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Sample records for chinese fish sauce

  1. Analysis of volatile components in a Chinese fish sauce,Fuzhou Yulu, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-fan YANG; Shen-ru CHEN; Hui NI; Xing-qian YE

    2008-01-01

    Volatile components of Fuzhou Yulu, a Chinese fish sauce, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and two pretreatment methods, i.e., purge and trap (P&T) GC-MS and ethyl acetate extraction followed by GC-MS, were compared. P&T-GC-MS method determined 12 components, including sulfur-containing constituents (such as dimethyl disulfide), nitrogen-containing constituents (such as pyrazine derivatives), aldehydes and ketones. Ethyl ace tate extraction fol-lowed by GC-MS method detected 10 components, which were mainly volatile organic acids (such as benzenepropanoic acid) and esters. Neither of the two methods detected alcohols or trimethylamine. This study offers an important reference to determine volatile flavor components of traditional fish sauce through modem analysis methods.

  2. Removal of cadmium from fish sauce using chelate resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Araki, Ryohei; Michihata, Toshihide; Kozawa, Miyuki; Tokuda, Koji; Koyanagi, Takashi; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2015-04-15

    Fish sauce that is prepared from squid organs contains cadmium (Cd), which may be present at hazardous concentrations. Cd molecules are predominantly protein bound in freshly manufactured fish sauce, but are present in a liberated form in air-exposed fish sauce. In the present study, we developed a new method for removing both Cd forms from fish sauce using chelate resin and a previously reported tannin treatment. Sixteen-fold decreases in Cd concentrations were observed (0.78-0.05 mg/100 mL) following the removal of liberated Cd using chelate resin treatment, and the removal of protein-bound Cd using tannin treatment. Major nutritional components of fish sauce were maintained, including free amino acids and peptides, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities.

  3. Electrodialysis desalination of fish sauce: electrodialysis performance and product quality.

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    Chindapan, Nathamol; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2009-09-01

    Fish sauce has a unique, pleasant flavor, but contains high levels of sodium chloride, which is nowadays not desirable for health-conscious consumers. Although many researchers have attempted to solve this problem by substituting sodium with potassium in fish sauce, potassium-based products are still unsuitable for patients with kidney disease. Thus, electrodialysis (ED) desalination of fish sauce was carried out. The rate of salt removal, evolution of total soluble solids, and electrical conductivity of the electrodialysis-treated fish sauce were investigated. Moreover, the system performance in terms of yield, energy consumption, and current efficiency were examined. Density, viscosity, ion concentrations (that is, Na(+), K(+)), total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, and color were investigated at various values of input voltage (6, 7, and 8 V) and remaining salt concentration (22%, 18%, 14%, 10%, 6%, and 2%[w/w]). The results indicated that an increase in the input voltage led to an increase in the rates of salt removal, electrical conductivity, and total soluble solids. The energy consumption increased whereas current efficiency and yield decreased significantly with an increase in input voltage and the salt removal level. Physicochemical properties of the treated fish sauce, in terms of the total soluble solids, density, viscosity, ion concentrations (that is, Na(+), K(+)), total nitrogen, and color were significantly affected by the input voltage and the salt-removal level.

  4. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

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    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  5. Combating iodine and iron deficiencies through the double fortification of fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, Visith; Nopburabutr, Preeyacha; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2003-06-01

    Two iodine and seven iron compounds were tested for use in the fortification of pure fish sauce, mixed fish sauce, and salt brine for cooking as a means to combat iodine and iron deficiencies. Ferrous sulfate, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ferric ammonium citrate, and ferrous lactate were combined with potassium iodide with no effect on sensory quality. Product shelf-life testing revealed that no iron or iodine losses occurred during a three-month storage period. Although the color of most products darkened, the color was not significantly different from that of nonfortified products after two to three months. Sensory home-use tests revealed that the fortified products were acceptable to highly acceptable, with only 1.2% to 8.2% of the dishes cooked using the fortified products being reported as discolored. The cost of fortification was minimal, at 0.13 to 2.73 baht per bottle (750 ml) (42 baht = US$1). Consequently, these products show a potential for inclusion in national programs for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies in Asian countries where fish sauce and its products are routinely consumed.

  6. A Review: Microbiological, Physicochemical and Health Impact of High Level of Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce

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    Muhammad Z. Zaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds present in a wide variety of foods and beverages. Their formations were mainly due to the amino acids decarboxylase activity of certain microorganisms. Excessive intake of biogenic amines could induce many undesirable physiological effects determined by their psychoactive and vasoactive action. Fish sauce which is considered as a good source of dietary protein, amino acids, vitamins and minerals was a popular condiment in Southeast Asian countries. However, it has also been reported that fish sauce contain high amount of amines. Hence, attention should be given to ensure the safety of this product. Approach: A review study was conducted to deliver an overview on the presence of biogenic amines in fish sauce and to discuss the important factors affecting their accumulation. Impact of amines on human health and efforts to reduce their accumulation in fish sauce were also discussed to give a comprehensive view. Results: Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine is the most abundant amines in fish sauce with maximum reported value of 1220, 1257 and 1429 ppm, respectively. Tyramine present in a lesser amount with maximum reported value of 1178 ppm. Other amines such as tryptamine, phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine were considered as minor amines. However, different profiles of amines were reported in different type of products. This was depended on microbial flora, availability of precursors and physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and sugar concentration. In synergistically supporting physicochemical factors, several microorganisms such as Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococci and Lactobacilli were responsible for biogenic amines formation in fish sauce. Conclusion: Since the formation of amines in fish sauce was a result of many factors, it was almost virtually impossible to control each factor during fermentation. Addition of amines degrading bacteria into fish

  7. Pisciglobus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from fish sauce.

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    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thongsanit, Jaruwan; Thawai, Chitti; Lee, Keun Chul; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2011-07-01

    Two strains of Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, tetrad-forming cocci, C01(T) and C02, were isolated in Thailand from fish sauce. They were facultatively anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacteria. These strains produced l-lactic acid from glucose. They grew at pH 5.0-9.0, at 15-40 °C and in the presence of 10 % (w/v) NaCl. The dominant fatty acid was C(18 : 1)ω9c. The DNA G+C contents of strains C01(T) and C02 were 38.6 and 38.7 mol%, respectively. Strain C01(T) was related most closely to Desemzia incerta DSM 20581(T), with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.9 %. The strains could be distinguished clearly from D. incerta DSM 20581(T) based on cell morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness. On the basis of the data presented, strains C01(T) and C02 are considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the Bacillus-Lactobacillus cluster, for which the name Pisciglobus halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pisciglobus halotolerans is C01(T) ( = KCTC 13150(T)  = TISTR 1958(T)  = PCU 316(T)).

  8. Microbial succession and the functional potential during the fermentation of Chinese soy sauce brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanita eSulaiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of traditional Chinese soy sauce is determined by microbial communities and their inter-related metabolic roles in the fermentation tank. In this study, traditional Chinese soy sauce brine samples were obtained periodically to monitor the transitions of the microbial population and functional properties during the six months of fermentation process. Whole genome shotgun (WGS method revealed that the fermentation brine was dominated by the bacterial genus Weissella and later dominated by the fungal genus Candida. Metabolic reconstruction of the metagenome sequences demonstrated a characteristic profile of heterotrophic fermentation of proteins and carbohydrates. This was supported by the detection of ethanol with stable decrease of pH values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the temporal changes in microbial successions over a period of six months, through metagenome shotgun sequencing in traditional Chinese soy sauce fermentation and the biological processes therein.

  9. The Quality Analysis of Fish Sauce and Fish Soy Sauce using Electronic Nose%基于电子鼻技术的鱼露与鱼酿酱油的品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 刘淇; 曹荣

    2015-01-01

    通过电子鼻获取鱼露、鱼酿酱油和生抽的气味信息,进行主成分分析(PCA)、线性判别分析(LDA)和负荷加载分析(Loadings),并结合氨基酸态氮、盐分、全氮和游离氨基酸含量,对比分析3种调味品的品质。结果显示,3种调味品中游离氨基酸种类丰富,鱼露中苏氨酸、甘氨酸、丙氨酸、甲硫氨酸、赖氨酸的含量明显高于鱼酿酱油和生抽;生抽和鱼酿酱油中鲜味氨基酸的含量明显高于鱼露,但生抽中必需氨基酸的含量远低于鱼酿酱油和鱼露;3种调味品挥发性成分复杂,电子鼻10个金属传感器能很好地区分3种调味品的挥发性气味,W5S、W1S、W2S 号传感器比其他7个传感器有更高的响应值,其中 W2S 号传感器的响应值变化最显著。这说明电子鼻能较好地区分鱼露、鱼酿酱油和生抽,虽然3种调味品中第1、2主成分相同,但醇类、氮氧化合物类物质对第1、2主成分的贡献率不同。%In this study, we analyzed the qualities of fish sauce, fish soy sauce and light soy sauce using the electronic nose. An electronic nose captured the flavors of light soy sauce, fish sauce and fish soy sauce, and the information was assessed with principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and loadings analysis. The qualities of the sauces were then determined with the results above together with factors such as amino acid nitrogen, total nitrogen, salinity and the content of free amino acids. The results showed that fish sauce and light soy sauce were first-class products, and that fish soy sauce was a super product. There were a variety of free amino acids in the three sauces. The contents of threonine, glycine, alanine, methionine and lysine in fish sauce were higher than those in fish soy sauce and light soy sauce. The content of flavor amino acids in light soy sauce and fish soy sauce was significantly higher than that in fish sauce. This

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

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    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce.

  11. Fish Sauce Fermentation with Silver Carp or Offal of Surimi Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN You-rong(陈有容); ZHANG Xue-hua(张雪花); Qi Feng-lan(齐凤兰); Motoharu Uchida

    2004-01-01

    Fish sauce is a kind of condiments processed from fish. The L9(34) orthogonal tests have been carried out to inspect the effects of technological conditions for fermentation on the comprehensive quality of fish sauce. The conditions of the orthogonal tests are following: the fermentation temperature takes values of 35℃, 40℃ and 45℃, the percentage of Koji values of 40%, 20% and 10% and the percentage of salt values of 10%, 14% and 18%. The obtained experimental results indicate that fermentation temperature plays an important role in the improvement of sauce quality. The optimal technological conditions for sauce fermentation are of 10% salt, 45℃ and 40% koji mixed. The composition of fish sauce processed from offal of silver carp-surimi processing under the above-mentioned conditions and two commercial products have been analyzed. The results show that fish sauce processed from fish offal is nutritious and delicious. It is suggested that the fermentation of fish sauce is a potential and promising pathway to make full use of freshwater fish resources and offal in fish processing.In this study, fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process have been applied and the quality evaluation has been established by the combination of physico-chemical indices and sensory evaluation. The comprehensive evaluation has been taken to reflect the optimal factors for the process of sauce fermentation. The quality indexes for fish sauce contain sensory evaluation, amino nitrogen, total nitrogen, specific gravity, volatile basic nitrogen, salt concentration, brown index and acidity, represented by y1, y2, y3, y4, y5, y6, y7, y8, and y9, respectively. They form a group U= {y1, y2, y3, y4, y5, y6, y7, y8, y9,}. Using the fuzzy functions, the values of all these factors are transformed into fuzzy degrees of single factor, i.e. numerical values between 0 and 1. The fuzzy degrees of single factor in several samples are made up a matrix R. Following that, a weight of each index can

  12. 基于电子鼻的鱼露香气品质识别%Flavor identification of fish sauce based on electronic nose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江津津; 陈丽花; 黎海彬; 曾庆孝

    2011-01-01

    为了识别鱼露的品质,并为缩短发酵周期的工艺优选提供理论依据.利用电子鼻对7种鱼露样品的挥发性气味进行了分析,并与项空-气质联用( GC-MS)和感官分析结果进行比较.结果表明:鱼露香气成分复杂,工艺改良对气味影响很大,电子鼻18个金属传感器能很好地将不同样品的气味进行识别.以传统发酵原汁鱼露为标样,电子鼻分析结果表明,加曲改良工艺的4号样品与标样香气最为接近,相似系数达87.8%,该结果与GC-MS数据和感官分析结果一致,可为鱼露速酿工艺的优选提供参考.%In order to discriminate the quality of fish sauce and help to find the best process for shorten fermentation time, electronic nose was used to study the diversity of the flavor of seven fish sauce samples. The conclusion was compared with those of headspace GC-MS and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the volatile compounds of fish sauce were complicated and it could be changed apparently by improving process. The samples could be discriminated through 18 metal oxide sensors of electronic nose. Using original fish sauce as standard, sample 4 which using Koji when fermentation has the most similar flavor with original fish sauce, the similarity coefficient was 87.8%. The result is similar in electronic nose analysis, headspace GC-MS analysis and sensory evaluation. It can provide a reference for improve the process of Chinese fish sauce.

  13. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  14. Discrimination of Chinese traditional soy sauces based on their physico-chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOKOT; Serge

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to classify the categories (produced by different processes) and brands (obtained from different geographical origins) of Chinese soy sauces.Nine variables of physico-chemical properties (density,pH,dry matter,ashes,electric conductivity,amino nitrogen,salt,viscosity and total acidity) of 53 soy sauce samples were measured.The measured data was submitted to such pattern recognition as cluster analysis (CA),principal component analysis (PCA),discrimination partial least squares (DPLS),linear discrimination analysis (LDA) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN) to evaluate the data patterns and the possibility of differentiating Chinese soy sauces between different categories and brands.Two clusters corresponding to the two categories were obtained,and each cluster was divided into three subsets corresponding to three brands by the CA method.The variables for LDA and KNN were selected by the Fisher F-ratio approach.The prediction ability of all classifiers was evaluated by cross-validation.For the three supervised discrimination analyses,LDA and KNN gave 100% predications according to the sample category and brand.

  15. Relationships between NIR spectra and sensory attributes of Thai commercial fish sauces.

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    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai

    2007-07-01

    Twenty Thai commercial fish sauces were characterized by sensory descriptive analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The main objectives were i) to investigate the relationships between sensory attributes and NIR spectra of samples and ii) to characterize the sensory characteristics of fish sauces based on NIR data. A generic descriptive analysis with 12 trained panels was used to characterize the sensory attributes. These attributes consisted of 15 descriptors: brown color, 5 aromatics (sweet, caramelized, fermented, fishy, and musty), 4 tastes (sweet, salty, bitter, and umami), 3 aftertastes (sweet, salty and bitter) and 2 flavors (caramelized and fishy). The results showed that Thai fish sauce samples exhibited significant differences in all of sensory attribute values (p analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality of the spectral data from 622 wavelengths to two uncorrelated components (NIR1 and NIR2) which explained 92 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. NIR1 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1100 - 1544, 1774 - 2062, 2092 - 2308, and 2358 - 2440 nm, while NIR2 was highly correlated with the wavelength regions of 1742 - 1764, 2066 - 2088, and 2312 - 2354 nm. Subsequently, the relationships among these two components and all sensory attributes were also investigated by PCA. The results showed that the first three principal components (PCs) named as fishy flavor component (PC1), sweet component (PC2) and bitterness component (PC3), respectively, explained a total of 66.86% of the variation. NIR1 was mainly correlated to the sensory attributes of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste on PC1. In addition, the PCA using only the factor loadings of NIR1 and NIR2 could be used to classify samples into three groups which showed high, medium and low degrees of fishy aromatic, fishy flavor and sweet aftertaste.

  16. Microbial composition during Chinese soy sauce koji-making based on culture dependent and independent methods.

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    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Qian, Yu-lin; Ji, Feng-di; Chen, Jing-yu; Han, Bei-zhong

    2013-05-01

    Koji-making is a key process for production of high quality soy sauce. The microbial composition during koji-making was investigated by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to determine predominant bacterial and fungal populations. The culture-dependent methods used were direct culture and colony morphology observation, and PCR amplification of 16S/26S rDNA fragments followed by sequencing analysis. The culture-independent method was based on the analysis of 16S/26S rDNA clone libraries. There were differences between the results obtained by different methods. However, sufficient overlap existed between the different methods to identify potentially significant microbial groups. 16 and 20 different bacterial species were identified using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. 7 species could be identified by both methods. The most predominant bacterial genera were Weissella and Staphylococcus. Both 6 different fungal species were identified using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, respectively. Only 3 species could be identified by both sets of methods. The most predominant fungi were Aspergillus and Candida species. This work illustrated the importance of a comprehensive polyphasic approach in the analysis of microbial composition during soy sauce koji-making, the knowledge of which will enable further optimization of microbial composition and quality control of koji to upgrade Chinese traditional soy sauce product.

  17. [Fatty acids in sardine canned in tomato sauce from different fishing areas of the Mexican Pacific].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Gónzalez, M I; Montaño Benavides, S; Pérez-Gil Romo, F

    2001-12-01

    Numerous investigations have pointed out the importance that the fatty acids have in the process health-illness, and that the marine resources are excellent sources of the series omega 3 and omega 6. In Mexico, the sardine is a product of marine origin of wide consumption due to its high readiness and low cost. The objective of the present study was to determine the fatty acids profile (FA) in sardine canned in tomato sauce coming from different fishing areas (A) of the Mexican Pacific. There were randomly obtained 8 commercial mark (5 cans of each mark) of sardine canned in tomato sauce; they were classified in sardine of South Baja California Sur (A1), Sonora (A2) and Sinaloa (A3). The samples without draining were liquified and thereafter were obtained the methyl esters of fatty acids that were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. In all the areas they were identified and quantified as 3 FA omega 3 (linolenic, EPA and DHA) and 2 AG omega 6 (linoleic and arachidonic); this source is rich in FA monounsaturated and also presents a considerable quantity of trans FA (18:1n9t and 18:2n6t). The DHA was the most abundant AG in all the areas (3064-4704 mg/100 g); finally, the relationships omega 3/omega 6 were from 3.5 (A1) up to 8.9 (A3). In conclusion, sardine canned in tomato sauce of the mexican Pacific is a rich food in omega-3 and omega-6 FA, independently of the processing area.

  18. Effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce made from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Kishimura, Hideki; Simpson, Benjamin K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the addition of spleen of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis), at levels of 0%, 10% and 20%, on the liquefaction and characteristics of fish sauce produced from the sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) with different salt concentrations (15%, 20% and 25%) were monitored during fermentation for 180 days. Fish sauces prepared from sardine with spleen supplementation contained greater total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen than did those without spleen a...

  19. Micellar Liquid Chromatography Determination of Spermine in Fish Sauce after Derivatization with 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Liang Chin-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the selective determination of the levels of spermine in anchovy sauce after derivatization with 3,5 dinitrobenzoyl chloride. The micellar liquid chromatographic separation proposed here uses a C18 column (125×4.6 mm, followed by detection of spermine derivative at 260 nm. Elution of the analyte was performed using a mobile phase of 0.15 M SDS-4% (v/v 1-pentanol-pH 7 running under isocratic mode at 25°C. Validation parameters were linearity (2–100 μg/mL, R2>0.999, detection and quantification limits (0.4 and 1.2 μg/mL, resp., precision (less than 3.6%, accuracy (93.3–101.1%, and robustness (less than 4.8%. These results are in agreement with the requirements of the FDA guidelines. The proposed method was successfully applied to the monitorization of spermine formation in unsalted and salted fish sauce samples. The suggested methodology was found useful in routine analysis of spermine in fish sauce samples.

  20. Nutritional Composition Analysis and Quality Evaluation of Chaoshan Fish Sauce%潮汕鱼酱油营养成分分析与品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江津津; 黎海彬; 曾庆孝; 李崇高

    2012-01-01

    Chaoshan fish sauce was analyzed for nutritional composition and compared with imported fish sauce products.All tested samples had high salt content,especially Chaoshan fish sauce(as high as 30%).However,Chaoshan fish sauce showed the lowest ratio of total volatile basic nitrogen to trimethylamine nitrogen and better fermentation quality.EAA/TAA ratio in Chaoshan fish sauce was 51.23%,which was higher than the FAO/WHO pattern,and EAA/NEAA was 105.04%.Chaoshan fish sauce contained 110.53 mg/100 mL taurine.Therefore,it is a salty and tasty seasoning with high nutritional value.Moreover,abundant micro-elements such as Ca were found in Chaoshan fish sauce.Chaoshan fish sauce as a natural fermentation product of marine trash fish exhibited a 90.51% antioxidant activity in modified FRAP assay and a TCA-soluble short peptide content of 28.49 mg/mL.%测定分析潮汕鱼酱油的营养成分,并与其他国家产鱼酱油进行比较。结果表明:鱼酱油含盐量偏高,潮汕鱼酱油的含盐量最高,达30%,但潮汕鱼酱油挥发性盐基氮与三甲胺氮的比值最小,发酵品质较好。潮汕鱼酱油中必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比值(EAA/TAA)为51.23%,必需氨基酸占非必需氨基酸的比值(EAA/NEAA)为105.04%,必需氨基酸总量与氨基酸总量之比高于FAO/WHO的理想模式,且含有110.53mg/100mL的牛磺酸,是一种营养价值较高的咸鲜调味品。潮汕鱼酱油中含有丰富的钙等微量元素,可以补充矿物质。潮汕鱼酱油是低值海鱼的天然发酵产物,其抗氧化活性达90.51%,三氯乙酸(TCA)可溶性短肽为28.49mg/mL。

  1. Manufacture of Chinese Dwarf Cherry Cheese Sauce%钙果奶酪涂抹酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡明; 刘超

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The manufacture processing and formulation of Chinese dwarf cherry cheese sauce, cheese and Chinese dwarf cherry as raw material, were studied. [ Method] The optimal conditions were determined by single tests and L9 (34) orthogonal tests. [ Result ] 9% Chinese dwarf cherry juice, 0.2% xanthan gum, 3% emulsifier and 8% sucrose were added into fresh milk to produce cheese sauce. [ Con clusion] Chese species were enriched by adding this kind of product wity more nutrients.%[目的]以自制的鲜奶酪和钙果为主要原料,研究钙果奶酪涂抹酱的最佳配方.[方法]利用单因素试验和L(3)正交试验,以产品的感官评价为指标,确定产品最佳的配发.[结果]该产品的最佳配方为:在鲜酪中分别添加9%钙果汁、0.2%黄原胶、3%乳化剂、8%蔗糖.[结论]该产品不仅丰富了奶酪品种,而且提高了奶酪的营养价值.

  2. Discovery of salt taste enhancing arginyl dipeptides in protein digests and fermented fish sauces by means of a sensomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Alexander; Dunkel, Andreas; Stähler, Frauke; Backes, Michael; Ley, Jakob; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-12-14

    As enzymatic digests of fish proteins were recently reported to enhance salt taste, the fish protein protamine was digested by chymotrypsin and trypsin and subsequently screened for candidate salt taste modulating (STM) peptides. To achieve this, first, a two-step sensory assay was developed and demonstrated to be a rather suitable tool for the detection of salt taste enhancers and the "quantitation" of their salt taste enhancing activity on the basis of isointensities with reference solutions. By means of activity-guided fractionation using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography in combination with the sensory assay for STM activity assessment, a series of arginyl dipeptides, with RP, RA, AR, RG, RS, RV, VR, and RM being the most active, as well as l-arginine were found as salt taste enhancing molecules in fish protamine digests. For the first time, HPLC-MS/MS analysis on a PFP and a HILIC stationary phase, respectively, enabled the quantitative analysis of the arginyl peptides in a series of commercial and laboratory-made protein hydrolysates as well as fermented fish sauces.

  3. Beyond Effectiveness—The Adversities of Implementing a Fortification Program. A Case Study on the Quality of Iron Fortification of Fish and Soy Sauce in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Laillou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of fish and soy sauces is a cost-effective strategy to deliver and increase iron intake in the Cambodian diet, as both are widely consumed by the entire population. In order to qualify as fortified sauces recognized by international regulations, iron content must be between 230 and 460 mg/L, whilst nitrogen and salt should contain no less than 10 g/L and 200 g/L respectively. This survey aims to analyze the progress of the fortification program. Through a better understanding of its obstacles and successes, the paper will then consider approaches to strengthen the program. Two hundred and fifty two samples were collected from 186 plants and 66 markets in various provinces. They were then analyzed for iron, nitrogen and salt content. The study demonstrates that 74% of fortified fish and soy sauces comply with Cambodian regulations on iron content. 87% and 53.6% of the collected samples do not have adequate level of nitrogen and salt content, respectively. The paper will discuss additional efforts that need to be implemented to ensure the sustainability of the project, including the need to: (i comply with International Codex; (ii adopt mandatory legislation; and (iii ensure enforcement.

  4. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures.

  5. 温度对加曲速酿低盐鱼露性质的影响%Effects of temperature on the properties of the low-salt fish sauce fermented by adding koji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁武银; 陈书霖; 刘光明; 苏文金; 曹敏杰

    2012-01-01

    The effects of constant temperature and oscillatory temperature on the properties of low-salt fish sauce prepared from mackerel ( decapterus maruadsi)by adding koji were investigated.When fish sauce was prepared at constant temperature of 20℃ or 40℃,the pH of fish sauce mash was remained at 5.2-5.5 during fermentation.On the other hand,the pH of fish sauce mash reached up to 6 during 90 days of fermentation at 30℃, resulting in highest total volatile basic nitrogen content(TVB-N)of fish sauce production,suggesting that 30℃ was not suitable for preparing low-salt fish sauce fermented by adding koji.However,the lower amino-acid nitrogen content(AA-N) and total soluble nitrogen content (TS- N) were observed in the fish sauce production prepared at 20%, while a slight bitterness was found in that of 401C.When the fermentation temperature was controlled at 20% in the initial 30 days of fermentation stage,30℃ in the 30 days of second stage,40℃ in the 30 days of last stage,not only the AA -N and TS-N of fish sauce production were increased, but also the TVB-N of fish sauce production was decreased.Based on the analysis of free amino acid compositions and sensory evaluation, it was revealed that the quality of fish sauce production could also be improved by the subsection fermentation process.%以蓝圆够为原料,添加酱油曲制备低盐鱼露,考察了恒温发酵温度和变温分段发酵对低盐鱼露性质的影响。在发酵过程中,20℃和40℃恒温发酵可以使酱醅pH稳定在5.2~5.5,但在30℃下经过90d发酵后酱醅的pH逐渐上升并接近6,导致鱼露的挥发性盐基氮(TVB—N)含量最多,表明加曲速酿鱼露的发酵不适合在30℃下进行。然而,20℃低温发酵鱼露中的氨基酸态氮(AA—N)和可溶性总氮(TS—N)的含量都较低,40℃发酵的鱼露含有一定的苦味。当利用先低温后高温分段发酵方式制备低盐鱼露时,不仅可以提高鱼露的AA

  6. Determination of total nitrogen content, pH, density, refractive index, and brix in Thai fish sauces and their classification by near-infrared spectroscopy with searching combination moving window partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritthiruangdej, Pitiporn; Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Suwonsichon, Thongchai; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai; Thanapase, Warunee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) transflectance spectra in the region of 1100-2500 nm were measured for 100 Thai fish sauces. Quantitative analyses of total nitrogen (TN) content, pH, refractive index, density and brix in the Thai fish sauces and their qualitative analyses were carried out by multivariate analyses with the aid of wavelength interval selection method named searching combination moving window partial least squares (SCMWPLS). The optimized informative region for TN selected by SCMWPLS was the region of 2264-2428 nm. A PLS calibration model, which used this region, yielded the lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.100% w/v for the PLS factor of 5. This prediction result is significantly better than those obtained by using the whole spectral region or informative regions selected by moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR). As for pH, density, refractive index and brix, the 1698-1722, and 2222-2258 nm regions, the 1358-1438 nm region, the 1774-1846, and 2078-2114 nm regions, and the 1322-1442, and 2000-2076 nm regions were selected by SCMWPLS as the optimized regions. The best prediction results were always obtained by use of the optimized regions selected by SCMWPLS. The lowest RMSEP for pH, density, refractive index and brix were 0.170, 0.007 g cm(-3), 0.0079 and 0.435 degrees Brix, respectively. Qualitative models were developed by using four supervised pattern recognitions, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), factor analysis-linear discriminant analysis (FA-LDA), soft independent modeling of class analog (SIMCA), and K neareat neighbors (KNN) for the optimized combination of informative regions of the NIR spectra of fish sauces to classify fish sauces into three groups based on TN. All the developed models can potentially classify the fish sauces with the correct classification rate of more than 82%, and the KNN classified model has the highest correct classification rate (95%). The present study has demonstrated that NIR

  7. [Application of zebra fishes in studies on traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-li; Zhu, Guo-fu

    2015-03-01

    The zebra fish model, as an integral animal model, features small volume, high throughput, low cost, short cycle and reliable experimental results, thus has been widely used in medical studies. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) constitute a complex system, their active ingredients and action mechanisms are among study hotspots in during the development of modern TCMs. Along with the constant improvement of advanced technologies and methods, zebra fishes have been increasingly applied in studies on TCMs and shown advantages in active screening, and toxicity and metabolism studies. In this paper, TCM studies by using zebra fishes in recent years are summarized to provide new ideas and methods for basic studies on TCMs.

  8. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in marine fishes along the Chinese coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-03-01

    This study reports concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in two species of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaenacrocea) and silver pomfret (Pampusargenteus) (n = 46), from nine Chinese coastal cities (Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen). HBCDs were detectable in all samples analyzed, indicating ubiquitous contamination of these compounds in the Chinese coastal environment. The average total HBCD concentration was 3.7 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight (range: 0.57-10.1 ng g⁻¹ lipid weight), which is relatively lower than other regions of the world, especially Europe, where HBCDs are intensively used. Among the three individual HBCD isomers (α-, β- and γ-HBCD) in all fish samples, the α-isomer showed a remarkable predominance (from 87.5% to 100% of total contribution), indicating its higher bioaccumulative potential. Geographically, the highest HBCD level present in fish was found in Dalian in northern China, and the lowest occurred in Wenzhou. Estimated daily intakes of HBCDs via fish consumption for the Chinese population were 0.004-1.00 ng kg body weight⁻¹ d⁻¹. These exposure levels were much lower than the effect levels.

  9. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  10. Quorum Quenching Bacillus sonorensis Isolated from Soya Sauce Fermentation Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v. L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.

  11. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  12. 13C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa Kamal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK, whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS and Taiwan (China light (TL, which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  13. (13)C-NMR-Based Metabolomic Profiling of Typical Asian Soy Sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Yuan, Bin; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-02

    It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product. Whereas lower concentrations of amino acids, like leucine, isoleucine and valine, observed in CR indicate the different fermentation period used in production of CR soy sauce, on the other hand, the concentration of some fermentation cycle metabolites, such as acetate and sucrose, can be divided into two groups. The concentrations of these fermentation cycle metabolites were lower in CR and Singapore Kikkoman (SK), whereas much higher in Japanese shoyu (JS) and Taiwan (China) light (TL), which depict the influence of climatic conditions. Therefore, the results of our study directly indicate the influences of traditional ways of fermentation, climatic conditions and the selection of raw materials and can be helpful for consumers to choose their desired soy sauce products, as well as for researchers in further authentication studies about soy sauce.

  14. Screening of Strains with Degradation Activity for Biogenic Amines in Fish Sauce%鱼露中生物胺降解菌的筛选及其特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利昆; 付湘晋; 胡叶碧; 周其中; 李滨

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,strains with degradation activity for biogenic amines were screened from naturally fermented fish sauce,and the effects of fermentation time and temperature on the content of biogenic amines were investigated.A total of 10 strains were obtained from natural fish sauce subjected to fermentation for 3 months.After 72 hours of fermentation at 30 ℃,the degradation rate of histamine was in the range of 17.3%-62.2%,and the degradation rate of tyramine was in the range of 12.4%-57.3%.The strain M8 with the highest activity was identified as Kodamaea ohmeri yeast through 26S rDNA sequence and online sequence alignment.Meanwhile,the strain revealed the strongest degradation activity for biogenic amines at 30 ℃.During fermentation,the content of biogenic amines revealed a decrease on the first day and an increase on the second day as well as the highest level on the third day,and then exhibited a decrease trend until the end of fermentation.After 9 days of fermentation at 30 ℃,the contents of histamine and tyramine were reduced to 30.4% and 20.8% of the initial levels,respectively.The strain M8 Kodamaea ohmeri yeast could reveal the best degradation activity for biogenic amines in the presence of 25% salt.Under the optimal conditions,histamine and tyramine were reduced to 35.6% and 27.6%,respectively.%从天然发酵鱼露中筛选具有生物胺降解活性的微生物,并研究发酵时间和发酵温度对其降解生物胺的影响。以天然发酵3个月的鱼露为分离材料,对鱼露中的生物胺降解菌进行分离纯化,获得10株具有生物胺降解活性的微生物。分离到的10株菌株在30℃发酵72h组胺降解率在17.3%~62.2%,酪胺降解率在12.4%~57.3%。其中M8菌株生物胺降解活性最高,经26S rDNA测序及在线序列比对,M8菌株鉴定为奥默柯达酵母。奥默柯达酵母M8在30℃条件下降解生物胺活性最强;其降解生物胺的时间变化规律为发酵第1

  15. Macroporous resin purification of peptides with umami taste from soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Mingzhu; Zhao, Mouming; Lin, Lianzhu; Dong, Yi; Chen, Huiping; Feng, Mengying; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Su, Guowan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the performance and separation characteristics of four macroporous resins for purifying umami peptides from soy sauce were examined. Results showed that the resins could separate the peptides of soy sauce, and the particle diffusion kinetics model was suitable for describing the whole exothermic (ΔH resins, while the pseudo-second-order kinetics model accurately described the XAD-16 and HP-2 MGL resins. Furthermore, the adsorption processes of the peptides followed the Freundlich model. The XAD-16 resin was the most effective resin for the enrichment of peptides due to its high adsorption and total desorption capacities. Interestingly, the umami peptides were enriched in the deionized water fraction. This study provides new insights into exploring performance and separation characteristics of macroporous resins on soy sauce, and indicated that peptide may be the contributor to the umami taste in Chinese soy sauce.

  16. Analysis of capillary chromatographic skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor by liquid-liquid microextraction and aroma recombination%酱香型白酒液液微萃取-毛细管色谱骨架成分与香气重组

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪玲玲; 范文来; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    应用液液微萃取(LLME)、气相-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)研究酱香型白酒骨架成分。液液微萃取定量48种香气物质,确定29种骨架成分。通过52种物质香气重组,得到的模拟酒香气较为丰满,且富有层次感,呈现酱香型白酒的背景香,但未出现典型酱香。缺失实验表明酱香型白酒骨架成分中香气贡献较大的主要是酯类和醇类物质,其中:己酸乙酯、乙酸乙酯、丁酸乙酯、1-丙醇、2-苯乙醇以及3-甲基丁醇是重要的香气物质;缺失与添加实验验证了三甲基吡嗪、糠醛、4-乙基愈创木酚和呋喃扭尔(furaneol)与酱香型白酒的典型酱香无关。%The skeleton compounds in Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor were isolated by liquid-liquid microextraction(LLME), and detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS).48 aroma compounds were identified and quantified.29 compounds belong to skeleton compounds.The overall aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, while excluding the typical aromas, could be mimicked by an aroma recombinate consisting of 52 compounds. According to omission experiments, esters and alcohols of skeleton compounds contributed a lot to the aroma of Chinese soy sauce aroma type liquor, and ethyl hexanoate, ethyl acetate,ethyl butanoate, !- propanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 3- methylbutanol were important skeleton aroma compounds.Omission and addition experiments corroborated that trimethylpyrazine, furfural,4-ethyl guaiacol, and furaneol was not related to the soy sauce aroma of Chinese liquor.

  17. EFFECTS OF FISHES ON THE GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF CHINESE MITTEN CRAB, ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This experiment on the effects of fishes (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Channa argus, Cyprinus carpio) on growth and survival of juvenile Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis was conducted in cages placed in Bao'an Lake. T-tests showed that effects of fishes on the carapace width growth were not significant as compared with the control (no fish). But the effects of these fishes on crab survival were negative. The causes of negative effects of fishes on crab survival were simply discussed on the basis of food habits.

