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Sample records for chinese fish sauce

  1. Biogenic amines in commercially produced Yulu, a Chinese fermented fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Ying; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Seven biogenic amines were determined in 35 commercially produced Yulu samples from three provinces of China by pre-column derivatisation with dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were the major biogenic amines (more than 100 mg kg(-1)), while tryptamine, spermidine and spermine were regarded as minor biogenic amines (less than 25 mg kg(-1)). Twenty samples contained more than 50 mg kg(-1) histamine (the limit for histamine in seafood products as suggested by the Food and Drug Administration). Twenty-one samples contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) tyramine and 10 contained more than 1000 mg kg(-1) total biogenic amines. This study provided data on biogenic amine levels in Chinese fermented fish sauce. The results suggested that biogenic amine content should be monitored in commercially produced Yulu. PMID:24779975

  2. Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce,Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-fan YANG; Shen-ru CHEN; Hui NI; Xing-qian YE

    2008-01-01

    Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl ace tate extraction fol-lowed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modem analysis methods.

  3. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  4. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. PMID:26613570

  5. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  6. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product. PMID:21710980

  7. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  8. Bacterial communities in fish sauce mash using culture-dependent and -independent methods

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Youhei; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Shozen, Kei-ichi; Funatsu, Yasuhiro; Takano, Takashi; OIKAWA, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    In fish sauce production, microorganisms are associated with the fermentation process; however, the sequential changes in the bacterial communities have never been examined throughout the period of fermentation. In this study, we determined the bacterial floras in a fish sauce mash over 8 months, using three different culture media and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. During the first 4 weeks, viable counts of non-halophilic and halophilic bacteria decreased and were dominated by Staphyl...

  9. Acceleration of Thai fish sauce fermentation using proteinases and bacterial starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsawatdigul, J; Rodtong, S; Raksakulthai, N

    2007-11-01

    A means to accelerate fish sauce fermentation without adversely affecting fish sauce quality was investigated. Starter cultures prepared from Virgibacillus sp. SK33, Virgibacillus sp. SK37, and Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 were added separately to anchovy that was hydrolyzed by 0.25% Alcalase at 60 degrees C for 2 h followed by 0.5% Flavourzyme at 50 degrees C for 4 h. The mixtures were then adjusted to contain 25% solar salt and incubated at 35 degrees C for 4 mo. alpha-Amino contents of all inoculated samples were higher than the control (without the addition of starter culture) during the course of fermentation. After 4-mo fermentation, the samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 contained the highest alpha-amino content of 733.37 +/- 13.89 mM while that of the control was 682.67 +/- 3.33 mM. Amino acid profiles of inoculated samples showed similar patterns to that of commercial product fermented for 12 mo, with glutamic, aspartic, and lysine being predominant amino acids. Virgibacillus sp. SK33 appeared to decrease histamine content of fish sauce by 50% when compared to the control. Volatile compounds analyzed by GC-MS of all inoculated samples fermented for 4 mo exhibited a similar pattern to those of the 12-mo-old commercial product. Samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 produced higher levels of volatile fatty acids and showed similar sensory characteristics to the commercial fish sauce fermented for 12 mo. Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 is a potential strain that can be applied to produce fish sauce with overall sensory characteristics of traditional fish sauce in shorter time. PMID:18034732

  10. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  11. The Quality Analysis of Fish Sauce and Fish Soy Sauce using Electronic Nose%基于电子鼻技术的鱼露与鱼酿酱油的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 刘淇; 曹荣

    2015-01-01

    通过电子鼻获取鱼露、鱼酿酱油和生抽的气味信息,进行主成分分析(PCA)、线性判别分析(LDA)和负荷加载分析(Loadings),并结合氨基酸态氮、盐分、全氮和游离氨基酸含量,对比分析3种调味品的品质。结果显示,3种调味品中游离氨基酸种类丰富,鱼露中苏氨酸、甘氨酸、丙氨酸、甲硫氨酸、赖氨酸的含量明显高于鱼酿酱油和生抽;生抽和鱼酿酱油中鲜味氨基酸的含量明显高于鱼露,但生抽中必需氨基酸的含量远低于鱼酿酱油和鱼露;3种调味品挥发性成分复杂,电子鼻10个金属传感器能很好地区分3种调味品的挥发性气味,W5S、W1S、W2S 号传感器比其他7个传感器有更高的响应值,其中 W2S 号传感器的响应值变化最显著。这说明电子鼻能较好地区分鱼露、鱼酿酱油和生抽,虽然3种调味品中第1、2主成分相同,但醇类、氮氧化合物类物质对第1、2主成分的贡献率不同。%In this study, we analyzed the qualities of fish sauce, fish soy sauce and light soy sauce using the electronic nose. An electronic nose captured the flavors of light soy sauce, fish sauce and fish soy sauce, and the information was assessed with principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and loadings analysis. The qualities of the sauces were then determined with the results above together with factors such as amino acid nitrogen, total nitrogen, salinity and the content of free amino acids. The results showed that fish sauce and light soy sauce were first-class products, and that fish soy sauce was a super product. There were a variety of free amino acids in the three sauces. The contents of threonine, glycine, alanine, methionine and lysine in fish sauce were higher than those in fish soy sauce and light soy sauce. The content of flavor amino acids in light soy sauce and fish soy sauce was significantly higher than that in fish sauce. This

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce.

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. PMID:26953496

  14. Fish Sauce Fermentation with Silver Carp or Offal of Surimi Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN You-rong(陈有容); ZHANG Xue-hua(张雪花); Qi Feng-lan(齐凤兰); Motoharu Uchida

    2004-01-01

    Fish sauce is a kind of condiments processed from fish. The L9(34) orthogonal tests have been carried out to inspect the effects of technological conditions for fermentation on the comprehensive quality of fish sauce. The conditions of the orthogonal tests are following: the fermentation temperature takes values of 35℃, 40℃ and 45℃, the percentage of Koji values of 40%, 20% and 10% and the percentage of salt values of 10%, 14% and 18%. The obtained experimental results indicate that fermentation temperature plays an important role in the improvement of sauce quality. The optimal technological conditions for sauce fermentation are of 10% salt, 45℃ and 40% koji mixed. The composition of fish sauce processed from offal of silver carp-surimi processing under the above-mentioned conditions and two commercial products have been analyzed. The results show that fish sauce processed from fish offal is nutritious and delicious. It is suggested that the fermentation of fish sauce is a potential and promising pathway to make full use of freshwater fish resources and offal in fish processing.In this study, fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process have been applied and the quality evaluation has been established by the combination of physico-chemical indices and sensory evaluation. The comprehensive evaluation has been taken to reflect the optimal factors for the process of sauce fermentation. The quality indexes for fish sauce contain sensory evaluation, amino nitrogen, total nitrogen, specific gravity, volatile basic nitrogen, salt concentration, brown index and acidity, represented by y1, y2, y3, y4, y5, y6, y7, y8, and y9, respectively. They form a group U= {y1, y2, y3, y4, y5, y6, y7, y8, y9,}. Using the fuzzy functions, the values of all these factors are transformed into fuzzy degrees of single factor, i.e. numerical values between 0 and 1. The fuzzy degrees of single factor in several samples are made up a matrix R. Following that, a weight of each index can

  15. 基于电子鼻的鱼露香气品质识别%Flavor identification of fish sauce based on electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江津津; 陈丽花; 黎海彬; 曾庆孝

    2011-01-01

    为了识别鱼露的品质,并为缩短发酵周期的工艺优选提供理论依据.利用电子鼻对7种鱼露样品的挥发性气味进行了分析,并与项空-气质联用( GC-MS)和感官分析结果进行比较.结果表明:鱼露香气成分复杂,工艺改良对气味影响很大,电子鼻18个金属传感器能很好地将不同样品的气味进行识别.以传统发酵原汁鱼露为标样,电子鼻分析结果表明,加曲改良工艺的4号样品与标样香气最为接近,相似系数达87.8%,该结果与GC-MS数据和感官分析结果一致,可为鱼露速酿工艺的优选提供参考.%In order to discriminate the quality of fish sauce and help to find the best process for shorten fermentation time, electronic nose was used to study the diversity of the flavor of seven fish sauce samples. The conclusion was compared with those of headspace GC-MS and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the volatile compounds of fish sauce were complicated and it could be changed apparently by improving process. The samples could be discriminated through 18 metal oxide sensors of electronic nose. Using original fish sauce as standard, sample 4 which using Koji when fermentation has the most similar flavor with original fish sauce, the similarity coefficient was 87.8%. The result is similar in electronic nose analysis, headspace GC-MS analysis and sensory evaluation. It can provide a reference for improve the process of Chinese fish sauce.

  16. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Z. Zaman; A. S. Abdulamir; Fatimah A. Bakar; Jinap Selamat; Jamilah Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Sout...

  17. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  18. Bacterial communities in fish sauce mash using culture-dependent and -independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Youhei; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Shozen, Kei-ichi; Funatsu, Yasuhiro; Takano, Takashi; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka; Satomi, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    In fish sauce production, microorganisms are associated with the fermentation process; however, the sequential changes in the bacterial communities have never been examined throughout the period of fermentation. In this study, we determined the bacterial floras in a fish sauce mash over 8 months, using three different culture media and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. During the first 4 weeks, viable counts of non-halophilic and halophilic bacteria decreased and were dominated by Staphylococcus species. Between 4 and 6 weeks, halophilic and highly halophilic bacterial counts markedly increased from 10(7) to 10(8) cfu/g, and the predominant species changed to Tetragenococcus halophilus. The occurrence of T. halophilus was associated with an increase of lactic acid and a reduction of pH values. In contrast, non-halophilic bacterial counts decreased to 10(6) cfu/g by 6 weeks with Bacillus subtilis as the dominant isolate. Clone library analysis revealed that the dominant bacterial group also changed from Staphylococcus spp. to T. halophilus, and the changes were consistent with those of the floras of halophilic and highly halophilic isolates. This is the first report describing a combination approach of culture and clone library methods for the analysis of bacterial communities in fish sauce mash. PMID:22990487

  19. Discrimination of Chinese traditional soy sauces based on their physico-chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOKOT; Serge

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to classify the categories (produced by different processes) and brands (obtained from different geographical origins) of Chinese soy sauces.Nine variables of physico-chemical properties (density,pH,dry matter,ashes,electric conductivity,amino nitrogen,salt,viscosity and total acidity) of 53 soy sauce samples were measured.The measured data was submitted to such pattern recognition as cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA),discrimination partial least squares (DPLS),linear discrimination analysis (LDA) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) to evaluate the data patterns and the possibility of differentiating Chinese soy sauces between different categories and brands.Two clusters corresponding to the two categories were obtained,and each cluster was divided into three subsets corresponding to three brands by the CA method.The variables for LDA and KNN were selected by the Fisher F-ratio approach.The prediction ability of all classifiers was evaluated by cross-validation.For the three supervised discrimination analyses,LDA and KNN gave 100% predications according to the sample category and brand.

  20. Improvement of Fish Sauce Quality by Strain CMC5-3-1: A Novel Species of Staphylococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 isolated from fermented fish sauce at 3 to 7 mo, respectively, showed different characteristics on protein hydrolysis and volatile formation. These Gram-positive cocci were able to grow in up to 15% NaCl with the optimum at 0.5% to 5% NaCl in tryptic soy broth. Based on ribosomal 16S rRNA gene sequences, Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 and CMS5-7-5 showed 99.0% similarity to that of Staphylococcus piscifermentans JCM 6057(T) , but DNA-DNA relatedness was fermentations with both strains. Fish sauce inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 showed the highest content of total glutamic acid (P dark chocolate note. Staphylococcus sp. CMC5-3-1 could be applied as a starter culture to improve the umami and aroma of fish sauce. PMID:26256665

  1. Relationships between NIR spectra and sensory attributes of Thai commercial fish sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai

    2007-07-01

    Twenty Thai commercial fish sauces were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The main objectives were i) to investigate the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra of samples and ii) to characterize the sensory characteristics of fish sauces based on NIR data. A generic descriptive analysis with 12 trained panels was used to characterize the sensory attributes. These attributes consisted of 15 descriptors: brown color, 5 aromatics (sweet, caramelized, fermented, fishy, and musty), 4 tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, and umami), 3 aftertastes (sweet, salty and bitter) and 2 flavors (caramelized and fishy). The results showed that Thai fish sauce samples exhibited significant differences in all of sensory attribute values (p analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data from 622 wavelengths to two uncorrelated components (NIR1 and NIR2) which explained 92 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. NIR1 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1100 - 1544, 1774 - 2062, 2092 - 2308, and 2358 - 2440 nm, while NIR2 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1742 - 1764, 2066 - 2088, and 2312 - 2354 nm. Subsequently, the relationships among these two components and all sensory attributes were also investigated by PCA. The results showed that the first three principal components (PCs) named as fishy flavor component (PC1), sweet component (PC2) and bitterness component (PC3), respectively, explained a total of 66.86% of the variation. NIR1 was mainly correlated to the sensory attributes of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste on PC1. In addition, the PCA using only the factor loadings of NIR1 and NIR2 could be used to classify samples into three groups which showed high, medium and low degrees of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste.

  2. Microbial composition during Chinese soy sauce koji-making based on culture dependent and independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Qian, Yu-lin; Ji, Feng-di; Chen, Jing-yu; Han, Bei-zhong

    2013-05-01

    Koji-making is a key process for production of high quality soy sauce. The microbial composition during koji-making was investigated by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to determine predominant bacterial and fungal populations. The culture-dependent methods used were direct culture and colony morphology observation, and PCR amplification of 16S/26S rDNA fragments followed by sequencing analysis. The culture-independent method was based on the analysis of 16S/26S rDNA clone libraries. There were differences between the results obtained by different methods. However, sufficient overlap existed between the different methods to identify potentially significant microbial groups. 16 and 20 different bacterial species were identified using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. 7 species could be identified by both methods. The most predominant bacterial genera were Weissella and Staphylococcus. Both 6 different fungal species were identified using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. Only 3 species could be identified by both sets of methods. The most predominant fungi were Aspergillus and Candida species. This work illustrated the importance of a comprehensive polyphasic approach in the analysis of microbial composition during soy sauce koji-making, the knowledge of which will enable further optimization of microbial composition and quality control of koji to upgrade Chinese traditional soy sauce product.

  3. Diversity of plasmids encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus spp. isolated from Japanese fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Yutaka

    2011-07-15

    Nineteen isolates of histamine producing halophilic bacteria were isolated from four fish sauce mashes, each mash accumulating over 1000 ppm of histamine. The complete sequences of the plasmids encoding the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdcA), which is harbored in histamine producing bacteria, were determined. In conjunction, the sequence regions adjacent to hdcA were analyzed to provide information regarding its genetic origin. As reference strains, Tetragenococcus halophilus H and T. muriaticus JCM10006(T) were also studied. Phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified all isolates as T. halophilus, a predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR, Southern blot, and complete plasmid sequencing) of the histamine producing isolates confirmed that all the isolates harbored approximately 21-37 kbp plasmids encoding a single copy of the hdc cluster consisting of four genes related to histamine production. Analysis of hdc clusters, including spacer regions, indicated >99% sequence similarity among the isolates. All of the plasmids sequenced encoded traA, however genes related to plasmid conjugation, namely mob genes and oriT, were not identified. Two putative mobile genetic elements, ISLP1-like and IS200-like, respectively, were identified in the up- and downstream region of the hdc cluster of all plasmids. Most of the sequences, except hdc cluster and two adjacent IS elements, were diverse among plasmids, suggesting that each histamine producers harbored a different histamine-related plasmid. These results suggested that the hdc cluster was not spread by clonal dissemination depending on the specific plasmid and that the hdc cluster in tetragenococcal plasmid was likely encoded on transformable elements. PMID:21616548

  4. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:27052702

  5. Proteinase-producing halophilic lactic acid bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation and their ability to produce volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2010-07-15

    Halophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish sauce mashes fermented at 1 to 12 months. Seven out of sixty-four isolates were selected according to their proteolytic activity and growth at 25% NaCl for characterization and investigation of volatile compound production. All selected isolates were Gram-positive cocci with pairs/tetrads and grew at 0-25% NaCl, pH 4.5-9.0. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99% homology to Tetragenococcus halophilus ATCC 33315. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of all isolates were also similar to those of T. halophilus ATCC 33315. These isolates were, thus, identified as T. halophilus. All isolates hydrolyzed fish protein in the medium containing 25% NaCl. Intracellular aminopeptidase of 7 isolates exhibited the highest activity of 2.85-3.67 U/ml toward Ala-p-nitroanilide (Ala-pNA). T.halophilus strains MS33 and M11 showed the highest alanyl aminopeptidase activity (Phalophilus MS33 and MRC5-5-2 were 1-propanol, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde, corresponding to major volatile compounds in fish sauce. T.halophilus appeared to play an important role in volatile compound formation during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:20541276

  6. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:22806191

  7. NaCl-activated extracellular proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK37 isolated from fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, S; Rodtong, S; Yongsawatdigul, J

    2007-06-01

    Virgibacillus sp. SK37 exhibited high extracellular proteolytic activity in skim milk broth containing 10% NaCl. Optimum conditions of the crude proteinase were at pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C. The proteinase was strongly inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-AMC, suggesting the serine proteinase with a subtilisin-like characteristic. Proteolytic activity increased with NaCl concentration up to 20%. Ca(2+) activated the enzyme activity but reduced enzyme stability at 65 degrees C. Several proteinases with dominant molecular mass (MW) of 81, 67, 63, 50, 38, and 18 kDa were detected on native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) activity staining in the absence and presence of 25% NaCl. These results demonstrated that Virgibacillus sp. SK37 produced salt-activated extracellular proteinases. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 could be a promising strain for starter culture development used in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:17995713

  8. Nutritional Composition Analysis and Quality Evaluation of Chaoshan Fish Sauce%潮汕鱼酱油营养成分分析与品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江津津; 黎海彬; 曾庆孝; 李崇高

    2012-01-01

    Chaoshan fish sauce was analyzed for nutritional composition and compared with imported fish sauce products.All tested samples had high salt content,especially Chaoshan fish sauce(as high as 30%).However,Chaoshan fish sauce showed the lowest ratio of total volatile basic nitrogen to trimethylamine nitrogen and better fermentation quality.EAA/TAA ratio in Chaoshan fish sauce was 51.23%,which was higher than the FAO/WHO pattern,and EAA/NEAA was 105.04%.Chaoshan fish sauce contained 110.53 mg/100 mL taurine.Therefore,it is a salty and tasty seasoning with high nutritional value.Moreover,abundant micro-elements such as Ca were found in Chaoshan fish sauce.Chaoshan fish sauce as a natural fermentation product of marine trash fish exhibited a 90.51% antioxidant activity in modified FRAP assay and a TCA-soluble short peptide content of 28.49 mg/mL.%测定分析潮汕鱼酱油的营养成分,并与其他国家产鱼酱油进行比较。结果表明:鱼酱油含盐量偏高,潮汕鱼酱油的含盐量最高,达30%,但潮汕鱼酱油挥发性盐基氮与三甲胺氮的比值最小,发酵品质较好。潮汕鱼酱油中必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比值(EAA/TAA)为51.23%,必需氨基酸占非必需氨基酸的比值(EAA/NEAA)为105.04%,必需氨基酸总量与氨基酸总量之比高于FAO/WHO的理想模式,且含有110.53mg/100mL的牛磺酸,是一种营养价值较高的咸鲜调味品。潮汕鱼酱油中含有丰富的钙等微量元素,可以补充矿物质。潮汕鱼酱油是低值海鱼的天然发酵产物,其抗氧化活性达90.51%,三氯乙酸(TCA)可溶性短肽为28.49mg/mL。

  9. Analysis of a 30 kbp plasmid encoding histidine decarboxylase gene in Tetragenococcus halophilus isolated from fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Masataka; Furushita, Manabu; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa-Takahashi, Miwako; Yano, Yutaka

    2008-08-15

    In order to analyze the genes related to the histamine production, a strain of histamine producing halophilic bacteria, referred to as strain H, was isolated using enrichment culture and dilution-to-extinction methods with histidine broth inoculated from the fish sauce mashes. The two Japanese fish sauce mashes used, accumulate over 1000 mg/l of histamine. Phenotypic and 16 S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified strain H as Tetragenococcus halophilus, the predominant histamine producing bacteria present during fish sauce fermentation. Genetic analyses (PCR and Southern blot) of the histamine producing strain confirmed that the strain harbored a 30 kbp plasmid (pHDC) encoding a single copy of the pyruvoyl dependent histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc). A comparison of hdcA that is a structural gene of histidine decarboxylase among strain H, Lactobacillus hilgardii 0006, L. sakei LTH2076, Oenococcus oeni 9204, T. halophilus and T. muriaticus JCM10006 (T) indicated >99% sequence similarity. The hdc gene cluster consisted of 4 ORFs, hdcP, hdcA, hdcB, and hdcRS, and were almost identical to that of L. hilgardii 0006 with 99% sequence similarity including the structural hdc spacer region. However, the approximately 500 bp regions upstream and downstream of the hdc gene were different between that of strain H and L. hilgardii 0006. The complete sequence of pHDC revealed 29,924 nucleotides including 28 ORFs, two pairs of IR (inverted repeat), similar sequence of plasmid conjugative elements, and a theta-type replicon. These results suggested that hdc could be encoded on transformable elements among lactic acid bacteria. PMID:18573560

  10. Discovery of salt taste enhancing arginyl dipeptides in protein digests and fermented fish sauces by means of a sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Alexander; Dunkel, Andreas; Stähler, Frauke; Backes, Michael; Ley, Jakob; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-12-14

    As enzymatic digests of fish proteins were recently reported to enhance salt taste, the fish protein protamine was digested by chymotrypsin and trypsin and subsequently screened for candidate salt taste modulating (STM) peptides. To achieve this, first, a two-step sensory assay was developed and demonstrated to be a rather suitable tool for the detection of salt taste enhancers and the "quantitation" of their salt taste enhancing activity on the basis of isointensities with reference solutions. By means of activity-guided fractionation using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography in combination with the sensory assay for STM activity assessment, a series of arginyl dipeptides, with RP, RA, AR, RG, RS, RV, VR, and RM being the most active, as well as l-arginine were found as salt taste enhancing molecules in fish protamine digests. For the first time, HPLC-MS/MS analysis on a PFP and a HILIC stationary phase, respectively, enabled the quantitative analysis of the arginyl peptides in a series of commercial and laboratory-made protein hydrolysates as well as fermented fish sauces.

  11. Research on Optimized Formulation of Watercress Fish Sauces%豆瓣鱼调味酱汁优化配方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高原菊

    2015-01-01

    Watercress fish is a well-known traditional Sichuan dish,which is cooked with Pixian bean paste,together with other condiments.It features bright red color,delicate fish,mellow taste,spicy watercress,with slightly salty, umami, spicy, sweet and sour taste sensation. Based on the traditional cooking craft process, adopt orthogonal experiment to optimize the technology of watercress fish sauces,and carry out three times of verification test.The test results show that:the primary and secondary sequence of factors affecting the sauces is Pixian bean paste>sugar>vinegar>salt>soy sauce,the best formula is Pixian bean paste of 50 g,sugar of 10 g,salt of 2.0 g,vinegar of 20 g,soy sauce of 10 g.%豆瓣鱼是一道家喻户晓的传统川菜,它是用郫县豆瓣来烹制鲜鱼,再配以其他调味品烹制而成。其特点是色泽红亮,鱼肉细嫩,豆瓣味醇厚香辣,呈咸鲜微辣略带酸甜的味感。在传统烹制工艺流程的基础上,采用正交试验对豆瓣鱼调味酱汁进行了优化试验,并进行了3次验证,试验结果表明:影响其调味酱汁的因素主次为郫县豆瓣>白糖>食醋>精盐>酱油,其最佳配方是郫县豆瓣50 g、白糖10 g、精盐2.0 g、食醋20 g、酱油10 g。

  12. Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i comply with International Codex; (ii adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii ensure enforcement.

  13. Detergent-Stable Salt-Activated Proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 Isolated from Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montriwong, Aungkawipa; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl-activated and detergent-stable proteinases from Virgibacillus halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 isolated from fish sauce fermentation were purified and characterized. The enzymes with molecular masses of 20 and 36 kDa showed caseinolytic activity on a zymogram. Optimum azocaseinolytic activity was at 60 °C and pH 9. The proteolytic activity increased in the presence of 10 mM CaCl2 and 0.5 M NaCl and showed high stability at 0-2 M NaCl. The enzymes were stable at pH 4-10 and 10-50 °C. The enzymes preferably hydrolyzed Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and were completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), showing subtilisin-like characteristics. Activity and stability remained high in the presence of H2O2 and various surfactants. The enzymes exhibited high stability (>95%) in various organic solvents (DMSO, butanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile) at concentration of 50%. The V. halodenitrificans SK1-3-7 proteinases showed potential as a biocatalyst in aqueous-organic solvent systems and as an additive in laundry detergent. PMID:25820449

  14. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. PMID:27343582

  15. Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2013-07-10

    The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes. PMID:23768048

  16. 温度对加曲速酿低盐鱼露性质的影响%Effects of temperature on the properties of the low-salt fish sauce fermented by adding koji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁武银; 陈书霖; 刘光明; 苏文金; 曹敏杰

    2012-01-01

    The effects of constant temperature and oscillatory temperature on the properties of low-salt fish sauce prepared from mackerel ( decapterus maruadsi)by adding koji were investigated.When fish sauce was prepared at constant temperature of 20℃ or 40℃,the pH of fish sauce mash was remained at 5.2-5.5 during fermentation.On the other hand,the pH of fish sauce mash reached up to 6 during 90 days of fermentation at 30℃, resulting in highest total volatile basic nitrogen content(TVB-N)of fish sauce production,suggesting that 30℃ was not suitable for preparing low-salt fish sauce fermented by adding koji.However,the lower amino-acid nitrogen content(AA-N) and total soluble nitrogen content (TS- N) were observed in the fish sauce production prepared at 20%, while a slight bitterness was found in that of 401C.When the fermentation temperature was controlled at 20% in the initial 30 days of fermentation stage,30℃ in the 30 days of second stage,40℃ in the 30 days of last stage,not only the AA -N and TS-N of fish sauce production were increased, but also the TVB-N of fish sauce production was decreased.Based on the analysis of free amino acid compositions and sensory evaluation, it was revealed that the quality of fish sauce production could also be improved by the subsection fermentation process.%以蓝圆够为原料,添加酱油曲制备低盐鱼露,考察了恒温发酵温度和变温分段发酵对低盐鱼露性质的影响。在发酵过程中,20℃和40℃恒温发酵可以使酱醅pH稳定在5.2~5.5,但在30℃下经过90d发酵后酱醅的pH逐渐上升并接近6,导致鱼露的挥发性盐基氮(TVB—N)含量最多,表明加曲速酿鱼露的发酵不适合在30℃下进行。然而,20℃低温发酵鱼露中的氨基酸态氮(AA—N)和可溶性总氮(TS—N)的含量都较低,40℃发酵的鱼露含有一定的苦味。当利用先低温后高温分段发酵方式制备低盐鱼露时,不仅可以提高鱼露的AA

  17. Determination of total nitrogen content, pH, density, refractive index, and brix in Thai fish sauces and their classification by near-infrared spectroscopy with searching combination moving window partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai; Thanapase, Warunee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transflectance spectra in the region of 1100-2500 nm were measured for 100 Thai fish sauces. Quantitative analyses of total nitrogen (TN) content, pH, refractive index, density and brix in the Thai fish sauces and their qualitative analyses were carried out by multivariate analyses with the aid of wavelength interval selection method named searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS). The optimized informative region for TN selected by SCMWPLS was the region of 2264-2428 nm. A PLS calibration model, which used this region, yielded the lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.100% w/v for the PLS factor of 5. This prediction result is significantly better than those obtained by using the whole spectral region or informative regions selected by moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR). As for pH, density, refractive index and brix, the 1698-1722, and 2222-2258 nm regions, the 1358-1438 nm region, the 1774-1846, and 2078-2114 nm regions, and the 1322-1442, and 2000-2076 nm regions were selected by SCMWPLS as the optimized regions. The best prediction results were always obtained by use of the optimized regions selected by SCMWPLS. The lowest RMSEP for pH, density, refractive index and brix were 0.170, 0.007 g cm(-3), 0.0079 and 0.435 degrees Brix, respectively. Qualitative models were developed by using four supervised pattern recognitions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), factor analysis-linear discriminant analysis (FA-LDA), soft independent modeling of class analog (SIMCA), and K neareat neighbors (KNN) for the optimized combination of informative regions of the NIR spectra of fish sauces to classify fish sauces into three groups based on TN. All the developed models can potentially classify the fish sauces with the correct classification rate of more than 82%, and the KNN classified model has the highest correct classification rate (95%). The present study has demonstrated that NIR

  18. Preparation of fish sauce with the hydrolysate from Tilapia protein and its antioxidative activity%罗非鱼蛋白酶解制取鱼露及其抗氧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊娟; 丁利君; 叶少芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:以罗非鱼为原料,采用生物酶解技术加工传统产品鱼露,提高产品质量,缩短加工时间。方法:采用枯草杆菌碱性蛋白酶(E1)、风味酶(E2)酶解罗非鱼蛋白,制取富含多肽的酶解物;并以酶解物为基本原料制备调味品鱼露。通过对自由基的清除作用,研究其抗氧化作用。结果:采用生物酶解技术生产罗非鱼鱼露,产品色泽好,风味浓,营养高,有良好的抗氧化性。结论:与传统技术生产鱼露比较,生产时间短,工艺条件容易控制,产品质量稳定,该研究为罗非鱼到深加工提供了理论基础。%Objective:To improve product quality,reduce processing time,the traditional fish sauce of tilapia was produced with biological enzyme technology.Methods:Tilapia protein was hydrolyzed with alkaline protease(E1) and flavor enzyme(E2) of Bacillus subtilis,and rich peptide hydrolysates was prepared;and fish sauce with the hydrolysates was processed.Its antioxidant effects were studied with scavenging rate to radicals.Results:The tilapia fish sauce with biological enzyme technology had good color,strong flavor,high nutrition,and good antioxidative activity.Conclusion:Comparing with the traditional fish sauce,the self-made fish sauce had short production time,and easy to control process conditions.The studies provide a theoretical foundation for deep processing of Tilapia.

  19. Effect of halotolerant starter microorganisms on chemical characteristics of fermented chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Kawai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Koji; Tanaka, Akira; Nishikiori, Takafumi; Ohta, Tomoki

    2010-05-26

    Chum salmon sauce mash was inoculated with barley koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae ) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii , Candida versatilis , and Tetragenococcus halophilus , in nine different combinations under non-aseptic conditions similar to the industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days. The changes in the chemical components, color, and sensory properties during fermentation were investigated. Free amino acid content was increased, and the browning of fish sauce was enhanced by the usage of barley koji during fermentation. The halotolerant yeast (HTY) produced ethanol and repressed the browning by consumption of reducing sugar. Inoculated Z. rouxii in the fish sauce mash produced 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and 4-hydoxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), and C. versatilis in the fish sauce mash produced 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), known as characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, adding soy-sauce-like flavor to the fish sauce. Thus, inoculation of HTMs and barley koji was effective for conferring the soy-sauce-like flavor and increasing free amino acid and ethanol contents in fish sauce product. PMID:20405947

  20. 复合菌株发酵对鱼露中生物胺含量的影响%Effect of multi-strain fermentation on contents of biogenic amines in fish sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周火兰; 赵培城; 丁玉庭; 许雷; 李妍佳

    2011-01-01

    文中研究了以米曲霉为种曲发酵鱼露的工艺,在此基础上,接人木糖葡萄球菌、植物乳杆菌及其复合菌株共同发酵,分析了单一菌株和复合菌株对鱼露中生物胺(组胺、腐胺、酪胺、亚精胺)生成量的影响.结果表明,单一的木糖葡萄球菌及其与植物乳杆菌的复合菌株都可以降低鱼露中生物胺的含量,其中,在米曲霉生长的稳定期时接入复合菌株时效果最好,与对照组相比总胺降低了61.9%.%The fermentation technology of fish sauce by Aspergillus oryzae was studied.Besides, Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactobacillus plantarum were inoculated or co-inoculated for multi-strain fermentation with A.oryzae.The effects of single-strain or multi-strain fermentation on the contents of biogenic amines (histamine, putrescine, tyramine, spermidine) in fish sauce were investigated.The results showed that the inoculation of S.xylosus or co-inoculation of S.xylosus and L.plantarum reduced the contents of biogenic amines in fish sauce.The best results were achieved when S.xylosus and L.plantarum were co-inoculated at the stationary phase of A.oryzae.In this case, the total content of biogenic amines was reduced by 61.9% compared with the control.

  1. 酱油对血管紧张素转换酶抑制作用的研究%Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of Chinese soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李风娟; 王乾; 盖克欣; 陈新新; 王志芳; 李里特

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of several Chinese soy sauce samples were investigated in this work. it was found that all samples showed ACE inhibitory activities with IC5o values at a range of 0.7405-3.0265 mg/mL. No evident correlation was observed between ACE inhibitory activity and proteolysis degree, peptide content or color value. The total ACE inhibitory activities of the samples may occur from the combined function of various bioactive compounds in soy sauce. It is necessary to clarify the ACE inhibitors in Chinese soy sauce to guide the development of functional food with potential blood Dressure-lowerina properties.%考察了若干酱油样品的血管紧张素转换酶(ACE)抑制活性,发现所试样品均表现出ACE抑制活性,其IC50值范围为0.7405~3.0265mg/mL。样品的ACE抑制活性与其蛋白质降解程度、多肽含量及颜色值无明显相关性,应为多种活性物质综合作用的结果。对我国酱油产品中ACE抑制剂的结构表征可为潜在降血压功能性食品的研发提供指导。

  2. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in marine fishes along the Chinese coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two species of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaenacrocea) and silver pomfret (Pampusargenteus) (n = 46), from nine Chinese coastal cities (Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen). HBCDs were detectable in all samples analyzed, indicating ubiquitous contamination of these compounds in the Chinese coastal environment. The average total HBCD concentration was 3.7 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight (range: 0.57-10.1 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight), which is relatively lower than other regions of the world, especially Europe, where HBCDs are intensively used. Among the three individual HBCD isomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCD) in all fish samples, the α-isomer showed a remarkable predominance (from 87.5% to 100% of total contribution), indicating its higher bioaccumulative potential. Geographically, the highest HBCD level present in fish was found in Dalian in northern China, and the lowest occurred in Wenzhou. Estimated daily intakes of HBCDs via fish consumption for the Chinese population were 0.004-1.00 ng kg body weight⁻¹ d⁻¹. These exposure levels were much lower than the effect levels.

  3. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH umami peptides were enriched in the deionized water fraction. This study provides new insights into exploring performance and separation characteristics of macroporous resins on soy sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce. PMID:26212979

  4. 利用智利外海茎柔鱼内脏速酿鱼露的研究%Study on fish sauce brewed from the viscera of Dosidicus gigass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲映红; 王敏; 刘志东; 陈新军; 陈舜胜

    2011-01-01

    目的 以智利外海茎柔鱼内脏为原料,采用保温、加曲、加酶等不同速酿方法制备鱼露.方法 测定鱼露在不同酿制阶段的pH值、氨基酸态氮和章鱼胺含量,并对最终样品作感官评价.结果 与结论酿制20 d内,pH值和氨基酸态氮变化显著,20 d后趋于稳定.鱼露酿制前期,章鱼胺含量逐渐增加,15~20 d时,达到最大值,然后又呈下降趋势.保温和加曲速酿的样品在气味上优于加酶的样品.%Objective To brew fish sauce using the viscera of Dosidicus gigass. Methods To shorten brewage period, methods such as insulation, adding enzyme or koji were adopted. The changes of pH value,amino acid nitrogen and content of octopamine during brewage were investigated. The sensory characteristics were also evaluated. Results and Conclusion The pH value and amino acid nitrogen increased obviously in the first 20 days and then became steady. The content of octopamine climbed to the top of 6~7 mg · L-1 ml during 15~20 days of brewage and decreased afterwards. The smell of fish sauce added enzyme was the most unpleasant among the three kinds of samples.

