,疗效较好,值得临床推广。%Objective:Observation on therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)in Adolescents.Methods:19 cases of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea after treatment of the western medicine,treated with Cang Fu Dao Tan decoction combined with acupuncture,then comparing the relevant data before and after treatment.Results:3 mouths after treatment,10 cases (53%)were markedly effective,6 cases (32%)were effective,and 3 cases (15%)were ineffective.The total effective rate was 85%.Conclusion:Treatment by acupuncture and moxibustion combined with Cang Fu Dao Tan decoction on the PCOS patients can re-build normal menstrual cycle,effectively reduce androgen levels,improve insulin resistance,ovarian function and clinical symptoms,and achieve good clinical results,so it is worthy of clinical applicaton.

  20. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L

    1997-03-04

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  1. 血清抗苗勒管激素水平在基于2012年中国多囊卵巢综合征诊断标准患者中的初步研究%A pilot study of serum anti-Mullerian hormone in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome based on 2012 Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨诗源; 阮洁; 黄薇; 谭婧; 张向卉; 冯雪; 刘冬; 傅璟; 周璐

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究血清抗苗勒管激素(AMH)在基于2012年中国多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)诊断标准患者中的水平,初步评价血清AMH检测在PCOS诊断中的临床意义.方法 采集2015年4月至8月四川大学华西第二医院217例PCOS评分患者(PCOS组)及204例输卵管或男性因素不孕患者(对照组)的临床资料,计算体质指数,评价多毛、痤疮评分,检测血清AMH、性激素、糖脂代谢指标的水平,B超测定卵巢体积及卵泡数.采用Spearman相关性检验进行相关性分析,通过受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)评价AMH的诊断效能.结果 血清AMH水平在PCOS组[105.46(78.11 ~ 135.37) pmol/L]明显高于对照组[26.28(20.00~ 43.63) pmol/L],两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Spearman相关性分析显示,血清AMH水平与多毛评分(r=0.526,P<0.01)、痤疮评分(r=0.359,P<0.01)、总睾酮(r=0.514,P<0.01)、LH/FSH比值(r=0.542,P<0.01)、空腹血糖(r=0.373,P<0.01)、空腹胰岛素(r=0.168,P=0.008)、胰岛素抵抗指数(r=0.182,P=0.004)、总胆固醇(r=0.247,P<0.01)、甘油三酯(r=0.235,P<0.01)、卵巢体积(r=0.204,P=0.008)、卵泡数目(r=0.693,P<0.01)呈正相关.在月经紊乱的情况下,血清AMH水平用于诊断PCOS的ROC曲线下面积为0.954(P<0.01),当AMH>57.76 pmol/L时,诊断的敏感度为95.1%,特异度为89.3%.结论 依据中国2012年PCOS诊断标准,血清AMH水平在PCOS患者中明显升高,并与临床和(或)生化高雄状况、卵巢体积、卵泡数目有较好的相关性.%Objective Based on 2012 Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis criteria, we detect the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in PCOS patients, to evaluate the diagnosis value of AMH for PCOS.Methods Totally 217 PCOS patients were chosen as study group and 204 non-PCOS women were as controls.Their clinical information (body weight, score for acne and hirsutism), ultrasonography for ovarian volume and the number of small follicle

  2. 肥胖对多囊卵巢综合征患者非酒精性脂肪性肝病的影响%Effect of obesity on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲中玉; 石玉华; 赵冬妮; 姜晶晶; 马增香; 陈子江

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of obesity on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods The patient data were acquired from 306 women with PCOS by Rotterdam consensus criteria and 286 women selected as controls. Basal endocrine, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin release test, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were tested. The essays of liver chemistries, B-hepatitis and c-hepatitis were performed and alcoholic liver diseases excluded. Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasound. Results Patients with PCOS showed a higher prevalence of NAFLD than control group (30. 7% vs 17. 5% ), including 56 mild cases (59.6%), 34 moderate cases (36. 2% ) and 4 severe cases (4. 2% ). The prevalence of NAFLD in PCOS increased with BMI, waist hip ratio, triglyceride and HOMA-IR. The prevalence of NAFLD in abdominal obese PCOS patients was significantly higher than those with normal waist. In addition to the prevalence of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome in PCOS women significantly increased with BMI. Conclusion These findings indicate that Chinese women with PCOS have a high prevalence of NAFLD, especially in abdominal and Ⅱ obese PCOS patients. The prevalence and severity of NAFLD are positively correlated with BMI. It seems that insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities are closely associated with NAFLD in PCOS. It is essential to give a high priority to the screening and treatment of NAFLD in obese PCOS patients.%目的 研究肥胖对多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者中非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)发病的影响.方法 对306例PCOS患者及286例对照者进行基础内分泌、口服糖耐量试验及胰岛素释放试验、肝功、血脂等检查,B超诊断脂肪肝.结果 306例PCOS患者中诊断NAFLD 94例,占30.7%,明显高于对照组发病率17.5%(P<0.05);PCOS患者中NAFLD轻度56例(59.6%),中度34例(36.2%),重度4例(4.2%).PCOS患者中NAFLD发病率随着

  3. Clinical Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Medicinal Broth Combined Laparoscopic Treatment for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中药汤剂联合腹腔镜治疗多囊卵巢综合征的临床效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉华

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究中药汤剂联合腹腔镜在多囊卵巢综合征治疗中的应用价值。方法选取我院收治的82例多囊卵巢综合征患者的临床资料,将患者分为两组,对照组单纯采用腹腔镜治疗,观察组在对照组手术治疗基础上采用中药汤剂治疗,比较两组患者的血清激素水平与卵泡直径变化情况。结果观察组治疗后的血清激素水平改善效果显著,与对照组相对比有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论利用腹腔镜手术与中药汤剂联合对多囊卵巢综合征患者进行治疗,可以改善患者的卵泡直径与血清激素水平。%Objective To study the traditional chinese medicine medicinal broth joint the value of laparoscopy in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods Selected our hospital clinical data of 82 cases of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,divided the patients into two groups,control group pure laparoscopic treatment,the observation group in the control group treatment with surgical treatment on the basis of traditional chinese medicine medicinal broth,two groups of patients with serum hormone levels and folicle diameter changes were compared. Results Observation group after treatment serum hormone level to improve the effect was very significant,contrast compared with the control group was statisticaly significant(P< 0.05). Conclusion The use of laparoscopic surgery and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)one joint treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, can improve the patient's serum hormone levels and the diameter of folicle.

  4. Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases during stimulated ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salverson, Trevor J; McMichael, Greer E; Sury, Jonathan J; Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2008-02-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular matrix-cleaving enzymes involved in ovarian remodeling. In many non-tropical species, including Siberian hamsters, ovarian remodeling is necessary for the functional changes associated with seasonal reproduction. We evaluated MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), during photoperiod-induced ovarian recrudescence in Siberian hamsters. Hamsters were transferred from long day (LD; 16:8) to short day (SD; 8:16) photoperiods for 14weeks, and then returned to LD for 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8weeks for collection of ovaries and plasma. Post-transfer (PT) LD exposure increased body and ovarian mass. Number of corpora lutea and antral, but not preantral follicles increased in PT groups. Plasma estradiol concentrations were lower in PT weeks 0-4, and returned to LD levels at PT week 8. No change was observed in relative MMP/TIMP mRNA levels at PT week 0 (SD week 14) as compared to LD. Photostimulation increased MMP-2 mRNA at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-1. MMP-14 mRNA expression peaked at PT weeks 1-2 as compared to LD levels, while MMP-13 expression was low during this time. TIMP-1 mRNA peaked at PT week 8 as compared to PT weeks 0-4. No changes were noted in MMP-9 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression. In general, MMP/TIMP protein immunodetection followed the same patterns with most staining occurring in granulosa cells of follicles and corpora lutea. Our data suggest that mRNA and protein for several members of the MMP/TIMP families are expressed in Siberian hamster ovaries during recrudescence. Because of the variation observed in expression patterns, MMPs and TIMPs may be differentially involved with photostimulated return to ovarian function.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Sandy S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. It is typically characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS often experience dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, including hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenic alopecia. This article will review the treatments for acne due to androgen excess in PCOS women.

  6. Ovary and uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, Roger G

    2008-12-01

    Ovarian and uterine transplantation are procedures gaining more attention again because of potential applications in respectively fertility preservation for cancer and other patients and, more tentatively, women with uterine agenesis or hysterectomy. Cryopreservation of tissue slices, and possibly whole organs, is providing opportunities for banking ovaries for indefinite periods before transplanting them back to restore fertility. The natural plasticity of this organ facilitates grafting to different sites where they can be revascularized and rapidly restore the normal physiology of secretion and ovulation. Ischemic damage is a chief limitation because many follicles are lost, at least in avascular grafts, and functional longevity is reduced. Nevertheless, grafts of young ovarian tissue, even after cryopreservation, can be highly fertile in laboratory rodents and, in humans, autografts have functioned for up to 3 years before needing replacement. Transplantation by vascular anastomosis provides potentially longer function but it is technically much more demanding and riskier for the recipient. It is the only practicable method with the uterus, and has enabled successful pregnancies in several species, but not yet in humans. Contrary to claims made many years ago, neither organ is privileged immunologically, and allografts become rapidly rejected except in hosts whose immune system is deficient or suppressed pharmacologically. All in all, transplantation of these organs, especially the ovary, provides a broad platform of opportunities for research and new applications in reproductive medicine and conservation biology.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, Ricardo; Carmina, Enrico; Chen, ZiJiang; Dunaif, Andrea; Laven, Joop S E; Legro, Richard S; Lizneva, Daria; Natterson-Horowtiz, Barbara; Teede, Helena J; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide. The condition is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) - with excessive androgen production by the ovaries being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected individuals. PCOS increases the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous thromboembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and PCOM. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and potentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protection, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This Primer summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the epidemiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of the disorder.

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, M; Naver, Klara; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this multicenter study is to evaluate the relative impact of insulin resistance (IR) and body mass index (BMI) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on (1) Key hemodynamic/thrombogenic variables, (2) Oocyte quality and early embryo development, (3) Fe...... biochemical markers of growth and inflammation and clinical pregnancy complications. Main outcome measures: Metabolic and hemostatic risk-biomarkers, oocyte and embryo quality, adverse pregnancy outcome, fetal growth and placental function in women with PCOS.......Objectives: The primary objective of this multicenter study is to evaluate the relative impact of insulin resistance (IR) and body mass index (BMI) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on (1) Key hemodynamic/thrombogenic variables, (2) Oocyte quality and early embryo development, (3......) Fetal growth, placental function and adverse obstetric outcome. Secondary objective: To establish a PCOS database and biobank facilitating future basic and interventional research related to PCOS. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study at four University Hospitals in Denmark. Population...

  9. ARP2, a novel pro-apoptotic protein expressed in epithelial prostate cancer LNCaP cells and epithelial ovary CHO transformed cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Mas-Oliva

    Full Text Available Neoplastic epithelial cells generate the most aggressive types of cancers such as those located in the lung, breast, colon, prostate and ovary. During advanced stages of prostate cancer, epithelial cells are associated to the appearance of androgen-independent tumors, an apoptotic-resistant phenotype that ultimately overgrows and promotes metastatic events. We have previously identified and electrophysiologically characterized a novel Ca(2+-permeable channel activated during apoptosis in the androgen-independent prostate epithelial cancer cell line, LNCaP. In addition, we reported for the first time the cloning and characterization of this channel-like molecule named apoptosis regulated protein 2 (ARP2 associated to a lethal influx of Ca(2+ in Xenopus oocytes. In the present study, LNCaP cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO cell line transfected with arp2-cDNA are induced to undergo apoptosis showing an important impact on cell viability and activation of caspases 3 and 7 when compared to serum deprived grown cells and ionomycin treated cells. The subcellular localization of ARP2 in CHO cells undergoing apoptosis was studied using confocal microscopy. While apoptosis progresses, ARP2 initially localized in the peri-nuclear region of cells migrates with time towards the plasma membrane region. Based on the present results and those of our previous studies, the fact that ARP2 constitutes a novel cation channel is supported. Therefore, ARP2 becomes a valuable target to modulate the influx and concentration of calcium in the cytoplasm of epithelial cancer cells showing an apoptotic-resistant phenotype during the onset of an apoptotic event.

  10. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome based on syndrome differentiation by integrated Chinese and western medicine%中西医结合分型论治多囊卵巢综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永新

    2011-01-01

    @@ 多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary symptoms,PCOS)的主要表现为月经稀发或闭经、不孕、多毛、肥胖以及一系列内分泌改变,如高雄激素血症、黄体生成素(LH)与促卵泡素(FSH)比值升高、胰岛素抵抗、高胰岛素血症等.

  11. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME IN ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Baptista

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Identification of adolescents at risk for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is critical, not only for an appropriate therapeutic approach, but also to prevent co-morbidities associated with the syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and infertility.

  12. Polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi factorial heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism Diagnosis is based on clinical or laboratory evidence of nbsp; hyperandrogenism nbsp; For diagnosis at least two of the three Rotterdam criteria oligo anovulation clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism polycystic ovaries nbsp; should be ensured Clinical symptoms usually begin around menarche nbsp; Oligomenorrhea amenorrhea hirsutism acne alopecia can be ass...

  13. POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME IN ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Baptista; Maria João Vieira; Carla Meireles

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-age women. The syndrome often presents during adolescence, but the diagnosis in this age group is complicated by the overlap between features of the syndrome and physiologic findings observed during the normal progression of puberty. Objective:To review the diagnosis and treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence. Development:There are no consensual diagnostic criteria o...

  14. Clinical Observation on the Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine in Treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Typing%多囊卵巢综合征中西医结合分型治疗的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凌; 陈娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同类型的多囊卵巢综合征患者治疗后的排卵率及怀孕率。方法:选取2011年5月-2012年9月在广州仁爱医院治疗的多囊卵巢综合征患者245例,分为观察组和对照组。其中观察组包括高雄激素型、高雄激素合并高胰岛素型、高LH型和非典型型,共158例。对照组符合多囊卵巢综合征诊断标准的各型患者采用随机法纳入,共87例。结果:观察组分型治疗后患者排卵率94.94%,怀孕率63.27%,对照组排卵率91.83%,怀孕率44.63%。观察组排卵率及怀孕率明显高于对照组。结论:多囊卵巢综合征患者采取分型治疗效果显著,可以在临床上推广。%Objective:To investigate the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate after treatment of the different types of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Method:The study consisted of 245 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,who were treated in Renai Hospital of Guangzhou from May 2011 to September 2012. The patients were divided into an observation group and a control group. The observation group included hyperandrogenism type,hyperandrogenism combined hyperinsulinism type,high LH type and atypical type,a total of 158 cases. The control group collected 87 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome with various types,at random. Result:In the observation group,after treatment with typing,patients had the ovulation rate of 94.94%and the pregnancy rate of 63.27%,in the control group,the ovulation rate was 91.83%and the pregnancy rate was 44.63%. Ovulation rate and pregnancy rate of the observation group was significantly higher. Conclusion:It is significantly effective to treat polycystic ovary syndrome patients with typing and it is recommended for clinical promotion.

  15. The multi-pouches ovary synthesis drafts the Chinese medicine treatment and the research recent situation%多囊卵巢综合征中医治疗及研究近况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晓容

    2008-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)是青少年到生育年龄妇女发生高雄激素型无排卵症的最常见病种.本文将从现代医家对多囊卵巢综合症病因病机及治疗原则的认识、临床具体辨证用药、及近来PCOS卵巢及子宫内膜的发育异常和变化来进行探讨.

  16. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Bayar, Ulku; Erdem, L. Oktay; Barut, Aykut; Gundogdu, Sadi; Kaya, Erdal

    2004-07-01

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (T{sub p}); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of T{sub p} were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS.

  17. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese Snakes and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  18. [Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, A; Fernandez, H

    2007-09-01

    Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female hormonal disorders. Its multiple components--reproductive, metabolic, neoplasic and cardiovascular--have a major impact on the public health. Androgen excess and resistance to insulin, probably from genetic origin, are responsible for most of the clinical symptomatology. Resistance to insulin seems to be accompanied by a greater risk of glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, lipidic anomalies and can involve the development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, sleep apnea syndrome is more progressively described in PCOS. Infertility, menses disorders and hirsutism often push these patients to consult their physician. A better understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms led to the emergence of new therapeutic options increasing the sensitivity to insulin. Besides the pregnancy wishes, cares aim to attenuate the marks of the hyper-androgenism (hormonal treatment and cosmetic) and to correct cardiovascular, respiratory and gynaecological risk factors. In case of infertility by anovulation, cares must be performed by trained experts to minimize the risk of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. A gradation from loose weight to clomiphene citrate ovulation induction, ovarian drilling, low dose gonadotropin, in vitro fertilisation, or in vitro maturation of oocytes should bring back good reproduction potential.

  19. [Polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbíková, Jana

    2015-10-01

    For diagnosing of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) it is currently recommended to follow the ESHRE criteria. For diagnosis according to them two of the following three symptoms are sufficient: 1. morphology of polycystic ovaria, 2. clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism or laboratory proof of hyperandrogenemia, and 3. oligo-anovulation. PCOS is a complex disorder in whose pathogenesis genetic and environmental effects interact. It is not a gynecological disorder alone, the syndrome is accompanied by insulin resistance which leads to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (4 times and twice, independently of BMI). Also gestational DM occurs more frequently. Dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, elevated CRP and homocysteine levels, endothelial dysfunction and greater intima-media thickness are also more frequent. It is not quite clear, however, whether women with PCOS suffer cardiovascular events more frequently as well. More often than is accidental PCOS is associated with depression, anxiety and eating disorders, further with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and with the sleep apnoea syndrome - especially in obese women. Therapeutic measures include non-pharmacological methods - lifestyle adjustments focused on weight reduction in obese individuals, cosmetic measures for dermatologic manifestation of hyperandrogenism, in particular laser and pharmacotherapy (combined hormonal contraceptives and antiandrogens). Menstrual irregularities can be treated with contraceptives or cyclical administration of gestagens, also metformin can be used.

  20. Research status of traditional Chinese medicine for polycystic ovary syndrome with insulin resistance%多囊卵巢综合征伴胰岛素抵抗的中医药研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游芳凝; 曹文富

    2015-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征是临床常见的生殖内分泌代谢障碍疾病,有出现糖尿病、心血管疾病等并发症的风险。在多囊卵巢综合征中,胰岛素抵抗、高胰岛素血症起着重要的病理生理作用。中医辨证论治在改善多囊卵巢综合征患者的生殖功能、调节糖脂代谢及预防并发症方面有良好的疗效。%Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common clinical disease characterized by reproductive en-docrine and metabolic abnormalities, which even has the risk of developing complications such as diabetes and cardio-vascular diseases. The insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play an important role in the pathophysiologic process of polycystic ovary syndrome. Syndrome differentiation and treatment are intended to improve the reproductive func-tion in women with PCOS, and has obtained good curative effect on regulating glucolipid metabolism and preventing complications.