  18. Fish Intake Is Associated with Slower Cognitive Decline in Chinese Older Adults123

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bo; Plassman, Brenda L.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Popkin, Barry M.; Adair, Linda S.; Mendez, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle changes, including dietary changes, could translate into a great reduction in the global burden of cognitive impairment and dementia. Few studies evaluated the benefits of fish intake for delaying cognitive decline, and no studies were conducted in a Chinese population, which may differ with respect to types, amounts, and correlates of fish consumption compared with Western populations. We hypothesized that higher consumption of fish would predict slower decline in cognit...

  19. Determination of total N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in frankfurters, fresh meat, dried salted fish, sauces, tobacco, and tobacco smoke particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haorah, J; Zhou, L; Wang, X; Xu, G; Mirvish, S S

    2001-12-01

    Total N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and NOC precursors (NOCP) were determined in extracts of food and tobacco products. Following Walters' method, NOC were decomposed to NO with refluxing HBr/HCl/HOAc/EtOAc and NO was measured by chemiluminescence. NOC were determined after sulfamic acid treatment to destroy nitrite, and NOCP were determined after treatment with 110 mM nitrite and then sulfamic acid. Analysis without HBr gave results < or =20% of those with HBr. This NOC method was efficient for nitrosamines but not nitrosoureas. The standard nitrosation for determining NOCP gave high yields for readily nitrosated amines, including 1-deoxy-1-fructosylvaline, but not for simple amines, dipeptides, and alkylureas. Mean NOC and NOCP results were (respectively, in micromol/kg of product) 5.5 and 2700 for frankfurters, 0.5 and 660 for fresh meat, 5.8 and 5800 for salted, dried fish, and 660 and 2900 for chewing tobacco (all for aqueous extracts) and 220 and 20000 nmol/cigarette for MeCN extracts of cigarette smoke filter pads.

  20. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. “Pork with Barbecue Sauce” and “Beef with Barbecue Sauce” shall consist of not less than 50...

  1. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhabib, Dyhia; Sumaila, U Rashid; Lam, Vicky W Y; Zeller, Dirk; Le Billon, Philippe; Abou Kane, Elimane; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We compare the performance of European Union (EU) and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1)) and China (2.3 million t•year(-1)) report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible) from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1) on average in the 1970s-1980s). The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime impossible to

  2. Euros vs. yuan: comparing European and Chinese fishing access in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyhia Belhabib

    Full Text Available We compare the performance of European Union (EU and Chinese fisheries access agreements with West African countries in terms of illegal and unreported fishing, economic equity, and patterns of exploitation. Bottom-up re-estimations of catch reveal that the EU (1.6 million t•year(-1 and China (2.3 million t•year(-1 report only 29% and 8%, respectively, of their estimated total catches (including estimated discards whenever possible from West African countries between 2000 and 2010. EU catches are declining, while Chinese catches are increasing and are yet to reach the historic maximum level of EU catches (3 million t•year(-1 on average in the 1970s-1980s. The monetary value of EU fishing agreements, correlated in theory with reported catches, is straightforward to access, in contrast to Chinese agreements. However, once quantified, the value of Chinese agreements is readily traceable within the African economy through the different projects they directly cover, in contrast to the funds disbursed [to host governments] by the EU. Overall, China provides resources equivalent to about 4% of the ex-vessel value [value at landing] of the catch taken by Chinese distant-water fleets from West African waters, while the EU pays 8%. We address the difficulties of separating fees directly related to fishing from other economic or political motivations for Chinese fees, which could introduce a bias to the present findings as this operation is not performed for EU access fees officially related to fishing. Our study reveals that the EU and China perform similarly in terms of illegal fishing, patterns of exploitation and sustainability of resource use, while under-reporting by the EU increases and that by China decreases. The EU agreements provide, in theory, room for improving scientific research, monitoring and surveillance, suggesting a better performance than for Chinese agreements, but the end-use of the EU funds are more difficult, and sometime

  3. Antiglycation and antioxidant properties of soy sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashilipa, Changwe; Wang, Qiuyu; Slevin, Mark; Ahmed, Nessar

    2011-12-01

    Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia increases formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and metal-catalyzed production of free radicals. This study compared the antioxidant capacities of dark and light soy sauces of different brands and investigated their abilities to inhibit AGEs and whether their mechanism of action was pre- or post-Amadori or involved chelation of transition metals. The antioxidant capacities of soy sauces were compared using the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) method and by measuring their total phenolic contents. Model proteins (lysozyme, albumin) were glycated using fructose with or without soy sauces with subsequent analysis of cross-linked AGEs by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The effect of soy sauces on pre- and post-Amadori inhibition of AGEs was investigated by measuring fructosamine and AGEs following reincubation of ribose-glycated (ribated) lysozyme, respectively. Dark soy sauces had higher antioxidant capacities and phenolic content and were more effective inhibitors of post-Amadori-derived cross-linked AGEs. However, light soy sauces were more effective at inhibiting fructosamine and had more potent metal chelation properties. This study reports the antiglycation properties of soy sauces, but further studies are required to determine the constituents responsible for this effect and whether soy sauce consumption can reduce oxidative stress and AGEs in diabetic subjects.

  4. Sauces, spices, and condiments: definitions, potential benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Malavé, Heber Gómez-

    2016-09-01

    Spices and condiments are an important part of human history and nutrition, and have played an important role in the development of most cultures around the world. According to the Codex Alimentarius, the category of salts, spices, soups, sauces, salads, and protein products includes substances added to foods to enhance aroma and taste. Spices have been reported to have health benefits as antioxidant, antibiotic, antiviral, anticoagulant, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Health claims about the benefits of condiments for disease prevention or health improvement need to be science based and extensively supported by evidence; data on their preventive or protective potential in humans are currently limited. The condiments market has been growing continuously over the last few years, with the quantity of products sold under the category of sauces, dressings, and condiments during the period 2008-2013 increasing from 31,749,000 to 35,795,000 metric tons. About 50 of the 86 spices produced in the world are grown in India. From 2008 to 2013, the United States was the largest importer of spices, followed by Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Russia. The main buyers of fish sauce are Vietnam and Thailand, with purchases of 333,000 and 284,000 metric tons in 2013, respectively. The sauces and condiments category is dynamic, with large differences in consumption in habits and practices among countries. This paper aims to establish definitions and discuss potential health benefits, consumption patterns, and global markets for sauces, spices, and condiments.

  5. 中国传统酱油生产用米曲霉菌种研究进展%Study on Aspergillus Oryzae Breeding in Production of Chinese Traditional Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪凤娣; 鲁绯; 程永强

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is the key organism in production of traditional soy sauce. The research of Aspergilhts oryzae breeding included the strain breeding of high productivity of protease, enzyme charac- teristic, and conditions of enzymes producing, focusing on the strains of high productivity of protease. Though these studies have shown that the strain performance was improved comparing the original strain, the research was still limited to laboratory theoretical analysis. The application of Aspergillus oryzae in in- dustrial production of soy sauce need further exploration.%米曲霉是我国传统酱油生产用关键菌种.关于米曲霉菌株选育的研究主要包括,高产蛋白酶菌株选育技术研究、酶学特性研究、产酶影响因素研究等方面.高产蛋白酶菌株的选育为研究重点.虽然,研究均显示经过改良的菌株性能超过了原始出发菌株,但是成果仍然局限于实验室理论分析.我国科研人员仍需努力,加强对米曲霉菌株在工业化生产中实际应用效果的研究.

  6. Salted fish and inhalants as risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R W; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Henderson, B E

    1983-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study of nasopharyngeal carcinoma among Malaysian Chinese to test inhalants, salted fish consumption, and use of tobacco, alcohol, and nasal ointments as risk factors for the disease. Interviews with 100 cases and 100 controls indicated that salted fish consumption during childhood was a significant risk factor (relative risk, 3.0; p = 0.04); childhood daily consumption of this food item compared to nonconsumption carried a relative risk of 17.4 [95% confidence interval = (2.7, 111.1)]. Occupational exposure to smokes (relative risk, 6.0; p = 0.006) and to dusts (relative risk, 4.0; p less than 0.001) was also significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The two risk factors (consumption of salted fish and exposure to smoke and/or dust) were independent of each other. There was no association between nasopharyngeal carcinoma and tobacco, alcohol, or nasal ointments.

  7. 气相色谱-串联质谱法测定黄酒和酱油中的氨基甲酸乙酯%Determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小民; 何华丽; 阮瑜迪; 黄百芬; 任一平

    2013-01-01

      目的建立气相色谱-串联质谱法(GC-MS/MS)测定黄酒和酱油中氨基甲酸乙酯的分析方法。方法样品添加同位素内标氨基甲酸乙酯-d5后,直接上样到填装好ExtrelutTM NT有机硅藻土的柱中进行基质固相分散萃取,先用正己烷淋洗除杂,再用乙酸乙酯:乙醚(1:9, v/v)的混合溶剂洗脱氨基甲酸乙酯,洗脱液经浓缩后采用GC-MS/MS多反应监测(MRM)模式测定。结果方法检出限和线性范围分别为2µg/kg和5~1000µg/kg (R>0.999)。在50、200、500µg/kg三个添加水平下,黄酒基体中氨基甲酸乙酯的加标回收率为97.4%~98.8%, RSD为4.0%~8.4%。向酱油基体中添加10、50、200µg/kg 三个浓度水平,氨基甲酸乙酯的加标回收率为96.2%~104.0%, RSD为5.3%~10.0%。结论该方法定量准确、操作简单、灵敏度高、定性确证可靠,适用于黄酒和酱油中氨基甲酸乙酯的测定。%  Objective To establish a method for qualitative and quantitative determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Methods After spiked with internal standard ethyl carbamate-d5, the sample was directly loaded to an ExtrelutTM NT column for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction. Hexane was added to wash the matrix interferences and 90% (v/v) ethyl ether/ethyl acetate mixture was used to elute the analyte. The concentrated extract was detected by GC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Results The limit of detection (LOD) was 2 μg/kg and the linear range was 5~1000 µg/kg (R>0.999). For Chinese rice wine, the recoveries at the spiked levels of 50, 200, and 500 µg/kg were 97.4%~98.8%with the RSD of 4.0%~8.4%. For soy sauce, the recoveries at the levels of 10, 50, and 200 µg/kg were 96.2%~104.0% with the RSD of 5.3%~10.0%. Conclusion The method is highly sensitive, easy operating, accurate for quantit-ative analysis, and reliable for qualitative detection

  8. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-05-19

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  9. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  10. Cooking Class: Meatballs Braised in Brown Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Mince the streaky pork,Add 40g of the grated ginger,40g of the chopped scallions,50g of soy sauce and 2g of salt.Chum the ingredients until the mixture becomes sticky.Then add egg and becomes sticky.Then add egg and cormstarch and mix well.

  11. Production of Japanese Soy-Sauce Flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der C.

    2001-01-01

    The salt-tolerant yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis are important for the formation of flavour in Japanese soy-sauce processes. In these processes Z. rouxii produces the flavour components ethanol, higher alcohols and 4-hydroxyfuranones, while C. versatilis is responsible for th

  12. Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Domestically Prepared Chicken and Fish from Singapore Chinese Households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Felton, J S; Zhao, B; Seow, A

    2005-05-16

    Chicken and fish samples prepared by 42 Singapore Chinese in their homes were obtained. Researchers were present to collect data on raw meat weight, cooking time, maximum cooking surface temperature, and cooked meat weight. Each participant prepared one pan-fried fish sample and two pan-fried chicken samples, one marinated, one not marinated. The cooked samples were analyzed for five heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) mutagens, including MeIQx (2-amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); 7,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,7,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline); PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and IFP (2-amino-(1,6-dimethylfuro[3,2-e]imidazo [4,5-b])pyridine). A paired Student's t-test showed that marinated chicken had lower concentrations of PhIP (p<0.05), but higher concentrations of MeIQx (p<0.05) and 4,8-DiMeIQx (p<0.001) than non-marinated chicken, and also that weight loss due to cooking was less in marinated chicken than in non-marinated chicken (p<0.001). Interestingly, the maximum cooking surface temperature was higher for fish than for either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001), yet fish was lower in 4,8-DiMeIQx per gram than marinated or non-marinated chicken (p<0.001), lower in PhIP than non-marinated chicken (P<0.05), and lost less weight due to cooking than either marinated or non-marinated chicken (P<0.001). Fish was also lower in MeIQx and 7,8-DiMeIQx than marinated chicken (P<0.05). This study provides new information on HAA content in the Singapore Chinese diet.

  13. Stewed Lamb in Brown Sauce of Xinxiang%新乡红焖羊肉刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于直军

    2013-01-01

    起源于上世纪80年代末的红焖羊肉是新乡饮食中的一道特色菜,因其肉嫩、味鲜、汤醇而名扬海内外。本文拟从红焖羊肉的制作过程及其营养价值等方面阐述,以期与读者共享经典美食,弘扬中原饮食文化。%The origin of the 80’s of the last century the stewed lamb in brown sauce is a special dish of Xinxiang diet, because of itstender, delicious soup alcohol, both at home and abroad. This paperexpounds the stewed lamb in brown sauce production process and itsnutritional value, in order to share with you the classic food,carry forward the Chinese diet culture.

  14. Effect of NaFeEDTA-Fortified Soy Sauce on Anemia Prevalence in China:A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jun Sheng; YIN Ji Yong; SUN Jing; HUANG Jian; LU Zhen Xin; REGINA Moench-Pfanner; CHEN Jun Shi; andCHEN Chun Ming

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the effect of sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA)-fortified soy sauce on anemia prevalence in the Chinese population. MethodsA systematic review was performed to identify potential studies by searching the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, WHO Library, HighWire, CNKI, and other sources. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce with that of non-fortified soy sauce. Anemia rates and hemoglobin levels were the outcomes of interest. Inclusion decisions, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria for anemia rate analysis, of which 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for hemoglobin analysis. All included studies assessed the effect of NaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce on anemia rates and hemoglobin concentrations. ResultsAfter the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration increased and anemia rates decreased significantly as compared with the non-fortified soy sauce groups. For anemia rates, data from 16 studies could be pooled, and the pooled estimate odds ratio was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19-0.35). For hemoglobin concentrations, data from 12 studies could be pooled, and the pooled weighted mean difference was 8.81 g/L (95% CI 5.96-11.67). ConclusionNaFeEDTA-fortified soy sauce has a positive effect on anemia control and prevention in the at-risk population.

  15. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  16. Lemongrass-Fried Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams grass carp, several stalks of lemongrass, 5 leaves of lettuce. Condiments: 10 grams sweet sauce (made from fermented flour, scallion powder and ginger root powder); yolk of one egg, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Cut the fish into pieces. Mash

  17. Resting metabolism and heat increment of feeding in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and Chinese snakehead (Channa argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Cui, Y; Liu, J

    2000-10-01

    Resting metabolism was measured in immature mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi weighing 42.1-510.2 g and Chinese snakehead Channa argus weighing 41.5-510.3 g at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C. Heat increment of feeding was measured in mandarin fish weighing 202.0 (+/-14.0) g and snakehead weighing 200.8 (+/-19.3) g fed swamp loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus at 1% body weight per day at 28 degrees C. In both species, weight exponent in the power relationship between resting metabolism and body weight was not affected by temperature. The relationship between resting metabolism and temperature could be described by a power function. The temperature exponent was 1.39 in mandarin fish and 2.10 in snakehead (Psnakehead increased with temperature at a faster rate than in mandarin fish. Multiple regression models were used to describe the effects of body weight (W, g) and temperature (T, degrees C) on the resting metabolism (R(s), mg O(2)/h): lnR(s)=-5.343+0.772 lnW+1.387 lnT for the mandarin fish and lnR(s)=-7.863+0.801 lnW+2.104 lnT for the Chinese snakehead. The proportion of food energy channelled to heat increment was 8.7% in mandarin fish and 6.8% in snakehead.

  18. Study on classification of soy sauce by electronic tongue technique combined with artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Chen, Quan-Sheng; Lin, Hao; Huang, Xing-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic tongue as an analytical tool coupled with pattern recognition was attempted to classify 4 different brands and 2 categories (produced by different processes) of Chinese soy sauce. An electronic tongue system was used for data acquisition of the samples. Some effective variables were extracted from electronic tongue data by principal component analysis (PCA). Backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to build identification models. PCA score plots show an obvious cluster trend of different brands and different categories of soy sauce in the 2-dimensional space. The optimal BP-ANN model for different brands was achieved when principal components (PCs) were 2, and the identification rate of the discrimination model was 100% in both the calibration set and the prediction set, and the optimal BP-ANN model for different categories had the same result. This work demonstrates that electronic tongue technology combined with a suitable pattern recognition method can be successfully used in the classification of different brands and categories of soy sauce.

  19. THE TOUCH ANALYSIS IN AN ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY OF MAYONNAISE SAUCES WITH ADDITION OF A CAVIAR DZHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sauces on the basis of vegetable oils and mayonnaise which are traditionally considered tasty, but not really useful at enrichment by functional additives can be used not only for flavoring decoration of various dishes and salads, but also for increase of their nutrition value. Dzhus received by production of salty granular caviar of a humpback salmon represents a full-fledged complex of the major food factors that can serve as motivation for its use when developing new food, including in the form of a proteinaceous and mineral additive for its additional introduction to compoundings of sauces. In view of existence of a fish smell of a caviar dzhus, it is possible to use it as natural fragrance by production of the wide range of fish products, including emulsion. For an assessment of quality of production, fast and simple the organoleptic (touch method is very convenient. Various content of easily volatile organic compounds in an equilibrium gas phase over tests is established. Samples of a caviar dzhus among themselves and sauces with its addition differ. Distinctions are defined by amount of the brought ingredient. The intensity of a smell of tests determined by the content of easily volatile compounds on which the massif of sensors is adjusted differs. Sauces with an additive of a caviar dzhus have the greatest intensity of a smell in accordance with GOST at its small contents. In a figure form of "a visual print" of the maximum responses of all sensors in the massif distinctions in a chemical composition of an equilibrium gas phase over tests are established. Distinctions in qualitative and quantitative structure of RGF over samples with addition 1,5 and 2,0 of % of a dzhus significantly significant. It is established that addition (on TU and in accordance with GOST in compoundings of sauces results more than 1% of a caviar dzhus in essential distinction as a part of RGF.

  20. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  1. Degradation of wheat allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makio; Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Tanabe, Soichi

    2004-06-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of East Asian countries and is available throughout the world. Wheat and soybeans are the 2 main raw materials of soy sauce, and soy sauce also contains a high concentration of salt. Since wheat allergy is considered a serious problem globally, it is significant to examine the allergenicity of soy sauce. In this study, by immunoblotting, inhibition ELISA and direct ELISA using sera from 5 children with wheat allergy, it was clearly demonstrated that wheat allergens were degraded into amino acids and peptides losing the IgE-binding ability in both salt-soluble and salt-insoluble fractions of soy sauce during fermentation. Furthermore, no wheat allergen was detected in 10 items of commercial soy sauce in Japan, by inhibition ELISA or direct ELISA using the sera of patients. In the brewing process of soy sauce, first salt-insoluble wheat allergen was solubilized to salt water during the koji stage (mold cultivation and enzyme production), and second both the resultant salt-solubilized and initially salt-soluble wheat allergens were completely degraded during the moromi stage (fermentation) by microbial proteolytic enzymes. Therefore, it was concluded that no wheat allergen is contained in soy sauce.

  2. H ACCP体系在酱油生产中的应用%Appl ication of HACCP System in Soy Sauce Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘皓; 王立晖; 吕春晖; 傅唯

    2015-01-01

    酱油是中国传统的调味品,酱油的生产安全问题,主要是由于酱油生产企业无法对产品的加工进行有效的质量管理,为了提高酱油的卫生质量,我们应用危害分析与关键控制点(HACCP)体系对酱油生产进行质量管理。结合酱油生产工艺的各个步骤,利用 HACCP 体系分析并确认了4个有效的关键控制点,并针对该4个CCP点及其限值建立了 HACCP计划表,建立有效的监控验证方法,保证系统顺利实施,保证了酱油产品的质量安全。%Soy sauce is Chinese traditional condiment,the safety problems in production of soy sauce mainly because the soy sauce production enterprises are unable to carry out effective quality management of product processing,in order to improve the hygienic quality of soy sauce,we apply hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)system for quality management in the production of soy sauce.Combined with each step of soy sauce production,4 effective critical control points are analyzed and confirmed by HACCP system and HACCP schedule is established against the 4 CCP points and their limit values,the establishment of monitoring verification method effectively ensures the smooth implementation of the system and the quality and safety of soy sauce product.

  3. The Analysis of YE Tian-shi's Experience in Clinical Treatment by Using Lobster Sauce%叶天士运用豆豉经验浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春红; 陈烨文; 陈一江

    2014-01-01

    Lobster sauce is widely used in Chinese classical prescriptions ,while now is seldom used again .For mastering the thought of using lobster sauce by Zhang Zhong -jing, the methods of researching Ye Tian -shi's works and medical cases is used , to explore lob-ster sauce's efficiency , which should be good for clinical TCM doctors'prescriptions nowadays .%豆豉在经方中应用广泛,今却已鲜为人所用。以研究叶天士的《临证指南医》中的医案为手段发掘豆豉的临床使用证候,使经方更好的运用于临床。

  4. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  5. Lead, mercury, and cadmium in umbilical cord serum and birth outcomes in Chinese fish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Xu, Chenye; Lin, Nan; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Yongli; Yu, Xinwei; Liu, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the islands of Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou bay and their exposure caused potential health risk for the residents. To assess the exposure levels of Pb, Hg, and Cd, the umbilical cord serum samples were collected from 103 mother-newborn pairs as the noninvasive specimens. The association of the concentration of Pb, Hg, and Cd with the birth outcomes was evaluated. Pb, Hg, and Cd had high exposure levels with the median concentrations at 76.20 μg L(-1) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.71, 115.80], 21.94 μg L(-1) (IQR: 15.10, 27.64), and 6.36 μg L(-1) (IQR: 3.63, 13.34), respectively. A unit increase in the Pb umbilical cord serum concentration (μg L(-1)) was significantly associated with a 0.29 cm (95% CI: -0.50, -0.09) decrease in birth height and a 0.22 cm (95%CI: -0.44, 0.00) decrease in head circumference. The middle tertile Pb and Hg exposure levels were found significantly negative effects on birth outcomes compared with low tertile exposure levels. Exposure to Cd showed no apparent effect on birth outcomes. Our results suggested that Pb and Hg exposure has potential adverse effects on birth outcomes in Chinese fish consumers from Yangtze River outlet and Hangzhou bay estuary regions.

  6. Large-scale spatial and interspecies differences in trace elements and stable isotopes in marine wild fish from Chinese waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Wen-Xiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, HKUST, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large-scale study on trace element levels in marine wild fish from Chinese waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial variation found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, but not for Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No biomagnification occurred for any of the trace elements studied in marine fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through fish consumption. - Abstract: We conducted a large scale investigation of twelve trace element levels and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N) in twenty-nine marine wild fish species collected from Chinese coastal waters. Trace element levels varied significantly with species. Clear spatial variations were found for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Pb, whereas Ag, Cu, Mo, Se and Zn did not show much spatial variation. The Pearl River Estuary contained the highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Ni, and Pb, whereas the most southern waters (Haikou) contained the lowest concentrations of Al, Fe, and Pb. There was no correlation between log-transformed trace elements concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values or {delta}{sup 13}C values, indicating no biomagnification among these trace elements. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of 10 elements were less than 1, thus there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through marine wild fish consumption.

  7. Evaluation of aroma differences between high-salt liquid-state fermentation and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauces from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunzi; Cai, Yu; Su, Guowan; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Mouming

    2014-02-15

    Two types of Chinese soy sauce, high-salt liquid-state fermentation soy sauce (HLFSS) and low-salt solid-state fermentation soy sauce (LSFSS), were used to investigate their differences in aroma profile by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Results from descriptive sensory analysis showed that the alcoholic, cooked potato-like and caramel-like attributes were significantly higher in HLFSS, while LSFSS exhibited significantly higher sour and burnt attributes. In addition, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) revealed 37 and 33 odour-active regions for HLFSS and LSFSS, respectively. Ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, phenylacetaldehyde, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol and 3-(methylthio)propanal detected in HLFSS showed the highest flavour dilution (FD) factors, while 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde and ethyl propanoate possessed the highest FD factors in LSFSS. Therefore, the traditional Chinese soy sauce HLFSS contained more complex volatiles and exhibited a richer aromatic profile compared with LSFSS.

  8. 草鱼肉松的加®®艺研究%Study on Processing TechnoIogy of Grass Carp Dried Fish FIoss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马腾飞; 谢志云; 吴先辉; 王丽霞

    2016-01-01

    以草鱼为原料,以盐、白砂糖、味精、姜、葱、黄酒、花椒、酱油、大蒜等为辅料,探讨鱼肉松的加工工艺。通过正交设计和感官评价,考察了白砂糖、盐、酱油的添加量以及炒松时间对鱼肉松感官品质的影响。结果表明:当盐为1.2%、白砂糖为5.0%、酱油为3.5%、炒松时间为12 min 时鱼肉松的感官品质最好,该工艺制作的鱼肉松具有鲜鱼香味、色泽协调、质地均匀、口感疏松的特点。%Use grass carp as raw materials and salt,white sugar,monosodium glutamate (MSG), ginger,green Chinese onion,yellow rice wine,pepper,soy sauce and garlic as auxiliary materials,the technology for producing dried fish floss is studied in this paper.Through orthogonal design and sensory evaluation,the effect of additive amount of salt,white sugar,soy sauce and frying time on the quality of dried fish floss is investigated.The result shows that the optimum recipe is:salt of 1.2%,sugar of 5.0% soy sauce of 3.5% and frying time of 12 min.The dried fish floss prepared under the optimum conditions has excellent quality with fish flavor,coordinate color and homogeneous and fluffy texture.

  9. Compositional fingerprint of soy sauces via hydrophobic surface interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Victoria; Salmen, Paul; Paulus, Michael; Tolan, Metin; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2017-03-01

    In this work, the interaction of soy sauces with hydrophobic surfaces has been analyzed. Hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers on gold or silicon dioxide were used to harvest conditioning layers from soy sauce products with varying amounts of additives. The data was compared to adsorption of soy protein and glutamic acid as common ingredients. Spectral ellipsometry revealed that all tested sauces led to the formation of thin overlayers on hydrophobic surfaces. Products with less additives yielded adlayers in the same thickness range as pure soy protein. In contrast, sauces with more ingredients create distinctly thicker films. Using water contact angle goniometry, it is shown that all adlayers render the substrate more hydrophilic. Infrared spectroscopy provided a deeper insight into the adlayer chemistry and revealed that the adlayer composition is dominated by protein rich components. X-ray reflectivity on selected films provided further insight into the density profiles within the adlayers on the molecular scale.

  10. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  11. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  12. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Xinyue Li; Jianfeng Sun; Xiaopeng Cui; Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics...

  13. Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Yaung-Iee; Park, Kun-Young

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17α. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4 mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8 mL/kg) of the sauces.

  14. Chinese Lobster Sauce%中国豆豉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德安

    2003-01-01

    该文以大量历史资料论证了中国豆豉的起源最晚应在公元前3世纪的战国时代,列举了历代用豆豉治病的良方,论述了豆豉的食药文化的发展,还介绍了其独特的酿造工艺,旨在推动豆豉行业的全面发展.

  15. 蒸鱼豉油专用YE产品开发及应用研究%Product Development and Application Research of the Special Yeast Extract Used in Seasoned Soya Sauce for Seafood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建; 李沛; 唐冠群

    2013-01-01

    Yeast Extract (YE) is a kind of nutritional-type multifunctional umami agent and flavor enhancer,which has the characteristics of rich umami,mellow taste,natural nutrition,etc.Seasoned soya sauce for seafood is the special soy sauce for steamed fish; taste and flavor are the important indicators for the quality evaluation.The research and development and the application evaluation for seasoned soya sauce for seafood are carried out.The results show that the special yeast extract used in seasoned soya sauce for seafood can increase the taste of sauce and coordinate the delicious flavor of sauce.It can enhance the overall flavor of seasoned soya sauce for seafood products.%酵母抽提物(Yeast Extract,YE)是一种营养型多功能鲜味剂和风味增强剂,具有鲜味丰富,口感醇厚,天然营养的特点.蒸鱼豉油是蒸鱼特制的酱油,口感和风味是评价其品质的重要指标.文章针对蒸鱼豉油专用YE进行了研究开发,并对其进行应用评价.结果表明:蒸鱼豉油专用型YE能增加蒸鱼豉油产品的厚实口感,协调产品鲜美风味,对蒸鱼豉油产品整体风味的提升具有很好的效果.

  16. 传统晒露工艺在改进低盐固态酱油风味中的应用%Application of Natural Drying Method in Improving the Flavor of Low-salt Sol id Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立雄; 蔡欣

    2014-01-01

    As the deficiency of the flavor of soy sauce by low-salt solid fermentation method in China, excavating the advantage of traditional natural drying method, improve the flavor of soy sauce specifically and explore the practical and effective process route to promote the flavor of Chinese soy sauce by low-salt solid fermentation.%鉴于我国低盐固态法生产的酱油风味明显不足的现状,通过挖掘风味好的天然晒露法的传统工艺,我们提出有针对性的改进酱油风味的方法,探索适合我国提升低盐固态酱油风味的切实有效的工艺路线。

  17. Preparation of reminiscent aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkohara, Kaori; Fuji, Maiko; Nakao, Akito; Igura, Noriyuki; Shimoda, Mitsuya

    2016-01-01

    To prepare an aroma mixture of Japanese soy sauce by fewest components, the aroma concentrate of good sensory attributes was prepared by polyethylene membrane extraction, which could extract only the volatiles with diethyl ether. GC-MS-Olfactometry was done with the aroma concentrate, and 28 odor-active compounds were detected. Application of aroma extract dilution analysis to the separated fraction revealed high flavor dilution factors with respect to acetic acid, 4-hydroxy-2(or5)-ethyl-5(or2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol), and 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal (methional). A model aroma mixture containing above four odorants showed a good similarity with the aroma of the soy sauce itself. Consequently, the reminiscent aroma mixture of soy sauce was prepared in water. The ratio of acetic acid, HEMF, isoamyl alcohol, and methional was 2500:300:100:1.

  18. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars, especial

  19. Metabolomic insight into soy sauce through (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong-Kuk; Ahn, Hyuk-Jin; van den Berg, Frans; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2009-08-12

    Soy sauce, a well-known seasoning in Asia and throughout the world, consists of many metabolites that are produced during fermentation or aging and that have various health benefits. However, their comprehensive assessment has been limited due to targeted or instrumentally specific analysis. This paper presents for the first time a metabolic characterization of soy sauce, especially that aged up to 12 years, to obtain a global understanding of the metabolic variations through (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate pattern recognition techniques. Elevated amino acids and organic acids and the consumption of carbohydrate were associated with continuous involvement of microflora in aging for 12 years. In particular, continuous increases in the levels of betaine were found during aging for up to 12 years, demonstrating that microbial- or enzyme-related metabolites were also coupled with osmotolerant or halophilic bacteria present during aging. This work provides global insights into soy sauce through a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach that enhances the current understanding of the holistic metabolome and allows assessment of soy sauce quality.

  20. Fan's Pork and Sauce and KFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    May 24, 2011 had a special impact on Xi'an, because since that day the renowned price-winning local treat Fan's Pork and Sauce has been no longer belonged to the Fan's family of Xi'an. Eighty years ago the Fan family devoted themselves to perfecting their

  1. Higher fish intake is associated with a lower risk of hip fractures in Chinese men and women: a matched case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish is rich in nutrients that are favorable to bone health, but limited data are available regarding the relationship between fish intake and hip fractures. Our study examined the association between habitual fish intake and risk of hip fractures. METHODS: A case-control study was performed between June 2009 and June 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Five hundred and eighty-one hip fracture incident cases, aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 71 years, were enrolled from four hospitals. 1∶1 matched controls by gender and age (±3 years were also recruited from communities and hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were used to obtain habitual dietary intake and information on various covariates. RESULTS: Univariate conditional logistic regression analyses showed significantly dose-dependent inverse correlations between the risk of hip fractures and the intake of fresh-water fish, sea fish, mollusca, shellfish, and total fish in all of the subjects (p-trend: <0.001-0.016. After adjusting for covariates, the associations were slightly attenuated but remained significant for all (p-trend: <0.001-0.017 except for fresh-water fish (p = 0.553. The ORs (95%CI of hip fractures for the highest (vs. lowest quartile were 0.80 (0.48-1.31 for fresh-water fish, 0.31 (0.18-0.52 for sea fish, 0.55 (0.34-0.88 for mollusca and shellfish, and 0.47 (0.28-0.79 for total fish, respectively. Stratified and interaction analyses showed that the association was more significant in males than in females (p-interaction = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of seafood is independently associated with lower risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese. Increasing consumption of sea fish may benefit the prevention of hip fractures in this population.

  2. Optimization of Process Parameters for Litopenaeus vannamei Seafood Sauce using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to determine the optimum formulation of Litopenaeus vannamei seafood sauce, Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to investigate the effects of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce on the sensory quality. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model. The independent parameters of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and the quadratics of contents of thick broad-bean sauce, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce significantly affected the sensory evaluation scores. Also the interactions between contents of thick broad-bean sauce and sweet soybean paste, sweet soybean paste and Shacha sauce had a significant effect on the sensory evaluation scores. The optimal conditions for higher sensory evaluation scores were thick broad-bean sauce 6.22%, sweet soybean paste 16.32% and Shacha sauce 10.10%. Under such conditions, the maximum predicted sensory evaluation score was 9.49; the prediction accuracy rate of model was up to 97.10%. These optimum conditions were used to evaluate the trail experiment and the maximum sensory evaluation score was recorded as 9.5±0.36.

  3. [Production of tyramine in "moromi" mash during soy sauce fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Akihiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Sadamasu, Yuki; Yasui, Akiko; Shimoi, Toshiko; Endoh, Miyoko; Saito, Kazuo

    2003-10-01

    The concentrations of 7 non-volatile amines, tyramine (Tym), histamine (Him), phenethylamine (Phm), putrescine (Put), cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in the liquid part of "moromi" mash during soy sauce fermentation were studied. These amines, except for him and Cad, were detected during fermentation by the conventional production method in the laboratory. Put and Spd were detected at the beginning, and Tym, Phm and Spm appeared later; these 5 amines increased gradually during the fermentation. Put, Spd, Spm and Cad were present in the raw starting material for soy sauce; thus, Tym and Phm were produced by the fermentation. When "moromi" mash was added to liquid medium and cultivated, Tym was detected in some "moromi" mash and the other amines were not detected. Tym-producing bacterial strains were isolated from the liquid culture media of Tym-positive "moromi" mash. The Tym-producing strain was a gram-positive coccus. The conditions for production of amines by Tym-producing bacterial strains were examined. These strains grew and produced tyramine under various conditions, which may occur during soy sauce fermentation. Namely, Tym was produced at pH 5-10, at salt concentrations of less than 8%, under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. During soy sauce fermentation, it is assumed that Tym would be produced by these strains during the early stages of soy sauce aging within a short period when the salt concentration and pH conditions are optimal for growth. Based on the bacteriological properties, the strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium. With the exception of Phm and Him, which did not exist in the starting raw material, non-volatile amines (including Put, Cad, Spd and Spm) were not produced and microorganisms producing them are not believed to be present during "moromi" fermentation.

  4. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  5. Hollow fiber cell fishing with high performance liquid chromatography for screening bioactive compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xue; Li, Lihua; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong

    2013-03-08

    A novel hollow fiber cell fishing method with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed and used to screen, isolate, and analyze bioactive compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs). The active compounds that interact with the living cells acceptor inside the hollow fiber lumen were screened and isolated from the TCM extracts in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Subsequently, the active compounds bound to the cells were desorbed with methanol, and were analyzed using HPLC. HFCF with HPLC was introduced for the screening and analysis of lignans in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill and coumarins in Fructus Cnidii and Fructus Psoraleae. The surface properties of the hollow fibers filled with living cells were characterized. The nonspecific binding between the active centers of the hollow fibers and the bioactive compounds were investigated. The cell survival rates were determined before and after the screening. The repeatability of the method was tested. Some structures of the lignans and coumarins screened from TCMs were identified by the comparison to the retention times of the reference substances. HFCF-HPLC is a simple, fast, effective, and reliable method for the screening and analysis of bioactive compounds, and it can be extended to screen other bioactive compounds from TCMs.