  5. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  6. Determination ofZn, Cu, Cd and Pb contents of fish sauce-acid (a traditional fermented food of Miao nationality) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry%FASS法测定苗族传统食品鱼酱酸中的锌、铜、镉、铅含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文华; 蒋天智; 袁玮; 石敏; 唐文华

    2011-01-01

    对传统鱼酱酸及银鱼鱼酱酸中的锌、铜、镉、铅进行测定.以FASS法测定样品中的锌、铜、镉、铅,通过正交试验优化仪器最佳工作条件,采用湿法消解样品.传统鱼酱酸和银鱼鱼酱酸中锌的含量分别是5.7794mg/kg和4.4834mg/kg,铜的含量分别是0.7224mg/kg和1.2808mg/kg,2种鱼酱酸均未检出镉和铅.FASS法测定鱼酱酸锌、铜、镉、铅操作简便,灵敏度较高,检出限较低;鱼酱酸中有较高含量的锌和一定含量的铜,是具有较高营养价值的发酵调味品.%The research aimed to determine the metals zinc, copper, lead and cadmium content in two kinds of Fish Sauce-acid. The working conditions of determining the samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) were optimized by orthogonal experiments, and the samples were digested by wet method. The content of zinc in traditional fish sauce-acid and silver fish sauce-acid were 5.7794mg/kg and 4.4834mg/kg, respectively, and the contents of copper were 0.7224mg/kg and 1.2808mg/kg, respectively. Cadmium and lead were not determined in two kinds of fish sauce-acid. It was easy to determine the zinc, copper, cadmium and lead by FAAS, and it had high sensitivity and low detection limits. The fish sauce-acid had a high content of zinc and contains a certain amount of copper, which was a kind of fermented seasoning with high nutritional value.

  7. Preparation of Flavorful Sauce from Freshwater Fish By-products by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and then Fermentation%淡水鱼下脚料酶解酿制风味调味汁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳; 祁兴普; 刘萍

    2012-01-01

    Based on one-factor-at-a-time experiments,orthogonal array design method was employed to optimize the preparation of flavorful sauce from freshwater fish by-products by enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation.The highest degree of hydrolysis was achieved when a mixture of flavorzyme and alcalase at a ratio of 1:1 was added at a dose of 0.25 g/100 g for 4 h of hydrolysis at 55 ℃ and pH 7.5.The hydrolysate was completely deodorized after 1 h of fermentation at 35 ℃ with yeast at an inoculum size of 2.0 g/100 g.The Maillard reaction products of the fermentation broth obtained after reaction at 115 ℃ for 40 min in the presence of a mixture of xylose and glucose(1:3) at a concentration of 4 g/100 g and L-cysteine hydrochloride at 1.0 g/100 g showed the highest sensory score.The flavorful sauce obtained revealed a strong meat and sauce flavor and no fishy odor.The free amino nitrogen content was 0.86 g/100 mL.Thus,it is a natural seasoning with great development potential.%在单因素试验基础上,通过正交试验对利用淡水鱼下脚料制备鱼酿调味汁的工艺技术进行优化。结果表明:最适酶解反应工艺条件为添加蛋白酶(风味蛋白酶:碱性蛋白酶=1:1)0.25g/100g,在55℃、pH7.5条件下酶解4h;最适发酵工艺条件为添加2.0g/100g酵母在35℃条件下发酵1h;最适美拉德反应的工艺条件为添加还原糖(木糖:葡萄糖=1:3)4g/100g、L-半胱氨酸盐酸盐1.0g/100g,在115℃条件下反应40min。研制出的调味汁有浓郁的肉香味和酱香味,无鱼腥味,游离态氨基酸态氮含量0.86g/100mL,是一种很有发展潜力的天然调味品。

  8. 日本酱油种类及其酿造工艺特点%Varieties and brewing technological characteristics of Japanese soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周长海; 徐文斌; 贾友刚; 李勇昊; 齐淑艳

    2011-01-01

    日本酱油最初的酿造工艺是从古代中国传入,在日本发展出很多独特的工艺,酿造出最常见的浓味酱油、淡味酱油、溜酱油、二次酿造酱油和白酱油5种日本式酱油.在酿造过程中的制曲、装料、发酵管理、压榨、沉淀等工艺过程跟国内的多数酱油酿造工艺相似.因原料和工艺的差别,酿造出如二次酿造酱油及白酱油等独特的产品.%Brewing technique of Japanese soy sauce was originated from China and developed multiple specific techniques afterwards.Strong fiavoured soy sauce, light fiavoured soy sauce, percolation soy sauce two-step fermentation soy sauce and "white" sauce are common five varieties.Procedures of Koji making, charging, fermentation management, press methods and precipitation of Japanese soy sauce and Chinese soy sauce are similar.Some New varieties of soy sauce, such as two-step sauce and white sauce, are obtained with application of differences of raw material and techniques.

  9. (13)C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Yuan, Bin; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-01-01

    It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce. PMID:27598115

  10. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  11. Screening of Strains with Degradation Activity for Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce%鱼露中生物胺降解菌的筛选及其特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利昆; 付湘晋; 胡叶碧; 周其中; 李滨

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,strains with degradation activity for biogenic amines were screened from naturally fermented fish sauce,and the effects of fermentation time and temperature on the content of biogenic amines were investigated.A total of 10 strains were obtained from natural fish sauce subjected to fermentation for 3 months.After 72 hours of fermentation at 30 ℃,the degradation rate of histamine was in the range of 17.3%-62.2%,and the degradation rate of tyramine was in the range of 12.4%-57.3%.The strain M8 with the highest activity was identified as Kodamaea ohmeri yeast through 26S rDNA sequence and online sequence alignment.Meanwhile,the strain revealed the strongest degradation activity for biogenic amines at 30 ℃.During fermentation,the content of biogenic amines revealed a decrease on the first day and an increase on the second day as well as the highest level on the third day,and then exhibited a decrease trend until the end of fermentation.After 9 days of fermentation at 30 ℃,the contents of histamine and tyramine were reduced to 30.4% and 20.8% of the initial levels,respectively.The strain M8 Kodamaea ohmeri yeast could reveal the best degradation activity for biogenic amines in the presence of 25% salt.Under the optimal conditions,histamine and tyramine were reduced to 35.6% and 27.6%,respectively.%从天然发酵鱼露中筛选具有生物胺降解活性的微生物,并研究发酵时间和发酵温度对其降解生物胺的影响。以天然发酵3个月的鱼露为分离材料,对鱼露中的生物胺降解菌进行分离纯化,获得10株具有生物胺降解活性的微生物。分离到的10株菌株在30℃发酵72h组胺降解率在17.3%~62.2%,酪胺降解率在12.4%~57.3%。其中M8菌株生物胺降解活性最高,经26S rDNA测序及在线序列比对,M8菌株鉴定为奥默柯达酵母。奥默柯达酵母M8在30℃条件下降解生物胺活性最强;其降解生物胺的时间变化规律为发酵第1

  12. EFFECTS OF FISHES ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF CHINESE MITTEN CRAB, ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This experiment on the effects of fishes (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Channa argus, Cyprinus carpio) on growth and survival of juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis was conducted in cages placed in Bao'an Lake. T-tests showed that effects of fishes on the carapace width growth were not significant as compared with the control (no fish). But the effects of these fishes on crab survival were negative. The causes of negative effects of fishes on crab survival were simply discussed on the basis of food habits.

  13. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH resins, while the pseudo-second-order kinetics model accurately described the XAD-16 and HP-2 MGL resins. Furthermore, the adsorption processes of the peptides followed the Freundlich model. The XAD-16 resin was the most effective resin for the enrichment of peptides due to its high adsorption and total desorption capacities. Interestingly, the umami peptides were enriched in the deionized water fraction. This study provides new insights into exploring performance and separation characteristics of macroporous resins on soy sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce.

  14. Analysis of capillary chromatographic skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor by liquid-liquid microextraction and aroma recombination%酱香型白酒液液微萃取-毛细管色谱骨架成分与香气重组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玲玲; 范文来; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    应用液液微萃取(LLME)、气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)研究酱香型白酒骨架成分。液液微萃取定量48种香气物质,确定29种骨架成分。通过52种物质香气重组,得到的模拟酒香气较为丰满,且富有层次感,呈现酱香型白酒的背景香,但未出现典型酱香。缺失实验表明酱香型白酒骨架成分中香气贡献较大的主要是酯类和醇类物质,其中:己酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、1-丙醇、2-苯乙醇以及3-甲基丁醇是重要的香气物质;缺失与添加实验验证了三甲基吡嗪、糠醛、4-乙基愈创木酚和呋喃扭尔(furaneol)与酱香型白酒的典型酱香无关。%The skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor were isolated by liquid-liquid microextraction(LLME), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS).48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified.29 compounds belong to skeleton compounds.The overall aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, while excluding the typical aromas, could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of 52 compounds. According to omission experiments, esters and alcohols of skeleton compounds contributed a lot to the aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, and ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate,ethyl butanoate, !- propanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 3- methylbutanol were important skeleton aroma compounds.Omission and addition experiments corroborated that trimethylpyrazine, furfural,4-ethyl guaiacol, and furaneol was not related to the soy sauce aroma of Chinese liquor.

  15. Determination of total N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in frankfurters, fresh meat, dried salted fish, sauces, tobacco, and tobacco smoke particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haorah, J; Zhou, L; Wang, X; Xu, G; Mirvish, S S

    2001-12-01

    Total N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and NOC precursors (NOCP) were determined in extracts of food and tobacco products. Following Walters' method, NOC were decomposed to NO with refluxing HBr/HCl/HOAc/EtOAc and NO was measured by chemiluminescence. NOC were determined after sulfamic acid treatment to destroy nitrite, and NOCP were determined after treatment with 110 mM nitrite and then sulfamic acid. Analysis without HBr gave results < or =20% of those with HBr. This NOC method was efficient for nitrosamines but not nitrosoureas. The standard nitrosation for determining NOCP gave high yields for readily nitrosated amines, including 1-deoxy-1-fructosylvaline, but not for simple amines, dipeptides, and alkylureas. Mean NOC and NOCP results were (respectively, in micromol/kg of product) 5.5 and 2700 for frankfurters, 0.5 and 660 for fresh meat, 5.8 and 5800 for salted, dried fish, and 660 and 2900 for chewing tobacco (all for aqueous extracts) and 220 and 20000 nmol/cigarette for MeCN extracts of cigarette smoke filter pads.

  16. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhabib, Dyhia; Sumaila, U Rashid; Lam, Vicky W Y; Zeller, Dirk; Le Billon, Philippe; Abou Kane, Elimane; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of European Union (EU) and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1)) and China (2.3 million t•year(-1)) report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible) from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1) on average in the 1970s-1980s). The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime impossible to

  17. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyhia Belhabib

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of European Union (EU and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1 and China (2.3 million t•year(-1 report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1 on average in the 1970s-1980s. The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime

  18. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhabib, Dyhia; Sumaila, U Rashid; Lam, Vicky W Y; Zeller, Dirk; Le Billon, Philippe; Abou Kane, Elimane; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of European Union (EU) and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1)) and China (2.3 million t•year(-1)) report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible) from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1) on average in the 1970s-1980s). The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime impossible to

  19. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  20. Risk–benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk–benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB7, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80–100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk–benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: ► We collected 24 fish species with more than 400 individual samples

  1. Risk-benefit evaluation of fish from Chinese markets: Nutrients and contaminants in 24 fish species from five big cities and related assessment for human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zdu@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, Jian [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing [Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100050 (China); Lundebye, Anne-Katrine; Froyland, Livar [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), N-5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-02-01

    The risks and benefits of fish from markets in Chinese cities have not previously been fully evaluated. In the present study, 24 common fish species with more than 400 individual samples were collected from markets from five big Chinese cities in 2007. The main nutrients and contaminants were measured and the risk-benefit was evaluated based on recommended nutrient intakes and risk level criteria set by relevant authorities. The comprehensive effects of nutrients and contaminants in marine oily fish were also evaluated using the data of two related human dietary intervention trials performed in dyslipidemic Chinese men and women in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The results showed that concentrations of contaminants analyzed including DDT, PCB{sub 7}, arsenic and cadmium were much lower than their corresponding maximum limits with the exception of the mercury concentration in common carp. Concentrations of POPs and n-3 LCPUFA, mainly EPA and DHA, were positively associated with the lipid content of the fish. With a daily intake of 80-100 g marine oily fish, the persistent organic pollutants in fish would not counteract the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Marine oily fish provided more effective protection against CVD than lean fish, particularly for the dyslipidemic populations. The risk-benefit assessment based on the present daily aquatic product intake in Chinese urban residents (44.9 and 62.3 g for the average values for all cities and big cities, respectively) indicated that fish, particularly marine oily fish, can be regularly consumed to achieve optimal nutritional benefits from n-3 LCPUFA, without causing significant contaminant-related health risks. However, the potential health threat from contaminants in fish should still be emphasized for the populations consuming large quantities of fish, particularly wild fish. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We collected 24 fish species with more than

  2. Antiglycation and antioxidant properties of soy sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashilipa, Changwe; Wang, Qiuyu; Slevin, Mark; Ahmed, Nessar

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia increases formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and metal-catalyzed production of free radicals. This study compared the antioxidant capacities of dark and light soy sauces of different brands and investigated their abilities to inhibit AGEs and whether their mechanism of action was pre- or post-Amadori or involved chelation of transition metals. The antioxidant capacities of soy sauces were compared using the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) method and by measuring their total phenolic contents. Model proteins (lysozyme, albumin) were glycated using fructose with or without soy sauces with subsequent analysis of cross-linked AGEs by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The effect of soy sauces on pre- and post-Amadori inhibition of AGEs was investigated by measuring fructosamine and AGEs following reincubation of ribose-glycated (ribated) lysozyme, respectively. Dark soy sauces had higher antioxidant capacities and phenolic content and were more effective inhibitors of post-Amadori-derived cross-linked AGEs. However, light soy sauces were more effective at inhibiting fructosamine and had more potent metal chelation properties. This study reports the antiglycation properties of soy sauces, but further studies are required to determine the constituents responsible for this effect and whether soy sauce consumption can reduce oxidative stress and AGEs in diabetic subjects.

  3. Classification of chilli sauces: Multivariate pattern recognition using selected GCMS retention time peaks of chilli sauces samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a preliminary work on the possibility of separating classes of chili sauces based on taste or customer preferences, organic compounds from different kinds of chili sauces of various brands were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). It was found that these organic compounds do form a basis for separation of different types of sauces. The similarity and dissimilarity of chromatograms due to the organic composition of the chili sauces were explored by multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Both CA and PCA results exhibit four linearly separable classes, namely general sauces, hot sauces, sauces with benzoic acid and sauces with garlic. It was concluded that by using chosen retention peaks in the chromatograms of various sauce samples as multivariate features, CA and PCA can be successfully used to reveal the natural clusters existing in chili sauces according to their organic composition. (author)

  4. Salted fish and inhalants as risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Henderson, B E

    1983-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma among Malaysian Chinese to test inhalants, salted fish consumption, and use of tobacco, alcohol, and nasal ointments as risk factors for the disease. Interviews with 100 cases and 100 controls indicated that salted fish consumption during childhood was a significant risk factor (relative risk, 3.0; p = 0.04); childhood daily consumption of this food item compared to nonconsumption carried a relative risk of 17.4 [95% confidence interval = (2.7, 111.1)]. Occupational exposure to smokes (relative risk, 6.0; p = 0.006) and to dusts (relative risk, 4.0; p less than 0.001) was also significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The two risk factors (consumption of salted fish and exposure to smoke and/or dust) were independent of each other. There was no association between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and tobacco, alcohol, or nasal ointments.

  5. Promote fermentation revolution of Chinese soy sauce by using microorganisms scientifically%科学利用微生物推动中国酱油工艺大变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李幼筠; 周逦

    2011-01-01

    该文从微生物在酱油生产中的协同有效利用入手,分析了我国现行酱油生产工艺的利弊.着重强调了多菌种酿造酱油的必要性,并据此阐明了在当今民众消费形态的演进与变化形式下,"冷温高盐稀态工艺"的采用能最有效提升产品质量,从而将促进我国新一轮酱油工艺的变革.%Advantages and disadvantages of current fermentation technology of soy sauce production in China were analyzed from cooperative and effective application of the microorganisms in fermentation process. Necessity of multi-strain fermentation was emphasized. Under the evolution and development of the consumer profile, application of the technology of cold temperature high-salt and diluted state fermentation could most effectively improve the quality of the product and make a new revolution of production of soy sauce.

  6. 中国传统酱油生产用米曲霉菌种研究进展%Study on Aspergillus Oryzae Breeding in Production of Chinese Traditional Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪凤娣; 鲁绯; 程永强

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is the key organism in production of traditional soy sauce. The research of Aspergilhts oryzae breeding included the strain breeding of high productivity of protease, enzyme charac- teristic, and conditions of enzymes producing, focusing on the strains of high productivity of protease. Though these studies have shown that the strain performance was improved comparing the original strain, the research was still limited to laboratory theoretical analysis. The application of Aspergillus oryzae in in- dustrial production of soy sauce need further exploration.%米曲霉是我国传统酱油生产用关键菌种.关于米曲霉菌株选育的研究主要包括,高产蛋白酶菌株选育技术研究、酶学特性研究、产酶影响因素研究等方面.高产蛋白酶菌株的选育为研究重点.虽然,研究均显示经过改良的菌株性能超过了原始出发菌株,但是成果仍然局限于实验室理论分析.我国科研人员仍需努力,加强对米曲霉菌株在工业化生产中实际应用效果的研究.

  7. Higher freshwater fish and sea fish intake is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk among Chinese population: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Xu; Yu-Jing Fang; Yu-Ming Chen; Min-Shan Lu; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Bo Yan; Xiao Zhong; Cai-Xia Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk remains controversial. This study aimed to examine the association between specific fish intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population in a large case control study. During July 2010 to November 2014, 1189 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1189 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariate log...

  8. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors.

  9. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    1998-07-17

    We interviewed 282 histologically confirmed cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia, and an equal number of Chinese age-, sex-, and length-of-residence-matched controls sampled from the general population. Consumption of 55 dietary items during childhood, and 5 years pre-diagnosis of NPC, was analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Four salted preserved foods (fish, leafy vegetables, egg and root), fresh pork/beef organ meats and beer and liquor consumption exhibited strong positive associations, and 4 vegetable/fruit combinations strong negative associations with NPC. Factor analysis and multivariable modeling using estimated factor scores strongly supported separate effects on NPC of vegetables/fruits, salted preserved foods, pork/beef organ meats and beer/liquor consumption. Multivariable modeling associated NPC most clearly with high consumption of salted fish, salted eggs, pork/beef liver and beer and low consumption of Chinese flowering cabbage, oranges/tangerines and shrimp. A strong residual association of social class with NPC remained after adjustment for diet, which is consistent with a substantial role for non-dietary environmental factors. PMID:9650558

  10. 气相色谱-串联质谱法测定黄酒和酱油中的氨基甲酸乙酯%Determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小民; 何华丽; 阮瑜迪; 黄百芬; 任一平

    2013-01-01

      目的建立气相色谱-串联质谱法(GC-MS/MS)测定黄酒和酱油中氨基甲酸乙酯的分析方法。方法样品添加同位素内标氨基甲酸乙酯-d5后,直接上样到填装好ExtrelutTM NT有机硅藻土的柱中进行基质固相分散萃取,先用正己烷淋洗除杂,再用乙酸乙酯:乙醚(1:9, v/v)的混合溶剂洗脱氨基甲酸乙酯,洗脱液经浓缩后采用GC-MS/MS多反应监测(MRM)模式测定。结果方法检出限和线性范围分别为2µg/kg和5~1000µg/kg (R>0.999)。在50、200、500µg/kg三个添加水平下,黄酒基体中氨基甲酸乙酯的加标回收率为97.4%~98.8%, RSD为4.0%~8.4%。向酱油基体中添加10、50、200µg/kg 三个浓度水平,氨基甲酸乙酯的加标回收率为96.2%~104.0%, RSD为5.3%~10.0%。结论该方法定量准确、操作简单、灵敏度高、定性确证可靠,适用于黄酒和酱油中氨基甲酸乙酯的测定。%  Objective To establish a method for qualitative and quantitative determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Methods After spiked with internal standard ethyl carbamate-d5, the sample was directly loaded to an ExtrelutTM NT column for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction. Hexane was added to wash the matrix interferences and 90% (v/v) ethyl ether/ethyl acetate mixture was used to elute the analyte. The concentrated extract was detected by GC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Results The limit of detection (LOD) was 2 μg/kg and the linear range was 5~1000 µg/kg (R>0.999). For Chinese rice wine, the recoveries at the spiked levels of 50, 200, and 500 µg/kg were 97.4%~98.8%with the RSD of 4.0%~8.4%. For soy sauce, the recoveries at the levels of 10, 50, and 200 µg/kg were 96.2%~104.0% with the RSD of 5.3%~10.0%. Conclusion The method is highly sensitive, easy operating, accurate for quantit-ative analysis, and reliable for qualitative detection

  11. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  12. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  13. Effect of NaFeEDTA-Fortified Soy Sauce on Anemia Prevalence in China:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jun Sheng; YIN Ji Yong; SUN Jing; HUANG Jian; LU Zhen Xin; REGINA Moench-Pfanner; CHEN Jun Shi; andCHEN Chun Ming

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. MethodsA systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. ResultsAfter the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). ConclusionNaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population.

  14. Lemongrass-Fried Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams grass carp, several stalks of lemongrass, 5 leaves of lettuce. Condiments: 10 grams sweet sauce (made from fermented flour, scallion powder and ginger root powder); yolk of one egg, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Cut the fish into pieces. Mash

  15. Stewed Lamb in Brown Sauce of Xinxiang%新乡红焖羊肉刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于直军

    2013-01-01

    起源于上世纪80年代末的红焖羊肉是新乡饮食中的一道特色菜,因其肉嫩、味鲜、汤醇而名扬海内外。本文拟从红焖羊肉的制作过程及其营养价值等方面阐述,以期与读者共享经典美食,弘扬中原饮食文化。%The origin of the 80’s of the last century the stewed lamb in brown sauce is a special dish of Xinxiang diet, because of itstender, delicious soup alcohol, both at home and abroad. This paperexpounds the stewed lamb in brown sauce production process and itsnutritional value, in order to share with you the classic food,carry forward the Chinese diet culture.

  16. Cooking Class: Meatballs Braised in Brown Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Mince the streaky pork,Add 40g of the grated ginger,40g of the chopped scallions,50g of soy sauce and 2g of salt.Chum the ingredients until the mixture becomes sticky.Then add egg and becomes sticky.Then add egg and cormstarch and mix well.

  17. Production of Japanese Soy-Sauce Flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.

    2001-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher alcohols and 4-hydroxyfuranones, while C. versatilis is responsible for th

  18. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  19. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  20. Resting metabolism and heat increment of feeding in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and Chinese snakehead (Channa argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Cui, Y; Liu, J

    2000-10-01

    Resting metabolism was measured in immature mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi weighing 42.1-510.2 g and Chinese snakehead Channa argus weighing 41.5-510.3 g at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C. Heat increment of feeding was measured in mandarin fish weighing 202.0 (+/-14.0) g and snakehead weighing 200.8 (+/-19.3) g fed swamp loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus at 1% body weight per day at 28 degrees C. In both species, weight exponent in the power relationship between resting metabolism and body weight was not affected by temperature. The relationship between resting metabolism and temperature could be described by a power function. The temperature exponent was 1.39 in mandarin fish and 2.10 in snakehead (Psnakehead increased with temperature at a faster rate than in mandarin fish. Multiple regression models were used to describe the effects of body weight (W, g) and temperature (T, degrees C) on the resting metabolism (R(s), mg O(2)/h): lnR(s)=-5.343+0.772 lnW+1.387 lnT for the mandarin fish and lnR(s)=-7.863+0.801 lnW+2.104 lnT for the Chinese snakehead. The proportion of food energy channelled to heat increment was 8.7% in mandarin fish and 6.8% in snakehead.

  1. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A large-scale study on trace element levels in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. ► Spatial variation found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, but not for Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn. ► The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb. ► No biomagnification occurred for any of the trace elements studied in marine fish. ► No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption. - Abstract: We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and δ15N values or δ13C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  2. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    koosamart Wayu; Veerasugwanit Nutha; Jittanit Weerachet

    2016-01-01

    Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP) and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples wer...

  3. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  4. Musalmah Sauce: Opt for the Best

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhan Abu Dardak; Farzana Quoquab

    2013-01-01

    This case illustrates how a processed food firm can strategize its business to increase its product sales in a competitive domestic market. Musalmah Food Industries Sdn Bhd (MFI), the manufacturer of Musalmah, a premium quality ready-to-eat sauce, had been facing fierce competition from other manufacturers of domestic and imported products in Malaysia. The intense competition led to a lower domestic sales growth. Musalmah had been retailed mostly at the supermarkets, hypermarkets and big groc...

  5. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  6. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in umbilical cord serum and birth outcomes in Chinese fish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the islands of Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou bay and their exposure caused potential health risk for the residents. To assess the exposure levels of Pb, Hg, and Cd, the umbilical cord serum samples were collected from 103 mother-newborn pairs as the noninvasive specimens. The association of the concentration of Pb, Hg, and Cd with the birth outcomes was evaluated. Pb, Hg, and Cd had high exposure levels with the median concentrations at 76.20 μg L(-1) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.71, 115.80], 21.94 μg L(-1) (IQR: 15.10, 27.64), and 6.36 μg L(-1) (IQR: 3.63, 13.34), respectively. A unit increase in the Pb umbilical cord serum concentration (μg L(-1)) was significantly associated with a 0.29 cm (95% CI: -0.50, -0.09) decrease in birth height and a 0.22 cm (95%CI: -0.44, 0.00) decrease in head circumference. The middle tertile Pb and Hg exposure levels were found significantly negative effects on birth outcomes compared with low tertile exposure levels. Exposure to Cd showed no apparent effect on birth outcomes. Our results suggested that Pb and Hg exposure has potential adverse effects on birth outcomes in Chinese fish consumers from Yangtze River outlet and Hangzhou bay estuary regions.

  7. H ACCP体系在酱油生产中的应用%Appl ication of HACCP System in Soy Sauce Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘皓; 王立晖; 吕春晖; 傅唯

    2015-01-01

    酱油是中国传统的调味品,酱油的生产安全问题,主要是由于酱油生产企业无法对产品的加工进行有效的质量管理,为了提高酱油的卫生质量,我们应用危害分析与关键控制点(HACCP)体系对酱油生产进行质量管理。结合酱油生产工艺的各个步骤,利用 HACCP 体系分析并确认了4个有效的关键控制点,并针对该4个CCP点及其限值建立了 HACCP计划表,建立有效的监控验证方法,保证系统顺利实施,保证了酱油产品的质量安全。%Soy sauce is Chinese traditional condiment,the safety problems in production of soy sauce mainly because the soy sauce production enterprises are unable to carry out effective quality management of product processing,in order to improve the hygienic quality of soy sauce,we apply hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)system for quality management in the production of soy sauce.Combined with each step of soy sauce production,4 effective critical control points are analyzed and confirmed by HACCP system and HACCP schedule is established against the 4 CCP points and their limit values,the establishment of monitoring verification method effectively ensures the smooth implementation of the system and the quality and safety of soy sauce product.

  8. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  9. The Analysis of YE Tian-shi's Experience in Clinical Treatment by Using Lobster Sauce%叶天士运用豆豉经验浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春红; 陈烨文; 陈一江

    2014-01-01

    Lobster sauce is widely used in Chinese classical prescriptions ,while now is seldom used again .For mastering the thought of using lobster sauce by Zhang Zhong -jing, the methods of researching Ye Tian -shi's works and medical cases is used , to explore lob-ster sauce's efficiency , which should be good for clinical TCM doctors'prescriptions nowadays .%豆豉在经方中应用广泛,今却已鲜为人所用。以研究叶天士的《临证指南医》中的医案为手段发掘豆豉的临床使用证候,使经方更好的运用于临床。

  10. 科学利用微生物恢复和发展传统酱油工艺%The restoration and development of traditional soy sauce technology with microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德安

    2011-01-01

    针对《科学利用微生物推动中国酱油工艺大变革》一文的观点,论述了传统酱油生产工艺是实践经验的结晶,符合自然和思维的客观规律,产品质量好,开创了科学利用微生物酿造酱油的历史。指出日本酱油居世界领先水平,一是继承和发展了我国传统工艺,二是我国酱油质量下降为之创造了客观条件。认为要生产优质酱油,必须恢复和发展传统的生产工艺。%Based on the theme of Promote fermentation revolution of Chinese soy sauce by using microorganisms scientifically,this article points out that the traditional technology of soy bean sauce is the conclusion of practical experiences, which agrees with beth natural and thought rules. Good - quality soy sauce can be produced with this technology. The traditional technology opens the domestic history of soy sauce production with microorganisms. Japanese soy sauce production now takes the leading part al~ over the world, not only because it inherits and develops Chinese tradi- tional technology ,but the degradation of Chinese soy sauce quality also create better opportunities. The article finally puts forward that the good quality soy sauce need the restoration and development of traditional technology.

  11. Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-02-15

    Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS.

  12. Extraction of light filth from oriental sauces containing soy sauce, thickeners, and spices: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, M J

    1993-01-01

    Results are reported for a collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from oriental sauces containing soy sauce, thickeners, and spices. A 100 g test portion is pretreated in a 2% solution of Tergitol Anionic 4 over a steam bath, and oils are removed by wet-sieving on No. 230 sieve. Filth is isolated from 40% isopropanol by using Na4EDTA and mineral oil. Average recoveries by 9 collaborators for 3 spike levels of rat hairs (5, 10, and 15) were 84, 78, and 79%, respectively; for insect fragments (5, 15, and 30), recoveries were 92, 95, and 96%, respectively. The method was adopted first action by AOAC International. PMID:8448444

  13. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  14. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  15. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyue Li; Jianfeng Sun; Xiaopeng Cui; Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics...

  16. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars, especial

  17. 蒸鱼豉油专用YE产品开发及应用研究%Product Development and Application Research of the Special Yeast Extract Used in Seasoned Soya Sauce for Seafood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建; 李沛; 唐冠群

    2013-01-01

    Yeast Extract (YE) is a kind of nutritional-type multifunctional umami agent and flavor enhancer,which has the characteristics of rich umami,mellow taste,natural nutrition,etc.Seasoned soya sauce for seafood is the special soy sauce for steamed fish; taste and flavor are the important indicators for the quality evaluation.The research and development and the application evaluation for seasoned soya sauce for seafood are carried out.The results show that the special yeast extract used in seasoned soya sauce for seafood can increase the taste of sauce and coordinate the delicious flavor of sauce.It can enhance the overall flavor of seasoned soya sauce for seafood products.%酵母抽提物(Yeast Extract,YE)是一种营养型多功能鲜味剂和风味增强剂,具有鲜味丰富,口感醇厚,天然营养的特点.蒸鱼豉油是蒸鱼特制的酱油,口感和风味是评价其品质的重要指标.文章针对蒸鱼豉油专用YE进行了研究开发,并对其进行应用评价.结果表明:蒸鱼豉油专用型YE能增加蒸鱼豉油产品的厚实口感,协调产品鲜美风味,对蒸鱼豉油产品整体风味的提升具有很好的效果.

  18. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1. PMID:26494283

  19. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  20. Fan's Pork and Sauce and KFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    May 24, 2011 had a special impact on Xi'an, because since that day the renowned price-winning local treat Fan's Pork and Sauce has been no longer belonged to the Fan's family of Xi'an. Eighty years ago the Fan family devoted themselves to perfecting their

  1. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  2. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  3. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  4. Effect of sucrose on the generation of free amino acids and biogenic amines in Chinese traditional dry-cured fish during processing and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinjie; Liu, Zhenfeng; Hu, Yaqin; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; YE, XINGQIAN

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese traditional dry-cured grass carp fish (Layú) was processed with (A) and without (B) sucrose. Higher levels of free amino acids (FAA) and biogenic amines were detected in the final products when compared to the fresh fish. In the presence of sucrose, Layú A had higher total free amino acids (39.9 g/kg DW) but lower total biogenic amines (112.5 mg/kg DW) than those in Layú B (35.4 g/kg DW and 143.7 mg/kg DW, respectively) after ageing. After 60 days, the products storaged at 4 °C ha...

  5. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed. - Highlights: • Antioxidant effect of soy sauce on irradiated pork patties was studied. • The soy sauce can retard lipid oxidation of the irradiated pork patties. • A synergistic effect of ascorbic acid for preventing lipid oxidation was observed

  6. Effect of irradiation on shelf life and nutritional quality of sauce buck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum-packed sauce duck were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays, and total bacteria number and nutrition contents of treated samples were determined. The results showed that the sauce duck was irradiated at 6 kGy, and stored at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C, it could be stored for 90 days; and if the sauce duck was firstly processed by pasteurization at 90 degree C ∼ 95 degree C for 30 min, then irradiated at 6 kGy, the shelf life could be prolonged to 120 days at 25 degree C ± 0.5 degree C. Irradiation could make the sauce duck to meet the commercial hygienic requirement within the shelf life, and would not impact the nutritive value significantly. It is concluded that irradiated sauce duck has the potential commercial application. (authors)

  7. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez; Gemma Chiva-Blanch; Rosa Casas; Sara Arranz; Miriam Martínez-Huélamo; Mireia Urpi-Sarda; Xavier Torrado; Dolores Corella; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Ramon Estruch

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test...

  8. Seston and dissolved organic carbon dynamics during Microcystis bloom with special reference to the effects of three Chinese domestic fishes in experimental enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Jun; Xie, Ping

    1997-09-01

    The Microcystis bloom that once disappeared from Donghu Lake, a shallow, eutrophic Chinese lake, was successfully resumed with the use of the enclosure method. Seston and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics during the Microcystis bloom were investigated with particular emphasis on the effect of three Chinese domestic fishes (silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp). The results showed that the change of chlorophyll a obviously related to the fish species and its stocking density. Due to the release of extracellular ogranic carbon and increased bacterial activity, DOC increased apparently after silver and bighead carps were introduced. POC/DOC dropped considerably in the enclosures containing silver and bighead carps and in the surrounding lake water, which implied that the bacterial activity was more pronounced in such ecosystems. Statistical analysis indicated that the linear relationship between POC and chlorophyll a could reflect the state of algal growth and nutrient metabolism. It was expected that this study would provide some information on biomanipulation in the shallow, eutrophic lakes.