  1. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, Wing Ming; Klyosov, Anatole A; Vallee, Bert L.

    1997-01-01

    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation betwe...

  2. Intraovarian expression of GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA and protein levels in Siberian hamsters during the estrus cycle and photoperiod induced regression/recrudescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A

    2011-01-15

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the key reproductive regulator in vertebrates. While gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating (FSH), and luteinizing (LH) hormones are primarily produced in the hypothalamus and pituitary, they can be synthesized in the gonads, suggesting an intraovarian GnRH-gonadotropin axis. Because these hormones are critical for follicle maturation and steroidogenesis, we hypothesized that this intraovarian axis may be important in photoperiod-induced ovarian regression/recrudescence in seasonal breeders. Thus, we investigated GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA and protein expression in Siberian hamster ovaries during (1) the estrous cycle; where ovaries from cycling long day hamsters (LD;16L:8D) were collected at proestrus, estrus, diestrus I, and diestrus II and (2) during photoperiod induced regression/recrudescence; where ovaries were collected from hamsters exposed to 14 weeks of LD, short days (SD;8L:16D), or 8 weeks post-transfer to LD after 14 weeks SD (PT). GnRH-1, LHβ, FSHβ, and common α subunit mRNA expression was observed in cycling ovaries. GnRH-1 expression peaked at diestrus I compared to other stages (p 0.05). SD exposure decreased ovarian mass and plasma estradiol concentrations (p<0.05) and increased GnRH-1, LHβ, FSHβ, and α subunit mRNA expression as compared to LD and, except for LH, compared to PT (p < 0.05). GnRH and gonadotropin protein was also dynamically expressed across the estrous cycle and photoperiod exposure. The presence of cycling intraovarian GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA suggests that these hormones may be locally involved in ovarian maintenance during SD regression and/or could potentially serve to prime ovaries for rapid recrudescence.

  3. 中西医结合治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Conbined Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in Treatment of Infertility Caused by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡华玲; 尤昭玲

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To discuss the clinical significance of conbined traditional chinese medicine and western medicine in treatment of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome.Method:84 patients with infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome were randomly divided into observation group(42 cases)and control group(42 cases). The patients in control group were treated with western medicine and the patients in observation group were treated with traditional chinese medicine on the basis of western medicine. The ovulation and pregnancy situation of two groups were compared and analyzed.Result:The total effective rate and cure rate of ovulation in observation group were improved remarkable compared to control group.The inefficiency was induced in observation group were improved remarkable compared to control group. There were statistical significance between two groups about total effective rate and cure rate of ovulation(P<0.05).The number of pregnancy and pregnancy rate in observation group were improved remarkable compared to control group,There were statistical significance between two groups(P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of conbined traditional chinese medicine and western medicine in treatment of infertility caused by polycystic ovary syndrome that is remarkable and suitable for clinical application.%  目的:探讨中西医结合疗法在多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕患者中的临床应用意义。方法:选取本院收治的多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕患者84例,随机将患者分为观察组42例和对照组42例。两组多囊卵巢综合征患者经系统性检查和准确诊断后均给予西药治疗,观察组患者则在此基础上给予中药治疗,并分别对两组患者的排卵情况和妊娠情况进行比较和分析。结果:观察组的排卵治愈率和总有效率高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组的妊娠人数和妊娠率高于对照组,差

  4. Clinical effect observation of three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of infertility resulted from polycystic ovary syn-drome%中药三期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高艳珠; 王颖; 刘异香

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of infertility resulted from polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods 168 outpatient of polycystic ovary syndrome patients from April 2012 to April 2014 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the observation group,84 patients in each group.The control group was given traditional Diana-35 to stimulate ovula-tion,the observation group was given further three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy on the basis of the-control group.Clinical therapy effect,ovulation rate and pregnant rate in two groups was compared. Results The total ef-fective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The improvement of clinical symptoms in the observation group was better than that in the control group,with significant dif-ference (P<0.05).The ovulation rate,pregnancy rate,the rate of menstrual recovery,the regression rate of the crinosity and acne in the observation group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion The effect of three periods of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of infertility resulted from polycystic ovary syndrome is significant,it is worthy of popularize and application.%目的:探讨中药三期疗法治疗多囊卵巢综合征性不孕症的临床效果。方法选取2012年4月~2014年4月在本院门诊治疗的168例多囊卵巢综合征患者作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组,各84例。对照组给予传统的达英-35加促排卵治疗,观察组在对照组的基础上给予中药三期疗法,比较两组的临床治疗效果、排卵率及受孕率。结果观察组的总有效率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的临床症状改善情况显著优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组

  5. Association of polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism rs2479106 and PCOS in Caucasian patients with PCOS or hirsutism as referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette B; Brusgaard, Klaus; Andersen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women.......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease among premenopausal women. A recent study found association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and PCOS in a cohort of Han Chinese women....

  6. 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide reduces fertility in female Siberian hamsters when treated during their reproductively active and quiescent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Kristen A; Mukai, Motoko; Place, Ned J

    2015-01-01

    The industrial compound 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys ovarian follicles and reduces fertility in rodents, but to date VCD has not been tested in species that experience seasonal anestrus. To determine if VCD destroys follicles when administered during reproductive quiescence, Siberian hamsters were treated with VCD (240mg/kg i.p. daily for 10 days) during short days, and outcomes were compared with reproductively active females that were maintained and treated in long days. Primordial follicle numbers were significantly reduced by VCD under both day lengths, and reproductive quiescence in short days did not appear to render the ovaries less susceptible to VCD-induced follicle depletion. Independent of day length and reproductive state, VCD-treated hamsters weaned substantially fewer offspring than controls. These results suggest that time of year may not be an important consideration for optimizing use of VCD in the field when the target pest species is a seasonally breeding rodent.

  7. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.

    1988-09-01

    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  8. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  9. Comparative Study on Chinese Medical Syndrome Typing and Treatment Combined Different Surgical Methods for Treating Clomiphene-resistant Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中医辨证论治联合不同手术方法治疗耐克罗米芬多囊卵巢综合征的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾蕾; 曾诚; 陶莉莉; 王慧颖; 桑霞; 黄洁明; 吴晓贞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation or unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique under laparoscope for treating clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS). Methods Forty infertility patients with clomiphene-resistant PCOS were assigned to two groups using stratified random sampling method according to age, infertility time, and body mass index, 20 in each group. Patients in Group A were treated with Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation, while those in Group B were treated with Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique. After operation Chinese herbal treatment was administered to all patients according to syndrome typing. The serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), androgen (T), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL) were determined before and after operation. The ovulation was monitored. The pregnancy rate and the pregnancy outcomes were recorded after operation. Results There was no statistical difference in the 3-month spontaneous ovulation rate or the 1 -year pregnancy rate (P >0. 05). The levels of LH, T, and PRL were significantly lower after operation than before operation in the two groups ( P 0.05).两组术后血LH、T、PRL水平均较术前下降(P<0.05);术后月经及排卵情况改善明显.A组总排卵率95%(19/20),15例成功妊娠,1例发生卵巢过度刺激综合征;B组总排卵率90%(18/20),13例成功妊娠,1例发生卵巢功能减退.A组2例,B组1例发生卵泡不破裂综合征.结论 中医辨证论治结合腹腔镜下卵巢冷针穿刺放液术或单极电凝打孔术均可有效促进排卵,两种手术方法疗效相似.

  10. Ovarian matrix metalloproteinases are differentially regulated during the estrous cycle but not during short photoperiod induced regression in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrooman Lisa A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are implicated as mediators for ovarian remodeling events, and are involved with ovarian recrudescence during seasonal breeding cycles in Siberian hamsters. However, involvement of these proteases as the photoinhibited ovary undergoes atrophy and regression had not been assessed. We hypothesized that 1 MMPs and their tissue inhibitors, the TIMPs would be present and differentially regulated during the normal estrous cycle in Siberian hamsters, and that 2 MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels would increase as inhibitory photoperiod induced ovarian degeneration. Methods MMP-2, -9, -14 and TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA and protein were examined in the stages of estrous (proestrus [P], estrus [E], diestrus I [DI], and diestrus II [DII] in Siberian hamsters, as well as after exposure to 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of inhibitory short photoperiod (SD. Results MMP-9 exhibited a 1.6-1.8 fold decrease in mRNA expression in DII (p Conclusions Although MMPs appear to be involved in the normal ovarian estrus cycle at the protein level in hamsters, those examined in the present study are unlikely to be key players in the slow atrophy of tissue as seen in Siberian hamster ovarian regression.

  11. Overweight in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Haugen, A G; Glintborg, D

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in premenopausal women affecting 5-10%. Nearly 50% are overweight or obese, which result in a more severe phenotype of PCOS. Weight loss is therefore considered the first line treatment in overweight women with PCOS...

  12. Metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.

    2013-01-01

    The main result of this thesis can be summarized as follows: the addition of metformin to clomifene citrate in therapy-naïve women with polycystic ovary syndrome does not increase their chance of pregnancy except for possibly a subgroup of older women with high waist hip ratio, does hardly lead to i

  13. Observation Clinical Effect on Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Liver Stagnation of Adolescent Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中医治疗肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华利霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析对肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征患者实施中医治疗的效果和安全性。方法收集100例肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征患者,随机将其分为观察组和对照组,每组50例。结果观察组在治疗后的体重控制、激素水平、月经以及卵巢体积等情况均优于对照组,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论对肝经郁热型青春期多囊卵巢综合征患者实施中医方法的治疗可提升治疗效果。%Objective Analysis liver meridian stagnation of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome in patients with the implementation of the safety and efficacy of the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine.Methods 100 cases of liver the stagnated heat type of adolescence polycystic ovarian syndrome patients, randomly divided the divided into observation group and control group, each group had 50 cases.Results The observation group patients in the treatment of weight control, hormone levels and menstrual and ovarian volume were better than the control group, was difference had statistically signiifcant,P<0.05.Conclusion Liver the stagnated heat type of adolescence polycystic ovarian comprehensive syndrome in patients with the implementation of the method of traditional Chinese medicine treatment can signiifcantly enhance the therapeutic effect.

  14. Photoperiod regulates the differential expression of KiSS-1 and GPR54 in various tissues and sexes of striped hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S N; Xue, H L; Zhang, Q; Xu, J H; Wang, S; Chen, L; Xu, L X

    2015-10-30

    In order to investigate how photoperiod affects the expression of KiSS-1/G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), the hypothalamus, the ovaries and testicles of the striped hamster were studied following photoperiod treatment and melatonin injection. We found that the melatonin concentration in the blood of the striped hamster was consistent with the treated photoperiods and that the photoperiod had significant effects on KiSS-1 expression, but the effect of photoperiod on GPR54 expression differed among tissues and sexes. The relative expression of KiSS-1 in the gonads of the male and female striped hamster was significantly higher than that in the hypothalamus, while the difference in GPR54 between the gonads and hypothalamus was inconsistent between the male and female striped hamster. In the striped hamster injected with melatonin, the expression level of KiSS-1 in the gonads and hypothalamus of the male and female striped hamster was significantly decreased; the expression level of GnRH in the gonads was also significantly decreased; the expression of GPR54 in the hypothalamus was increased. In the hypothalamus, a significant positive correlation existed between KiSS-1 and GnRH expression, while a negative correlation was observed between GPR54 and GnRH expression. These results suggest that the photoperiod-melatonin-KiSS-1-GnRH pathway plays an important role in the seasonal reproduction mechanism of the striped hamster. Additionally, photoperiod or melatonin may not be a direct regulatory factor of GPR54 expression.

  15. 多囊卵巢综合征致不孕症的中西医结合疗效分析%The effect analysis of the infertility induced by polycystic ovary syndrome with integrated Chinese- Western therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨妈富隆配合补肾活血祛痰中药方剂的治疗方案在多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)伴不孕患者中的疗效.方法:对38例PCOS伴不孕患者于治疗前检测其相关的生殖激素(FSH、LH、PRL、T),通过妈富隆结合补肾活血祛痰中药治疗后复查激素水平,根据基础体温(BBT)、B超监测卵泡发育及排卵状况,指导同房.结果:治疗后患者异常的激素相恢复正常,LH、T水平治疗前后差异显著(P<0.01,P<0.05).自然妊娠率达68.41%.结论:妈富隆结合补肾活血祛痰中药方剂治疗PCOS伴不孕患者具有明显疗效.

  16. 多囊卵巢综合征糖脂代谢紊乱的中西医研究%Polycystic ovary syndrome glucolipid metabolic disorder of Chinese and western medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔小娇; 许小凤

    2015-01-01

    polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS)is a degree of abnormal sex hormones,insulin and hypertension,and obesi-ty,and glucolipid metabolic abnormalities is closely related to the above factors,play an important role in the develop-ment of PCOS. The treatment of PCOS Coolidge metabolic abnormalities should be to reduce weight,adjusting menstrual cycle for short - term goals and treatment of hyperinsulinemia,prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease for future goals. TCM syndrome differentiation and acupuncture treatment such therapy in improving the PCOS glucolipid metabolic abnormalities in patients with metabolic disorders,reduce long - term complications has obtained certain effect.%多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者大多存在一定程度的性激素异常,胰岛素抵抗以及高血压和肥胖,而糖脂代谢异常与上述因素密切相关,在 PCOS 的发生发展中起重要作用。PCOS 糖脂代谢异常的治疗应以减轻体质量,调整月经周期和治疗高胰岛素血症为近期目标,预防糖尿病和心血管疾病为远期目标。中医辨证论治、针灸疗法等在改善 PCOS 糖脂代谢异常患者的代谢紊乱,减少远期并发症方面均获得肯定疗效。

  17. Effects of berberine on expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and its target genes in type 2 diabetic Chinese hamsters%2型糖尿病中国地鼠模型构建与小檗碱对肝脏过氧化物酶体增殖体激活受体及其靶基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘栩晗; 李国生; 黄澜; 朱华; 刘亚莉; 马春梅

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although Berberine has been reported to treat type 2 diabetes, the underlying mechanisms of berberine on insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes, especially hepatic insulin resistance, remains not fully understood.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of berberine on the expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their target genes in type 2 diabetic Chinese hamsters.METHODS: The insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetic Chinese hamster models were induced by high-fat diet without or with low-dose streptozotocin. After the induction of models, the hamsters were randomly divided into normal control (standard food),insulin-resistant (high-fat diet), diabetic (high-fat diet and streptozotocin) and berberine-treated diabetic (high-fat diet and streptozotocin and berberine) groups. All groups were treated for 9 weeks.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that compared with normal control group, the expression of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1) and acetyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, medium chain (Acadm) was decreased (P < 0.05) and the expression of sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBP1c), sterol regulatory element binding factor 2 (SREBP2), PPARγ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), CD36/FA transporter (FAT/CD36) and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2) was increased (P < 0.05) in the fatty liver of insulin-resistant and diabetic hamster groups. Berberine effectively improved insulin resistance, reversed the altered expression of PPARs and its target genes in diabetic hamsters. PPARs and its target genes involved in the therapeutic molecular mechanisms of berberine on fat-induced hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic hamsters.%背景:研究表明小檗碱可用于治疗2型糖尿病,但小檗碱治疗糖尿病胰岛素抵抗尤其是肝脏脂诱性胰岛素抵抗的分子机制仍不明确.目的:观察小檗碱对2型糖

  18. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.

    1989-05-01

    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  19. Contribution to the normal fecal flora of the hamster: Proteus mirabilis in normal feces of hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1955-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis must be considered a normal inhabitant of the intestine of hamsters. It is also found in the vaginal secretion of females of this animal, when in oestrus.1 Os hamsters são parasitados pelos Proteus. 2 As amostras isoladas foram identificadas ao Pr. mirabilis de Hauser. 3 O Proteus isolado não revelou ação patogênica sôbre camundongos mas se mostrou patogênico para cobaias. 4 O germen era presente na secreção vaginal de hamsters, na época do cio.

  20. Pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome affects 6 to 15% of reproductive age women worldwide. It is associated with increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, and birth of small for gestational age infant. Many studies on issues relating to pathophysiology and management of these complications have been published recently. These issues are being reviewed here using relevant articles retrieved from Pubmed database, especially from those published in recent past.

  1. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.

  2. 中医药防治卵巢巧克力囊肿腹腔镜术后盆腔痛的观察%Clinic Observe of Laparoscopic Surgery Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in Chocolate Cyst of Ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铭山; 吴燕君; 孙艳梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the effect of traditional Chinese medicine after laparoscopic surgery on the ovarian chocolate cysts stripping. Method; Seventy-five cases of ovarian cysts after laparoscopic surgery were divided into two groups; the first group was given traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, the second group were only given pure western medicine. After treatment, clinical symptoms were enquired by telephone interview. Result; The general effective rate of operation was 100% , cyst recurrence rate of the first group and the second group was 17. 2% , 13. 0% respectively. Comparing of the two groups was performed, the differences were not significant. The pain after operation of the first group wasless than that of the second group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion; Traditional Chinese medicine is effective in the treatment the pains of ovarian chocolate cysts after laparoscopic surgery.%目的:观察中药对腹腔镜下剥除卵巢巧克力囊肿术后盆腔痛的治疗效果.方法:将我院75例腹腔镜治疗卵巢囊肿手术后患者是否口服中药而分为两个组:中药治疗组和单纯西药治疗组.两组治疗后均随访临床症状、复发情况、盆腔疼痛以及妊娠情况.结果:75例腹腔镜治疗卵巢囊肿手术的有效率为100%.中药治疗组和单纯西药治疗组的术后复发率分别为17.2%,13.0%,两组间无显著性差异,而中药治疗组在降低术后痛经、盆腔疼痛等方面优于单纯西药组(P<0 05).结论:中医药治疗对卵巢巧克力囊肿腹腔镜术后盆腔痛有防治作用,为下一步的前瞻性随机对照试验提供了依据.

  3. The effects of prolactin and gonadotropin on luteal function and morphology in the cyclic golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Hiroe; Kishi, Hisashi; Arai, Koji Y; Shinoda, Motoo; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the endocrinological effects of the pituitary on luteal maintenance and regression in the cyclic golden hamster (Mesocritus auratus). After hypophysectomy (Hypox) at 0900 h on day 1 of the estrous cycle (the day of ovulation), the animals received injection of prolactin (PRL) or PRL plus equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). They were decapitated at 1500 h on day 3 of the cycle, and trunk blood was collected for measurement of progesterone (P4). Corpora lutea (CLs) were dissected from one ovary for DNA ladder detection by electrophoresis, determination of DNA fragmentation ratio by fluorometric measurement method and measurement of P4. The other ovary was used for histological observation. After the Hypox, the daily injection of 1 mg ovine PRL restrained the DNA fragmentation ratio and number of apoptotic cell in the CLs. The PRL treatment maintained the luteal morphology and increased the luteal P4 concentration, but not in the plasma P4 concentration. In addition to PRL, injection of 2 IU eCG after the Hypox also restrained the DNA fragmentation ratio and number of apoptotic cells in the CLs to the level of a pregnant animal. The PRL plus eCG treatment maintained the luteal morphology in the same manner as the PRL only treatment and increased not only the luteal but also the plasma P4 concentration. These results suggest that PRL restrains luteal apoptosis and maintains luteal morphology and that the combination of PRL and eCG restrains not only structural but also functional luteal regression in the cyclic hamster.