  6. Determination of shelf life of Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades in different sauces stored at 4 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Taşkaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quality properties and shelf life for gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, Bloch 1782 marinades during stored at 4±1 °C in different sauces was investigated.  The marinating process was carried out in 2.5% vinegar, 10% salt and water for 72h at 4±1 °C. After the marination process, fish were removed from the solutions, transferred in to glass jar contain with different sauces (Group A: sunflower oil and tomato paste, Group B: sunflower oil with garlic, red pepper, thyme, basil and mint and the control group: sun flower oil.  Sensory, chemical, colour and microbiological analyses were performed during the storage. According the chemical analysis results TVB-N and TBA values of all groups were increased during the storage, but during the stored period did not exceed acceptible limit values. The highest TVB-N and TBA values were group A. (P<0,05. At the end of 135 days of storage,  sensory analysis results pointed out that the marinades of group B did not exceed  acceptible limit values (P<0,05. The overall microbial load of the fresh samples decreased through out the storage period (P<0,05. By sensory data, shelf life of sauced gibel carp marinades were 120 days (control, 105 days (group A and 135 days (group B.

  7. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-11-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  9. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasupawat, Somboon; Thongsanit, Jaruwan; Okada, Sanae; Komagata, Kazuo

    2002-08-01

    Fourteen sphere-shaped and 30 rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria were isolated from soy sauce mash of two factories in Thailand. These strains were separated into two groups, Group A and Group B, by cell shape and DNA-DNA similarity. Group A contained 14 tetrad-forming strains, and these strains were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus by DNA similarity. Group B contained 30 rod-shaped bacteria, and they were further divided into four Subgroups, B1, B2, B3, and B4, and three ungrouped strains by phenotypic characteristics and DNA similarity. Subgroup B1 contained 16 strains, and these strains were identified as Lactobacillus acidipiscis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B2 included two strains, and the strains were identified as Lactobacillus farciminis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B3 contained five strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus by DNA similarity. The strains tested produced DL-lactic acid from D-glucose. Subgroup B4 contained four strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by DNA similarity. Two ungrouped strains were homofermentative, and one was heterofermentative. They showed a low degree of DNA similarity with the type strains tested, and were left unnamed. The distribution of lactic acid bacteria in soy sauce mash in Thailand is discussed.

  10. The effect of nutrient fortification of sauces on product stability, sensory properties, and subsequent liking by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzi, Roussa; Wang, Jianqiu; Collins, Vanessa J; Allen, Victoria J; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Kennedy, Orla B; Methven, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    There are potential nutritional and sensory benefits of adding sauces to hospital meals. The aim of this study was to develop nutrient fortified sauces with acceptable sensory properties suitable for older people at risk of undernutrition. Tomato, gravy, and white sauce were fortified with macro- and micronutrients using food ingredients rich in energy and protein as well as vitamin and mineral premixes. Sensory profile was assessed by a trained panel. Hedonic liking of fortified compared with standard sauces was evaluated by healthy older volunteers. The fortified sauces had higher nutritional value than the conventional ones, for example the energy content of the fortified tomato, white sauce, and gravy formulations were increased between 2.5- and 4-fold compared to their control formulations. Healthy older consumers preferred the fortified tomato sauce compared with unfortified. There were no significant differences in liking between the fortified and standard option for gravy. There were limitations in the extent of fortification with protein, potassium, and magnesium, as excessive inclusion resulted in bitterness, undesired flavors, or textural issues. This was particularly marked in the white sauce to the extent that their sensory characteristics were not sufficiently optimized for hedonic testing. It is proposed that the development of fortified sauces is a simple approach to improving energy intake for hospitalized older people, both through the nutrient composition of the sauce itself and due to the benefits of increasing sensorial taste and lubrication in the mouth.

  11. Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Two Liquors of Soy Sauce Aroma as Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 Hypervariable Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Tang, Xiaoxin; Tang, Ming; Zhang, Ximin; Xu, Xiaorong

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages and an important commercial fermented product in China. The Chinese liquor fermentation process has three stages: making Daqu (the starter), stacking fermentation on the ground, and liquor fermentation in pits. We investigated the bacterial diversity of Maotai and Guotai Daqu and liquor fermentation using high-throughput sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 70,297 sequences were obtained from the Daqu samples and clustered into 17 phyla. The composition of the bacterial communities in the Daqu from these two soy sauce aroma-style Chinese liquors was the same, although some bacterial species changed in abundance. Between the Daqu and liquor fermentation samples, 12 bacterial phyla increased. The abundance of Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas increased in the liquor fermentation. This study has used high-throughput sequencing to provide new insights into the bacterial composition of the Chinese liquor Daqu and fermentation. Similarities in the distribution of bacteria in the soy sauce aroma-style Chinese liquors Daqu suggest that the abundance of bacteria might be generally concerned to other liquor. PMID:28337455

  12. 豆渣调味酱的研制%Study on Bean Dregs Tartare Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 黄宇; 黄莉萍; 林琳

    2009-01-01

    利用豆渣为主要原料,加入白砂糖、食盐、豆油、豆酱、酱油、白酒、味精、食品添加荆等辅料,开发出风味较好、酱香味浓郁的豆渣调味酱.研究了去除豆渣油腻味最佳的方法,通过正交试验确定了豆渣调味酱的最佳配方.%Bean dregs tartare sauce regard fresh bean dregs as main raw materials,adding such batching as sugar,sah,oil,sauce,soy sauce,liquor,MSG,food additives,etc.,to make delicious food.This experiment studied the best way of Ilemoving the bean dregs'greasy taste,and determined the best formula of bean dregs tartare sauce through orthogonal test.

  13. Texture and mouthfeel of semisolid foods: Commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, L.J. van; Doorn, J.M. van; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  14. Texture and mouthfeel of semi-solid foods : commercial mayonnaises, dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Gemert, van L.J.; Doorn, van J.M.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Texture and mouthfeel sensations of three groups of semisolid foodstuffs (mayonnaises and dressings, custard desserts and warm sauces) were characterised, measured, evaluated and compared based on quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of commercial products. Six groups of texture attributes were

  15. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods.

  16. Characterization and identification of gamma-irradiated sauces by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using different sample pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Tomato ketchup, barbeque sauce, sweet chili sauce, and spaghetti sauce were gamma irradiated at 0, 1, 5, and 10 kGy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to characterize the irradiated sauces, targeting radiation-induced cellulose radicals and using a modified sample pretreatment method. The samples were first washed with water, and then the residues were extracted with alcohol. The non-irradiated sauces exhibited the single central signal, whose intensity showed a significant increase on irradiation. The ESR spectra from the radiation-induced cellulose radicals, with two side peaks (g=2.02012 and g=1.98516) equally spaced (± 3 mT) from the central signal, were also observed in the irradiated sauces. The improvements in the central (natural) and radiation-induced (two side peaks corresponding to the cellulose radicals) signal intensities were obvious, when compared with routine freeze-drying and alcoholic-extraction techniques.

  17. Adequacy of mineral contents of raw and plain sticky sauce of common and bush okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyib Oluwasayo Kehinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, common okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. and bush okra (Corchorus olitorius L. are popular mucilage vegetables used as sticky sauce for easy consumption of starchy staples.Both raw vegetables and sticky sauce of common as well as bush okra were estimated for their potential in the provision of daily dietary allowance of important minerals. Modified methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC were used to estimate the assessed minerals.The results showed that the raw and sticky sauce of assessed common and bush okra contained appreciable levels and essential minerals, but are not adequate to meet recommended dietary allowance, except for Fe and Cu. Comparatively, the two species of okra varied significantly in their mineral content of the raw and plain sauce. There was also a negative effect of cooking on the mineral contents, which reduced significantly to an average of 30% on a dry weight basis.Therefore, the two vegetables, either as a fresh or sticky sauce, require additional sources of P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Zn to meet recommended dietary allowance. Furthermore, dried mucilagesauce, though, could be an appreciable post harvest management and storage but not without a loss of about one-third mineral content in the process. However, the sauce of common okra andbush okra are good sources for any of the assessed mineral restricted diets.

  18. Furan in canned sardines and other fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Celine; Crews, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-seven different samples of canned sardines and other fish sold in the United Kingdom were analysed for their furan content using a validated automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure. All 37 samples contained detectable furan, with an average level of 26 μg kg(-1). The maximum furan content was in canned fish containing tomato sauce, which had an average of 49 μg kg(-1) and in canned fish packed with lemon which had an average of 55 μg kg(-1). All fish in brine or in oil contained less than 20 μg kg(-1) furan. Furan levels recorded in fish packed in extra virgin olive oil were low with an average of 2 μg kg(-1).

  19. 以鮰鱼碎肉为原料的鮰鱼香菇调味酱加工工艺%Study on the Processing Technology of Channel Catfish and Mushroom Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立

    2016-01-01

    以鮰鱼碎肉为主要原料,加入豆豉、香菇、辣椒酱、天然香辛料等,经调配、炒制、灌装制得鮰鱼香菇调味酱。在借鉴现有酱品制作工艺的基础上,通过正交试验,确定出该产品的最佳配方。该产品营养丰富,口感鲜美独特,具有浓郁的鱼肉、香菇和豆豉香味。%Channel catfish is used as main raw material,fermented black beans,mushrooms,chili sauce,natural spices and other recipes are added into to produce channel catfish and mushroom sauce by mixing,stir-frying,and filling,etc.Based on the production process of current sauce product,the best formula of this product is obtained by orthogonal experiments.The product is rich in nutrition, with special and good taste,and has heavy flavor of fish,mushroom and fermented black beans.

  20. FCJ-167 Spraying, fishing, looking for trouble: The Chinese Internet and a critical perspective on the concept of trolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele de Seta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet research has dealt with trolls from many different perspectives, framing them as agents of disruption, nomadic hate breeders and lowbrow cynics spawned by the excessive freedoms of online interaction, or as legitimate and necessary actors in the ecology of online communities. Yet, the question remains: what is a troll, where it come from and where does it belong? Presenting the results of a brief troll-hunt on the Chinese Internet and discussing the features of troll-like figures in Chinese digital folklore, I argue in favour of a localised understanding of Internet cultures, presenting trolling as a culture-specific construct that has come to embody disparate kinds of online behaviour and to function as an umbrella term for different kinds of discourse about the Internet itself.

  1. FCJ-167 Spraying, fishing, looking for trouble: The Chinese Internet and a critical perspective on the concept of trolling

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele de Seta

    2013-01-01

    Internet research has dealt with trolls from many different perspectives, framing them as agents of disruption, nomadic hate breeders and lowbrow cynics spawned by the excessive freedoms of online interaction, or as legitimate and necessary actors in the ecology of online communities. Yet, the question remains: what is a troll, where it come from and where does it belong? Presenting the results of a brief troll-hunt on the Chinese Internet and discussing the features of troll-like figures in ...

  2. Effect of temperature on the stability of various peptidases during peptide-enriched soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeharu; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Uchida, Riichiro

    2012-03-01

    We previously developed a peptide-enriched soy sauce-like seasoning called Fermented Soybean Seasoning (FSS) with high-temperature fermentation, and we have reported the antihypertensive effects of FSS. Seryl-tyrosine (Ser-Tyr) and glycyl-tyrosine (Gly-Tyr) were identified from FSS as active constituents in the antihypertensive effects. They were found to be particularly enriched in FSS; more so than in regular soy sauce. In the present study, we clarified one of the mechanisms underlying the accumulation of these bioactive peptides during high temperature soy sauce brewing. Crude enzyme extracts were prepared from model soy sauce mash (moromi) fermented at various temperatures. Leucine aminopeptidase-I, II, and seryl-tyrosine hydrolytic activity were found to decrease in the moromi incubated at the fermentation temperature of FSS whereas almost no decrease was observed in that of regular soy sauce. The concentrations of ACE inhibitory peptides, Ser-Tyr and Gly-Tyr, in the moromi incubated at high temperature were revealed to be higher than those at low temperature through quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis. These results suggested that the peptidases responsible for degrading low molecular weight bioactive peptides were inactivated during the high temperature fermentation, thus, these peptides would be likely to remain in the high temperature fermentation.

  3. Antimicrobial effect of sour pomegranate sauce on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kışla, Duygu; Karabıyıklı, Şeniz

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranate sauce is one of the most popular pomegranate products produced in Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both traditional and commercial sour pomegranate sauce samples on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). The initial microflora of the pomegranate sauce samples was determined by performing the enumerations of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold, S. aureus, E. coli, and the determination of Salmonella spp. MIC tests were applied to the neutralized and the original (unneutralized) sour pomegranate sauce samples in order to put forth the inhibition effect depending on low pH value. It was found that inhibitory effect of the traditional and the commercial samples, except one sample, on pathogens was not only due to the acidity of the products. The results of MIC tests indicated that although both traditional and commercial samples showed a considerable inhibitory effect on test microorganisms, the traditional pomegranate sauce samples were more effective than the commercial ones.

  4. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  5. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying.

  6. Optimising aroma quality in curry sauce products using in vivo aroma release measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Davidson, James M; Kant, Avinash; Koizumi, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Fumiyo; Taylor, Andrew J

    2014-08-15

    Reducing fat content in foods to meet consumers' preferences and to address the obesity issue is a key task for food manufacturers but simply reducing fat content affects aroma quality adversely. Measuring the aroma release from regular and low-fat samples during eating to rebalance the aroma release has proved successful in model systems. Here, the reformulation of the spice content in a low fat curry sauce is described. Volatile markers of the key spices (coriander, cumin and turmeric) were selected and used to measure aroma release in regular (10 g oil/100 g) and low (2.5 or 5 g oil/100 g) fat sauces. Regression models were used to adjust the ingredient formulation so that the aroma release profiles in vivo were the same for the regular and reduced oil curry sauces and sensory analysis showed no significant difference between these samples. Despite the complexity of spice aromas, rebalancing was successful.

  7. Characterization of Chinese Liquor Starter, ''Daqu", by Flavor Type with H-1 NMR-Based Nontargeted Analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.H.; Zheng, X.; Han, B.Z.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    "Daqu" is a fermentation starter and substrate complex that is used to initiate fermentations for the production of Chinese liquor (alcoholic spirit). Several different types of Daqu are customary used, having different flavours, i.e. light, strong, or sauce flavor. With the aim to develop objective

  8. Phylogenetic studies of Chinese labeonine fishes (Teleostei:Cyprinidae) based on the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junbing; WANG Xuzhen; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2005-01-01

    The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene is sequenced from 24 ingroups taxa, including 18 species from Labeoninae grouped in 13 genera. Phylogenetic analyses are subjected to neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Labeoninae is basically a monophyletic assemblage and can be divided into 2 major clades: one comprising the genera Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus and Garra; and the other consisting of the genera Labeo, Sinilabeo, Osteochilus, Pseudoorossocheilus, Parasinilabeo, Ptychidio, Semilabeo, Pseudogyricheilus, Rectori and Discogobio. According to our present analysis,the features such as the presence of the adhesive disc on the chin and the pharyngeal teeth in 2 rows used in the traditional taxonomy of Labeoninae provide scarce information for phylogeny of labeonine fishes.

  9. The producing methods of hot pepper sauce%几种辣饼酱的制作方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学贵

    2011-01-01

    为了充分利用大豆,介绍了以大豆为原料生产的辣饼酱、蒜米辣饼酱、芝麻辣饼酱、蘑菇辣饼酱、虾籽或虾米辣饼酱和文蛤辣饼酱等6种辣饼酱的生产原料、工艺流程、配方、操作要点和产品特点。%Soy bean can be made a good use. With soy bean as the raw material,hot pepper sauce, hot pepper sauce with garlic pieces, hot pepper sauce with sesame, hot pepper sauce with mushroom, hot pepper sauce with shrimp - roe or dried shrimp and hot pepper sauce with clam can be produced. This article explains the raw materials,technological process, ingredients, operating points and products features of the six soy sauces respectively in detail.

  10. Sensory properties determined by starch type in white sauces: effects of freeze/thaw and hydrocolloid addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocas, A; Sanz, T; Salvador, A; Varela, P; Fiszman, S M

    2010-03-01

    The effect of 5 types of starch (rice, potato, waxy corn, corn, and modified waxy corn) on the sensory properties of white sauces was studied. A comparative study was also made of variations resulting from freezing/thawing and effect of replacing 0.15% starch with 2 nonstarchy hydrocolloids, xanthan gum (XG), or locust bean gum (LBG) in samples to be frozen. The sensory properties were studied through descriptive analysis by a panel of 10 trained judges. Principal components analysis and cluster analysis were used to group each of the samples according to the scores for consistency, resilience, graininess, thickness, heterogeneity, creaminess, and mouth coating, the sensory attributes which were chosen to define the sauces under study. Significant differences were found between the different starches employed: the rice and modified starches presented similar behavior to each other, as did the potato starch and corn starch, while the waxy starch sauce stood apart from the rest because of its resilience. The freeze/thaw cycle had the greatest effect on the corn-starch sauce, increasing its graininess and heterogeneity values owing to retrogradation. Adding XG or LBG to the sauces subjected to a period of freezing/thawing did not have a significant effect on the sensory attributes of the reheated sauces made with rice, potato, or waxy or modified starch, but lower graininess and heterogeneity values were observed in the sauce made with corn starch.

  11. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  12. Autolysis of Aspergillus oryzae Mycelium and Effect on Volatile Flavor Compounds of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Yaqi; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Mengzhou; Wang, Chao; Li, Dongsheng

    2016-08-01

    The autolyzed mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae are rich in proteins, nucleic acids, sugar, and other biomacromolecules, and are one of the main contributors to the flavor profile of commercially important fermented goods, including soy sauce and miso. We induced autolysis of the mycelia of A. oryzae over 1 to 10 d, and found that the maximum dissolved amounts of total protein and nucleic acid ratio accounted for 28.63% and 88.93%, respectively. The organic acid content, such as citric acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid, initially increased and then decreased as autolysis progressed, corresponding to changes in pH levels. The main characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, namely, ethanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, were all detected in the autolysate. Subsequently, we tested the effect of adding mycelia of A. oryzae during the fermentation process of soy sauce for 60 d, and found that addition of 1.2‰ A. oryzae mycelia provided the richest flavor. Overall, our findings suggest that compounds found in the autolysate of A. oryzae may promote the flavor compounds of soy sauce, such as alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, and esters.

  13. Identification and quantitation of new glutamic acid derivatives in soy sauce by UPLC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Chen, Ting

    2013-10-01

    Glutamic acid is an abundant amino acid that lends a characteristic umami taste to foods. In fermented foods, glutamic acid can be found as a free amino acid formed by proteolysis or as a non-proteolytic derivative formed by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to identify different structures of glutamic acid derivatives in a typical fermented protein-based food product, soy sauce. An acidic fraction was prepared with anion-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS and UPLC/TOF-MS. α-Glutamyl, γ-glutamyl, and pyroglutamyl dipeptides, as well as lactoyl amino acids, were identified in the acidic fraction of soy sauce. They were chemically synthesized for confirmation of their occurrence and quantified in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Pyroglutamyl dipeptides accounted for 770 mg/kg of soy sauce, followed by lactoyl amino acids (135 mg/kg) and γ-glutamyl dipeptides (70 mg/kg). In addition, N-succinoylglutamic acid was identified for the first time in food as a minor compound in soy sauce (5 mg/kg).

  14. ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shou-Lei; Miao, Su-Na; Deng, Shao-Ya; Zou, Min-Juan; Zhong, Fo-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Biao; Pan, Si-Yi; Wang, Qing-Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence rapid determination method may be useful for enumerating the total viable count (TVC) in soy sauce, as it has been previously used in food and beverages for sanitation with good precision. However, many factors interfere with the correlation between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence. This study investigated these interfering factors, including ingredients of soy sauce and bacteria at different physiological stages. Using the ATP bioluminescence method, TVC was obtained within 4 h, compared to 48 h required for the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method. Our results also indicated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.90) between total aerobic plate counts and ATP bioluminescence after filtration and resuscitation with special medium. The limit of quantification of the novel detection method is 100 CFU/mL; there is a good linear correlation between the bioluminescence intensity and TVC in soy sauce in the range 1 × 10(2) -3 × 10(4) CFU/mL and even wider. The method employed a luminescence recorder (Tristar LB-941) and 96-well plates and could analyse 50-100 samples simultaneously at low cost. In this study, we evaluated and eliminated the interfering factors and made the ATP bioluminescence rapid method available for enumerating TVC in soy sauce.

  15. Social Marketing Improved the Consumption of Iron-Fortified Soy Sauce among Women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinying; Guo, Yan; Wang, Sisun; Sun, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the feasibility and effectiveness of social marketing on the improvement of women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding iron-fortified soy sauce (FeSS). Design: A community-based intervention was conducted among 4 groups, experimental rural (E[subscript R]), control rural (C[subscript R]), experimental urban…

  16. Sensory sub-attributes of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenen, H.; Jellema, R.H.; Wijk, R.A. de

    2005-01-01

    The sensory components of creamy mouthfeel in commercial mayonnaises, custard desserts and sauces were determined, using multi-variate analysis of the mean sensory ratings obtained from a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) panel. Creamy is a particularly interesting attribute, as it is generall

  17. 3-Monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) in soy sauce from the Bulgarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova-Bagdassarian, Valentina; Tishkova, Julieta A; Vrabcheva, Terry M

    2013-01-01

    The 3-monochloro-1,2-propandiol (3-MCPD) levels in soy sauces which contained hydrolysed vegetable protein were evaluated for the Bulgarian market. For analysis of 3-MCPD, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was applied with a linear range of 0.03-2.00 μg mL⁻¹ and a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.3 μg kg⁻¹ and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 3.4 μg kg⁻¹. At these levels, the standard deviation was 5.1%, with recoveries between 81% and 102%. The method was applied to the analysis of 21 samples of soy sauce from the Bulgarian market. Results ranged from 3.7 to 185.6 μg kg⁻¹. Soy sauces produced from hydrolysed soy protein contained higher levels of 3-MCPD than naturally fermented sauces. In 38.4% of samples of Bulgarian origin, the 3-MCPD content was above the EU limit of 20 μg kg⁻¹. In all analysed samples, 33.3% had a 3-MCPD content above the EU limit.

  18. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0-72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  19. Fatty versus creamy sensations for custard desserts, white sauces and mayonnaises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Perceived fattiness and creaminess plus other texture and flavor attributes were assessed for a group of vanilla custard desserts, white sauces, and mayonnaises that differed widely in ingredients, fat content (0¿72%), and consumption temperatures. In addition, the foods were measured instrumentally

  20. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  1. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  2. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  3. Determination of 1,3-dichloropropanol in soy sauces by automated headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, C; LeBrun, G; Brereton, P A

    2002-04-01

    There has been recent concern about the levels of carcinogenic chloropropanols in some soy sauces. We have devised and tested a new automated headspace GC-MS technique for the analysis of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP) in soy sauce and similar products. The method incorporates the use of cryogenic trapping and a deuterium-labelled internal standard. The limit of detection was 0.003 mg kg(-1). After in-house validation testing, the method was applied to soy sauce samples that had previously been analysed for the related contaminant 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD). 1,3-DCP was detected in 10 of 40 sauces, all of which also contained 3-MCPD. The highest level was just >1 mg kg(-1). There was no correlation between the levels of 1,3-DCP and 3-MCPD.

  4. Effects of soy sauce and packaging method on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of soy sauce on volatile compounds and lipid oxidation of cooked irradiated beef patties. Sulfur-containing volatile components, which are produced by irradiation, were not found in all treatments. Volatile components derived from soy sauce, such as 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, were detected in beef patties containing soy sauce regardless of irradiation and packaging method. Volatile aldehydes, including hexanal, significantly decreased the irradiated beef patty prepared with soy sauce compared to those of irradiated beef patty made with NaCl at 1 day and 5 days after irradiation. In addition, combined use of vacuum packaging and soy sauce treatments could inhibit the formation of volatile compounds and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances during chilled storage. Therefore, the use of soy sauce in cooked and irradiated beef could reduce the production of volatile components associated with the irradiation-induced off-flavor and lipid oxidation.

  5. Antagonism Between Osmophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    NODA, FUMIO; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1980-01-01

    Brine fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts for long periods of time is essential to produce a good quality of shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce). It is well known that lactic acid fermentation by osmophilic lactic acid bacteria results in the depression of alcoholic fermentation by osmophilic yeasts, but the nature of the interaction between osmophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in brine fermentation of shoyu has not been revealed. The inhibitory effect of osmophi...

  6. Sensory quality control in the chilled and frozen ready meal, soup and sauce sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Swainson, Mark; McWatt, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of sensory evaluation in the assurance of product quality within the food production sectors of ready meals, soups and sauces. The chapter methodically reviews typical food processing stages, from recipe development through to end product supply, and considers how sensory assessment methods can be utilised to help assure the quality of the end products within these selected High Risk Chilled Food sectors.

  7. Treatment of sauce wastewater by sequencing biological-chemical reactor (SBCR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田禹; 郑蕾

    2003-01-01

    The concept of SBCR was put forward to treat sauce wastewater. Further study showed that addingappropriate amount of calcium chloride to SBR can improve the quality of effluent. The removal rate of COD andcolor was 84% and 80% , 36% , 96% higher than those of traditional SBR respectively. The results of continu-ous experiments and biophase observing showed that calcium chloride accumulation increased the sludge produc-tion slightly while the sludge dewatering characteristic was improved.

  8. Monitoring of Yeast Communities and Volatile Flavor Changes During Traditional Korean Soy Sauce Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones.

  9. Method performance study of the determination of total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Shintaro; Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this collaborative study was to evaluate the proposed method for determining the total nitrogen in soy sauce by the Kjeldahl method submitted to the Codex Alimentarius Commission for endorsement in accordance with the protocol for the design, conduct, and interpretation of method-performance studies. The digestive conditions of the proposed method are the addition of 10 mL of H2SO4, 10 g (8 g by using a block digester) of K2SO4, and 1 mL of 20% CuSO4 x 5H2O and 80 min boiling period after the liquid is cleared by a heating device. Seventeen laboratories participated, analyzing five soy sauce samples as blind duplicates. Since the volume sampling method used in the JAS (Japanese Agricultural Standard) method showed lower accuracy of data because of the density of soy sauce, the method of sampling by weight was adopted as the proposed method. The total amount of outlier data was within acceptable limits for method-performance studies ( or = 98% and > or = 99% respectively. The RSDr (repeatability relative standard deviation) values ranged from 0.4 to 1.3%, and the RSDR (reproducibility relative standard deviation) values were from 0.8 to 1.9%. HORRAT (RSDR/predicted RSDR) for the reproducibility showed 0.2 to 0.4, indicating acceptable precision of the method and excellent analytical performance.

  10. Fish In Mutton Equals Delicious

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE characters are pictographs. The character "delicious" consists of "fish" and "sheep." In fact, there are few recipes that uses fish and mutton as main ingredients, Yet, there is one dish called "fisn in mutton" whose taste is good enough to make people understand the connotation of

  11. Comparison of key aroma compounds in five different types of Japanese soy sauces by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Shu; Kumazawa, Kenji; Nishimura, Osamu

    2012-04-18

    An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS). Furthermore, 5(or 2)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2(or 5)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HEMF) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (4-HDMF), which were thought to be the key odorants in KS, were detected in KS, US, TS, and SSS, but the FD factors widely varied among them. The sensory evaluations demonstrated that the aroma descriptions of a cooked potato-like note and a caramel-like/seasoning-like note were evaluated as high scores with no significant differences among the five soy sauces. On the other hand, a burnt/spicy note was evaluated as having high scores in KS, TS, and SSS, but it was evaluated as having a low score in SS. The comparative AEDA experiments and the auxiliary sensory experiments demonstrated that the five different types of Japanese soy sauces varied in their key aroma compounds and aroma characteristics, and the key aroma compounds in KS might not always be highly contributing in the other types of Japanese soy sauces.

  12. Analysis of the correlation between dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces by using metabolomics-based component profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Shiga, Kazuki; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Uchida, Riichiro; Obata, Akio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-07-01

    Characterizing the relationships between the components and taste differences among soy sauces can help evaluate and improve the quality of soy sauces. Although previous studies have reported that certain taste-active dipeptides, the relationships between taste differences and dipeptides of soy sauces are unknown. Therefore, our objective in this study was to investigate the correlations between the dipeptides and the taste differences among soy sauces. To analyze the dipeptides, we constructed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Based on this method, we detected 237 dipeptides, the largest number ever detected in soy sauce research. Next, orthogonal projections to latent structures regressions were performed. The data matrix of components, including dipeptides and other low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components obtained from gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), served as explanatory variables (366 in total), whereas a sensory data matrix obtained using quantitative descriptive analysis served as the response variable. The accuracy of models for the sweetness and saltiness differences constructed using the LC/MS/MS and GC/MS data matrix were higher than did models constructed using only the GC/MS data matrix. As a result of investigation of the correlation between the dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces by using variable importance in the projection (VIP) score, many dipeptides showed the high correlation with taste differences. Specifically, Ile-Gln, Pro-Lys, Ile-Glu, Thr-Phe, and Leu-Gln showed the high VIP score on sweet differences. This study is the first report that reveals the correlations between the dipeptides and taste differences among soy sauces.

  13. Effect of electrodialysis desalination technology parameters on ratio of desalinization and quality of soy sauce%大豆酱油电渗析脱盐工艺参数对其脱盐率及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建友; 王芳; 周垚; 丁玉庭

    2016-01-01

    Soy sauce is a kind of nutritional condiment which contains various bioactive components. In the production of soy sauce, a lot of salt has been added in order to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. However, excessive intake of high salt food is harmful to our health, so the study of the desalination of soy sauce is very valuable. The technology of electrodialysis has applications in the areas of pollution controlling, resource recoverying and chemical processing. At present, no information is available about the effect of electrodialysis desalination (ED) on the changes of flavor compounds and amino acids of ED-treated soy sauce. In this paper, a traditional Chinese soy sauce containing 16 g/100 mL sodium chloride was desalted by laboratory-scale electrodialyser equipped with a stack composed of eight cation and seven anion-exchange membranes, and the impact of operating voltage, flow rate and pH value on desalination was evaluated. The optimal condition of electrodialysis was obtained through the single factor experiment. The result indicated that the salt content could be reduced by 81.6% at the voltage of 9 V, the flow rate of 2.4 cm/s, and the pH value of 4.2 with 19.4% amino acid nitrogen losing. The analysis of variance showed that pH value had a significant effect on the loss of amino acid nitrogen (P0.05). After electrodialysis, the changes of free amino acids and volatile flavor compounds were analyzed with amino acid automatic analyzer and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometer). The results showed that part of free amino acid and aroma of soy sauce lost. The influence of electrodialysis on the changes of free amino acids in soy sauce was determined under various pH value conditions (3.2, 3.7, 4.2, 4.7 and 5.2). Several kinds of bitter amino acids lost, and histidine, arginine and lysine lost by 23.79%, 26.39% and 28.5% respectively. As their isoelectric point was deviated from the solution pH value, they were positively charged in

  14. INVESTIGATION OF FOULING DEPOSIT FORMATION DURING PASTEURIZATION OF CHILI SAUCE BY USING LAB-SCALE CONCENTRIC TUBE-PASTEURIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR ATIKA ALI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of fouling deposits obtained from chilli sauce pasteurization. A lab-scale concentric tube-pasteurizer was used to pasteurize the chilli sauce at 0.712 kg/min and 90±5°C. It was operated for 3 hours. Temperature changes were recorded during pasteurization and the data was used to plot the heat transfer profile and the fouling resistance profile. The thickness of the fouling deposit was also measured and the image was taken for every hour. The fouling deposit was collected at every hour to test its stickiness, hardness and flow behaviour. Proximate analysis was also performed and it shows that the fouling deposit from the chilli sauce is categorized as carbohydrate-based fouling deposits. Activation energy of chilli sauce is 7049.4 J.mole-1 which shows a greater effect of temperature on the viscosity. The hardness, stickiness of fouling deposit and the heat resistance increases as the chilli sauce continuously flows inside the heat exchanger.

  15. Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristiane Schüler; Miguel, Obdulio G; Eugênia, Balbi Maria; Penteado, Patrícia Teixeira Padilha Da Silva; Haracemiv, Sonia Maria Chaves

    2009-01-01

    Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process--thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability--indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.

  16. Comparative study of quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with soybeans germinated under dark and light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Jeong, Yeon-Shin; Kwon, O-Jun; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD) was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL), whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD) and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL) were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS). The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  17. Comparative Study of Quality Characteristics of Korean Soy Sauce Made with Soybeans Germinated Under Dark and Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Dae Park

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of germinating soybeans under dark and light conditions on the quality characteristics of Korean soy sauce made with germinated soybeans. The germination rate of soybeans germinated under dark conditions (GSD was higher than that of soybeans germinated under light conditions (GSL, whereas the lengths of sprouts and relative weights of GSL did not differ from those of GSD. The L, a, b, and ΔT values of GSL were significantly lower than GSD. The color of GSD remained yellow, while GSL changed to a green color due to photosynthesis by chlorophyll. The total amino acid contents in soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under dark conditions (SSGD and soy sauce fermented with soybeans germinated under light conditions (SSGL were lower than in soy sauce fermented with non-germinated soybeans (SNGS. The levels of isoflavone content in SSGD and SSGL were significantly increased compared to the SNGS. In conclusion, the germination of soybeans under dark and light conditions is not only an increasing organoleptic preference, but also has implications for the health benefits of Korean soy sauce.

  18. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  19. 三角试验法在酱油差异分析中的应用%Application of Triangle Test in Difference Analysis of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 周伟; 胡凯

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,triangle test method is adopted to do the difference analysis of soy sauce.The result shows that there are significant differences between two soy sauces;there's no significant differ-ence on the degree of preference of two soy sauces.This method could analyze differences between soy sauces and be suitable for sensory difference analysis of soy sauce.%采用三角试验法对酱油进行了感官差异分析,结果表明:酱油之间有显著差异,对酱油的喜好程度无显著差异,三角试验法能分析出酱油样品之间的差异,适合于酱油的感官差异分析。

  20. Manufacture of An Aquatic Product Condiment for Crucian Sauce%水产调味品鲫鱼汁的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝教敏; 姚玉莲

    2011-01-01

    The people desire to improve food quality along with living standard improving. The condiment plays an important role in the food quality. The crucian was used as raw material to study the optimum process of the aquatic product condiment. By the orthogonal test and sensory evaluation, the best technical prescription was achieved: xanthan gum 15% , crucian sauce 30%, salt 15%, sugar 5%, MSG 5%, IMP 0- 25% , lutein 0. 03%, fish flavor 0. 03%, potassium sorbate 0. 05% and homogeneous pressure 35 Mpa. The crucian sauce fitted the people demand with well-distributed, fine-smooth, remarkable fish flavor, color yellow and smell fragrant, so it had a wide market perspective.%随着人们生活水平的提高,对食品质量的要求也在不断的提高,调味品在食品质量中扮演着非常重要的角色.本实验以普通养殖鲫鱼为主要原料,研究水产调味品鲫鱼汁的最佳工艺.通过正交试验和感官评价,最终得到水产调味鲫鱼汁的最佳配方:黄原胶0.04%,鲫鱼汁30%,盐15%,糖5%,谷氨酸钠5%,5’-肌苷酸0.25%,叶黄素0.03%,鱼味香精0.03%,山梨酸钾0.05%,均质压力35 MPa.水产调味品鲫鱼汁质地均匀,口感细腻,鱼鲜风味突出,色泽淡黄,气味芬芳,符合人们对于风味和营养的需求,具有广阔的市场前景.