  9. Comparative volatile profiles in soy sauce according to inoculated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Choi, Yong Ho; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    We compared the volatile profiles in soy sauce according to inoculation with Tetragenococcus halophilus and/or Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Totals of 107 and 81 volatiles were respectively identified by using solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction. The various volatile compounds identified included acids, aldehydes, esters, ketones, furans and furan derivatives, and phenols. The major volatiles in the samples treated with T. halophilus were acetic acid, formic acid, benzaldehyde, methyl acetate, ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, while those in the samples inoculated with Z. rouxii were mainly ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl propanoate, 2/3-methylbutanol, 1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and 4-hydroxy-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. The results indicate that T. halophilus produced significant acid compounds and could affect the Z. rouxii activity, supporting the notion that yeasts and lactic acid bacteria respectively have different metabolic pathways of alcoholic fermentation and lactic acid fermentation, and produce different dominant volatile compounds in soy sauce. PMID:24200796

  10. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thongsanit, Jaruwan; Okada, Sanae; Komagata, Kazuo

    2002-08-01

    Fourteen sphere-shaped and 30 rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria were isolated from soy sauce mash of two factories in Thailand. These strains were separated into two groups, Group A and Group B, by cell shape and DNA-DNA similarity. Group A contained 14 tetrad-forming strains, and these strains were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus by DNA similarity. Group B contained 30 rod-shaped bacteria, and they were further divided into four Subgroups, B1, B2, B3, and B4, and three ungrouped strains by phenotypic characteristics and DNA similarity. Subgroup B1 contained 16 strains, and these strains were identified as Lactobacillus acidipiscis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B2 included two strains, and the strains were identified as Lactobacillus farciminis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B3 contained five strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus by DNA similarity. The strains tested produced DL-lactic acid from D-glucose. Subgroup B4 contained four strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by DNA similarity. Two ungrouped strains were homofermentative, and one was heterofermentative. They showed a low degree of DNA similarity with the type strains tested, and were left unnamed. The distribution of lactic acid bacteria in soy sauce mash in Thailand is discussed. PMID:12469319

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  12. The effect of nutrient fortification of sauces on product stability, sensory properties, and subsequent liking by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Wang, Jianqiu; Collins, Vanessa J; Allen, Victoria J; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    There are potential nutritional and sensory benefits of adding sauces to hospital meals. The aim of this study was to develop nutrient fortified sauces with acceptable sensory properties suitable for older people at risk of undernutrition. Tomato, gravy, and white sauce were fortified with macro- and micronutrients using food ingredients rich in energy and protein as well as vitamin and mineral premixes. Sensory profile was assessed by a trained panel. Hedonic liking of fortified compared with standard sauces was evaluated by healthy older volunteers. The fortified sauces had higher nutritional value than the conventional ones, for example the energy content of the fortified tomato, white sauce, and gravy formulations were increased between 2.5- and 4-fold compared to their control formulations. Healthy older consumers preferred the fortified tomato sauce compared with unfortified. There were no significant differences in liking between the fortified and standard option for gravy. There were limitations in the extent of fortification with protein, potassium, and magnesium, as excessive inclusion resulted in bitterness, undesired flavors, or textural issues. This was particularly marked in the white sauce to the extent that their sensory characteristics were not sufficiently optimized for hedonic testing. It is proposed that the development of fortified sauces is a simple approach to improving energy intake for hospitalized older people, both through the nutrient composition of the sauce itself and due to the benefits of increasing sensorial taste and lubrication in the mouth.

  13. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  14. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  15. 豆渣调味酱的研制%Study on Bean Dregs Tartare Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 黄宇; 黄莉萍; 林琳

    2009-01-01

    利用豆渣为主要原料,加入白砂糖、食盐、豆油、豆酱、酱油、白酒、味精、食品添加荆等辅料,开发出风味较好、酱香味浓郁的豆渣调味酱.研究了去除豆渣油腻味最佳的方法,通过正交试验确定了豆渣调味酱的最佳配方.%Bean dregs tartare sauce regard fresh bean dregs as main raw materials,adding such batching as sugar,sah,oil,sauce,soy sauce,liquor,MSG,food additives,etc.,to make delicious food.This experiment studied the best way of Ilemoving the bean dregs'greasy taste,and determined the best formula of bean dregs tartare sauce through orthogonal test.

  16. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. PMID:26490647

  17. Developing the technology of mayonnaise sauce with sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grokhovsky V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of consumer demand on mayonnaise production have been found due to marketing researches. The technology of mayonnaise sauce using such valuable ingredients as sea urchin caviar, laminaria and nettle has been scientifically proved and produced. The formula of the new product composition has been developed; the specimens of such mayonnaise sauce have been made; they have been explored during their storage

  18. [Study on fast discrimination of brands of soy sauce using near infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Xing; Bao, Yi-Dan; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    A new method for the fast discrimination of brands of soy sauce by means of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was developed and these eight kinds of soy sauce had got its "identity card". The experiment adopted typical eight brands of soy sauce which we bought in the market. Total 3 942 frequencies from 7 625 to 3 684 cm(-1) transmit wavelength were gotten to set up a analyses model. In order to handle these data efficiently, after pretreatment, firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress thousands of spectral data into several variables and to describe the body of the spectra, the analysis suggested that the cumulate reliabilities of the first eight components was more than 99.99. According to the first eight components, the authors could distinguish some brand of the soy sauce but could not deal with all of them. So the authors chose ANN-BP as further research method. The eight components were secondly applied as ANN-BP inputs. The experiment took total 242 examples of 8 kinds of soy sauce as original model examples and left 10 every kind as unknown samples to predict. Finally, the result indicated the distinguishing rate is 98.75% in 0.98 reliable area. This paper could offer a new method to the discrimination of varieties of soy sauce. PMID:18536421

  19. Effect of soy sauce on lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to find out the antioxidant effect of the soy sauce on lipid oxidation of electron beam irradiated pork patties. The pork patties prepared with sodium chloride or soy sauce solution at identical salt concentrations were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy, and peroxide value, conjugated diene, 2-thiobarbituric acid, and free fatty acid values were evaluated for 10 days (4 °C). The irradiated pork patties treated with soy sauce showed the lowest peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid value at the end of storage compared to those prepared with sodium chloride. The irradiated pork patties formulated with soy sauce and 0.5% ascorbic acid had similar 2-thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values compared to those of the non-irradiated pork patties treated with sodium chloride. Our results suggested that the soy sauce can retard the lipid oxidation of irradiated pork patty, and a synergistic effect between soy sauce and ascorbic acid was observed.

  20. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates. PMID:23575118

  1. The statue and countermeasures of Chinese exports for living fish%我国出口鲜活鱼类现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珮; 汤志旭; 刘凡; 高昕

    2014-01-01

    Since joining into the WTO, China's export for living fish products has been reported, returned or retreated by different nations, because of their high veterinary drugs residues, inspection disqualification, non-conformance term of health and safety requirements, incomprehensive of the certification system and so on, which makes bad influences to the state and enterprises with different losses. In order to solve this problem, this article expounds the living fish products export trade status quo in China at first. Then, it analyzes the main requirements for aquatic products trading from different countries, such as Europe, America and Japan, to deal with such problems and barriers of trade. Furthermore, this article puts forward countermeasures and solutions in the course of developing Chinese living fish industry from five aspects-all kinds of harmful ingredients from aquaculture environment of sedimentation and migration, fish disease and veterinary drugs, the security of feedstuff and feed additives, the poisonous water and the drugs cleaned up the water weeds, and artificial breeding technology. Finally, the article brings up suggestions and outlook of China's export of fresh fish trade, and on this basis to establish suitable China's export of fresh fish breeding security system, to promote the quality and safety of China's export of fresh fish, to strengthen the international competitiveness of export enterprises, to expand the export’s of fresh fish in the international market, and to promote development of the relevant industries in China.%入世以来,我国出口鲜活鱼类产品时有农兽药残留高、检测不合格、安全卫生措施不符合要求、认证体系不完善等情况发生,给国家和企业造成不良影响和不同程度的损失。针对这一问题,本文首先阐述了我国鲜活鱼类产品出口贸易现状;其次分析了欧美日等主要水产品贸易国应对此类问题的措施及贸易壁垒情况,并

  2. The statue and countermeasures of Chinese exports for living fish%我国出口鲜活鱼类现状及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珮; 汤志旭; 刘凡; 高昕

    2014-01-01

    入世以来,我国出口鲜活鱼类产品时有农兽药残留高、检测不合格、安全卫生措施不符合要求、认证体系不完善等情况发生,给国家和企业造成不良影响和不同程度的损失。针对这一问题,本文首先阐述了我国鲜活鱼类产品出口贸易现状;其次分析了欧美日等主要水产品贸易国应对此类问题的措施及贸易壁垒情况,并从养殖环境中各种有害成分的沉积及迁移、鱼病防治及渔药使用、饲料安全、水体自身所含的有害物及清理水中杂草所用药物、养殖过程中的人员操作等五个方面提出我国活鱼产业发展对策和解决方法;最后提出我国出口活鱼贸易的建议和展望,并在此基础上建立适用于我国的活鱼养殖安全体系,提升出口活鱼的质量安全,加强出口企业的国际竞争力,扩大活鱼出口的国际市场,以促进我国相关产业的发展。%Since joining into the WTO, China's export for living fish products has been reported, returned or retreated by different nations, because of their high veterinary drugs residues, inspection disqualification, non-conformance term of health and safety requirements, incomprehensive of the certification system and so on, which makes bad influences to the state and enterprises with different losses. In order to solve this problem, this article expounds the living fish products export trade status quo in China at first. Then, it analyzes the main requirements for aquatic products trading from different countries, such as Europe, America and Japan, to deal with such problems and barriers of trade. Furthermore, this article puts forward countermeasures and solutions in the course of developing Chinese living fish industry from five aspects-all kinds of harmful ingredients from aquaculture environment of sedimentation and migration, fish disease and veterinary drugs, the security of feedstuff and feed additives, the poisonous

  3. 酱油中谷氨酸钠含量的快速测定%Fast Determination of Monosodium Glutamate Content in Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿雁

    2015-01-01

    Soy sauce is a nutritious traditional Chinese condiment. To fast determinate its monosodium glutamate (MSG)content, a protocol was established using enzyme electrode biosensor with immobilized glutamate oxidase membrane. The results showed that the MSG content can be assayed in 20 s with satisfied reproducibility and additional recovery of 99.3%-101.7%, and also can be used for the quality montoring of soy sauce.%酱油是一种营养丰富的中国传统调味品,为检测其中的谷氨酸钠含量,本研究利用配有谷氨酸氧化酶酶膜的SBA-40酶电极型生物传感分析仪,建立了快速准确测定酱油中谷氨酸钠含量的方法。结果表明,该方法可在20 s内完成酱油中的谷氨酸钠含量测定,结果重复性好,加样回收率为99.3%~101.7%,并可用于酱油的质量监控。

  4. 四川担担面的调味汁配方优化及影响因素研究%Research on Optimization of the Formula of Sichuan Dandan Noodles Sauce and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文

    2015-01-01

    Dandan noodles are one of the famous snacks in Chengdu,their unique flavor are favored by Chinese and foreign dinners.Dandan noodles sauce is analyzed by single-factor five-level experiment and seven-factor three-level orthogonal experiment. The optimum seasoning formula of Dandan noodles sauce is determined through sensory evaluation method,which is salt 2 g,monosodium glutamate 1.5 g,vinegar 2.5 g,soy sauce 2.2 g,sugar 1 g,sesame paste 5 g,chili oil 25 g.The primary and secondary relation that affects the sensory evaluation score is soy sauce,sugar,sesame paste,monosodium glutamate,salt,chili oil and vinegar.%担担面是成都著名的小吃之一,其独特的风味深受中外食客们的青睐。担担面的调味汁调料很多,各调味料的相互配比要求很高。对担担面的调味汁先设计单因素五水平实验分析,再设计七因素三水平的正交试验,通过感官评定方法确定调味汁难控制的调味料最佳配方为:食盐2 g,味精1.5 g,醋2.5 g,酱油2.2 g,白糖1 g,芝麻酱5 g,红油25 g。影响感官评价得分的主次关系为:酱油>白糖>芝麻酱>味精>食盐>红油>醋。

  5. Microbiota during fermentation of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce mash inoculated with halotolerant microbial starters: analyses using the plate count method and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Yasokawa, Daisuke; Nagashima, Koji; Yamazaki, Koji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Ohta, Tomoki; Kawai, Yuji

    2010-06-01

    Nine different combinations of mugi koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus, were inoculated into chum salmon sauce mash under a non-aseptic condition used in industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days to elucidate the microbial dynamics (i.e., microbial count and microbiota) during fermentation. The viable count of halotolerant yeast (HTY) in fermented chum salmon sauce (FCSS) mash showed various time courses dependent on the combination of the starter microorganisms. Halotolerant lactic acid bacteria (HTL) were detected morphologically and physiologically only from FCSS mash inoculated with T. halophilus alone or with T. halophilus and C. versatilis during the first 28 days of fermentation. Only four fungal species, Z. rouxii, C. versatilis, Pichia guilliermondii, and A. oryzae, were detected throughout the fermentation by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In FCSS mash, dominant HTMs, especially eumycetes, were nonexistent. However, under the non-aseptic conditions, undesirable wild yeast such as P. guilliermondii grew fortuitously. Therefore, HTY inoculation into FCSS mash at the beginning of fermentation is effective in preventing the growth of wild yeast and the resultant unfavorable flavor. PMID:20417400

  6. 以鮰鱼碎肉为原料的鮰鱼香菇调味酱加工工艺%Study on the Processing Technology of Channel Catfish and Mushroom Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立

    2016-01-01

    以鮰鱼碎肉为主要原料,加入豆豉、香菇、辣椒酱、天然香辛料等,经调配、炒制、灌装制得鮰鱼香菇调味酱。在借鉴现有酱品制作工艺的基础上,通过正交试验,确定出该产品的最佳配方。该产品营养丰富,口感鲜美独特,具有浓郁的鱼肉、香菇和豆豉香味。%Channel catfish is used as main raw material,fermented black beans,mushrooms,chili sauce,natural spices and other recipes are added into to produce channel catfish and mushroom sauce by mixing,stir-frying,and filling,etc.Based on the production process of current sauce product,the best formula of this product is obtained by orthogonal experiments.The product is rich in nutrition, with special and good taste,and has heavy flavor of fish,mushroom and fermented black beans.

  7. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  8. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  9. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  10. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful. PMID:24679775

  11. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  12. Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, H G; Rasco, B A

    2000-01-01

    Considerable amounts of fish processing byproducts are discarded each year. By developing enzyme technologies for protein recovery and modification, production of a broad spectrum of food ingredients and industrial products may be possible. Hydrolyzed vegetable and milk proteins are widely used food ingredients. There are few hydrolyzed fish protein foods with the exception of East Asian condiments and sauces. This review describes various manufacturing techniques for fish protein hydrolysates using acid, base, endogenous enzymes, and added bacterial or digestive proteases. The chemical and biochemical characteristics of hydrolyzed fish proteins are discussed. In addition, functional properties of fish protein hydrolysates are described, including solubility, water-holding capacity, emulsification, and foam-forming ability. Possible applications of fish protein hydrolysates in food systems are provided, and comparison with other food protein hydrolysates where pertinent. PMID:10674201

  13. Sensory properties determined by starch type in white sauces: effects of freeze/thaw and hydrocolloid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocas, A; Sanz, T; Salvador, A; Varela, P; Fiszman, S M

    2010-03-01

    The effect of 5 types of starch (rice, potato, waxy corn, corn, and modified waxy corn) on the sensory properties of white sauces was studied. A comparative study was also made of variations resulting from freezing/thawing and effect of replacing 0.15% starch with 2 nonstarchy hydrocolloids, xanthan gum (XG), or locust bean gum (LBG) in samples to be frozen. The sensory properties were studied through descriptive analysis by a panel of 10 trained judges. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to group each of the samples according to the scores for consistency, resilience, graininess, thickness, heterogeneity, creaminess, and mouth coating, the sensory attributes which were chosen to define the sauces under study. Significant differences were found between the different starches employed: the rice and modified starches presented similar behavior to each other, as did the potato starch and corn starch, while the waxy starch sauce stood apart from the rest because of its resilience. The freeze/thaw cycle had the greatest effect on the corn-starch sauce, increasing its graininess and heterogeneity values owing to retrogradation. Adding XG or LBG to the sauces subjected to a period of freezing/thawing did not have a significant effect on the sensory attributes of the reheated sauces made with rice, potato, or waxy or modified starch, but lower graininess and heterogeneity values were observed in the sauce made with corn starch.

  14. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation. - Highlights: • Soy sauce (SS) could inhibit volatiles cooked irradiated beef patties. • Vacuum packaging and SS treatment is effective to prevent lipid oxidation. • Hexanal content was highly correlated with TBA value of the irradiated beef patties

  15. The producing methods of hot pepper sauce%几种辣饼酱的制作方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学贵

    2011-01-01

    为了充分利用大豆,介绍了以大豆为原料生产的辣饼酱、蒜米辣饼酱、芝麻辣饼酱、蘑菇辣饼酱、虾籽或虾米辣饼酱和文蛤辣饼酱等6种辣饼酱的生产原料、工艺流程、配方、操作要点和产品特点。%Soy bean can be made a good use. With soy bean as the raw material,hot pepper sauce, hot pepper sauce with garlic pieces, hot pepper sauce with sesame, hot pepper sauce with mushroom, hot pepper sauce with shrimp - roe or dried shrimp and hot pepper sauce with clam can be produced. This article explains the raw materials,technological process, ingredients, operating points and products features of the six soy sauces respectively in detail.

  16. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil. PMID:26999197

  17. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  18. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0-72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  19. Sensory sub-attributes of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Jellema, R.H.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2005-01-01

    The sensory components of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces were determined, using multi-variate analysis of the mean sensory ratings obtained from a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) panel. Creamy is a particularly interesting attribute, as it is generall

  20. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  1. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce.

  2. Formation and reduction of furan in a soy sauce model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Yeop; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The formation and reduction of furan using a soy sauce model system were investigated in the present study. The concentration of furan fermented up to 30 days increased by 211% after sterilization compared to without sterilization. Regarding fermentation temperature, furan level after 30 days' fermentation was the highest at 30°C (86.21 ng/mL). The furan levels in the soy sauce fermentation at 20°C and 40°C were reduced by 45% and 88%, respectively compared to 30°C fermentation. Five metal ions (iron sulfate, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, and calcium sulfate), sodium sulfite, ascorbic acid, dibutyl hydroxyl toluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added in a soy sauce model system. The addition of metal ions such as magnesium sulfate and calcium sulfate reduced the furan concentration significantly by 36-90% and 27-91%, respectively in comparison to furan level in the control sample (pBHT and BHA, furan formation generally was reduced in the soy sauce model system by 84%, 56%, respectively. PMID:26190609

  3. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters.

  4. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  5. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0¿72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  6. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production

  7. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters. PMID:27464006

  8. STUDY OF INCREASING QUALITY OF SOY SAUCE WITH SOY SAUCE DRAFF BY MIXED FERMENTATION%酱渣多菌混合发酵提高酱油质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉荣; 王霞; 冯昌友

    2000-01-01

    以酱渣为原料,接种黑曲霉、鲁氏酵母、耐盐性乳酸菌,混合培菌发酵一段时间以后,与酱醅混合发酵,提高了酱油的质量,并使原科利用率由原来的65%提高到80%。%Soy Sauce draft was inoculated aspergillus niger, saccharomyces roukii and halophile Lactic bacteria,then the soy sauce draft was mixed with soy sauce cake after mixed culture a period. Through experiments, the soy sauce has been increased and the rate of material utilization is increased from 65% to 80%.

  9. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  10. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  11. Determination of 1,3-dichloropropanol in soy sauces by automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; LeBrun, G; Brereton, P A

    2002-04-01

    There has been recent concern about the levels of carcinogenic chloropropanols in some soy sauces. We have devised and tested a new automated headspace GC-MS technique for the analysis of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP) in soy sauce and similar products. The method incorporates the use of cryogenic trapping and a deuterium-labelled internal standard. The limit of detection was 0.003 mg kg(-1). After in-house validation testing, the method was applied to soy sauce samples that had previously been analysed for the related contaminant 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD). 1,3-DCP was detected in 10 of 40 sauces, all of which also contained 3-MCPD. The highest level was just >1 mg kg(-1). There was no correlation between the levels of 1,3-DCP and 3-MCPD.

  12. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  13. Fish In Mutton Equals Delicious

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE characters are pictographs. The character "delicious" consists of "fish" and "sheep." In fact, there are few recipes that uses fish and mutton as main ingredients, Yet, there is one dish called "fisn in mutton" whose taste is good enough to make people understand the connotation of

  14. Sensory quality control in the chilled and frozen ready meal, soup and sauce sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Swainson, Mark; McWatt, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of sensory evaluation in the assurance of product quality within the food production sectors of ready meals, soups and sauces. The chapter methodically reviews typical food processing stages, from recipe development through to end product supply, and considers how sensory assessment methods can be utilised to help assure the quality of the end products within these selected High Risk Chilled Food sectors.

  15. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; HAYASHI, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  16. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying. PMID:25172729

  17. Method performance study of the determination of total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Shintaro; Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to evaluate the proposed method for determining the total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method submitted to the Codex Alimentarius Commission for endorsement in accordance with the protocol for the design, conduct, and interpretation of method-performance studies. The digestive conditions of the proposed method are the addition of 10 mL of H2SO4, 10 g (8 g by using a block digester) of K2SO4, and 1 mL of 20% CuSO4 x 5H2O and 80 min boiling period after the liquid is cleared by a heating device. Seventeen laboratories participated, analyzing five soy sauce samples as blind duplicates. Since the volume sampling method used in the JAS (Japanese Agricultural Standard) method showed lower accuracy of data because of the density of soy sauce, the method of sampling by weight was adopted as the proposed method. The total amount of outlier data was within acceptable limits for method-performance studies ( or = 98% and > or = 99% respectively. The RSDr (repeatability relative standard deviation) values ranged from 0.4 to 1.3%, and the RSDR (reproducibility relative standard deviation) values were from 0.8 to 1.9%. HORRAT (RSDR/predicted RSDR) for the reproducibility showed 0.2 to 0.4, indicating acceptable precision of the method and excellent analytical performance.

  18. Rapid pretreatment and detection of trace aflatoxin B1 in traditional soybean sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Lai, WeiHua; Saini, Jasdeep; Shan, Shan; Cui, Xi; Liu, DaoFeng

    2014-05-01

    Soybean sauce, a traditional fermented food in China, has different levels of aflatoxin B1 pollution. Two kinds of direct and indirect immunomagnetic bead methods for the pretreatment of aflatoxin B1 were evaluated in this work. A method was established to detect aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce using an immunomagnetic bead system for pretreatment and ELISA for quantification. The pretreatment method of immunomagnetic beads performed better compared with the conventional extraction and immunoaffinity column method. ELISA exhibited a good linear relationship at an aflatoxin B1 concentration of 0.05-0.3μg/kg (r(2)=0.9842). The average recoveries across spike levels varied from 0.5 to 7μg/kg were 83.6-104% with a relative standard deviation between 4.2% and 11.7%. With the advantages of rapid detection, easy operation, simple equipment, sensitivity, accuracy, and high recovery; this method can be well applied in the trace determination of aflatoxin B1 in soybean sauce samples. PMID:24360425

  19. Preliminary study on Y-shaped exclusion device for juvenile fish in Chinese stow net%Y型幼鱼释放装置在张网渔具中的应用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 王忠秋; 张新峰; 金宇锋

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,the issue of large proportion of juvenile fish in total catch in Chinese stow net fisheries has caught great concerns and the voices for improving the catch efficiency of stow nets are increasingly rising. The traditional measures, including enlarging the mesh size, have been proved inappropriate in some cases.In this paper,to analyze the feasibility of rigid grids in releasing the juvenile fish in offshore stow net fisheries,a novel exclusion device was designed and developed for releasing juvenile fish. The device was made of 3 hinged frames,including 2 upper frames for filtering and releasing the juvenile fish catch and 1 lower frame for guiding the marketable size fish catch to swim through the device and ultimately to enter the cod-end,and it was shaped like the letter "Y".The juvenile fish release efficiency of the device was assessed in the sea trial experiments carried out in the East China Sea offshore canvas stow net,in the winter of 2014,by comparing the catch weights between experimental stow net with the Y-shaped releasing device and the control net.Results showed that the juvenile fish exclusion device,made of stainless steel, with 2mm bar space and 60 degree angle between 2 upper frames,which was installed in the extension part and extended the net panel with a 0.33 hanging ratio of the stow net,released 90% of juvenile fish while retained most of marketable size fish catch (94.6%).Based on the results,the author concluded that the device achieved good effects in juvenile fish release.The angles between different frames of the releasing device could be adjusted to accommodate nets of different sizes,different installing locations or different net panel extension requirements,improving the applicability of the device.Additionally,the function of the device could be expanded by simple restructuring.In our opinion,the design of this device can provide a reference for future study on juvenile fish release in filter fishing gears

  20. Analysis of the correlation between dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces by using metabolomics-based component profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Shiga, Kazuki; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Uchida, Riichiro; Obata, Akio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-07-01

    Characterizing the relationships between the components and taste differences among soy sauces can help evaluate and improve the quality of soy sauces. Although previous studies have reported that certain taste-active dipeptides, the relationships between taste differences and dipeptides of soy sauces are unknown. Therefore, our objective in this study was to investigate the correlations between the dipeptides and the taste differences among soy sauces. To analyze the dipeptides, we constructed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Based on this method, we detected 237 dipeptides, the largest number ever detected in soy sauce research. Next, orthogonal projections to latent structures regressions were performed. The data matrix of components, including dipeptides and other low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components obtained from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), served as explanatory variables (366 in total), whereas a sensory data matrix obtained using quantitative descriptive analysis served as the response variable. The accuracy of models for the sweetness and saltiness differences constructed using the LC/MS/MS and GC/MS data matrix were higher than did models constructed using only the GC/MS data matrix. As a result of investigation of the correlation between the dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces by using variable importance in the projection (VIP) score, many dipeptides showed the high correlation with taste differences. Specifically, Ile-Gln, Pro-Lys, Ile-Glu, Thr-Phe, and Leu-Gln showed the high VIP score on sweet differences. This study is the first report that reveals the correlations between the dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces.

  1. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  2. Effect of electrodialysis desalination technology parameters on ratio of desalinization and quality of soy sauce%大豆酱油电渗析脱盐工艺参数对其脱盐率及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建友; 王芳; 周垚; 丁玉庭

    2016-01-01

    Soy sauce is a kind of nutritional condiment which contains various bioactive components. In the production of soy sauce, a lot of salt has been added in order to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. However, excessive intake of high salt food is harmful to our health, so the study of the desalination of soy sauce is very valuable. The technology of electrodialysis has applications in the areas of pollution controlling, resource recoverying and chemical processing. At present, no information is available about the effect of electrodialysis desalination (ED) on the changes of flavor compounds and amino acids of ED-treated soy sauce. In this paper, a traditional Chinese soy sauce containing 16 g/100 mL sodium chloride was desalted by laboratory-scale electrodialyser equipped with a stack composed of eight cation and seven anion-exchange membranes, and the impact of operating voltage, flow rate and pH value on desalination was evaluated. The optimal condition of electrodialysis was obtained through the single factor experiment. The result indicated that the salt content could be reduced by 81.6% at the voltage of 9 V, the flow rate of 2.4 cm/s, and the pH value of 4.2 with 19.4% amino acid nitrogen losing. The analysis of variance showed that pH value had a significant effect on the loss of amino acid nitrogen (P0.05). After electrodialysis, the changes of free amino acids and volatile flavor compounds were analyzed with amino acid automatic analyzer and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometer). The results showed that part of free amino acid and aroma of soy sauce lost. The influence of electrodialysis on the changes of free amino acids in soy sauce was determined under various pH value conditions (3.2, 3.7, 4.2, 4.7 and 5.2). Several kinds of bitter amino acids lost, and histidine, arginine and lysine lost by 23.79%, 26.39% and 28.5% respectively. As their isoelectric point was deviated from the solution pH value, they were positively charged in

  3. The type of fortificant and the leaf matrix both influence iron and zinc bioaccessibility in iron-fortified green leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icard-Vernière, C; Picq, C; Courbis, L; Mouquet-Rivier, C

    2016-02-01

    Leafy vegetable sauces from Burkina Faso were assessed as a potential vehicle for food fortification. First, iron and zinc bioaccessibility were measured by dialysability method in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces and in traditional whole dishes consisting of maize paste plus leafy vegetable sauces. Iron dialysability and solubility were higher in amaranth than in Jew's mallow sauce, pointing to a marked effect of the matrix. Iron dialysability was hardly affected by the maize paste contrary to zinc dialysability, which was reduced. Second, iron and zinc bioaccessibility was assessed in the same sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA or iron sulfate. Added iron, i.e. iron supplied by fortification, represented 60% of total iron at the low fortification level and 80% at high level. In amaranth sauces with the high level of fortification using NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate, fractional dialysable iron reached respectively 66% and 26% compared to only 8.1% in the unfortified sauce. Similarly, in Jew's mallow sauces, fractional dialysable iron was 57% and 5% respectively with NaFeEDTA and iron sulfate and less than 1% in the unfortified sauce. Concomitantly, fractional dialysable zinc increased by respectively 20% and 40% in amaranth and Jew's mallow sauces fortified with NaFeEDTA whereas it remained unchanged with iron sulfate. Iron fortification could be an efficient way to greatly increase the available iron content of green leafy vegetable sauces and for this purpose NaFeEDTA is more effective than iron sulfate whatever the food matrix. PMID:26787350

  4. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  5. Comparative Study of Quality Characteristics of Korean Soy Sauce Made with Soybeans Germinated Under Dark and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Dae Park

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL, whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS. The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FOULING DEPOSIT FORMATION DURING PASTEURIZATION OF CHILI SAUCE BY USING LAB-SCALE CONCENTRIC TUBE-PASTEURIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ATIKA ALI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of fouling deposits obtained from chilli sauce pasteurization. A lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer was used to pasteurize the chilli sauce at 0.712 kg/min and 90±5°C. It was operated for 3 hours. Temperature changes were recorded during pasteurization and the data was used to plot the heat transfer profile and the fouling resistance profile. The thickness of the fouling deposit was also measured and the image was taken for every hour. The fouling deposit was collected at every hour to test its stickiness, hardness and flow behaviour. Proximate analysis was also performed and it shows that the fouling deposit from the chilli sauce is categorized as carbohydrate-based fouling deposits. Activation energy of chilli sauce is 7049.4 J.mole-1 which shows a greater effect of temperature on the viscosity. The hardness, stickiness of fouling deposit and the heat resistance increases as the chilli sauce continuously flows inside the heat exchanger.

  7. Prevalencia y carga parasitaria de helmintos gastrointestinales en gallinas de traspatio (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), en el municipio de El Sauce, departamento de León, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, L. Luna; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Rimbaud, E.;

    2006-01-01

    Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua......Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua...

  8. 三角试验法在酱油差异分析中的应用%Application of Triangle Test in Difference Analysis of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 周伟; 胡凯

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,triangle test method is adopted to do the difference analysis of soy sauce.The result shows that there are significant differences between two soy sauces;there's no significant differ-ence on the degree of preference of two soy sauces.This method could analyze differences between soy sauces and be suitable for sensory difference analysis of soy sauce.%采用三角试验法对酱油进行了感官差异分析,结果表明:酱油之间有显著差异,对酱油的喜好程度无显著差异,三角试验法能分析出酱油样品之间的差异,适合于酱油的感官差异分析。

  9. The similarities and differences of the new and theformer standards of soy sauce%简析酱油新老标准之异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管有根; 翁本德

    2001-01-01

    对比酱油新老标准,新标准包括一个酿造酱油标准和一个配制酱油标准,增加了对原辅料、铵盐、标签等内容的强制性条款,新标准科学、合理,易于宣传贯彻执行。%The new and the former standards of soy sauce were compared in this paper.The new standard of soy sauce includes a nation standard of fermented soy sauce and a trade standard of blended soy sauce.With compulsory items about such as raw materials,amino salt and label,The new standard of soy sauce is scientific,reasonable and easy to handle.

  10. Manufacture of An Aquatic Product Condiment for Crucian Sauce%水产调味品鲫鱼汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝教敏; 姚玉莲

    2011-01-01

    The people desire to improve food quality along with living standard improving. The condiment plays an important role in the food quality. The crucian was used as raw material to study the optimum process of the aquatic product condiment. By the orthogonal test and sensory evaluation, the best technical prescription was achieved: xanthan gum 15% , crucian sauce 30%, salt 15%, sugar 5%, MSG 5%, IMP 0- 25% , lutein 0. 03%, fish flavor 0. 03%, potassium sorbate 0. 05% and homogeneous pressure 35 Mpa. The crucian sauce fitted the people demand with well-distributed, fine-smooth, remarkable fish flavor, color yellow and smell fragrant, so it had a wide market perspective.%随着人们生活水平的提高,对食品质量的要求也在不断的提高,调味品在食品质量中扮演着非常重要的角色.本实验以普通养殖鲫鱼为主要原料,研究水产调味品鲫鱼汁的最佳工艺.通过正交试验和感官评价,最终得到水产调味鲫鱼汁的最佳配方:黄原胶0.04%,鲫鱼汁30%,盐15%,糖5%,谷氨酸钠5%,5’-肌苷酸0.25%,叶黄素0.03%,鱼味香精0.03%,山梨酸钾0.05%,均质压力35 MPa.水产调味品鲫鱼汁质地均匀,口感细腻,鱼鲜风味突出,色泽淡黄,气味芬芳,符合人们对于风味和营养的需求,具有广阔的市场前景.

  11. Analysis and comparison of flavor compounds between soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce%剁椒坯盐水酱油与普通酱油香气特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明浩; 胡璇; 夏延斌

    2011-01-01

    Flavor compounds of soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce were identified and analyzed hy Solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) combined with Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) in this paper. The result showed that 84 flavor compounds were identified including 12 alcohols, 12 esters, 15 acids, 15 aldehydes ketones, 17 heterocyelic, 5 phenolic, 3 hydrocarbons, 1 ether, 2 N-containing compounds and 2 S-containing compounds. Soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice had 15 more flavor components than normal soy sauce and Both have 30 same flavor components. Therefore, soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice have better flavors than normal soy sauce.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用(SPME- GC- MS)方法,对剁椒坯盐水酱油和普通酱油的香气成分进行分析和鉴定.共鉴定出84种风味化合物,其中包括醇类物质12种,酯类物质12种,酸类物质15种,醛酮类物质15种,杂环类物质17种,酚类物质5种,烃类物质3种,醚类物质1种,含N化合物2种,含S化合物2种.其中剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油的香气物质多15种,两种酱油的共有香气成分有30种,说明剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油风味更优.