  4. LYMPHANGIOMA OF OVARY: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilleswari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma occurs both in superficial and deep soft tissue including abdominal cavity . [1] Lymphangioma of ovary is extremely rare and it is an incidental finding during routine gynaecological checkup. The differential diagnosis is an adenomatoid tumour of ovary and can be confirmed by IHC studies. Here we report a case of 26 year lady with primary infertility complains of intermittent pain abdomen. USG revealed an enlarged cystic Right ovarian mass. Operated right ovari an mass was subjected to histopathological and IHC studies and it was confirmed as L y mphangioma of right ovary

  5. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaugema, Tambet

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  6. STATINS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Patel*, T. D. Goswami, A. D. Sharma and B. S. Arora

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors with intrinsic antioxidant properties, exert profound and broad-reaching effects on various types of tissues. By blocking an early step of the mevalonate pathway, statins inhibit proliferation of several cell types including vascular smooth muscles, hepatocytes, and several neoplastic cell lines. The pleiotropic effects of statins may be due to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Some common treatments lifestyle changes, insulin-sensitizing agents.

  7. Daidzin and daidzein suppress free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-11-01

    Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse. The model has enabled us to confirm the putative antidipsotropic effect of Radix puerariae (RP), an herb long used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of patients who abuse alcohol. A crude extract of RP at a dose of 1.5 g.kg-1 x day-1 significantly suppresses (> 50%) the free-choice ethanol intake of Golden hamsters. Moreover, two major constituents of RP, daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) and daidzin (the 7-glucoside of daidzein), were also shown to suppress free-choice ethanol intake. Daidzin and daidzein, at doses of 150 and 230 mg.kg-1 x day-1, respectively, suppress ethanol intake by > 50%. RP, daidzein, and daidzin treatment do not significantly affect the body weight and water or food intake of the hamsters. These findings identify a class of compounds that offer promise as safe and effective therapeutic agents for alcohol abuse.

  8. Photoperiod-gonadotropin mismatches induced by treatment with acyline or FSH in Siberian hamsters: impacts on ovarian structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysling, D A; Park, S-U; McMillan, E L; Place, N J

    2012-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders time their reproductive efforts to specific times of the year to ensure adequate resources for the production and care of young. For long-day (LD) breeders, females born before the summer solstice (LDs) reach sexual maturity quickly and often breed that same year, whereas females born after the summer solstice (short days (SDs)) may delay reproductive development to the following spring when environmental conditions are favorable for reproduction. In Siberian hamsters, development in SD is associated with structural and functional differences in the ovary compared with females held in LD, including a greater number of primordial follicles and an abundance of hypertrophied granulosa cells (HGCs), which are immunoreactive for anti-Müllerian hormone. The goal of this study was to determine whether SD-induced gonadotropin suppression is responsible for these phenotypic differences. Gonadotropin levels were suppressed in LD hamsters using the GNRH antagonist acyline. Conversely, to determine whether the SD ovarian phenotype is completely reversed by gonadotropin stimulation, recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) was administered. Our treatments were successful in mimicking FSH concentrations of the opposite photoperiod, but they did not produce a comparable change in the ovarian phenotype. Most notable was the lack of HGCs in the ovaries of acyline-treated LD females. Similarly, HGCs were maintained in the ovaries of SD females treated with rhFSH. Our data suggest that gonadotropins alone do not account for the SD ovarian phenotype. Future studies will determine whether SD-induced changes in other factors underlie these phenotypic changes.

  9. 中药天癸胶囊治疗多囊卵巢综合征的随机对照疗效观察%Efficacy of Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素璇; 王文君; 归绥琪

    2011-01-01

    Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder and one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities in women.Recently,many studies have been conducted assessing Chinese herbal medicine as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS,it is,therefore,worthwhile to analyze and observe the curative effects of traditional Chinese medicine treatment in PCOS.Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of the Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule,in women with PCOS and compare its effects with metformin and ethinyl estradiol plus cyproterone acetate (Diane-35).Design,setting,participants and intervention:A total of 47 PCOS outpatients from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were randomly divided into 3 groups.Patients in group A (n =19) were given Tian Gui Capsule,patients in group B (n =17) were given metformin,and patients in group C (n=11) were given Diane-35.The 3 groups of patients were treated for 3 months.Main outcome measures:Serum testosterone (T),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels,free androgen index (FAI),fasting blood glucose (FPG),fasting insulin (FINS),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),insulin sensitive index (ISI) and left and right ovary volumes of the 3 groups were evaluated before and after treatment.Results:After 3 months of treatment,when compared with before treatment data,group A patients showed decreased serum T and SHBG levels,FAI,FINS,and left and right ovary volumes (P<0.05),and increased serum DHEA-S (P<0.05),while the FPG level showed no significant change.Although the level of serum T and FINS among the 3 groups after the treatment were similar,group A demonstrated better results than group B in reducing the FAI and increasing the serum SHBG,but less significant results than group C besides,group B was the only group showed improved insulin sensitivity.Although the level of FPG of the 3 groups after

  10. Women's Health Implications of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder of unknown etiology which affects approximately 12% of women. Principal features of PCOS are anovulation resulting in irregular or absent menstruation, excessive androgens (male sex hormones) and ovaries with multiple follicles (polycy

  11. 针刺配合中药塌渍法对多囊卵巢综合征血清炎症因子的影响%Acupuncture combined with Chinese herbs Tazi on polycystic ovary syndrome and effects of serum inflammatory factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣; 宋岩

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察针刺配合中药塌渍法治疗多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovary syndrome,PCOS)的临床疗效,并研究血清炎症因子在多囊卵巢综合征发病过程中变化及作用。方法将72例多囊卵巢综合征患者随机分为治疗组及对照组,各36例,治疗组予针刺配合补肾活血颗粒塌渍,对照组予达英-35口服,观察临床疗效。比较各组卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、睾酮(T)、空腹血糖(FBG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、白细胞介素18(IL-18)、肿瘤坏死因子-α( TNF-α)治疗前后的变化。结果治疗组总有效率为88.89%,对照组为80.56%,治疗组优于对照组(P <0.05)。2组患者 LH、T、IL-18、TNF-α水平升高,治疗后均显著下降(P <0.05)。结论针刺配合中药塌渍法治疗多囊卵巢综合征疗效显著,能有效降低多囊卵巢综合征患者血清炎症因子水平。提示慢性炎症可能参与多囊卵巢综合征发病,且与胰岛素抵抗及肥胖有关。%Objective To study the effect of acupuncture combined with Chinese herbs Tazi in treating PCOS. Study the correlation between serum inflammation and pathogen- esis of PCOS. Methods The 72 cases of PCOS were randomly divided into treatment group and control group patients,36 case each. The patients in treatment group was treated with acupuncture combined with Chinese medicine,the patients in control group were treated with Diane-35. The changes of serum levels of fasting glucocose,fasting insulin,follicle-stimulating hormone,luteinizing hormone and testosterone,interleukin 18,tumor necrosis factor-αin the two groups were detected. Results The total effective rate of treated group was 88. 89% ,the effective rate of control group was 80. 56%(P < 0. 05). Two groups of patients with LH,T,IL - 18,TNF alpha levels,after treatment were significantly decreased(P < 0. 05). Conclusion The effect of acupuncture combined with Chinese

  12. Armenian hamster female protein (serum amyloid P component). Comparison with the sex-regulated homolog in Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Waggoner, D J

    1989-12-01

    Complementary DNA clones for Armenian hamster female protein (FP) were isolated and the complete nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence were determined and compared with relevant data for the closely related Syrian hamster. Although biosynthesis of preSAP is directed by a 1.0-kb mRNA in both genera and the molecular mass of the primary translation product of FP is identical, the FP gene structure and regulation of expression of FP are different in Syrian and Armenian hamsters. Whereas the direction of alteration in FP mRNA levels is divergent in Syrian hamsters during an acute phase reaction, hepatic FP mRNA levels increase in both male and female Armenian hamsters during inflammation. Regulation of expression of Armenian and Syrian hamster FP genes occurs at a pretranslational level.

  13. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  14. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ved; Kant, Anita; Parashar, Abha; Rani, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities. PMID:27134478

  15. Laparoscopic management of tumor in supernumerary ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ved Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic management of most of the adnexal masses has become feasible in the present era of advancing endoscopic techniques. A postmenopausal lady presented with lump in the abdomen, appeared to be a solid ovarian mass on ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. On laparoscopy, both the ovaries were normal and the mass was not connected to uterus or adnexa. The mass was removed and histopathology confirmed it to be ovarian tissue thus confirming it to be a tumor in a supernumerary ovary. Examples of supernumerary ovary are among the rarest of gynecological abnormalities.

  16. Cryopreservation and orthotopic transplantation of rat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Martina; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The number of rat strains increased considerably in the last decade and will increase continuously during the next years. This requires enough space for maintaining vital strains and techniques for cryobanking, which can be applied not only in specialised rat resource centres but also in regular animal houses. Here we describe an easy and fast method for the cryopreservation and transplantation of frozen-thawed ovaries of the rat. With dimethyl sulfoxide as cryoprotectant rat ovaries can be stored at -196 degrees C for unlimited time. For revitalisation thawed ovaries have to be orthotopically transplanted into appropriate ovarectomised recipients. Reestablishment of the reproductive cycle in the recipients can be confirmed by vaginal cytology shortly after transplantation. The recipients are able to produce 2-3 litters after mating with males of an appropriate strain. Cyropreservation of ovaries thus can be considered a reliable method to preserve scientifically and economically important stocks and strains of rats that are currently not required.

  17. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current infertility management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Mira; Legro, Richard S

    2011-12-01

    This review summarizes the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome and management of associated infertility. The goal is to guide clinicians through basic evaluation, initial treatment, and briefly describe more complex therapies.

  18. 青春期多囊卵巢综合征的ApoB/ApoA1比值对代谢综合征的预测价值%Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 Ratio Is a Good Predictive Marker for Metabolic Syndrome and Pre-MS in Chinese Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹倩倩; 陈晓莉; 周冉; 黄佳; 杨冬梓

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] We sought to assess if the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein Al (ApoB/ApoAl) ratio can be used as a predictive marker for metabolic syndrome (MS) and pre-MS in Chinese adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). [Methods] Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were evaluated in 125 PCOS adolescents diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria. Based on International Diabetes Federation criteria for MS, patients who have no less than two components of MS but do not meet the criteria for the diagnosis of MS were considered as pre-MS. [Results] The ApoB/ApoAl ratios were higher and the levels of ApoAl were lower in the patients with MS compared with the patients without MS. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the ApoB/ApoAl ratio and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and triglycerides (TG) and a significant negative correlation of the ApoB/ApoAl ratio with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (P < 0.05). The ApoB/ ApoAl ratio increased significantly as the number of MS components increased, and provided 87.5% of sensitivity and 82.9% of specificity with a threshold value of 0.63 for MS and 87.5% of sensitivity and 88.1% of specificity with a threshold value of 0.60 for pre-MS. [Conclusion] The ApoB/ApoAl ratio was significantly higher in obese adolescent PCOS patients with high levels of free androgen index (FAI) and was a good predictive marker for MS and pre-MS in Chinese adolescents with PCOS.%[目的]探讨载脂蛋白B/载脂蛋白A1 (ApoB/ApoA1)比值对青春期多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者代谢综合征(MS)和MS前期(pre-MS)状态的预测价值.[方法]对125例青春期PCOS患者进行体格测量和各种血生化参数的测定,PCOS诊断依据2003年鹿特丹标准,MS诊断依据IDF标准,pre-MS定义为≥2项MS组分异常但未达到MS诊断标准的状态.[结果]MS较非MS患者有较高的ApoB/ApoA1比值和较低的ApoA1 (P< 0.05).ApoB/ApoA1比值与体质量指

  19. Classification of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Chinese Medicine and its Correlation with Sex Hormone and Insulin Level%多囊卵巢综合征中医分类与性激素及胰岛素水平相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 李妍; 侯丽辉; 吴效科

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find out the correlation of the differentiation of polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS )in Chinese medicine with sex hormone and insulin level. Methods 100 cases of PCOS were divided into different types based on the four diagnostic methods of Chinese medicine. Follicule insulin level of the early stage and sex hormone level in serum were observed before and after treatment. Luteinizing hormone ( LH ),follicule -stimulating hormone( FSH ), prolactin( PRL ), estradiol( E2 ), progesterone( P ), testosterone ( T ),dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate( DHEAS )and androstendione( A )in serum were detected. Results 100 cases of PCOS were differentiated as spleen deficiency and phlegm damp pattern( 47.73 % ), kidney deficiency and liver stagnation pattern( 31.82% ), kidney deficiency and blood stasis pattern( 11.36% )and inter -action of phlegm and stasis( 9.09% ). There were not significant differences in LH and FSH levels, LH/FSH and E2 and P levels among groups in statistics. The difference in T level was significant between kidney deficiency and blood stasis pattern group and spleen deficiency and phlegm damp pattern group in statistics( P <0.05 ). As compared with other patterns, PRL level increased significantly in kidney deficiency and liver stagnation pattern group( P < 0.05 ). In spleen deficiency and phlegm damp pattern group,insulin and HOMA -IR levels were higher significantly than those in kidney deficiency and liver stagnation pattern group( P <0.05 ). Conclusion PCOS of kidney yin deficiency is correlative with the increase of T level. Stagnation of phlegm and damp is correlative with insulin resistance in PCOS to a certain extent.%目的 找出多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者中医证类与性激素及胰岛素的相关性.方法 将100例多囊卵巢综合征患者利用中医四诊分类,观察治疗前后卵泡早期血清胰岛素及性激素水平,测定血清促黄体生成素(LH)、促卵泡生成素(FSH)

  20. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  1. Characteristics of 263K scrapie agent in multiple hamster species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade-White, Kimberly D; Barbian, Kent D; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)-resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species.

  2. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2008-04-01

    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Deborah A

    2003-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a relatively common disorder among adolescent women. The typical clinical features including menstrual irregularities and hirsutism are usually not apparent until middle to late adolescence. Yet studies suggest that PCOS may begin in early puberty. Young women with premature pubarche, a family history of PCOS, Caribbean Hispanic and African American ancestry, and/or obesity are more likely to develop PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS may have elevated total or free testosterone, androstenedione, and luteinizing hormone levels; insulin resistance; and hyperinsulinemia. The laboratory evaluation and management of the adolescent with suspected PCOS should be individualized on the basis of the clinical features and symptoms. The cornerstone of most treatment strategies includes either a combination oral contraceptive or progestin to decrease testosterone levels and regulate the menstrual cycle. Consideration of insulin-sensitizing agents, antiandrogens, topical treatments for acne and excess facial hair, and hair removal is dependent on the patient's symptoms and concerns. A healthy approach to eating, in some cases weight loss, and exercise is encouraged to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Management of the adolescent with PCOS is challenging and often requires a supportive, multidisciplinary team approach for optimal results.

  4. Rapid changes in ovarian mRNA induced by brief photostimulation in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahed, Asha; McMichael, Carling F; Young, Kelly A

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to characterize the rapid intraovarian mRNA response of key folliculogenic factors that may contribute to the restoration of folliculogenesis during 2-10 days of photostimulation in Siberian hamsters. Adult hamsters were exposed to short photoperiod (8L:16D) for 14 weeks (SD). A subset were then transferred to long photoperiod (16L:8D) for 2 (PT day-2), 4 (PT day-4), or 10 days (PT day-10). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure intraovarian mRNA expression of: gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating hormone β-subunit (FSHβ-subunit), luteinizing hormone β-subunit (LHβ-subunit), FSH and LH receptors, estrogen receptors α and β (Esr1 and Esr2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-α subunit, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Compared to SD, plasma FSH concentrations increased on PT day-4 and the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased on PT day-10. FSHR and inhibin-α mRNA expression also increased on PT day-4, whereas LHR and proliferation marker PCNA both increased on PT day-10 as compared to SD. Esr1 mRNA increased on PT day-2 and remained significantly increased as compared to SD, whereas Esr1 mRNA increased only on PT day-2, similar to FGF-2 and MMP-2 results. No differences were observed in mRNA expression in ovarian GnRH, FSHβ- and LHβ-subunits, AMH, and MMP-9 mRNA with 2-10 days of photostimulation. Rapid increases in intraovarian FSHR and inhibin-α mRNA and antral follicle/corpora lutea numbers suggest that the ovary is primed to react quickly to the FSH released in response to brief periods of photostimulation.

  5. Recognition of competitors by male golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrulis, Aras; Weidner, Molly; Johnston, Robert E

    2004-06-01

    Golden hamsters, like many animals, form dominant/subordinate relationships after aggressive encounters. We examined whether behavioral responses by males that won or lost fights would differ toward familiar and unfamiliar male stimulus animals. In Experiment 1, male winners or losers of fights explored an arena containing a confined stimulus animal that was either familiar or novel and had either won or lost a fight. Compared to dominant males, losers spent less time in proximity to stimulus males and investigated them less. Losers also displayed higher levels of stretch-attend postures (indicative of risk assessment) than winners, and they showed more escape and locomotion in response to familiar winners than to unfamiliar winners, indicating recognition of the male that they had lost to. In Experiment 2, losers scent marked less to the odors of a familiar winner than to those of an unfamiliar winner. Thus, male hamsters appear to use familiarity with a former opponent's odors to adaptively regulate their responses to variations in social threat.