  1. Analysis and comparison of flavor compounds between soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce%剁椒坯盐水酱油与普通酱油香气特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明浩; 胡璇; 夏延斌

    2011-01-01

    Flavor compounds of soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice and normal soy sauce were identified and analyzed hy Solid-phase micro-extraction(SPME) combined with Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) in this paper. The result showed that 84 flavor compounds were identified including 12 alcohols, 12 esters, 15 acids, 15 aldehydes ketones, 17 heterocyelic, 5 phenolic, 3 hydrocarbons, 1 ether, 2 N-containing compounds and 2 S-containing compounds. Soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice had 15 more flavor components than normal soy sauce and Both have 30 same flavor components. Therefore, soy sauce fermented with salted chili juice have better flavors than normal soy sauce.%采用固相微萃取-气质联用(SPME- GC- MS)方法,对剁椒坯盐水酱油和普通酱油的香气成分进行分析和鉴定.共鉴定出84种风味化合物,其中包括醇类物质12种,酯类物质12种,酸类物质15种,醛酮类物质15种,杂环类物质17种,酚类物质5种,烃类物质3种,醚类物质1种,含N化合物2种,含S化合物2种.其中剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油的香气物质多15种,两种酱油的共有香气成分有30种,说明剁椒坯盐水酱油比普通酱油风味更优.

  2. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  3. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce--Texas and Indiana, July 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    On July 7 and July 11, 2007, public health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported to CDC four suspected cases of foodborne botulism, two in each state. Investigations conducted by state and local health departments revealed that all four patients had eaten brands of Castleberry's hot dog chili sauce before illness began. Botulinum toxin type A was detected in the serum of one Indiana patient and in a leftover chili mixture obtained from his home. CDC informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the apparent link between illness and consumption of the chili sauce. On July 18, FDA issued a consumer advisory, and the manufacturer, Castleberry's Food Company (Augusta, Georgia), subsequently recalled the implicated brand and several other products produced in the same set of retorts (commercial-scale pressure cookers for processing canned foods) at the same canning facility. Examination of the canning facility in Georgia during the outbreak investigation had identified deficiencies in the canning process. On July 19, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a press release that announced a recall of chili and certain meat products from the Castleberry canning facility and provided recommendations to consumers. That recall was expanded on July 21 to include additional canned products. A fifth case of botulism potentially linked to one of the recalled products is under investigation in California. This report describes the ongoing investigation by members of OutbreakNet and others and the measures undertaken to control the outbreak, which is the first outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United States associated with a commercial canning facility in approximately 30 years. Clinicians should be vigilant for symptoms of botulism, including symmetric cranial nerve palsies, especially if accompanied by descending flaccid paralysis. Consumers should not eat any of the recalled chili sauce or other recalled

  4. Microbiological safety of mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces produced in the United States: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, R B

    2000-08-01

    The literature on the death and survival of foodborne pathogens in commercial mayonnaise, dressing, and sauces was reviewed and statistically analyzed with emphasis on Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. The absence of reports of foodborne illness associated directly with the consumption of commercially prepared acidic dressings and sauces is evidence of their safety. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Yersinia enterocolitica die when inoculated into mayonnaise and dressings. Historically, mayonnaise and dressings have been exempt from the acidified food regulations and have justly deserved this status due primarily to the toxic effect of acetic and to a lesser extent lactic and citric acids. These organic acids are inimical to pathogenic bacteria and are effective natural preservatives with acetic being the most effective in killing pathogenic bacteria at the pH values encountered in these products. Statistical analysis on data reported in the literature shows that the most important and significant factor in destroying pathogenic bacteria is pH as adjusted with acetic acid followed by the concentration of acetic acid in the water phase. The reported highest manufacturing target pH for dressings and sauces is 4.4, which is below the 4.75 pKa of acetic acid and below the reported inhibitory pH of 4.5 for foodborne pathogens in the presence of acetic acid. The overall conclusion is that these products are very safe. They should remain exempt from the acidified food regulations providing adequate research has been done to validate their safety, and the predominant acid is acetic and reasonable manufacturing precautions are taken.

  5. Reconsideración estratigráfica del Neopaleozoico de los alrededores del dique Los Sauces, La Rioja Stratigraphic reconsideration of the late Paleozoic in the surrounding of the Los Sauces dam, La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Pieroni

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los afloramientos neopaleozoicos localizados en los alrededores del dique Los Sauces, provincia de La Rioja, constituyen un importante depósito sedimentario ubicado en el margen norte de la cuenca Paganzo. La columna geológica es grano y estrato decreciente, con características distintivas litológicas y paleontológicas que permiten dividir los depósitos, de edad carbonífera-pérmica, en dos unidades: Formación Libertad y Formación Sauces, modificando parcialmente una propuesta estratigráfica anterior. La Formación Libertad está compuesta por bancos de conglomerados y areniscas de colores claros, gris verdosos y morados, entre los que se intercalan estratos arcillosos de color negro, los cuales fueron explotados hace algunas décadas como arcillas refractarias. Los depósitos de la Formación Sauces se destacan por su color rojo ladrillo, en general, y están compuestas por areniscas, limolitas y, en menor proporción, por conglomerados. Sus principales afloramientos se reconocen hacia el NNO, NE y SSE del valle del dique Los Sauces y se distinguen relictos aislados en su región central. La Formación Sauces tiene una distribución areal mayor que la Formación Libertad. Las megafloras recuperadas de las secciones basal y superior de la Formación Libertad, han permitido identificar especies características del Carbonífero Superior tardío. En cuanto a la Formación Sauces los estudios palinológicos indican una edad pérmica temprana.Upper Paleozoic outcrops located around to Los Sauces dam, La Rioja Province, constitute an important sedimentary depocenter at the north of Paganzo Basin. The geologic column is grain and bed fining-upward; distinctive lithological features allow dividing the succession in two lithostratigraphic units: Libertad and Sauces Formations. This proposal modifies partially a previous stratigraphic scheme. The Libertad Formation, Late Carboniferous, is formed by sets of grey greenish and purple conglomerates

  6. Determination of the Scoville Heat Value for Hot Sauces and Chilies: An HPLC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, James D.; Jones, Bradley T.

    2000-02-01

    A laboratory experiment for a junior- or senior-level college instrumental analysis course has been designed and tested. The student will isolate the capsainoids from commercial food products (chilies and sauces) using a simple extraction technique. The identity and concentration of the capsainoids are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentrations are then used to determine the pungency (Scoville heat value) of the foods. Taste tests can be used to verify the relative pungency of the products. The experiment is designed to be completed in less than four hours. A letter from Paul Vorndam in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  7. Production of Soy Sauce Koji Mold Spore Inoculum in Plastic Bags

    OpenAIRE

    Lotong, N.; Suwanarit, P.

    1983-01-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 109 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50°C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decr...

  8. The Development of Flavor Dog Sauce%风味狗酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔东波

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,Pedicularis grandiflora,red chilli,dog meat are as main raw materials to de-velop a kind of flavor dog sauce product .The orthogonal design is adopted to research the optimized formula.The result shows that the optimized formula is dog meat 6%,Pedicularis grandiflora 1 5%, red chilli 20%,bean sauce 8%.This product has unique fragrance of Pedicularis grandiflora and dog meat,rich nutrition,is a kind of condiment with nutrition and delicacy.%研究以野苏叶、干红辣椒、狗肉为主要原料,研制开发一种风味狗酱制品。通过正交试验确定最佳工艺配方是狗肉用量为6%,野苏子叶粉用量为15%,干红辣椒用量为20%,豆瓣酱用量为8%。此产品具有野苏子、狗肉特异的香味,营养丰富,是集营养美味于一身的调味酱。

  9. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  10. Combined physical-chemical and aerobic biological treatments of wastewater derived from sauce manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M A; González, I; Siles, J A; Berrios, M; Martín, A

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an integrated coagulation-flocculation and aerobic treatment for purifying wastewater derived from a sauce manufacturing industry was evaluated. The best coagulation-flocculation results were obtained at alkaline pH, showing the greatest turbidity removal efficiency (greater than 90%) and a total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of approximately 80%, Additionally, experiments at alkaline pH reduce the reagent requirements (coagulant concentration of 0.4 mL/L and flocculant concentration of 4.0 mL/L) providing a consequent economic benefit as compared to experiments at neutral and acidic pH. Another set of experiments was conducted in a sequencing batch reactor to evaluate the aerobic biodegradability of the remnant dissolved organic matter. The effluent from the physical-chemical pre-treatment at alkaline pH again showed the highest biodegradability (76%), with a global COD total removal of 98%. The results showed that the combination of both techniques could be a viable alternative to efficiently treat wastewater derived from sauce manufacturing.

  11. PERUBAHAN KOMPONEN VOLATIL SELAMA FERMENTASI KECAP [Change Volatile Components During Soy Sauce Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to investigate changes of volatile components during soy sauce fermentation. During the fermentation, many volatile components produced may contribute to soy sauce flavor. THe volatile identified by GC-MS werw classified into hydrocarbon (15, alcohol (15, aldehyde (14, ester (14, ketone (9, benzene derivative (11, fatty acid (9, furan (5, terpenoid (18, pyrazine (3, thiazole (1, pyridine (1 and sulfur containing compound (2.Concentration of compounds found in almost all fermentation steps, such as hexanal and benzaldehyde did. These compounds may be derived from raw soybean, since they were all present in raw soybean and their concentration did not change during fermentation. Concentration of palmitic acid and benzeneacetaldehyde, in general, increased during all fermentation steps. They are probably derived from lipid degradation or microorganism activities. Concentrations of some fatty acids, esters and hydrocarbons, such as linoleic acid, methyl palmitate and heptadecane increased during salt fermentation only. Concentration of some other compounds, such as 2,4 decadienal decreased or undetected during fermentation.The absence of some volatile compounds, e.g. (E-nerolidol and (E,E-famesol in boiled soybean which were previously present in raw soybean may be due to evaporation of these compounds during boiling. Some volatile compounds such as, methyl heptadecanoate and few aromatic alcohols are likely derived from Aspergillus sojae, since these compounds were identified only in 0 day koji

  12. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  13. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  14. Optimally accepted salt reduction across cultures. Naturally brewed soy sauce used in three countries with different food cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimojo, R.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Leong, L.P.; Itohiya, Y.; Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.

    2014-01-01

    To explore the influence of food-culture on partial replacement of salt by naturally brewed soy sauce, the results of a procedure, based on equivalence of overall taste intensity and pleasantness, were compared in three countries. Per country, untrained consumers assessed pleasantness and some senso

  15. Processing stability of cross-linked starches in acid sauce applications and identification of some of the molecular factors involved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.; Oudhuis, A.A.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The thickening functionality of four acetylated di-starch adipates with variations in starch source and amylose and adipate contents was evaluated in a simplified small-scale model sauce system at fourteen processing conditions with variations in temperature, shear, and pH. A processing stability fa

  16. Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ran; Jeong, Do-Youn; Baik, Sang-Ho

    2015-10-01

    This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety.

  17. Diversity of Aspergillus oryzae genotypes (RFLP) isolated from traditional soy sauce production within Malaysia and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA fingerprinting was performed on 64 strains of Aspergillus oryzae and one strain of A. sojae isolated from soysauce factories within Malaysia and Southeast Asia that use primitive traditional methods in producing 'tamari type' Cantonese soy sauce. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each isol...

  18. Effect of Various Food Additives on the Levels of 4(5)-Methylimidazole in a Soy Sauce Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sumin; Lee, Jung-Bin; Hwang, Junho; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of food additives such as iron sulfate, magnesium sulfate, zinc sulfate, citric acid, gallic acid, and ascorbic acid on the reduction of 4(5)-methylimidazole (4(5)-MI) was investigated using a soy sauce model system. The concentration of 4(5)-MI in the soy sauce model system with 5% (v/v) caramel colorant III was 1404.13 μg/L. The reduction rate of 4(5)-MI level with the addition of 0.1M additives followed in order: iron sulfate (81%) > zinc sulfate (61%) > citric acid (40%) > gallic acid (38%) > ascorbic acid (24%) > magnesium sulfate (13%). Correlations between 4(5)-MI levels and the physicochemical properties of soy sauce, including the amount of caramel colorant, pH value, and color differences, were determined. The highest correlations were found between 4(5)-MI levels and the amount of caramel colorant and pH values (r(2) = 0.9712, r(2) = 0.9378). The concentration of caramel colorants in 8 commercial soy sauces were estimated, and ranged from 0.01 to 1.34% (v/v).

  19. Making and development of soy sauce powder%酱油粉的生产与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新业; 宋钢

    2012-01-01

    酱油粉是指以鲜酱油为基础原料再添加其它辅料,利用原料风味的协同作用,配合调香、调色、调鲜之后,进行喷雾干燥而制成的一种固体粉末酱油.本文论述了酱油粉的发展历程及国内外的发展情况、酱油粉的发展现状、发展中存在的问题以及未来的发展趋势.%The soy sauce powder is maked by mixing the basic raw material - soy sauce with the other assist material, making use of the multiply function of raw material, by adjusting soy sauce' s colour, flavour, delicacy and spray dry. Development process and the development of the domestic and foreign development, development status of soy sauce powder, the problems existing in the development and the future development trend is discussed on this paper.

  20. 酵母抽提物在方便面调味酱料中的应用%Application of yeast extract in production of instant noodle sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 李沛; 唐冠群

    2013-01-01

    The development trend of instant noodle sauce seasoning was summarized.The application characteristics of yeast extract in instant noodle sauces were analyzed.Ultimately,yeast extract has a significant role to enhance the flavor of instant noodle sauce seasoning.%对方便面酱包调味发展趋势进行了概述;并对酵母抽提物在调味酱料中的应用特点进行了分析,说明酵母抽提物具有提升方便面调味酱料风味的作用.

  1. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Leisner, Jørgen Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Two strains of Aeromonas salmonicida, YK and BG, were isolated from largemouth bronze gudgeon and northern whitefish in China, and identified as A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida based on phylogenetic analysis of vapA and 16S rRNA gene sequences. YK and BG originated from freshwater fish, one of ...

  2. The Research of Evolution to the Sauce Production Technology%酱类生产技术演变考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗舟; 巩晓芳

    2011-01-01

    The sauce is one of our seven things, Originated in the China's Zhou Dynasty. From the pre-Qin "minced meat" to the current sauce, from marinated meat to the present fermentation of pure bacteria, from the natural vaccination to compound fermentation, this evolution shows a variety of sauce is a common result of microbial together and biochemical processes are clear but the composition of sauce is ambiguous. Today, we should use more modem technology means to select micro-organisms, tc study the compatibility of micro-organisms, many bacteria participate, many strains compound fermentation,, to improve production while maintaining the classic flavor of sauce, rich ingredients of the product. Focus on the sauce need of conditions ot modem life to make the sauce good development.%酱类是我们开门七件事之一,源于我国周朝。从先秦的“醢”到现在的酱,从腌制肉类到现在的纯种发酵,从天然接种到复合菌共酵,这种演变说明酱类是多种微生物共同作用的结果,生化过程是明晰的,但酱类的成分是模糊的。今天我们应该利用现代科技手段选育更为优良的微生物,研究微生物的配伍,多菌参与,多菌共酵,在提高产量的同时,保持酱类的古典风味,丰富产品的成分内涵。产品开发上应注重现代条件下生活的人们对酱类的需求,才能使酱类产品得到真正的发展。

  3. 重组鱼类生长激素对中国对虾成活率及促生长作用的研究%STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RECOMBINANT FISH GROWTH HORMONE ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH ENHANCEMENT OF CHINESE PRAWN Penaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 苗宏志; 麦康森; 张培军; 徐永立

    2000-01-01

    The diet containing yeast expressing recombinant Chinook salmon growth hormone (rcsGH) was fed to juvenile Chinese prawn (Penaeus chinensis) for 50 days in the experiment. The results first indicated that the additions of both 10 ng and 100 ng rcsGH/g diet significantly promoted the growth of juvenile prawn (weight gains significantly increased compared to controls and the effect was dose-dependent). In addition, the prawn fed the diet containing rcsGH exhibited the improved survival rate (with 2-fold survival rate that of controls) . The experiments provided the basis of application of recombinant fish growth hormone on growth and survival enhancements of cultured Chinese prawn.

  4. Production of soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum in plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotong, N; Suwanarit, P

    1983-11-01

    An innovation is described for producing soy sauce koji mold spore inoculum by using inexpensive autoclavable plastic bags and reuseable plastic enclosures to make culture vessels. After growth, the spore mass could be dried and packaged in the same bag after removing the enclosure. Broken rice was used as the substrate for mold cultivation. Viable spore counts of 10 spores per g were obtained under optimal conditions. After drying at 50 degrees C for 6 h, the moisture content of the spore mass decreased from 35.22 to 6.32% with no significant effect on spore viability. The dry spores could be stored in the refrigerator or at room temperature for at least 3 months.

  5. 酱中挥发性风味物质的研究进展%Review on analysis of volatile flavour components in sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗志伟; 官伟; 刘玉平

    2012-01-01

    Sauce was a kind of important condiment in daily life, and its flavor was one of the important indexes which could impact the quality of sauce.Volatile fiavour compounds Of sauce were widely investigated in recent years. Extraction and identification methods of volatile flavour substances from sauce, main fiavour compounds and main factors influencing aromatic substances in sauce were summarized. What's more, some suggestions about the research of sauce flavor were put forward.%酱是日常生活中重要的调味品,风味是影响酱品质的重要指标之一。近年来对酱中挥发性风味成分的研究发展迅速,从提取、分离、鉴定、主要特征香气成分及其影响因素等方面对酱的挥发性风味物质进行综述,并对今后酱中挥发性风味成分的深入研究提出了一些建议。

  6. Metabolite profiling of soy sauce using gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and analysis of correlation with quantitative descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Bamba, Takeshi; Sano, Atsushi; Kodama, Yukako; Imamura, Miho; Obata, Akio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-08-01

    Soy sauces, produced from different ingredients and brewing processes, have variations in components and quality. Therefore, it is extremely important to comprehend the relationship between components and the sensory attributes of soy sauces. The current study sought to perform metabolite profiling in order to devise a method of assessing the attributes of soy sauces. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) data for 24 soy sauce samples were obtained from well selected sensory panelists. Metabolite profiles primarily concerning low-molecular-weight hydrophilic components were based on gas chromatography with time-of-flightmass spectrometry (GC/TOFMS). QDA data for soy sauces were accurately predicted by projection to latent structure (PLS), with metabolite profiles serving as explanatory variables and QDA data set serving as a response variable. Moreover, analysis of correlation between matrices of metabolite profiles and QDA data indicated contributing compounds that were highly correlated with QDA data. Especially, it was indicated that sugars are important components of the tastes of soy sauces. This new approach which combines metabolite profiling with QDA is applicable to analysis of sensory attributes of food as a result of the complex interaction between its components. This approach is effective to search important compounds that contribute to the attributes.

  7. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  8. Syneresis, rheological characteristic and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mora Barandiarán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the concentration of three hydrocolloids: CMC, guar gum and xanthan gum on the syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency of the artichoke sauce (Cynara scolymus L. Imperial Star variety was studied. The syneresis was determined by the water loss by centrifugation, the rheological features of the artichoke sauce was determined using a Brookfield RVDV – III model rheometer and finally, the sensory consistency was determined by measuring the degree of satisfaction with hedonic scale of nine points. A simplex lattice design blends with centroid expanded under the response surface methodology was applied to establish the effect of the concentration of hydrocolloid on syneresis, rheological features and sensory consistency. In all treatments, the apparent viscosity decreased with shear rate demonstrating a “non Newtonian” behavior of “general plastic” type with an “n” value less than 1 and an initial shear stress. The flow behavior index “n” was in the range of 0.0856 and 0.3131 (n < 1 and the consistency index “k” in the range of 84.55 y 167.80 Pa.sn , the initial shear stress was in the range of 9,10 y 13,51 Pa and consistency sensory presented score of “like” to “like slightly”. Finally, the hydrocolloid mixture was optimized over the area of feasible formulation. With the optimal mixture, corresponding to 0.28% CMC, 0.13% guar gum and 0.59% xanthan gum is expected to obtain a 0.089% of syneresis and a rating of 6 in terms of sensory consistency.

  9. On the Translation of Hybridity in the Chinese Version of Saving Fish from Drowning in the Light of Bakhtin’s Theory of Dialogue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zheng-yan; WANG Ji-ping

    2015-01-01

    In translation, hybridity often poses a big challenge to the translator, especially when the hybrid text is a novel. The au⁃thor of this paper hopes to contribute to the study of the translation of hybridity in English novels by drawing on Bakhtin ’s theory of dialogue. By analyzing the translation of linguistic hybridity in Saving Fish from Drowning, the author of this paper finds that the translation by Caiju is not good enough and tries to provide a new direction by virtue of which translators can choose right transla⁃tion strategies.

  10. A Study on 36 Examples of the Reptile, Fish and Invertebrate Names in the Ancient Chinese Language%古代虫鱼爬行动物名所指考36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。

  11. The arginine deiminase pathway of koji bacteria is involved in ethyl carbamate precursor production in soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiran; Fang, Fang; Chen, Jian; Du, Guocheng

    2014-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a group 2A carcinogen generated from a few precursors in many fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. Citrulline, urea, carbamoyl phosphate, and ethanol are common precursors detected in fermented foods. In this study, citrulline was proved to be the main EC precursor in soy sauce, which was found to be accumulated in moromi mash period and correlated with the utilization of arginine by koji bacteria. Six koji isolates belonging to three genera were identified to be able to accumulate citrulline via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway. Among these strains, only Pediococcus acidilactici retained high activities in synthesis and accumulation of citrulline in the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride. These results suggested that P. acidilactici is responsible for the accumulation of citrulline, one of the EC precursors, in the process of soy sauce fermentation.

  12. The analysis of the chroma of soy sauce%酱油色度分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之琳

    2001-01-01

    The colourity of soy sauce can show technology condition and product quality during production course.According to our country situation and refer to overseas color grader,this paper choose standard color grader which is aisposed with five kinds of colour material and similar to sauce color to compare color byeyes.This methed is simple,fast and accurate.%酱油的色度可显示产品的生产过程中工艺条件和产品质量。本文根据我国国情参考国外色阶板,选用由五种色料配置的与酱油色近似的标准色阶进行目视比色,方法简单、快速、准确。

  13. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Chen, Ji-Yao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Pei-Nan; Guo, Jia; Yang, Wu-Li; Wang, Chang-Chun; Peng, Qian

    2007-10-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe3O4@SiO2@CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 °C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 °C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 °C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 °C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 °C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe3O4) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm-1. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD photodetection and magnetic manipulation in diagnosis and

  14. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated thermo-responsive nanoparticles for controlled delivery of sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine in Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jia [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen Jiyao [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Pu [Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Peinan [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo Jia [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yang Wuli [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Changchun [Department of Macromolecular Science and Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Peng Qian [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2007-10-17

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} - SiO{sub 2} - CdTe multifunctional nanoparticles with photoluminescent (PL), thermosensitive and magnetic properties, were investigated as carriers to deliver water-soluble, fluorescent sulfonated Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), a photosensitizing drug for photodynamic therapy of cancer, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and zebra fish in vivo. PNIPAM is a well-known thermo-responsive polymer with a volume phase transition temperature. This property allows it to be swollen in water at temperatures lower than 32-34 deg. C to take up ZnPcS and shrunken to expel the drug at higher temperatures. Since the PL band of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as indicators for the nanoparticles is at 585 nm and the emission band of ZnPcS is at 680 nm, it is possible to study the temperature-dependent release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles by fluorescence measurements. ZnPcS was embedded in the PNIPAM of the nanoparticles at 25 deg. C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and released at 37 deg. C, measured with a spectrophotometer. When CHO cells had been incubated with the ZnPcS-loaded nanoparticles at 27 deg. C, a similar intracellular localization pattern of CdTe QDs and ZnPcS was seen by multichannel measurements in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), but a diffuse pattern of only ZnPcS fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm of the cells at 37 deg. C, indicating a release of ZnPcS from the nanoparticles. Similar results were also found in the intestinal tract of zebra fish in vivo after intake of the nanoparticles. Since the nanoparticles contain magnetic (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) material, the nanoparticles could also be manipulated to change their location in the intestinal tract of the zebra fish with an external magnetic field gradient of 300 G mm{sup -1}. The results presented suggest that such multifunctional nanoparticles may have combined potential for temperature-dependent drug delivery, QD

  15. Estratigrafía, facies y evolución depositacional de la Formación Sauce Grande (Carbonífero Superior: Cuenca Sauce Grande, Sierras Australes, Buenos Aires, Argentina Stratigraphy, facies and depositional evolution of the Sauce Grande Formation (Upper Carboniferous: Sauce Grande Basin, Sierras Australes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Andreis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encara el examen detallado de las litofacies y su composición, así como el análisis de los procesos depositacionales que condujeron a la acumulación de materiales siliciclásticos de la Formación Sauce Grande y que representa la primera sedimentación acontecida en la cuenca Sauce Grande. Fueron analizados dos perfiles estratigráficos de la unidad: el perfil Norte (con 826 m y el perfil Sur (con 1095 m. La unidad está compuesta por importantes volúmenes de diamictitas [Dmm1, Dmm2, Dmg, Dms, Dms(r], así como de areniscas (Sma, Smw, Sh, Sr, Sp, pelitas (Fm, Fl, Fd y escasos conglomerados (Dcm, Dcg. También fue analizada la ciclicidad de las sucesiones, reconociéndose tres megaciclos (inferior, medio y superior con sus respectivas asociaciones litofaciales. El megaciclo inferior permite visualizar el paleorrelieve devónico (Formación Lolén y está constituido por abundantes diamictitas, areniscas y escasos conglomerados. El megaciclo medio contiene areniscas y conglomerados y en el megaciclo superior se advierte una disminución en la participación de diamictitas con una mayor frecuencia de cadilitos (guijarro a bloque, sustituida por areniscas y pelitas (en el perfil Norte. En los megaciclos inferior y superior las facies Dmm1, Dmm2 y Dms(r, con espesores decamétricos y extensiones de centenares de metros son los miembros más conspicuos y corresponden a deslizamientos de masas semiconsolidadas o fluidas (flujos de detritos cohesivos generados en pendientes fuertes proximales. Es probable que en el megaciclo superior las diamictitas sean del tipo rain out. La facies Dms(rincluye cuerpos arenosos contorsionados y/u orientados y frecuentes intraclastos pelíticos. Las facies conglomerádicas son flujos no cohesivos dejados atrás por flujos hiperconcentrados o como flujos de granos modificados en su densidad. Las areniscas Sma habrían sido depositadas por procesos suspensivos densos y escasamente compactados, mientras que las

  16. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  17. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  18. Optimisation and validation of analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of antioxidants: application to the analysis of tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Labrador, Agustín; Domínguez, Alba; Peiró, Lluís

    2014-11-15

    In the present study, simultaneous extraction of natural antioxidants (phenols and carotenoids) in complex matrices, such as tomato sauces, is presented. The tomato sauce antioxidant compounds studied were the phenolics hydroxytyrosol, from virgin olive oil, quercetin and its derivatives, from onions, and quercetin-rutinoside as well as the carotenoid, lycopene (cis and trans), from tomatoes. These antioxidant compounds were extracted simultaneously with n-hexane/acetone/ethanol (50/25/25, v/v/v). The phenolics were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and lycopene (cis- and trans-forms) was analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). After studying the parameters of these methods, they were applied to the analysis of virgin olive oil, fresh onion, tomato concentrate and tomato powder, and commercial five tomato sauces. Subsequently, the results obtained in our laboratory were compared with those from the Gallina Blanca Star Group laboratory.

  19. Quality evaluation of Antarctic krill sauce%南极磷虾海鲜酱油的品质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕传萍; 李学英; 杨宪时; 郭全友

    2012-01-01

    When Antarctic krill was hydrolyzed by Alcalase,the enzymolysis liquid was used as raw materials to develop a new kind of sauce. After fluorine reduction,burdening,sterilization and packaging,Antarctic krill sauce was done. Total nitrogen content of Antarctic krill sauce was (20.93±0.23)mg/L,aminophenol content was (12.32±0.27)mg/L,that were both more than criterion of special grade sauce in GB18186-2000. The content of soluble solids without salt was 22.09%±0.52%,which is more than some other kinds of sauce. In Antarctic krill sauce,sodium chloride content,total acid,lead content and arsenic content were separately 15.27%±0.26%, (0.61±0.05)g/100mL, (0.92±0.42)mg/L and (0.38±0.01)mg/L,they were all less than the limits of sauce health standard in GB2717-2003. Selenium content in this sauce was (1.31±0.04)mg/L,and taurine content was 139.30 mg/100mL,which gave new fuctions to Antarctic krill sauce. There were no microbiological risks when Antarctic krill sauce was stored,it tasted delicious and palatable by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Eighteen kinds of amino acid were found in Antarctic krill sauce,essential amino acid and flavor amino acid were all in high contents, branch/aromatic value of amino acid was also in a high level,which were coincide with ideal protein mode recommended by FAO/WHO. Consequently,Antarctic krill sauce was high nutritional,flavorous and rich in functional activities%以Alcalase酶水解南极磷虾制得的酶解液为原料,经降氟,调配,灭菌,包装后制成南极磷虾酱油。该酱油总氮含量为(20.93±0.23)mg/L,氨基酸态氮含量为(12.32±0.27)mg/L,含量均高于GB18186-2000中特级酱油的标准。可溶性无盐固形物含量较高,为22.09%±0.52%。氯化钠、总酸、铅和砷含量分别为15.27%±0.26%、(0.61±0.05)g/100mL、(0.92±0.42)mg/L和(0.38±0.01)mg/L,均低于GB2717-2003酱油卫生标准中的限量。该酱油中硒含量为(1

  20. Contribution of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol to the cooked meat-like aroma of fermented soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Kitagawa, Riho; Imamura, Miho; Katayama, Hiroshi; Obata, Akio; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2017-01-01

    The cooked meat-like aroma compound, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (2M3F), was detected in fermented soy sauce (FSS) by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS. 2M3F was present in FSS at a concentration considerably greater than the perception threshold, and the 2M3F concentration increased with heating temperature. Sensory analysis indicated that with the addition of only 0.2 μg/L of 2M3F to the soy sauce sample, the cooked meat-like aroma is significantly stronger than that of sample without the addition of 2M3F. Hence, 2M3F contributes to the cooked meat-like aroma of FSS, which constitutes the key aroma component of FSS. In addition, 2M3F was generated from the addition of ribose and cysteine in FSS by heating at 120 °C, but it was not detected in a phosphate buffer under the same condition. Furthermore, 2M3F was not detected in acid-hydrolyzed vegetable-protein-mixed soy sauce (ASS) and heated ASS. These results indicated that fermentation by micro-organisms facilitates the generation of 2M3F in FSS.

  1. Analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Alvarez, Araceli; Ramírez-Maya, Erika; Alvarado-Suárez, Luís Angel

    2009-04-01

    A simple method for the analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in peppers and pepper sauces by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed. A novel device was designed for direct extraction solid phase microextraction in order to avoid damage to the fiber. The analysis was performed without derivatization for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Selection fiber, extraction temperature, extraction time and pH, were optimized. The method was linear in the range 0.109-1.323 microg/mL for capsaicin and 0.107-1.713 microg/mL for dihydrocapsaicin with correlation coefficient up to r=0.9970 for both capsaicinoids. The precision of the method was less than 10%. The method was applied to the analysis of 11 varieties of peppers and four pepper sauces. A broad range of capsaicin (55.0-25 459 microg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (93-1 130 microg/g) was found in the pepper and pepper sauces samples (4.3-717.3 and 1.0-134.8 microg/g), respectively.

  2. Separation and Identification of Volatile Flavor Compounds in High-Salt Liquid State-Fermented Soy Sauce%高盐稀态酱油挥发性风味物质的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献礼; 赵谋明; 崔春; 曹鸣凯; 李丹

    2009-01-01

    分别采用固相微萃取(SPME)、同时蒸馏萃取(VSDE)和直接溶剂萃取(DSE)法对高盐稀态酱油挥发性风味物质进行分离、浓缩,并利用气质联用色谱(GC-MS)对其挥发性风味物质进行鉴定.试验共鉴定出147种风味化合物,其中酸类17种、醇类12种、醛类16种、酯类36种、呋喃(酮)类12种、酮类13种、杂环化合物14种、酚类8种、吡喃(酮)类6种、吡嗪类4种、吡咯(酮)类3种、含硫化合物6种.研究结果表明,主要挥发性风味化合物为酯、酸、醛、杂环化合物和醇类,其中酯类化合物的数量和相对含量最多;此外,有16种日式和韩式酱油中的关键风味化合物在国产高盐稀态酱油中被检出.%In this paper, such technologies as solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), simultaneous steam distillation-extraction (VSDE) and direct solvent extraction (DSE) were employed to separate and concentrate the volatile flavor compounds in high-salt liquid state-fermented soy sauce, and the extracts were identified by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 147 flavor compounds, including 17 kinds of acids, 12 kinds of alcohols, 16 kinds of aldehydes, 36 kinds of esters, 12 kinds of furan(one)s, 13 kinds of ketones, 14 kinds of he-〖JP2〗 terocyclic compounds, 8 kinds of phenols, 6 kinds of pyran(one)s, 4 kinds of pyrazines, 3 kinds of pyrrol(idon)es〖JP〗 and 6 kinds of sulfur-containing compounds, were then identified. The results indicate that, in the dominant volatile flavor compounds in the soy sauce, namely, esters, acids, alcohols, aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds, esters are of the most species and of the highest relative content; and that 16 aroma-impact compounds of Japanese and Korean soy sauces were detected from Chinese high-salt liquid state-fermented soy sauce.

  3. 响应面法优化扇贝沙司加工工艺研究%Optimization of Scallop Sauce by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡珊珊; 王颉; 孙剑锋

    2012-01-01

    With scallop miso sauce as the main material, the preparation of scallop sauce was researched. The best seasoning ratio was: scallop miso sauce 30%, sugar 14%, monosodium glutamate 1%, white vinegar 5%, spice sauce 30%. Under these conditions, the sensory score of the product was 9.6±0.45. Optimization model of scallop sauce was established and the validation test results showed that the prediction accuracy rate was 94.33%. The product was got with oil lubrication bright, reddish—brown color, rich flavor with sauce, highlight flavor with seafood, harmony flavor of salty and fresh. The trial process can guarantee the quality of scallop sauce with the scale—up potential.%以扇贝豆酱淋汁为主要原料,研究扇贝沙司的加工工艺.最佳配比为:扇贝豆酱淋汁30%,砂糖14%,味精1%,白醋4%,香辛料汁30%,在此条件下扇贝沙司感官评分为9.6±0.45.建立了扇贝沙司单因素与感官评分的模型,利用响应面法对加工工艺进行优化并得到优化模型,验证试验表明该模型的预测准确率达94.33%.在此条件下得到的产品油润光亮,色泽红褐色,酱香味浓郁,海鲜味突出,口味和谐适中,咸鲜香味兼备.本试验的加工工艺能保证扇贝沙司的品质,具有中试放大的潜力.

  4. Transnational Activities of Chinese Crime Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    numbers of illegal migrants move directly from China into large Chinese communities in Guatemala, Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica . In those countries...done from Russian boats and because the entrenched Russian “ poaching mafia” is an integral part of harvesting rare fish and sea products by Chinese...Megan Saunders, “Triads Sink Hooks into Reef Fish ,” The Australian [Sydney], 17 February 2003, 5. 35 Faligot, 305-06. 36 Faligot, 306. 37 Faligot, 306

  5. Research on Communication and Navigation Equipment Standard for Chinese Fishing Boat%我国渔船通导设备标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣杰; 石瑞; 曹建军

    2012-01-01

    文章从不同的角度对现有的渔船通导设备产品标准进行分析,剖析现有产品标准在制修订中存在的问题,如缺乏行之有效的管理标准及渔船通导设备产品标准制定参数较低、标准标龄较老等。针对这些问题提出解决方法,包括技术参数标准和管理标准应该“双管齐下”、渔船通导产品标准参数必须严格把关、加强我国渔船通导产品标准的整合及加强对于渔船通导产品的环境标准的更新修订。%The fishing boat communication and navigation equipment product quality standard is one of the most indispensable foundation documents to the safe operation and the essential operation for the fishermen out sailing. This article analyzes the problems during the revision of product quality standard from various angles and aims at these problems puts forward the solving method.