  12. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  13. 酿造酱油与配制酱油的区别研究进展%Research Progress of the Differences between Natural Fermented Soy Sauce and Blended Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亭; 薛文通

    2014-01-01

    Use color,odor,viscosity,precipitates as sensory indexes,and use amino acid nitrogen, aroma components,chloropropanol and levulinic acid as chemical indexes,summarize the differences between natural fermented soy sauce and blended soy sauce.%以色泽、气味、粘度、有无沉淀物作为感官指标,以氨基酸态氮、香气成分、氯丙醇和乙酰丙酸作为化学指标,对有关酿造酱油和配制酱油的区别进行了总结。

  14. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P soy sauce production. PMID:27541157

  15. Microbiological safety of mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces produced in the United States: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, R B

    2000-08-01

    The literature on the death and survival of foodborne pathogens in commercial mayonnaise, dressing, and sauces was reviewed and statistically analyzed with emphasis on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The absence of reports of foodborne illness associated directly with the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and sauces is evidence of their safety. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica die when inoculated into mayonnaise and dressings. Historically, mayonnaise and dressings have been exempt from the acidified food regulations and have justly deserved this status due primarily to the toxic effect of acetic and to a lesser extent lactic and citric acids. These organic acids are inimical to pathogenic bacteria and are effective natural preservatives with acetic being the most effective in killing pathogenic bacteria at the pH values encountered in these products. Statistical analysis on data reported in the literature shows that the most important and significant factor in destroying pathogenic bacteria is pH as adjusted with acetic acid followed by the concentration of acetic acid in the water phase. The reported highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces is 4.4, which is below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for foodborne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The overall conclusion is that these products are very safe. They should remain exempt from the acidified food regulations providing adequate research has been done to validate their safety, and the predominant acid is acetic and reasonable manufacturing precautions are taken.

  16. Determination of the Scoville Heat Value for Hot Sauces and Chilies: An HPLC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2000-02-01

    A laboratory experiment for a junior- or senior-level college instrumental analysis course has been designed and tested. The student will isolate the capsainoids from commercial food products (chilies and sauces) using a simple extraction technique. The identity and concentration of the capsainoids are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations are then used to determine the pungency (Scoville heat value) of the foods. Taste tests can be used to verify the relative pungency of the products. The experiment is designed to be completed in less than four hours. A letter from Paul Vorndam in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  17. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  18. Effect of high-dose irradiation and autoclave treatment on microbial safety and quality of ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, commercialized sauce for ready-to-eat (RTE) Bulgogi is usually manufactured using heat treatment to ensure that it has a long shelf-life. However, heat treatment may adversely affect the taste and flavor of the sauce, thus, the development of suitable sterilizing methods for RTE sauces is necessary to preserve the quality of the sauce during long storage periods. In this study, total bacterial growth, the viscosity, and the sensory properties of Bulgogi sauce were compared between sterilization with gamma irradiation (0–40 kGy) and autoclave treatment during storage at 35 °C for 90 days. No bacterial growth was observed following irradiation at more than 10 kGy or after autoclave treatment. However, the viscosity and sensory properties of samples gamma-irradiated at above 10 kGy or autoclave-treated were significantly changed, even though autoclave treatment induced a burnt taste and flavor. Therefore, a gamma irradiation of 10 kGy was effective to prepare ready-to-eat Bulgogi sauce with microbial safety and original sensory qualities. - Highlights: ► No bacterial growth in gamma-irradiated Bulgogi sauce ≥10 kGy or autoclaved sample was observed. ► Viscosity of irradiated sample at 40 kGy was similar to that of autoclaved sample. ► Sensory properties of irradiated sample >10 kGy or autoclaved sample deteriorated.

  19. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  20. The Development of Flavor Dog Sauce%风味狗酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东波

    2014-01-01

    研究以野苏叶、干红辣椒、狗肉为主要原料,研制开发一种风味狗酱制品。通过正交试验确定最佳工艺配方是狗肉用量为6%,野苏子叶粉用量为15%,干红辣椒用量为20%,豆瓣酱用量为8%。此产品具有野苏子、狗肉特异的香味,营养丰富,是集营养美味于一身的调味酱。%In this paper,Pedicularis grandiflora,red chilli,dog meat are as main raw materials to de-velop a kind of flavor dog sauce product .The orthogonal design is adopted to research the optimized formula.The result shows that the optimized formula is dog meat 6%,Pedicularis grandiflora 1 5%, red chilli 20%,bean sauce 8%.This product has unique fragrance of Pedicularis grandiflora and dog meat,rich nutrition,is a kind of condiment with nutrition and delicacy.

  1. The Development of Flavor Dog Sauce%风味狗酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东波

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,Pedicularis grandiflora,red chilli,dog meat are as main raw materials to de-velop a kind of flavor dog sauce product .The orthogonal design is adopted to research the optimized formula.The result shows that the optimized formula is dog meat 6%,Pedicularis grandiflora 1 5%, red chilli 20%,bean sauce 8%.This product has unique fragrance of Pedicularis grandiflora and dog meat,rich nutrition,is a kind of condiment with nutrition and delicacy.%研究以野苏叶、干红辣椒、狗肉为主要原料,研制开发一种风味狗酱制品。通过正交试验确定最佳工艺配方是狗肉用量为6%,野苏子叶粉用量为15%,干红辣椒用量为20%,豆瓣酱用量为8%。此产品具有野苏子、狗肉特异的香味,营养丰富,是集营养美味于一身的调味酱。

  2. Sequence, taste and umami-enhancing effect of the peptides separated from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lin, Lianzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Dong, Yi; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Chen, Huiping; Qiu, Chaoying; Su, Guowan

    2016-09-01

    Five tasty peptides were separated from soy sauce, by sensory-guided fractionation, using macroporous resin, medium-pressure liquid chromatography and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry as ALPEEV, LPEEV, AQALQAQA, EQQQQ and EAGIQ (which originated from glycinin A1bB2-445, glycinin A1bB2-445, cobyric acid synthase, leucine-tRNA ligase and glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, respectively). LPEEV, AQALQAQA and EQQQQ tasted umami with threshold values of 0.43, 1.25 and 0.76mmol/l, respectively. ALPEEV and EAGIQ had minimal umami taste, but ALPEEV, EAGIQ and LPEEV showed umami-enhancement with a threshold estimated at 1.52, 1.94 and 3.41mmol/l, respectively. In addition, the synthetic peptides showed much better sensory taste than mixtures of their constitutive amino acids. It indicated that peptides might play an important role in the umami taste of soy sauce. PMID:27041313

  3. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  4. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  5. 酵母抽提物在方便面调味酱料中的应用%Application of yeast extract in production of instant noodle sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 李沛; 唐冠群

    2013-01-01

    The development trend of instant noodle sauce seasoning was summarized.The application characteristics of yeast extract in instant noodle sauces were analyzed.Ultimately,yeast extract has a significant role to enhance the flavor of instant noodle sauce seasoning.%对方便面酱包调味发展趋势进行了概述;并对酵母抽提物在调味酱料中的应用特点进行了分析,说明酵母抽提物具有提升方便面调味酱料风味的作用.

  6. Diversity of Aspergillus oryzae genotypes (RFLP) isolated from traditional soy sauce production within Malaysia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 64 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and one strain of A. sojae isolated from soysauce factories within Malaysia and Southeast Asia that use primitive traditional methods in producing 'tamari type' Cantonese soy sauce. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each isol...

  7. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some senso

  8. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability fa

  9. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v). PMID:26661512

  10. Monitoring of the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional seasoning produced through the fermentation of soybeans and wheat using microbes. In this study, the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process were analyzed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The bacterial DGGE profile indicated that the bacterial microbes in the koji were Weissella cibaria (Weissella confusa, Weissella kimchii, Weissella salipiscis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus iners, or Streptococcus thermophilus), Staphylococcus gallinarum (or Staphylococcus xylosus), and Staphylococcus kloosii. In addition to these bacteria, Tetragenococcus halophilus was also detected in the mash during lactic acid fermentation. The fungal DGGE profile indicated that the fungal microbes in the koji were not only Aspergillus oryzae but also several yeasts. In the mash, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii appeared in the early fermentation stage, Candida etchellsii (or Candida nodaensis) and Candida versatilis were detected at the middle fermentation stage, and Candida etchellsii was detected at the mature fermentation stage. These results suggest that the microbial communities present during the soy sauce manufacturing process change drastically throughout its production. This is the first report to reveal the microbial communities involved in the soy sauce manufacturing process using a culture-independent method. PMID:22475947

  11. Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety.

  12. The Research of Evolution to the Sauce Production Technology%酱类生产技术演变考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗舟; 巩晓芳

    2011-01-01

    The sauce is one of our seven things, Originated in the China's Zhou Dynasty. From the pre-Qin "minced meat" to the current sauce, from marinated meat to the present fermentation of pure bacteria, from the natural vaccination to compound fermentation, this evolution shows a variety of sauce is a common result of microbial together and biochemical processes are clear but the composition of sauce is ambiguous. Today, we should use more modem technology means to select micro-organisms, tc study the compatibility of micro-organisms, many bacteria participate, many strains compound fermentation,, to improve production while maintaining the classic flavor of sauce, rich ingredients of the product. Focus on the sauce need of conditions ot modem life to make the sauce good development.%酱类是我们开门七件事之一,源于我国周朝。从先秦的“醢”到现在的酱,从腌制肉类到现在的纯种发酵,从天然接种到复合菌共酵,这种演变说明酱类是多种微生物共同作用的结果,生化过程是明晰的,但酱类的成分是模糊的。今天我们应该利用现代科技手段选育更为优良的微生物,研究微生物的配伍,多菌参与,多菌共酵,在提高产量的同时,保持酱类的古典风味,丰富产品的成分内涵。产品开发上应注重现代条件下生活的人们对酱类的需求,才能使酱类产品得到真正的发展。

  13. 油焖大虾酱的保藏研究%Research on the Preservation of Braised Prawns Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘东潮; 曾习

    2016-01-01

    油焖大虾为湖北名菜,调味是其烹制的难点,使用油焖大虾酱能使烹制油焖大虾变得简单。油焖大虾酱在制作过程中易被微生物侵染,在贮藏过程中又易氧化变质,因此以一种自制的油焖大虾酱为研究对象,研究了山梨酸钾的防腐抑菌作用及单一抗氧化剂和复配抗氧化剂对油焖大虾酱的抗氧化效果,得出油焖大虾酱最佳保藏条件:山梨酸钾添加量0.03%,BHA 添加量0.05%,TBHQ添加量0.15%,柠檬酸添加量0.05%。%Braised prawns is one of the famous dishes in Hubei.Flavoring is a difficulty during cooking,while using braised prawns sauce will make it simpler.This kind of sauce is easy to be infected by microorganism during the production process,and is easy to go bad due to oxidation in the storing as well.So braised prawns sauce is taken as the research object ,and the study on antisepsis and bacteriostasis effect of potassium sorbate as well as antioxidative effect between individual antioxidant and compound antioxidants on braised prawns sauce is summarized,it is obtained that the optimum storing conditions of braised prawns sauce are:potassium sorbate of 0.3%,BHA of 0.05%, TBHQ of 0.15%,citric acid of 0.05%.

  14. On the Translation of Hybridity in the Chinese Version of Saving Fish from Drowning in the Light of Bakhtin’s Theory of Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-yan; WANG Ji-ping

    2015-01-01

    In translation, hybridity often poses a big challenge to the translator, especially when the hybrid text is a novel. The au⁃thor of this paper hopes to contribute to the study of the translation of hybridity in English novels by drawing on Bakhtin ’s theory of dialogue. By analyzing the translation of linguistic hybridity in Saving Fish from Drowning, the author of this paper finds that the translation by Caiju is not good enough and tries to provide a new direction by virtue of which translators can choose right transla⁃tion strategies.

  15. Scripted Reading Programs: Fishing for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Owens, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve the…

  16. A Study on 36 Examples of the Reptile, Fish and Invertebrate Names in the Ancient Chinese Language%古代虫鱼爬行动物名所指考36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。

  17. Research progress in the comprehensive utilization of soy sauce residue%酱油渣的再利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩欣; 程永强; 纪凤娣; 韭泽悟; 辰巳英三; 鲁绯

    2013-01-01

    Soy sauce residue is the by-product in the process of soy sauce production.The current situation of comprehensive utilization of soy sauce residue was summarized in this paper,such as its use for feed,fertilizer,or extraction of functional components like dietary fiber,grease and soybean isoflavone.This could be a reference for better use of soy sauce residue in the future.%酱油渣是酱油生产过程中产生的废弃物.本文对酱油渣的综合利用现状做了简要的概括,如将其用作饲料、肥料,或从中提取膳食纤维、油脂、大豆异丙酮等功能性成分,为今后更好地利用酱油渣提供参考.

  18. Study on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Hongkong Braised Beef with Soy Sauce%香港酱牛肉挥发性风味化合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧明伍; 王宇; 韩凯; 乔晓玲

    2009-01-01

    采用顶空固相微革取气相色谱-质谱法(HS-SPME-GC-MS)法,分析检测了香港酱牛肉的挥发性风味成分,共鉴定出78种风味化合物,包括醛类(15种)、酮类(4种)、烃类(17种),酯类(10种),醚类(2种),醇类(12种)以及含氮含硫及杂环化合物(18种).所鉴定的化合物主要是脂肪氧化降解产物和香辛料挥发成分,醛类物质、萜烯类物质、醚类物质、含氮含硫及杂环化合物可能是构成香港酱牛肉的重要挥发性物质.%Volatile flavor compounds of traditional Chinese Hongkong braised beef with soy sauce were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction(HS-SPME)combined with GC-MS.Results indicated that total 78 volatile flavor compounds were identified including aldehydes(15 kinds),ketones(4 kinds),hydrocarbons(17 kinds),esters(10 kinds),ethers(2 kinds),alcohols(12 kinds),nitrogenous compounds,sulfurated compounds and heterocyclic compounds(18 kinds).The major volatiles identified were degradation products of fatty acids and volatile compounds from spice. Results showed that the important flavor compounds contributed to Hongkong braised beef with soy sauce were possibly some aldehydes,terpenes,ethers,nitrogenous compounds,sulfurated compoundsand heterocyclic compounds.

  19. 酱中挥发性风味物质的研究进展%Review on analysis of volatile flavour components in sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗志伟; 官伟; 刘玉平

    2012-01-01

    Sauce was a kind of important condiment in daily life, and its flavor was one of the important indexes which could impact the quality of sauce.Volatile fiavour compounds Of sauce were widely investigated in recent years. Extraction and identification methods of volatile flavour substances from sauce, main fiavour compounds and main factors influencing aromatic substances in sauce were summarized. What's more, some suggestions about the research of sauce flavor were put forward.%酱是日常生活中重要的调味品,风味是影响酱品质的重要指标之一。近年来对酱中挥发性风味成分的研究发展迅速,从提取、分离、鉴定、主要特征香气成分及其影响因素等方面对酱的挥发性风味物质进行综述,并对今后酱中挥发性风味成分的深入研究提出了一些建议。

  20. Metabolite profiling of soy sauce using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of correlation with quantitative descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Sano, Atsushi; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Obata, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauces, produced from different ingredients and brewing processes, have variations in components and quality. Therefore, it is extremely important to comprehend the relationship between components and the sensory attributes of soy sauces. The current study sought to perform metabolite profiling in order to devise a method of assessing the attributes of soy sauces. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) data for 24 soy sauce samples were obtained from well selected sensory panelists. Metabolite profiles primarily concerning low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components were based on gas chromatography with time-of-flightmass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). QDA data for soy sauces were accurately predicted by projection to latent structure (PLS), with metabolite profiles serving as explanatory variables and QDA data set serving as a response variable. Moreover, analysis of correlation between matrices of metabolite profiles and QDA data indicated contributing compounds that were highly correlated with QDA data. Especially, it was indicated that sugars are important components of the tastes of soy sauces. This new approach which combines metabolite profiling with QDA is applicable to analysis of sensory attributes of food as a result of the complex interaction between its components. This approach is effective to search important compounds that contribute to the attributes.

  1. The application of active dry yeast in soy sauce brewing%活性干酵母在酱油中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷锦成; 李志军; 周俊; 戴浩林

    2012-01-01

    The components which produced by yeast play a very important part in the flavor of soy sauce and other sauces. The key sensory index, such as ethanol and esters contents, have increased significantly with adding soy sauce active dry yeast in the production of soy sauce, and the quality of soy sauce improved significantly. The use and storage of soy sauce active dry yeast are very convenient.%酵母菌在酱油及酱类生产中能产生特殊的香味,是酱香的重要来源;在酱油生产中添加酱油活性干酵母,能使酱油中的乙醇和总酯的含量等指标明显提高,酱油品质显著改善;酱油活性干酵母作为一种活性干菌体使用、存储也非常方便.

  2. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  3. 提高酱醪质量生产高档本酿造酱油%Improving the quality of soy sauce mash to make high natural brew soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈龙青; 吴洁

    2001-01-01

    本文通过改变和调整高盐稀发酵酱油工艺的发酵条件、管理方法、生产菌种以及拌曲盐水量、浓度等达到提高酱醪质量及生酱油出品率的目的,从而生产出高档本酿造酱油。%Improving the quality of moromi and the ratio of raw sauce output by the way of change the brew condition、the way of administration、strains of production,the quantity and the concentration of the koji making mixture salt water in the process of high salt diluted state fermentation to make high natural brew soy sauce.

  4. The analysis of the chroma of soy sauce%酱油色度分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之琳

    2001-01-01

    The colourity of soy sauce can show technology condition and product quality during production course.According to our country situation and refer to overseas color grader,this paper choose standard color grader which is aisposed with five kinds of colour material and similar to sauce color to compare color byeyes.This methed is simple,fast and accurate.%酱油的色度可显示产品的生产过程中工艺条件和产品质量。本文根据我国国情参考国外色阶板,选用由五种色料配置的与酱油色近似的标准色阶进行目视比色,方法简单、快速、准确。

  5. Estratigrafía, facies y evolución depositacional de la Formación Sauce Grande (Carbonífero Superior: Cuenca Sauce Grande, Sierras Australes, Buenos Aires, Argentina Stratigraphy, facies and depositional evolution of the Sauce Grande Formation (Upper Carboniferous: Sauce Grande Basin, Sierras Australes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Andreis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encara el examen detallado de las litofacies y su composición, así como el análisis de los procesos depositacionales que condujeron a la acumulación de materiales siliciclásticos de la Formación Sauce Grande y que representa la primera sedimentación acontecida en la cuenca Sauce Grande. Fueron analizados dos perfiles estratigráficos de la unidad: el perfil Norte (con 826 m y el perfil Sur (con 1095 m. La unidad está compuesta por importantes volúmenes de diamictitas [Dmm1, Dmm2, Dmg, Dms, Dms(r], así como de areniscas (Sma, Smw, Sh, Sr, Sp, pelitas (Fm, Fl, Fd y escasos conglomerados (Dcm, Dcg. También fue analizada la ciclicidad de las sucesiones, reconociéndose tres megaciclos (inferior, medio y superior con sus respectivas asociaciones litofaciales. El megaciclo inferior permite visualizar el paleorrelieve devónico (Formación Lolén y está constituido por abundantes diamictitas, areniscas y escasos conglomerados. El megaciclo medio contiene areniscas y conglomerados y en el megaciclo superior se advierte una disminución en la participación de diamictitas con una mayor frecuencia de cadilitos (guijarro a bloque, sustituida por areniscas y pelitas (en el perfil Norte. En los megaciclos inferior y superior las facies Dmm1, Dmm2 y Dms(r, con espesores decamétricos y extensiones de centenares de metros son los miembros más conspicuos y corresponden a deslizamientos de masas semiconsolidadas o fluidas (flujos de detritos cohesivos generados en pendientes fuertes proximales. Es probable que en el megaciclo superior las diamictitas sean del tipo rain out. La facies Dms(rincluye cuerpos arenosos contorsionados y/u orientados y frecuentes intraclastos pelíticos. Las facies conglomerádicas son flujos no cohesivos dejados atrás por flujos hiperconcentrados o como flujos de granos modificados en su densidad. Las areniscas Sma habrían sido depositadas por procesos suspensivos densos y escasamente compactados, mientras que las

  6. Optimisation and validation of analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants: application to the analysis of tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Labrador, Agustín; Domínguez, Alba; Peiró, Lluís

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, simultaneous extraction of natural antioxidants (phenols and carotenoids) in complex matrices, such as tomato sauces, is presented. The tomato sauce antioxidant compounds studied were the phenolics hydroxytyrosol, from virgin olive oil, quercetin and its derivatives, from onions, and quercetin-rutinoside as well as the carotenoid, lycopene (cis and trans), from tomatoes. These antioxidant compounds were extracted simultaneously with n-hexane/acetone/ethanol (50/25/25, v/v/v). The phenolics were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and lycopene (cis- and trans-forms) was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After studying the parameters of these methods, they were applied to the analysis of virgin olive oil, fresh onion, tomato concentrate and tomato powder, and commercial five tomato sauces. Subsequently, the results obtained in our laboratory were compared with those from the Gallina Blanca Star Group laboratory.

  7. Quality evaluation of Antarctic krill sauce%南极磷虾海鲜酱油的品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕传萍; 李学英; 杨宪时; 郭全友

    2012-01-01

    When Antarctic krill was hydrolyzed by Alcalase,the enzymolysis liquid was used as raw materials to develop a new kind of sauce. After fluorine reduction,burdening,sterilization and packaging,Antarctic krill sauce was done. Total nitrogen content of Antarctic krill sauce was (20.93±0.23)mg/L,aminophenol content was (12.32±0.27)mg/L,that were both more than criterion of special grade sauce in GB18186-2000. The content of soluble solids without salt was 22.09%±0.52%,which is more than some other kinds of sauce. In Antarctic krill sauce,sodium chloride content,total acid,lead content and arsenic content were separately 15.27%±0.26%, (0.61±0.05)g/100mL, (0.92±0.42)mg/L and (0.38±0.01)mg/L,they were all less than the limits of sauce health standard in GB2717-2003. Selenium content in this sauce was (1.31±0.04)mg/L,and taurine content was 139.30 mg/100mL,which gave new fuctions to Antarctic krill sauce. There were no microbiological risks when Antarctic krill sauce was stored,it tasted delicious and palatable by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Eighteen kinds of amino acid were found in Antarctic krill sauce,essential amino acid and flavor amino acid were all in high contents, branch/aromatic value of amino acid was also in a high level,which were coincide with ideal protein mode recommended by FAO/WHO. Consequently,Antarctic krill sauce was high nutritional,flavorous and rich in functional activities%以Alcalase酶水解南极磷虾制得的酶解液为原料,经降氟,调配,灭菌,包装后制成南极磷虾酱油。该酱油总氮含量为(20.93±0.23)mg/L,氨基酸态氮含量为(12.32±0.27)mg/L,含量均高于GB18186-2000中特级酱油的标准。可溶性无盐固形物含量较高,为22.09%±0.52%。氯化钠、总酸、铅和砷含量分别为15.27%±0.26%、(0.61±0.05)g/100mL、(0.92±0.42)mg/L和(0.38±0.01)mg/L,均低于GB2717-2003酱油卫生标准中的限量。该酱油中硒含量为(1

  8. Analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Ramírez-Maya, Erika; Alvarado-Suárez, Luís Angel

    2009-04-01

    A simple method for the analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. A novel device was designed for direct extraction solid phase microextraction in order to avoid damage to the fiber. The analysis was performed without derivatization for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Selection fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time and pH, were optimized. The method was linear in the range 0.109-1.323 microg/mL for capsaicin and 0.107-1.713 microg/mL for dihydrocapsaicin with correlation coefficient up to r=0.9970 for both capsaicinoids. The precision of the method was less than 10%. The method was applied to the analysis of 11 varieties of peppers and four pepper sauces. A broad range of capsaicin (55.0-25 459 microg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (93-1 130 microg/g) was found in the pepper and pepper sauces samples (4.3-717.3 and 1.0-134.8 microg/g), respectively.

  9. 响应面法优化扇贝沙司加工工艺研究%Optimization of Scallop Sauce by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡珊珊; 王颉; 孙剑锋

    2012-01-01

    With scallop miso sauce as the main material, the preparation of scallop sauce was researched. The best seasoning ratio was: scallop miso sauce 30%, sugar 14%, monosodium glutamate 1%, white vinegar 5%, spice sauce 30%. Under these conditions, the sensory score of the product was 9.6±0.45. Optimization model of scallop sauce was established and the validation test results showed that the prediction accuracy rate was 94.33%. The product was got with oil lubrication bright, reddish—brown color, rich flavor with sauce, highlight flavor with seafood, harmony flavor of salty and fresh. The trial process can guarantee the quality of scallop sauce with the scale—up potential.%以扇贝豆酱淋汁为主要原料,研究扇贝沙司的加工工艺.最佳配比为:扇贝豆酱淋汁30%,砂糖14%,味精1%,白醋4%,香辛料汁30%,在此条件下扇贝沙司感官评分为9.6±0.45.建立了扇贝沙司单因素与感官评分的模型,利用响应面法对加工工艺进行优化并得到优化模型,验证试验表明该模型的预测准确率达94.33%.在此条件下得到的产品油润光亮,色泽红褐色,酱香味浓郁,海鲜味突出,口味和谐适中,咸鲜香味兼备.本试验的加工工艺能保证扇贝沙司的品质,具有中试放大的潜力.

  10. Pumpkin Sauce Development%南瓜果酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政; 葛佩富; 王丽威; 聂简琪; 张凤霞; 徐英帅

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin is not only with nutritious,but also low-fat,low sodium,high dietary fiber.Pumpkin jam made for the unique flavor of raw materials,rich in nutritional value.In order to manufacture the unique flavor of low sugar pumpkin jam,the pumpkin jam making process parameters were optimized.The result showed that using 500 g pure water per 100 g raw pumpkin at 130℃ pre-cook for 5 minutes,adding 12 g sugar,5 g xylitol,0.3 g citric acid,following 0.3 g sodium alginate at 110℃ boiling till 25% solids content of such products could make the best pumpkin sauce.The pumpkin sauce has a unique taste and reaches the corresponding national standards.So it will have a good market prospects.%南瓜不仅营养丰富,而且是低脂、低钠和高膳食纤维食品。以南瓜为原料制作的果酱风味独特,营养价值丰富。为了制作风味独特的低糖南瓜果酱,对制作低糖南瓜果酱的工艺参数进行了优化。结果表明:每100g南瓜使用500g纯净水在130℃预煮5min,打浆后,加入12g蔗糖和5g木糖醇、0.3g柠檬酸、0.3g海藻酸钠,在110℃下熬煮达到固形物含量为25%时,可制得最佳的低糖南瓜果酱。产品口感独特,符合果酱的国家标准,具有良好的市场前景。

  11. 主成分分析在酱油质量评价中的运用%Application of principal component analysis in quality assessment of soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄毅; 锁然; 李娜

    2012-01-01

    以HPLC测定酱油中氨基酸的含量。采用主成分分析方法对酱油的质量进行评价。结果表明,酱油中含有18种氨基酸。采用主成分分析方法对酱油质量高低进行了排序。以此为消费者购买优质酱油提供参考,同时也可利于生产企业改良其产品的质量,从而提高竞争力。%Contents of amino acid in soy sauce were determined by high performance liquid chromatography method. The quality of soy sauce was evaluated by principal component analysis. The results showed that soy sauce contained 18 kinds of amino acids. The high and low quality of soy sauce was sorted by principal component analysis. It can provide a reference for consumers to buy high-quality soy sauce and improve the quality of enterprise products,so as to improve competitivenes

  12. Research Progress in Flavoring Substances of Naturally-fermented Soy Sauce%本酿造酱油香气物质的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓冲; 常煦; 刘广新

    2015-01-01

    介绍了本酿造酱油香气物质的分类和特点,强调了酱油香气的来源及形成机理,并重点介绍了耐盐性酵母在改善本酿造酱油香气方面的研究进展.最后指出当前我国本酿造酱油行业的现状,表明高盐稀态发酵工艺是今后生产高档酱油的主要发展方向.%In this paper, the classification and the characteristics of the flavoring substances of naturally-fermented soy sauce were introduced, the source and the formation mechanism of soy sauce aroma were elaborated, and the emphasis was on the research progress in the use of salt-tolerant yeast in improving soy sauce aroma. Finally, the present situations of naturally-fermented soy sauce in China was discussed and it was suggested that high-salt and diluted-state fermentation technology was the major development direction for the production of top-grade soy sauce in the future.

  13. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedin FR1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The Maillard reaction is complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small. Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Oils were oxidized at 110 oC and determined by the rancimat method and TBA value. The high molecular compounds (MW ≥100 kDa of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index 2.43. Characteristic UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and IR spectra indicated –OH...O groups of β-diketon or combinated C=R=R groups.

  14. 乳酸菌在原池浇淋发酵酱油中的应用%Appl ication of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermentation of Soy Sauce in Pond with Spraying-extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔治辉; 王来生

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are an important microorganism in soy sauce brewing,which play a vital role in the flavor formation of soy sauce.Add lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation of soy sauce in the pond with spraying-extraction not only can improve the production yield of soy sauce,but also can significantly improve the flavor of soy sauce.%乳酸菌是酱油酿造过程中的重要微生物,对酱油风味的形成起着至关重要的作用。在原池浇淋发酵酱油过程中添加乳酸菌,不仅能提高酱油出品率,而且能明显改善酱油风味。

  15. Texture Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  16. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  17. Extraction and Analysis Methods of Aroma Components in Soy Sauce%酱油中香气成分的提取和分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 罗秀华; 孙晶; 高丽华

    2014-01-01

    The aroma components in soy sauce are the important indexes of evaluating the quality of soy sauce. The separation,extraction and analysis methods of aroma components are reviewed,and research progress of separation and determination of aroma components in soy sauce are introduced in this paper.%酱油中的香气成分是评价酱油品质的重要指标。阐述了常用的香气成分的分离、提取、分析方法,并介绍了酱油中香气成分提取、鉴定的研究进展。

  18. Simple and sensitive analysis of histamine and tyramine in Japanese soy sauces and their intermediates using the stable isotope dilution HILIC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Kenichiro; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Chiemi; Kitagawa, Sachiyo; Min, Jun Zhe; Inoue, Koichi; Yamanaka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-07-01

    We established a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method to analyze the histamine and tyramine levels in Japanese soy sauce and its mash (called moromi) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Histamine and tyramine quantification was performed using their stable isotopes for electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The sample pretreatment process was a simple, one-step liquid-liquid extraction. HILIC separation was performed with a gradient elution of aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile. Because of validation tests, the linearity, the accuracies, and precisions were sufficient. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.09 and 0.29 ppm for histamine and 0.13 and 0.42 ppm for tyramine, respectively. We successfully applied this method to histamine and tyramine determination in four kinds of commercial Japanese soy sauces and also in moromi samples during soy sauce production.

  19. 酱油掺假检验方法研究进展%Research Progress of Methods for Detecting Adulteration of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昭竞; 李根容; 朱宏明; 赵博; 朱永红

    2014-01-01

    酱油掺假形式多种多样,掺假检验方法也各不相同,有的基于酱油特有的酿造组分如挥发性风味组分、有机酸、氨基酸等进行检验,有的通过检验酱油中掺入的非酿造组分如酸水解植物蛋白调味液等进行识别。虽然当前酱油掺假检验方法研究取得了一定进展,但其实际应用尚不理想,将多指标组合用于识别酱油掺假可能是未来酱油掺假检验的重要方向。%Soy sauce is adulterated in many forms and the methods for identifying the adulteration also vary.Some methods are based on the detection of specific brewing compounds e.g.volatile flavor compounds,organic acids,amino acids in soy sauce;some are based on the detection of added compo-nents e.g.acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings in soy sauce.Although some progress has been made in developing the methods for identifying adulterated soy sauce,the practical application of the methods are not very satisfactory.Use of multiple indicators for identifying soy sauce adulteration may represent an important research trend of soy sauce adulteration testing.

  20. Screening and identification of a strain for lobster sauce fermentation%一株细菌型豆豉发酵菌种的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小永; 陈伟; 程芳; 李靖

    2011-01-01

    从临沂细菌型豆豉中筛选出一株适于豆豉生产的高产蛋白酶菌种,并对此菌种进行鉴定。结果表明:采用酪蛋白平板初筛,制曲复筛,根据曲样蛋白酶酶活以及游离态含量共选出5株优良菌株用于豆豉的制作,由成品豆豉的理化指标和感官评定认为D2号菌种发酵的豆豉风味好,滋味鲜美。结合生理生化和16SrDNA序列分析初步鉴定D2号菌种为枯草芽孢杆菌,该菌株来源于豆豉,属于安全菌种,具有研究开发价值。%A bacteria producing high protease and suiting for fermenting lobster sauce from bacteria lobster sauce of Lin Yi was screened and identified.The result showed that five high-yield strains of protease were screened by casein plate and re-screened by starter making.According to the enzyme activity and free nitrogen's content of startor of lobster sauce,five superior strains were used to ferment lobster sauce respectively.According to the sensory tests,physical and chemical indexes of five products,the Lobster Sauce fermented by D2 strain had a good flavor and the product was very delicious.Combining physiological characters and the sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA,the strain D2 was preliminarily identified as Bacillus subtilis.The strain from lobster sauce was safe,therefore it was worth further studying and developing.

  1. 电子鼻在酱油气味识别中的应用%Application of Electronic Nose in Odor Recognition of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞慧红; 崔晓红; 刘平

    2016-01-01

    为了探索电子鼻对酱油识别的可行性,利用电子鼻并结合感官鉴评对5种不同品牌的酱油进行了分析。通过 PCA 分析,发现5种酱油之间气味存在一定的差别;通过 LDA 分析,发现电子鼻可以完全区分5种酱油的气味;通过 Loading 分析,发现2号传感器对第一主成分的贡献率最大。利用 PLS 分析法建立酱油感官评分的模型,发现模型可以很好地预测酱油的感官评分。综上所述,电子鼻可用于酱油气味的识别和分析。%In order to explore the feasibility of soy sauce,electronic nose and sensory evaluation are applied for the analysis of five different brands of soy sauce.By principal component analysis,it is found that there are some differences in the odor among the five kinds of soy sauce.By linear discrimination analysis,it is found that electronic nose can distinguish the odor of five kinds of soy sauce entirely.By loading analysis,it is found that the second sensor of electronic nose plays a main role in the first principal component.A model of sensory evaluation is established by the method of PLS,it is found that the model can predict the sensory evaluation of soy sauce well.In summary,the electronic nose can be used to identify and analyze the odor of soy sauce.