  6. ABSCESSO TESTICULAR EM HAMSTER: RELATO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hamster, rodent originating from the Middle East, is a species studied along with other laboratory animals as experimental models in scientific papers and currently is also created as a pet, by virtue of being docile, easy to handle and require little space for survival. The suppurative processes in domestic animals are relatively frequent. Due to infectious diseases or purulent course of aggressiveness of the environment in which they live. The habit of storing food in the cheeks with sharp edges can injure the skin and often cause abscesses in this species. However, other lesions may lead to suppuration, diseases such as testicular tumor or no tumor or not produced by damage in the skin, leading to tumescence (VITAL et al., 2007. This article reports a case of a hamster treated at the Veterinary Hospital of FAFRAM with clinical history of discomfort, anorexia and frequent licking of the scrotum. On clinical examination it was found by aspiration of purulent secretions and the presence of large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells on cytology, diagnosed with testicular abscess. The animal was taken to the operating room where was performed conventional bilateral orchiectomy and total excision of the abscess by opening the tunica vaginalis and ligation of the spermatic cord. Postoperative care included antibiotic therapy with enrofloxacin and use of an anti-inflammatory meloxicam. After ten days the stitches were removed, the wound was healing satisfactorily and the animal was in good health.O Hamster, roedor originário do Oriente Médio, é uma espécie estudada juntamente com outros animais de laboratório como modelo experimental em trabalhos científicos e, atualmente, também é criado como animal de companhia, em virtude de ser dócil, de fácil manuseio e necessitar de pequeno espaço para sobrevivência. Os processos supurativos nos animais domésticos são relativamente frequentes. Em decorrência de doenças infectocontagiosas de

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Hamster and Human Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Crowell

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been implicated in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of the present study was to determine COX-2 expression/activity throughout stages of experimental and human pancreatic neoplasia. COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed in pancreata of hamsters subjected to the carcinogen N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropylamine (BOP and in human pancreatic tumors. COX-2 activity was determined by prostaglandin E2 assay in tumor versus matched normal pancreatic tissues. The activity of the COX inhibitor sulindac was tested in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model. COX-2 expression was elevated in all pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs and adenocarcinomas. In BOP-treated hamsters, there were significant progressive elevations in COX-2 expression throughout pancreatic tumorigenesis. In human samples, peak COX-2 expression occurred in PanIN2 lesions and remained moderately elevated in PanIN3 and adenocarcinoma tissues. COX-2 activity was significantly elevated in hamster and human pancreatic cancers compared to pair-matched normal pancreas. Furthermore, hamster pancreatic tumor engraftment/formation in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model was reduced 4.9-fold by oral administration of sulindac. Increased COX-2 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogeneses. The BOP-induced hamster carcinogenesis model is a representative model used to study the role of COX-2 in well-differentiated pancreatic tumorigenesis. COX inhibitors may have a role in preventing tumor engraftment/formation.

  8. Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Moxibustion in Treating 128 Cases of Spleen Kidney Yang Deficiency Type Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced Infertility%中药加艾灸治疗脾肾阳虚型多囊卵巢综合征不孕128例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许玉刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with moxibustion therapy on pa-tients with spleen kidney yang deficiency type of polycystic ovary syndrome induced infertility.Methods:Two hundred and fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into observation group (n=128)and control group (n=122).The control group a-dopted Ethinylestradiol and Cyproterone Acetate Tablets treatment,and observation group gave patients warming kidney and invigorating spleen herbs (Xianmao,Ligustrum lucidum,medlar,dodder seed,polygonatum rhizome,dangshen,wine,vinegar Rhizoma Cyperi,epime-dium,angelica,licorice root,Cornu Cervi degelatinatum)combined with Moxibustion (Guan Yuan,Qihai and Zusanli)treatment.The hormone levels (T,LH,FSH,and E2 ),follicle number,basal body temperature changes and pregnancy rates were ovserved.Results:The clinical curative rates of the observation group and the control group were respectively 42.97%and 20.49%,and the total effective rate were 87.50%and 74.59%;the normal rate of recovery of basal body temperature were 67.97%and 40.98%;pregnancy rate were re-spectively 53.13% and 26.23%;all the above indicators between the two groups showed statistically significant differences (P<0.01).T,LH and FSH levels decreased after treatment in both groups,and E2 levels were elevated,and the differences were statistically significant between the two groups (P<0.05 ).After treatment,left and right side ovarian antral follicle number of patients in the obser-vation group was lower than the control group,group comparison,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05 ).Conclusion:Wenshen Jianpi herbs combined with moxibustion therapy on spleen kidney yang deficiency type of polycystic ovary syndrome shows bet-ter clinical curative effect than ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate tablets in patients with infertility,it can significantly improve hor-mone levels,basal body temperature,reduce the

  9. Torpor shortens the period of Siberian hamster circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E M; Jewett, M E; Zucker, I

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the influence of ambient and body temperature (Ta and Tb) on circadian rhythms of gonadectomized male Siberian hamsters. Animals that entered torpor (Tb circadian periods (tau s) than did nontorpid hamsters at a Ta of 13 degrees C (24.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 24.33 +/- 0.04 h). The tau s of homeothermic hamsters were not affected by Ta change. Short-term decreases in Tb, rather than changes in Ta, appear to affect tau. Access to activity wheels inhibited expression of torpor in short daylengths and was associated with significant increases in body mass. Running wheel activity can mask or block specific short-day responses.

  10. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM

    1992-01-01

    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rats and hamsters. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rats than in hamsters The half-liv...

  11. 高雄激素血症与多囊卵巢综合征中非酒精性脂肪性肝病的关系%Hyperandrogenemia Relation to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲中玉; 石玉华; 陈子江

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨高雄激素血症(HT)与多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者非酒精性脂肪性肝病(NAFLD)发病的关系.方法:对306例PCOS患者进行基础内分泌、口服糖耐量试验及胰岛素释放试验、肝功能、血脂等检查,B超诊断脂肪肝.结果:306例PCOS患者中诊断出NAFLD 94例,发病率为30.7%;其中NAFLD轻度56例(59.6%),中度34例(36.2%),重度4例(4.2%).PCOS患者NAFLD的发病率与HA无明显相关性,与稳态模型评估胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、甘油三酯(TG)呈正相关.PCOS合并NAFLD组胰岛素抵抗(IR)发生率明显高于PCOS不合并NAFLD组,P<0.05;PCOS高雄激素血症(PCOS-HA)组IR发生率与PCOS非高雄激素血症(PCOS-NHA)组无明显差异,P>0.05.结论:PCOS患者NAFLD发病率较高,PCOS患者NAFLD的发生与IR、代谢异常密切相关,与HA无明显相关.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between hyperandrogenemia (HA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Methods: Patients data came from 306 women with PCOS by Rotterdam consensus criteria.Basal endocrine, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin release test, lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were tested.Liver chemistries, B-hepatitis and C-hepatitis were performed, and alcoholic liver diseases were excluded.Fatty liver was diagnosed according to ultrasound.Results: The overall incidence of NAFLD in PCOS was 30.7% (94/306), 56 cases (59.6%) in mild degree, 34 cases (36.2%) in moderate degree, 4 cases (4.2%) in severe degree.Hyperandrogenemia was not associated with the development of NAFLD in women with PCOS.HOMA-IR and TG had positively correlation with NAFLD complicating PCOS.The presence of IR in PCOS women with NAFLD was significantly higher than that in the group without NAFLD (P<0.05).However, there was no significant difference in the presence of IR between PCOS women with hyperandrogenemia and those without hyperandrogenemia

  12. Different types of menstrual cycle and their significance in Chinese women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria%基于鹿特丹标准诊断的多囊卵巢综合征患者月经类型及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兴华; 谭迎春; 石玉华; 王斌; 鞠秀清; 郑庆梅; 郝翠芳; 陈子江

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析基于鹿特丹标准诊断的中国人多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者不同月经类型的临床资料及内分泌代谢指标,以指导临床治疗.方法 将符合鹿特丹标准的2100例PCOS患者按闭经、月经稀发、月经规律进行分组,分别进行代谢及内分泌等指标的比较.结果 (1)闭经组多毛、多囊卵巢发生率均高于月经稀发组(P<0.01).(2)闭经组的血清搞睾酮最高,月经稀发组最低(P<0.01);黄体生成素(LH)在闭经组最高(P<0.01),在月经稀发组和月经规律组问差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);黄体生成素/卵泡刺激素(LH/FSH)在月经规律组增高明显(P<0.01).(3)口服葡萄糖后2 h血糖在闭经组显著增高(P<0.01).结论 符合鹿特丹标准的不同月经类型的PCOS患者具有不同的临床表现及代谢、内分泌特点,对于不同月经类型PCOS患者的治疗也应该个体化.%Objective To analyze the clinical and metabolic characteristics of Chinese women with different menstrual types.All the women were diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam consensus criteria.Methods A total of 2100 patients were divided into three groups:amenorrhea,oligomenorrhea and regular menstruation.The metabolism and endocrine indices were determined and compared among three groups.Results (1)The incidences of hirsutism and PCO were obviously higher in the amenorrhea group than in the oligomenorrhea roup(P<0.01).(2)The amenorrhea group had the highest level of serum testosterone while the oligomenorrhea group had the lowest.Moreover,the level of luteinizing hormone(LH)was higher in the amenorrhea group than in the other two groups(P<0.01).However the ratio of LH/FSH increased significantly in the regular menstruation group (P<0.01).(3)The value of 2 h blood glucose was the highest in the amenorrhea group(P<0.01).Conclusion PCOS patients with diverse types of menstrual cycle show difierent clinical manifestations and

  13. Deciduoma of the ovary complicating pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy Vedavalli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 24 yr old Primigravida who conceived spontaneously came with two months amenorrhea for confirmation of pregnancy and routine checkup. Her 1st trimester scan, showed a single intra – uterine viable pregnancy of 8-9 weeks, with a right adnexal mass of about 10.7x7.7x10.3 cm with solid and cystic areas with internal echoes. In view of the size of the tumor and its varying echogenicity, pathological condition of the ovary was suspected. She reported at 24 weeks with abdominal pain. Partial torsion was suspected and Laprotomy was done. Right ovary was enlarged to 10 cm with varying consistency. Right ovariotomy was done. Postoperative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination showed extensive decidual changes in the ovary, forming tumor like lesions in the cystic areas. The pregnancy progressed without any complication. At term, she delivered a healthy female baby. The case is being presented for its extreme rarity.

  14. [Psychosocial approach in polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlné Papp, Ildikó

    2014-11-23

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most frequent endocrine disease among women of reproductive age. It is associated with increased risks of various metabolic disorders and complications. most recent data suggest that women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome are most exposed to several psychological problems. It has been shown that polycystic ovary syndrome exerts a negative impact on female identity and it contributes to the deterioration of quality of life and, eventually, to development of psychiatric problems. The mental consequences of the disease can be as depressing as physiological symptoms. This draws attention on the importance of the disease from the aspect of therapy as well and, therefore, it may be justified to involve a psychologist or psychiatrist in the process for a more effective treatment. The aim of the paper is to summarize the most frequent psychological symptoms associated with the disease.

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracy; Mortada, Rami; Porter, Samuel

    2016-07-15

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common endocrinopathy among reproductive-aged women in the United States, affecting approximately 7% of female patients. Although the pathophysiology of the syndrome is complex and there is no single defect from which it is known to result, it is hypothesized that insulin resistance is a key factor. Metabolic syndrome is twice as common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with the general population, and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome are four times more likely than the general population to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patient presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to having multiple gynecologic, dermatologic, or metabolic manifestations. Guidelines from the Endocrine Society recommend using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosis, which mandate the presence of two of the following three findings- hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries-plus the exclusion of other diagnoses that could result in hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction. It is reasonable to delay evaluation for polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent patients until two years after menarche. For this age group, it is also recommended that all three Rotterdam criteria be met before the diagnosis is made. Patients who have marked virilization or rapid onset of symptoms require immediate evaluation for a potential androgen-secreting tumor. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is individualized based on the patient's presentation and desire for pregnancy. For patients who are overweight, weight loss is recommended. Clomiphene and letrozole are first-line medications for infertility. Metformin is the first-line medication for metabolic manifestations, such as hyperglycemia. Hormonal contraceptives are first-line therapy for irregular menses and dermatologic manifestations.

  16. Identification of Sheep Ovary Genes Potentially Associated with Off-season Reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Chen; Ka Liu; Zongsheng Zhao; Hugh T. Blair; Peng Zhang; Daquan Li; Runlin Z. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Off-season reproduction is a favorable economic trait for sheep industry.Hu sheep,an indigenous Chinese sheep breed,demonstrates a higher productivity of lambs and displays year-around oestrous behavior under proper nutrition and environment.The genetic basis behind these traits,however,is not well understood.In order to identify genes associated with the off-season reproduction,we constructed a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library using pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 oestrous Hu females as a tester and the pooled ovary mRNAs of 6 non-oestrous Chinese Merino females as a driver.A total of 382 resulting positive clones were obtained after the SSH.We identified 114 differentially up-regulated genes in oestrous Hu sheep by using subsequent screening and DNA sequencing,of which 8 were previously known,93 were reported for the first time in sheep,and 13 were novel with no significant homology to any sequence in the DNA databases.Functions of the genes identified are related to cell division,signal transduction,structure,metabolism,or cell defense.To validate the results of SSH,6 genes (Ntrk2,Ppap2b,Htral,Nidl,Serpine2 and Foxola) were selected for conformational analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR),and two of them (Htral and Foxola) were verified by Northern blot.All of the 6 genes were differentially up-regulated in the ovary of oestrous Hu.It is obvious that off-season reproduction is a complex trait involving multiple genes in multiple organs.This study helps to provide a foundation for the final identification of functional genes involved in the sheep ovary.

  17. Familial small cell carcinoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Borges, Anibal R; Petty, John K; Hurt, Gail; Stribling, Jennifer T; Press, Joshua Z; Castellino, Sharon M

    2009-12-15

    Ovarian tumors have a low incidence in childhood, accounting for 1% of malignancies within the ages of 0-17 years. Small cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare histology and historically has a poor prognosis. We report a case of an 11-year-old female diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary and hypercalcemia (SCCOHT). There was a strong family history of the disease, a reduction in the age of onset in the proband, and the absence of BRCA mutations. This case suggests the phenomenon of genetic anticipation in an ovarian cancer.

  18. Changes of Endogenous Hormone Levels during Ovary Growth and Development after Self-and Cross-pollination of Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut trees spread all over the world produce nut and chestnuts that have considerable economical value. Ovary development is an important step in nut production. Normal ovary development probably requires the coordinated action of plant hormones. Endogenous hormone status of chestnut tree, particularly IAA, IBA, GA3 and ZT, influences chestnut ovary development as well as nut yield. Changes in endogenous hormones during ovary development in chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ and ‘Dabanhong’ were used as materials. About 50~100 pollinated female inflorescences were picked every five days (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days, respectively to determine the IAA, ABA, GA3 and ZT levels by HPLC. The results showed that there were differences between self-and cross-pollination endogenous hormone change rules during the development of ovary. The IAA and GA3 contents in ovary of self-pollination were significantly higher than cross-pollination during pollination and fertilization period, which suggested that lower IAA and GA3 acts as a positive regulator of fertilization. In the first 40 DAP, ZT level in ovaries of self-and cross-pollination almost have the same change rule, but changed dramatically in the last 10 DAP, which suggested that ZT serves as a positive regulator for young fruit. ABA level in ovary of self-pollination was significantly higher than cross-pollination in the first 30 DAP. It seems that high ABA level was probably related with self-incompatibility in chestnut. The findings of this study could lay the scientific basis for spraying GA3, IAA and ZT during ovary development and may have the potential to improve nut yield.

  19. Neuropeptide Y induces torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Freeman, David A; Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John

    2005-09-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the effect of ICV injected NPY on Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a species that naturally undergoes daily torpor in which Tb decreases by as much as 15-20 degrees C. Minimum effective dose was determined in preliminary testing then various doses of NPY were tested in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters while food was withheld. NPY markedly reduced Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. In addition, the reduction in Tb in 63% of the observations was sufficient to reach the criterion for daily torpor (Tb Siberian hamster. NPY treatment may be activating hypothalamic systems that normally integrate endogenous torpor-producing signals and initiate torpor.

  20. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1992-01-01

    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  1. Genitourinary changes in hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrine-Santos Marlene; Santos Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima Marcus Aurelho; Abreu Marta Elena Araújo de; Lages-Silva Eliane; Ramírez Luís Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Authors describe genitourinary changes in male hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Changes in genital organs have been described in human and in experimental chagasic infection. Genital dysfunctions in chronic chagasic patients affect ejaculation, libido and sexual potency, and testis biopsies may show arrested maturation of germ cells, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Sixty-five male hamsters were inoculated and reinoculated with 2x10³ trypomastigotes of T. cruzi VIC str...

  2. Evaluation and Screening on Animal Models of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome of Etiology and Pathogenesis in Traditional Chinese Medicine%体现中医病因病机的多囊卵巢综合征动物模型评价及筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉娟; 徐晓娟; 王婧婧; 王张; 邓琳雯

    2014-01-01

    目的:梳理不同多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)动物模型的造模因素和评价指标,分析各种动物模型的优缺点和适用范围,筛选体现中医药病因病机的模型。方法:通过收集1979年以来公开发表的中文文献77篇,建立PCOS造模因素(动物种别及鼠龄、造模试剂及剂量等)和评价指标(卵巢形态学、激素水平)的数据库,并进行归纳和总结。结果:国内外建立的PCOS动物模型有雄激素造模法、雄激素联合HCG造模法、孕激素联合HCG造模法、雌激素造模法、芳香化酶抑制剂造模法、胰岛素联合HCG造模法、雄激素联合胰岛素造模法、胰岛素造模法等,常使用鼠龄在3-50天的SD、Wistar大鼠,应用脱氢表雄酮、丙酸睾丸酮、硫酸普拉睾酮钠、双氢睾酮、左旋18-甲基炔诺酮、戊酸雌二醇、来曲唑、胰岛素和HCG等化学试剂进行造模,评价指标为卵巢形态学、各级总卵泡数、性激素类(E2、P、T、FSH、LH)和胰岛素抵抗相关指标(FINS、FPG、HOMA)等。结论:目前PCOS动物模型各有优缺点,尚不能完全模拟临床上PCOS患者发病过程,应根据不同的目的选择适宜的造模试剂和评价指标。脱氢表雄酮、双氢睾酮缓释、孕激素联合HCG造模的动物模型更适宜于研究胰岛素抵抗(IR)在PCOS发病中的作用。肾虚痰湿是肥胖型PCOS根本病因病机,脱氢表雄酮造模、左旋18-甲基炔诺酮联合HCG造模、芳香化酶抑制剂造模比较符合肥胖型PCOS动物模型,评价指标有体质量、血清性激素水平、胰岛素抵抗以及卵巢形态学等,临床常采用补肾化痰法治疗肥胖型PCOS。%By combing differe nt modelin g factors and evaluation indicators of experimental animals of polycystic o-vary syndrome (PCOS), application scope, advantages and disadvantages were analyzed among various kinds of animal models, in order to screen models of

  3. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  4. [Induction of protective antiamebic immunity in hamsters with heterologous antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; de Jesús Bernal, M; Kumate, J

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty-five Syrian golden hamsters were used. Twenty five of them served as the control group. All other hamsters were intradermal immunized, once a week for four weeks, with a mixture of amebic proteins, mixed with complete Freund adjuvant, obtained from 5 x 10(5) homogenized dead amebic trophozoites from five different strains. Each group of hamsters (five groups of 40 animals each) were immunized with one of the following strains: E. histolytica HM-531, HJ-1, HM1-IMSS, E. chattoni PM-4 and PM-5. All hamsters, including those from the control group, were later inoculated with 0.2 mL equivalent to 1 x 10(5) live trophozoites from the different strains grown in axenic TYI-S-33 medium. Inoculation was performed by direct injection into the liver. The hamsters were sacrificed eight days later and their livers examined. All non-immunized animals showed extensive gross hepatic nodular abscesses. The liver of immunized hamsters showed mild to moderate lesions: the histopathological striking feature was non-specific granulomata. It is concluded that the immunized animals inoculated with homologous stock showed protective immunity to amebic infections. In other cases, immunity was seen though they were inoculated with a heterologous stock.