  6. Pumpkin Sauce Development%南瓜果酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘政; 葛佩富; 王丽威; 聂简琪; 张凤霞; 徐英帅

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin is not only with nutritious,but also low-fat,low sodium,high dietary fiber.Pumpkin jam made for the unique flavor of raw materials,rich in nutritional value.In order to manufacture the unique flavor of low sugar pumpkin jam,the pumpkin jam making process parameters were optimized.The result showed that using 500 g pure water per 100 g raw pumpkin at 130℃ pre-cook for 5 minutes,adding 12 g sugar,5 g xylitol,0.3 g citric acid,following 0.3 g sodium alginate at 110℃ boiling till 25% solids content of such products could make the best pumpkin sauce.The pumpkin sauce has a unique taste and reaches the corresponding national standards.So it will have a good market prospects.%南瓜不仅营养丰富,而且是低脂、低钠和高膳食纤维食品。以南瓜为原料制作的果酱风味独特,营养价值丰富。为了制作风味独特的低糖南瓜果酱,对制作低糖南瓜果酱的工艺参数进行了优化。结果表明:每100g南瓜使用500g纯净水在130℃预煮5min,打浆后,加入12g蔗糖和5g木糖醇、0.3g柠檬酸、0.3g海藻酸钠,在110℃下熬煮达到固形物含量为25%时,可制得最佳的低糖南瓜果酱。产品口感独特,符合果酱的国家标准,具有良好的市场前景。

  7. ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI MELANOIDIN KECAP MANIS DAN PERANANNYA SEBAGAI ANTIOKSIDAN [Isolation and characterization of soy sauce melanoidin and its role as antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedin FR1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling oxidation in natural and processed foods is a difficult aspect of food preservation, even in low-fat foods. Lipid oxidation not only produces characteristic undesirable odors and flavor, but also decreases the nutritional quality and safety of foods by formation of secondary reaction products during cooking and processing. Protection of foods against lipid oxidation usually involves exclusion of oxygen by packing in vacuum or inert gases and/or the addition of antioxidants. The Maillard reaction is complex reaction. A variety of by products, intermediates and brown pigmens (melanoidins are produced, which may contribute to the flavor, antioxidative activity and color of food. The oxidative browning of soy sauce is considered to have a different mechanism from those of ascorbic acid, polyphenols and furfural, because the amount of these compounds in soy sauce is very small. Maillard reaction products of soy sauce were fractionated into high and low molecular weight compounds by ultrafiltration. Oxidative stability was evaluated in refined soybean oil containing compounds in soy sauce and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Oils were oxidized at 110 oC and determined by the rancimat method and TBA value. The high molecular compounds (MW ≥100 kDa of soy sauce was found to be more inhibitory on the oxidation of soybean oil with protective index 2.43. Characteristic UV-Vis absorption was 360 – 406 nm and IR spectra indicated –OH...O groups of β-diketon or combinated C=R=R groups.

  8. 主成分分析在酱油质量评价中的运用%Application of principal component analysis in quality assessment of soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄毅; 锁然; 李娜

    2012-01-01

    以HPLC测定酱油中氨基酸的含量。采用主成分分析方法对酱油的质量进行评价。结果表明,酱油中含有18种氨基酸。采用主成分分析方法对酱油质量高低进行了排序。以此为消费者购买优质酱油提供参考,同时也可利于生产企业改良其产品的质量,从而提高竞争力。%Contents of amino acid in soy sauce were determined by high performance liquid chromatography method. The quality of soy sauce was evaluated by principal component analysis. The results showed that soy sauce contained 18 kinds of amino acids. The high and low quality of soy sauce was sorted by principal component analysis. It can provide a reference for consumers to buy high-quality soy sauce and improve the quality of enterprise products,so as to improve competitivenes

  9. Efficacies of soy sauce and wine base marinades for controlling spoilage of raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargiotou, C; Katsanidis, E; Rhoades, J; Kontominas, M; Koutsoumanis, K

    2011-02-01

    Fresh beef slices were marinated by immersion in marinades based on soy sauce without (SB) or with lactic acid (SBLA) or red wine base without (WB) or with 0.5% v/v oregano essential oil (WBO). For control samples (immersed in saline), a mean increase of 0.9log CFU/cm(2) in total viable counts (TVCs) occurred during the 24h treatment. During marination with WB and SB, mean TVC decreased by 0.7 and 0.3log CFU/cm(2), respectively. The mean decrease in TVC for samples marinated in WBO or SBLA was 1.2log CFU/cm(2). Subsequent storage of beef resulted in a rapid increase of TVC in control samples, to ≥9.5log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days at 5°C or 3 days at 15°C. Significant (PPseudomonas spp. All marinades also gave meat with significant lower TBARS values than the controls. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the toughness of the marinated samples compared to the control, except for SBLA samples which had significantly higher (Pspoilage and oxidation of meat.

  10. 乳酸菌在原池浇淋发酵酱油中的应用%Appl ication of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermentation of Soy Sauce in Pond with Spraying-extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔治辉; 王来生

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are an important microorganism in soy sauce brewing,which play a vital role in the flavor formation of soy sauce.Add lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation of soy sauce in the pond with spraying-extraction not only can improve the production yield of soy sauce,but also can significantly improve the flavor of soy sauce.%乳酸菌是酱油酿造过程中的重要微生物,对酱油风味的形成起着至关重要的作用。在原池浇淋发酵酱油过程中添加乳酸菌,不仅能提高酱油出品率,而且能明显改善酱油风味。

  11. Simple and sensitive analysis of histamine and tyramine in Japanese soy sauces and their intermediates using the stable isotope dilution HILIC-MS/MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoroki, Kenichiro; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Chiemi; Kitagawa, Sachiyo; Min, Jun Zhe; Inoue, Koichi; Yamanaka, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Kuniaki; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-07-02

    We established a simple, sensitive, and reproducible method to analyze the histamine and tyramine levels in Japanese soy sauce and its mash (called moromi) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). Histamine and tyramine quantification was performed using their stable isotopes for electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The sample pretreatment process was a simple, one-step liquid-liquid extraction. HILIC separation was performed with a gradient elution of aqueous ammonium formate and acetonitrile. Because of validation tests, the linearity, the accuracies, and precisions were sufficient. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 0.09 and 0.29 ppm for histamine and 0.13 and 0.42 ppm for tyramine, respectively. We successfully applied this method to histamine and tyramine determination in four kinds of commercial Japanese soy sauces and also in moromi samples during soy sauce production.

  12. Extraction and Analysis Methods of Aroma Components in Soy Sauce%酱油中香气成分的提取和分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 罗秀华; 孙晶; 高丽华

    2014-01-01

    The aroma components in soy sauce are the important indexes of evaluating the quality of soy sauce. The separation,extraction and analysis methods of aroma components are reviewed,and research progress of separation and determination of aroma components in soy sauce are introduced in this paper.%酱油中的香气成分是评价酱油品质的重要指标。阐述了常用的香气成分的分离、提取、分析方法,并介绍了酱油中香气成分提取、鉴定的研究进展。

  13. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  14. Screening and identification of a strain for lobster sauce fermentation%一株细菌型豆豉发酵菌种的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小永; 陈伟; 程芳; 李靖

    2011-01-01

    从临沂细菌型豆豉中筛选出一株适于豆豉生产的高产蛋白酶菌种,并对此菌种进行鉴定。结果表明:采用酪蛋白平板初筛,制曲复筛,根据曲样蛋白酶酶活以及游离态含量共选出5株优良菌株用于豆豉的制作,由成品豆豉的理化指标和感官评定认为D2号菌种发酵的豆豉风味好,滋味鲜美。结合生理生化和16SrDNA序列分析初步鉴定D2号菌种为枯草芽孢杆菌,该菌株来源于豆豉,属于安全菌种,具有研究开发价值。%A bacteria producing high protease and suiting for fermenting lobster sauce from bacteria lobster sauce of Lin Yi was screened and identified.The result showed that five high-yield strains of protease were screened by casein plate and re-screened by starter making.According to the enzyme activity and free nitrogen's content of startor of lobster sauce,five superior strains were used to ferment lobster sauce respectively.According to the sensory tests,physical and chemical indexes of five products,the Lobster Sauce fermented by D2 strain had a good flavor and the product was very delicious.Combining physiological characters and the sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA,the strain D2 was preliminarily identified as Bacillus subtilis.The strain from lobster sauce was safe,therefore it was worth further studying and developing.

  15. 电子鼻在酱油气味识别中的应用%Application of Electronic Nose in Odor Recognition of Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞慧红; 崔晓红; 刘平

    2016-01-01

    为了探索电子鼻对酱油识别的可行性,利用电子鼻并结合感官鉴评对5种不同品牌的酱油进行了分析。通过 PCA 分析,发现5种酱油之间气味存在一定的差别;通过 LDA 分析,发现电子鼻可以完全区分5种酱油的气味;通过 Loading 分析,发现2号传感器对第一主成分的贡献率最大。利用 PLS 分析法建立酱油感官评分的模型,发现模型可以很好地预测酱油的感官评分。综上所述,电子鼻可用于酱油气味的识别和分析。%In order to explore the feasibility of soy sauce,electronic nose and sensory evaluation are applied for the analysis of five different brands of soy sauce.By principal component analysis,it is found that there are some differences in the odor among the five kinds of soy sauce.By linear discrimination analysis,it is found that electronic nose can distinguish the odor of five kinds of soy sauce entirely.By loading analysis,it is found that the second sensor of electronic nose plays a main role in the first principal component.A model of sensory evaluation is established by the method of PLS,it is found that the model can predict the sensory evaluation of soy sauce well.In summary,the electronic nose can be used to identify and analyze the odor of soy sauce.

  16. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  17. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  18. HACCP在酿造酱油生产及品质控制中的应用%Application of HACCP in Soy Sauce Production and Quality Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈其钢; 古丽奴尔·吐拉西

    2016-01-01

    It is introduced HACCP management system the way of how to built on the soy sauce and the specific results of the implementation and using the meaning and necessity of soy sauce HACCP management system of quality control .%介绍HACCP管理体系在酿造酱油企业中建立HACCP的具体方法及实施结果,采用HACCP管理体系在酱油品质控制中的意义和必要性。

  19. Improvement of flavor and viscosity in hot and cold break tomato juice and sauce by peel removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are typically not peeled before being made into juice but the peels contain enzymes that affect the odor, flavor, and viscosity of the juice. The peels are removed in the finisher, but their presence during the break process may affect quality. Juice was processed from peeled and unpeeled tomatoes using hot or cold break. The juices were pasteurized by high temperature short time (HTST), low temperature long time (LTLT), or with a retort. The control samples were treated with 10% calcium chloride to stop enzymatic activity in the juice. Sauce was made from juice and the tomato products were analyzed for volatiles, color, viscosity, and by sensory. Cold break juice made with peel contained higher levels of some lipoxygenase-, carotenoid-, and amino acid-derived volatiles, than the juice made without peel. Because of the lack of enzyme activity, hot break juices had lower levels of these volatiles and there was no significant difference between hot break juices made with and without peel. CaCl2 -treated and HTST juice had higher levels of most of the volatiles than LTLT, including the lipoxygenase-derived volatiles. The presence of peel produced a significant decrease in the viscosity of the cold break juice and sauce. There was no significant difference in the hue angle, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and vitamin C for most of the treatments. The texture, flavor, and overall liking of cold break juice made without peel were preferred over cold break juice made with peel whereas the color was less preferred. Between the sauces no significant differences in preference were obtained.

  20. Study on the Processing Technology of Lobster Mince Sauce%淡水小龙虾肉酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕艳红; 高海林; 王朝宇; 赵希荣; 赵立

    2012-01-01

    The seafood flavor sauce was prepared using lobster mince, peanut butter and fermented soya beans as the main raw material and adding pepper, salt, sugar, vinegar as the basic seasonings. Orthogonal test was employed to optimize the dosages of the ingredients and the processing conditions for lobster mince sauce. The best formula of the seasoning liquid contains salt 3% and pepper 1% with the ratio of the sugar to vinegar being of 5:3 (m/m),. And the optimal processing conditions for lobster mince sauce preparation were as follows: lobster mince 11%, seasoning liquid 27% and the ratio of peanut butter to fermented soya beans 2:8 {m/m).%以淡水小龙虾加工后产生的龙虾碎肉、鳌内肉为原料,辅以胡椒、食盐、糖、醋等基本调味料,生产具有水产海鲜风味特色的龙虾肉酱产品.采用正交试验筛选最佳配方,以确定龙虾肉酱的最佳工艺条件.经优化,调味液的最佳配比为:食盐3%,糖醋比5∶3(m/m),胡椒1%;最佳龙虾肉酱工艺条件为:龙虾肉11%,调味液27%,花生酱和豆豉的配比为2∶8(m/m).

  1. Pennsylvanian and Cisuralian palynofloras from the Los Sauces area, La Rioja Province, Argentina: Chronological and paleoecological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquo, Mercedes di; Azcuy, Carlos L. [University/Organization, CONICET Institute CICyTTP, CICyTTP- CONICET Diamante - CP, Entre Rios (Argentina); Vergel, Maria del M. [INSUGEO-CONICET y Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2010-08-01

    Three outcrops of the Libertad and Sauces Formations from the Los Sauces area La Rioja Province, western Argentina, yielded the nine palynoassemblages studied here. Two assemblage zones are defined on the basis of the stratigraphic distribution and ranges of seventy five species of palynomorphs (42 species of spores, 32 pollen taxa and one fungus). Only thirteen species are common to both assemblages and ten species are first records for the Paganzo Basin. Assemblage 1 from the Libertad Formation is dominated by trilete spores of Cristatisporites (lycophyte) and Punctatisporites (pteridophyte). Monosaccate pollen (Coniferales/Cordaitales) is frequently present. Pteridosperms, mostly represented by Cyclogranisporites, are especially abundant in one level together with scarce striate bisaccate pollen grains. Assemblage 2 of the Sauces Formation is dominated by trilete spores related to the Pteridophyta (e.g., Horriditriletes, Converrucosisporites, Granulatisporites) and Sphenophyta. Monosaccate (Cordaitales/Coniferales) and taeniate and non-taeniate bisaccate pollen grains (Pteridospermales/Coniferales), are equally subordinated. Monosulcate pollen (Cycadophyta) and fungi (Portalites gondwanensis) are rare. Assemblage 1 is mainly Moscovian; assemblage 2 Asselian-Sakmarian. This interpretation is based on correlation of assemblage 1 to the DMb (Mid Pennsylvanian) and assemblage 2 to the FS (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Paganzo Basin (Argentina). The taxonomic composition of the Ahrensisporites cristatus-Crucisaccites monoletus (Mid-Late Pennsylvanian) and the Protohaploxypinus goraiensis Subzone (Asselian-Sakmarian) of the Vittatina costabilis (Early Cisuralian) Biozones of the Parana Basin (Brazil) support this correlation. The continental freshwater depositional setting of this part of the Paganzo Basin is supported by the dominance of terrestrial palynomorphs and phytoclasts, the presence of coal and carbonaceous shales, and the occurrence of plant megafossils

  2. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  3. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  4. Studies of Antimicrobial Peptides Hepcidin and Scygonadin in Chinese Marine-cultured Fishes and Mud Crab%海洋鱼类和青蟹抗菌肽hepcidin和scygonadin的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克坚

    2011-01-01

    抗菌肽或抗微生物肽因具有杀死或抑制微生物的共同特性,近年来科学家又将这些肽类称为"天然抗生素",有望在将来作为一种新型的生物药物替代现有的化学类抗生素.海洋动物中蕴藏着世界上丰富的抗菌活性物质,研究与开发应用海洋动物抗菌肽成为近年来的研究热点.结合国内外的相关研究进展,简要总结了课题组近年来在我国海水养殖鱼类抗菌肽hepcidin和青蟹抗菌肽scygonadin的研究进展,从抗菌肽的蛋白分离、纯化、基因克隆、基因表达模式、基因工程表达以及抗菌肽合成与表达产品的抗菌活性等进行了简要细致的叙述,对深入探索海洋动物抗菌肽在我国水产养殖业的开发应用具有重要的参考价值.%The small native compounds are isolated from various species of lives,with resistant activity against bacteria , are known as "antibacterial peptides"or "antimicrobial peptides" ( AMPs) and are also thought as "natural antibiotics " in recent years by scientists.It is widely acknowledged that these defensive compounds or AMPs could become new types of bio-antibiotics substituting for the currently used chemical antibiotics in near future. More and more people in the world realize that there are luxuriant AMPs existing in the marine animals , plants and microorganisms. The study of AMPs in marine animals is now the hotspot in research, thus attracting many researchers engaged in this area. The author briefly summarizes some typical results obtained from the study of AMPs in his group in recent several years. His group has done a lot of work in mining of genes and isolation of proteins which are related to antimicrobial activity from Chinese cultured fishes and crabs. More than 20 hepcidin cDNA sequences have been identified and the gene expression patterns were investigated in normal and bacterial challenged fish including Lateolabrax japonicus , Pagrus major , Sparus macrocephlus, Tilapia

  5. Determination of Quality Properties of Soy Sauce by Support Vector Regression Coupled with SW-NIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; BAO Chun-fang; REN Yu-lin

    2011-01-01

    The modem near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy analysis is a simple, efficient and nondestructive technique,which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Shortwave NIR spectroscopy is also a rapid, flexible, and cost-effective method to control product quality in food industry. The method of support vector regression coupled with shortwave NIR spectroscopy was explored for the nondestructive quantitative analysis of the important quality parameters of soy sauce, including amino nitrogen content, total acid content, salt content and color ratio. In this study, the support vector regression(SVR) models based on subtractive spectra and positive spectra were found and compared, the results show that the subtractive spectrum was more excellent than the positive spectrum. Meanwhile,R and RSE were determined, respectively, by means of original spectra and pretreated spectra[standard normal variate (SNV), first-derivative and second-derivative], and the corresponding models were successfully established. The best prediction was achieved by a support vector regression model of the first derivative transformed dataset. In addition,the result obtained by the proposed method was compared with that of Partial Least Squares(PLS), which showed that the generalization performance of the classifier based on SVR was much better than that of PLS. The results demonstrate that shortwave NIR spectroscopy combined with SVR is promising for thc quality control of soy sauce.

  6. Determination of Quality Properties of Soy Sauce by Support Vector Regression Coupled with SW-NIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The modern near-infrared(NIR) spectroscopy analysis is a simple, efficient and nondestructive technique, which has been used in chemical analysis in diverse fields. Shortwave NIR spectroscopy is also a rapid, flexible, and cost-effective method to control product quality in food industry. The method of support vector regression coupled with shortwave NIR spectroscopy was explored for the nondestructive quantitative analysis of the important quality parameters of soy sauce, including amino nitrogen content, total acid content, salt content and color ratio. In this study, the support vector regression(SVR) models based on subtractive spectra and positive spectra were found and compared, the results show that the subtractive spectrum was more excellent than the positive spectrum. Meanwhile, R and RSE were determined, respectively, by means of original spectra and pretreated spectra[standard normal variate (SNV), first-derivative and second-derivative], and the corresponding models were successfully established. The best prediction was achieved by a support vector regression model of the first derivative transformed dataset. In addition, the result obtained by the proposed method was compared with that of Partial Least Squares(PLS), which showed that the generalization performance of the classifier based on SVR was much better than that of PLS. The results demonstrate that shortwave NIR spectroscopy combined with SVR is promising for the quality control of soy sauce.

  7. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  8. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3–10.0 µg·kg−1, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg−1 and recoveries of 87.2%–114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R2 > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg−1. The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis. PMID:27428975

  9. National Outbreak of Type A Foodborne Botulism Associated With a Widely Distributed Commercially Canned Hot Dog Chili Sauce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliao, Patricia C.; Maslanka, Susan; Dykes, Janet; Gaul, Linda; Bagdure, Satish; Granzow-Kibiger, Lynae; Salehi, Ellen; Zink, Donald; Neligan, Robert P.; Barton-Behravesh, Casey; Lúquez, Carolina; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Lynch, Michael; Olson, Christine; Williams, Ian; Barzilay, Ezra J.

    2015-01-01

    Background On 7 and 11 July 2007, health officials in Texas and Indiana, respectively, reported 4 possible cases of type A foodborne botulism to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism is a rare and sometimes fatal illness caused by consuming foods containing botulinum neurotoxin. Methods Investigators reviewed patients’ medical charts and food histories. Clinical specimens and food samples were tested for botulinum toxin and neurotoxin-producing Clostridium species. Investigators conducted inspections of the cannery that produced the implicated product. Results Eight confirmed outbreak associated cases were identified from Indiana (n = 2), Texas (n = 3), and Ohio (n = 3). Botulinum toxin type A was identified in leftover chili sauce consumed by the Indiana patients and 1 of the Ohio patients. Cannery inspectors found violations of federal canned-food regulations that could have led to survival of Clostridium botulinum spores during sterilization. The company recalled 39 million cans of chili. Following the outbreak, the US Food and Drug Administration inspected other canneries with similar canning systems and issued warnings to the industry about the danger of C. botulinum and the importance of compliance with canned food manufacturing regulations. Conclusions Commercially produced hot dog chili sauce caused these cases of type A botulism. This is the first US foodborne botulism outbreak involving a commercial cannery in >30 years. Sharing of epidemiologic and laboratory findings allowed for the rapid identification of implicated food items and swift removal of potentially deadly products from the market by US food regulatory authorities. PMID:23097586

  10. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P GABA concentration was obtained from NSK (194 mg/L) followed by NSZ (63 mg/L), NSJ (51.53 mg/L) and NST (31.66 mg/L). Therefore, A. oryzae NSK was characterized and the sequence was found to be similar to A. oryzae and A. flavus with 99 % similarity. The evolutionary distance (K nuc) between sequences of identical fungal species was calculated and a phylogenetic tree prepared from the K nuc data showed that the isolate belonged to the A. oryzae species. This finding may allow the development of GABA-rich ingredients using A. oryzae NSK as a starter culture for soy sauce production.

  11. Study on Sensory Assessment of Classification of Soy Sauce%酱油分级感官评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永义; 周伟; 郭明月; 王富刚

    2014-01-01

    运用模糊数学综合评价方法对酱油的感官分级进行了分析,得到了382样品的综合评定级别为二级,413样品的综合评定级别为一级,629样品的综合评定级别为三级和二级之间,即3种酱油感官评定的分级从高到低为413>382>629。%In this paper,fuzzy mathematical method is adopted for the sensory evaluation of classifica-tion of soy sauce.The results show that comprehensive assessment level of 382 sample is level 2,413 sample is level 1,629 sample is between level 2 and level 3,the sensory evaluation analysis of classifi-cation of three soy sauces is ranked as 413>382>629.

  12. 方便面香菇酱包的研制%Study on Mushroom Sauce Packets of Instant Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清

    2014-01-01

    以腌制香菇为原料,采用炒酱方法,在单因素试验基础上进行正交试验,以感官评分为标准,对方便面香菇酱包的配方进行研制。结果表明:玉米淀粉加入量为2.5 g,肉末加入量为2 g,香菇加入量为10 g,猪油与豆油比例为1∶1时制得的香菇酱包品质最佳。%To obtain the best formula of mushroom sauce packets of instant noodles,the salted mush-room prepared by frying sauce,single-factor and orthogonal experiments are employed to examine the effects of the content of corn starch,minced meat and mushroom,and the proportion of lard oil and soybean oil on the product quality according to sensory scoring criteria.The results show that the op-timal formula is as follows:2.5 g of corn starch,2 g of minced meat,10 g of mushroom and the pro-portion of lard oil and soybean oil is 1 ∶1 .

  13. Quantification of 4-Methylimidazole in soft drinks, sauces and vinegars of Greek market using two liquid chromatography techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Moti, Sofia; Alegakis, Athanasios; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Tsakiris, Ioannis; Goumenou, Marina; Nosyrev, Alexander E; Rizos, Apostolos K; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-03-19

    The substance 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) has raised several concerns regarding its toxicity to humans, although no harmonized classification has yet been decided. The regulatory limits for food products set by various authorities in Europe and the USA differ considerably. The purpose of the present study is to compare two liquid chromatography techniques in order to determine the levels of 4-MEI in food products from the Greek market and roughly estimate the possible exposure and relevant health risk for the consumers. A total of thirty-four samples (soft drinks, beers, balsamic vinegars, energy drinks and sauces) were collected and analyzed. The quality parameters for both analytical methodologies (linearity, accuracy, inter day precision, recovery) are presented. No detectable levels of 4-MEI are found in beers and soft drink samples, other than cola type. On the other hand, 4-MEI was detected in all cola type soft drinks (15.8-477.0 ng/ml), energy drinks (57.1%, 6.6-22.5 ng/ml) and vinegar samples (66.7%, 9.7-3034.7 ng/ml), while only one of the sauce samples was found to have a detectable level of 17.5 ng/ml 4-MEI.

  14. Stereoselective Behavior of the Chiral Herbicides Diclofop-Methyl and Diclofop During the Soy Sauce Brewing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuele; Zhang, Dong; Liao, Yahui; Diao, Jinling; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Chiral pesticides are now receiving more and more attention in the food-making process. This experiment studied the enantioselective behavior of diclofop-methyl (DM) and its main metabolite, diclofop (DC), during the soy sauce brewing process. Two kinds of commonly used strains, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces rouxii, were investigated. However, they showed a different degradation ability to the enantiomers of DM and DC. It was observed that (-)-(S)-DM was degraded much faster than (+)-(R)-DM by Saccharomyces rouxii, while no stereoselective degradation was found by Aspergillus oryzae. DC represented a relatively long residue period in this fermentation process and both strains showed a weak degradation ability to DC, especially Saccharomyces rouxii. There was little DC detected in the final product, while most of the DC residues persisted in the lees, which were usually used as animal feeds or discarded into the environment directly as waste. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the soy sauce brewing process concerning pesticide residues both in the final product and byproducts.

  15. Influence of pH on Inhibitory Activity of Acetic Acid on Osmophilic Yeasts Used in Brine Fermentation of Soy Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Fumio; Hayashi, Kazuya; Mizunuma, Takeji

    1982-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of acetic acid on osmophilic yeasts (Saccharomyces rouxii and Torulopsis versatilis) used for the brine fermentation of soy sauce increased remarkably as the pH of the medium was lowered. This increased toxicity could not be attributed to a hydrogen ion effect alone.

  16. Isolation and identification of the umani components from lobster sauce%豆豉中鲜味组分的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭皖皖; 崔春; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    The umani components of 4 representative retail lobster sauce products were studied by ultrafiltration membranes separation, combinated taste dilution analysis with sensory evaluation. The studies showed that the umani components of Yangjiang and Guizhou water lobster sauce were prominent in samples and free amino acid was not the main umani conposition of Yangjiang lobster sauce. The molecular weight at 1- 3ku ultrafiltration components had obvious umani flavor even in 0.25g/L concentrations, which showed that the main uamni components of Yangjiang lobster sauce were between 1-3ku peptide.%采用超滤分离结合滋味稀释分析法和感官评价法研究了4种市面上常见豆豉的鲜味组分。研究表明其中阳江和贵州水豆豉的鲜味突出,游离氨基酸不是阳江豆豉鲜味的主要成份。分子量在1-3ku的超滤组分在0.25g/L的浓度下仍有明显的鲜味,这表明阳江豆豉呈鲜味的成分主要分布在1~3ku的肽段中。

  17. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  18. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  19. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  20. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  1. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  2. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  3. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  4. To Safeguard Century-old Rice-fish Farming Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ "… dig six mu of land into a pond … put 2,000 fry into the pond …sell the rest in the market," wrote ancient Chinese scholar Fan Li about 400 BC in The Canon for Fish Culture, the oldest known fish culture document.

  5. Study on Microelements of Ten Consumed Fish Species by NAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; JIN; Xiang-chun; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>As the improvement of the living standard, people are more and more concerned about the safety of food currently. The fish is healthy food with more protein but less fat. We bought ten species of fish from the market, which are often eaten by Chinese, and analyzed the microelement of them by NAA.

  6. 七种捕食性鱼类对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹捕食风险的评估%ASSESSMENT OF PREDATION RISKS OF SEVEN PREDACIOUS FISH ON JUVENILE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鸣钟; 张堂林; 张超文; 李钟杰; 刘家寿; 吴小平

    2012-01-01

    分别以鲤、鳜、斑点叉尾鲴、黄颡鱼、瓦氏黄颡鱼、大口鲇和乌鳢作为捕食者,以中华绒螯蟹幼蟹作为猎物,在室内水泥池(2.4 m3)进行捕食试验.以日捕获率和日摄食率为指标,评估这些鱼类对幼蟹的捕食作用和危害程度,为提高湖泊幼蟹放流效果、建立蟹—鱼复合的优质高效养殖模式提供科学依据.在幼蟹完全暴露的条件下,经过多次(至少9次)重复的试验(短期1d和长期7d),鳜对不同大小的硬壳和软壳(刚蜕壳的)幼蟹没有任何捕食作用;黄颡鱼对硬壳和软壳幼蟹也没有捕食作用,但还需做进一步观察;虽然鲤、瓦氏黄颡鱼对硬壳蟹的捕获率低,但对软壳的幼蟹有较大的危害性,对幼蟹的日摄食率分别为0.070%、0.012%;大口鲇、斑点叉尾鲴、乌鳢对幼蟹具有较强的捕食能力,对幼蟹的日摄食率分别为0.122%、0.188%和0.284%.根据这些研究结果,可以建议:(1)在池塘和湖泊河蟹养殖中,完全可以将鳜作为套养或混养对象,以期提高养殖效益;(2)在河蟹放养的湖泊,需要抑制乌鳢和大口鲇种群,适当减少鲤和瓦氏黄颡鱼丰度,以期减少这些鱼类的捕食作用,提高幼蟹存活率;(3)在河蟹养殖池塘,不能放养乌鳢、大口鲇、斑点叉尾鲴、瓦氏黄颡鱼和鲤.%The lake and pond cultures of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) are two main farming modes with high commercial benefits in the Changjiang River basin. Unfortunately, recapture rates of the released crabs are often considerably lower mainly due to the predation of predacious fish. In order to provide scientific bases for improving the survival of the crab stocked in lakes and establishing a crab-fish polyculture mode with high returns on investment, a series of predation experiments of indoor cement pools were conducted to assess predation risks on juvenile E. sinensis by Cyprinus carpio, Siniperca chuatsi, Ictalurus punctatu

  7. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  8. Détermination des facteurs physicochimiques liés à la qualité de l’huile de palme intervenant dans la stabilité de la ‘sauce jaune’

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La « sauce jaune » est une sauce qui accompagne le taro (Colocassia esculenta) pilé, met autrefois réservé aux cérémonies traditionnelles dans l’Ouest et le Nord-Ouest du Cameroun. La «sauce jaune» est une émulsion d’huile de palme dans l’eau stabilisée par le sel gemme dans laquelle on ajoute un certain nombre d’épices écrasées. La préparation de cette sauce est très délicate. Nous avons par un questionnaire mené une enquête dans les quartiers de la ville de Yaoundé portant su...

  9. 冬菜肉酱调料的开发研究%Development of Mustard Greens Meat Sauce Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文亭; 徐文俊; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 李俊英; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    Recipes of raw materials are optimized;the effects of frying time and temperature on mince dehydration and aroma enhancement of bean paste are studied.Recipes of mustard greens meat sauce seasoning are identified;based on the initial raw materials,the ratios of mustard greens-meat sauce are as follows:mustard greens of 40%,minced meat of 15%~20%,rapeseed oil of 26%,bean paste of 8%,sesame paste of 4%;paprika of 2.0%,meat flavor of 1.0%,pepper powder of 0.4% and spices powder of 2.0%.The yield of mustard greens meat sauce is about 70%.The quality and pro-duction efficiency of products are improved by using the method for frying minced meat,bean paste and mustard greens respectively.%为提高冬菜竞争力,提高其附加值,扩大消费群体和运用领域,开发了冬菜肉酱调料。通过优化原辅料配方,研究了炒制温度、时间对肉末脱水和豆瓣酱增香的影响,确定了冬菜肉酱的调味料配方。以最初原辅料为基准,添加量配比为冬菜40%,肉末15%~20%,菜籽油26%,豆瓣酱8%,芝麻酱4%;辣椒粉添加量为2.0%,肉味香精为1.0%,花椒粉为0.4%,香料粉为2.0%,冬菜肉酱加工得率为70%左右。采用肉末、豆瓣酱、冬菜分别油炸脱水,然后集中混合调味的方式,提升了产品质量,提高了生产效率。

  10. Chinese Vegetarian Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ONCE in a restaurant specializing in vegetarian food in Hubei Province, I saw some dishes on the menu which did not sound like vegetarian food, such as chicken, duck, fish and pork. Only after I ordered and tasted did I understand that these were all made of bean products. Simply speaking, the Chinese vegetarian diet is comprised of grains, vegetables, bean products and fruits. It also includes bamboo shoots, mushrooms, edible fungus, aquatic plants and dried fruit. This kind of diet boasts a long history. As early as the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.) and the early Han

  11. 传统酿造酱油的品质特性及其氨基酸组成研究%Research on Quality Properties and Amino Acid Composition of Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯霞; 赵欣; 宋家乐

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the quality properties and amino acids compo-sition of traditional fermented soy sauce with different brewing periods.The results suggest that the salinity in commercial soy sauce is similar to that of the aged soy sauce.The commercial soy sauce contains higher levels of total nitrogen,amino acid nitrogen and free amino acids than those of aged soy sauce.Both commercial soy sauce and aged soy sauce are rich in free amino acids,in particular to the essential amino acids and flavor amino acids,and the ratio of amino acids coincides with the recom-mended value by WHO/FAO.Furthermore,abundant mineral elements are found in commercial and aged soy sauce;they are a type of high nutritional condiment.%分析测定不同年份传统酿造酱油的品质特性和氨基酸组成。结果表明:市售酱油和陈年酱油两者的含盐量相近,市售酱油的一般成分,总氮、氨基酸态氮、游离氨基酸含量均高于陈年酱油。两种酱油都富含种类全面的氨基酸,特别是人体必需的氨基酸和鲜味氨基酸,且氨基酸构成比符合 WHO/FAO 推荐值。此外,两种酱油还含有丰富的矿物质,是一类营养丰富的调味品。

  12. Production of L-sorbitol from L-fructose by Aureobasidium pullulans LP23 isolated from soy sauce mash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Hiroyuki; Izumori, Ken

    2005-08-01

    A strain LP23 that can convert L-fructose to L-sorbitol was isolated from soy sauce mash and identified as Aureobasidium pullulans. The cells grown on L-arabinose were found to have relatively high L-fructose to L-sorbitol conversion potential. Addition of erythritol to the reaction mixture considerably accelerated the conversion rate of L-fructose to L-sorbitol. During the conversion reaction, erythritol was added to the reaction mixture at 8-h intervals to maintain the concentration of erythritol at 1.0%. The final conversion ratios were 82.8%, 95.3%, 92.4%, and 42.6% using washed cells when the concentrations of L-fructose were 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The product from L-fructose was identified as L-sorbitol by HPLC analysis, infrared spectroscopy, optical rotation and melting point measurements.

  13. Research on Preparation Technology of Apple Vinegar Sauce%苹果醋酱制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾学东; 杨翰南; 张学明

    2013-01-01

    对苹果醋酱的制备工艺进行了研究.分析了影响苹果醋普载体苹果泥口感的三个因素:苹果皮渣破碎厚度、氽烫时间和高压蒸煮时间,确定苹果皮渣破碎厚度为0.5 mm,氽烫时间为7.5s,高压蒸煮时间为15 min;通过正交实验进行感官综合评定,确定出该产品的最佳配方:苹果醋6%,苹果泥60%,木糖醇10%;确定后熟时间为4h,保证苹果醋酱口感更加细腻.%The preparation process of apple vinegar sauce is studied.Analyze the three factors that influence the taste of apple mud,that are apple skin slag crushing thickness,blanching time and highpressure cooking time,determine that the apple skin slag crushing thickness is 0.5 mm,blanching time is 7.5 s,high-pressure cooking time is 15 min.Through the orthogonal experiments for sensory comprehensive evaluation to determine the best formula of the product:apple vinegar of 6%,apple mud of 60%,xylitol of 10% ;after ripening time is 4 h,under such conditions,the taste of apple vinegar sauce is more delicate.