  2. Research Progress of Methods for Detecting Adulteration of Soy Sauce%酱油掺假检验方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昭竞; 李根容; 朱宏明; 赵博; 朱永红

    2014-01-01

    Soy sauce is adulterated in many forms and the methods for identifying the adulteration also vary.Some methods are based on the detection of specific brewing compounds e.g.volatile flavor compounds,organic acids,amino acids in soy sauce;some are based on the detection of added compo-nents e.g.acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings in soy sauce.Although some progress has been made in developing the methods for identifying adulterated soy sauce,the practical application of the methods are not very satisfactory.Use of multiple indicators for identifying soy sauce adulteration may represent an important research trend of soy sauce adulteration testing.%酱油掺假形式多种多样,掺假检验方法也各不相同,有的基于酱油特有的酿造组分如挥发性风味组分、有机酸、氨基酸等进行检验,有的通过检验酱油中掺入的非酿造组分如酸水解植物蛋白调味液等进行识别。虽然当前酱油掺假检验方法研究取得了一定进展,但其实际应用尚不理想,将多指标组合用于识别酱油掺假可能是未来酱油掺假检验的重要方向。

  3. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  4. HACCP在酿造酱油生产及品质控制中的应用%Application of HACCP in Soy Sauce Production and Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其钢; 古丽奴尔·吐拉西

    2016-01-01

    It is introduced HACCP management system the way of how to built on the soy sauce and the specific results of the implementation and using the meaning and necessity of soy sauce HACCP management system of quality control .%介绍HACCP管理体系在酿造酱油企业中建立HACCP的具体方法及实施结果,采用HACCP管理体系在酱油品质控制中的意义和必要性。

  5. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  6. Pennsylvanian and Cisuralian palynofloras from the Los Sauces area, La Rioja Province, Argentina: Chronological and paleoecological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquo, Mercedes di; Azcuy, Carlos L. [University/Organization, CONICET Institute CICyTTP, CICyTTP- CONICET Diamante - CP, Entre Rios (Argentina); Vergel, Maria del M. [INSUGEO-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    Three outcrops of the Libertad and Sauces Formations from the Los Sauces area La Rioja Province, western Argentina, yielded the nine palynoassemblages studied here. Two assemblage zones are defined on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution and ranges of seventy five species of palynomorphs (42 species of spores, 32 pollen taxa and one fungus). Only thirteen species are common to both assemblages and ten species are first records for the Paganzo Basin. Assemblage 1 from the Libertad Formation is dominated by trilete spores of Cristatisporites (lycophyte) and Punctatisporites (pteridophyte). Monosaccate pollen (Coniferales/Cordaitales) is frequently present. Pteridosperms, mostly represented by Cyclogranisporites, are especially abundant in one level together with scarce striate bisaccate pollen grains. Assemblage 2 of the Sauces Formation is dominated by trilete spores related to the Pteridophyta (e.g., Horriditriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites) and Sphenophyta. Monosaccate (Cordaitales/Coniferales) and taeniate and non-taeniate bisaccate pollen grains (Pteridospermales/Coniferales), are equally subordinated. Monosulcate pollen (Cycadophyta) and fungi (Portalites gondwanensis) are rare. Assemblage 1 is mainly Moscovian; assemblage 2 Asselian-Sakmarian. This interpretation is based on correlation of assemblage 1 to the DMb (Mid Pennsylvanian) and assemblage 2 to the FS (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Paganzo Basin (Argentina). The taxonomic composition of the Ahrensisporites cristatus-Crucisaccites monoletus (Mid-Late Pennsylvanian) and the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone (Asselian-Sakmarian) of the Vittatina costabilis (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Parana Basin (Brazil) support this correlation. The continental freshwater depositional setting of this part of the Paganzo Basin is supported by the dominance of terrestrial palynomorphs and phytoclasts, the presence of coal and carbonaceous shales, and the occurrence of plant megafossils

  7. Study on the Processing Technology of Lobster Mince Sauce%淡水小龙虾肉酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕艳红; 高海林; 王朝宇; 赵希荣; 赵立

    2012-01-01

    The seafood flavor sauce was prepared using lobster mince, peanut butter and fermented soya beans as the main raw material and adding pepper, salt, sugar, vinegar as the basic seasonings. Orthogonal test was employed to optimize the dosages of the ingredients and the processing conditions for lobster mince sauce. The best formula of the seasoning liquid contains salt 3% and pepper 1% with the ratio of the sugar to vinegar being of 5:3 (m/m),. And the optimal processing conditions for lobster mince sauce preparation were as follows: lobster mince 11%, seasoning liquid 27% and the ratio of peanut butter to fermented soya beans 2:8 {m/m).%以淡水小龙虾加工后产生的龙虾碎肉、鳌内肉为原料,辅以胡椒、食盐、糖、醋等基本调味料,生产具有水产海鲜风味特色的龙虾肉酱产品.采用正交试验筛选最佳配方,以确定龙虾肉酱的最佳工艺条件.经优化,调味液的最佳配比为:食盐3%,糖醋比5∶3(m/m),胡椒1%;最佳龙虾肉酱工艺条件为:龙虾肉11%,调味液27%,花生酱和豆豉的配比为2∶8(m/m).

  8. Studies of Antimicrobial Peptides Hepcidin and Scygonadin in Chinese Marine-cultured Fishes and Mud Crab%海洋鱼类和青蟹抗菌肽hepcidin和scygonadin的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克坚

    2011-01-01

    抗菌肽或抗微生物肽因具有杀死或抑制微生物的共同特性,近年来科学家又将这些肽类称为"天然抗生素",有望在将来作为一种新型的生物药物替代现有的化学类抗生素.海洋动物中蕴藏着世界上丰富的抗菌活性物质,研究与开发应用海洋动物抗菌肽成为近年来的研究热点.结合国内外的相关研究进展,简要总结了课题组近年来在我国海水养殖鱼类抗菌肽hepcidin和青蟹抗菌肽scygonadin的研究进展,从抗菌肽的蛋白分离、纯化、基因克隆、基因表达模式、基因工程表达以及抗菌肽合成与表达产品的抗菌活性等进行了简要细致的叙述,对深入探索海洋动物抗菌肽在我国水产养殖业的开发应用具有重要的参考价值.%The small native compounds are isolated from various species of lives,with resistant activity against bacteria , are known as "antibacterial peptides"or "antimicrobial peptides" ( AMPs) and are also thought as "natural antibiotics " in recent years by scientists.It is widely acknowledged that these defensive compounds or AMPs could become new types of bio-antibiotics substituting for the currently used chemical antibiotics in near future. More and more people in the world realize that there are luxuriant AMPs existing in the marine animals , plants and microorganisms. The study of AMPs in marine animals is now the hotspot in research, thus attracting many researchers engaged in this area. The author briefly summarizes some typical results obtained from the study of AMPs in his group in recent several years. His group has done a lot of work in mining of genes and isolation of proteins which are related to antimicrobial activity from Chinese cultured fishes and crabs. More than 20 hepcidin cDNA sequences have been identified and the gene expression patterns were investigated in normal and bacterial challenged fish including Lateolabrax japonicus , Pagrus major , Sparus macrocephlus, Tilapia

  9. Tetragenococcus muriaticus sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic lactic acid bacterium isolated from fermented squid liver sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, M; Kimura, B; Mizoi, M; Sato, T; Fujii, T

    1997-07-01

    A total of 11 strains of moderately halophilic histamine-producing bacteria isolated from fermented squid liver sauce were studied phenotypically, genotypically, and phylogenetically. These strains are considered members of the genus Tetragenococcus based on their physiological, morphological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these strains clustered with, but were separate from, Tetragenococcus halophilus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that the new isolates represent a new Tetragenococcus species, for which we propose the name Tetragenococcus muriaticus; strain X-1 (= JCM 10006) is the type strain of this species. PMID:9226914

  10. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this...

  11. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  12. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and...

  13. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  14. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this...

  15. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  16. To Safeguard Century-old Rice-fish Farming Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ "… dig six mu of land into a pond … put 2,000 fry into the pond …sell the rest in the market," wrote ancient Chinese scholar Fan Li about 400 BC in The Canon for Fish Culture, the oldest known fish culture document.

  17. Study on Microelements of Ten Consumed Fish Species by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; JIN; Xiang-chun; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>As the improvement of the living standard, people are more and more concerned about the safety of food currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the microelement of them by NAA.

  18. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    OpenAIRE

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish provide substantial benefits to both humans and ocean food webs, but these benefits may be in conflict unless there are effective policies governing human activities, such as fishing. Collapses of forage fish induce widespread ecological effects on dependent predators, but attributing collapses to fishing has been difficult because of natural fluctuations of these stocks. We implicate fishing in forage fish stock collapses by showing that high fishing rates are maintained when sto...

  19. Determination of Quality Properties of Soy Sauce by Support Vector Regression Coupled with SW-NIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; BAO Chun-fang; REN Yu-lin

    2011-01-01

    The modem near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy analysis is a simple, efficient and nondestructive technique,which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Shortwave NIR spectroscopy is also a rapid, flexible, and cost-effective method to control product quality in food industry. The method of support vector regression coupled with shortwave NIR spectroscopy was explored for the nondestructive quantitative analysis of the important quality parameters of soy sauce, including amino nitrogen content, total acid content, salt content and color ratio. In this study, the support vector regression(SVR) models based on subtractive spectra and positive spectra were found and compared, the results show that the subtractive spectrum was more excellent than the positive spectrum. Meanwhile,R and RSE were determined, respectively, by means of original spectra and pretreated spectra[standard normal variate (SNV), first-derivative and second-derivative], and the corresponding models were successfully established. The best prediction was achieved by a support vector regression model of the first derivative transformed dataset. In addition,the result obtained by the proposed method was compared with that of Partial Least Squares(PLS), which showed that the generalization performance of the classifier based on SVR was much better than that of PLS. The results demonstrate that shortwave NIR spectroscopy combined with SVR is promising for thc quality control of soy sauce.

  20. Determination of Quality Properties of Soy Sauce by Support Vector Regression Coupled with SW-NIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The modern near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy analysis is a simple, efficient and nondestructive technique, which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Shortwave NIR spectroscopy is also a rapid, flexible, and cost-effective method to control product quality in food industry. The method of support vector regression coupled with shortwave NIR spectroscopy was explored for the nondestructive quantitative analysis of the important quality parameters of soy sauce, including amino nitrogen content, total acid content, salt content and color ratio. In this study, the support vector regression(SVR) models based on subtractive spectra and positive spectra were found and compared, the results show that the subtractive spectrum was more excellent than the positive spectrum. Meanwhile, R and RSE were determined, respectively, by means of original spectra and pretreated spectra[standard normal variate (SNV), first-derivative and second-derivative], and the corresponding models were successfully established. The best prediction was achieved by a support vector regression model of the first derivative transformed dataset. In addition, the result obtained by the proposed method was compared with that of Partial Least Squares(PLS), which showed that the generalization performance of the classifier based on SVR was much better than that of PLS. The results demonstrate that shortwave NIR spectroscopy combined with SVR is promising for the quality control of soy sauce.

  1. Study on Sensory Assessment of Classification of Soy Sauce%酱油分级感官评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 周伟; 郭明月; 王富刚

    2014-01-01

    运用模糊数学综合评价方法对酱油的感官分级进行了分析,得到了382样品的综合评定级别为二级,413样品的综合评定级别为一级,629样品的综合评定级别为三级和二级之间,即3种酱油感官评定的分级从高到低为413>382>629。%In this paper,fuzzy mathematical method is adopted for the sensory evaluation of classifica-tion of soy sauce.The results show that comprehensive assessment level of 382 sample is level 2,413 sample is level 1,629 sample is between level 2 and level 3,the sensory evaluation analysis of classifi-cation of three soy sauces is ranked as 413>382>629.

  2. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3–10.0 µg·kg−1, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg−1 and recoveries of 87.2%–114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R2 > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg−1. The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis. PMID:27428975

  3. 方便面香菇酱包的研制%Study on Mushroom Sauce Packets of Instant Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清

    2014-01-01

    以腌制香菇为原料,采用炒酱方法,在单因素试验基础上进行正交试验,以感官评分为标准,对方便面香菇酱包的配方进行研制。结果表明:玉米淀粉加入量为2.5 g,肉末加入量为2 g,香菇加入量为10 g,猪油与豆油比例为1∶1时制得的香菇酱包品质最佳。%To obtain the best formula of mushroom sauce packets of instant noodles,the salted mush-room prepared by frying sauce,single-factor and orthogonal experiments are employed to examine the effects of the content of corn starch,minced meat and mushroom,and the proportion of lard oil and soybean oil on the product quality according to sensory scoring criteria.The results show that the op-timal formula is as follows:2.5 g of corn starch,2 g of minced meat,10 g of mushroom and the pro-portion of lard oil and soybean oil is 1 ∶1 .

  4. Study on Mushroom Sauce Packets of Instant Noodles%方便面香菇酱包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清

    2014-01-01

    To obtain the best formula of mushroom sauce packets of instant noodles,the salted mush-room prepared by frying sauce,single-factor and orthogonal experiments are employed to examine the effects of the content of corn starch,minced meat and mushroom,and the proportion of lard oil and soybean oil on the product quality according to sensory scoring criteria.The results show that the op-timal formula is as follows:2.5 g of corn starch,2 g of minced meat,10 g of mushroom and the pro-portion of lard oil and soybean oil is 1 ∶1 .%以腌制香菇为原料,采用炒酱方法,在单因素试验基础上进行正交试验,以感官评分为标准,对方便面香菇酱包的配方进行研制。结果表明:玉米淀粉加入量为2.5 g,肉末加入量为2 g,香菇加入量为10 g,猪油与豆油比例为1∶1时制得的香菇酱包品质最佳。

  5. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P GABA concentration was obtained from NSK (194 mg/L) followed by NSZ (63 mg/L), NSJ (51.53 mg/L) and NST (31.66 mg/L). Therefore, A. oryzae NSK was characterized and the sequence was found to be similar to A. oryzae and A. flavus with 99 % similarity. The evolutionary distance (K nuc) between sequences of identical fungal species was calculated and a phylogenetic tree prepared from the K nuc data showed that the isolate belonged to the A. oryzae species. This finding may allow the development of GABA-rich ingredients using A. oryzae NSK as a starter culture for soy sauce production.

  6. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  7. Quality Improvement of Umami Yeast Extract in No-added Soy Sauce%Umami型酵母抽提物对无添加酱油的品质提升作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 李沛; 李库

    2015-01-01

    文章概述了国内无添加酱油的发展历程和现状,列举了零添加酱油的几点品质不足,详细的阐述了Umami型酵母抽提物对无添加酱油的品质提升作用。%The history and current situation of no-added soy sauce was overviewed in this paper. Quality shortcomings of no-added soy sauce were listed.The effect of quality improvement of umami yeast extract in no-added soy sauce was detailedly elaborated.

  8. Isolation and identification of the umani components from lobster sauce%豆豉中鲜味组分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭皖皖; 崔春; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    The umani components of 4 representative retail lobster sauce products were studied by ultrafiltration membranes separation, combinated taste dilution analysis with sensory evaluation. The studies showed that the umani components of Yangjiang and Guizhou water lobster sauce were prominent in samples and free amino acid was not the main umani conposition of Yangjiang lobster sauce. The molecular weight at 1- 3ku ultrafiltration components had obvious umani flavor even in 0.25g/L concentrations, which showed that the main uamni components of Yangjiang lobster sauce were between 1-3ku peptide.%采用超滤分离结合滋味稀释分析法和感官评价法研究了4种市面上常见豆豉的鲜味组分。研究表明其中阳江和贵州水豆豉的鲜味突出,游离氨基酸不是阳江豆豉鲜味的主要成份。分子量在1-3ku的超滤组分在0.25g/L的浓度下仍有明显的鲜味,这表明阳江豆豉呈鲜味的成分主要分布在1~3ku的肽段中。

  9. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  10. Fish Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can harm the brain of your unborn baby even before he or she is conceived. Yet many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  11. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  12. 冬菜肉酱调料的开发研究%Development of Mustard Greens Meat Sauce Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文亭; 徐文俊; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 李俊英; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    Recipes of raw materials are optimized;the effects of frying time and temperature on mince dehydration and aroma enhancement of bean paste are studied.Recipes of mustard greens meat sauce seasoning are identified;based on the initial raw materials,the ratios of mustard greens-meat sauce are as follows:mustard greens of 40%,minced meat of 15%~20%,rapeseed oil of 26%,bean paste of 8%,sesame paste of 4%;paprika of 2.0%,meat flavor of 1.0%,pepper powder of 0.4% and spices powder of 2.0%.The yield of mustard greens meat sauce is about 70%.The quality and pro-duction efficiency of products are improved by using the method for frying minced meat,bean paste and mustard greens respectively.%为提高冬菜竞争力,提高其附加值,扩大消费群体和运用领域,开发了冬菜肉酱调料。通过优化原辅料配方,研究了炒制温度、时间对肉末脱水和豆瓣酱增香的影响,确定了冬菜肉酱的调味料配方。以最初原辅料为基准,添加量配比为冬菜40%,肉末15%~20%,菜籽油26%,豆瓣酱8%,芝麻酱4%;辣椒粉添加量为2.0%,肉味香精为1.0%,花椒粉为0.4%,香料粉为2.0%,冬菜肉酱加工得率为70%左右。采用肉末、豆瓣酱、冬菜分别油炸脱水,然后集中混合调味的方式,提升了产品质量,提高了生产效率。

  13. 传统酿造酱油的品质特性及其氨基酸组成研究%Research on Quality Properties and Amino Acid Composition of Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯霞; 赵欣; 宋家乐

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the quality properties and amino acids compo-sition of traditional fermented soy sauce with different brewing periods.The results suggest that the salinity in commercial soy sauce is similar to that of the aged soy sauce.The commercial soy sauce contains higher levels of total nitrogen,amino acid nitrogen and free amino acids than those of aged soy sauce.Both commercial soy sauce and aged soy sauce are rich in free amino acids,in particular to the essential amino acids and flavor amino acids,and the ratio of amino acids coincides with the recom-mended value by WHO/FAO.Furthermore,abundant mineral elements are found in commercial and aged soy sauce;they are a type of high nutritional condiment.%分析测定不同年份传统酿造酱油的品质特性和氨基酸组成。结果表明:市售酱油和陈年酱油两者的含盐量相近,市售酱油的一般成分,总氮、氨基酸态氮、游离氨基酸含量均高于陈年酱油。两种酱油都富含种类全面的氨基酸,特别是人体必需的氨基酸和鲜味氨基酸,且氨基酸构成比符合 WHO/FAO 推荐值。此外,两种酱油还含有丰富的矿物质,是一类营养丰富的调味品。

  14. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  15. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    - positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish......Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram...

  16. Study of Main Quality Variation Indicators in the Fermentation Process of Chili Sauce%辣椒酱发酵过程中主要质量指标变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 龚丽; 车振明

    2013-01-01

    Chili sauce is made of pickled peppers after production and processing. Chili sauce is a popular spicy sauce. According to the changes of the main quality indexes of chili sauce fermentation process, this experiment was to study the change law of Sichuan chili sauce quality characteristics of products in the fermentation process from three aspects of total acid, amino nitrogen and color value. Results show that as the fermentation time extension, hot pepper sauce total acid and amino nitrogen content increases; and variation of color value show the trend of in-discipline.%  辣椒酱是将辣椒经过腌制等生产加工制得的一种常用的辣味调料。针对辣椒酱发酵过程中主要质量指标的变化规律,本实验从总酸、氨基态氮以及色价三个方面研究了四川特色产品辣椒酱在发酵过程中品质的变化规律。结果表明:随着发酵时间的延长,辣椒酱中总酸以及氨基态氮的含量逐渐增大;而色价则表现出不规律的变化趋势。

  17. Production of L-sorbitol from L-fructose by Aureobasidium pullulans LP23 isolated from soy sauce mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Hiroyuki; Izumori, Ken

    2005-08-01

    A strain LP23 that can convert L-fructose to L-sorbitol was isolated from soy sauce mash and identified as Aureobasidium pullulans. The cells grown on L-arabinose were found to have relatively high L-fructose to L-sorbitol conversion potential. Addition of erythritol to the reaction mixture considerably accelerated the conversion rate of L-fructose to L-sorbitol. During the conversion reaction, erythritol was added to the reaction mixture at 8-h intervals to maintain the concentration of erythritol at 1.0%. The final conversion ratios were 82.8%, 95.3%, 92.4%, and 42.6% using washed cells when the concentrations of L-fructose were 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The product from L-fructose was identified as L-sorbitol by HPLC analysis, infrared spectroscopy, optical rotation and melting point measurements.

  18. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  19. Research of extraction and property of melanin from fermented soy sauce%发酵酱油色素的提取及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩华; 陈昭华; 孙莉萍; 卢珍华; 杨秋明

    2012-01-01

    用有机溶剂从生抽酱油中提取酱油色素,研究其理化性质。结果表明:酱油色素的得率为17.8g/100mL,其为棕褐色带有浓郁酱香味的固形物。紫外和红外光谱扫描结果显示酱油色素是美拉德反应和酶促褐变的产物。酱油色素容易被H2O2氧化,而亚硫酸钠、蔗糖、苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾对色素的影响很小,说明酱油色素稳定性良好。色素对DPPH自由基的清除能力可达88%,对羟基自由基的清除能力达80%,抑制亚硝胺合成的抑制率可达80%。%The melanin was extracted from light fermented soy sauce by organic solvent,and its physical and chemical properties were studied.Results showed that 17.8g soy sauce melanin could be obtained from 100mL uncooked soy sauce,and it was a chocolate brown solid with a rich sauce flavor.UV-Vis and infrared spectra revealed that the soy sauce melanin was products of the Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning.The melanin could be oxidized easily by H2O2.But Na2SO3,sucrose,sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate had little effect on it,soy sauce melanin had a good stability.Scavenging effect of the melanin on DPPH free radicals and on hydroxyl free radicals were 88% and 80%,respectively.Blocking action on synthesis of nitrosamine was up to 80%.

  20. 一种海带酱油的生产工艺的研究%Study on the Production Process of Kelp Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡可忠; 钱冠兰; 宋青楠; 许庆欣; 高兴娇; 宋方舒

    2015-01-01

    主要研究了新型海带酱油的生产工艺,比较了不同的海带脱腥方法,结果证明:甘草-茉莉花的二次脱腥效果最佳。进一步将脱腥后的海带味美素浆液和高盐稀态酱油按照不同比例进行配制,结果显示:1∶1~1∶2的比例产品风味差异不大,均符合产品要求。实验制得的产品是将高盐稀态酱油特有的酯香气和甘草、茉莉花的香气很好地融合,口感柔和,具有特有的海带鲜味,附加碘和甘草的药理作用,作为一种具有保健功能的新型海带酱油,具有极大的市场前景和食用价值。%Mainly study the production process of a new type of kelp soy sauce,and compare the different deodorization methods for kelp.The results show that the deodorization effect of licorice and jasmine on kelp is the best.And then,the kelp extract and high-salt liquid-state soy sauce with various proportions are used to prepare the new type of kelp soy sauce,the results show that the flavor with the rate of 1∶1~1∶2 is almost the same.The kelp soy sauce has specific jasmine floral aroma,licorice herbal aroma accompanied by a kind of lactone of high-salt liquid-state soy sauce,and combining the umami taste of kelp and the pharmacological functions of iodine and licorice.The palate is soft and full,as a new type of kelp soy sauce with health care function,it will have a great market prospect and high edible value.

  1. Research on Preparation Technology of Apple Vinegar Sauce%苹果醋酱制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾学东; 杨翰南; 张学明

    2013-01-01

    对苹果醋酱的制备工艺进行了研究.分析了影响苹果醋普载体苹果泥口感的三个因素:苹果皮渣破碎厚度、氽烫时间和高压蒸煮时间,确定苹果皮渣破碎厚度为0.5 mm,氽烫时间为7.5s,高压蒸煮时间为15 min;通过正交实验进行感官综合评定,确定出该产品的最佳配方:苹果醋6%,苹果泥60%,木糖醇10%;确定后熟时间为4h,保证苹果醋酱口感更加细腻.%The preparation process of apple vinegar sauce is studied.Analyze the three factors that influence the taste of apple mud,that are apple skin slag crushing thickness,blanching time and highpressure cooking time,determine that the apple skin slag crushing thickness is 0.5 mm,blanching time is 7.5 s,high-pressure cooking time is 15 min.Through the orthogonal experiments for sensory comprehensive evaluation to determine the best formula of the product:apple vinegar of 6%,apple mud of 60%,xylitol of 10% ;after ripening time is 4 h,under such conditions,the taste of apple vinegar sauce is more delicate.

  2. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  3. Immunomodulatory effect of halophilic lactic acid bacterium Tetragenococcus halophilus Th221 from soy sauce moromi grown in high-salt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Kurokawa, Toshiko; Shirakami, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Ryohei F; Nishimura, Ikuko

    2008-02-10

    A halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, was found to possess an immunomodulatory activity that promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity in addition to its important roles in soy sauce brewing. Strain Th221 was selected from 151 strains isolated from soy sauce (shoyu) moromi, since it induced strong interleukin (IL)-12 production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The relationship between the salt concentration in the medium and the IL-12 production-inducing activity of this strain was investigated, and the activity was found to be strong when the bacteria were grown in medium containing > or =10% (w/v) salt. The Th1-promoting activity was also manifested in an in vivo mouse study, since Th1-dependant contact sensitivity was augmented and Th2 immunity, as evaluated by specific immunoglobulin E production, was suppressed following oral ingestion of Th221. Based on these findings, Th221 administration may be useful for improving allergic symptoms. PMID:18061297

  4. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  5. Analysis on microbial community in mature soybean sauce mash during traditional fermentation%传统发酵成熟期豆瓣酱醅中的微生物群落分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春凤; 刘金霞; 蒋立胜; 程华曙; 李崎

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the microorganism community in the traditional fermentation mature period of soybean paste. Culture-independent approach(Clone library technique based on small subunit rRNA gene) was used to analyze the bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA of the sample. The results showed that the bacteria existed in Chinese mature soy sauce mash belong to these genus=Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus and Tetragenococcus,and their similarities with the nearest species in gene bank were 99%, 98% and 99%,respectively. The fungi existed in the sample were Zygosaccharomyces, Rhizochaete,Aspergillus, Rhodotorula and Phaseoleae environmental sample,and their sequence identity all could achieve 99%.%为了探明传统发酵成熟期豆瓣酱醅中的功能微生物种类,采用免培养法(基因克隆文库的构建技术)对发酵成熟酱醅中的细菌16SrRNA和真菌18SrRNA进行了分析。结果表明,成熟酱醅中存在的细菌分别Staphytococcus属Lactobacillus属和Tetragenococcus属,其与具有最高同源性的菌株的相似性分别为99%、98%、99%。成熟酱醅中发现的真菌共5个属,分别为Zygosaccharomyces属、Rhizochaets属Aspergillus属Rhodotorula属和Phaseoleae environmental sample,与具有最高同源性的菌株的相似性均为99%。

  6. Determination of Verification and Analysis of Ammonium Salt in Soy Sauce%酱油中铵盐测定方法的验证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凤芝

    2012-01-01

    取适量试样在碱性溶液中加热蒸馏,使酱油中的氨蒸出,被硼酸溶液吸收,然后用盐酸标准溶液滴定计算含量。%Take proper amount of sample in alkaline solution is heated distillation, the sauce of ammonia evaporation, by boric acid solution absorption, then with hydrochloric acid standard solution titration calculating content.

  7. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  8. Effect of Soy Sauce on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Rats and Identification of Flazin as a Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-15

    This is the first report on the ability of soy sauce to effectively reduce the serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of hyperuricemic rats. Soy sauce was partitioned sequentially into ethyl acetate and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction with strong XOD inhibition effect was purified further. On the basis of xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity-guided purification, nine compounds including 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate, diisobutyl terephthalate, harman, daidzein, flazin, catechol, thymine, genistein, and uracil were obtained. It was the first time that 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate and diisobutyl terephthalate had been identified from soy sauce. Flazin with hydroxymethyl furan ketone group at C-1 and carboxyl at C-3 exhibited the strongest XOI activity (IC50 = 0.51 ± 0.05 mM). According to fluorescence quenching and molecular docking experiments, flazin could enter into the catalytic center of XOD to interact with Lys1045, Gln1194, and Arg912 mainly by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Flazin, catechol, and genistein not only were potent XOD inhibitors but also held certain antioxidant activities. According to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) simulation in silico, flazin had good oral bioavailability in vivo. PMID:27181598

  9. 猪皮花生辣酱配方及加工工艺研究%Study on processing technology of chili sauce with pigskin and peanuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 陈双; 张小燕; 任洁丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective, the chili sauce, added with peanut, pigskin, pepper and other ingredients was produced. Methods, the process technology of the sauce was discussed and the best condition was deter- mined through single factor and orthogonal method. Results, the experiments showed that the optimum formula was as follows: paste 20g, pigskin 30g, peanut sauce 20g, dry pepper 5g, and sugar 5g. Conclusion, the products'sensory testing, physical and chemical test and microbiological test are in line with national standards. The product possesses good flavor and quality, and there would be broad development prospects for this technology.%目的:以花生和肉类企业副产品猪皮为主要原料生产猪皮花生辣酱。方法:通过单因素及正交试验的方法对猪皮花生辣酱的配方及生产工艺进行研究。结果:研究表明该产品的最佳配方为底酱20g、猪皮30g、花生20g、干辣椒5g、绵糖5g、葱姜蒜适量。结论:生产出的猪皮花生辣酱具有良好的风味和质量,具有广阔的市场发展前景。

  10. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON SCREENING OF CHINESE INDIGENOUS FISHES FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS IN CONTEXT OF CHEMICALS ~ ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT%化学物质生态风险评估与管理背景下筛选我国生态毒理试验鱼种的方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟耀斌; 李帆; 何寿亮; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    提出了以“可替换性”意义定义鱼种的生态代表性,并以鱼种对空间区域和水温的要求构建了生态代表性函数.同时,按照鱼类毒性测试的试验要求根据鱼种的体长、孵化时间以及对水温的要求构造生态毒理试验可行性函数.在收集我国各鱼类生物、生态信息基础上,综合生态代表性和生态毒理试验可操作性对鱼种进行了初步筛选,并通过仿真考察了生态毒理试验可行性随定义函数的不确定性.提出的兼顾生态代表性与生态毒理试验可行性的方法为后续探索我国生态毒理供试生物和推进化学物质生态风险的环境管理提供了参考.%Spatial heterogeneity and ecological variation across habitats merit more attention from the perspective of ecological risk assessment and management of chemicals, which necessitates the development of ecotoxicological test organisms using indigenous fishes in China. In this paper, the ecological relevance of a fish was put forward in a sense of ecological substitutability with respect to its habitat coverage and characteristic biological temperature. Meanwhile, body length, hatching duration, and water temperature requirement were synthesized to represent ecotoxieological feasibility. The combination of ecological relevance and ecotoxicological feasibility was employed to indicate possibility of certain Chinese indigenous fishes to be candidate test organisms. In addition, uncertainty in defining feasibility was evaluated by simulation. This investigation was deemed helpful to sharpen the efforts to develop Chinese indigenous test organisms and to improve the environmental relevance of chemoecological risk assessment and management in China.

  11. 高效液相色谱法测定发酵酱油中的氨基酸含量及分析%Composition and Analysis of Amino Acid in Two Fermented Soy Sauce by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳芳; 孙国鹏

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid in two fermented soy sauce were analyzed by HPLC.It showed that amino acids were rich in low-Salt solid-state fermented soy sauce and high-salt liquid-state fermented soy sauce,and the respective proportions of eight essential amino acids were 47.15 % and 42.20 %.Although the content of total amino acids and essential amino acids in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce was higher than in high-salt liquid state fermented soy sauce,but the flavor amino in high-salt liquid state fermented soy sauce was high,especially the sweetness and MSG like amino acid content was high.So the high-salt liquid-state fermented soy sauce taste even more delicious.%采用高效液相色谱法分析了两种发酵酱油中的氨基酸。结果表明,低盐固态发酵酱油与高盐稀态发酵酱油中均含有丰富的氨基酸,8种必需氨基酸含量比例分别达到46.05%与41.45%。虽然低盐固态发酵酱油的总氨基酸与必须氨基酸的含量高于高盐稀态发酵酱油,但高盐稀态发酵酱油中呈味氨基酸特别是甜味和鲜味氨基酸的含量较高,从而使高盐稀态发酵酱油滋味更加鲜美。

  12. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    . However, this response was much stronger in infected versus damaged fish, indicating that damaged cells initiate an immune response, but pathogenic triggering was much more potent. A further activation of the genes TGF-β, MMP-2, CTGF and myostatin-1αβ was then seen in both groups, indicating initiation...... in the muscle tissue are the first to initiate an inflammatory response following tissue damage. The RTHDF cell-line was found to be responsive to LPS from the surface of gram-negative bacteria, but also from damaged RTHDF cells. Hence, the data supported that theory....

  13. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  14. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  15. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  16. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  17. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  18. Caracterización morfométrica de la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Julia Gaspari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande abastece el complejo hidráulico Embalse Paso de las Piedras, comportándose como servicio ambiental primordial para el consumo hídrico de Bahía Blanca. El análisis de las características morfométricas y funcionales de una cuenca hidrográfica a través de parámetros de forma, relieve y red de drenaje, es básico en la modelación hidrológica para determinar el movimiento y captación del agua de lluvia. Estos indicadores pueden apoyar una formulación de un Sistema de Pago por Servicios Ambientales, como estrategia básica de ordenamiento territorial y desarrollo local, centrado en la oferta de agua generada por la cuenca. El objetivo fue caracterizar morfométricamente la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. La metodología aplicada se basó en establecer y analizar los parámetros morfométricos mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica y planillas de cálculo, a partir de un modelo digital del terreno e imágenes satelitales. Los resultados alcanzados definieron que la cuenca posee un área de 1502.6 km2. La longitud axial es de 41.6 km con un ancho promedio de 36.1 km. El Factor de forma (0.87 indica que posee forma alargada, siendo rectangular oblonga según el coeficiente de compacidad de Gravelius (2.8. La longitud del cauce principal es 58.34 km con pendiente media de 0.48 %. La densidad de drenaje es 0.27 km.km-2 y su coeficiente de sinuosidad 1.42. El tiempo de concentración es 11.8 hs. La curva hipsométrica adimensional corresponde a una cuenca con un avanzado grado de desarrollo. Todos estos parámetros facilitan la cuantificación del caudal líquido en la cuenca.

  19. 溶菌酶在酱油中的抑菌效果研究%Studies of lysozyme on the inhibiting efficiency of the microorganisms in soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范蕴莹

    2012-01-01

    Lysozyme is a protein molecule that is comprised of a polypeptide chain. It has good thermal stability in the acid solutions, and words well in killing Gram - positive bacteria. So it is a better and natural preservative than the others which is used in soy sauce. The effect of lysozyme on inhibiting microorganisms in soy sauce was studied in this research. The results showed that; (1) the best dosage of lysozyme was 150 mg/kg in soy sauce, which could inhibite microorganisms well, and kill the microorganisms slowly. Then the antiseptic effect of lysozyme was better 0. 1% sodium benzoate. (2) Lysozyme worked better in the soy sauce that has high salt content than the low one, and the total plate count of the soy sauce decreased much more obviously. (3) Pasteurisation affected the lysozyme activity little. (4) Lysozyme inhibited microorganisms well in soy sauce, in which the total plate count was no more than 10000cfu/ml. and increased slowly. The product quality of soy sauce was stable during the shelf - life.%溶菌酶为多肽链组成的蛋白质分子,酶活在酸性条件下具有良好的热稳定性,且对革兰氏阳性细菌具有专一的抑制杀灭作用,是成品酱油的一种良好的天然抑菌防腐剂.本文研究了溶菌酶在酱油中的抑菌防腐效果.结果表明:(1)在酱油中,溶菌酶的抑菌防腐效果理想,且具有缓慢杀菌的功能,其最佳添加量为150 mg/kg,抑菌防腐效果比0.1%苯甲酸钠要好;(2)在高盐分含量酱油中的抑菌防腐效果比低盐分含量酱油要好,添加溶菌酶后菌落总数下降趋势更加明显;(3)酱油的巴氏灭菌操作对溶菌酶的活性无显著影响;(4)在起始菌落总数为10000 cfu/ml或以下的酱油中使用溶菌酶能使酱油具有较好的抑菌防腐效果,在货架期内菌落总数增长缓慢,产品质量稳定.

  20. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  1. Fishing Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Fish has been the subject of various research fields, ranging from ecology, evolution, physiology and toxicology to aquaculture. In the past decades fish has attracted considerable attention for functional genomics, cancer biology and developmental genetics, in particular nuclear transfer for understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear relationship. This special issue reports on recent progress made in fish stem cells and nuclear transfer.