  5. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).

  6. Re-torsion of the ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel, Trine E W; Bak, Geske S; Larsen, Solveig B;

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of de-torsion of the ovaries may result in re-torsion. This review addresses risk of re-torsion and describes preventive strategies to avoid re-torsion in pre-menarcheal girls, and fertile and pregnant women. We clinically reviewed PubMed, Embase, Trip and Cochrane databases...

  7. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-06-10

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting.

  8. Oncological repercussions of polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de França Neto, Antônio H; Rogatto, Silvia; Do Amorim, Melania M R

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine disorder that has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has suggested that PCOS may be associated with the appearance of certain types of cancer, particularly endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer...

  9. The Mammalian Ovary from Genesis to Revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Mark A.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2009-01-01

    Two major functions of the mammalian ovary are the production of germ cells (oocytes), which allow continuation of the species, and the generation of bioactive molecules, primarily steroids (mainly estrogens and progestins) and peptide growth factors, which are critical for ovarian function, regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and development of secondary sex characteristics. The female germline is created during embryogenesis when the precursors of primordial germ cells differentiate from somatic lineages of the embryo and take a unique route to reach the urogenital ridge. This undifferentiated gonad will differentiate along a female pathway, and the newly formed oocytes will proliferate and subsequently enter meiosis. At this point, the oocyte has two alternative fates: die, a common destiny of millions of oocytes, or be fertilized, a fate of at most approximately 100 oocytes, depending on the species. At every step from germline development and ovary formation to oogenesis and ovarian development and differentiation, there are coordinated interactions of hundreds of proteins and small RNAs. These studies have helped reproductive biologists to understand not only the normal functioning of the ovary but also the pathophysiology and genetics of diseases such as infertility and ovarian cancer. Over the last two decades, parallel progress has been made in the assisted reproductive technology clinic including better hormonal preparations, prenatal genetic testing, and optimal oocyte and embryo analysis and cryopreservation. Clearly, we have learned much about the mammalian ovary and manipulating its most important cargo, the oocyte, since the birth of Louise Brown over 30 yr ago. PMID:19776209

  10. A bovine model for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results in the greatest single cause of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women (affecting 5-10%). Previously, research groups have created animal models utilizing non-human primates and sheep to better understand the mechanisms involved in PCOS. However, c...

  11. Complementary Therapy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Carmen Imma; Nori, Stefania Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease. PCOS afflicts 5 to 10 % of women of reproductive age. The symptoms are: amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity, infertility, chronic hyperandrogenic anovulation and acne. Other risk factors aggravate this condition: insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, inflammation and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Anxiety, depression and reduced quality of life are also common. This review highlights the mechanisms an...

  12. Vessel Ultrasound Sonographic Assessment of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Efficacy in a Rat Balloon Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jin Tae, DVM, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Sonograph results are consistent with those obtained from histology; that is, sRAGE produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells has significantly higher efficacy than insect cell-originated sRAGE cells.

  13. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  14. Social thermoregulation and torpor in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Głabska, Marta; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2011-04-01

    Social thermoregulation and huddling bring about energy benefits to animals sharing a nest because of the smaller surface-to-volume ratio of a huddle and the higher local temperature in the nest. We tested whether living in groups and huddling affect daily torpor, metabolic rate and seasonal changes in the body mass of a small heterothermic rodent, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), housed under semi-natural conditions both singly and in groups of four litter-mates. We predicted that in hamsters housed in groups: (1) synchronized torpor bouts would be longer and deeper than non-synchronized ones but shallower than in solitary hamsters, (2) seasonal variations in metabolic rate would be lower than in solitary hamsters, and (3) the winter decrease in body mass would be smaller in grouped than in singly housed hamsters. We found that group housing led to a smaller decrease in body mass in winter, and affected the length and depth of daily torpor. In group-living hamsters more than 50% of all torpor episodes were synchronized and torpid animals were often found in huddles formed of all cage-mates. The longest and deepest torpor bouts in groups were recorded when all animals in a group entered torpor simultaneously. Although the minimum body temperature during torpor was higher, torpor duration was slightly longer than in solitary hamsters. We did not record significant differences in the body mass-adjusted rate of oxygen consumption between solitary and grouped animals, either in the cold or at the lower critical temperature. We conclude that social thermoregulation enables maintenance of a larger body mass, and thus a larger body fat content, which can ensure better body condition at the beginning of the reproductive season.

  15. Masculine sexual activity affects slow wave sleep in Golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-02-15

    The sleep pattern is modified by events occurring during wakefulness. In rats, it has been shown that male sexual behavior has a direct influence on sleeping patterns, increasing slow wave sleep (SWS) duration. On the other hand, the sexual behavior pattern of the male Golden hamster differs from the copulatory pattern of male rats. Male hamsters copulate faster and they do not display the motor inhibition observed in rats after each ejaculation. Moreover, close to exhaustion, hamsters display a behavioral pattern known as Long Intromission, which has been linked to an sexual inhibitory process. The present study was performed to determine the effects of male sexual activity on the sleep pattern in hamsters. Subjects were allowed to copulate for 30 and 60 min. In addition, the effect of locomotor activity was also assessed. The results show that male sexual behavior induced a significant increase of SWS II, with a reduction of wakefulness. No effect was observed on REM sleep. Locomotor activity produced only a slight effect on sleep. The results are discussed in terms of the similarities between the effects observed after sexual behavior on sleep in rats and hamsters, despite the substantial differences in the behavioral pattern.

  16. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  17. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  18. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Munson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ- deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology.

  19. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2012-02-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  20. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-07-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction.

  1. Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

  2. Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İrfan Güzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common reason of anovulatory infertility in reproductive age women. To make ovulation in these patients, from simple approach like life style changes to complicated therapies like assisted reproductive techniques are used. In this review, we aimed to emphasize different ovulation induction techniques that can be used in cases with PCOS. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 626-631

  3. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical implication in perimenopause

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Lenart-Lipińska; Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek; Ewa Woźniakowska; Janusz Solski; Tarach, Jerzy S.; Tomasz Paszkowski

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hyperandrogenic disorder, is the commonest endocrinopathy in premenopausal women. This syndrome is associated with fertility problems, clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism and metabolic disturbances, particularly insulin resistance and obesity. There is a great body of evidence that patients with PCOS present multiple cardiovascular risk factors and cluster components of metabolic syndrome from early ages. The presence of comorbidities such as abdomi...

  4. Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsikouras, P.; Spyros, L; Manav, B; Zervoudis, S.; Poiana, C; Nikolaos, T.; Petros, P; Dimitraki, M; Koukouli, C; Galazios, G; von Tempelhoff, GF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: To elucidate the prepubertal risk factors associated with the development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and determine the special clinical manifestations of the syndrome in this transitional time of a woman’s life. Objective: To propose therapeutic targets and regimens, not only to prevent the long-term complications of the syndrome, but also to improve the self-esteem of a young girl who matures into womanhood. Methods and Results: A systematic review of literature was perfo...

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Yorghi Khoury; Edmund Chada Baracat; Dolores Perovano Pardini; Mauro Abi Haidar; Eduardo Leme Alves da Motta; Geraldo Rodrigues de Lima

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically, and with laboratory, tests, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO). PATIENTS: One hundred and twelve women with PCO were studied. METHODS: The following data was recorded: Current age; age at menarche; menstrual irregularity, occurrence of similar cases in the family; fertility, obstetric history; body mass index (BMI); and presence of hirsutism. Serum measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, free testoster...

  6. The effects of phthalates on the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Patrick R; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions, including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic human exposure.

  7. The effects of phthalates on the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHannon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers in the manufacturing of flexible polyvinyl chloride products. Large production volumes of phthalates and their widespread use in common consumer, medical, building, and personal care products lead to ubiquitous human exposure via oral ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Recently, several phthalates have been classified as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disrupting chemicals based on their ability to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Therefore, exposure to phthalates represents a public health concern. Currently, the effects of phthalates on male reproduction are better understood than the effects on female reproduction. This is of concern because women are often exposed to higher levels of phthalates than men through their extensive use of personal care and cosmetic products. In the female, a primary regulator of reproductive and endocrine function is the ovary. Specifically, the ovary is responsible for folliculogenesis, the proper maturation of gametes for fertilization, and steroidogenesis, and the synthesis of necessary sex steroid hormones. Any defect in the regulation of these processes can cause complications for reproductive and non-reproductive health. For instance, phthalate-induced defects in folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis can cause infertility, premature ovarian failure, and non-reproductive disorders. Presently, there is a paucity of knowledge on the effects of phthalates on normal ovarian function; however, recent work has established the ovary as a target of phthalate toxicity. This review summarizes what is currently known about the effects of phthalates on the ovary and the mechanisms by which phthalates exert ovarian toxicity, with a particular focus on the effects on folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Further, this review outlines future directions including the necessity of examining the effects of phthalates at doses that mimic

  8. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    David H Abbott; Nicol, Lindsey E.; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. L...

  9. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5–7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findi...

  10. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Kalra; Sanjay Kalra; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic...

  11. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, G; Gangadharan, V P; Elizabath, K A; Preetha, S; Chithrathara, K

    2000-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas are rare extramedullary tumors of malignant myeloid precursor cells. Exceedingly rare in childhood, it commonly involves skin, lymph nodes, bone, and the spine. Ovarian involvement is rare. It can arise de novo, precede the development of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or be the sole manifestation of relapse. We describe a 26-year-old woman with granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary without any hematologic disorder.

  12. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-Xin; Duan, Xing; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  13. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  14. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  15. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary.

  16. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  17. A novel homozygous mutation p.E25X in the HSD3B2 gene causing salt wasting 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases deficiency in a Chinese pubertal girl: a delayed diagnosis until recurrent ovary cysts%HSD3B2基因p.E25X新纯合突变致失盐型3β-羟类固醇脱氢酶缺乏症一例及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永兰; 郑纪鹏; 谢婷; 肖青; 卢少媚; 李秀珍; 程静; 陈励和; 刘丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3βHSD),a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) resulted from mutations in the HSD3B2 gene that impair steroidogenesis in both adrenals and gonads.We report clinical features and the results of HSD3B2 gene analysis of a Chinese pubertal girl with salt wasting 3βHSD deficiency.Method We retrospectively reviewed clinical presentations and steroid profiles of the patient diagnosed in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center in 2013.PCR and direct sequencing were used to identify any mutation in the HSD3B2 gene.Result A 13-year-old girl was diagnosed as CAH after birth because of salt-wasting with mild clitorimegaly and then was treated with glucocorticoid replacement.Breast and pubic hair development were normal,and menarche occurred at 12 yr,followed by menstrual bleeding about every 45 days.In the last one year laparoscopic operation and ovariocentesis were performed one after another for recurrent ovary cysts.Under corticoid acetate therapy,ACTH 17.10 pmol/L (normal 0-10.12),testosterone 1.31 nmol/L (normal < 0.7),dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate 13.30 μmol/L (normal 0.95-11.67),cortisol 720 nmol/L (normal 130-772.8),androstenedione,17-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone were normal.Estradiol 461 pmol/L,follicle-stimulating hormone 3.04 IU/L,luteinizing hormone 8.52 IU/L in follicular phase.A pelvic ultrasound showed lateral ovaries cysts (58 mm × 50 mm × 35 mm) and a midcycle-type endometrium.A novel nonsense mutation c.73G > T (p.E25X) was identified in HSD3B2 gene.The girl was homozygous and her mother was heterozygous,while her father was not identified with this mutation.Conclusion A classic 3βHSD deficiency is characterized by salt wasting and mild virilization in female.Ovary cysts may be the one of features of gonad phenotype indicating ovary 3βHSD deficiency.A novel homozygous mutation c.73G > T(p.E25X) was related to the classical phenotype.%目的 总结一例失盐型3

  18. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-15

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  19. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in arrhythmic Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yokogawa, Tohei; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul; Ruby, Norman F

    2004-07-01

    Sleep is regulated by independent yet interacting circadian and homeostatic processes. The present study used a novel approach to study sleep homeostasis in the absence of circadian influences by exposing Siberian hamsters to a simple phase delay of the photocycle to make them arrhythmic. Because these hamsters lacked any circadian organization, their sleep homeostasis could be studied in the absence of circadian interactions. Control animals retained circadian rhythmicity after the phase shift and re-entrained to the phase-shifted photocycle. These animals displayed robust daily sleep-wake rhythms with consolidated sleep during the light phase beginning about 1 h after light onset. This marked sleep-wake pattern was circadian in that it persisted in constant darkness. The distribution of sleep in the arrhythmic hamsters over 24 h was similar to that in the light phase of rhythmic animals. Therefore, daily sleep amounts were higher in arrhythmic animals compared with rhythmic ones. During 2- and 6-h sleep deprivations (SD), it was more difficult to keep arrhythmic hamsters awake than it was for rhythmic hamsters. Because the arrhythmic animals obtained more non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the SD, they showed a diminished compensatory response in NREMS EEG slow-wave activity during recovery sleep. When amounts of sleep during the SD were taken into account, there were no differences in sleep homeostasis between experimental and control hamsters. Thus loss of circadian control did not alter the homeostatic response to SD. This supports the view that circadian and homeostatic influences on sleep regulation are independent processes.

  20. Susceptibility of hamsters to Clostridium difficile isolates of differing toxinotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Buckley

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most commonly associated cause of antibiotic associated disease (AAD, which caused ∼21,000 cases of AAD in 2011 in the U.K. alone. The golden Syrian hamster model of CDI is an acute model displaying many of the clinical features of C. difficile disease. Using this model we characterised three clinical strains of C. difficile, all differing in toxinotype; CD1342 (PaLoc negative, M68 (toxinotype VIII & BI-7 (toxinotype III. The naturally occurring non-toxic strain colonised all hamsters within 1-day post challenge (d.p.c. with high-levels of spores being shed in the faeces of animals that appeared well throughout the entire experiment. However, some changes including increased neutrophil influx and unclotted red blood cells were observed at early time points despite the fact that the known C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB and CDT are absent from the genome. In contrast, hamsters challenged with strain M68 resulted in a 45% mortality rate, with those that survived challenge remaining highly colonised. It is currently unclear why some hamsters survive infection, as bacterial & toxin levels and histology scores were similar to those culled at a similar time-point. Hamsters challenged with strain BI-7 resulted in a rapid fatal infection in 100% of the hamsters approximately 26 hr post challenge. Severe caecal pathology, including transmural neutrophil infiltrates and extensive submucosal damage correlated with high levels of toxin measured in gut filtrates ex vivo. These data describes the infection kinetics and disease outcomes of 3 clinical C. difficile isolates differing in toxin carriage and provides additional insights to the role of each toxin in disease progression.

  1. Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Berger JJ; Bates Jr GW

    2014-01-01

    Joshua J Berger, G Wright Bates JrUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity...

  2. Myxoid Leiomyosarcoma of Ovary-A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Srinivasamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary is extremely rare, comprising of only 1% of the ovarian tumours. Patient presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa since three months. Radiological diagnosis of broad ligament fibroid was given. Right salphingo-oophorectomy with enucleation of ischial fossa and wedge biopsy of left ovary was carried out. Based on gross, microscopy and immunohistochemistry a diagnosis of primary myxoid leiomyosarcoma of ovary was made. We report a rare case of primary pure myxoid leiomyosarcoma of the ovary with metastasis to ischial fossa emphasising on reliable prognostic markers. Ovarian leiomyosarcomas are highly aggressive tumours with poor prognosis. PMID:25120990

  3. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xiao-bing; SUN Zheng; CHEN Xiao-xin; WU Hong-ru; ZHANG Xin-yan

    2012-01-01

    Background Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer.However,the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP,a Chinese herbal drug,on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters.The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis.Methods DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6-8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors.Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks.Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination.Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels.The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting.Results Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation.Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights.Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P <0.01) and 22.9% (P <0.01)respectively.Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK.In addition,ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production.Conclusion The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating

  4. Efficient gene targeting in golden Syrian hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Fan

    Full Text Available The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs--three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C--and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease.

  5. Cloning of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody sequences and identification of a new hamster immunoglobulin lambda constant IGLC gene region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggart, Ryan; Perera, Jason; Huang, Haochu

    2013-06-01

    Anti-CD79 antibodies have been effective at targeting B cell lymphoma cells and depleting B cells in animal models. In order to engineer recombinant antibodies with additional effector functions in mice, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNAs of the heavy and light chain of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody. Although hamster antibodies represent a unique source of monoclonal antibodies against mouse, rat, and human antigens, sequence information of hamster immunoglobulins (IG) is sparse. Here, we report a new hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) IG lambda constant (IGLC) gene region that is most homologous to mouse IGLC2 and IGLC3.

  6. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  7. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent...... vivo multispectral fluorescence imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The findings of this study emphasise the role of early and comprehensive in vivo studies in pharmaceutical research. Nanocarrier accumulation in the ovaries may also comprise an important toxicity issue in humans...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  8. Diagnosis of adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Tristan S E; Norman, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women of reproductive age and is increasingly recognized as a disorder manifesting in the peripubertal and adolescent period. Diagnosis in the adolescent is difficult due to the high background rate of menstrual irregularity, the high prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology and hyperandrogenic features in this population. Recent guidelines suggest that menstrual irregularity for over two years, reduced reliance on ultrasound diagnosis of polycystic ovarian morphology, and accurate assessment of hyperandrogenic and metabolic features are suitable strategies for the diagnosis of PCOS in the adolescent. Accurate diagnosis is important given the long-term implications of the disorder, with increasing emphasis on metabolic sequelae.

  9. Psychiatric disorders related to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krępuła, Katarzyna; Bidzińska-Speichert, Bożena; Lenarcik, Agnieszka; Tworowska-Bardzińska, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. The psychiatric disorders accompanying the clinical symptoms and hormonal abnormalities are important, but underestimated, aspects in PCOS. Obesity, hirsutism, acne, menstrual disturbances and infertility play important roles in lowering the quality of life in women with PCOS. Depression and anxiety are more often observed in patients with PCOS than in healthy women. Some authors consider that there is a relationship between valproic acid treatment of bipolar disease and PCOS. There have been reports that in women with PCOS anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and other unspecified eating disorders are found more often than in the general population.

  10. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI, with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS.