  14. Research of extraction and property of melanin from fermented soy sauce%发酵酱油色素的提取及性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩华; 陈昭华; 孙莉萍; 卢珍华; 杨秋明

    2012-01-01

    用有机溶剂从生抽酱油中提取酱油色素,研究其理化性质。结果表明:酱油色素的得率为17.8g/100mL,其为棕褐色带有浓郁酱香味的固形物。紫外和红外光谱扫描结果显示酱油色素是美拉德反应和酶促褐变的产物。酱油色素容易被H2O2氧化,而亚硫酸钠、蔗糖、苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾对色素的影响很小,说明酱油色素稳定性良好。色素对DPPH自由基的清除能力可达88%,对羟基自由基的清除能力达80%,抑制亚硝胺合成的抑制率可达80%。%The melanin was extracted from light fermented soy sauce by organic solvent,and its physical and chemical properties were studied.Results showed that 17.8g soy sauce melanin could be obtained from 100mL uncooked soy sauce,and it was a chocolate brown solid with a rich sauce flavor.UV-Vis and infrared spectra revealed that the soy sauce melanin was products of the Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning.The melanin could be oxidized easily by H2O2.But Na2SO3,sucrose,sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate had little effect on it,soy sauce melanin had a good stability.Scavenging effect of the melanin on DPPH free radicals and on hydroxyl free radicals were 88% and 80%,respectively.Blocking action on synthesis of nitrosamine was up to 80%.

  15. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  16. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  17. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  18. 豆豉发酵优势菌种的筛选与鉴定%Screening and Identification of Dominant Strains from Lobster Sauce Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志波; 王修俊; 艾静汶; 王丽芳; 郑君花; 王纪辉

    2014-01-01

    为实现细菌型豆豉的大规模工业化生产,在保留细菌型豆豉风味的前提下,实现豆豉的纯种发酵。通过对分离出的菌株进行制曲初筛和复筛,筛选出优势菌株,并将筛选出的菌株进行生理生化和分子生物学鉴定,最终确定细菌的种类。其结果为筛选出的A,B,C 3类菌种是豆豉发酵过程中的优势菌种,菌株C11.13属于芽孢杆菌属的亚种枯草芽孢杆菌。%In order to achieve the large-scale industrialized production of bacteria-fermented lobster sauce,the pure fermentation of bacteria-fermented lobster sauce is implemented on the premise of keeping the flavor of bacteria-fermented lobster sauce.The dominant strains are screened out by pri-mary screening and re-screening the isolated strains.The strains screened out are identified through physiology and biochemistry and molecular biology,eventually the species of bacteria are determined. Three kinds of strains A,B,C are the dominant strains in the process of lobster sauce fermentation and strain C11.13 belongs to the genus bacillus subspecies of bacillus subtilis.

  19. 杏鲍菇酱油生产工艺的研究%Study on Production Technology of Pleurotus eryngi i Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李西腾

    2014-01-01

    以杏鲍菇、面粉为主要原料,采用高盐稀醪发酵技术生产杏鲍菇酱油,以氨基酸态氮得率为指标,通过单因素及正交试验法筛选出最优生产条件。结果得出杏鲍菇酱油的生产条件为杏鲍菇∶面粉为5∶3(g/g),食盐水浓度为18°Bé,酱醪含水量为65%,发酵温度为45℃。所制得的酱油色泽鲜亮,具有浓郁的杏鲍菇香气,风味独特。%With Pleurotus eryngii and flour as the main raw materials,Pleurotus eryngii soy sauce is processed through high-salt liquid state fermentation.The yield of amino acid nitrogen is as the index, the optimum condition is determined through single-factor and orthogonal tests.The results show that the production conditions of Pleurotus eryngii soy sauce are as follows:the ratio of Pleurotus eryngii to flour is 5∶3(g/g),the concentration of salt water is 18°Bé,the water content of soy sauce mash is 65%,the fermentation temperature is 45 ℃.The Pleurotus eryngii soy sauce has bright color,rich Pleurotus eryngii fragrance and unique flavor.

  20. Determination of Verification and Analysis of Ammonium Salt in Soy Sauce%酱油中铵盐测定方法的验证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凤芝

    2012-01-01

    取适量试样在碱性溶液中加热蒸馏,使酱油中的氨蒸出,被硼酸溶液吸收,然后用盐酸标准溶液滴定计算含量。%Take proper amount of sample in alkaline solution is heated distillation, the sauce of ammonia evaporation, by boric acid solution absorption, then with hydrochloric acid standard solution titration calculating content.

  1. Synergistic degradation of arabinoxylan with alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, xylanase and beta-xylosidase from soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, in high salt condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tadaaki; Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses induction and some properties of alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from a soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae HL15, cultured on solid and liquid media. Alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase was induced by soybean polysaccharide and secreted into media on solid cultivation; the enzyme was associated with mycelium as a cell-wall-bound form in liquid cultivation. A major alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, which was purified homogeneously on SDS-PAGE, showed highest activity in the presence of 10% of NaCl; also, somewhat higher activity was observed even in 25% NaCl than in the absence of NaCl. Arabinoxylan was synergistically degraded by xylanase, beta-xylosidase, and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from A. oryzae HL15 in the condition of imitative pH 5.0 and 15% NaCl concentration of the soy sauce moromi mash. These results suggest that arabinose and xylose, which are closely related to melanoidin formation, can be released by synergistic action of these enzymes in soy sauce moromi mash.

  2. The age of the Tunas formation in the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina): Implications for the Permian evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, Oscar; Fildani, Andrea; Weislogel, Amy; Rossello, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    New SHRIMP radiogenic isotope dating on zircons in tuffs (280.8 ± 1.9 Ma) confirms the Early Permian (Artinskian) age of the uppermost section of the Tunas Formation. Tuff-rich levels in the Tunas Formation are exposed in the Ventana foldbelt of central Argentina; they are part of a deltaic to fluvial section corresponding to the late overfilled stage of the Late Paleozoic Sauce Grande foreland basin. Recent SHRIMP dating of zircons from the basal Choiyoi volcanics exposed in western Argentina yielded an age of 281.4 ± 2.5 Ma (Rocha-Campos et al., 2011). The new data for the Tunas tuffs suggest that the volcanism present in the Sauce Grande basin can be considered as the distal equivalent of the earliest episodes of the Choiyoi volcanism of western Argentina. From the palaeoclimatic viewpoint the new Tunas SHRIMP age confirms that by early Artinskian glacial conditions ceased in the Sauce Grande basin and, probably, in adajacent basins in western Gondwana.

  3. Co-culturing of Pichia guilliermondii enhanced volatile flavor compound formation by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in the model system of Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Thin Thin; Walaisri, Supawan; Assavanig, Apinya; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Lertsiri, Sittiwat

    2013-01-01

    The roles of salt-tolerant yeasts such as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Candida etchellsii in the production of volatile flavor compounds (VFCs) in soy sauce fermentation have been well documented. However, the knowledge of VFC production by other salt-tolerant yeasts is still limited. In this work, the roles of Z. rouxii and Pichia guilliermondii strains in VFC production were investigated in moromi medium as a model system for soy sauce fermentation. Inoculation of a single culture of either Z. rouxii or P. guilliermondii as well as co-cultures of these two yeasts into moromi medium showed increased numbers of viable yeast at around 0.7 to 1.9 log CFU/mL after 7days of cultivation at 30°C. During cultivation, both single and co-cultures displayed survival over a 7-day time period, compared with the controls (no culture added). Overall, yeast inoculation enhanced the production of VFCs in the moromi media with higher amounts of ethanol, alcohols, furanones, esters, aldehyde, acid, pyrone and phenols, known as important characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce. Moreover, the co-culture produced more alcohols, furanones, esters, maltol and benzoic acid than the single culture of Z. rouxii.

  4. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  5. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  6. 高效液相色谱法测定发酵酱油中的氨基酸含量及分析%Composition and Analysis of Amino Acid in Two Fermented Soy Sauce by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳芳; 孙国鹏

    2012-01-01

    Amino acid in two fermented soy sauce were analyzed by HPLC.It showed that amino acids were rich in low-Salt solid-state fermented soy sauce and high-salt liquid-state fermented soy sauce,and the respective proportions of eight essential amino acids were 47.15 % and 42.20 %.Although the content of total amino acids and essential amino acids in low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce was higher than in high-salt liquid state fermented soy sauce,but the flavor amino in high-salt liquid state fermented soy sauce was high,especially the sweetness and MSG like amino acid content was high.So the high-salt liquid-state fermented soy sauce taste even more delicious.%采用高效液相色谱法分析了两种发酵酱油中的氨基酸。结果表明,低盐固态发酵酱油与高盐稀态发酵酱油中均含有丰富的氨基酸,8种必需氨基酸含量比例分别达到46.05%与41.45%。虽然低盐固态发酵酱油的总氨基酸与必须氨基酸的含量高于高盐稀态发酵酱油,但高盐稀态发酵酱油中呈味氨基酸特别是甜味和鲜味氨基酸的含量较高,从而使高盐稀态发酵酱油滋味更加鲜美。

  7. 中国舟山群岛与韩国海岛鱼禁忌及其比较%The Taboo and Comparison of Fish between Chinese Zhoushan Islands and South Korean Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛

    2016-01-01

    鱼的崇拜与禁忌是世界性的巫术现象,也是鱼文化研究中较为冷落的领域。中韩两国的鱼禁忌大都是相同或相通的,内容丰富,联想怪异,涉及面广,充满着神秘的民俗意象。舟山渔民以鱼为生,以鱼为业,鱼禁忌主要表现在“捕鱼的禁忌”“送鱼与祭鱼的禁忌”和“食鱼的禁忌”,尤以食鱼的禁忌更为突出。中韩两国的鱼禁忌在略有差异之下具有许多相似点,具体有三个特征:无鳞鱼或无名鱼及形状怪异的鱼,均被中韩孕妇所禁忌;食鱼习俗有相同或相通的鱼禁忌;鱼禁忌随着时代的发展和对鱼类认知的进展而不断变化。%Fish worship and taboo is not only a worldwide witchcraft phenomenon ,but also a neglected field in the cultural studies of fish .With all the differences of the objective images and their symbolic and metaphoric features about fish between China and South Korea ,there exist some similarities ,which origi‐nate from the mysteries of the folk images ,including the following three specific features :the unknown fish or the fish without scales and oddly shaped are taboos for the pregnant women ;the fish customs are the same or interlinked with fish taboos ;fish taboos are developed with the times and people's cognition .

  8. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  9. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Borch Myhre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective: To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design: Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results: Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E% from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion: Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes.

  10. Caracterización morfométrica de la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Julia Gaspari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande abastece el complejo hidráulico Embalse Paso de las Piedras, comportándose como servicio ambiental primordial para el consumo hídrico de Bahía Blanca. El análisis de las características morfométricas y funcionales de una cuenca hidrográfica a través de parámetros de forma, relieve y red de drenaje, es básico en la modelación hidrológica para determinar el movimiento y captación del agua de lluvia. Estos indicadores pueden apoyar una formulación de un Sistema de Pago por Servicios Ambientales, como estrategia básica de ordenamiento territorial y desarrollo local, centrado en la oferta de agua generada por la cuenca. El objetivo fue caracterizar morfométricamente la cuenca alta del río Sauce Grande. La metodología aplicada se basó en establecer y analizar los parámetros morfométricos mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica y planillas de cálculo, a partir de un modelo digital del terreno e imágenes satelitales. Los resultados alcanzados definieron que la cuenca posee un área de 1502.6 km2. La longitud axial es de 41.6 km con un ancho promedio de 36.1 km. El Factor de forma (0.87 indica que posee forma alargada, siendo rectangular oblonga según el coeficiente de compacidad de Gravelius (2.8. La longitud del cauce principal es 58.34 km con pendiente media de 0.48 %. La densidad de drenaje es 0.27 km.km-2 y su coeficiente de sinuosidad 1.42. El tiempo de concentración es 11.8 hs. La curva hipsométrica adimensional corresponde a una cuenca con un avanzado grado de desarrollo. Todos estos parámetros facilitan la cuantificación del caudal líquido en la cuenca.

  11. 溶菌酶在酱油中的抑菌效果研究%Studies of lysozyme on the inhibiting efficiency of the microorganisms in soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范蕴莹

    2012-01-01

    Lysozyme is a protein molecule that is comprised of a polypeptide chain. It has good thermal stability in the acid solutions, and words well in killing Gram - positive bacteria. So it is a better and natural preservative than the others which is used in soy sauce. The effect of lysozyme on inhibiting microorganisms in soy sauce was studied in this research. The results showed that; (1) the best dosage of lysozyme was 150 mg/kg in soy sauce, which could inhibite microorganisms well, and kill the microorganisms slowly. Then the antiseptic effect of lysozyme was better 0. 1% sodium benzoate. (2) Lysozyme worked better in the soy sauce that has high salt content than the low one, and the total plate count of the soy sauce decreased much more obviously. (3) Pasteurisation affected the lysozyme activity little. (4) Lysozyme inhibited microorganisms well in soy sauce, in which the total plate count was no more than 10000cfu/ml. and increased slowly. The product quality of soy sauce was stable during the shelf - life.%溶菌酶为多肽链组成的蛋白质分子,酶活在酸性条件下具有良好的热稳定性,且对革兰氏阳性细菌具有专一的抑制杀灭作用,是成品酱油的一种良好的天然抑菌防腐剂.本文研究了溶菌酶在酱油中的抑菌防腐效果.结果表明:(1)在酱油中,溶菌酶的抑菌防腐效果理想,且具有缓慢杀菌的功能,其最佳添加量为150 mg/kg,抑菌防腐效果比0.1%苯甲酸钠要好;(2)在高盐分含量酱油中的抑菌防腐效果比低盐分含量酱油要好,添加溶菌酶后菌落总数下降趋势更加明显;(3)酱油的巴氏灭菌操作对溶菌酶的活性无显著影响;(4)在起始菌落总数为10000 cfu/ml或以下的酱油中使用溶菌酶能使酱油具有较好的抑菌防腐效果,在货架期内菌落总数增长缓慢,产品质量稳定.

  12. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  13. Estratigrafía, facies y evolución depositacional de la Formación Sauce Grande (Carbonífero Superior: Cuenca Sauce Grande, Sierras Australes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Andreis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encara el examen detallado de las litofacies y su composición, así como el análisis de los procesos depositacionales que condujeron a la acumulación de materiales siliciclásticos de la Formación Sauce Grande y que representa la primera sedimentación acontecida en la cuenca Sauce Grande. Fueron analizados dos perfiles estratigráficos de la unidad: el perfil Norte (con 826 m y el perfil Sur (con 1095 m. La unidad está compuesta por importantes volúmenes de diamictitas [Dmm1, Dmm2, Dmg, Dms, Dms(r], así como de areniscas (Sma, Smw, Sh, Sr, Sp, pelitas (Fm, Fl, Fd y escasos conglomerados (Dcm, Dcg. También fue analizada la ciclicidad de las sucesiones, reconociéndose tres megaciclos (inferior, medio y superior con sus respectivas asociaciones litofaciales. El megaciclo inferior permite visualizar el paleorrelieve devónico (Formación Lolén y está constituido por abundantes diamictitas, areniscas y escasos conglomerados. El megaciclo medio contiene areniscas y conglomerados y en el megaciclo superior se advierte una disminución en la participación de diamictitas con una mayor frecuencia de cadilitos (guijarro a bloque, sustituida por areniscas y pelitas (en el perfil Norte. En los megaciclos inferior y superior las facies Dmm1, Dmm2 y Dms(r, con espesores decamétricos y extensiones de centenares de metros son los miembros más conspicuos y corresponden a deslizamientos de masas semiconsolidadas o fluidas (flujos de detritos cohesivos generados en pendientes fuertes proximales. Es probable que en el megaciclo superior las diamictitas sean del tipo rain out. La facies Dms(rincluye cuerpos arenosos contorsionados y/u orientados y frecuentes intraclastos pelíticos. Las facies conglomerádicas son flujos no cohesivos dejados atrás por flujos hiperconcentrados o como flujos de granos modificados en su densidad. Las areniscas Sma habrían sido depositadas por procesos suspensivos densos y escasamente compactados, mientras que las

  14. A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION ON SCREENING OF CHINESE INDIGENOUS FISHES FOR ECOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS IN CONTEXT OF CHEMICALS ~ ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT%化学物质生态风险评估与管理背景下筛选我国生态毒理试验鱼种的方法初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟耀斌; 李帆; 何寿亮; 张慧

    2012-01-01

    提出了以“可替换性”意义定义鱼种的生态代表性,并以鱼种对空间区域和水温的要求构建了生态代表性函数.同时,按照鱼类毒性测试的试验要求根据鱼种的体长、孵化时间以及对水温的要求构造生态毒理试验可行性函数.在收集我国各鱼类生物、生态信息基础上,综合生态代表性和生态毒理试验可操作性对鱼种进行了初步筛选,并通过仿真考察了生态毒理试验可行性随定义函数的不确定性.提出的兼顾生态代表性与生态毒理试验可行性的方法为后续探索我国生态毒理供试生物和推进化学物质生态风险的环境管理提供了参考.%Spatial heterogeneity and ecological variation across habitats merit more attention from the perspective of ecological risk assessment and management of chemicals, which necessitates the development of ecotoxicological test organisms using indigenous fishes in China. In this paper, the ecological relevance of a fish was put forward in a sense of ecological substitutability with respect to its habitat coverage and characteristic biological temperature. Meanwhile, body length, hatching duration, and water temperature requirement were synthesized to represent ecotoxieological feasibility. The combination of ecological relevance and ecotoxicological feasibility was employed to indicate possibility of certain Chinese indigenous fishes to be candidate test organisms. In addition, uncertainty in defining feasibility was evaluated by simulation. This investigation was deemed helpful to sharpen the efforts to develop Chinese indigenous test organisms and to improve the environmental relevance of chemoecological risk assessment and management in China.

  15. Linking the Taiwan Fish Database to the Global Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Tsao Shao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the support of the National Digital Archive Program (NDAP, basic species information about most Taiwanese fishes, including their morphology, ecology, distribution, specimens with photos, and literatures have been compiled into the "Fish Database of Taiwan" (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw. We expect that the all Taiwanese fish species databank (RSD, with 2800+ species, and the digital "Fish Fauna of Taiwan" will be completed in 2007. Underwater ecological photos and video images for all 2,800+ fishes are quite difficult to achieve but will be collected continuously in the future. In the last year of NDAP, we have successfully integrated all fish specimen data deposited at 7 different institutes in Taiwan as well as their collection maps on the Google Map and Google Earth. Further, the database also provides the pronunciation of Latin scientific names and transliteration of Chinese common names by referring to the Romanization system for all Taiwanese fishes (2,902 species in 292 families so far. The Taiwanese fish species checklist with Chinese common/vernacular names and specimen data has been updated periodically and provided to the global FishBase as well as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF through the national portal of the Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility (TaiBIF. Thus, Taiwanese fish data can be queried and browsed on the WWW. For contributing to the "Barcode of Life" and "All Fishes" international projects, alcohol-preserved specimens of more than 1,800 species and cryobanking tissues of 800 species have been accumulated at RCBAS in the past two years. Through this close collaboration between local and global databases, "The Fish Database of Taiwan" now attracts more than 250,000 visitors and achieves 5 million hits per month. We believe that this local database is becoming an important resource for education, research, conservation, and sustainable use of fish in Taiwan.

  16. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  17. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  18. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  19. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  20. Application of solid phase extraction column chromatography in organic compounds analysis in soy sauce%固相萃取技术在酱油有机物分析中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敏; 汪雨

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Soy sauce is a condiment which widely used in daily life. The organic compounds analysis in soy sauce is become more important due to food safety reasons. In this paper, the advances in application of solid phase extraction (SPE) column chromatography in organic compounds analysis in soy sauce in last 10 years were summarized, including SPE methods which were used in analysis of soy sauce, the organic compounds which could be analyzed by SPE, and summarization and classification of adsorbents used in SPE for soy sauce analysis.%酱油是日常生活中较为常用的调味品。随着社会对食品安全的重视,酱油中的有机物分析也日益受到关注。本文对近10年来国内外在酱油有机物分析中固相萃取(solid phase extraction, SPE)法的应用进行概述,归纳总结了主要用于酱油有机物分析的 SPE 法,可使用 SPE 法分析的酱油中的有机物种类,并对应用到酱油分析中的SPE方法使用的吸附剂进行总结和分类。

  1. 铁强化酱油对铁缺乏不贫血学生注意力和学习成绩的干预效果%Effect of NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce on Attention Ability and Educational Achievement of the Students with Irondeficiency (without Anemia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王劼; 霍军生; 孙静; 王冰

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of iron deficient with anemia(IDNA) teenagers on attention ability and educational achievement Subjects were divided into two groups according to their iron status and Hb value and given NaFeEDTA fortified soy sauce. The results showed attention ability, attention discrimination and attention stability of IDNA students were lower than normal iron students (P<0.01~P<0.05), same as mathematic and Chinese language scores. Iron supplementation significantly improved attention ability, attention discrimination and attention stability of IDNA subjects (P<0.01). Iron supplementation also improved mathematic and Chinese language scores of IDNA subjects (P<0.01~P<0.05). Our findings suggest that iron deficient even without anemia can impair attention ability and educational achievement which can be corrected with NaFeEDTA fortified soy sauce.%观察乙二胺四乙酸铁钠(NaFeEDTA)强化酱油干预对铁缺乏不贫血(iron deficiency without anemia,IDNA)学生注意力和学习成绩的影响.以血红蛋白(Hb)值、血清铁蛋白(SF泄为指标将受试者分成正常(NA)组、铁缺乏不贫血(IDNA)组,观察NaFeEDTA强化酱油对IDNA、注意力和学习成绩的效果.结果表明:IDNA组学生的注意力总得分、注意分配、注意稳定性和语文、数学成绩显著低于正常组学生(P<0.01~P<0.05); NaFeEDTA强化酱油干预后,IDNA学生的注意力总得分、注意分配、注意稳定性显著改善P<0.01),语文、数学成绩显著提高(P0.01~P<0.05).试验结果提示,NaFeEDTA强化酱油对铁缺乏不贫血学生的铁营养状况、注意力和学习成绩有改善作用.

  2. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  3. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  4. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation.

  5. Blast-cooling of beef-in-sauce catering meals: numerical results based on a dynamic zero-order model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Beef-in-sauce catering meals under blast-cooling have been investigated in a research project which aims at quantitative HACCP (hazard analysis critical control point. In view of its prospective coupling to a predictive microbiology model proposed in the project, zero-order spatial dependence has proved to suitably predict meal temperatures in response to temperature variations in the cooling air. This approach has modelled heat transfer rates via the a priori unknown convective coefficient hc which is allowed to vary due to uncertainty and variability in the actual modus operandi of the chosen case study hospital kitchen. Implemented in MS Excel®, the numerical procedure has successfully combined the 4th order Runge-Kutta method, to solve the governing equation, with non-linear optimization, via the built-in Solver, to determine the coefficient hc. In this work, the coefficient hc was assessed for 119 distinct recently-cooked meal samples whose temperature-time profiles were recorded in situ after 17 technical visits to the hospital kitchen over a year. The average value and standard deviation results were hc = 12.0 ± 4.1 W m-2 K-1, whilst the lowest values (associated with the worst cooling scenarios were about hc » 6.0 W m-2 K-1.

  6. Carcinogenic 4(5)-methylimidazole found in beverages, sauces, and caramel colors: chemical properties, analysis, and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, Matt; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2013-01-30

    Since the National Toxicology Program (NTP) identified 4(5)-methylimidazole [4(5)-MI] as a cancer causing chemical in 2007 and the State of California added it to the Proposition 65 list of compounds as a carcinogen on January 7, 2011, many researchers and regulatory agencies have become focused on the presence of 4(5)-MI in foods and beverages. 4(5)-MI has been known to form in the Maillard reaction system consisting of a sugar and ammonia-a typical caramel-color preparation method for beverages. 4(5)-MI is identified in various beverages and sauces, which are colored with caramel, as well as in caramel color itself. Analysis of 4(5)-MI is extremely difficult due to its high water solubility, but the analytical method for 4(5)-MI has progressed from conventional paper chromatography, gas chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the most advanced high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various studies indicate that caramel colors and carbonated beverages contain 4(5)-MI in levels ranging from 0 to around 1000 ppm and from 0 to about 500 ppm, respectively. Reports of the toxicity of 4(5)-MI at relatively high levels suggest that it may cause some adverse effects on human consumers.

  7. 红曲红色素在酱油增色方面的应用研究%Application research on red monascus pigment of color enhancement on soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵吉兴

    2012-01-01

    该文研究了红曲红色素添加于酱油中的增色效应及其稳定性.结果表明通过在酱油中添加0.2%的红曲红色素,可明显提高酱油的色泽和红色指数,并且具有良好的光稳定性和热稳定性.%This paper studied about the color enhancement and its stability of soy sauce while adding red monascus pigment. The results showed that when 0.2% red Monascus pigment was added into soy sauce, it could significantly improve the color and red index of soy sauce, and also has good light stability and thermal stability.

  8. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  9. Choice Food,Choice Restaurant—Longmen Fishing Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Longmen Fishing Port is in Longmen Building on West Business Street, Guiyang, Guizhou Province. This restaurant serves the cream of Chinese traditional gastronomy. Its menu comprises a range of exquisite dishes served at imperial banquets. Longmen Fishing Port is the first restaurant in western China to be awarded the Cordon Bleu at the international professional culinary competition and be accepted as a member of French Les Amis d' Escoffier Society.

  10. 铁强化酱油改善学生体能效果研究%Effectiveness of iron fortified soy sauce on the physical ability of students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 李文仙; 孙静; 霍军生; 黄建; 王劼; 魏艳丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of iron fortified soy sauce on improving the physical ability of students.Methods Boy students suffering from iron deficiency anemia and eating in a school canteen were selected as IDA group and fed with iron fortified soy sauce for 10 months. Other boy students without anemia and not eating in school were regarded as NA group and having common soy sauce. Hb, SF, sTfR, SI, maximum oxygen consumption, 24 h heart rate monitoring and energy consumption of normal students (NA) and anemic students (IDA) were measured before and after the trial. Results Hb, SF, sTfR and SI of IDA subjects were improved significantly after the intervention with iron fortified soy sauce (P < 0. 0l ). There was no change of these indexes in NA subjects before and after the trial. In addition,the increase of VO2max/FFM, WTmax, NetHRL, AAT and EE in IDA subjects was ( 9.74 ± 2. 88 ) ml/ ( kg ·min ),( 3.11 ± 0.88 ) min, ( 8. 55 ± 5.11 ) beats/min, ( 5. 28 ± 2.04 ) min and ( 386 ± 108 ) kJ/d, respectively, which were significantly different from the change of relative indexes in NA subjects ( P < 0. 0l ). Conclusion Iron fortified soy sauce was effective in reducing iron deficiency anemia and significantly improving the aerobic ability of IDA students. The intensity and the time period of aerobic activity during leisure time was also strengthened significantly in IDA subjects after intervention with iron fortified soy sauce.%目的 观察铁强化酱油改善学生体能的效果.方法 选择在校就餐男性缺铁性贫血学生为缺铁性贫血组(IDA),食用铁强化酱油,以不在学校就餐的非贫血男生作为正常对照组(NA),食用普通酱油,为期10个月.测定IDA组和NA组试验前后的血红蛋白(Hb)、血清铁蛋白(SF)、运铁蛋白受体(sTfR)、血清铁(SI)、最大耗氧量(VO)、24 h心率及能量消耗.结果 试验后,IDA组的Hb、SF、SI、sTfR明显改善,与试验前相比差异有统计学意义(P/FFM)、最

  11. VC清除酱油亚硝酸盐的响应面优化%Optimization of nitrite clear in sauce by VC using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    加列西·马那甫; 德娜·吐热汗; 李俊芳

    2014-01-01

    以酱油为原料,在单因素试验基础上,选取VC浓度、反应温度、pH为自变量,以亚硝酸盐清除率为响应值,采用3因素3水平试验设计法,得到二次多项式回归方程预测模型,优化酱油中亚硝酸盐的清除条件。回归预测模型具有高度显著性,方程对试验拟合较好,可对酱油亚硝酸盐清除率进行分析和预测;响应面图表明,交互项对清除率影响不显著,与回归模型交互项P值的分析结果一致。VC清除酱油亚硝酸盐的最佳条件为VC浓度0.48μg·mL-1、反应温度46.08℃、pH 2.38。在最佳条件下,酱油亚硝酸盐清除率可达52.4%,实测值为53.7%,两者较接近,拟合性良好,表明Box-Benhnken中心组合试验设计原理结合响应面法,优化酱油亚硝酸盐清除降解条件可行。%Soy sauce was regard as raw material, on the basis of single factor test, The paper chosed effect of concentration of VC, reaction temperature, pH as dependent variable, and chosed scavenging rate of nitrite as response value. According to the responsed surface Box-Benhnken experimental design principle, the simulation prediction model of two order polynomial equation was observed with three factors and three levels method to optimizing the clear conditions of nitrite in sauce. The regression prediction model was highly significant and the equation fitting to the test preferably, and also could analyze and forecast on nitrite scavenging rate in soy sauce. The response surface plots showed that the VC concentration with reaction temperature, VC concentrationed with pH, pH with reaction temperature interacts was not significant. This also was consistent to the analysis results of the P value of regression model interactiveterm. The optimum conditions for VC clear the nitrite in sauce, VC concentration was 0.48μg·mL-1, reaction temperature was 46.08℃, pH was 2.38. Under the optimal conditions, the nitrite clear rate in sauce

  12. Effect of replacing dietary fish oil with soybean oil on growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge in Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis%豆油替代鱼油对中华绒螯蟹幼蟹生长、非特异性免疫和抗病力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦良; 李二超; 禹娜; 田文静; 江星; 孙立梅; 齐霁; 陈立侨

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, fish oil is the main lipid source in the feed for most species in aquaculture owing to its effective supply of energy and high content of essential fatty acid. The fatty acid especially n-3 HUFA from the fish oil had also been proved to have positive effect on maintaining the immune system. However, the decline of fish oil production from wild fisheries has resulted in a supply shortage and price escalation of fish oil. Therefore, it has been a major challenge to find viable sources of oil to substitute fish oil. Among available vegetable oils, soybean oil has been widely chosen due to its availability, price and abundant content of fatty acid. In this study, we evaluated the effects of diets with different fish oil and soybean oil ratios on grouth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were for-mulated in which 0%(control:F1), 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%(F2-F5) of the fish oil was replaced with soybean oil. Juvenile crabs (mean weight 0.27±0.03 g) were assigned to one of five treatment groups (four replicates per group) and fed one of the diets for 42 d. There was no significant difference in the survival rate among the treatments (P>0.05). The weight gain was significantly higher in the F4 group than in the F1 group (P0.05). Serum PO (phenoloxidase) activity was higher in F4 and lower in F5 than the other groups (P0.05). After the feeding experiment, the crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila for 10 d. The first death was recorded in F5, and the crabs in F5 had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those in F1 and F4 (P0.05). In conclusion, complete substitu-tion of fish oil with soybean oil did not affect growth performance, but did reduce the ability to resist disease. Our re-sults suggest that replacement of 75%fish oil with soybean oil in the diet of Chinese mitten crab can improve growth with little effect on disease resistance.%

  13. Application of clustering analysis of volatile components in the identification of soy sauce%挥发性成分聚类分析在酱油鉴别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽贤

    2012-01-01

    应用同时蒸馏萃取法和气质联用技术对对酿造酱油、配制酱油和酸世界植物蛋白调味液共17个样品的挥发性成分进行分析,筛选其特征挥发性组分进行比较.发现酿造酱油特征组分以醇类、醛类、酸类为主,酸水解植物蛋白调味液特征组分以醛类、酚类、杂环化合物为主,而配制酱油挥发性成分则兼有前两者的特征组分.以17个样品的挥发性成分及其含量进行聚类分析,建立了区分酿造酱油、配制酱油和酸水解植物蛋白调味液的识别模型,为建立酿造酱油和配制酱油鉴别技术打下较好的基础.%The volatile components from 17 fermented soy sauce, blended soy sauce and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings were analyzed by using a combination of simultaneous steam - distillation - extraction and gas chromatog-raphy mass spectrometry. The characteristicvolatile components were screened and compared. It was found that the main characteristic components in fermented soy sauce were alcohols, aldehydes and acids, and the main characteristic components in acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasonings were aldehydes, phenols and heterocycliccompounds. The-blended soy sauce had volatile components of both. The analytical data of 17 samples were subjected to clustering analysis based on the kind and content of the volatile components. Arecognition model of discriminating among soy sauce, blended soy sauce and acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein seasoningswas established. The results of this study laid a solid foundation for discrimination between fermented soy sauce and blended soy sauce.

  14. AppI ication of Yeast Extract in Instant NoodIes Sauces%酱类专用酵母抽提物在几款方便面调味酱料中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭辉; 李沛; 沈硕; 孙合群; 刘雪娇

    2015-01-01

    By the methods of comparative experiments and sensory analysis, the application characteristics of yeast extract in instant noodles sauces are analyzed.Ultimately,it is proved that the yeast extract has a significant role in enhancing the flavor of instant noodles sauces.%对酱类专用酵母抽提物进行了分析,通过应用对比实验和感官品评的方法,证明了此款酵母抽提物具有提升方便面调味酱料风味的显著作用。

  15. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  16. Study on the Process Conditions of Sichuan Sprouts Meat Sauce%四川芽菜肉酱 v艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航; 顾思远; 孙俊秀; 范文教; 王郁; 罗素琴

    2016-01-01

    四川芽菜肉酱是以四川特产芽菜为主要辅料,通过烹饪炒制而成的全熟猪肉馅心,可以广泛用于面臊、佐餐等各个领域。文章结合传统工艺和现代食品加工技术,根据消费者对四川特色芽菜肉酱的实际需求,研究设计了四川特色芽菜肉酱的制作工艺,并利用正交试验对工艺条件进行优化,同时具体明确了产品的质量标准。研究结果将为芽菜肉酱的市场化生产提供参数借鉴。%Sichuan sprouts meat sauce is cooked with well-done pork sandwiches and Sichuan sprouts, it is widely used in various dining fields,such as Saozi noodles with minced meat and other food accompaniments.In order to meet consumers'demands for Sichuan special sprouts meat sauce,its cooking process is designed by combining the traditional processing technology with the modern one. Meanwhile,the optimal process conditions are optimized by orthogonal experiment.The results will provide parameters reference for the market production of Sichuan sprouts meat sauce.