  2. Application of solid phase extraction column chromatography in organic compounds analysis in soy sauce%固相萃取技术在酱油有机物分析中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敏; 汪雨

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Soy sauce is a condiment which widely used in daily life. The organic compounds analysis in soy sauce is become more important due to food safety reasons. In this paper, the advances in application of solid phase extraction (SPE) column chromatography in organic compounds analysis in soy sauce in last 10 years were summarized, including SPE methods which were used in analysis of soy sauce, the organic compounds which could be analyzed by SPE, and summarization and classification of adsorbents used in SPE for soy sauce analysis.%酱油是日常生活中较为常用的调味品。随着社会对食品安全的重视,酱油中的有机物分析也日益受到关注。本文对近10年来国内外在酱油有机物分析中固相萃取(solid phase extraction, SPE)法的应用进行概述,归纳总结了主要用于酱油有机物分析的 SPE 法,可使用 SPE 法分析的酱油中的有机物种类,并对应用到酱油分析中的SPE方法使用的吸附剂进行总结和分类。

  3. 酱油的加工特点、设备选型与发展趋势%Characteristics,Equipment Type SeIection and DeveIopment Trend of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁敏; 邹东恢

    2016-01-01

    几年来,随着我国酱油工业的发展,酱油加工设备也获得了显著的提高,向着自动化、大型化方向发展,新型酱油加工设备得以涌现和发展,出现了一些新的变化。阐述了我国酱油生产的特点、设备选型,并对其未来发展趋势进行了展望。%In the last few years, with the development of soy sauce industry, the processing equipments of soy sauce have significantly increased and it develops toward the direction of automation and large scale.The processing equipments of new-type soy sauce have emerged and developed,and some new changes have taken place.Discuss the production characteristics,equipment type selection of soy sauce,and look into the future development trends of soy sauce.

  4. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  5. Choice Food,Choice Restaurant—Longmen Fishing Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Longmen Fishing Port is in Longmen Building on West Business Street, Guiyang, Guizhou Province. This restaurant serves the cream of Chinese traditional gastronomy. Its menu comprises a range of exquisite dishes served at imperial banquets. Longmen Fishing Port is the first restaurant in western China to be awarded the Cordon Bleu at the international professional culinary competition and be accepted as a member of French Les Amis d' Escoffier Society.

  6. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis%豆油替代鱼油对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦良; 李二超; 禹娜; 田文静; 江星; 孙立梅; 齐霁; 陈立侨

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, fish oil is the main lipid source in the feed for most species in aquaculture owing to its effective supply of energy and high content of essential fatty acid. The fatty acid especially n-3 HUFA from the fish oil had also been proved to have positive effect on maintaining the immune system. However, the decline of fish oil production from wild fisheries has resulted in a supply shortage and price escalation of fish oil. Therefore, it has been a major challenge to find viable sources of oil to substitute fish oil. Among available vegetable oils, soybean oil has been widely chosen due to its availability, price and abundant content of fatty acid. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diets with different fish oil and soybean oil ratios on grouth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were for-mulated in which 0%(control:F1), 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%(F2-F5) of the fish oil was replaced with soybean oil. Juvenile crabs (mean weight 0.27±0.03 g) were assigned to one of five treatment groups (four replicates per group) and fed one of the diets for 42 d. There was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments (P>0.05). The weight gain was significantly higher in the F4 group than in the F1 group (P0.05). Serum PO (phenoloxidase) activity was higher in F4 and lower in F5 than the other groups (P0.05). After the feeding experiment, the crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 10 d. The first death was recorded in F5, and the crabs in F5 had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those in F1 and F4 (P0.05). In conclusion, complete substitu-tion of fish oil with soybean oil did not affect growth performance, but did reduce the ability to resist disease. Our re-sults suggest that replacement of 75%fish oil with soybean oil in the diet of Chinese mitten crab can improve growth with little effect on disease resistance.%

  7. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  8. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  9. Carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole found in beverages, sauces, and caramel colors: chemical properties, analysis, and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, Matt; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-30

    Since the National Toxicology Program (NTP) identified 4(5)-methylimidazole [4(5)-MI] as a cancer causing chemical in 2007 and the State of California added it to the Proposition 65 list of compounds as a carcinogen on January 7, 2011, many researchers and regulatory agencies have become focused on the presence of 4(5)-MI in foods and beverages. 4(5)-MI has been known to form in the Maillard reaction system consisting of a sugar and ammonia-a typical caramel-color preparation method for beverages. 4(5)-MI is identified in various beverages and sauces, which are colored with caramel, as well as in caramel color itself. Analysis of 4(5)-MI is extremely difficult due to its high water solubility, but the analytical method for 4(5)-MI has progressed from conventional paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the most advanced high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various studies indicate that caramel colors and carbonated beverages contain 4(5)-MI in levels ranging from 0 to around 1000 ppm and from 0 to about 500 ppm, respectively. Reports of the toxicity of 4(5)-MI at relatively high levels suggest that it may cause some adverse effects on human consumers.

  10. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  11. EstabI ishment of Inactivation ModeIs for Escherichiacoliin Soy Sauce%市售酱油中大肠杆菌失活模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章志超

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prevent the hidden dangers brought by Escherichiacoli(E.coli) in soy sauce.E.coliisinoculated into different kinds of light soy sauce and dark soy sauce.Amino acid nitrogen,soluble saltless solid,pH value,salinity,total nitrogen and preservative content are analyzed.Meanwhile,some predictive models are developed based on the data of kinetic growth of E.coliin soy sauce.The results show that the quality of different soy sauce analyzed reaches national standards.Compared with light soy sauce,the content of soluble saltless solid and salinity is significantly higher in dark soy sauce.The number of E.colireduces steadily in soy sauce,and the inactivation rate might relate to the quality level of soy sauce and stored-temperature.The inactivation rate is the lowest in the superfine dark soy sauce,and the highest in three-level soy sauce.The inactivation model based on the Weibull equation is the best to predict kinetic growth of E.coliin soy sauce.The R-square,accuracy factors (Af)and bias factors (Bf)from the Weibull model are 0.94~0.99,1.22~2.34 and 1.00~1.02 respectively.However,the logistic model and the modified Gompertz model show great errors in this study.%为有效防控大肠杆菌给酱油产品带来的质量隐患,通过将大肠杆菌接种于不同等级的生抽酱油和老抽酱油中,监测了不同酱油的氨基酸态氮、可溶性无盐固形物、pH、盐分、全氮和防腐剂添加量等理化指标,同时分析了不同数学模型对描述大肠杆菌在酱油中生长动态的适用性,并对预测模型的可靠性进行了评价。结果表明:不同酱油样品的质量等级均能达到国标要求,老抽酱油的可溶性无盐固形物和盐分均显著高于生抽酱油;酱油质量等级和贮藏温度是影响大肠杆菌失活速率的最主要因素,其中在特级老抽酱油中失活速率最小,而在三级酱油中失活最快,2~8℃冷藏能够显著延缓大肠杆菌的失活

  12. 红曲红色素在酱油增色方面的应用研究%Application research on red monascus pigment of color enhancement on soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵吉兴

    2012-01-01

    该文研究了红曲红色素添加于酱油中的增色效应及其稳定性.结果表明通过在酱油中添加0.2%的红曲红色素,可明显提高酱油的色泽和红色指数,并且具有良好的光稳定性和热稳定性.%This paper studied about the color enhancement and its stability of soy sauce while adding red monascus pigment. The results showed that when 0.2% red Monascus pigment was added into soy sauce, it could significantly improve the color and red index of soy sauce, and also has good light stability and thermal stability.

  13. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  14. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  15. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  16. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  17. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. VC清除酱油亚硝酸盐的响应面优化%Optimization of nitrite clear in sauce by VC using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加列西·马那甫; 德娜·吐热汗; 李俊芳

    2014-01-01

    以酱油为原料,在单因素试验基础上,选取VC浓度、反应温度、pH为自变量,以亚硝酸盐清除率为响应值,采用3因素3水平试验设计法,得到二次多项式回归方程预测模型,优化酱油中亚硝酸盐的清除条件。回归预测模型具有高度显著性,方程对试验拟合较好,可对酱油亚硝酸盐清除率进行分析和预测;响应面图表明,交互项对清除率影响不显著,与回归模型交互项P值的分析结果一致。VC清除酱油亚硝酸盐的最佳条件为VC浓度0.48μg·mL-1、反应温度46.08℃、pH 2.38。在最佳条件下,酱油亚硝酸盐清除率可达52.4%,实测值为53.7%,两者较接近,拟合性良好,表明Box-Benhnken中心组合试验设计原理结合响应面法,优化酱油亚硝酸盐清除降解条件可行。%Soy sauce was regard as raw material, on the basis of single factor test, The paper chosed effect of concentration of VC, reaction temperature, pH as dependent variable, and chosed scavenging rate of nitrite as response value. According to the responsed surface Box-Benhnken experimental design principle, the simulation prediction model of two order polynomial equation was observed with three factors and three levels method to optimizing the clear conditions of nitrite in sauce. The regression prediction model was highly significant and the equation fitting to the test preferably, and also could analyze and forecast on nitrite scavenging rate in soy sauce. The response surface plots showed that the VC concentration with reaction temperature, VC concentrationed with pH, pH with reaction temperature interacts was not significant. This also was consistent to the analysis results of the P value of regression model interactiveterm. The optimum conditions for VC clear the nitrite in sauce, VC concentration was 0.48μg·mL-1, reaction temperature was 46.08℃, pH was 2.38. Under the optimal conditions, the nitrite clear rate in sauce

  19. AppI ication of Yeast Extract in Instant NoodIes Sauces%酱类专用酵母抽提物在几款方便面调味酱料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 李沛; 沈硕; 孙合群; 刘雪娇

    2015-01-01

    By the methods of comparative experiments and sensory analysis, the application characteristics of yeast extract in instant noodles sauces are analyzed.Ultimately,it is proved that the yeast extract has a significant role in enhancing the flavor of instant noodles sauces.%对酱类专用酵母抽提物进行了分析,通过应用对比实验和感官品评的方法,证明了此款酵母抽提物具有提升方便面调味酱料风味的显著作用。

  20. Application of clustering analysis of volatile components in the identification of soy sauce%挥发性成分聚类分析在酱油鉴别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽贤

    2012-01-01

    应用同时蒸馏萃取法和气质联用技术对对酿造酱油、配制酱油和酸世界植物蛋白调味液共17个样品的挥发性成分进行分析,筛选其特征挥发性组分进行比较.发现酿造酱油特征组分以醇类、醛类、酸类为主,酸水解植物蛋白调味液特征组分以醛类、酚类、杂环化合物为主,而配制酱油挥发性成分则兼有前两者的特征组分.以17个样品的挥发性成分及其含量进行聚类分析,建立了区分酿造酱油、配制酱油和酸水解植物蛋白调味液的识别模型,为建立酿造酱油和配制酱油鉴别技术打下较好的基础.%The volatile components from 17 fermented soy sauce, blended soy sauce and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings were analyzed by using a combination of simultaneous steam - distillation - extraction and gas chromatog-raphy mass spectrometry. The characteristicvolatile components were screened and compared. It was found that the main characteristic components in fermented soy sauce were alcohols, aldehydes and acids, and the main characteristic components in acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings were aldehydes, phenols and heterocycliccompounds. The-blended soy sauce had volatile components of both. The analytical data of 17 samples were subjected to clustering analysis based on the kind and content of the volatile components. Arecognition model of discriminating among soy sauce, blended soy sauce and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasoningswas established. The results of this study laid a solid foundation for discrimination between fermented soy sauce and blended soy sauce.

  1. Chinese Ecological Fishery of Fish Farming in Paddy: Development History,Productive Benefit, Function of Service%中国鱼-稻模式生态渔业:发展历程·生产效益·服务功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包特力根白乙

    2012-01-01

    近30余年,中国鱼-稻模式生态渔业作为产业从起步性发展到生产性发展、再从拓展性发展到综合性发展,显现出它的勃勃生机,取得显著的经济、社会和生态效益.然而,鱼-稻模式生态渔业系统的产品和生态服务价值并没有得到应有的重视.其实,鱼-稻模式生态渔业系统不仅提供重要的初级产品——稻谷、水产品等食物以及作为副产品的秸秆,还提供区域空气质量维持、区域气候调节、疾病控制、环境净化和观光休闲等服务和功能.所以,关注鱼—稻模式生态渔业的发展,客观评价和科学认识其产品和生态服务价值,是促进鱼—稻模式生态渔业可持续发展的重要前提.%Chinese fish fanning in paddy experiences start-up, productive, expanding and integrated stages, thrives and accomplishes noticeable economic, social and ecological benefits in recent 30 years. However, the productive, ecological and service values in respect offish farming in paddy are undervalued. In fact, fish fanning in paddy not only produces primary products offish products, rice and secondly products of stalk, but also may keep air clean, adjust climate, control certain diseases, purify environment and contribute to recreation. So, it is meaningful to envalue development of fish farming in paddy, objectively estimate and scientifically understand its productive, ecological and service benefits. This is an important precondition to promote sustainable development offish farming in paddy.

  2. Study on the Process Conditions of Sichuan Sprouts Meat Sauce%四川芽菜肉酱 v艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航; 顾思远; 孙俊秀; 范文教; 王郁; 罗素琴

    2016-01-01

    四川芽菜肉酱是以四川特产芽菜为主要辅料,通过烹饪炒制而成的全熟猪肉馅心,可以广泛用于面臊、佐餐等各个领域。文章结合传统工艺和现代食品加工技术,根据消费者对四川特色芽菜肉酱的实际需求,研究设计了四川特色芽菜肉酱的制作工艺,并利用正交试验对工艺条件进行优化,同时具体明确了产品的质量标准。研究结果将为芽菜肉酱的市场化生产提供参数借鉴。%Sichuan sprouts meat sauce is cooked with well-done pork sandwiches and Sichuan sprouts, it is widely used in various dining fields,such as Saozi noodles with minced meat and other food accompaniments.In order to meet consumers'demands for Sichuan special sprouts meat sauce,its cooking process is designed by combining the traditional processing technology with the modern one. Meanwhile,the optimal process conditions are optimized by orthogonal experiment.The results will provide parameters reference for the market production of Sichuan sprouts meat sauce.

  3. 蛋白酶酶解酱油沉淀的工艺研究%Hydrolysis of soy sauce sediment by proteases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵聪聪; 纪凤娣; 鲁绯; 曹妍; 范红玲; 卢佳; 程永强

    2011-01-01

    The effect of proteases on soy sauce sediment in spraying-extraction-in-pool (SE1P) soy sauce and low-salt solid-fermentation (LSSF) soy sauce was studied. The parameters including enzyme dosage, pH value, hydrolysis time and ratio of material to liquid (RML) on hydrolysis were investigated. The optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis for neutrase on SEIP sediment were obtained as follows: the ratio of material to liquid 1:3, hydrolysis time 6h, dosage of enzyme 4000U/g and pH value 6. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 43.8%. The optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis for neutrase on LSSF sediment were as follows: the ratio of material to liquid 1:3, hydrolysis time 8h, dosage of enzyme 6000U/g and pH value 6.5. Under these conditions, the DH was 53.8%. Orthogonal design and analysis of avariance (ANOVA) were adopted, results indicated that effects of those factors were notable (p <0.05). The results indicated that neutrase can hydrolyze soy sauce sediment effectively.%对蛋白酶酶解低盐固态和原池浇淋2种酿造工艺的酱油沉淀进行了研究,分析了中性蛋白酶的加酶量、pH值、酶解时间、料液比对蛋白质水解度的影响,并通过正交试验优化了中性蛋白酶酶解酱油沉淀的工艺条件,确定了工艺参数.其最佳工艺条件为原池浇淋酱油沉淀的最佳酶解条件为料液比1∶3,酶解6h,加酶量为4000U/g原料,pH值为6.5,水解度可达到43.8%;低盐固态酱油沉淀的最佳酶解条件为料液比1∶3,酶解8h,加酶量为6000U/g原料,pH值为6.5,水解度可达到53.8%.方差分析表明,4因素均对水解度有显著影响.利用中性蛋白酶可较有效地酶解酱油沉淀.

  4. Analysis of numerical simulation of flow field of fried capsicum sauce%油辣椒制品流场数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to research the even filling technology of fried capsicum sauce products,taking uni-formly stirring of fried capsicum sauce products as the research content,solid -liquid mixture of fried capsicum sauce as the research object,the stirring effect was analyzed with the flat blade angle as 0°, 30°,45°and 60°.Fluent software was calculation platform and the results of calculation was analyzed, which was that the ideal stirring effect was when the blade angle was 30°.But there were still dead angle on the bottom of the groove.After reducing the distance between the blade and the bottom and renew the model,the calculated results shown that the mixture flow situation was further improved,the solid phase was well -distributed in the mixture,which was consistent with the expected effect.The method can be a numerical calculation method to study the automatic filling technology of fried capsicum sauce.%为研究油辣椒制品的均匀灌装技术,以油辣椒制品的均匀搅拌为研究内容,以油辣椒固液二相流混合物为对象,分析平直桨叶倾角分别为0°、30°、45°、60°时的搅拌效果。以 Fluent 软件为计算平台,对运算结果进行分析得到,桨叶倾角30°时搅拌效果较理想,但底部仍存在局部搅拌死角。减小桨叶与搅拌槽底部距离后重建模型,结果表明,混合物流动情况进一步改善,固相在混合物中分布均匀,与预期效果相符。可将此方法作为油辣椒制品自动化灌装技术的研究数值计算方法。

  5. Preparation and Qual ity Evaluation of Astragalus Yaoqu Soy Sauce%黄芪药曲酱油的制备及其质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 李丽; 张文学; 罗芳; 张劲; 易欣; 罗颂; 吴正云

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus QJ and Astragalus powder are used to make Astragalus Yaoqu,which is then used to make soy sauce based on traditional low-salt solid-state fermentation technology.The results show that the number and germination rate of spores of Astragalus Yaoqu are 82.97×108 cfu/g and 90.19%;the protease activity,total acidity (as lactic acid),liquefaction amylase activity are 0.475 g/100 g,35.67 mmol/100 g ,104.16 U/g .Astragalus Yaoqu soy sauce presents dark brown, delicious salty taste,sauce flavor,and the total nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen reach 1.782 g/dL and 1.441 g/dL,which reach the GB standards of special-grade soy sauce;the antioxidant test shows that DPPH scavenging rate and total phenol content are 72.45% and 3.78 mg/mL.%采用黄曲霉 QJ 并添加黄芪粉所制成的黄芪药曲种曲,在传统低盐固态法发酵工艺基础上制取酱油。结果显示:黄芪药曲种曲的孢子数和孢子发芽率分别达到82.97×108 cfu/g 和90.19%;成曲的蛋白酶活0.475 g/100 g,总酸(以乳酸计)35.67 mmol/100 g,液化淀粉酶活104.16 U/g;所发酵制得的酱油呈深褐色、鲜咸适口、有酱香味,其中全氮达1.782 g/dL,氨基酸态氮达到1.441 g/dL,达到国标特级酱油的标准;抗氧化指标中DPPH 清除率达到72.45%,总酚含量达到3.78 mg/mL。

  6. 麻辣香菇酱制作工艺和配方的研究%Research on Processing Technology and Formula of Spicy Mushroom Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹钰; 王雨生; 陈海华; 赵延伟

    2013-01-01

    本文以食用油、花椒、辣椒种类、花椒与油配比、辣椒与花椒配比、糖、食盐添加量、复合鲜味剂种类及其配比为试验因素,以香菇酱酱香味、油腻味、酱体状态、整体可接受性等为指标,采用单因素和正交试验确定香菇酱最佳制作工艺条件.结果表明:选用大豆油作为基础油;选用大红袍花椒、灯笼椒,花椒与油配比为1∶7,辣椒与花椒配比为1∶2;糖添加量为0.3%,食盐添加量为2.5%,复合鲜味剂为味精、呈味核苷酸二钠(I+G)、酵母提取物按10∶1∶100复配,复合鲜味剂的添加量为2%.在此工艺条件下,麻辣香菇酱风味状态最佳.%Different edible oils,pepper and chili varieties,ratio of pepper to oil,ratio of chili to pepper,amount of sugar,salt,composite flavor enhancer were selected as the experimental factors.The optimal production process of spicy mushroom sauce were studied by single-factor test and orthogonal test according to the evaluation of sauce flavors,greasy,sauce body state,acceptability.The result showed that the optimal oil of soybean oil,the optimum pepper of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim,chili of Bell pepper,the pepper-oil ratio of 1 ∶ 7,the chili-pepper ratio of 1 ∶ 2,the amount of sugar of 0.3%,salt of 2.5%,composite flavor enhancer composed of monosodium glutamate,I + G,yeast extract with the proportion of 10 ∶ 1 ∶ 100.Under the above process conditions,the flavors and body state of spicy mushroom sauce were the best.

  7. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-28

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil. PMID:24650165

  8. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  9. 利用茎柔鱼废弃物酿制鱼露的研究%Study on Fish Sauce Brewed by the Waste of Dosidicus gigass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲映红; 刘志东; 陈舜胜

    2014-01-01

    以智利外海茎柔鱼废弃物为原料,采用保温、加曲保温、加酶保温等不同速酿方法制备鱼露,测定鱼露在酿制过程中的pH和氨基酸态氮,并对最终样品作感官评价.结果表明,酿制20 d内,pH和氨基酸态氮变化显著,20 d后二者均趋于稳定.常温自然酿制鱼露中的各种变化速度较速酿鱼露缓慢得多.感官评定的结果表明,保温和加曲保温速酿的样品在气味优于加酶保温速酿的样品.对保温速酿鱼露中组胺和重金属含量测定的结果表明,其中组胺及砷、镉的含量均已超标,不适于直接作为调味品食用.

  10. Maternal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal and infant thiamin status and breast milk thiamin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a disease caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and other parts of Southeast Asia. Infantile beriberi presents during the exclusive breastfeeding period and without treatment commonly results in death within *24 hours of clinical p...

  11. Purification and characterization of a salt-activated and organic solvent-stable heterotrimer proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK33 isolated from Thai fish sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2010-01-13

    A NaCl-activated proteinase produced by Virgibacillus sp. SK33 was purified to homogeneity using phenyl-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75 with a yield of 12% and purification of 2.6-fold. A single protein was detected at approximately 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, three subunits with molecular weights of 27,858, 33,918, and 35,368 Da were obtained from MALDI-TOF mass spectra, implying that the enzyme was a heterotrimer. The isoelectric point of the proteinase was 5.4. Optimum catalytic activity was at 55 degrees C and pH 7.5. The enzyme showed serine characteristics as it was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. The purified proteinase showed broad specificity toward oxidized insulin B including Gln4, Cys7, Glu13, Ala14, Leu15,17, Tyr16,26, Arg22, Phe24,25, and Lys29. Dominant cleavage sites of the enzyme were Tyr16-Leu17 and Phe25-Tyr26, indicating that it preferably hydrolyzed aromatic amino acids located on the P1 site. Among various substrates studied, the enzyme hydrolyzed anchovy protein to the greatest extent at 4 M NaCl. Activity increased with either CaCl2 or NaCl concentration with the maximum 2-fold increase at either 50 mM CaCl2 or 4 M NaCl. The enzyme was also highly stable up to 500 mM CaCl2 or 4 M NaCl. The proteinase showed high stability in various organic solvents (25%, v/v) including dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, acetonitrile, and ethanol. Results of peptide mass fingerprint and de novo peptide sequencing showed that the purified proteinase is a novel proteinase. The proteinase from Virgibacillus sp. SK33 could have a potential application in high ionic strength environments and aqueous-organic solvent systems. PMID:19938835

  12. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  13. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  14. Compatibility Determination : Recreational Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It is determined in this document that recreational fishing of bass and brim on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is consistent with Refuge Objectives. The...

  15. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting...

  16. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish poisoning; Dinoflagellate poisoning; Seafood contamination; Paralytic shellfish poisoning; Ciguatera poisoning ... algae and algae-like organisms called dinoflagellates. Small fish that eat the algae become contaminated. If larger ...

  17. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  18. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  19. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  20. Simultaneous determination of preservatives in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Takino, Masahiko; Yamashita, Satoru; Daishima, Shigeki; Heiden, Arnd C; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven preservatives - sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters - in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks has been developed using the stir-bar sorptive extraction technique then thermal desorption GC-MS analysis. The extraction conditions - pH, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and extraction time - were examined. d5-Benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid sec-butyl ester were added as surrogate internal standards to compensate for the effect of sample matrix and coexisting analytes on the sorptive extraction. The linearity of the method was good over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 microg mL(-1) for sorbic acid, 10-1000 microg mL(-1) for benzoic acid, and 0.1-100 microg mL(-1) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9984. The limit of detection ranged from 0.015 to 3.3 microg mL(-1). The recoveries (95-105%) and precision (RSD: 0.86-6.0%) of the method were examined by analyzing a sparkling soft drink, white wine, red wine, balsamic vinegar, soy sauce, and quasi-drug drink samples fortified at the 5 to 50 microg mL(-1) level.

  1. Determination of Sodium of Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定酱油中甜蜜素含量的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪晓峰

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了毛细管气相色谱法测定酱油中甜蜜素含量的分析方法。采用RTX—WAX毛细管色谱柱和氢火焰检测器测定,外标法定量。【结果】样品加标平均回收率为93.7%-99.3%,相对标准偏差(RsD)为2.5%-4.7%。实验结果表明,该方法简便、快速,适合酱油甜蜜素含量的测定。%The article established the analysis of using gas capillary chromatography to determine the content of sodium cyclamate in soy sauce. This analysis adopt RTX-WAX capillary column and hydrogen flame detector to determine, and external standard. The average spiked recoveries of 93.7%-99.3%,the relatine standard deviation(RSD)is 2.5%-4.7%.It is show our that this method is simple,fast, is suit for the determination of sodium cyclamate sauce.

  2. Fish Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For commercial success, a recirculating aquaculture operation must maintain fish at densities far greater than normally found in nature. At the same time, the producer must maintain an environment that supports good fish health. This chapter discusses various aspects of fish health management, inclu...

  3. Ciguatera fish poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    J. Crump; McLay, C.; Chambers, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is one of a variety of non-bacterial forms of human seafood poisoning. Consuming large predatory fish from tropical reef ecosystems may be hazardous. We describe a case that is typical of the disease, and illustrates the persistence of neurological symptoms that occur in some patients.


Keywords: ciguatera fish poisoning; ichthyosarcotoxaemia; poisoning; biotoxins

  4. PCR-DGGE技术对传统发酵酱油的菌群分析%Analysis of Microbial Colonies in Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce by PCR-DGGE Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐次刚; 周其洋; 赵丽云

    2014-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)is an important non-protein amino acid .The studies show that GABA can generate in soy sauce fermentation process.In this study,we analyze microbial colonies in traditional fermented soy sauce by PCR-DGGE.The bacterial DGGE profiles of normal soy sauce and GABA elevated soy sauce have great differences,elevated GABA may arise from those bacteria.%γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)是一种重要的非蛋白质氨基酸。有研究表明,在酱油发酵过程中能产生GA-BA。研究利用PCR-DGGE技术分析了正常酱油和GABA升高酱油之间的菌群差异,发现两组样品之间微生物分布存在较大差异,升高的GABA可能来自于这些有差别的微生物。

  5. Study on aflatoxin B1 detecting in sauce by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay%胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中黄曲霉毒素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖卫华; 刘道峰; 邓省亮

    2012-01-01

    采用胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中的黄曲霉毒素B1.加标的酱油样品经提取后,以胶体金免疫层析法对其进行黄曲霉毒素B1测定,并与酶联免疫吸附法进行比较.结果表明,当酱油中黄曲霉毒素含量超过国家限量标准(5 μg/kg),胶体金免疫层析法检测结果为阳性,说明该方法能够满足酱油样品中黄曲霉毒素B1监控的要求.%Colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay was used to detect the Aflatoxin B1 in Sauce. After spiking with aflatoxin B1 and extracting, the samples from sauce were detected by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data showed that the result of colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay would be positive when the concentration of aflatoxin B1 in sauce exceeding the maximum limit of China (5 jig/kg). The immunochromatographic assay can be used to screen aflatoxin B1 of sauce products.

  6. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  7. 用高分辨G带和人工细菌染色体荧光原位杂交技术分析中国儿童孤独症患者的染色体改变%Detection of chromosome aberrations in Chinese children with autism using G-banding and BAC FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青杰; 陈晓宁; 沈岩; 马芬; 李丹; 王晓维; 田文雁; 陈艳; 封江彬; 陆雪; 陈德清

    2005-01-01

    Objective To detect the characteristic chromosomal changes in Chinese children with infantile autism. Methods Chromosome aberrations in 68 cases of infantile autism were analyzed by high-resolution G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Results Chromosomal changes were detected in 4 cases by high-resolution G-banding: one case with t(4;6)(q23-24;p21), one case with longer p arm of chromosome 21 (21p+), and two cases with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 (inv(9)) which was confirmed by C-banding. BAC FISH analysis was performed to confirm these observations and changes in chromosomes 2, 7 and 15, which are often found in autistic children. There could exist the translocation of t(4;6) (q25-26;p21.1). Chromosome changes often reported previously in chromosomes 2, 7 and 15 were not detected in this study. Inv(9) and 21p+ were not confirmed with present BAC clones. Conclusion Chromosomal changes were detected in four cases of infantile autism, with a detectability of 5.9%, far lower than that (10% to 48%) reported in literature. The breakpoint of translocation could be detected more accurately using BAC FISH method.%目的检测中国儿童孤独症患者的特征性染色体改变.方法应用高分辨G带和人工细菌染色体(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC)荧光原位杂交(flourescence in situ hybridization, FISH)分析68例中国儿童孤独症患者的染色体改变.结果用G带分析观察到有染色体改变的4例患者,分别为1例t(4;6)(q23-24;p21)、1例21p+和2例9号染色体臂间倒位.BAC FISH进一步证实易位病例,而且更精确[t(4;6)(q25-26;p21.1)];涉及7号、15号、2号染色体的BAC FISH均未观察到文献中报道的染色体改变;而9号染色体的臂间倒位和21p+因无BAC克隆而无法证实.结论用G带和BAC FISH发现少数中国孤独症患者有染色体改变,但远没有文献中报道的10%~48%那么高.BAC FISH有助于精确地确定染色体易位断裂点.

  8. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  9. Analysis of Microbial Survival in Heat-Treated Pixian Chili Sauce during Storage%热处理辣椒酱贮藏过程中残留微生物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文; 汪先丁; 高鹏; 杨虎; 赵敏; 孙群

    2012-01-01

    Heat treatment is often used to inhibit microbial growth in Pixian chili sauce for extending its shelf-life, but some microorganisms are still likely to survive, causing Pixian Chili Sauce to spoil during storage. In this study, Pixian chili sauce treated at 80℃ for 30 min was enumerated for total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, moulds and yeasts during storage at room temperature for 120 days. Bacterial and fungal strains isolated from chili sauce were identified by 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively, and PCR-DGGE technique was used to analyze the bacterial community at the end of the storage period. The total number of bacteria in chili sauce decreased more than 90% after heat treatment at 80 ℃ for 30 min, and the majority of surviving microbes were Bacillus sp. During the storage period of 120 days, the total number of bacteria in heat treated chili sauce increased at first and then decreased. The dominant surviving bacteria in chili sauce at the end of the storage period, as detected by PCR- DGGE, were Pediococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus. These results demonstrate that partial microorganisms in chili sauce are killed or presented in VBNC (viable but non-culturable) state after heat treatment, and surviving Bacillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria may be the reason for the spoilage of heat-treated chili sauce. Consequently, effectively controlling the survival Bacillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria is the key to extend the shelf-life of chili sauce.%四川郫县辣椒酱多采用热处理控制微生物生长以延长货架期,但热处理后残留微生物仍会导致辣椒酱腐败。辣椒酱经80℃、30min热处理后室温贮藏120d期间检测其中菌落总数、大肠菌群、霉菌和酵母数,分别采用16SrDNA和ITS序列鉴定分离的细菌和真菌菌株,并运用PCR-DGGE法分析贮藏终点辣椒酱中细菌群落结构。结果表明:热处理后辣椒酱中微生物减少了90%以上,残留微

  10. Monogenea of Chinese Marine Fishes XXII.A New Chinese Record Genus and Species Nasicola klawei ( Stunkard, 1962) Yamaguti, 1968 (Capsalidae)%中国海洋鱼类单殖吸虫研究XXⅡ.分室科一新记录属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长平; 胡盼; 丁雪娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a capsalid species of monogenean in China. Nasicola klawei (Stunkard, 1962) Yamaguti, 1968 (Monogenea: Capsalidae) was found in the nasal capsule of longtail tuna, Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker, 1851) , from Shanwei city, Guangdong Province. The specimens are basically consistent with the original description of Stunkard (1962) and the redescription of Yamaguti (1968) and Kohn et al. (2004) except for some differences in the structure of uterus, number of testes and the length of marginal hooks. This is the first time the genus Nasicola and species N. klawei are recorded in China, and the fish Thunnus tonggol is a new host. The specimens are deposited in the Lab of Fish Parasitology, College of life Science, South China Normal University.%记述采自广东汕尾青干金枪鱼Thunnus tonggol鼻腔中的1种单殖吸虫——卡氏嗜鼻虫Nasicola klawei(Stunkard,1962)Yamaguti,1968.所获标本的形态结构及大小与原始描述及Yamaguti( 1968)、Kohn等(2004)的描述基本一致,但在子宫结构、睾丸数目及后吸器边缘小钩的长度上略有差别.嗜鼻虫属及卡氏嗜鼻虫均为我国新记录,青干金枪鱼为宿主新记录.

  11. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  12. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations...

  13. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  14. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群芳; 江桂斌; 刘稷燕

    2003-01-01

    The acute (12 h) and chronic (7 or 14 d) effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) on a new type of test fish, the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), have been studied. High accumulation of the pollutant in the fish muscle and obvious changes in hepatosomatic index and gonad somatic index were observed after exposure. The ultrastructural findings show a series of pathological changes existing in the exposed gill cells and hepatocytes, which demonstrates the toxicity effects of tributyltin compounds on aquatic organisms. The results clearly show that the Chinese rare minnow is a new sensitive test fish material, whose exposure system is suitable for the extensive organometallic toxicity studies.

  16. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  17. 航天酱油酿造过程中微生物学研究%Microbiological analysis in space soy sauce brewing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志梅; 张宗舟; 薛林贵; 石小霞; 褚可成

    2011-01-01

    该文测定了以航天诱变黑曲霉、毛霉和米曲霉混合制曲,天然晒露,自然共酵,高盐稀态酿造生抽的微生物区系变化情况.试验证明了细菌、放线菌、酵母菌都有一定的耐盐性,细菌在食盐含量12%、14%、16%的情况下,分别增加了32.4倍、25倍和20倍,放线菌分别增加了5倍、4.6倍和1.8倍,酵母菌分别增加了1001倍、658倍和4.78倍.这3类微生物是生抽酱酯突出,香味协调,个性明显的生物基础.而霉菌类不耐盐,数量都有所下降,却是提高生抽转化率的生物基础.%Space mutant Aspergillus niger, Mucor, and Aspergillus oryzae were used for mixed koji, which was used soy sauce making with high salt concentration liquid-state natural fermentation under solar thermal. Changes of microbe species and quantity in soy sauce were investigated. The results indicated that all bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts were salt tolerance to some extent. Under the salt concentration of 12%, 14% and 16%, they were increased by 32.4 times, 25 times and 20 times; 5 times, 4.6 times and 1.8 times, and 1001 times, 658 times and 478 times respectively for bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts. The three types of microbes were biological basis of outstanding flavor coordination. Mold was not salt tolerance and the it had been decreased, which was the biological basis of improves conversion rate of soy sauce.