  11. Adipocyte biology in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T M; Franks, S

    2013-07-05

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is associated with an adverse metabolic profile including insulin resistance. There is a clear association between obesity, the development of PCOS and the severity of its phenotypic, biochemical and metabolic features. Evidence to support this link includes data from epidemiological, pathophysiological and genetic studies. Given the importance of obesity in the development and manifestation of PCOS, ongoing research into the many facets of adipocyte biology in women with the condition is important and should continue to be a priority. In this review article, we discuss the existing literature on fat distribution, adipokines, adipocyte hypertrophy and adipocyte steroid metabolism in women with PCOS.

  12. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  13. One case of Tian Shuxiao in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome%田淑霄治疗多囊卵巢综合征验案一则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏健; 申军莲

    2014-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)是妇科临床上最常见的一种内分泌综合征,主要表现为月经失调、不孕、肥胖等,现总结田淑霄教授采用中医疗法治疗1例多囊卵巢综合征患者,探讨中医疗法在治疗多囊卵巢综合征中的独特优势。%Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is one of the most common clinical gynecology endocrine syndrome,mainly for menstrual disorders,infertility,obesity,presently we summarized professor Tian Shuxiao used Chinese medicine treatment to treat 1 case of polycystic ovary syndrome patient,in order to explore the unique advantages of traditional Chinese medicine therapy in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge

    2002-01-01

    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  15. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  16. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  17. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana

    2011-07-25

    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  18. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM

    1992-01-01

    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the

  19. Immunohistochemical evaluation of proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenic enzymes in the ovary of rats with polycystic ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Lombardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of proliferative, apoptotic and steroidogenic enzyme markers in the ovaries of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: twenty rats were divided into two groups: GCtrl - estrous phase, and PCOS - with polycystic ovaries. The GCtrl animals were subjected to a lighting period from 7 am to 7 pm, while the animals with PCOS group remained with continuous lighting for 60 days. Subsequently, the animals were anesthetized, the ovaries were removed and fixed in 10% formaldehyde, prior to paraffin embedding. Sections were stained using H.E. or subjected to immunohistochemical methods for the detection of Ki-67, cleaved caspase-3, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < 0,05. Results: morphological results showed evidence of interstitial cells originating from the inner theca cells of degenerating ovarian cysts in PCOS. Immunoexpression of Ki-67 was higher in the granulosa cells in GCtrl, and the theca interna cells in PCOS, while cleaved caspase-3 was higher in granulosa cells of ovarian cysts from PCOS and in the theca interna cells of GCtrl. Immunoreactivity of CYP11A1 in the theca interna, granulosa and interstitial cells was similar between the two groups, while CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were higher in the granulosa and interstitial cells in the PCOS group. Conclusion: the results indicate that the interstitial cells are derived from the theca interna and that enzymatic changes occur in the theca interna and interstitial cells in ovaries of rats with PCOS, responsible for the high levels of androgens and estradiol.

  20. Research Progress of the Effect of Melatonin and Its Receptor on Ovary and Intervention with Traditional Chinese Medicine%松果腺褪黑素及其受体对卵巢作用及中医药干预的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    堵吉

    2012-01-01

    松果体在人脑百会穴下,双眉之间,印堂之后深处,位于第三脑室.其分泌的主要效应物质褪黑素具有调节生物钟、生殖和抗氧化等作用.尽管褪黑素对下丘脑-垂体-卵巢轴整体呈现抑制作用,但其对卵巢局部仍具有一定的保护作用,这种保护作用是通过清除自由基抗氧化损伤,抑制细胞凋亡实现的.现就褪黑素及其受体的理化性质、生物学功能以及褪黑素及其受体对卵巢的作用予以综述.%The pineal gland is below the Baihui point in the human brain, between the eye brows, deeply behind the Yintang piont, located in the third ventricle. The pineal gland secrets melatonin, which has an important influence on human's biological clock,reproduction,and antioxidation. The efforts of melatonin on hy-pothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are inhibitory in overall, but it still has a protective effort to ovary, through scavenging free radicals,antioxidant effect,and inhibiting apoptosis. Here is to make a review on the properties, biological functions,especially the effects on the ovary,of melatonin and its receptor.

  1. Adipose expression of adipocytokines in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Svendsen, Pernille; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines.......To investigate the role of adipocytokines in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by analyzing the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and plasma levels of adipocytokines....

  2. Cardiometabolic abnormalities in the polycystic ovary syndrome : Pharmacotherapeutic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, H. E.; Hoogendoorn, M.; de Jong, A. W. F.; Goverde, A. J.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of all premenopausal women. It is diagnosed by a combination of oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism (NIH criteria) or by the presence of two out of three of: oligo-amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound (Rotterdam criteria)

  3. Bone morphogenetic proteins and the polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.A.F. van Houten (Leonie); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Y.V. Louwers (Yvonne); A. McLuskey; A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); J.A. Visser (Jenny)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is defined by two out of the following three criteria being met: oligo- or anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Affected women are often obese and insulin resistant. Although the etiology is still unknown, members of the Tran

  4. Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cancer, especially of the endometrium, breast and ovary. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify 12,070 in- and outpatients in whom PCOS was diagnosed when they were aged 9-49 years during...

  5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome : Genetic determinants of the phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Valkenburg (Olivier)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was first described in 1935 by Stein and Leventhal as an association of amenorrhoea, obesity and a typical, polycystically enlarged, appearance of the ovaries at laparatomy1. Taking into account the absence of advanced imaging techni

  6. Seasonal aspects of sleep in the Djungarian hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deboer Tom

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yorghi Khoury

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically, and with laboratory, tests, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO. PATIENTS: One hundred and twelve women with PCO were studied. METHODS: The following data was recorded: Current age; age at menarche; menstrual irregularity, occurrence of similar cases in the family; fertility, obstetric history; body mass index (BMI; and presence of hirsutism. Serum measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were taken. RESULTS: All patients presented either oligomenorrhea (31 percent, periods of secondary amenorrhea (9 percent, or both alterations (60 percent. The majority of the patients were infertile (75.6 percent. The LH/FSH ratio was higher than 2:1 in 55 percent of the patients and higher than 3:1 in 26.2 percent. The ultrasonographic aspect of the ovaries was considered to be normal in 31 percent. CONCLUSION: The main clinical feature of the PCO is the irregularity of menses since menarche, and that the laboratory tests would be important to exclude other disorders such as hyperprolactinemia or hyperandrogenemia caused by late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  8. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed.

  9. A Comprehensive Transcriptomic Analysis of Infant and Adult Mouse Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovary development is a complex process involving numerous genes. A well-developed ovary is essential for females to keep fertility and reproduce offspring. In order to gain a better insight into the molecular mechanisms related to the process of mammalian ovary development, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis on ovaries isolated from infant and adult mice by using next-generation sequencing technology (SOLiD. We identified 15,454 and 16,646 transcriptionally active genes at the infant and adult stage, respectively. Among these genes, we also identified 7021 differentially expressed genes. Our analysis suggests that, in general, the adult ovary has a higher level of transcriptomic activity. However, it appears that genes related to primordial follicle development, such as those encoding Figla and Nobox, are more active in the infant ovary, whereas expression of genes vital for follicle development, such as Gdf9, Bmp4 and Bmp15, is upregulated in the adult. These data suggest a dynamic shift in gene expression during ovary development and it is apparent that these changes function to facilitate follicle maturation, when additional functional gene studies are considered. Furthermore, our investigation has also revealed several important functional pathways, such as apoptosis, MAPK and steroid biosynthesis, that appear to be much more active in the adult ovary compared to those of the infant. These findings will provide a solid foundation for future studies on ovary development in mice and other mammals and help to expand our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events that occur during postnatal ovary development.

  10. [Cystic formations of ovaries in women: clinical and morphological features

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    Sorokina I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic formations of ovaries are an urgent problem of medicine due to the high incidence of these diseases in women, the difficulties of differential diagnosis and a high percentage of diagnostic and tactical mistakes leading to disruption of reproductive function. Objective: to identify the clinical and morphological features of cystic formations of ovaries in women of Kharkiv region on the basis of the analysis of archival material. Methods. The material of this study was archival materials of pathological anatomy department of The Municipal Health Care Institution «Regional Clinical Hospital – The Center of Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine» during 2013 y. 354 cases of histological examination of surgical material – deleted fragments of ovaries due to cystic formations or ovaries in complex with uterus and fallopian tubes due to leiomyoma of uterus – were analyzed. The slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were studied on the microscope «Olympus BX-41». Digital data were processed using statistical methods of investigation. Results. 1. It was established that in women of Kharkiv region among all cystic formations of ovaries tumor-like processes (in order of frequency of occurrence – yellow bodies cysts, follicular cysts, simple cysts, endometrial cysts occur 5.5 times more frequently in comparison with tumor processes (in order of frequency of occurrence – dermoid cysts, cystadenomas, cystadenocarcinoma. 2. Tumor and tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries occur 4.6 times more frequently in right ovary in comparison with the left. 3. Tumor and tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries were characterized by a certain age. Tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries were typical for younger women (average age of women – 31.03±0.49 year and tumor cystic formations – for older women (average age of women – 37.70±1.53 years. Among all tumor-like cystic formations of ovaries yellow bodies cysts were typical

  11. Observation on the Curative Effect of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine Adjuvant Therapy for 120 Cases After Chocolate Cyst of Ovary Surgery%卵巢巧克力囊肿术后加用中西药辅助治疗疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 宋丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the curative effects of enantone and reinforcing kidney and activating blood TCM extract used for adjuvant therapy of the cases after chocolate cyst of ovary surgery. Methods: A total of 120 cases with chocolate cyst of ovary surgery were selected and divided into group of non — pharmacy, group of reinforcing kidney and activating blood TCM,group of enantone and group of TCM combining western medicine. Each group with 30 cases. The treatment groups were medicated for 6 months and drug withdrawal for 6 months, then the clinical effective rates, recurrence rates, pregnancy rates and side effects in the four groups were analyzed retrospectively. Results:The clinical effective rates in four groups were 66. 6% ,83. 3% ,86. 6% and 90% respectively, the recurrence rates in four groups were 43. 3% , 23. 3% ,26. 6% and 6. 66% respectively, the pregnancy rates at one year after surgery in four groups were 42. 8% , 62.5% ,14.2% and 25% respectively, the side effects in four groups were 0% ,0% ,53.3% and 33.3% respectively. Conclusion: Reinforcing kidney and activating blood TCM and enantone extract used for adjuvant therapy of the cases after chocolate cyst of ovary surgery can significantly improve clinical effective rate and reduce recurrence rate, Reinforcing kidney and activating blood TCM can improve pregnancy rate,as well without any side effect.%目的:探讨补肾活血方和抑那通用于卵巢巧克力囊肿术后辅助治疗的疗效.方法:收集120例卵巢巧克力囊肿术后的患者,随机分为未用药组、中药补肾活血组、西药抑那通组及中西药合并组,每组各30例,治疗组连续用药6个月,停药6个月,观察4组的临床有效率、复发率、受孕率及药物副反应的发生率.结果:4组的临床有效率分别为66.6%、83.3%、86.6%、90%,复发率分别为43.3%、23.3%、26.6%、6.66%,未孕者术后1年的妊娠率分别为42.8%、62.5%、14.2%、25%,药物副

  12. Marked hyperandrogenemia and acne associated with polycystic ovaries in Greek women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skampardonis, N; Kouskoukis, A; Karpouzis, A; Maroulis, G

    2011-01-01

    PCOS represents the commonest endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between polycystic ovaries and clinical and biochemical features of the syndrome. TVS was performed in 74 women with the clinical diagnosis of PCOS. The findings were compared to biochemical, hormonal and clinical features of the syndrome. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher prevalence of acne, LH/FSH ratios and testosterone levels in women with PCO compared to those with normal ovarian morphology. In the subgroup analysis, total ovarian volume correlated significantly with hirsutism scores. Our study revealed a great prevalence of polycystic ovaries in Greek women with PCOS, and emphasizes the significance of transvaginal ultrasound in establishment of the diagnosis of the syndrome. The presence of PCO may not be clinically important when present alone without clinical manifestations but reflects the underlying hyperandrogenemia in PCOS women, representing a useful tool in the management of these patients.

  13. Successful cryopreservation of buffalo ovaries using in situ oocyte cryopreservation

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    Saber Mohammed Abd-Allah

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the efficiency and efficacy of cryopreservation of ovaries, we developed a new method termed in situ oocyte (ISO cryopreservation. ISO cryopreservation is a multistep procedure that involves aspiration of follicular fluid and then perfusion of antral follicles and diffusion of whole buffalo ovaries with cryoprotectant agent (CPA, rapid cooling, storage, thawing and, finally, dilution and removal of the CPA with return to physiological environment. Our study compared ISO cryo ovaries with cryo-diffused ovaries. We systematically examined the effects of ISO cryo and diffuse cryo on ovaries by morphological examination and with viability tests. The percentages of morphologically normal and viable follicular oocytes from ISO cryo were significantly higher than those that resulted from the cryo-diffused method (p<0.01. The quality of follicular oocytes from ISO cryo ovaries appeared better than that achieved from cryo-diffused ovaries. In conclusion, this study shows that ISO cryo is highly efficient for cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue.

  14. Computer-generated ovaries to assist follicle counting experiments.

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    Angelos Skodras

    Full Text Available Precise estimation of the number of follicles in ovaries is of key importance in the field of reproductive biology, both from a developmental point of view, where follicle numbers are determined at specific time points, as well as from a therapeutic perspective, determining the adverse effects of environmental toxins and cancer chemotherapeutics on the reproductive system. The two main factors affecting follicle number estimates are the sampling method and the variation in follicle numbers within animals of the same strain, due to biological variability. This study aims at assessing the effect of these two factors, when estimating ovarian follicle numbers of neonatal mice. We developed computer algorithms, which generate models of neonatal mouse ovaries (simulated ovaries, with characteristics derived from experimental measurements already available in the published literature. The simulated ovaries are used to reproduce in-silico counting experiments based on unbiased stereological techniques; the proposed approach provides the necessary number of ovaries and sampling frequency to be used in the experiments given a specific biological variability and a desirable degree of accuracy. The simulated ovary is a novel, versatile tool which can be used in the planning phase of experiments to estimate the expected number of animals and workload, ensuring appropriate statistical power of the resulting measurements. Moreover, the idea of the simulated ovary can be applied to other organs made up of large numbers of individual functional units.

  15. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY DURING 7, 12-DIMETHYLBENZ [a] ANTHRACENE-INDUCED HAMSTER BUCCAL POUCH CARCINOGENESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  16. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  17. MMATURE TERATOMA OF OVARY- A CASE REPORT

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    Devarmani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immature teratoma is the currently preferred term f or the malignant ovarian teratoma composed of a mixture of embryonal and adult tissues derived from all three germ layers, regardless of its gross appear ance. AIM: to distinct mature and immature teratoma when dealing with ovarian germ cell tumors . CASE SUMMARY: a 30 year female presented with intra abdominal mass and ascitis. Gro ssly, variable size nodule and cystic areas are seen. Microscopically, carcinoid like lesion, th yroid tissue immature neural tissue and glandular tissue noted. Diagnosis of immature terat oma grade 3 was made. DISCUSSION: immature teratoma of ovary accounts for 10-20% of a ll ovarian tumors and is considered second most common germ cell tumor following mature teratoma. It is usually seen in children and adolescents. CONCLUSION: A thorough search for immature elements in a terat oma is necessary for proper grading, management and assessin g prognosis of cases with immature teratoma.

  18. Treating polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Between 4% and 18% of women worldwide are affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and have the hormonal imbalances that lead to the cascade of symptoms, including weight gain and obesity. One of the first suggested treatments for infertility associated with PCOS is weight reduction, which has been shown to increase the chance of spontaneous ovulation and menstruation. Pharmacologic treatment usually includes metformin alone or in conjunction with clomiphene; both have been shown to increase conception rates and decrease risk of preeclampsia once pregnancy is achieved. Limited research has been published about the efficacy of oral contraceptives in producing conception. If pregnancy still eludes women with PCOS after initial pharmacologic treatments, gonadotropin therapy by itself or in conjunction with assisted reproductive therapy is considered. These treatments come with higher expense, and increased risk, and require extensive counseling prior to implementation. Additional research is needed to better understand what risks exist for pregnant women with PCOS and for their newborns.

  19. Basic infertility including polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Maryse; AinMelk, Youssef; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2008-09-01

    Infertility in women has many possible causes and must be approached systematically. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This syndrome is common in young women and is the cause of anovulatory infertility in 70% of cases. It is therefore an important condition to screen and manage in primary care medical settings. In the past 10 years, insulin sensitization with weight loss or metformin has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for PCOS infertility that eliminates the risk of multiple pregnancy and may reduce the risk of early pregnancy loss as compared with ovulation-inductor drugs. The authors believe metformin should be considered as first-line therapy because it has the advantage to allow for normal single ovulation, for reduced early pregnancy loss, and, most importantly, lifestyle modifications and weight loss before pregnancy. Losing weight not only improves fertility but also reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  20. Psychological aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Judit; Rigó, Adrien; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-02-01

    An overwhelming majority of scientific literature on the polycystic ovary syndrome has utilized a medical approach to analyse the disorder and only few studies have investigated its predisposing psychological factors. This literature review sheds light on the fact that this gynaecological disorder of endocrine origin, which is becoming more frequent, can be associated with a great number of psychological symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, body image dissatisfaction, eating and sexual disorders, and low life satisfaction). Thus, the syndrome is significant from a therapeutic point of view as well. Authors review the psychological correlates of specific symptoms, their relationships with other psychological syndromes and analyse the psychosocial background of the disorder as well as the possibilities of psychotherapy.

  1. Coexistence of asthma and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Louise; Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    Asthma may be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and possibly patients with PCOS have a more severe type of asthma. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize evidence of a coexistense of PCOS and asthma using the available literature. The search was completed...... on 01.01.2016. English language articles were retrieved using the search terms 'Asthma' AND 'PCOS', 'Asthma' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'Asthma' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'asthma' AND 'gynaecology', 'PCOS' AND 'systemic inflammation', 'PCOS' AND 'metabolic syndrome', 'PCOS' AND 'allergy'. Five papers...... meeting prespecified search criteria were found of which two were registry studies of relevance. The current literature supports a coexistense of PCOS and asthma and gives us an indication of the causes for the possible link between PCOS and asthma. Further research in the area must be conducted...

  2. Sheep models of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2013-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a fertility disorder affecting 5-7% of reproductive-aged women. Women with PCOS manifest both reproductive and metabolic defects. Several animal models have evolved, which implicate excess steroid exposure during fetal life in the development of the PCOS phenotype. This review addresses the fetal and adult reproductive and metabolic consequences of prenatal steroid excess in sheep and the translational relevance of these findings to PCOS. By comparing findings in various breeds of sheep, the review targets the role of genetic susceptibility to fetal insults. Disruptions induced by prenatal testosterone excess are evident at both the reproductive and metabolic level with each influencing the other thus creating a self-perpetuating vicious cycle. The review highlights the need for identifying a common mediator of the dysfunctions at the reproductive and metabolic levels and developing prevention and treatment interventions targeting all sites of disruption in unison for achieving optimal success.