  17. 关于降低方便面酱料成本的研究%Research on Reducing the Cost of Instant NoodIes Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立攀; 胡桂芳; 罗蓓蓓; 尹红娜; 张亚勋

    2016-01-01

    The cost control is an important management subject that all enterprises must face. Enterprises no matter what reform,incentive measures are no substitute for strengthening cost management,reducing the cost.In order to reduce the production cost,under the premise of ensuring the quality of instant noodles sauce (strong sauce flavor,the taste meets the design requirements;the shel-life reaches the design requirements;moderate density at room temperature,the state meets the package requirements),through improving the moisture content of instant noodles sauce to improve the yield,ultimately reducing the production cost.%成本控制是所有企业都必须面对的一个重要管理课题,是企业在竞争中取胜的关键战略问题。企业无论采取何种改革、激励措施都代替不了强化成本管理,降低成本这一工作。为了降低生产成本,在保证方便面酱料品质(酱香浓郁,口味达到设计要求;保质期达到设计要求;室温下稠度适中,状态符合包装要求)的前提下,通过提高方便面酱料含水量,提高酱料的出品率,最终降低生产成本。

  18. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  19. Preparation and Qual ity Evaluation of Astragalus Yaoqu Soy Sauce%黄芪药曲酱油的制备及其质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 李丽; 张文学; 罗芳; 张劲; 易欣; 罗颂; 吴正云

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus QJ and Astragalus powder are used to make Astragalus Yaoqu,which is then used to make soy sauce based on traditional low-salt solid-state fermentation technology.The results show that the number and germination rate of spores of Astragalus Yaoqu are 82.97×108 cfu/g and 90.19%;the protease activity,total acidity (as lactic acid),liquefaction amylase activity are 0.475 g/100 g,35.67 mmol/100 g ,104.16 U/g .Astragalus Yaoqu soy sauce presents dark brown, delicious salty taste,sauce flavor,and the total nitrogen and amino acid nitrogen reach 1.782 g/dL and 1.441 g/dL,which reach the GB standards of special-grade soy sauce;the antioxidant test shows that DPPH scavenging rate and total phenol content are 72.45% and 3.78 mg/mL.%采用黄曲霉 QJ 并添加黄芪粉所制成的黄芪药曲种曲,在传统低盐固态法发酵工艺基础上制取酱油。结果显示:黄芪药曲种曲的孢子数和孢子发芽率分别达到82.97×108 cfu/g 和90.19%;成曲的蛋白酶活0.475 g/100 g,总酸(以乳酸计)35.67 mmol/100 g,液化淀粉酶活104.16 U/g;所发酵制得的酱油呈深褐色、鲜咸适口、有酱香味,其中全氮达1.782 g/dL,氨基酸态氮达到1.441 g/dL,达到国标特级酱油的标准;抗氧化指标中DPPH 清除率达到72.45%,总酚含量达到3.78 mg/mL。

  20. 蛋白酶酶解酱油沉淀的工艺研究%Hydrolysis of soy sauce sediment by proteases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵聪聪; 纪凤娣; 鲁绯; 曹妍; 范红玲; 卢佳; 程永强

    2011-01-01

    The effect of proteases on soy sauce sediment in spraying-extraction-in-pool (SE1P) soy sauce and low-salt solid-fermentation (LSSF) soy sauce was studied. The parameters including enzyme dosage, pH value, hydrolysis time and ratio of material to liquid (RML) on hydrolysis were investigated. The optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis for neutrase on SEIP sediment were obtained as follows: the ratio of material to liquid 1:3, hydrolysis time 6h, dosage of enzyme 4000U/g and pH value 6. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 43.8%. The optimal conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis for neutrase on LSSF sediment were as follows: the ratio of material to liquid 1:3, hydrolysis time 8h, dosage of enzyme 6000U/g and pH value 6.5. Under these conditions, the DH was 53.8%. Orthogonal design and analysis of avariance (ANOVA) were adopted, results indicated that effects of those factors were notable (p <0.05). The results indicated that neutrase can hydrolyze soy sauce sediment effectively.%对蛋白酶酶解低盐固态和原池浇淋2种酿造工艺的酱油沉淀进行了研究,分析了中性蛋白酶的加酶量、pH值、酶解时间、料液比对蛋白质水解度的影响,并通过正交试验优化了中性蛋白酶酶解酱油沉淀的工艺条件,确定了工艺参数.其最佳工艺条件为原池浇淋酱油沉淀的最佳酶解条件为料液比1∶3,酶解6h,加酶量为4000U/g原料,pH值为6.5,水解度可达到43.8%;低盐固态酱油沉淀的最佳酶解条件为料液比1∶3,酶解8h,加酶量为6000U/g原料,pH值为6.5,水解度可达到53.8%.方差分析表明,4因素均对水解度有显著影响.利用中性蛋白酶可较有效地酶解酱油沉淀.

  1. Analysis of numerical simulation of flow field of fried capsicum sauce%油辣椒制品流场数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玲

    2014-01-01

    In order to research the even filling technology of fried capsicum sauce products,taking uni-formly stirring of fried capsicum sauce products as the research content,solid -liquid mixture of fried capsicum sauce as the research object,the stirring effect was analyzed with the flat blade angle as 0°, 30°,45°and 60°.Fluent software was calculation platform and the results of calculation was analyzed, which was that the ideal stirring effect was when the blade angle was 30°.But there were still dead angle on the bottom of the groove.After reducing the distance between the blade and the bottom and renew the model,the calculated results shown that the mixture flow situation was further improved,the solid phase was well -distributed in the mixture,which was consistent with the expected effect.The method can be a numerical calculation method to study the automatic filling technology of fried capsicum sauce.%为研究油辣椒制品的均匀灌装技术,以油辣椒制品的均匀搅拌为研究内容,以油辣椒固液二相流混合物为对象,分析平直桨叶倾角分别为0°、30°、45°、60°时的搅拌效果。以 Fluent 软件为计算平台,对运算结果进行分析得到,桨叶倾角30°时搅拌效果较理想,但底部仍存在局部搅拌死角。减小桨叶与搅拌槽底部距离后重建模型,结果表明,混合物流动情况进一步改善,固相在混合物中分布均匀,与预期效果相符。可将此方法作为油辣椒制品自动化灌装技术的研究数值计算方法。

  2. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets.

  3. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    .... Current IATTC membership includes: Belize, Canada, China, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), Colombia, Costa Rica...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... on commercial retention of bluefin tuna by U.S. fishing vessels operating in the Eastern...

  4. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ..., Canada, China, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, the European Union...; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean AGENCY: National Marine... commercial retention of Pacific bluefin tuna by U.S. fishing vessels operating in the Eastern Pacific...

  5. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  6. Maternal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce during pregnancy and lactation improves maternal and infant thiamin status and breast milk thiamin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantile beriberi, a disease caused by thiamin (vitamin B1) deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and other parts of Southeast Asia. Infantile beriberi presents during the exclusive breastfeeding period and without treatment commonly results in death within *24 hours of clinical p...

  7. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  8. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  9. Study on processing technology of shark-head sauce%鲨鱼头高级调味汁工艺技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣; 卢晓黎; 肖凯

    2001-01-01

    Using shark-head as main material,a nutrition rich sauce wasprepared sauce by means of enzymatic hydrolysis.The composition was:s hark-head extract 100%,salt 7.0%,cane sugar 10%,monosodium glutamate 0.5%,cooki ng wine 2.0%,starch 2.0%,sucrose fatty acid ester 0.5%,β-cyclic dextrin 1.0%.%用鲨鱼头为主要原料,经酶法水解等工艺研制成营养丰富的高档调味汁。其配方为:鲨鱼头汁100%,食盐7.0%,白砂糖10%,谷氨酸钠0.5%,料酒2.0%,淀粉2.0%,CMC1.5%,蔗糖酯0.5%,β-环状糊精1.0%。

  10. 海带浸提物低盐方便面酱包的研制%Low Salt Instant Noodles Sauce Prepared with Laminaria japonica Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清

    2014-01-01

    以海带浸提物替代部分钠盐,采用炒酱方法,在单因素试验基础上,进行正交试验,以感官评分为标准,对低盐方便面酱包的配方进行研制。结果表明:食盐加入量为0.7,海带浸提物7 g,猪肉香精加入温度75℃,淀粉3 g时制得的酱包品质最佳。%To obtain the best formula of low salt instant noodles sauce packets, which were prepared from Laminaria japonica extraction as a part alternative to sodium chloride by fry sauce, single-factor and orthogonal experiments were employed to examine the effects of the contents of Laminaria japonica extraction, sodium chloride and the starch, and the joining temperature of pork flavor on the product quality according to sensory scoring criteria. Results showed that the optimal formula was as follows:0.7 g of sodium chloride, 7 g of Laminaria japonica extraction, 75℃of pork flavor joining temperature, and 3 g of the starch.

  11. Simultaneous determination of preservatives in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Takino, Masahiko; Yamashita, Satoru; Daishima, Shigeki; Heiden, Arnd C; Hoffmann, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of seven preservatives - sorbic acid, benzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters - in beverages, vinegar, aqueous sauces, and quasi-drug drinks has been developed using the stir-bar sorptive extraction technique then thermal desorption GC-MS analysis. The extraction conditions - pH, sample volume, extraction temperature, salt addition, and extraction time - were examined. d5-Benzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid sec-butyl ester were added as surrogate internal standards to compensate for the effect of sample matrix and coexisting analytes on the sorptive extraction. The linearity of the method was good over the concentration range from 1 to 1000 microg mL(-1) for sorbic acid, 10-1000 microg mL(-1) for benzoic acid, and 0.1-100 microg mL(-1) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, and butyl esters, and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.9984. The limit of detection ranged from 0.015 to 3.3 microg mL(-1). The recoveries (95-105%) and precision (RSD: 0.86-6.0%) of the method were examined by analyzing a sparkling soft drink, white wine, red wine, balsamic vinegar, soy sauce, and quasi-drug drink samples fortified at the 5 to 50 microg mL(-1) level.

  12. Determination of Sodium of Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%气相色谱法测定酱油中甜蜜素含量的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪晓峰

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了毛细管气相色谱法测定酱油中甜蜜素含量的分析方法。采用RTX—WAX毛细管色谱柱和氢火焰检测器测定,外标法定量。【结果】样品加标平均回收率为93.7%-99.3%,相对标准偏差(RsD)为2.5%-4.7%。实验结果表明,该方法简便、快速,适合酱油甜蜜素含量的测定。%The article established the analysis of using gas capillary chromatography to determine the content of sodium cyclamate in soy sauce. This analysis adopt RTX-WAX capillary column and hydrogen flame detector to determine, and external standard. The average spiked recoveries of 93.7%-99.3%,the relatine standard deviation(RSD)is 2.5%-4.7%.It is show our that this method is simple,fast, is suit for the determination of sodium cyclamate sauce.

  13. 麦芽糊精低能量方便面酱包的研制%Preparation of Low-energy Sauce Packets of Instant Noodles with Maltodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永清

    2014-01-01

    To obtain the best formula of low-energy sauce packets of instant noodles,take maltodex-trin as alternatives for edible fat by frying sauce method,based on single-factor and orthogonal experi-ments.The effects of the content of maltodextrin,pork essence,starch and palm oil on the product quality according to sensory scoring criteria are researched.The results show that the optimal formula is as follows:palm oil of 12 g,pork essence of 0.4 g,starch of 1.5 g,and maltodextrin of 3 g.%以麦芽糊精作为食用油脂的替代品,采用炒酱方法,在单因素试验基础上,进行正交试验,以感官评分为标准,对低能量方便面酱包的配方进行研制。结果表明:棕榈油加入量为12 g,猪肉香精加入量为0.4 g,淀粉加入量为1.5 g,麦芽糊精加入量为3 g时制得的酱包品质最佳。

  14. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  15. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  16. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Study on aflatoxin B1 detecting in sauce by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay%胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中黄曲霉毒素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖卫华; 刘道峰; 邓省亮

    2012-01-01

    采用胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中的黄曲霉毒素B1.加标的酱油样品经提取后,以胶体金免疫层析法对其进行黄曲霉毒素B1测定,并与酶联免疫吸附法进行比较.结果表明,当酱油中黄曲霉毒素含量超过国家限量标准(5 μg/kg),胶体金免疫层析法检测结果为阳性,说明该方法能够满足酱油样品中黄曲霉毒素B1监控的要求.%Colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay was used to detect the Aflatoxin B1 in Sauce. After spiking with aflatoxin B1 and extracting, the samples from sauce were detected by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data showed that the result of colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay would be positive when the concentration of aflatoxin B1 in sauce exceeding the maximum limit of China (5 jig/kg). The immunochromatographic assay can be used to screen aflatoxin B1 of sauce products.

  18. Using Herbs and Spices/Preparing Sauces and Gravies. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.11. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with herbs and spices and the selection and preparation of sauces and gravies. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas:…

  19. Effect of Ultra High Pressure on Microbes and Lycopene in Tomato Sauce%超高压对番茄酱中微生物及番茄红素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纵伟; 曹益恒; 敬思群; 时慧; 赵光远

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of ultra high pressure (UHP) treatment on microbes and lyco pene in tomato sauce,the effects of ultra high pressure,treatment time and temperature on microbes and lycopene are studied.The results show that when tomato sauce is treated at 500 MPa,50 ℃for 10 min,the microbes in tomato sauce can be killed.The cis-lycopene in tomato sauce is 43.2%.UHP has sterilization and cis-trans isomerization effect on lycopene.%为研究超高压处理对番茄酱中微生物及番茄红素的影响,将番茄酱在超高压下进行处理,考察了超高压压力、处理时间和温度对菌落总教和番茄红素的影响.结果表明:50℃下经500 MPa,10 min处理,番茄酱中微生物全部被杀灭,番茄酱顺式番茄红素比例达到43.2%,超高压处理不仅可起到杀菌作用,还具有对番茄红素顺反异构转化的作用.

  20. PCR-DGGE技术对传统发酵酱油的菌群分析%Analysis of Microbial Colonies in Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce by PCR-DGGE Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐次刚; 周其洋; 赵丽云

    2014-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)is an important non-protein amino acid .The studies show that GABA can generate in soy sauce fermentation process.In this study,we analyze microbial colonies in traditional fermented soy sauce by PCR-DGGE.The bacterial DGGE profiles of normal soy sauce and GABA elevated soy sauce have great differences,elevated GABA may arise from those bacteria.%γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)是一种重要的非蛋白质氨基酸。有研究表明,在酱油发酵过程中能产生GA-BA。研究利用PCR-DGGE技术分析了正常酱油和GABA升高酱油之间的菌群差异,发现两组样品之间微生物分布存在较大差异,升高的GABA可能来自于这些有差别的微生物。

  1. Research Progress on Effective Util ization of Residual Protein in Soy Sauce Residue%酱油渣残余蛋白有效利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛; 张志国

    2016-01-01

    酱油渣是酱油酿造企业生产得到的大批量下脚料,产业链也未能对原料“吃干榨净”,残留了丰富的营养物质,尤其是含有大量的粗蛋白。因此,就酱油渣残余蛋白的有效利用,从开发做饲料、栽培用复合基质、蛋白质酶解再利用三个方面进行研究综述,对酱油渣蛋白资源的进一步开发和利用提供理论基础,扩大酱油渣的应用范围。%Soy sauce residue resources are the by-products of soy sauce brewing enterprises.It contains plenty nutrient components such as crude protein.Therefore,according to the effective utilization of residual protein in soy sauce residue,there are three aspects:the development of feed,cultivation with compound substrate,protein enzymolysis reuse.It provides further and larger theoretical basis for the development and utilization of soy sauce residue resources.

  2. 酱糟与醋糟混合发酵产沼气研究%Biogas production of sauce and vinegar residues by anaerobic co-digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾志莉; 初永宝; 师晓爽; 袁宪正; 许晓晖; 邱艳玲; 郭荣波

    2013-01-01

    Sauce and vinegar residues are the two byproducts simultaneously produced from food brewing industry in China,anaerobic co-digestion of the two residues for production of biogas were investigated in this study.Six group mixtures of sauce and vinegar residue with the total solid (TS) ratios of 1∶0 (N1),1 ∶ 1.5 (N2),1∶3 (N3),1∶7 (N4),1 ∶ 18 (N5) and 0∶1 (N6) were prepared based on the different C/N ratios in anaerobic digestion with methophilic (35℃ ± 1 ℃) condition.The results indicated that the lag phase time was 17.46 days for the single sauce residue.The lag phase times for the co-digestion of sauce and vinegar residues were significantly shortened,which was in the range of 3.00 ~ 3.83 days.Compared with the calculation values of cumulative methane yields for the mixtures of co-digestion calculated based on the digestion of single residue,the experimental values of the codigestion (N2 ~ N5) were improved by 1%,16%,14% and 10%,respectively.Sample N3 achieved the highest improvement with C:N ratio of 25.7.The average methane content in produced biogas was 65% ~ 70%.The Gompertz model was used to describe the progression of cumulative methane production in this study.The anaerobic co-digestion type of sauce and vinegar residues was mainly acetic acid type fermentation.%酱糟、醋糟是我国食品酿造行业产生的废弃物,通过厌氧发酵不仅可以解决废糟处理问题又可获取能源.因此本研究在中温(35±1)℃的条件下,根据C/N比的不同,进行了酱糟/醋糟干物质(TS)比分别为1∶0(N1)、1∶1.5(N2)、1∶3(N3)、1∶7(N4)、1∶18(N5)和0∶1(N6)的混合发酵实验.结果表明,单一酱渣的延滞期为17.46 d,混合发酵明显缩短了延滞期,为3.00-3.83 d;混合发酵组(N2~N5)累计产甲烷量的实验结果比计算结果分别提高了1%、16%、14%和10%,其中,N3组C/N比为25.7∶1,提高最为明显;各组发酵产生的沼气的甲烷体积分数在65%~ 70

  3. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  4. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which ...

  5. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  6. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  7. Analysis of Microbial Survival in Heat-Treated Pixian Chili Sauce during Storage%热处理辣椒酱贮藏过程中残留微生物分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁文; 汪先丁; 高鹏; 杨虎; 赵敏; 孙群

    2012-01-01

    Heat treatment is often used to inhibit microbial growth in Pixian chili sauce for extending its shelf-life, but some microorganisms are still likely to survive, causing Pixian Chili Sauce to spoil during storage. In this study, Pixian chili sauce treated at 80℃ for 30 min was enumerated for total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, moulds and yeasts during storage at room temperature for 120 days. Bacterial and fungal strains isolated from chili sauce were identified by 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively, and PCR-DGGE technique was used to analyze the bacterial community at the end of the storage period. The total number of bacteria in chili sauce decreased more than 90% after heat treatment at 80 ℃ for 30 min, and the majority of surviving microbes were Bacillus sp. During the storage period of 120 days, the total number of bacteria in heat treated chili sauce increased at first and then decreased. The dominant surviving bacteria in chili sauce at the end of the storage period, as detected by PCR- DGGE, were Pediococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus. These results demonstrate that partial microorganisms in chili sauce are killed or presented in VBNC (viable but non-culturable) state after heat treatment, and surviving Bacillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria may be the reason for the spoilage of heat-treated chili sauce. Consequently, effectively controlling the survival Bacillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria is the key to extend the shelf-life of chili sauce.%四川郫县辣椒酱多采用热处理控制微生物生长以延长货架期,但热处理后残留微生物仍会导致辣椒酱腐败。辣椒酱经80℃、30min热处理后室温贮藏120d期间检测其中菌落总数、大肠菌群、霉菌和酵母数,分别采用16SrDNA和ITS序列鉴定分离的细菌和真菌菌株,并运用PCR-DGGE法分析贮藏终点辣椒酱中细菌群落结构。结果表明:热处理后辣椒酱中微生物减少了90%以上,残留微

  8. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  9. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish specie

  10. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish species consume medusae and some reasons to suspect that there are even more that do so, are discussed.

  11. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  12. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  13. Fish under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  14. 用高分辨G带和人工细菌染色体荧光原位杂交技术分析中国儿童孤独症患者的染色体改变%Detection of chromosome aberrations in Chinese children with autism using G-banding and BAC FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青杰; 陈晓宁; 沈岩; 马芬; 李丹; 王晓维; 田文雁; 陈艳; 封江彬; 陆雪; 陈德清

    2005-01-01

    Objective To detect the characteristic chromosomal changes in Chinese children with infantile autism. Methods Chromosome aberrations in 68 cases of infantile autism were analyzed by high-resolution G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Results Chromosomal changes were detected in 4 cases by high-resolution G-banding: one case with t(4;6)(q23-24;p21), one case with longer p arm of chromosome 21 (21p+), and two cases with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 (inv(9)) which was confirmed by C-banding. BAC FISH analysis was performed to confirm these observations and changes in chromosomes 2, 7 and 15, which are often found in autistic children. There could exist the translocation of t(4;6) (q25-26;p21.1). Chromosome changes often reported previously in chromosomes 2, 7 and 15 were not detected in this study. Inv(9) and 21p+ were not confirmed with present BAC clones. Conclusion Chromosomal changes were detected in four cases of infantile autism, with a detectability of 5.9%, far lower than that (10% to 48%) reported in literature. The breakpoint of translocation could be detected more accurately using BAC FISH method.%目的检测中国儿童孤独症患者的特征性染色体改变.方法应用高分辨G带和人工细菌染色体(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC)荧光原位杂交(flourescence in situ hybridization, FISH)分析68例中国儿童孤独症患者的染色体改变.结果用G带分析观察到有染色体改变的4例患者,分别为1例t(4;6)(q23-24;p21)、1例21p+和2例9号染色体臂间倒位.BAC FISH进一步证实易位病例,而且更精确[t(4;6)(q25-26;p21.1)];涉及7号、15号、2号染色体的BAC FISH均未观察到文献中报道的染色体改变;而9号染色体的臂间倒位和21p+因无BAC克隆而无法证实.结论用G带和BAC FISH发现少数中国孤独症患者有染色体改变,但远没有文献中报道的10%~48%那么高.BAC FISH有助于精确地确定染色体易位断裂点.

  15. Zoonoses associated with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Shane

    2011-09-01

    The taxonomic group that composes the fishes is the most diverse group of vertebrates worldwide. The challenges of unique physiologies, a foreign environment, and many unknowns attract a passionate group of biologists and veterinarians. Economically, fishes have become vital as food, bait, and companion animals. Fishermen and fish handlers (processing plants) represent the historical human population exposed to fish zoonoses, but growth in aquaculture and aquarium hobbyists have led to an increase in published fish-borne zoonotic cases starting in the late 1950s that bloomed in the 1980s. Human physicians, particularly dermatologists and infectious disease specialists, are now more aware of fish-borne zoonoses, but they can be assisted with diagnosis when informed patients give more detailed histories with fish/water exposure.

  16. Study on Processing Conditions of Cheese Sauce Made with Cream Cheese%用Cream Cheese 生产芝士酱的工艺条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐吉祥; 楚炎沛

    2015-01-01

    Take cream cheese as raw material,the cream cheese fermented broth is obtained by lactic bacteria fermentation using fermentation accelerator.The fermented broth is mixed with some additive materials including milk powder,modified starch to produce a new type of cheese sauce.The sensory and texture of the cheese sauce are investigated by single factor experiment for material ratio, fermentation time,sugar amount and cooking time.The optimum formula is determined as follows:when the ratio of cream cheese to fermented broth with sugar additive amount of 5% is 20∶5 ,the fermentation time is 1 hour,the flavor of cheese can be improved obviously,and the ideal cream cheese fermented broth can be obtained.When the ratio of fermented broth to other materials is 20∶80,the sugar additive amount is 5%,the cooking time is 40 min,the ideal cheese sauce can be made.%以 cream cheese 为原料,利用原料自身特性,借助于发酵促进剂先进行乳酸发酵,形成 cream cheese发酵液。然后与奶粉、变性淀粉等添加物溶液混合后,升温熬制,开发出一种新型芝士酱。通过对cream cheese等物料配比、发酵时间、加糖量及熬制时间进行对比实验,并主要从感官和质构上进行评价,最终确定出理想的工艺配方为:cream cheese与浓度5%含糖量的发酵促进液的质量比为20∶5,进行发酵1 h可明显改善芝士风味,获得理想的cream cheese 发酵液。该发酵液与其他物料的配比为20∶80,白砂糖添加量为总物料重量比的5%,熬煮时间为40 min,可制得理想的芝士酱。

  17. A comparison of plasma and prostate lycopene in response to typical servings of tomato soup, sauce or juice in men before prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Hadley, Craig W; Moran, Nancy E; Riedl, Kenneth M; Gong, Michael C; Pohar, Kamal; Schwartz, Steven J; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-08-28

    Tomato product consumption and estimated lycopene intake are hypothesised to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. To define the impact of typical servings of commercially available tomato products on resultant plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations, men scheduled to undergo prostatectomy (n 33) were randomised either to a lycopene-restricted control group ( lycopene/d) or to a tomato soup (2-2¾ cups prepared/d), tomato sauce (142-198 g/d or 5-7 ounces/d) or vegetable juice (325-488 ml/d or 11-16·5 fluid ounces/d) intervention providing 25-35 mg lycopene/d. Plasma and prostate carotenoid concentrations were measured by HPLC. Tomato soup, sauce and juice consumption significantly increased plasma lycopene concentration from 0·68 (sem 0·1) to 1·13 (sem 0·09) μmol/l (66 %), 0·48 (sem 0·09) to 0·82 (sem 0·12) μmol/l (71 %) and 0·49 (sem 0·12) to 0·78 (sem 0·1) μmol/l (59 %), respectively, while the controls consuming the lycopene-restricted diet showed a decline in plasma lycopene concentration from 0·55 (sem 0·60) to 0·42 (sem 0·07) μmol/l ( - 24 %). The end-of-study prostate lycopene concentration was 0·16 (sem 0·02) nmol/g in the controls, but was 3·5-, 3·6- and 2·2-fold higher in tomato soup (P= 0·001), sauce (P= 0·001) and juice (P= 0·165) consumers, respectively. Prostate lycopene concentration was moderately correlated with post-intervention plasma lycopene concentrations (r 0·60, P =0·001), indicating that additional factors have an impact on tissue concentrations. While the primary geometric lycopene isomer in tomato products was all-trans (80-90 %), plasma and prostate isomers were 47 and 80 % cis, respectively, demonstrating a shift towards cis accumulation. Consumption of typical servings of processed tomato products results in differing plasma and prostate lycopene concentrations. Factors including meal composition and genetics deserve further evaluation to determine their impacts on lycopene absorption and

  18. 航天酱油酿造过程中微生物学研究%Microbiological analysis in space soy sauce brewing process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志梅; 张宗舟; 薛林贵; 石小霞; 褚可成

    2011-01-01

    该文测定了以航天诱变黑曲霉、毛霉和米曲霉混合制曲,天然晒露,自然共酵,高盐稀态酿造生抽的微生物区系变化情况.试验证明了细菌、放线菌、酵母菌都有一定的耐盐性,细菌在食盐含量12%、14%、16%的情况下,分别增加了32.4倍、25倍和20倍,放线菌分别增加了5倍、4.6倍和1.8倍,酵母菌分别增加了1001倍、658倍和4.78倍.这3类微生物是生抽酱酯突出,香味协调,个性明显的生物基础.而霉菌类不耐盐,数量都有所下降,却是提高生抽转化率的生物基础.%Space mutant Aspergillus niger, Mucor, and Aspergillus oryzae were used for mixed koji, which was used soy sauce making with high salt concentration liquid-state natural fermentation under solar thermal. Changes of microbe species and quantity in soy sauce were investigated. The results indicated that all bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts were salt tolerance to some extent. Under the salt concentration of 12%, 14% and 16%, they were increased by 32.4 times, 25 times and 20 times; 5 times, 4.6 times and 1.8 times, and 1001 times, 658 times and 478 times respectively for bacteria, actinomycetes and yeasts. The three types of microbes were biological basis of outstanding flavor coordination. Mold was not salt tolerance and the it had been decreased, which was the biological basis of improves conversion rate of soy sauce.

  19. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  20. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  1. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  2. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  3. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  4. THE FIRST RECORD OF A NEWLY REPORTED CHINESE DIPLOZOIDAE OF MONOGENEA ON FISHES IN THE ERGIS RIVER%额尔齐斯河鱼类双身虫科一种属新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新; 焦丽; 姚卫建; 郝翠兰; 岳城

    2015-01-01

    Diplozoon paradoxum (Nordmann, 1832) belongs to Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Diplozoinae, Diplozoon. In this study, we reported this organism collected from the gills ofAbramis brama orientalis (Berg, 1949) in the Ergis River (within China) from April 2009 to May 2013. Most of the morphological features of this newly found insect were the same as the original description ofDiplozoon paradoxum (Nordmann, 1832), except for a few minor differences in the measurements. The genus,Diplozoon Nordmann, was reported for the first time in China. Here we described the morphological characteristics of this insect and showed the images. We analyzed its ITS2 rDNA sequence and compared the results with the parasite from the same subfamily in the GeneBank. The similarity between the newly found Chinese Diplozoon paradoxum and the EuropeanDiplozoon paradoxum was 99.5%. The distribution ofDiplozoon paradoxum was also discussedin this paper.%研究报道了2009年4月至2013年5月采自新疆北部额尔齐斯河(中国段)东方欧鳊(Abramis brama orientalis Berg,1949)鳃上的1种双身虫科(Diplozoidae Palombi,1949)、双身虫亚科(Diplozoinae Palombi,1949)、双身虫属(Diplozoon Nordmann,1832)的奇异双身虫(Diplozoon paradoxum Nordmann,1832)。所获标本与Nordmann (1832)的原始描述基本一致,仅各部分度量等方面略有差异,经比较鉴定,为我国一新记录种。同时,双身虫属在我国也尚属首次发现,为我国一新记录属。研究对奇异双身虫的主要形态特征进行了描述并绘制了全图和特征图,测定其ITS-2 rDNA序列并与GenBank同亚科虫种进行比对,确定其与欧洲已发现的奇异双身虫相似度达到99.5%,并对该寄生虫的地理分布特点进行了探讨。

  5. Monogenea of Chinese Marine Fishes XXII.A New Chinese Record Genus and Species Nasicola klawei ( Stunkard, 1962) Yamaguti, 1968 (Capsalidae)%中国海洋鱼类单殖吸虫研究XXⅡ.分室科一新记录属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长平; 胡盼; 丁雪娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a capsalid species of monogenean in China. Nasicola klawei (Stunkard, 1962) Yamaguti, 1968 (Monogenea: Capsalidae) was found in the nasal capsule of longtail tuna, Thunnus tonggol (Bleeker, 1851) , from Shanwei city, Guangdong Province. The specimens are basically consistent with the original description of Stunkard (1962) and the redescription of Yamaguti (1968) and Kohn et al. (2004) except for some differences in the structure of uterus, number of testes and the length of marginal hooks. This is the first time the genus Nasicola and species N. klawei are recorded in China, and the fish Thunnus tonggol is a new host. The specimens are deposited in the Lab of Fish Parasitology, College of life Science, South China Normal University.%记述采自广东汕尾青干金枪鱼Thunnus tonggol鼻腔中的1种单殖吸虫——卡氏嗜鼻虫Nasicola klawei(Stunkard,1962)Yamaguti,1968.所获标本的形态结构及大小与原始描述及Yamaguti( 1968)、Kohn等(2004)的描述基本一致,但在子宫结构、睾丸数目及后吸器边缘小钩的长度上略有差别.嗜鼻虫属及卡氏嗜鼻虫均为我国新记录,青干金枪鱼为宿主新记录.

  6. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  7. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  8. 膜处理对酱油成分的影响%Effects of membrane treatment on ingredients of soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓霞; 邵璋; 王颖超; 杨海龙

    2011-01-01

    Changes of physiochemical and microbial properties of raw soy sauce before and after respective treatment with membrane with molecular cut off by 10× 104 or 20 × 104 molecular weight were studied.The results showed: more than 95% of total acid, salt, soluble solids, amino nitrogen,salt-free solids were kept and total number of colonies and turbidity of soy sauce decreased significantly when treatment with both membranes of 10× 104 or 20×104 molecular cut off membrane.When filtrated with 10×104 molecular cut off membrane, 99.9992% of total bacteria were removed, the turbidity of soy sauce decreased by 98.84%, and the color degree decreased by 44.7%.When filtrated with 20×104 molecular cut off membrane, the three parameters were 99.9975%, 98.78%, and 16.3%, respectively.No significant feculence in filtrated products after storage of 300d under room temperature.Membrane filtration is an effective approach for the second precipitation of soy sauce.%文中研究了10×104截留分子量和20×104截留分子量超滤膜处理生酱油原液前后理化和微生物指标的变化.结果表明:利用10×104截留分子量或20×104截留分子量超滤膜处理生酱油,总酸、氨基酸态氮、全氮、可溶性同形物、食盐、无盐固形物等指标的保留率都在95%以上,而菌落总数和浊度指标下降非常显著,经10×104截留分子量超滤膜处理,除菌率达99.9992%,浊度去除率达98.84%;经20×104截留分子量超滤膜处理,除菌率达99.9975%.浊度去除率达98.78%;经10×104截留分子量超滤膜处理色度下降率达44.7%;经20×104截留分子量超滤膜处理色度下降率为16.3%.经过300d的室温储藏,处理液未见明显浑浊,因此将膜处理技术应用于实际生产可有效地解决酱油的二次沉淀问题.

  9. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  10. Investigation and analysis of sauced meat products quality in Chongqing%重庆市餐饮酱卤肉制品质量调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠大伟; 孙玉侠; 张磊; 王友建

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand quality situations for sauced meat products of catering enterprises in Chongqing,according to statistical principle,two hundred representative samples were extracted to investigate food additives and microbiology,and analyze the kind of raw materials,the relationship of processing methods and samples quality,and distribution of unqualified indexes.The results showed the unqualified rate was 20%.When heating time was longer,product texture was looser,or the temperature was lower,the qualified rate of products was higher.Based on the experimental results,some suggestions were put forward for the purpose of improving the quality of sauced meat products.%为了解重庆市餐饮企业中酱卤肉制品质量情况,根据统计学原理,抽取有代表性的200份样品检测其食品添加剂指标和微生物指标。并分析样品的原材料种类,加工方式与样品质量之间的关系,不合格指标的分布情况,结果显示总体不合格率为20%,当煮制时间较长、样品纹理组织较疏松或环境温度较低时,产品合格率较高,据此提出相关建议,以提高餐饮酱卤肉的质量。

  11. Separation and identification of Flavonoids in soy sauce%酱油中异黄酮物质的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海德; 张水华; 肖凯军; 郭祀远

    2000-01-01

    本文采用真空浓缩干燥酱油、乙酸乙酯热回流抽取酱油中黄酮物质,并使用薄层层析法(TLC)进行纯化,分离。采用硅胶GF254做吸附剂(薄层板厚度约为0.3mm),展开剂用三氯甲烷:甲醇=6:1(vol/vol)的混合展开系统,从提取物中分离出三种样品,Rf值分别为0.70,0.50,0.40。把TLC法分离制备的样品进行结构检测,经过紫外光谱和TLC鉴定,判定三种纯品分别为大豆素、染料木素和6,7,4'-三羟异酮。%The flavonoids extracted from soy sauce were separated and purified by thin layer chromatographic (TLC) procedure. The study has shown that thd ideal procedure is using silica gel GF254 plates ( 20×20cm, 0.3mm thick), CHCl3/MeOH (6: 1, vol/vol) solvents. There were three specimens of which the retardation factor(Rf) were 0.70,0.50 and 0.40 respectively. Identification of the isolated samples by spectral analysis, TLC and chemical analysis demonstrated that daidzein, genistein and 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone appeared to be the main isoflavones in soy sauce.

  12. 基于统计学方法的酱油二次沉淀形成的初步研究%Preliminary study on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces based on statistics methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高献礼; 闫爽; 陈燕斌; 陆健

    2013-01-01

    本文以市售25种酱油为研究对象,以pearson相关分析法研究了酱油pH、总糖、还原糖、NaCl、总氮、氨基酸态氮、无盐固形物含量与酱油二次沉淀形成的相关性 . 同时,以T检验法研究了酱油不同发酵方式、类型、主要原料、质量等级和产地对酱油二次沉淀形成的影响.研究结果表明:酱油二次沉淀的形成与酱油中总糖、总氮和无盐固形物的含量呈显著正相关,与酱油PH、还原糖、NaCl、氨基酸态氮含量无统计学意义上的相关性.此外,分析结果显示酱油的发酵方式、主要原料、质量等级和产地对酱油二次沉淀的形成存在较大影响,而酱油类型对酱油二次沉淀的形成不存在明显影响.%The correlation between pH, contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, NaCI, total nitrogen, amino acid nitrogen,salt-free solid and secondary sediment formation of 25 commercial soy sauces was studied using pearson correlation analysis. Meanwhile, the effects of fermentation methods, types ( light/dark), main raw materials,quality grades and origins on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces were analyzed using T test method.Results demonstrated that the secondary sediment formation and contents of total sugar,total nitrogen and salt-free solid of soy sauces had a significantly positive correlation, and no statistically correlation between secondary sediment formation and pH, contents of reducing sugar, NaCI, amino acid nitrogen of soy sauces. Furthermore,results showed that there were significant effects of fermentation methods,main raw materials,quality grades,origins on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces,and no significant effect of types on secondary sediment formation of soy sauces.