  18. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  19. Fish protein hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes now available in commercial quantities can be used to liquefy the fish and fish waste presently considered suitable for conversion to fish meal. The products obtained are readily dispersed or dissolved in water and have a high nutritional value. They have been satisfactorily used as substitutes for milk proteins in milk replacers for young animals. Further research is necessary on means of controlling the degree of hydrolysis to give protein preparations with acceptable functional properties as human food supplements. (Refs. 21).

  20. Development of an enzymatic fish hydrolysate and its use in instant soup bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, A; Morales de Léon, J; Bourges Rodríguez, H

    1985-12-01

    The successful conservation of fish products, at low costs, is a subject of special interest in the developing countries. Conscious of this fact, our group has been studying several fish conservation methods, such as autolysis with high salt concentrations, and has obtained a sauce of high nutritive value and long shelf life. Nevertheless, the reaction process takes from four to six months. In the study herein reported, the hydrolysis was accelerated and controlled by using the following enzymes: papain, HT proteolytic, and Brew (N) zyme. The hydrolysate was then mixed with cereals to prepare instant soups. As results indicated, the best hydrolysate was obtained with Brew (N) zyme at 50 degrees C and 8.30 hours. This hydrolysate contains 93.0 g/100 g crude protein with a protein efficiency ratio (PER) and a net protein utilization (NPU) of 60% that of casein's NPU as well as a content of 0.8% ether extract. The lowest-cost mixtures with the highest nutritive value were: hydrolysate-wheat-soymeal, and hydrolysate-rice-soymeal, with 38.3 and 29.7 protein per 100 g of mixture, respectively, and a NPU of 79.0 and 79.8% in relation to casein, respectively. The soups prepared had a satisfactory acceptance rating. There were no significant differences in flavor and aroma at a confidence level of 95%. The cost per gram of protein is about US$ 0.22 per kg. PMID:3842931

  1. Chinese Whispers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    In discrete networks, disconnection is often the critical factor that controls system function. The quality of network behaviour may be described by graph-theoretic indices such as the Cheeger constant, or through context-specific models. For water and sediment transport, one primary distinction is between unchannelled and channelled flow: diffusive sediment transport in the former providing poor connectivity and the progressive dominance of advective processes leading to better connected channelization. Within the channel network, Fryir's terminology of buffers, barriers and blankets describe types of disconnection that control water and sediment movement which are crucial to, for example, flood management. In the long term and at coarse scales, network connectivity is controlled by disconnection across divides and through sea level change. Willett has proposed a network analysis that shows catchments whose headwaters are threatened by capture and distributions of fish have provided evidence of the efficacy and rate of these processes, in Africa and elsewhere. Is there common ground between these approaches that can be applied to modelling the behaviour of social and other networks? The critical role of poor connections seems to be at least one significant common thread.

  2. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  3. Anglers' fishing problem

    CERN Document Server

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  4. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  5. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  6. Simultaneous Determination of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Benzoate, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow in Lemonades and Lemon Sauces by HPLC Using Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç Zor, Şule; Aşçı, Bürge; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem; Yıldırım Küçükkaraca, Dilek

    2016-07-01

    In this study, development and validation of a HPLC method was described for simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, quinoline yellow and sunset yellow. A Box-Behnken design using three variables at three levels was employed to determine the optimum conditions of chromatographic separation: pH of mobile phase, 6.0-7.0; flow rate, 0.8-1.2 mL min(-1) and the ratio of mobile phase composed of a 0.025 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer, 80-90%. Resolution was chosen as a response. The optimized method was validated for linearity, the limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and stability. All the validation parameters were within the acceptance range. The applicability of the developed method to the determination of these food additives in commercial lemonade and lemon sauce samples was successfully demonstrated. PMID:26951541

  7. 基于统计学方法的酱油二次沉淀形成的初步研究%Preliminary study on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces based on statistics methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献礼; 闫爽; 陈燕斌; 陆健

    2013-01-01

    本文以市售25种酱油为研究对象,以pearson相关分析法研究了酱油pH、总糖、还原糖、NaCl、总氮、氨基酸态氮、无盐固形物含量与酱油二次沉淀形成的相关性 . 同时,以T检验法研究了酱油不同发酵方式、类型、主要原料、质量等级和产地对酱油二次沉淀形成的影响.研究结果表明:酱油二次沉淀的形成与酱油中总糖、总氮和无盐固形物的含量呈显著正相关,与酱油PH、还原糖、NaCl、氨基酸态氮含量无统计学意义上的相关性.此外,分析结果显示酱油的发酵方式、主要原料、质量等级和产地对酱油二次沉淀的形成存在较大影响,而酱油类型对酱油二次沉淀的形成不存在明显影响.%The correlation between pH, contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, NaCI, total nitrogen, amino acid nitrogen,salt-free solid and secondary sediment formation of 25 commercial soy sauces was studied using pearson correlation analysis. Meanwhile, the effects of fermentation methods, types ( light/dark), main raw materials,quality grades and origins on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces were analyzed using T test method.Results demonstrated that the secondary sediment formation and contents of total sugar,total nitrogen and salt-free solid of soy sauces had a significantly positive correlation, and no statistically correlation between secondary sediment formation and pH, contents of reducing sugar, NaCI, amino acid nitrogen of soy sauces. Furthermore,results showed that there were significant effects of fermentation methods,main raw materials,quality grades,origins on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces,and no significant effect of types on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces.

  8. Multi-flavored Beef Sauce Digitalized Sensory Analysis Method Based on SRSAnose System%基于SRSAnose系统的多味牛肉酱数字化感官分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘杰; 惠国华

    2012-01-01

    酱类食品的风味品评主要采用人工感官评价的方法,但该方法易受品评人员经验、身体状况、情绪和环境等因素影响,以至于重复性差,耗时长,成本高.电子鼻系统是一种模拟人的嗅觉功能来分析和识别简单或复杂气体成分的仪器,可有效解决人工感官品评的不足.本文选用不同调味液配方的5种牛肉酱样品,利用自主开发的随机共振信噪比谱电子鼻(SRSAnose)系统检测牛肉酱样品香气,以非线性随机共振信噪比分析提取牛肉酱样品气味特征值,并作为数字化感官评价的判定依据.试验结果表明SRSAnose较好地区分了使用不同调味液的肉酱样品的气味特征,该系统可以作为数字化感官评价体系的良好栽体.%Sensory evaluation method is widely used in sauce flavor sensory analysis, while this method is easily disturbed by many factors, such as experience, physical condition, emotion and environment et al. which usually leads to low repeatability, time -consuming, high cost. Electronic nose system is a kind of intelligent instrument, which emulates human olfactory to analysis and discriminate simple or complicated gas samples. In this paper, 5 kinds of beef sauce samples using different sauce have been prepared. Self -developed stochastic resonance signal -to -noise ratio spectrum electronic nose (SRSAnose) system is used here to obtain the flavor data of different beef sauce samples. Stochastic resonance signal-to-noise spectrum analysis technique is used to extract the features of the samples, which provides a novel basis for digitalized sensory analysis. The experimental results show that the SRSAnose system can reflect the flavor features of beef sauce samples with different sauce successfully. The SRSAnose is the suitable carrier of digitalized sensory analysis method.

  9. Investigation and analysis of sauced meat products quality in Chongqing%重庆市餐饮酱卤肉制品质量调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠大伟; 孙玉侠; 张磊; 王友建

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand quality situations for sauced meat products of catering enterprises in Chongqing,according to statistical principle,two hundred representative samples were extracted to investigate food additives and microbiology,and analyze the kind of raw materials,the relationship of processing methods and samples quality,and distribution of unqualified indexes.The results showed the unqualified rate was 20%.When heating time was longer,product texture was looser,or the temperature was lower,the qualified rate of products was higher.Based on the experimental results,some suggestions were put forward for the purpose of improving the quality of sauced meat products.%为了解重庆市餐饮企业中酱卤肉制品质量情况,根据统计学原理,抽取有代表性的200份样品检测其食品添加剂指标和微生物指标。并分析样品的原材料种类,加工方式与样品质量之间的关系,不合格指标的分布情况,结果显示总体不合格率为20%,当煮制时间较长、样品纹理组织较疏松或环境温度较低时,产品合格率较高,据此提出相关建议,以提高餐饮酱卤肉的质量。

  10. Separation and identification of Flavonoids in soy sauce%酱油中异黄酮物质的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海德; 张水华; 肖凯军; 郭祀远

    2000-01-01

    本文采用真空浓缩干燥酱油、乙酸乙酯热回流抽取酱油中黄酮物质,并使用薄层层析法(TLC)进行纯化,分离。采用硅胶GF254做吸附剂(薄层板厚度约为0.3mm),展开剂用三氯甲烷:甲醇=6:1(vol/vol)的混合展开系统,从提取物中分离出三种样品,Rf值分别为0.70,0.50,0.40。把TLC法分离制备的样品进行结构检测,经过紫外光谱和TLC鉴定,判定三种纯品分别为大豆素、染料木素和6,7,4'-三羟异酮。%The flavonoids extracted from soy sauce were separated and purified by thin layer chromatographic (TLC) procedure. The study has shown that thd ideal procedure is using silica gel GF254 plates ( 20×20cm, 0.3mm thick), CHCl3/MeOH (6: 1, vol/vol) solvents. There were three specimens of which the retardation factor(Rf) were 0.70,0.50 and 0.40 respectively. Identification of the isolated samples by spectral analysis, TLC and chemical analysis demonstrated that daidzein, genistein and 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone appeared to be the main isoflavones in soy sauce.

  11. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  12. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  13. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  14. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  15. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  16. Microbial diversity and potential pathogens in ornamental fish aquarium water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine F Smith

    Full Text Available Ornamental fishes are among the most popular and fastest growing categories of pets in the United States (U.S.. The global scope and scale of the ornamental fish trade and growing popularity of pet fish in the U.S. are strong indicators of the myriad economic and social benefits the pet industry provides. Relatively little is known about the microbial communities associated with these ornamental fishes or the aquarium water in which they are transported and housed. Using conventional molecular approaches and next generation high-throughput amplicon sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene hypervariable regions, we characterized the bacterial community of aquarium water containing common goldfish (Carassius auratus and Chinese algae eaters (Gyrinocheilus aymonieri purchased from seven pet/aquarium shops in Rhode Island and identified the presence of potential pathogens. Our survey identified a total of 30 phyla, the most common being Proteobacteria (52%, Bacteroidetes (18% and Planctomycetes (6%, with the top four phyla representing >80% of all sequences. Sequences from our water samples were most closely related to eleven bacterial species that have the potential to cause disease in fishes, humans and other species: Coxiella burnetii, Flavobacterium columnare, Legionella birminghamensis, L. pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, V. mimicus. V. vulnificus, Aeromonas schubertii, A. veronii, A. hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest aquarium tank water harboring ornamental fish are an understudied source for novel microbial communities and pathogens that pose potential risks to the pet industry, fishes in trade, humans and other species.

  17. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  18. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  19. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  20. Minutes of Fish Barrier Workshop

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Minutes of Fish Barrier Workshop held 27 May 2009 at DOC Waikato Area Office. Lists attendees and highlights topics to be covered in Fish Barrier Workshop.

  1. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421...

  2. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  3. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  4. The Application of HACCP in the Processing of Cans of Air Dried Lobster Sauce Dace%HACCP在豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芳; 邹文中; 潘志民

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point(HACCP)was applied in the Processing of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace to insure the quality. Potential hazard of affecting the quality of product in each processing procedure were analyzed,and the planning worksheet was established to improve the safety of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace.%为了确保豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头的安全,对豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品进行危害分析,通过确定关键控制点及控制措施等建立了危害分析和关键控制点(HACCP)计划工作表,对改善和提高豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品的安全性具有重要的推动作用。

  5. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  6. Discussion on Improvement of Technology for Preventing Turbidity and Precipitate of Soy Sauce%改进工艺防止酱油浑浊与沉淀的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭; 曹岚

    2014-01-01

    分析了引起酱油浑浊沉淀的因素,探讨了改革工艺操作方法,提出了提高酱油澄清度的措施。%In this paper,the factors for causing turbidity and precipitate of soy sauce are analyzed,the methods for improving the production technology are summarized,and the measures for enhancing the clarity degree are put forward.

  7. Application of Electronic Tongue Technique in Taste Evaluation of Sweet Sauce%电子舌技术在甜面酱口感评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 黄明泉; 孙宝国; 田红玉; 陈海涛

    2012-01-01

    对7种不同品牌的甜面酱用电子舌交叉型传感器进行检测,同时测定其4项理化指标(总酸值、氨基态氮值、食盐含量、还原糖含量),所得数据用主成分分析法(PCA)进行分析比较,并将电子舌传感器响应信号值与理化指标进行了简单相关性分析(CCA),研究表明:该电子舌可以从综合口感方面对7个品牌的甜面酱样品进行有效的区分,并且理化指标和传感器相应信号之间具有较强相关性。因此,电子舌技术有望应用于甜面酱生产的在线监控,以保证其品质的一致性与评价的客观性。%Seven different brands of sweet sauces were evaluated using electronic tongue with cross-type sensors,and four physicochemical indices including total acid value,amino nitrogen value,salt content and reducing sugar content of these sweet sauces were also determined.The acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and canonical correlation analysis(CCA).Results demonstrate that electronic tongue technique was very effective in discriminating 7 different sweet sauce brands according to overall taste evaluation.Moreover,an obvious correlation between physiochemical indices and sensor response signals was observed.Accordingly,electronic tongue technique can be hopefully applied for online production monitoring of sweet sauce so as to ensure consistency and objectivity in quality evaluation.

  8. 玉米蛋白粉取代部分豆粕制曲酿造酱油%Partial Substitution of Soybean Cake Meal by Corn Gluten Meal to Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁凌; 任保国; 王大为

    2011-01-01

    In the present work,low-salt solid-state fermentation was carried out to produce soy sauce using corn gluten as the main material and soybean meal as the auxiliary material.The optimal process conditions for achieving maximum amino nitrogen content were determined by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods to be 4:2 ratio of main to auxiliary materials,12°Bé salinity,60% moisture content in soy sauce mash,and 50 ℃ fermentation temperature.Under the optimal conditions,the amino nitrogen content in soy sauce was 0.8375 g/100 mL and the yield of soy sauce with strong and unique flavor and excellent quality 326%.%以玉米蛋白粉为主,豆粕为辅,采用固态低盐发酵工艺生产酱油,以氨基酸态氮含量为考察指标,通过单因素及正交试验筛选出最佳工艺条件。当玉米蛋白粉与豆粕的质量比为4:2(g/g)、食盐水浓度为12°Bé、酱醅含水量60%、发酵温度50℃时,酿制的酱油(头油)氨基酸态氮含量为0.8375g/100mL,酱油收率326%,酱香浓郁、风味独特、品质优良。

  9. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  10. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... significant losses in aquacultural enterprises but vaccination methods implemented since the 1990s have demonstrated their role as one of the most efficient disease control strategies. These have been particularly successful with regard to bacterial diseases in Norwegian salmon farming where multivalent...

  11. West Lake Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Sweet & Sour Fish is widely recognized as the best fish recipe found in the city of Hangzhou. The delectable tender sweet & sour dish would please the palate of even the most demanding gourmet. The unique preparation method follows: Method: Place a one kilogram grass carp in clear water for three days to eliminate any offensive odor, and allowing adequate time for defecation. Gut and clean the carp thoroughly. Slice open the belly, Make five equally spaced one centimeter deep incisions on one side of the fish, and another slanting cut through the thick meat on the opposite side. Be certain to ensure the

  12. 低温酱卤鸭脖生产过程质量安全控制分析%Analysis on quality safety control in processing of production of low temperature sauced duck neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱连胜; 陈蒙

    2015-01-01

    通过对低温酱卤鸭脖生产过程中的微生物、TVBN进行测定,并对其质量安全控制进行了分析。最终确定卤煮、真空包装环境、灭菌工序和贮藏温度对酱卤鸭脖生产过程中的质量安全有较显著影响,最终得出真空包装环境污染程度低、增加低温杀菌工序和在7℃环境下保存能将酱卤鸭脖的保质期延长至60d的结论。%Microorganism and TVBN in processing of production of low temperature sauced duck neck were detected. Quality safety control was analyzed. It was finally determined that boiling, vacuum package environment, sterilization and storage temperature had significant influence on quality safety in processing of production of low temperature sauced duck neck. And it was obtained that the shelf life of sauced duck neck could be extended to 60 days under the condition of low degree of contamination of the vacuum package, adding low temperature sterilization and keeping at 7℃.

  13. 壳聚糖涂膜保藏技术在卤鹅加工中的应用%Application of Coating Storage Technology with Chitosan in Sauce and Pot-roast Goose Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓春; 葛良鹏; 欧秀琼; 景绍红; 杜金平

    2013-01-01

    Study of the composite preserving techniques of sauce and pot-roast gooses were carried out by the coating storage technology with chitosan, natural biologic preservatives, vacuum packaging technology and pasteurized repasteurization. The result showed that the shelf-life of sauce and pot-roast goose could extended to 4 weeks at 30℃-35℃by coating the surface of sauce and pot-roast goose with the solutions containing 1%chitosan,1%Nisin and 0.2%acetic acid, then combined with vacuum packaging, pasteurized repasteurization treatment(80℃-85℃,heating 5 min).%  采用壳聚糖涂膜保藏技术,结合天然生物防腐剂、真空包装及低温二次杀菌技术,对卤鹅综合保鲜技术进行了研究.结果表明:利用复配的壳聚糖涂膜液(含1%壳聚糖、1%Nisin和0.2%醋酸)对卤鹅表面作涂膜,然后真空包装,低温二次杀菌(80℃~85℃,5 min)处理,卤鹅在常温下(30℃~35℃)的货架期可达到4周.

  14. Application of metagenomics for identification of dominate fimgal species in soy sauce koji%宏基因组技术在鉴定酱油曲真菌优势菌株的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泉增; 胡广; 王洪彬; 路福平

    2012-01-01

    宏基因组技术是一种不依赖微生物纯培养的新技术,利用该种技术可以更加真实、快速鉴定酱油曲发酵过程中全部微生物中的优势真菌菌株.该研究首次提取酱油曲中宏基因组,PCR扩增宏基因组18S rDNA片段,构建出含有18S rDNA的pentr3c质粒.经过对18S rDNA的测序结果表明,酱油曲中优势的真菌微生物为米曲霉.%Metagenomics is a novel culture-independent genomic analysis technique. This technique will be helpful to identify dominate fungi in the microbial community in soy sauce koji. In this study, the total DNA of soy sauce koji was extracted. Then, PCR amplification was carried out to amplify the 18S rDNA gene of fungus. The recombinant plasmids were constructed by inserting 18S rDNA fragment into plasmid pentr3c. After gene sequencing, it was showed that the dominate fungus of soy sauce koji was Aspergillus oryzae.

  15. 提高低盐固态酱油利用率和风味的探索%Exploration of Improving the Utilization and Flavor of Low-salt Sol id-state Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓远均; 刘爽; 刘凯; 蒋正荣

    2015-01-01

    Through the production test,adjust the raw materials ratio of soy sauce,adopt moistening protein raw materials with water and then cooking starch raw materials,the starter-making of double strains is about 45 h,the experiment is carried out with different concentration and amount of salt water by low-salt spraying fermentation production process,it is determined that the salt content of sauce mash is 1 3%,the ratio of material and salt water is 1∶1 .7 ,which improves the utilization of total nitrogen and flavor of soy sauce.%通过生产试验,调整酱油生产原料配比,采用蛋白质原料先润水再添加淀粉质原料蒸煮,双菌种[1]45 h左右制曲,采用不同盐水浓度及不同盐水用量的低盐淋浇发酵生产工艺进行试验,最后确定了酱醅含盐为13%,原料:盐水(W/V)1∶1.7为优,提高酱油全氮利用率和风味。

  16. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  17. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  18. Study on enzymatic hydrolysis fish sauce with salted fish and volatile odor compounds%盐渍鱼酶解制备鱼露及挥发性风味物质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁岱秀; 曾庆孝

    2010-01-01

    在对Alcalase2.4L和Papain双酶分步酶解盐渍鱼酶解过程研究的基础上酶解鲜鱼和半年盐渍鱼制备鱼露,运用感官分析和顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)结合气质联用(GC-MS)法对其风味进行比较分析.结果表明:Alcalase2.4L、Papain双酶分步酶解盐渍鱼酶解效果较好,先加Papain 6 h后再加Alealase2.4L效果较好,但鲜味氨基酸的比例不如先加Alcalase2.4L后加Papain高;与鲜鱼酶解鱼露相比,虽然盐渍鱼使蛋白酶的酶解效果有所降低,但盐渍鱼酶解鱼露的风味较好,较接近传统鱼露的风味,且含有挥发性酸类,但具有鱼露特征香味的挥发性风味物质没有检出,说明需进一步发酵才能达到传统成熟鱼露的风味.

  19. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  20. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  1. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that...

  2. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  3. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment...

  4. Logy Bay Fishing Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    S H Parsons and Sons

    2003-01-01

    202 x 151 mm. Showing the small inlet with moored rowing boats and rough wooden shacks built on the cliffside. Lying about seven miles from St. John's, Logy Bay was used as a summertime fishing station.

  5. Fishing in the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜红伟

    2001-01-01

    Ted worked in a factory in a big town. He liked fishing very much, and was very good at it.Whenever he was free. he wouht go down to the small river behind the factory, and tried to catchsome fish, but there were very few there, because the water was dirty. Last summer he went to the seaside during his holidays and stayed at a small cheap hotel.

  6. Welfare in farmed fish

    OpenAIRE

    Damsgård, Børge; Juell, Jon-Erik; Braastad, Bjarne Olai

    2006-01-01

    The interest of fish welfare is increasing, both in Norway and internationally, leading to an increasing need for scientific knowledge about basic and applied questions related to how farmed fish are produced. The strategic institute programme (SIP) ”Welfare in farmed fish” was financed by the Research Council of Norway, for the five years period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. The core partners in the SIP were the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Fiskerifor...

  7. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  8. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  9. Determination of 3-Monochloropropane-l,2-diol in Soy Sauce and Oyster Sauce by Solid Phase Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%固相萃取与气相色谱-质谱联用分析调味料中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊珺; 龚亮; 赖毅东

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in sauce samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. In this work, elution solvent type and amount and sample loading amount were investigated to optimize SPE conditions. The optimal sample preparation procedure for treating 5.0 g of samples involved homogenization with 5 mol/L sodium chloride solution, clean-up on SPE column and derivitization prior to GC-MS analysis. The limit of detection of the method for 3-MCPD was 0.15 μg/kg, and the linear range 0.51 -- 6144μ g/kg, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and a relative standard deviation of 8.8% (RSD, n = 5). The method was applied to determine soy sauce and oyster sauce samples and spiked recoveries of 87.2%- 109.4% with RSDs (n = 3) of 5.6% - 10.2% were obtained.%建立固相萃取与气相色谱一质谱联用(solid phase extraction with gas chromatography—mass spectrometry,SPE.GC—MS)测定调味料中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇的新方法。对影响分析物SPE萃取效率的诸因素如洗脱溶剂、洗脱溶剂的体积和上样体积等进行详细考察和优化。最佳萃取条件为5.0g样品与5mol/L氯化钠溶液混匀,经SPE萃取净化、衍生后,以GC—MS进行测定,该方法对3-氯-1,2-丙二醇的检出限为0.15μg/kg,线性范围为0.51-614

  10. Senescence in fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    A long-standing theory, that there is a fundamental difference in aging between fishes and higher vertebrates, is still alive in the minds of many. In 1932, Bidder proposed that aging was causatively related to the cessation of growth at sexual maturity. Fish, which continue to grow throughout their lives, would not age, and therefore were potentially immortal. His ideas were clearly disproven by Comfort, who established that the survival curves of a laboratory population of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were very similar to those of a small mammal population under laboratory conditions. Recent data from field and laboratory studies, including histological evidence, amply confirm the occurrence of senescence in fishes. Natural death in fish has been associated with reproduction. There is good evidence for a number of species which shows that, with increasing size, the gonad forms a greater proportion of total body weight. In older, larger fish, extensive energy depletion for reproduction is suggested as an important factor in mortality. Reproductive modifications in older fish are also noted.

  11. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  12. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  13. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  14. PILOT STUDY ON SAUCE WASTWATER TREATMENT WITH MBR%膜生物反应器处理酱油废水的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李争义; 范洪波; 吕斯濠

    2011-01-01

    采用一体式好氧膜生物反应器( MBR)工艺处理实际酱油废水.考察了MBR对酱油废水的处理效果,并讨论了工艺参数对处理效果的影响.进水采用广东某酱油厂综合废水处理工艺的厌氧池出水,COD 500~800 mg· L-1、氨氮质量浓度为200 mg· L-1左右、色度为600~700倍、浊度为100 NTU左右.运行工艺参数:水温≥20℃、DO质量浓度≥2.5 mg·L-1、MLSS为8 000 mg·L-1、水力停留时间48 h、污泥停留时间120d.试验结果表明,在系统稳定运行后,使用膜生物反应器工艺处理酱油废水能达到良好的效果.出水COD、氨氮、色度分别为:≤90 mg·L-1、≤10mg· L-1、40倍左右,平均去除率分别为87.8%、95.94%、93.8%.对浊度的去除率能达到99%,出水水质稳定.%he treatment of sauce wastwater with a submerged MBR was conducted in a pilot study. The raw wastewater, which was taken from the anaerobic tank effluent of the wastewater treatment plant in a sauce factory in Guangdong, was characterized by COD as 500-800 mg·L-1, NH/-N as about 200 mg-L', chroma as 600~700 times, turbidity as about 100 NTU. The operating parameters were optimized as temperature higher than 20 °C, DO larger than 2.5 mg-L1, MLSS of 8000 mg·L-1,HRT of 48 h, sludge retention time of 120 d. Once the MBR run stably, the effluent can meet the standards of DB 4426-2005 as COD s=90 mg·L-1, NH4MM =S 10 mg-L1 and chroma s=40 times, and the average removal rates of the three indexes can reach to 87.8%, 95.94%, 93.8% respectively. Moreover, the removal rate of turbidity can exceed 99%. The experiment indicated that MBR could be used for treating sauce wastewater ideally.

  15. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques%2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琳; 蒋立文; 陶湘林; 李先淼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques were analyzed by combination of SPME extraction combined with GC-MS, and the relative contents were determined by area normalization method. Totally 117 species (seven categories) volatile flavor compounds were identified, and 62 species in natural bask crude soy sauce, 84 species in low-salt crude oil with heat insulation fermentation. The identified flavor compounds include alcohols (15), phenols (10), acids (18), esters (19), aldehydes anketones (21), heterocyclics (27) and sulfur compounds (7). O-guaiacol, ethanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl butanal, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and trimethylpyrazine were main ingredients in two kinds of soy sauce. Although the content of most volatile organic in soy sauce was very little, the existence of them greatly enriched flavor of soy sauce.%通过用SPME萃取结合GC-MS分析了2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分,用面积归一化法测定其组分的相对含量,2种酱油中共鉴定出117种(7大类)挥发性风味化合物,天然晒露的酱油共有62种,低盐保温发酵原油有84种,所鉴定的风味化合物包括15种醇,10种酚,18种酸,19种酯,21种醛酮化合物,27种杂环化合物和7种含硫化合物.其中O-愈创木酚、乙酸、3-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛和三甲基吡嗪为2种酱油中都存在的主体物质.尽管酱油中多数香气成分含量极微,但是多种香气成分的存在极大地丰富了酱油的风味.

  16. 温度对高盐稀态酱油风味物质的影响%Effect of Temperature on FIavor Substances of High-saIt Liquid-state Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施思; 蒋予箭; 张海珍

    2015-01-01

    采用豆粕和麸皮(配比6∶4)为原料,沪酿3.042米曲霉单菌种制曲,成曲以1∶2比例添加18°Be′盐水,进行发酵实验。为了研究温度对酱油发酵过程中各项指标的影响,对实验过程中发酵液的理化指标进行跟踪测定,结合成品酱油的感官分析和挥发性风味成分分析,得出发酵温度对酱油生产过程的影响。实验表明:在15~41℃的发酵温度范围内,酱油的氨态氮、红色指数、总氮含量与发酵温度呈正相关;15℃低温发酵1个月后,升温至30℃发酵2个月的工艺所酿酱油还原糖含量较高、风味化合物含量较高、香气与滋味得分值高。%Soybean meal and wheat bran (proportion of 6∶4)are used as raw materials,and Huniang 3.042 Aspergillus oryzae as the single strain to make koji.Then add 18°Be'brine by the proportion of 1∶2 into the finished koji to conduct soy sauce fermentation experiment.According to the tracking test of physical and chemical indicators of fermentation broth,the sensory evaluation of soy sauce and the analysis of volatile flavor components,the effect of fermentation temperature on various indicators in fermentation of soy sauce is investigated.The experimental results show that ammonia nitrogen content,red index and total nitrogen content of soy sauce are positive related to the fermentation temperature at 15~41 ℃;the soy sauce brewed at 15 ℃ for a month followed by rising to 30 ℃ for 2 months has higher content of reducing sugar and flavor compounds and high scores in aroma and taste.

  17. Study on the Effect of Yeast Extract on QuaI ity of Femented Soy Sauce%酵母抽提物对发酵酱油品质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周朝晖

    2016-01-01

    主要研究了酵母抽提物的特性及其在发酵酱油中的应用,研究结果表明酵母抽提物在用量低于2.0%时可耐受高盐高酸环境,并在长时间的储存过程中不出现沉淀现象。将该酵母抽提物应用于发酵原酱油中,发现其最适添加量为0.5%~1.0%,此时不仅可赋予酱油醇厚底味,增强其鲜香味,使鲜、咸、甜更加协调适口,与此同时还可去除酱油中的豆腥味和其他杂味,显著改善酱油的品质和风味,并且酱油稳定性良好,在储藏期间不会出现任何沉淀。%The properties and application of yeast extract in soy sauce are studied in this paper.The results show that the yeast extract could be used in environment with high content of salt and acid when the content of yeast extract in the solution is below 2 .0%and it doesn't appear precipitation with the storage time increasing.The optimal quantity of the yeast extract is 0.5%~1.0% applied in soy sauce.The application of yeast extract with the content of 0 .5%~1 .0% could improve umami flavor of soy sauce,make the soy sauce flavor mellow and thick,and make umami,sweetness and saltiness moderate,while the soybean odor and other bad flavor could be mostly eliminated.The soy sauce can also get good stability with yeast extract content of 0 .5%~1 .0%.

  18. Optimization of Process TechnoIogy of SpeciaI Sauce for Hot and Spicy String by PIackett-Burman Combined with OrthogonaI Test%Plackett-Burman 联用正交设计优选麻辣涮串专用蘸料加šš艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷进松; 郭宇蛟; 朱应鑫; 刘亚雯

    2015-01-01

    Study the processing technology of special sauce for hot and spicy string;take sensory score as the index to optimize the production process by single factor experiment,Plackett-Burman factors screening and orthogonal experiment.Evaluate the effects of the ratio of spicy sauce and sweet soybean paste,the amount of paprika,sesame sauce,peanut sauce,thirteen-spice powder,soy sauce, and vinegar on sensory score of the special sauce.The optimal production technology is determined as follows:the ratio of spicy sauce and sweet soybean paste is 3 ∶1 (W/W),the amount of paprika, sesame sauce,peanut sauce and vinegar is 15%,30%,15%,4% respectively.The product has good sensory properties and broad development prospects.%对麻辣涮串专用蘸料加工工艺进行了研究。以感官得分为指标,通过单因素实验,Plackett-Burman因素筛选,结合正交试验设计对生产工艺进行优化,为其开发与应用提供依据。评价了东北香辣酱∶甜面酱、辣椒粉添加量、芝麻酱添加量、花生酱添加量、十三香粉添加量、酱油添加量、醋添加量7个因素对蘸料感官得分的影响。最终确定最优生产工艺:东北香辣酱∶甜面酱(W/W)为3∶1、辣椒粉添加量15%、芝麻酱添加量30%、花生酱添加量15%、醋添加量4%。该产品具有良好的感官性状,开发前景广阔。

  19. 酱油中铵盐含量的监测与来源分析%Surveillance and analysis on the quantity and origin of ammonium salt in soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林崇昌; 司徒小玉; 邓秀燕; 吴灿斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quantity and origin of ammonium salt in soy sauce produced in Kaiping city,and provide references for the quality control of soy sauce production.Methods Detecting the contents of ammonium salt and amino acid nitrogen in soy sauce, calculating the proportion and the qualified rate of different types of ammonium salt,and detecting the contents of ammonia nitrogen in raw materials of caramel and ammonium salt in molasses.Results The difference between the qualified rate of ammonium salt in semi-finished products and end products of soy sauce ( 100% and 91.3% respectively) was of statistical significance (x2 = 4.3, 0.01 < P < 0.05 ).The difference on the qualified rate of ammonium salt between light soy sauce ( 100% ) and dark soy sauce (72.7% ) was of statistical significance (x2 = 17.7,P <0.01 ).Ammonia nitrogen contents in caramel were in the range of 0.02%-0.04% and all qualified, while ammonia nitrogen contents in molasses were 0.05-0.25 g/100 ml.Conclusion The contents of ammonia nitrogen in some species of soy sauce produced in Kaiping city were higher than the upper limits, which was the result of excessive ammonium salt in molasses.%目的 研究开平市产酱油中铵盐含量及其污染来源,为酱油生产过程质量控制提供参考依据.方法 检测酱油中的铵盐和氨基酸态氮含量,计算铵盐比率和合格率;检测原料焦糖色中氨氮含量和糖蜜中铵盐含量.结果 半成品酱油铵盐合格率(100%)和成品酱油铵盐合格率(91.3%)差异有统计学意义(x2=4.3,0.01<P<0.05);成品酱油中生抽酱油铵盐合格率(100%)和老抽酱油铵盐合格率(72.7%)差异有统计学意义(x2=17.7,P<0.01);焦糖色中氨氮含量在0.02%~0.04%之间,全部合格;糖蜜中铵盐含量在0.05~0.25g/100 ml之间.结论 开平市产部分酱油品种铵盐含量超标,是加入铵盐含量高的糖蜜导致.

  20. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Fish and Game's (CDFG) Fish Hatchery and Stocking Program (Program). FWS is lead agency, under the... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  1. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  2. 广式高盐稀态酿造酱油加工工艺与提高酱油澄清度的研究%Study on Improvement of Clarity and the Processing Technology of High-salt and Diluted-state Soy Sauce in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵芬; 陈耿文; 侯冶海; 吴永运

    2016-01-01

    该文研究了酱油产品的体态澄清度与原料利用率及菌体自溶的关系,结果表明:黄豆在121℃下蒸煮20min,原料夹生率达到6%以下;在原油灭菌工序中利用菌体的自溶,先缓慢加温至45℃并保温40min,再加温至80℃后冷却,产品的体态澄清且理化结果达到特级酱油的指标要求。%The clarity of soy sauce is related on the utilization of raw material and bacterial autolysis. The soy is stewed 20min at the temperature of 121℃.The raw rate of the raw material falls to 6%below. We can use bacterial autolysis at the sterilization of crude oil. At first,the soy sauce is heated to 45℃and keeps for 40min. Then,the soy sauce is cooled after heating to 80℃. The soy sauce is clarified and the result of physicochemical is according with standard of super sauce.

  3. Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea and Southeast Asian responses

    OpenAIRE

    Thayer, Carlyle A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Chinese assertive behaviour towards the Philippines and Vietnam over South China Sea issues in 2011. The article compares and contrasts Chinese diplomatic behaviour in the period before and after the adoption by ASEAN member states and China of Guidelines for the Implementation the Declaration on Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea in July. In the first period China aggressively asserted its claims to sovereignty by interfering with commercial fishing and oil explor...