  3. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff;

    2015-01-01

    : Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). RESULTS: PCOS women with phenotype BMI > 25 + IR have increased potential of thrombin generation. ETP is associated with total body fat mass, IR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Obese and insulin resistant women with PCOS have elevated level of ETP corresponding to increased risk......OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...... cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two major University Hospitals in the Capital region of Denmark. PATIENTS: Hundred forty-eight European women with PCOS were consecutively recruited during April 2010-February 2012. Clinical examination, blood sampling, and DEXA scan were performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  4. [Tumors of the ovaries in zebus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, N; Zhelev, V; Angelov, A K

    1983-01-01

    In a total of 112 slaughtered sterile cows of the Zebu cattle, originating from the Camaguey region, Cuba, 25 tumors were found in 22 animals (in three of the cows the tumors were bilateral). Histologically, the tumors were differentiated as follows: 1 papillary adenoma, 6 papillary cystadenomas, 1 adenocarcinoma, 1 papillary adenocarcinoma, 8 granulosocellular tumors, 1 thecoma, 2 luteomas, 4 hemangiomas, and 1 angiocarcinoma. In two of the cases, beside tumors there were in the ovaries parovarian cysts. The differentiation of the tumors were made on the basis of the international histologic classification of tumors of the World Health Organization. Most frequently, the tumors turned out to be granulosocellular ones as well as papillary cystadenomas and hemangiomas.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a dermatologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Heloisa Helena Gonçalves de; Costa, Dailana Louvain Marinho; Bagatin, Ediléia; Sodré, Celso Tavares; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe cases, signs of virilization. Treatment may improve the clinical manifestations of excess androgen production, normalize menses and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical manifestations, metabolic complications, and treatment of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and the consequent early treatment may prevent metabolic complications and emotional distress that negatively impact the patients' quality of life.

  6. Hirsutism and acne in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Johanna S; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine abnormality affecting reproductive age women. Population-based studies estimate a prevalence of 5-10% [Obstet Gynecol 101 (2003) 995; Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41 (2001) 202]. The clinical characteristics of PCOS include hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, insulin resistance and infertility. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism and acne. Both these clinical symptoms are treated with similar drug therapies, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), topical medications or antiandrogens such as spironolactone, flutamide and finasteride, as well as topical medications. Recent studies have shown that lower doses of these medications are as efficacious as high doses and have the advantage of decreased cost and an improved side-effect profile. Although hirsutism and acne can be considered cosmetic in nature, they cause significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. Physicians should be sensitive to these issues and approach patients in a caring and sympathetic manner.

  7. New adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemzadeh, R; Kansra, A R

    2011-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but heterogeneous disorder that usually arises during puberty. This endocrine disorder is associated with chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia with clinical manifestation of oligomenorrhea, hirsutism and acne. While the underlying etiology of PCOS remains unknown, it is commonly associated with obesity and insulin resistance leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in hyperandrogenemic phenotypes. Menstrual irregularities and insulin resistance in obese adolescents are usually indistinguishable from the clinical manifestations of PCOS and pose a diagnostic dilemma due to higher circulating androgens during puberty. Consequently, a universal consensus on the definition of hyperandrogenemia in adolescents has been elusive. Nevertheless, hyperandrogenemia, independent of obesity, in postmenarchal adolescents is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic syndrome. Therefore, treatment strategies including lifestyle changes and/or use of insulin-sensitizers, hormone replacement and antiandrogens should be utilized in order to delay long-term cardiovascular and metabolic complications of this endocrinopathy.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of the Capra hircus ovary.

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    Zhong Quan Zhao

    Full Text Available Capra hircus is an important economic livestock animal, and therefore, it is necessary to discover transcriptome information about their reproductive performance. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome dataset for the goat ovary using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The result will contribute to research on goat reproductive performance.RNA-seq analysis generated more than 38.8 million clean paired end (PE reads, which were assembled into 80,069 unigenes (mean size = 619 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 64,824 (60.6% genes were identified, among which 29,444 and 11,271 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO categories and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG showed that 27,766 (63.4% unigenes were mapped to 258 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome differences of goat ovaries at two different ages using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.6 million and 5.8 million tags for the two ages and identified a large number of genes associated with reproductive hormones, ovulatory cycle and follicle. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways were revealed for the first time with regard to the differentially expressed genes.The transcriptome provides invaluable new data for a functional genomic resource and future biological research in Capra hircus, and it is essential for the in-depth study of candidate genes in breeding programs.

  9. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms.Keywords: treatment, polycystic ovary

  10. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  11. Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    by TOSK Inc. to introduce the human, sheep, and other prion genes into golden Syrian hamsters and to use the new transgenic animals both to measure...Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert G. Rohwer, Ph.D. Irena Alexeeva, Ph.D...From - To) 1 SEP 2003 - 31 AUG 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of

  12. A guide to understanding polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, W Colin

    2014-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Some 20% of women will have polycystic ovaries on an ultrasound scan and around 7% of women have the additional clinical or biochemical features of PCOS. As a complex multisystem disorder its background can be confusing to understand. They key feature, however, is an increased production of androgen by the ovaries. This review uses ovarian biology to describe a strategy to aid understanding and explanation of PCOS. This framework can be also be used to teach about PCOS and to inform different approaches to its management.

  13. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurdan; Erol; Aysu; Turkmen; Karaagac; Nicholas; G; Kounis

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female with polycystic ovary syndrome taking oral contraceptive and suffering from recurrent coronary ischemic attacks with increased eosinophils, and troponin levels suggesting Kounis syndrome.

  14. Proposal on the diagnosis and classification of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jin

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the treatment outcome and facilitate the clinical practice, a diagnostic classification of heterogeneous disease-polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is proposed.PCOS is classified into 2 main types (Ⅰ ,Ⅱ ) and 4 subtypes ( Ⅰ a,Ⅰb,Ⅱa, Ⅱb) : PCOS Ⅰ refers to eases with hyperandrogenemia derived from the ovary ( Ⅰa) or from both the ovary and the adrenal cortex ( Ⅰ b).PCOS Ⅱ refers to cases with both hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia, while Ⅱb being severer than Ⅱ a, like hyperthecosis.Better efficacy of integrative medicine treatment on this classification is mentioned.

  15. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Zucker, Irving

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ'), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters.

  16. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Patel, Priyesh N; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2014-03-15

    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors.

  17. Circadian Regulation of Cortisol Release in Behaviorally Split Golden Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We sh...

  18. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; Vandongen, Case

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The δ-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the ANS imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ∼9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n = 10) and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n = 10). Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the δ-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  19. Experience-independent development of the hamster circadian visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Kampf-Lassin

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent functional plasticity is a hallmark of the primary visual system, but it is not known if analogous mechanisms govern development of the circadian visual system. Here we investigated molecular, anatomical, and behavioral consequences of complete monocular light deprivation during extended intervals of postnatal development in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were raised in constant darkness and opaque contact lenses were applied shortly after eye opening and prior to the introduction of a light-dark cycle. In adulthood, previously-occluded eyes were challenged with visual stimuli. Whereas image-formation and motion-detection were markedly impaired by monocular occlusion, neither entrainment to a light-dark cycle, nor phase-resetting responses to shifts in the light-dark cycle were affected by prior monocular deprivation. Cholera toxin-b subunit fluorescent tract-tracing revealed that in monocularly-deprived hamsters the density of fibers projecting from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN was comparable regardless of whether such fibers originated from occluded or exposed eyes. In addition, long-term monocular deprivation did not attenuate light-induced c-Fos expression in the SCN. Thus, in contrast to the thalamocortical projections of the primary visual system, retinohypothalamic projections terminating in the SCN develop into normal adult patterns and mediate circadian responses to light largely independent of light experience during development. The data identify a categorical difference in the requirement for light input during postnatal development between circadian and non-circadian visual systems.

  20. Effect of diethylstilbestrol on polyamine metabolism in hamster epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-HongQiu; MasatoOhe; ShigeruMatsuzaki

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES), one of the most potent endocrine disruptors, on the metabolism of polyamines in hamster epididymis. Methods: Male golden hamsters of 7-week-old were kept under a light and dark cycle of 14 h and 10 h for 1 week to stimulate maximally the gonadal function. DES was injected subcutaneously at doses of 0.01mg·kg-1·day-1,0.1mg·kg-1·day-1 and 1mg·kg-1·day-1 for one week. Results:DES treatment caused a significant decrease in the weight of epididymis. The activity of epididymal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) increased 1 day after DES treatment, kept at a high level for 4 days and then decreased to nearly normal level at day 7. The activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) also increased transiently after DES treatment. The contents of putrescine, spermidine, spermine and N1-acetylspermidine were increased 1 day 4 days after DES treatment and restored to normal at day 7. All these changes showed a marked difference between the caput and the cauda. Conclusion: The polyamine biosynthesis in the hamster epididymis can be affected by DES,a xenoestrogen. DES may probably affect polyamine metabolism in the epididymis by regulating the rate-limiting enzymes involved in the polyamine biosynthesis.

  1. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-22

    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  2. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  3. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  4. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2016-06-15

    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans.

  5. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  6. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  7. Serum amyloid-P component of the Armenian hamster: gene structure and comparison with structure and expression of the SAP gene from Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B

    1993-11-01

    Serum amyloid P (SAP), a phylogenetically conserved pentraxin, is an integral component of all amyloid deposits. Regulation of expression of SAP gene expression is quite different in two related hamster species. In Syrian hamsters, the resting serum levels of SAP are determined by gender, and the direction of alteration following inflammation is divergent. In Armenian hamsters, SAP is not a prominent acute-phase reactant and there is no gender dimorphism of expression. The structure and expression of the SAP gene of the Armenian hamsters was investigated by isolation of genomic clones, nucleotide sequence analysis, and RNA studies. The gene structure of Armenian hamster SAP is similar to the genes of all other pentraxins studied. While the upstream regions of the SAP genes of Syrian and Armenian hamsters are quite similar, important differences in potential enhancer sites have been recognized by comparing the corresponding sequences of SAP genes from both species. Little alteration in hepatic levels of transcripts encoding SAP or CRP, the other pentraxin, were noted following administration of lipopolysaccharide to Armenian hamsters. This relative lack of response occurred despite a marked acute phase reaction documented for serum amyloid A mRNA levels.

  8. Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR HUGO LOPES DE ANDRADE

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders.

  9. Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]: comprehensive management in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samraj, George P N; Kuritzky, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common premenopausal endocrino-metabolic disorder. In addition to hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities, ovulatory disturbances and infertility, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity may eventuate in long-term cardiovascular consequences.

  10. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Akaike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food.

  11. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anraku, Kensaku; Nonaka, Kiku; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Hamamoto, Ayaka; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-01

    The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. PMID:23334671

  12. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high androgens, such as excess body or facial hair More than 12 cysts of a specific size on one or both of the ovaries (as detected by ultrasound) Some women diagnosed with PCOS have the first two symptoms ...

  13. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Guide for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 10 women has PCOS. What is PCOS? Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormone imbalance that can cause irregular periods, unwanted hair growth, and acne. PCOS begins during a girl’s teen years and ...

  14. An ovary as unusual contents of an incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, U; Ahmed, R; Kamat, S; Elkholy, K

    2014-09-01

    We present the unusual case of a woman presenting with an incarcerated umbilical hernia. Intraoperatively, the contents of the hernia were found to be an ovary. We outline the clinical presentation of our patient, investigations and management as well as a discussion on unusual contents of umbilical hernias. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a non-malignant ovary incarcerated in an umbilical hernia.

  15. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmans SM; Pate KA

    2013-01-01

    Susan M Sirmans, Kristen A PateDepartment of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and...

  16. New markers of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, K.; Czyzyk, A.; Simoncini, T.; Meczekalski, B.

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine-metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age. The diagnostic criteria include two out of three features: hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound and menstrual irregularities (Rotterdam Criteria 2003). PCOS patients are more vulnerable to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance (IR) is prevalent in women with PCOS independently of obesity and is critically involved in reprod...

  17. Dangerous triplet: Polycystic ovary syndrome, oral contraceptives and Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Nurdan; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen; Kounis, Nicholas G.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, androgen excess and polycystic ovaries and is associated with hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events. Oral contraceptives constitute first-line treatment, particularly when symptomatic hyperandrogenism is present. However, these drugs are associated with cardiovascular events and hypersensitivity reactions that pose problem in differential diagnosis and therapy. We present a 14 year-old female wi...

  18. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  19. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  20. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gerard Hampton

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the autonomic nervous system imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ~9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n=10 and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n=10. Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P<0.01. Time domain heart rate variability, an index of parasympathetic tone, was lower in TO-2 hamsters (12.2 ± 3.7 bpm vs. 38.2 ± 6.8, P<0.05, as was the coefficient of variance of the RR interval (2.8 ± 0.9 % vs. 16.2 ± 3.4 %, P<0.05 compared to control hamsters. Power spectral analysis demonstrated reduced high frequency and low frequency contributions, indicating autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the delta-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  1. Bariatric Surgery, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Butterworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results.

  2. Fetal programming of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinedisorder that affects up to 6.8% of reproductive agewomen. Experimental research and clinical observationssuggest that PCOS may originate in the very early stagesof development, possibly even during intrauterine life.This suggests that PCOS is either genetically-transmittedor is due to epigenetic alterations that develop in theintrauterine microenvironment. Although familial casessupport the role of genetic factors, no specific geneticpattern has been defined in PCOS. Several candidategenes have been implicated in its pathogenesis, butnone can specifically be implicated in PCOS development.Hypotheses based on the impact of the intrauterineenvironment on PCOS development can be groupedinto two categories. The first is the "thrifty" phenotypehypothesis, which states that intrauterine nutritionalrestriction in fetuses causes decreased insulin secretionand, as a compensatory mechanism, insulin resistance.Additionally, an impaired nutritional environment canaffect the methylation of some specific genes, which canalso trigger PCOS. The second hypothesis postulates thatfetal exposure to excess androgen can induce changesin differentiating tissues, causing the PCOS phenotype todevelop in adult life. This review aimed to examine therole of fetal programming in development of PCOS.

  3. Androgen circle of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburg, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Although the aetiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still not known and the search for causative genes is proving elusive, it is generally agreed that hyperandrogenism is at the heart of the syndrome. Here, it is proposed that excess androgens are the root cause of PCOS starting from their influence on the female fetus in programming gene expression, producing the characteristic signs and symptoms which are then exacerbated by a propagation of excess ovarian androgen production from multiple small follicles, anovulation and insulin resistance in the reproductive life-span, thus setting up a vicious perpetual circle of androgen excess. This opinion paper, rather than being a full-scale review, is intentionally biased in support of this hypothesis that androgen excess is the 'root of all evil' in PCOS; in the hope that its acceptance could lead to more direct treatment of the syndrome in all its facets rather than the symptomatic treatment of side effects of androgen excess that we are addressing today.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a transgenerational evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L M A; Elton, S

    2008-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome has a common association with anovulatory infertility, while the physical symptoms are often associated with the increased androgens that are part of the endocrine profile. There is a well-recognised association with lipid and glucose metabolism anomalies and, when undergoing ovulation induction, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. This common condition is familial, but a contributory gene has yet to be found. The question of why a gene that predisposes to anovulation, diabetes and heart disease might have perpetuated so frequently is addressed. Three hypotheses for evolutionary advantage are discussed. The food deprivation hypothesis considers the role of the observed increase in ovulation when women with the condition lose weight in relation to seasonality. The refeeding hypothesis considers the androgenic and slightly enhanced anabolic metabolism in relation to periods of privation and the advantage of preferential early ovulation when refeeding after a period of privation. The transgenerational privation hypothesis considers the effect of persistent, severe, yet subfatal privation on individuals both in utero and throughout life. While an androgenic, anabolic state would improve efficiency in the use of food for protein synthesis and fat storage, benefiting the fetus both in relation to its in utero development and neonatal survival, survival and reproductive capacity as an adult benefits by a genotype expressing itself in women of successive generations.

  6. Dermatologic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amy T; Zane, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of reproductive-aged women and is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. The disorder is commonly characterized by elevated levels of androgen and insulin. Women with PCOS may present with a range of signs and symptoms, and face increased risks of reproductive, metabolic, cardiovascular, psychologic, and neoplastic sequelae, particularly if the condition is left unrecognized or untreated. The clinical definition of PCOS has changed in recent years and includes as one of its cardinal criteria the dermatologic manifestations of hyperandrogenism, chiefly hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenetic alopecia. Acanthosis nigricans, a cutaneous sign of hyperinsulinemia, may also be present. These dermatologic features may provide early clinical clues to recognition of PCOS, and treatment of these cutaneous conditions may improve the patient's quality of life and psychologic well-being. The effects of androgen on pilosebaceous units in the skin can vary by anatomic location, producing pathophysiologic effects on hair growth and differentiation, sebaceous gland size and activity, and follicular keratinization. Treatment modalities may include hormonal therapy intended to modulate androgen production and action as well as non-hormonal therapies directed toward specific dermatologic conditions.

  7. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  8. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster.

  9. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  10. On the systematic position of the Western Hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens Nehring (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1959-01-01

    The systematic position of the western hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens, has been a subject of discussion and criticism ever since NEHRING (1899, pp. 1—2) described the hamster occurring in Belgium west of the Meuse as a separate variety. The present paper is a new effort to throw more light on

  11. A Comparison of Hamster Anesthetics and Their Effect on Mosquito Blood Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsters or mice are often anesthetized when they are used as the hosts for insect feeding experiments. An experiment was done to determine if there was a difference in mosquito blood feeding success when fed on hamsters anesthetized using two commonly used protocols. The number of blood-fed females...

  12. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W

    1985-08-12

    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance.

  13. SNC 80, a delta-opioid agonist, elicits phase advances in hamster circadian activity rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byku, M; Gannon, R L

    2000-05-15

    Non-photic stimuli administered to hamsters during the subjective day can cause phase advances in circadian wheel running activity. It is believed that afferent projections from the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus to circadian pacemaker cells within the suprachiasmatic nucleus mediate the phase shifting effects of some non-photic stimuli. In hamsters, many of the intergeniculate leaflet afferents contain enkephalin, yet the role of opioids in producing non-photic phase shifts in hamsters has not been reported. In the present study, we show that SNC 80, an agonist for the delta opioid receptor subtype, will phase advance hamster wheel running activity rhythms when administered late in the subjective day. These results indicate that opioids may be involved in modulating the circadian pacemaker in hamsters.

  14. Serum Visfatin in Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Hussaien

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visfatin is a peptide that is predominantly expressed and secreted from adipose tissue and exerts insulinmimicking effects through activation of an insulin receptor. The aim of this study to evaluated serum visfatin level in both lean and obese Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS subjects before and after treatment with metformin . This study included (80 women, 20 lean with PCOS (BMI 30 kg m-2 and (group C include 40 healthy normally menstruating women (20 lean and 20 obese are control. All these groups were detected after treatment with metformin for 3 months. Metformin was given at doses up to 1500 mg/day for three month; the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were attended to obstetrics and gynecology outpatient and primary health care outpatient in Al – Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, and Kamal-Al-Samaraae Hospital. The control subjects were recruited mainly from medical students and staff. Serum visfatin was estimated before and after treatment. A results showed that significant high increase in mean serum visfatin level in lean polycystic ovary syndrome compared to control lean (6.35±1.07 ng/ml versus 0.26±0.11 ng/ml, P=0.0001* ,and also in obese polycystic ovary syndrome showed a significant increase compared to control obese(1.31±0.39 ng/ml versus 0.29±0.08 ng/ml, P=0.0001*. Serum visfatin was reduced in both lean and obese polycystic ovary syndrome after treatment with metformin. By this study, we can conclude Serum Visfatin level increased in polycystic ovary syndrome groups and this increment is high in lean group. These findings might suggest that visfatin could play a role in pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Metformin decrease serum visfatin level in both lean and obese groups.

  15. Photoperiodic regulation of FGF21 production in the Siberian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Ricardo J; Fowler, Maxine J; Cooper, Scott; Emmerson, Paul; Coskun, Tamer; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Tsintzas, Kostas; Ebling, Francis J P

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". FGF21 is an endocrine member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily that has been shown to play an important role in the physiological response to nutrient deprivation. Food restriction enhances hepatic FGF21 production, which serves to engage an integrated response to energy deficit. Specifically, elevated FGF21 levels lead to reduced gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic ketogenesis. However, circulating FGF21 concentrations also paradoxically rise in states of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity. Furthermore, multiple peripheral tissues also produce FGF21 in addition to the liver, raising questions as to its endocrine and paracrine roles in the control of energy metabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma FGF21 concentrations in the Siberian hamster, a rodent which undergoes a seasonal cycle of fattening and body weight gain in the long days (LD) of summer, followed by reduction of appetite and fat catabolism in the short days (SD) of winter. Groups of adult male hamsters were raised in long days, and then exposed to SD for up to 12 weeks. Chronic exposure of LD animals to SD led to a significant increase in circulating FGF21 concentrations. This elevation of circulating FGF21 was preceded by an increase in liver FGF21 protein production evident as early as 4 weeks of exposure to SD. FGF21 protein abundance was also increased significantly in interscapular brown adipose tissue, with a positive correlation between plasma levels of FGF21 and BAT protein abundance throughout the experimental period. Epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) also produced FGF21, but levels did not change in response to a change in photoperiod. In summary, a natural programmed state of fat catabolism was associated with increased FGF21 production in the liver and BAT, consistent with the view that FGF21 has a role in adapting hamsters to the hypophagic winter state.

  16. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  17. Melatonin attenuates photic disruption of circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, N F; Kang, T; Heller, H C

    1997-10-01

    Body temperature (Tb) was recorded via a biotelemetry system from 28 adult male Siberian hamsters maintained in a light-dark (LD) cycle of 16 h light/day for several months. After Tb was recorded for 3 wk, the LD cycle was phase delayed by extending the light phase by 5 h for 1 day; animals remained on a 16:8 LD cycle for the remainder of the experiment. Hamsters were injected daily with melatonin or vehicle solution for several weeks, beginning either 2 mo after (experiment 1) or on the day of (experiment 2) the phase shift; injections occurred within 30 min of dark onset. In experiment 1, 75% of animals free ran with circadian periods >24 h, beginning on the day of the phase shift, and never reentrained to the LD cycle; no hamsters unambiguously entrained to daily injections. In contrast, 78% of animals in experiment 2 entrained to melatonin injections, and 71% of those animals subsequently reentrained to the photocycle when the injection regimen ended. No vehicle-treated animals entrained to the injection schedule. Melatonin had no effect on daily mean Tb and Tb rhythm amplitude in either experiment; however, melatonin doubled the duration of a hyperthermic response that occurred after each injection. Thus melatonin can prevent loss of entrainment induced by a phase shift of the LD cycle but cannot restore entrainment to free-running animals. Failure to reentrain in the presence of two appropriately coordinated entraining agents also suggests that a phase shift of the photocycle can diminish the sensitivity of the circadian system to both photic and nonphotic input.

  18. Hamster exhibits major differences in organ-specific metabolism of the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visoni, Sílvia; Lang, Matti; Ribeiro Pinto, Luis Felipe

    2008-12-15

    Nitrosamines are carcinogens that require metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in order to exert their carcinogenic effect. Species differences exist in their esophageal carcinogenic potency, with the rat being the most sensitive and the Syrian hamster a resistant species. In the latter, the liver is the main target organ. This difference does not apply to directly acting N-nitroso compounds, suggesting that tissue-specific metabolic activation is involved in hamster esophageal resistance to nitrosamines. We have previously shown that Cytochrome P450 2A3 (CYP2A3) is responsible for N-nitrosodiethylamine activation in the rat esophagus. In order to find a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of hamster esophagus for nitrosamines, we have compared the metabolism of NDEA between esophagus and liver of the hamster. Hamster esophagus is capable of activating NDEA (K(m)=1.02+/-0.44microM and V(max)=1.96+/-0.26nmol acetaldehyde/min/mg microsomal protein). However, the hamster liver showed a 40-fold higher catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) towards NDEA metabolism compared with its esophagus. Hamster esophagus expresses CYP2A8, CYP2A9 and CYP2A16, but not CYP2E1. An antibody against human CYP2A6 was able to inhibit NDEA metabolism in hamster esophageal, but not liver microsomes. Our results suggest that in the hamster esophagus, but not in the liver, most of the NDEA is metabolized by CYP2A enzymes, but with a rather poor efficiency when compared to the liver. This is in accordance with previous results showing that for the hamster, the main target organ of NDEA is the liver.

  19. Adropin Levels in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most commonly observed endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age. Women with PCOS are said to have increased classic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity, in addition to non-classic risk factors such as an increase in C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine, and tumor necrosis factor-%u03B1. Adropin is a protein thought to play a role in maintaining energy homeostasis and insulin response. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between levels of adropin and insulin resistance in PCOS patients with insulin resistance and an increased risk of diabetes.Material and Method: Fifty-seven female patients (30 patients with PCOS and 27 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. All patient%u2019s body mass index and insulin resistance were calculated. The adropin levels were measured using commercial kits based on a competitive plasma EIA (enzyme immunoassay method. Results: The adropin levels in the patient group were 10.79 ng/L, while the value was 13.02 ng/L in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.04. There was a significant negative correlation between the adropin levels and the insulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, triglyseride (TG, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR levels (p=0.03, p=0.03, p=0.04, and p=0.02, respectively. Discussion: In our study, the adropin level which is associated with insulin resistance, was found to be decreased in patients with PCOS. We think that it would be valuable to conduct new studies for the evaluation of adropin related clinical conditions leading to insulin resistance in patients with PCOS.

  20. Polycystic ovaries and infertility: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rajashekar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common (15-20% endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. Although it is a major cause of infertility, its etiology remains unknown and its treatment difficult. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with PCOS. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: PCOS patients (914 of the 1057 attending the outpatient department (OPD from June 2003 to February 2008 were evaluated for this study. Of the 914 patients investigated, 814 came for treatment and these patients were studied for hormonal disturbances and their response to various modalities of treatment. Results: Of the 2270 infertility patients, 46.50% (1057 had PCOS, out of these, 86.47% (914 were investigated and 77% (814 came for treatment. Our overall pregnancy rate was 48.40% (394/814. The pregnancy rate per cycle with timed intercourse (TI was 44.77% (47/105, 17.09% (286/1673 with intrauterine insemination (IUI, 29.82% (51/171 with in vitro fertilization (IVF and 22.22% (10/45 with frozen embryo transfer (FET. The maximum number of pregnancies (85.29%, 284/333 were achieved in the first three treatment cycles. The abortion rate was 19.01% (73/384 and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 5.47% (21/384. Complications seen were in the form of ovarian hyperstimulation (OHSS, retention cyst on day two and multiple pregnancies in 11.71% (228/1946 of the total treatment cycles. Conclusion: Most PCOS symptoms could be adequately controlled or eliminated with proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, ovulation induction (OI protocols and treatment modalities must be balanced for optimal results.

  1. THE ULTRASOUND SCAN ASPECT CORRELATED WITH THE POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Grigoriu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is one of the most frequentendocrine diseases when talking about women whoreached the reproduction age, having an estimated incidence of 5 - 40% and it represents 75% of the cases of anovulatoryinfertility. This personal study represents a retrospective analysis of a total number of 321 patients diagnosed withpolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in the period of time between 2010 and 2014 from the clinical, paraclinical andstatistical point of view. The patients were systematically assessed in time and underwent a medical therapeutic method inthe Clinic of Obstetrics-Gynaecology of the Emergency County Hospital Bacău. The patients included in the study werefollowed during their hospitalization, but also after that, in order to study the evolution of the case. They were performedtransabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography scans, as they are extremely important in the algorithm of paraclinicaldiagnostic. Based on the data we collected we can now state that in 69% of the cases the ultrasound scan was thepredominant criterion for diagnosing polycystic ovaries. For the rest of the cases, including the ones with a normalultrasound scan of the ovaries, the diagnostic was established after correlating the clinical data with the other paraclinalones, as agreed in the Rotterdam consensus. About 7-8% of the women having a reproductive age are affected by thepolycystic ovary syndrome, so this is considered to be the main cause of infertility in women, and also the mostfrequently met endocrine disease in women.

  2. Optimal management of subfertility in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger JJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joshua J Berger, G Wright Bates JrUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a stepwise approach to treating the infertility/subfertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Defining polycystic ovary syndrome in a patient requires first investigating other possible causes for polycystic ovary morphology, acne, hirsutism, obesity, and the metabolic derangements that often accompany polycystic ovary syndrome. Beginning with lifestyle modification and use of metformin, the progressive inclusion of more intensive therapies for induction of ovulation is described. Second-line treatments are discussed and the new findings from a large multicenter trial are discussed in the context of evidence-based treatment strategies for first-line agents. Finally, monofollicular development as a treatment goal and in vitro fertilization are discussed for those with recalcitrant disease.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, infertility, metformin, ovarian drilling, ovulation induction, subfertility

  3. [Immune response induced by phosphofructokinase from E. histolytica in hamsters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; Kumate, J

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic activity of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) dependent phosphofructokinase became manifest in the supernatant obtained by centrifugation in a homogenate of E. histolytica strain HMI-IMSS at 700,000 g. Partial purification of the enzyme was achieved by column chromatography with Ultrogel AcA-34. Ten protein elution spikes were obtained: five showed enzymatic activity. Elution spikes I and II attained the highest values of specific enzymatic activity 6.45 and 6.98 U/mg of protein, respectively. Next were spikes X and III with similar values 2.55 and 2.63 U/mg of protein, and spike IV presented the lowest value of 0.86 U/mg of protein. The five spikes were used to immunize hamsters which were challenged intrahepatically, four weeks later, with 3 x 10(5) trophozoites of E. histolytica. A control group of animals not immunized underwent intrahepatic challenge with the same number of amebae. The proteins with enzymatic activity contained in elution spikes I and II conferred immunologic protection in 100% of the animals, while elution spikes X and III were protective in 50 to 63%, and spike IV gave the lowest value of 37%. It can be assumed that there is an antienzyme antibody responsible for the absence of hepatic abscesses in the immunized hamsters.

  4. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-02-17

    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise.

  5. Constant darkness restores entrainment to phase-delayed Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F; Joshi, Nirav; Heller, H Craig

    2002-12-01

    Over 90% of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase delay of a 16:8-h photocycle. Because constant darkness (DD) restores rhythms disrupted by constant light, we tested whether DD could also restore entrainment. DD began 0, 5, or 14 days after a 5-h phase delay, and the light-dark cycle was reinstated 14 days later. All hamsters exposed to DD on day 0 reentrained, whereas 42% reentrained irrespective of whether DD began 5 or 14 days later. For these latter two groups, tau (tau) and alpha (alpha) in DD predicted reentrainment; animals that reentrained had a mean tau and alpha of 24.1 and 8.9 h, respectively, whereas those that failed to reentrain maintained a mean tau and alpha of 25.0 and of 7.1 h, respectively. Restoration of entrainment by DD is somewhat paradoxical because it suggests that reentrainment to the photocycle was prevented by continued exposure to that same photocycle. The dichotomy of circadian responses to DD suggests "entrainment" phenotypes that are similar to those of photoperiodic responders and nonresponders.

  6. Role of cathepsins in blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireesha, G V; Mason, R W; Hassanein, M; Tonack, S; Navarrete Santos, A; Fischer, B; Seshagiri, P B

    2008-06-01

    The mammalian embryo is encased in a glycoproteinaceous coat, the zona pellucida (ZP) during preimplantation development. Prior to implantation, the blastocyst must undergo 'hatching' or ZP escape. In hamsters, there is a thinning of the ZP followed by a focal lysis and a complete dissolution of the ZP during blastocyst hatching. Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated a role for cysteine proteases in the hatching phenomenon. In this study, we tested the effect of specific inhibitors of the three classes of cysteine protease on blastocyst hatching. Cystatin, an endogenous cathepsin inhibitor, blocked blastocyst hatching. Similarly, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-diazomethane, a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor, blocked hatching. Both showed dose-dependent and temporal inhibition of hatching. However, Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a synthetic caspase inhibitor, and calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, had no effect on hatching. The cathepsins were localized to blastocyst cells. Exogenous addition of cathepsins L, P or B to cultured 8-cell embryos caused a complete ZP dissolution. The expression of mRNA and protein of cathepsins L and P was observed in peri-hatching blastocysts. Cathepsins L and P were detected in trophectodermal projections and in the ZP of peri-hatching blastocysts. These data provide the first evidence that blastocyst-derived cathepsins are functionally involved as zonalytic factors in the hatching of blastocysts in the golden hamster.

  7. C-reactive protein (CRP) of the Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Holden, S N

    1991-10-01

    Complementary and genomic clones encoding the mRNA and gene for a protein in the Syrian hamster that is highly homologous to C-reactive protein (CRP) have been isolated and studied. Coding sequence of the genomic clone is identical with that of the cDNA clone and predicts a mature protein of 206 amino acids and a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The single intron is 217 base pairs long and contains a short repetitive (GT)n motif. RNA blot analysis demonstrates that mRNA for hamster CRP is approximately 2.0 kb long, and unlike the closely related pentraxin female protein (FP), expression of this mRNA is not affected by the gender of the animal and accumulates equally in males and females during inflammation. In vivo administration of interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor induces accumulation of hepatic CRP mRNA, and the acute-phase alterations in CRP mRNA levels arise as a result of enhanced gene transcription.

  8. MicroRNAs related to androgen metabolism and polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Udesen, Pernille Bækgaard; Wissing, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disorder in women. PCOS is associated with altered features of androgen metabolism, increased insulin resistance and impaired fertility. Furthermore, PCOS, being a syndrome diagnosis, is heterogeneous and characterized by polycystic ovaries...

  9. Stem cell factor and c-Kit in human primordial germ cells and fetal ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Byskov, Anne Grete; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry......Prenatal ovary (human), Primordial germ cells, Folliculogenesis, c-Kit, Stem cell factor, immunohistochemistry...

  10. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A

    1999-02-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  11. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-09-12

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

  12. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications.

  13. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi

    2015-01-01

    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction.

  14. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V

    2012-03-01

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.

  15. Is polycystic ovary syndrome a sexual conflict? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Simoni, Manuela; Brigante, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to explain the high overall prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome among women worldwide (about 4-10%) despite its link to subfertile phenotypes. For this reason, it is considered an evolutionary paradox. In this review, we show that several genetic loci associated with the disease differently modulate the reproductive parameters of men and women. This observation suggests that such genetic variants lead to opposite effects in the two sexes in reproductive success. Intralocus sexual conflict as a cause of the persistence polycystic ovary syndrome genotypes among humans is supported.

  16. Introducing Bt Gene Into Maize With Ovary Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁群星; 谢友菊; 戴景瑞; 米景九; 李太元; 田颖川; 乔利亚; 莽克强; 刘宝兰; 王音; 冯平章

    1994-01-01

    It is reported here that Bt toxin gene has been successfully transferred into maize inbred line by ovary injection for the first time both at home and abroad. One transgenic plant (To) has been confirmed by Southern blotting and PCR test, and 71 progenies (T1) from T0 have been obtained through self-pollination. Of these 71 progenies, seven plants demonstrated positive results in the PCR test; four were used to feed Asian corn borer, and certain effect of insect-resistance was observed. The experiments on the ovary injection in Hainan Province have also been repeated, thus providing new chance to the application of genetic engineering to the maize improvement.

  17. PRIMARY TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE OVARY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old female presented with a history of progressively enlarging abdominal mass. Abdominal computed tomography showed a pelvic mass involving both the ovaries and omentum. CA-125 was normal. Staging surgery was performed and the histopathological diagnosis of Transitional Cell Carcinoma was made and later confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary is a rare subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical resection is the primary therapeutic approach, and patient’s outcomes after chemotherapy are better than for other types of ovarian cancers.

  18. [Genetic and epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, Zita; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Dézsi, Csilla; Nagy, Zsolt; Szabó, János

    2016-08-01

    The development of polycystic ovary syndrome and its exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear, but environmental and genetic factors likely play a role. Exposition to teratogenic effects during the prenatal development can lead to chronic diseases in the postnatal period. This finding confirms the common familial aggregation as well. A literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2016 for articles dealing with the genetic or epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome. This review will discuss the current understanding of the genetic basis and clinical presentation of this disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(32), 1275-1281.

  19. Delayed menopause due to granulosa cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Murkey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old patient presented with complaints of menorrhagia. Endometrial biopsy revealed simple hyperplasia of the endometrium. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy was carried out. The ovaries looked grossly normal, but histopathology reported granulosa cell tumor of the right ovary. Granulosa cell tumors belong to the sexcord stromal category and account for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors. We review the features and treatment of granulosa cell tumors and the importance of screening for ovarian tumors in a case of endometrial hyperplasia and delayed menopause.

  20. Mammalian ovary differentiation - a focus on female meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Adrienne; Mandon-Pepin, Béatrice

    2012-06-05

    Over the past 50 years, the ovary development has been subject of fewer studies as compare to the male pathway. Nevertheless due to the advancement of genetics, mouse ES cells and the development of genetic models, studies of ovarian differentiation was boosted. This review emphasizes some of new progresses in the research field of the mammalian ovary differentiation that have occurred in recent years with focuses of the period around prophase I of meiosis and of recent roles of small non-RNAs in the ovarian gene expression.