  4. Sanitation, fish handling and artisanal fish processing within fishing communities: socio-cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Odongkara, K.O.; Kyangwa, I.

    2005-01-01

    postive transformation of the fisheries sector in Uganda has of recent been scatted by failure to mountain fish quality and safety,akey prerequiste for retaining and gaining fish markets. The social cultural study established the extent to which social cutural practices had affected the levels and the use of sanitation facilities,fish handling facilities and artisanal fish processing techniques and the factors that influenced these practices in the fishing communities of lake victoria. ...

  5. When a Fish is a Fish: The Economic Impacts of Escaped Farmed Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Yajie Liu; Jon Olaf Olaussen; Anders Skonhoft

    2011-01-01

    The escape of cultured fish from a marine aquaculture facility is a type of biological invasion that may lead to a variety of potential ecological and economic effects on native fish. This paper develops a general invasive species impact model to capture explicitly both the ecological and economic effects of invasive species, especially escaped farmed fish, on native stocks and harvests. First, the possible effects of escaped farmed fish on the growth and stock size of a native fish are exami...

  6. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  7. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  8. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  9. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  10. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  11. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  12. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  13. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  14. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  15. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  16. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  17. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  18. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  19. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  20. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  1. The welfare of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  2. LINEAMIENTOS PARA LA FORMULACIÓN DE PAGOS POR SERVICIOS AMBIENTALES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: ALTA CUENCA DEL RÍO SAUCE GRANDE. ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Denegri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo son: presentar un diagnóstico integral de los principales problemas ambientales generados a partir de la pérdida de suelo por erosión hídrica superficial y exponer los principales lineamientos para la formulación del PSA de la Cuenca Alta del Río Sauce Grande. Metodológicamente se procedió a caracterizar el área en estudio, cuantificar la degradación por erosión hídrica superficial, describir las actividades productivas, conocer los principales consumidores de agua, definir los principales actores del sistema, e identificar los Servicios Ambientales, factibles de ser incluidos en un sistema de PSA. La cuenca presenta procesos erosivos de diferente magnitud y en algunas zonas dificultades en el abastecimiento de agua para la población. Existe un proceso de cambio en el uso de suelo de ganadero a agrícola y a turismo rural. Se concluye que en la cuenca existen condiciones para la implementación de un PSA porque se detectaron dos servicios ambientales factibles de ser pagados: agua y paisaje, con demanda creciente y existen actores e instituciones factibles de ejecutarlo.

  3. Multiresidual LC-MS analysis of plasticizers used in PVC gaskets of lids and assessment of their migration into food sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, F; Catellani, D; Vindigni, M; Suman, M

    2016-09-01

    Plasticizers may migrate from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gaskets into the foodstuffs mainly by direct contact during the packaging and sterilization procedure, but also by means of occasional contacts occurring during shipment and storage. The present work reports a reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method able to quantify the main plasticizers used in the PVC closure gaskets for metal lids to verify their compliance in both food contact materials and foodstuffs. The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode resulted the best performing interface for the multiresidual detection of the plasticizers taken into account, followed by selected/multiple reaction monitoring, selected ion monitoring or full scan experiments, depending on the compounds to detect. The method was single-laboratory validated, demonstrating to reach a good sensitivity, thus making possible to perform analysis without any preliminary sample purification or concentration step. It proved to be effectively applicable not only for the determination of plasticizers in PVC gaskets but also in complex food matrices. In particular, it was applied for monitoring plasticizer migration into sauces placed in contact with the lids in worst storage conditions, observing therefore their trend during the shelf-life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  5. Growth performance, carcass traits, physiochemical characteristics and intramuscular fatty acid composition of finishing Japanese black steers fed soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takemi; Kumagai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean curd residue (SCR) and soy sauce cake (SSC) on the growth performance, carcass traits and physiochemical and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) characteristics in Japanese Black steers. Ten steers (29.7 ± 0.3 months old, 856.6 ± 24.4 kg body weight) were assigned to either treatment C, fed a conventional concentrate or T, fed the test diet including dried SCR and SSC for 3 months. In growth performance, dry matter (DM) intake and average daily gain, and carcass traits did not differ significantly between the treatments. Color of beef was affected by the dietary treatments and meat samples from T showed higher a(*) value and chroma than those in C. On FA composition, there was no significant difference between the treatments in neutral lipids, whereas in polar lipids, meat samples from T had higher C16:1 (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher C16:0 (P = 0.05) and C18:1 (P = 0.08), but lower C17:0 (P = 0.098), C18:2 (P = 0.06) and C20:4 (P = 0.07) than those from C. The study suggested that SCR and SSC could be used as a substitute for conventional concentrate and would influence meat color and intramuscular FA composition of polar lipids.

  6. Multiresidual LC-MS analysis of plasticizers used in PVC gaskets of lids and assessment of their migration into food sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, F; Catellani, D; Vindigni, M; Suman, M

    2016-09-01

    Plasticizers may migrate from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gaskets into the foodstuffs mainly by direct contact during the packaging and sterilization procedure, but also by means of occasional contacts occurring during shipment and storage. The present work reports a reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method able to quantify the main plasticizers used in the PVC closure gaskets for metal lids to verify their compliance in both food contact materials and foodstuffs. The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode resulted the best performing interface for the multiresidual detection of the plasticizers taken into account, followed by selected/multiple reaction monitoring, selected ion monitoring or full scan experiments, depending on the compounds to detect. The method was single-laboratory validated, demonstrating to reach a good sensitivity, thus making possible to perform analysis without any preliminary sample purification or concentration step. It proved to be effectively applicable not only for the determination of plasticizers in PVC gaskets but also in complex food matrices. In particular, it was applied for monitoring plasticizer migration into sauces placed in contact with the lids in worst storage conditions, observing therefore their trend during the shelf-life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27457286

  7. Effects of sonication on the extraction of free-amino acids from moromi and application to the laboratory scale rapid fermentation of soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kok Ming; Lai, Oi Ming; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping

    2017-01-15

    Soy sauce fermentation was simulated in a laboratory and subjected to 10min of sonication. A full factorial design, including different cycles, probe size, and amplitude was used. The composition of 17 free-amino acids (FAAs) was determined by the AccQ-Tag method with fluorescent detection. Main effect plots showed total FAAs extraction was favoured under continuous sonication at 100% amplitude using a 14mm diameter transducer probe, reaching 1214.2±64.3mg/100ml of total FAAs. Moreover, after 7days of fermentation, sonication treatment caused significantly higher levels (p<0.05) of glutamic acids (343.0±22.09mg/100g), total FAAs (1720.0±70.6mg/100g), and essential FAAs (776.3±7.0mg/100g) 3days sooner than the control. Meanwhile, enzymatic and microbial behaviours remained undisturbed. Collectively, the sonication to moromi resulted in maturation 57% faster than the untreated control. PMID:27542468

  8. Growth performance, carcass traits, physiochemical characteristics and intramuscular fatty acid composition of finishing Japanese black steers fed soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takemi; Kumagai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean curd residue (SCR) and soy sauce cake (SSC) on the growth performance, carcass traits and physiochemical and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) characteristics in Japanese Black steers. Ten steers (29.7 ± 0.3 months old, 856.6 ± 24.4 kg body weight) were assigned to either treatment C, fed a conventional concentrate or T, fed the test diet including dried SCR and SSC for 3 months. In growth performance, dry matter (DM) intake and average daily gain, and carcass traits did not differ significantly between the treatments. Color of beef was affected by the dietary treatments and meat samples from T showed higher a(*) value and chroma than those in C. On FA composition, there was no significant difference between the treatments in neutral lipids, whereas in polar lipids, meat samples from T had higher C16:1 (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher C16:0 (P = 0.05) and C18:1 (P = 0.08), but lower C17:0 (P = 0.098), C18:2 (P = 0.06) and C20:4 (P = 0.07) than those from C. The study suggested that SCR and SSC could be used as a substitute for conventional concentrate and would influence meat color and intramuscular FA composition of polar lipids. PMID:26663641

  9. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  10. Jurassic fishes of Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López-Arbarello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their current forms. However, the Jurassic fossil record of fishes is strongly biased towards the Northern Hemisphere. The only notable Early Jurassic fish fauna from Gondwana is that of the Kota Formation of India. For the Middle Jurassic, the most important Gondwanan fish faunas are those of the Aalenian-Bathonian Stanleyville Beds of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which a distinct freshwater and a marine fauna are found. In the Late Jurassic, the Gondwanan record is slightly better, with important marine faunas being known from the Oxfordian Quebrada del Profeta in Chile and the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina. Freshwater faunas have been described from the Tithonian Talbragar Beds of eastern Australia and the Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina. The taxonomic composition of the known marine actinopterygian faunas of Gondwana is in general agreement with faunas of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Jurassic fish record from Gondwana is highly incomplete both stratigraphically and geographically, and most faunas are in need of revision, further hampering an interpretation of Jurassic fish evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

  11. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  12. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  13. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  14. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  15. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in relation to the vessel quota share (VQS) system and lead us to the next chapter, where the principal......In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  16. Fish in Ecotoxicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Yancheva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination (heavy metals, pesticides, POPs, etc. is a serious environmental issue which has been raising lots of attention in the last decades because it can destroy aquatic ecosystems and hence, reduce biodiversity. In the field of ecotoxicology it is of main interest to investigate what the effects of organic and inorganic toxicants on different biological organization (cell, tissue, organism, population are. Thus, many authors use different test organisms and particularly, fish. In the current study we aimed to present collected data from the last years which describe why fish is an appropriate species in terms of ecotoxicological research.

  17. In Place of Fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    the imposition of transferable catch shares, this research takes a holistic approach to studying coastal communities. This study focuses on instances of transition from a greater presence of the fishing industry to new configurations of fisheries, maritime sectors, and tourism. Situated in places in......, affecting certain segments of the community more severely than others. In addition, the transition to tourism dependence holds a somewhat precarious future for coastal communities in temperate areas. In some cases, heritage and community identity remain strongly connected to the surviving fishing industry...

  18. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  19. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  20. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  1. The first record of the Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, Chinese pond mussel (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae is one of the most invasive aquatic macroinvertebrate species found in Europe. We report the Chinese pond mussel for the first time in Montenegro, in August 2012, in Lake Šasko (Adriatic part of the Central Mediterranean subarea. One specimen of the Chinese pond mussel was observed in a habitat with a predominantly silt-clay substrate. The main pathway of species introduction was evaluated to be via fish stocking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002 i br. ON 173025

  2. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  3. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  4. Significant Effects of Fishing Gear Selectivity on Fish Life History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenlin; SUN Peng; YAN Wei; HUANG Liuyi; TANG Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual’s traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectiv-ity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. Ac-cording to the existing tend of exploited fish individual’s life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  5. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  6. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  7. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  8. Fish in Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients:500 grams mutton and 750 grams live fish Condiments:Salt for taste, ginger, scallion, soup, water chestnut powder, gourmet powder Method: 1.Quick-boil the clean mutton. then put scallion, ginger, salt, gourmet powder and pepper powder into it and cook until

  9. Fish and chips

    OpenAIRE

    Delvenne, Philippe; Deprez, Manuel; Bisig, Bettina; JAMAR, Mauricette; Boniver, Jacques; Bours, Vincent; Herens, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Academic hospital laboratories should offer patients the possibility to have the most accurate diagnosis by the development of new analyses, such as molecular biology tests including FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and chips (microarrays,...). The purpose of this article is to describe the principles and the potential applications of these techniques.

  10. Fish 'n' TRIMs

    OpenAIRE

    Du Pasquier, Louis

    2009-01-01

    A novel diversified multigene family of tripartite-motif (TRIM) intracellular receptors with putative antiviral activity has been identified in teleost fish and published in BMC Biology. The history of these receptors involves ancient linkage to paralogs of the major histocompatibility complex, and the family has invertebrate precursors.

  11. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  12. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  13. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  14. Fishing effort and the impact of fishing gears and fishing methods on fishes and fisheries of Kyoga basin lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Kamanyi, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Lake Kyoga at the time of Worthington Survey (Worthington, 1929) was fished by only natives around it. The fishing gears consisted of locally made basket traps, hooks and seine nets made out of papyrus. Fishing was mainly during the dry season as in wet season, the fishers would revert to crop growing. During 1937 to 1950s Oreochromis variabilis, oreochromis esculentus (Ngege) and Protopterus aethiopicus (Mamba) were the most important commercial fish species and contributed over 95% to the t...

  15. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  16. Fermentation process and nutritional analysis of scallop skirt sauce%扇贝裙边酱发酵工艺及营养成分分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓茹; 王颉; 张亮

    2011-01-01

    为了降低扇贝酱产品成本,增加贝类产品的附加值,以扇贝裙边为主要原料,经米曲霉和豆粕制曲,扇贝裙边与豆曲的质量比为4∶1,加入中性蛋白酶2000U/g,添加12%食盐,在40℃恒温培养箱中发酵8d后以1%接种量接种耐盐四联球菌,在30℃恒温培养箱中发酵7d,25℃恒温培养箱中后熟30d,磨细后真空包装、灭菌制成扇贝裙边酱。对其营养成分、理化指标及游离氨基酸分析结果表明:蛋白质含量为20.04g/100g,脂肪含量为0.82g/100g,氨基酸态氮为1.76g/100g,19种游离氨基酸总量为9.82g/100g,游离的必需氨基酸总量为4.16g/100g。以上5个指标除脂肪含量外均显著高于由贝柱和豆粕、贝柱和面粉发酵生产的扇贝豆酱和扇贝面酱。该研究为降低扇贝酱产品成本提供了实验依据。%A fermentation process of scallop skirt sauce was studied to reduce scallop sauce product cost,and to increase added value of shellfish. Scallop skirt and soybean koji(Aspergillus oryzae culture on soybean meal)mixture(4∶ 1 by weight),containing 2000U/g neutral protease and 12% salt,was incubated for 8 days at 40℃,and inoculated with Tetragenococcus halophilus at 1% level. After fermentation at 30℃ for 7 days,and aging at 25℃ for 30 days,the mixture was ground into fine powder. The powder was vacuum packed,sterilized,and named as scallop skirt sauce. Nutritional and amino acid analysis showed that the scallop skirt sauce contains 20. 04g/100g of protein,0. 82g/100g of lipids,1. 76g/100g of amino acid nitrogen,9. 82g/100g of 19 free amino acids,and 4. 16g/100g of free essential amino acids. Except fat content,all other 4 specifications wrer significantly higher than those of scallop soy sauce or scallop flour sauce that were made from scallop with soy meal or flour,respectively. This study provided experimental data to reduce scallop product cost.

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  18. Development of Intermediate Foodstuff Derived from Freshwater Fish in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xichang; Yutaka Fukuda; CHEN Shunsheng; Masahito Yokoyama; CHENG Yudong; YUAN Chunhong; QU Yinghong; Morihiko Sakaguchi

    2005-01-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the walleye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  19. Development of intermediate foodstuff derived from freshwater fish in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xichang; Fukuda, Yutaka; Chen, Shunsheng; Yokoyama, Masahito; Cheng, Yudong; Yuan, Chunhong; Qu, Yinghong; Sakaguchi, Morihiko

    2005-07-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the wall-eye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  20. Analysis of the Volatile Fragrance Component from Fuling Zhacai Sauce with the GC-MS%涪陵榨菜酱油香气成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林奇; 江波; 王庆; 周尚

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The characteristic data for the evaluation and identification of the inherent quality of Fuling Zhacai sauce could be provided through the preliminary analysis of the volatile fragrance component from it. [ Method] The volatile component in Fuling Zhacai0 sauce sample was isolated with solvent extraction action and identified with GC-MS. [ Result] More than 30 kinds of volatile fragrance components was identified, among which, main component was carboxide, ethanol, acid, ester, ketone, phenol, heterocyclic compound and sulfo-compounds and those component could contribute the formation of fragrance. [ Conclusion ] Main component of volatile fragrance was assured,which result could be used for the control of the internal quality of Fuling Zhecai sauce.%[目的]初步分析涪陵榨菜酱油中挥发性香气成分,为其内在质量评价和鉴定提供特征数据.[方法]采用乙醚萃取法提取榨菜酱油中的香气成分,并用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析鉴定.[结果]鉴定出30多种化合物,其中主要成分是醇类、羧酸类、酯类、酮类、酚类以及杂环化合物(如呋喃类、吡嗪类、吡咯类)和一些含硫化合物等,它们对涪陵榨菜酱油的风味贡献较大.[结论]GC-MS分析方法明确了涪陵榨菜酱油中的挥发性香气成分,可以辅助甩于其内在质量控制.

  1. 耐盐乳酸菌添加对高盐稀态酱油风味的影响%The Impact of Adding Salt-tolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Flavor of High-salt Liquid Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚晨晨; 王猛; 沈艾彬

    2016-01-01

    In the fermentation process of high-salt liquid soy sauce,the addition of salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria has a great influence on the final flavor components of soy sauce.Through adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th and 45th day of fermentation,research the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds.The results show that adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 45th day,the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds is higher than that adding and without adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th day.The research has laid a foundation for its future application in the industrial production of brewed soy sauce with good flavor.%高盐稀态酱油发酵过程中,耐盐乳酸菌的添加时间对于酱油最终风味成分的影响很大。通过分别在发酵30,45天添加耐盐乳酸菌、未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,研究总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量。研究表明:发酵45天添加耐盐乳酸菌,总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量均高于30天添加和未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,为其以后应用于工业生产酿造出风味良好的酱油打下基础。

  2. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for c...

  3. Determination of the Content of Sodium in Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%酱油中甜蜜素应用气相色谱法的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清清

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the content of sodium in soy sauce was measured by gas chromatography, the results showed that the average recovery rate of sweet element was higher, and the accuracy of gas chromatography was also high.%本文利用气相色谱法对酱油中的甜蜜素含量进行了测量,结果表明:利用气相色谱分析,甜蜜素的平均回收率比较高,而且气相色谱法的精准度也很高。

  4. Isolation of flavor producing yeast and analysis on aroma characteristics in the natural soy sauce mash%天然酱醪中生香酵母的分离鉴定及香气特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽云

    2012-01-01

    An excellent yeast HT. Y309 screened from the natural sauce mash with good flavor, had obvious advantages in aroma, growth rate, salt tolerance, ethanol production capacity, been identified Zygosaccharomyes rouxii by colony and cell morphology analysis, sugar fermentation and other physiological and biochemical characteristics and 18SRNA sequence analysis. To research the aroma characteristics and the contribution to soy sauce flavor of the yeast HT. Y309, Simultaneous Distillation Extraction (SDE) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to compare the volatile flavor compounds in soy sauce with and without HT. Y309 fermentation. Results showed that the soy sauce with the yeast HT. Y309 fermentation had the main volatile flavor characteristic components of propanol, butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol,-and β-phenylethanol, furfural , benzeneacetaldehyde and other aldehydes, and 4-hydroxy-ethyl-5-methyl-3-furanone (HEMF).%从风味良好的天然酱醪中分离、筛选获得一株优良的生香酵母HT.Y309,在香气、生长速度、耐盐性、产乙醇能力方面具有明显优势.通过菌落和细胞形态分析、生理生化特征分析和18S rRNA序列分析,该菌株被鉴定为鲁氏酵母.采用同步蒸馏萃取法与气相色谱-质谱联用相结合的方法,对比添加和未添加HT.Y309发酵的酱油挥发性风味成分,研究HT.Y309香气特征及对酱油风味的贡献.结果表明,添加鲁氏酵母HT.Y309发酵所得的酱油的主要挥发性风味特征成分是正丙醇、正丁醇、异丁醇、异戊醇和p苯乙醇等多元醇,糠醛、苯乙醛等醛类物质以及4-羟基-2-乙基-5-甲基-3-呋喃酮.

  5. Determination of Potassium Sorbate in Soy Sauce Based on UV Spectrophotometry and Space Angle Criterion%基于子空间夹角判据-UV法直接稀释测定酱油中的山梨酸钾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟晖; 陈成; 姚志湘; 刘柳; 方凤

    2014-01-01

    基于向量-子空间夹角判据结合紫外分光光度法,提出了一种直接稀释测定酱油中山梨酸钾含量的新方法。该方法通过分别构建酱油本底、山梨酸钾标准品和待测酱油样品的紫外光谱库,运用向量-子空间夹角判据测定酱油中的山梨酸钾含量。结果表明:该方法计算结果与高效液相色谱法相比相对误差小于4.34%,方法被用于实际样品测定,回收率为95.00%~104.00%,相对标准偏差小于3.00%,该分析结果表明该法稳定、准确、简便快速、实用灵活,可用于食品防腐剂现场批量定量测定。%A new direct determination of potassium sorbate in soy sauce is established based on the vec-tor-subspace angle criterion and the UV spectrophotometer.In the study,three multi-wavelength UV spectral libraries,including background of soy sauce,potassium sorbate standard samples and soy sauce samples are respectively constructed to compute the content of potassium sorbate in soy sauce by using vector-subspace angle criterion.The result shows that compared with the result of high per-formance liquid chromatography,the relative error of the result of vector-space angle criterion is less than 4.34%,the recoveries of potassium sorbate are 95.00%~104.00%,the relative standard devia-tion (n= 4)is less than 3.00%.The analysis result shows that the method is stable,accurate,sim-ple,rapid,practical and flexible;it can be used for on-site batch and quantitative determination of food preservatives.

  6. Study on the Determination of the Content of Sodium in Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%酱油中甜蜜素应用气相色谱法含量测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少伟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the soy sauce before treatment is optimized, and explore the solid style of pretreatment method and the inlfuence of the meteorological chromatographic analysis, aims to improve the accuracy of cyclamate reagent for detection.%本文对酱油的前处理方式进行了优化,并探究了固体式样的前处理方式及对气象色谱分析的影响,旨在提高甜蜜素试剂检测的准确性。

  7. Determination of Phoxim Residues in Tomato Sauce by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定番茄酱中辛硫磷残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 郑琦; 李锋格

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of phoxim residues in tomato sauce by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) has been developed. Phoxim residues were extracted from tomato sauce with acetonitrile and purified on a Florisil column. The HPLC seperation was performed on a C18 column with acetonitrile.-O. 15% formic acid ( 4:1,V/V) as mobile phase and detection at 285 nm. The linear range was 0. 01~l mg/kg(r=0. 9999). The limit of detection(LOD) was 0. 01 mg/kg in the tomato sauce, the ranges of recoveries were 86. 1 %~102. 7% and RSD was 2.0%~6.5%. The method was simple,rapid, sensitive and accurate. It was suitable for routine inspection of phoxim residues in tomato sauce.%建立了高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定番茄酱中辛硫磷残留量的方法.番茄酱样品经乙腈提取盐析,弗罗里硅土固相萃取小柱净化,样液浓缩过滤膜后用乙腈溶解定容.采用C18色谱柱,流动相为体积比4:1的乙腈:0.15%甲酸水溶液,检测波长285nm,外标法定量.结果表明:在0.01~1 mg/kg范围内辛硫磷的线性关系良好(r=0.9999).方法检出限为0.01 mg/kg,平均回收率为86.1%~102.7%,相对标准偏差为2.0%~6.5%.该法简便、快速、灵敏、准确,各项技术指标均满足农药残留检测的要求.

  8. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  9. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  10. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  11. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  12. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  13. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  14. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  15. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  16. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  17. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  19. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  20. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  1. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  2. Psychiatry and Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T Y

    1983-12-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  3. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  4. Efficiency of Fish Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Maertens, A P; Yue, D K P

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined unless one considers the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it needs for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is the only rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms. Using two-dimensional viscous simulations and the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, we discuss the efficiency two-dimensional undulating foils. We show that low efficiencies, due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, cannot be accounted for by the increase in friction drag.

  5. A Comparative Study on the Acute and Chronic Effect of Oral Administration of Yaji (A Complex Nigerian Meat Sauce on Some Hematological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Akpamu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This comparative study to determine the acute and chronic effects of Yaji (a complex Nigerian meat sauce on some hematological parameters involved Wistar rats of an average weight of 188 g. The Wister rats were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 24; group A rats served as the control while group B1-F1 and B2- F2 served as the test groups. Group A (control received 300 g of growers mash (feed only and B received 237 g of feed plus 9 g each of the combined constituents of Yaji, while group C, D, E and F, received 291g of feed plus 9 g of clove, ginger, red pepper and black pepper, respectively. At the end of each week, 3 rats were picked at random from the groups for blood sample collection. The collected blood samples were analysed to determine PCV, WBC and differential count; and the resultant average values were then recorded. The first four weeks served as the acute treatment period for test groups B1-F1, while the combination of the first and second four weeks (eight weeks served as the chronic treatment period for test groups B2-F2. The test results showed a decrease in PCV as compared with that of the control (51.88 .36%. The observed differences in this regard was statistically significant (p0.05. Also, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the WBC count and differential count of the test groups as compared with group A. Our findings suggest therefore, that the changes observed in the test groups appear to be duration and dosage dependent and as such, indicates that an unregulated consumption of Yaji has its implications on health and wellbeing considering the clinical significance of PCV.

  6. Study on Tyrosinase in Koji-making Process of Soy Sauce%酱油制曲过程中酪氨酸酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强忠

    2013-01-01

    Establish a detection method on the activity of tyrosinase in soy sauce koji,and the feasibility of the method is presented through the verification of recoveries.The tyrosinase activity during the koji-making process is studied and the effects of koji-making time,heating mode,koji-loos-ening time and koji-making temperature on tyrosinase and neutral protease activity are identified.The results show that the tendency of tyrosinase activity increases firstly and then decreases,reaching a peak at 22 h.In order to control the tyrosinase activity effectively,the moisture of koji and koji-loose-ning times should be controlled in a certain range,and the temperature should not be too low in latter stage of koji-making.%建立了对酱油曲料中酪氨酸酶活的检测方法,通过加标回收率的验证,确定了该方法的可行性,并对酱油制曲过程中的酪氨酸酶活进行了研究,确定了制曲时间、加热调节方式、松曲时间以及制曲温度对酪氨酸酶活及中性蛋白酶活的影响.结果表明:酪氨酸酶活在制曲过程中呈现先上升后下降的趋势,在22 h达到最高峰,为了有效地控制酪氨酸酶的活力,需要控制曲料的水分和松曲次数在一定的范围内,并维持制曲后期温度不能太低.

  7. Study on the Manufacturing Technology of Xiangyang Kohlrabi Chicken Sauce%襄阳大头菜鸡肉酱加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长江; 李阳

    2014-01-01

    以襄阳特产大头菜和鸡肉为主要原料,通过单因素试验研究大头菜的浸泡脱盐时间、植物油的添加量、自制面酱的调制比例得出最佳效果,并以感官评价为依据,运用L9(33)正交试验筛选出主要原料的最优加工配方,即大头菜∶鸡肉∶自制面酱为5∶3∶4。产品成棕褐色,料质光泽,咸甜适中,有襄阳大头菜特有的风味和鸡肉香味,符合消费者对食品美味营养的新需求,同时为襄阳传统特产大头菜深加工提供新的思路。%This paper analyzes the manufacturing of kohlrabi chicken sauce which takes chicken and Xiangyang specialty kohlrabi as the main ingredients .Single-factor experiments are employed to explore the marinating time,the amount of vegetable oil added , and the amount of self-made wheat flour paste .Orthogonal studies based on sensory evaluation suggest that the optimal proportion of kohlrabi ,chicken and wheat flour paste is 5∶3∶4 .The finished product is of lustrous brown color ,moderate salty and sweet tastes ,with peculiar fragrance of Xiangyang kohlrabi and chicken ,catering for consumers 'need for both nutrition and tastefulness .The study also provides a new insight on the further processing of Xiangyang 's specialty kohlrabi .

  8. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210.

  9. 腌菜型复合骨汤肉酱调料的开发%Development of Complex Seasoning of Meat Sauce with Bone Soup and Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 王文亭; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 王卫; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    The livestock bone is used as main material,and chicken bone,crucian,etc.are added with a small quantity to reduce fishy smell.Bone oil is separated by centrifuge after all the materials are boiled,and the clear soup remainder is made into a complex bone puree by vacuum concentration.Stir livestock and poultry meat pieces into minced meat with deodorization or without deodorization,then being fried with pickles to be as meat solids.Finally,pack bone oil,bone puree and solids into bags according to a certain ratio,and complex meat sauce products are obtained after atmospheric steriliza-tion,the shelf life can be more than 6 months,the product may be used as convenient seasoning of rice flour noodles,vermicelli,noodles,soup and cooked food.%以畜骨为主要原料,并辅以鸡骨、鲫鱼等来减轻腥味,组合熬制后经过离心分离得到复合骨油,!汤真空浓缩制备复合骨浓汤。再用畜禽分割碎肉,经过脱膻或不脱膻后搅成肉糜,与腌菜一并经过炒制后作为肉酱固形物,最后将骨油、骨浓汤、固形物按一定比例装袋,常压杀菌后得到复合肉酱成品,保质期达6个月以上,可作为米线、粉丝、面条、汤汁、菜肴的方便调料。

  10. Chromohalobacter is a Causing Agent for the Production of Organic Acids and Putrescine during Fermentation of Ganjang, a Korean Traditional Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-12-01

    Ganjang, a Korean traditional fermented soy sauce, is prepared by soaking doenjang-meju (fermented soybeans) in approximately 20% (w/v) solar salt solution. The metabolites and bacterial communities during ganjang fermentation were simultaneously investigated to gain a better understanding of the roles of the microbial population. The bacterial community analysis based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that initially, the genus Cobetia was predominant (0 to 10 d), followed by Bacillus (5 to 74 d), and eventually, Chromohalobacter became predominant until the end of the fermentation process (74 to 374 d). Metabolite analysis using (1)H-NMR showed that carbon compounds, such as fructose, galactose, glucose, and glycerol, probably released from doenjang-meju, increased rapidly during the early fermentation period (0 to 42 d). After removal of doenjang-meju from the ganjang solution (42 d), the initial carbon compounds remained nearly constant without the increase of fermentation products. At this point, Bacillus species, which probably originated from doenjang-meju, were predominant, suggesting that Bacillus is not mainly responsible for ganjang fermentation. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, α-aminobutyrate, γ-aminobutyrate, and putrescine increased quickly with the rapid decrease of the initial carbon compounds, while Chromohalobacter, probably derived from the solar salts, was predominant. Multivariate redundancy analysis indicated that the Chromohalobacter population was closely correlated with the production of the organic acids and putrescine during the ganjang fermentation. These results may suggest that Chromohalobacter is a causing agent responsible for the production of organic acids and putrescine during ganjang fermentation and that the solar salts, not doenjang-meju, is an important microbial source for ganjang fermentation.

  11. 乳酸菌发酵南瓜红薯复合酱的研制%Preparation of compound sauce on lactic acid bacteria pumpkin sweet potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴壮; 张华; 张晓黎; 鲁明; 王小鹤

    2012-01-01

    以南瓜、红薯为原料,通过正交试验最终确定乳酸菌发酵南瓜红薯最佳发酵条件:发酵剂接种量为原料质量的3%,加盐量为原料质量的0.6%,发酵温度24℃,时间16d;乳酸菌发酵南瓜红薯复合酱原料配比为南瓜:红薯1:2,砂糖加入量为原料质量40%,灭菌温度100℃,时间20min。产品呈浅黄色,口感细腻、酸甜适口、有一定流动性,无分层,无析水现象,既有南瓜红薯天然清香,又有乳酸菌发酵特有的风味,无异味。%For the pumpkin, sweet potato as raw material, through orthogonal test ultimately determine the lactic acid bacteria pumpkin sweet potato best starter fermentation conditions: inoculation quantity as raw material, plus 3% of the weight of salt as raw material, 0.6% of the weight of fermentation temperature 24 %, time and d. Lactic acid bacteria pumpkin sweet potato composite sauce for pumpkin ratio of raw materials:sweet potato1:2; The sugar to amount to raw material weight 40%; Sterilization temperature of 100 ~C, time 20 min. Products are in light yellow, delicate taste sweet and sour, including, has certain liquidity, no separation, no bleeding phenomenon, both pumpkin sweet potato natural faint scent, but also unique flavor of lactic acid bacteria, no peculiar smell.

  12. The Development of Healthy Pork Sauce with Arctium lappaL . and Lent i nus edodes%牛蒡香菇保健肉酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东波

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Arctium lappaL.,lentinus edodes and pork are as main raw materials, develop a kind of condiment with health care function.The orthogonal design is adopted to research the optimized formula.The result shows that the optimized formula is Arctium lappaL.to lentinus edodes of 4∶1(40% of the total),pork of 10%,bean sauce of 20%,and dry red chili of 4%.This product has unique fragrance,with rich nutrition of Arctium lappaL.and lentinus edodes,is a kind of condiment with nutrition and delicacy.%以牛蒡、香菇、猪肉为主要原料,开发一种具有保健功能的调味酱。通过正交试验确定最佳工艺配方:牛蒡∶香菇用量比为4∶1(总量为40%),猪肉用量为10%,豆瓣酱用量为20%,干辣椒用量为4%。此产品风味独特,且最大限度地保留了牛蒡、香菇的有效成分,具有一定的保健功能,是一种集营养美味于一身的调味酱。

  13. Avocado Consumption Enhances Human Postprandial Provitamin A Absorption and Conversion from a Novel High–β-Carotene Tomato Sauce and from Carrots12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Young, Gregory S.; Harrison, Earl H.; Francis, David M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high–β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  14. A New model to forecast fishing ground ofScomber japonicus in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; CHEN Xinjun; GUAN Wenjiang; LI Gang

    2016-01-01

    The pelagic species is closely related to the marine environmental factors, and establishment of forecasting model of fishing ground with high accuracy is an important content for pelagic fishery. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is an important fishing target for Chinese lighting purse seine fishery. Based on the fishery data from China’s mainland large-type lighting purse seine fishery for chub mackerel during the period of 2003 to 2010 and the environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), gradient of the sea surface temperature (GSST), sea surface height (SSH) and geostrophic velocity (GV), we attempt to establish one new forecasting model of fishing ground based on boosted regression trees. In this study, the fishing areas with fishing effort is considered as one fishing ground, and the areas with no fishing ground are randomly selected from a background field, in which the fishing areas have no records in the logbooks. The performance of the forecasting model of fishing ground is evaluated with the testing data from the actual fishing data in 2011. The results show that the forecasting model of fishing ground has a high prediction performance, and the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) attains 0.897. The predicted fishing grounds are coincided with the actual fishing locations in 2011, and the movement route is also the same as the shift of fishing vessels, which indicates that this forecasting model based on the boosted regression trees can be used to effectively forecast the fishing ground of chub mackerel in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.

  15. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  16. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  17. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Ardura

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific. Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  18. Fish in Ecotoxicological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vesela Yancheva; Iliana Velcheva; Stela Stoyanova; Elenka Georgieva

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination (heavy metals, pesticides, POPs, etc.) is a serious environmental issue which has been raising lots of attention in the last decades because it can destroy aquatic ecosystems and hence, reduce biodiversity. In the field of ecotoxicology it is of main interest to investigate what the effects of organic and inorganic toxicants on different biological organization (cell, tissue, organism, population) are. Thus, many authors use different test organisms and particularly, fish....

  19. The fish egg microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pathogens increasingly threaten biodiversity and food security. This thesis describes the study of the microbiome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eggs and analyses of the effects of infections by the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia ...

  20. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Kotler; Larry Hanson; Arnon Dishon

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to est...