  13. Multi-flavored Beef Sauce Digitalized Sensory Analysis Method Based on SRSAnose System%基于SRSAnose系统的多味牛肉酱数字化感官分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘杰; 惠国华

    2012-01-01

    酱类食品的风味品评主要采用人工感官评价的方法,但该方法易受品评人员经验、身体状况、情绪和环境等因素影响,以至于重复性差,耗时长,成本高.电子鼻系统是一种模拟人的嗅觉功能来分析和识别简单或复杂气体成分的仪器,可有效解决人工感官品评的不足.本文选用不同调味液配方的5种牛肉酱样品,利用自主开发的随机共振信噪比谱电子鼻(SRSAnose)系统检测牛肉酱样品香气,以非线性随机共振信噪比分析提取牛肉酱样品气味特征值,并作为数字化感官评价的判定依据.试验结果表明SRSAnose较好地区分了使用不同调味液的肉酱样品的气味特征,该系统可以作为数字化感官评价体系的良好栽体.%Sensory evaluation method is widely used in sauce flavor sensory analysis, while this method is easily disturbed by many factors, such as experience, physical condition, emotion and environment et al. which usually leads to low repeatability, time -consuming, high cost. Electronic nose system is a kind of intelligent instrument, which emulates human olfactory to analysis and discriminate simple or complicated gas samples. In this paper, 5 kinds of beef sauce samples using different sauce have been prepared. Self -developed stochastic resonance signal -to -noise ratio spectrum electronic nose (SRSAnose) system is used here to obtain the flavor data of different beef sauce samples. Stochastic resonance signal-to-noise spectrum analysis technique is used to extract the features of the samples, which provides a novel basis for digitalized sensory analysis. The experimental results show that the SRSAnose system can reflect the flavor features of beef sauce samples with different sauce successfully. The SRSAnose is the suitable carrier of digitalized sensory analysis method.

  14. Do Fish Sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most fish can’t shut their eyes, so it’s easy to think they don’t sleep. But that’s like assuming humans don’t sleep because we can’t shut our ears to drown out sound. In fact, many species of fish take time out during the day or (more often) at night to enter a sleeplike stage. Some of these fish float in place, others lie on the bottom。

  15. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  16. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  17. Anglers' fishing problem

    CERN Document Server

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  18. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  19. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fish may contain high levels of mercury, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins and other environmental contaminants. Shark, swordfish, tilefish (golden bass or golden snapper) and ...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING DRY BASES FROM PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS OF LITTLE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Competitive advantages of this direction of researches are in justification of actions and offers on a technical provision of production of a dry fish basis from meat- and bone residue of pond fishes that will allow to produce fast foods of high quality and biological value (broths, soups, sauces, to expand the assortment taking into account market demand, to introduce the new forms of food convenient in storage and use at home and outside as well as for special food. The first courses on dry fish broth are easily digestible, with the high contents of micro and macro elements in the quantity of them they surpass meat broths. Their other advantage is the content of the polynonsaturated fatty acids neutralizing negative impact of substances, destroying tendons, ligaments and cartilage in the human body, thereby eliminating joint pains that is especially important for the determined groups of the population, for example, the military personnel, sportsmen, etc. In addition, this technology includes sparing modes of processing of raw materials, keeping thereby native properties of useful substances (protein, fat as much as possible. Researches on selection of an optimum ratio of the heads and the bones providing high organoleptic rates of broths on their basis were carried out to produce dry fish bases. Conditions and parameters of convective drying of little value products of cutting of silver carp and cod are determined. The results allow to draw a preliminary conclusion on the possibility of creation a new technology of powdery products for broths fast preparation. The developed technology is of great importance in the creation of waste-free and low-waste production at the enterprises of fishery industry of the Russian Federation.

  1. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  2. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  3. The Application of HACCP in the Processing of Cans of Air Dried Lobster Sauce Dace%HACCP在豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芳; 邹文中; 潘志民

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point(HACCP)was applied in the Processing of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace to insure the quality. Potential hazard of affecting the quality of product in each processing procedure were analyzed,and the planning worksheet was established to improve the safety of cans of air dried lobster sauce dace.%为了确保豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头的安全,对豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品进行危害分析,通过确定关键控制点及控制措施等建立了危害分析和关键控制点(HACCP)计划工作表,对改善和提高豆豉风干鲮鱼罐头产品的安全性具有重要的推动作用。

  4. Penggunaan Ekstrak Kasar Polisakarida Larut Air dari Biji Buah Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr. pada Pembuatan Saos Tomat (The Use of Crude Extract Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Durian (Durio Zibethinus Muur. Seeds in Tomato Sauce Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Herlina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato sauce is one of the diversification of tomato products that could increase the added value and shelf life of tomatoes. Sauce made from tomato has a high water content (94 % resulting a watery sauce product. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of crude extract Water Soluble Polysaccharide (WSP from durian seeds on physical, chemical, and organoleptic as characteristics oftomato sauce. The use of crude extract WSP from durian seeds is expected to increase the viscosity of the sauce. The experimental design used in this study was a non factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Parameters measured were viscosity, color (Hue and Chroma, total dissolved solids, pH, vitamin C, and organoleptic (panelist preferences in addition to the effectiveness test to determine the best treatment. The results show that the tomato sauce composition significantly affect the viscosity, pH, color intensity, and total dissolved solids, while no significant effect on the angle of color and vitamin C of tomato sauce. The effectiveness test showed that the panelists preferred the P4 tomato sauce (use crude extract WSP from seeds fruit of durian 0.8 % with fondness value  color of 2.68; aroma of 3.08; flavor of 3.48; viscosity of 3.44; overall liking of 3.56. The value of viscosity, hue, chroma, total dissolved solids, pH, vitamin C were 39.64 centipoise; 38,34°; 20.16; 35° Brix; 4.92; and 4.95 mg/g, respectively.   ABSTRAK Saos tomat merupakan salah satu diversifikasi produk olahan buah tomat yang dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan umur simpan buah tomat. Saos yang berbahan dasar tomat, memiliki kandungan air yang tinggi (94 % sehingga menghasilkan saos yang encer. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan ekstrak kasar Polisakarida Larut Air (PLA dari biji buah durian terhadap sifat fisiko kimia dan organoleptik saos tomat. Penggunaan ekstrak kasar PLA dari biji buah durian diharapkan dapat

  5. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...

  6. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  7. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  8. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  9. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  10. Discussion on Improvement of Technology for Preventing Turbidity and Precipitate of Soy Sauce%改进工艺防止酱油浑浊与沉淀的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭; 曹岚

    2014-01-01

    分析了引起酱油浑浊沉淀的因素,探讨了改革工艺操作方法,提出了提高酱油澄清度的措施。%In this paper,the factors for causing turbidity and precipitate of soy sauce are analyzed,the methods for improving the production technology are summarized,and the measures for enhancing the clarity degree are put forward.

  11. Application of Electronic Tongue Technique in Taste Evaluation of Sweet Sauce%电子舌技术在甜面酱口感评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 黄明泉; 孙宝国; 田红玉; 陈海涛

    2012-01-01

    对7种不同品牌的甜面酱用电子舌交叉型传感器进行检测,同时测定其4项理化指标(总酸值、氨基态氮值、食盐含量、还原糖含量),所得数据用主成分分析法(PCA)进行分析比较,并将电子舌传感器响应信号值与理化指标进行了简单相关性分析(CCA),研究表明:该电子舌可以从综合口感方面对7个品牌的甜面酱样品进行有效的区分,并且理化指标和传感器相应信号之间具有较强相关性。因此,电子舌技术有望应用于甜面酱生产的在线监控,以保证其品质的一致性与评价的客观性。%Seven different brands of sweet sauces were evaluated using electronic tongue with cross-type sensors,and four physicochemical indices including total acid value,amino nitrogen value,salt content and reducing sugar content of these sweet sauces were also determined.The acquired data were analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and canonical correlation analysis(CCA).Results demonstrate that electronic tongue technique was very effective in discriminating 7 different sweet sauce brands according to overall taste evaluation.Moreover,an obvious correlation between physiochemical indices and sensor response signals was observed.Accordingly,electronic tongue technique can be hopefully applied for online production monitoring of sweet sauce so as to ensure consistency and objectivity in quality evaluation.

  12. Chinese Whispers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Mike

    2016-04-01

    In discrete networks, disconnection is often the critical factor that controls system function. The quality of network behaviour may be described by graph-theoretic indices such as the Cheeger constant, or through context-specific models. For water and sediment transport, one primary distinction is between unchannelled and channelled flow: diffusive sediment transport in the former providing poor connectivity and the progressive dominance of advective processes leading to better connected channelization. Within the channel network, Fryir's terminology of buffers, barriers and blankets describe types of disconnection that control water and sediment movement which are crucial to, for example, flood management. In the long term and at coarse scales, network connectivity is controlled by disconnection across divides and through sea level change. Willett has proposed a network analysis that shows catchments whose headwaters are threatened by capture and distributions of fish have provided evidence of the efficacy and rate of these processes, in Africa and elsewhere. Is there common ground between these approaches that can be applied to modelling the behaviour of social and other networks? The critical role of poor connections seems to be at least one significant common thread.

  13. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  14. Application of metagenomics for identification of dominate fimgal species in soy sauce koji%宏基因组技术在鉴定酱油曲真菌优势菌株的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泉增; 胡广; 王洪彬; 路福平

    2012-01-01

    宏基因组技术是一种不依赖微生物纯培养的新技术,利用该种技术可以更加真实、快速鉴定酱油曲发酵过程中全部微生物中的优势真菌菌株.该研究首次提取酱油曲中宏基因组,PCR扩增宏基因组18S rDNA片段,构建出含有18S rDNA的pentr3c质粒.经过对18S rDNA的测序结果表明,酱油曲中优势的真菌微生物为米曲霉.%Metagenomics is a novel culture-independent genomic analysis technique. This technique will be helpful to identify dominate fungi in the microbial community in soy sauce koji. In this study, the total DNA of soy sauce koji was extracted. Then, PCR amplification was carried out to amplify the 18S rDNA gene of fungus. The recombinant plasmids were constructed by inserting 18S rDNA fragment into plasmid pentr3c. After gene sequencing, it was showed that the dominate fungus of soy sauce koji was Aspergillus oryzae.

  15. 低温酱卤鸭脖生产过程质量安全控制分析%Analysis on quality safety control in processing of production of low temperature sauced duck neck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱连胜; 陈蒙

    2015-01-01

    通过对低温酱卤鸭脖生产过程中的微生物、TVBN进行测定,并对其质量安全控制进行了分析。最终确定卤煮、真空包装环境、灭菌工序和贮藏温度对酱卤鸭脖生产过程中的质量安全有较显著影响,最终得出真空包装环境污染程度低、增加低温杀菌工序和在7℃环境下保存能将酱卤鸭脖的保质期延长至60d的结论。%Microorganism and TVBN in processing of production of low temperature sauced duck neck were detected. Quality safety control was analyzed. It was finally determined that boiling, vacuum package environment, sterilization and storage temperature had significant influence on quality safety in processing of production of low temperature sauced duck neck. And it was obtained that the shelf life of sauced duck neck could be extended to 60 days under the condition of low degree of contamination of the vacuum package, adding low temperature sterilization and keeping at 7℃.

  16. 壳聚糖涂膜保藏技术在卤鹅加工中的应用%Application of Coating Storage Technology with Chitosan in Sauce and Pot-roast Goose Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓春; 葛良鹏; 欧秀琼; 景绍红; 杜金平

    2013-01-01

    Study of the composite preserving techniques of sauce and pot-roast gooses were carried out by the coating storage technology with chitosan, natural biologic preservatives, vacuum packaging technology and pasteurized repasteurization. The result showed that the shelf-life of sauce and pot-roast goose could extended to 4 weeks at 30℃-35℃by coating the surface of sauce and pot-roast goose with the solutions containing 1%chitosan,1%Nisin and 0.2%acetic acid, then combined with vacuum packaging, pasteurized repasteurization treatment(80℃-85℃,heating 5 min).%  采用壳聚糖涂膜保藏技术,结合天然生物防腐剂、真空包装及低温二次杀菌技术,对卤鹅综合保鲜技术进行了研究.结果表明:利用复配的壳聚糖涂膜液(含1%壳聚糖、1%Nisin和0.2%醋酸)对卤鹅表面作涂膜,然后真空包装,低温二次杀菌(80℃~85℃,5 min)处理,卤鹅在常温下(30℃~35℃)的货架期可达到4周.

  17. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  18. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  19. Study on enzymatic hydrolysis fish sauce with salted fish and volatile odor compounds%盐渍鱼酶解制备鱼露及挥发性风味物质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晁岱秀; 曾庆孝

    2010-01-01

    在对Alcalase2.4L和Papain双酶分步酶解盐渍鱼酶解过程研究的基础上酶解鲜鱼和半年盐渍鱼制备鱼露,运用感官分析和顶空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)结合气质联用(GC-MS)法对其风味进行比较分析.结果表明:Alcalase2.4L、Papain双酶分步酶解盐渍鱼酶解效果较好,先加Papain 6 h后再加Alealase2.4L效果较好,但鲜味氨基酸的比例不如先加Alcalase2.4L后加Papain高;与鲜鱼酶解鱼露相比,虽然盐渍鱼使蛋白酶的酶解效果有所降低,但盐渍鱼酶解鱼露的风味较好,较接近传统鱼露的风味,且含有挥发性酸类,但具有鱼露特征香味的挥发性风味物质没有检出,说明需进一步发酵才能达到传统成熟鱼露的风味.

  20. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  1. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  2. Freshwater fishes distribution in Taiwan and continent of China and its biogeographical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宜瑜; 何舜平

    2001-01-01

    Through the comparative analysis of primary freshwater fishes in Chinese continent and the Taiwan Island, we summarize the three distinctions of distribution of freshwater fishes in these areas: (i) there exists a high similarity of freshwater fish fauna between Taiwan and the southeastern shore of the continent; (ii) some species of freshwater fish are found both in the Taiwan Island and East Himalayans; (iii) different freshwater fishes have different distributions in island arch of western Pacific where Taiwan is located, but the distribution pattern shows a similarity to that of adjacent continent. The characteristic distributions of the fishes are closely related to the change in paleogeography and geology in the area. The parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE analysis) indicates that the three distribution patterns can be explained by the vicariance theory.

  3. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  4. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  5. West Lake Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Sweet & Sour Fish is widely recognized as the best fish recipe found in the city of Hangzhou. The delectable tender sweet & sour dish would please the palate of even the most demanding gourmet. The unique preparation method follows: Method: Place a one kilogram grass carp in clear water for three days to eliminate any offensive odor, and allowing adequate time for defecation. Gut and clean the carp thoroughly. Slice open the belly, Make five equally spaced one centimeter deep incisions on one side of the fish, and another slanting cut through the thick meat on the opposite side. Be certain to ensure the

  6. Determination of 3-Monochloropropane-l,2-diol in Soy Sauce and Oyster Sauce by Solid Phase Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%固相萃取与气相色谱-质谱联用分析调味料中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊珺; 龚亮; 赖毅东

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for determination of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in sauce samples by solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. In this work, elution solvent type and amount and sample loading amount were investigated to optimize SPE conditions. The optimal sample preparation procedure for treating 5.0 g of samples involved homogenization with 5 mol/L sodium chloride solution, clean-up on SPE column and derivitization prior to GC-MS analysis. The limit of detection of the method for 3-MCPD was 0.15 μg/kg, and the linear range 0.51 -- 6144μ g/kg, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 and a relative standard deviation of 8.8% (RSD, n = 5). The method was applied to determine soy sauce and oyster sauce samples and spiked recoveries of 87.2%- 109.4% with RSDs (n = 3) of 5.6% - 10.2% were obtained.%建立固相萃取与气相色谱一质谱联用(solid phase extraction with gas chromatography—mass spectrometry,SPE.GC—MS)测定调味料中3-氯-1,2-丙二醇的新方法。对影响分析物SPE萃取效率的诸因素如洗脱溶剂、洗脱溶剂的体积和上样体积等进行详细考察和优化。最佳萃取条件为5.0g样品与5mol/L氯化钠溶液混匀,经SPE萃取净化、衍生后,以GC—MS进行测定,该方法对3-氯-1,2-丙二醇的检出限为0.15μg/kg,线性范围为0.51-614

  7. Study on the Effect of Yeast Extract on QuaI ity of Femented Soy Sauce%酵母抽提物对发酵酱油品质影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周朝晖

    2016-01-01

    主要研究了酵母抽提物的特性及其在发酵酱油中的应用,研究结果表明酵母抽提物在用量低于2.0%时可耐受高盐高酸环境,并在长时间的储存过程中不出现沉淀现象。将该酵母抽提物应用于发酵原酱油中,发现其最适添加量为0.5%~1.0%,此时不仅可赋予酱油醇厚底味,增强其鲜香味,使鲜、咸、甜更加协调适口,与此同时还可去除酱油中的豆腥味和其他杂味,显著改善酱油的品质和风味,并且酱油稳定性良好,在储藏期间不会出现任何沉淀。%The properties and application of yeast extract in soy sauce are studied in this paper.The results show that the yeast extract could be used in environment with high content of salt and acid when the content of yeast extract in the solution is below 2 .0%and it doesn't appear precipitation with the storage time increasing.The optimal quantity of the yeast extract is 0.5%~1.0% applied in soy sauce.The application of yeast extract with the content of 0 .5%~1 .0% could improve umami flavor of soy sauce,make the soy sauce flavor mellow and thick,and make umami,sweetness and saltiness moderate,while the soybean odor and other bad flavor could be mostly eliminated.The soy sauce can also get good stability with yeast extract content of 0 .5%~1 .0%.

  8. Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques%2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琳; 蒋立文; 陶湘林; 李先淼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds of soy sauce produced by two different techniques were analyzed by combination of SPME extraction combined with GC-MS, and the relative contents were determined by area normalization method. Totally 117 species (seven categories) volatile flavor compounds were identified, and 62 species in natural bask crude soy sauce, 84 species in low-salt crude oil with heat insulation fermentation. The identified flavor compounds include alcohols (15), phenols (10), acids (18), esters (19), aldehydes anketones (21), heterocyclics (27) and sulfur compounds (7). O-guaiacol, ethanoic acid, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl butanal, benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and trimethylpyrazine were main ingredients in two kinds of soy sauce. Although the content of most volatile organic in soy sauce was very little, the existence of them greatly enriched flavor of soy sauce.%通过用SPME萃取结合GC-MS分析了2种不同工艺酱油原油的挥发性成分,用面积归一化法测定其组分的相对含量,2种酱油中共鉴定出117种(7大类)挥发性风味化合物,天然晒露的酱油共有62种,低盐保温发酵原油有84种,所鉴定的风味化合物包括15种醇,10种酚,18种酸,19种酯,21种醛酮化合物,27种杂环化合物和7种含硫化合物.其中O-愈创木酚、乙酸、3-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁酸、2-甲基丁醛、苯甲醛、苯乙醛和三甲基吡嗪为2种酱油中都存在的主体物质.尽管酱油中多数香气成分含量极微,但是多种香气成分的存在极大地丰富了酱油的风味.

  9. 温度对高盐稀态酱油风味物质的影响%Effect of Temperature on FIavor Substances of High-saIt Liquid-state Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施思; 蒋予箭; 张海珍

    2015-01-01

    采用豆粕和麸皮(配比6∶4)为原料,沪酿3.042米曲霉单菌种制曲,成曲以1∶2比例添加18°Be′盐水,进行发酵实验。为了研究温度对酱油发酵过程中各项指标的影响,对实验过程中发酵液的理化指标进行跟踪测定,结合成品酱油的感官分析和挥发性风味成分分析,得出发酵温度对酱油生产过程的影响。实验表明:在15~41℃的发酵温度范围内,酱油的氨态氮、红色指数、总氮含量与发酵温度呈正相关;15℃低温发酵1个月后,升温至30℃发酵2个月的工艺所酿酱油还原糖含量较高、风味化合物含量较高、香气与滋味得分值高。%Soybean meal and wheat bran (proportion of 6∶4)are used as raw materials,and Huniang 3.042 Aspergillus oryzae as the single strain to make koji.Then add 18°Be'brine by the proportion of 1∶2 into the finished koji to conduct soy sauce fermentation experiment.According to the tracking test of physical and chemical indicators of fermentation broth,the sensory evaluation of soy sauce and the analysis of volatile flavor components,the effect of fermentation temperature on various indicators in fermentation of soy sauce is investigated.The experimental results show that ammonia nitrogen content,red index and total nitrogen content of soy sauce are positive related to the fermentation temperature at 15~41 ℃;the soy sauce brewed at 15 ℃ for a month followed by rising to 30 ℃ for 2 months has higher content of reducing sugar and flavor compounds and high scores in aroma and taste.

  10. Reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following stinging attributed to the box jelly fish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, R P; Selliah, K

    1984-10-01

    Following a box jelly fish sting, a 52 year old Chinese fisherman developed acute abdominal distension, inability to pass urine and failure of erection. Examination revealed gaseous abdominal distension and a distended urinary bladder. Absence of lachrimation and absence of changes in the R-R interval in the ECG during breathing and carotid sinus massage gave further evidence of parasympathetic dysautonomia. The patient made a complete recovery. The case highlights the occurrence of reversible parasympathetic dysautonomia following box jelly fish sting.

  11. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  12. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  13. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebr...

  14. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  15. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  16. West Coast Fishing Ethnography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...

  17. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  18. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  19. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Izzah Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2% and female (55.7% participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3% with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001 higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day. Conclusion: Fish consumption was

  20. 酱油中铵盐含量的监测与来源分析%Surveillance and analysis on the quantity and origin of ammonium salt in soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林崇昌; 司徒小玉; 邓秀燕; 吴灿斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quantity and origin of ammonium salt in soy sauce produced in Kaiping city,and provide references for the quality control of soy sauce production.Methods Detecting the contents of ammonium salt and amino acid nitrogen in soy sauce, calculating the proportion and the qualified rate of different types of ammonium salt,and detecting the contents of ammonia nitrogen in raw materials of caramel and ammonium salt in molasses.Results The difference between the qualified rate of ammonium salt in semi-finished products and end products of soy sauce ( 100% and 91.3% respectively) was of statistical significance (x2 = 4.3, 0.01 < P < 0.05 ).The difference on the qualified rate of ammonium salt between light soy sauce ( 100% ) and dark soy sauce (72.7% ) was of statistical significance (x2 = 17.7,P <0.01 ).Ammonia nitrogen contents in caramel were in the range of 0.02%-0.04% and all qualified, while ammonia nitrogen contents in molasses were 0.05-0.25 g/100 ml.Conclusion The contents of ammonia nitrogen in some species of soy sauce produced in Kaiping city were higher than the upper limits, which was the result of excessive ammonium salt in molasses.%目的 研究开平市产酱油中铵盐含量及其污染来源,为酱油生产过程质量控制提供参考依据.方法 检测酱油中的铵盐和氨基酸态氮含量,计算铵盐比率和合格率;检测原料焦糖色中氨氮含量和糖蜜中铵盐含量.结果 半成品酱油铵盐合格率(100%)和成品酱油铵盐合格率(91.3%)差异有统计学意义(x2=4.3,0.01<P<0.05);成品酱油中生抽酱油铵盐合格率(100%)和老抽酱油铵盐合格率(72.7%)差异有统计学意义(x2=17.7,P<0.01);焦糖色中氨氮含量在0.02%~0.04%之间,全部合格;糖蜜中铵盐含量在0.05~0.25g/100 ml之间.结论 开平市产部分酱油品种铵盐含量超标,是加入铵盐含量高的糖蜜导致.

  1. Senescence in fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    A long-standing theory, that there is a fundamental difference in aging between fishes and higher vertebrates, is still alive in the minds of many. In 1932, Bidder proposed that aging was causatively related to the cessation of growth at sexual maturity. Fish, which continue to grow throughout their lives, would not age, and therefore were potentially immortal. His ideas were clearly disproven by Comfort, who established that the survival curves of a laboratory population of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were very similar to those of a small mammal population under laboratory conditions. Recent data from field and laboratory studies, including histological evidence, amply confirm the occurrence of senescence in fishes. Natural death in fish has been associated with reproduction. There is good evidence for a number of species which shows that, with increasing size, the gonad forms a greater proportion of total body weight. In older, larger fish, extensive energy depletion for reproduction is suggested as an important factor in mortality. Reproductive modifications in older fish are also noted.

  2. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  3. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  4. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fishes from Taihu Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb contents were determined in Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis which were caught from Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, a large, shallow and eutrophic lake of China. The results showed that, (1) the Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd contents in the edible parts of four fish species were much lower than Chinese Food Health Criterion (1994), but the Zn contents were higher than the Criterion; (2) Cd contents were the highest in the liver of fish, Pb contents were almost the same in all organs of fish, the Cr contents mainly enriched in the skin and gonads, Zn contents were the highest in the gonad (♀), and Cu contents were the highest in the liver; (3) the total metal accumulation was the greatest in the liver and the lowest in the muscle. The total metal accumulation was the highest in C. auratus L. This investigation indicated that fish products in Taihu Lake were still safe for human consumption, but the amount consumed should be controlled under the Chinese Food Health Criterion to avoid excessive intake of Zn.

  5. 酱油发酵过程中的耐盐乳酸菌筛选及对低盐固态酱油品质的影响%Screening of salt tolerant lactic acid bacteria in soy sauce fermentation and its effect on the quality of soy sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国忠; 王梦颖; 姚云平; 韩俊燕; 陈卫

    2015-01-01

    本文通过对酱醪中耐盐乳酸菌的筛选,成功分离出一株耐18%盐度的乳酸菌,经过16S rDNA测序鉴定,确定为一株植物乳杆菌.在酱油酿造过程中添加该耐盐植物乳杆菌,无盐固形物、氨基酸态氮、还原糖和总酸含量等理化指标都有所上升.经过液相测定,发现酱油中乳酸含量比空白增加2倍左右.挥发性风味物质中酮类和酚类物质增加2倍左右,醇类物质稍有增加.本研究为进一步安全有效提高酱油风味物质奠定理论依据.%Salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria were screened from the fermented soy sance paste in this study.One kind of lactic acid bacteria grew normally in the solution of 18% salt.16S rDNA of this strain was sequenced and identified as a lactobacillus plantarum finally.The physical indicators of soy sauce which fermented by adding the salt-tolerant lactobacillus plantarum were better than the control,such as the non-salt soluble solids,amino acid nitrogen,reducing sugar and total acid.In addition,the content of lactic acid was increased about two times than the control by HPLC.The ketone and phenol volatile flavor compounds were increased about two times,and alcohols increased slightly.The research in this paper laid a theoretical basis in order to improve the flavors and safety of soy sauce.

  6. Effect of Chinese herbal compounds on nonspecific immunity of Cyprinus carpio var. specularis Juvenile fish%复方中草药对镜鲤(Cyprinus carpio var.specularis)幼鱼非特异性免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟兆娜; 陈玉春; 刘敏

    2011-01-01

    在基础日粮(对照组)中分别添加2%由不同比例的刺五加(Acanthopanax senticosus Harms)、枸杞子(L.Chinense Mill.)、金银花(Lonicera japonica Thunb)和黄芪(Astragalus membranaceus)配伍的复方中草药,记为复方Ⅰ、复方Ⅱ、复方Ⅲ、复方Ⅳ,共四个处理组,饲喂镜鲤幼鱼(Cyprinus carpio var.specularis),并分别于第14、28及42天检测其血清中补体C3的含量、血清及免疫器官溶菌酶、NBT阳性细胞及巨噬细胞吞噬能力的活性,以研究本复方中草药对其非特异性免疫功能的影响.结果表明,14 d时,复方Ⅰ组血清溶菌酶活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);28 d时,复方Ⅰ、Ⅲ组显著高于对照组(P<0.05).14 d时,复方Ⅰ-Ⅲ组脾脏溶菌酶活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);28 d时,复方Ⅱ组显著高于对照组(P<0.05).28、42 d时,各复方组NBT阳性细胞数显著高于对照组(P<0.05).14和28 d时,复方Ⅰ组补体C3含量极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);42 d时,各复方组极显著高于对照组(P<0.01).14 d时,复方Ⅰ、Ⅳ组的巨噬细胞吞噬活性极显著高于对照组(P<0.01);28 d时,各复方组显著高于对照组(P<0.05);42 d时,复方Ⅰ组极显著高于对照组(P<0.01).试验结果显示本试验中的四组复方中草药分别按质量分数为2%的量加到镜鲤幼鱼饲料中,可不同程度提高镜鲤幼鱼的非特异性免疫能力,其中复方Ⅰ组效果最佳.%2% Chinese herbals compounds of different proportion (Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, L. chinense Mill, Lonicera japonica Thunb and Astragalus membranaceus) were supplemented to the basical formulated diet (control group). Four treatment groups were set up to feed Cyprinus carpio var. specularis Juvenile fish. The content of C3 in serum and the activities of NBT positive cells and phagocytosis of phagocyte and lysozyme in serum and immun organs were measured respectively on the 14th, 28th and 42nd day, with the view of studying on the

  7. Multiresidual LC-MS analysis of plasticizers used in PVC gaskets of lids and assessment of their migration into food sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, F; Catellani, D; Vindigni, M; Suman, M

    2016-09-01

    Plasticizers may migrate from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gaskets into the foodstuffs mainly by direct contact during the packaging and sterilization procedure, but also by means of occasional contacts occurring during shipment and storage. The present work reports a reliable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method able to quantify the main plasticizers used in the PVC closure gaskets for metal lids to verify their compliance in both food contact materials and foodstuffs. The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the positive ion mode resulted the best performing interface for the multiresidual detection of the plasticizers taken into account, followed by selected/multiple reaction monitoring, selected ion monitoring or full scan experiments, depending on the compounds to detect. The method was single-laboratory validated, demonstrating to reach a good sensitivity, thus making possible to perform analysis without any preliminary sample purification or concentration step. It proved to be effectively applicable not only for the determination of plasticizers in PVC gaskets but also in complex food matrices. In particular, it was applied for monitoring plasticizer migration into sauces placed in contact with the lids in worst storage conditions, observing therefore their trend during the shelf-life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration).

  9. LINEAMIENTOS PARA LA FORMULACIÓN DE PAGOS POR SERVICIOS AMBIENTALES. ESTUDIO DE CASO: ALTA CUENCA DEL RÍO SAUCE GRANDE. ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Denegri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo son: presentar un diagnóstico integral de los principales problemas ambientales generados a partir de la pérdida de suelo por erosión hídrica superficial y exponer los principales lineamientos para la formulación del PSA de la Cuenca Alta del Río Sauce Grande. Metodológicamente se procedió a caracterizar el área en estudio, cuantificar la degradación por erosión hídrica superficial, describir las actividades productivas, conocer los principales consumidores de agua, definir los principales actores del sistema, e identificar los Servicios Ambientales, factibles de ser incluidos en un sistema de PSA. La cuenca presenta procesos erosivos de diferente magnitud y en algunas zonas dificultades en el abastecimiento de agua para la población. Existe un proceso de cambio en el uso de suelo de ganadero a agrícola y a turismo rural. Se concluye que en la cuenca existen condiciones para la implementación de un PSA porque se detectaron dos servicios ambientales factibles de ser pagados: agua y paisaje, con demanda creciente y existen actores e instituciones factibles de ejecutarlo.

  10. Growth performance, carcass traits, physiochemical characteristics and intramuscular fatty acid composition of finishing Japanese black steers fed soybean curd residue and soy sauce cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kaori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takemi; Kumagai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary soybean curd residue (SCR) and soy sauce cake (SSC) on the growth performance, carcass traits and physiochemical and intramuscular fatty acid (FA) characteristics in Japanese Black steers. Ten steers (29.7 ± 0.3 months old, 856.6 ± 24.4 kg body weight) were assigned to either treatment C, fed a conventional concentrate or T, fed the test diet including dried SCR and SSC for 3 months. In growth performance, dry matter (DM) intake and average daily gain, and carcass traits did not differ significantly between the treatments. Color of beef was affected by the dietary treatments and meat samples from T showed higher a(*) value and chroma than those in C. On FA composition, there was no significant difference between the treatments in neutral lipids, whereas in polar lipids, meat samples from T had higher C16:1 (P < 0.05) and tended to have higher C16:0 (P = 0.05) and C18:1 (P = 0.08), but lower C17:0 (P = 0.098), C18:2 (P = 0.06) and C20:4 (P = 0.07) than those from C. The study suggested that SCR and SSC could be used as a substitute for conventional concentrate and would influence meat color and intramuscular FA composition of polar lipids.

  11. 豆油替代鱼油对中华条颈龟血脂代谢及相关酶活的影响%Effects of Partial Replacement of Fish Oil by Soybean Oil on Serum Lipid Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities in Chinese Striped-necked Turtle Mauremys sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘正元; 盛成; 洪美玲; 史海涛

    2015-01-01

    为缓解国际鱼油资源短缺,本研究从血脂代谢角度去评价豆油替代鱼油在中华条颈龟中的适宜比例。选取体质量(1557±307) g的4龄雌性成体中华条颈龟,根据日粮中豆油与鱼油的添加比例不同随机分成四组,0S∶3F组(豆油∶鱼油0∶3),1S∶2F组(豆油∶鱼油1∶2),2S∶1F组(豆油∶鱼油2∶1)和3S∶0F组(豆油∶鱼油3∶0);外源油的添加量占日粮1%。每周投喂2次,连续投喂8个月。从每组中随机取6只中华条颈龟,冷冻麻醉处死,解剖。检测血液中甘油三酯、总胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量,肝脏组织中脂蛋白脂酶、肝脂酶和激素敏感性脂肪酶活性以及肠道胰脂肪酶活性,结果如下:(1)随着豆油替代比例的升高,只有1S∶2F组和3S∶0F组总胆固醇显著高于0S∶3F组,并且3S∶0F组低密度脂蛋白含量显著高于0S∶3F(P<0.05)。(2)总脂酶活力在2S∶1F组达到最高,显著高于0S∶3F组(P<0.05);2S∶1F组的激素敏感性脂肪酶活力与其余组相比,更接近于0S∶3F;胰脂肪酶的活力在2S∶1F与0S∶3F之间差异不显著,但均显著低于其余两组。综合上述两方面指标来看,豆油替代鱼油在中华条颈龟中总体可行,较适宜的比例组为2S∶1F。%In order to study the effects of partial replacement of fish oil by soybean oil on serum lipid metabolism and the activity of correlated lipases . Four‐year old female Chinese striped‐necked turtle Mauremys sinensis [body weight(1557 ± 307) g] were randomly divided into four groups according to and fed the diets containing various proportions of fish oil (F) and soybean oil (S) including 0S∶3F (S∶F , 0∶3) ,1S∶2F (S∶F ,1∶2) ,2S∶1F(S∶ F ,2∶1) and 3S∶0F (S∶ F ,3∶0) for eight months .Six turtles were randomly selected from each group and determined for the content of

  12. Freshwater and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, R. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland`s surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and {sup 90}Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG). 18 refs.

  13. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  14. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  15. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  16. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  17. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  18. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  19. Jurassic fishes of Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López-Arbarello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their current forms. However, the Jurassic fossil record of fishes is strongly biased towards the Northern Hemisphere. The only notable Early Jurassic fish fauna from Gondwana is that of the Kota Formation of India. For the Middle Jurassic, the most important Gondwanan fish faunas are those of the Aalenian-Bathonian Stanleyville Beds of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which a distinct freshwater and a marine fauna are found. In the Late Jurassic, the Gondwanan record is slightly better, with important marine faunas being known from the Oxfordian Quebrada del Profeta in Chile and the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina. Freshwater faunas have been described from the Tithonian Talbragar Beds of eastern Australia and the Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina. The taxonomic composition of the known marine actinopterygian faunas of Gondwana is in general agreement with faunas of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Jurassic fish record from Gondwana is highly incomplete both stratigraphically and geographically, and most faunas are in need of revision, further hampering an interpretation of Jurassic fish evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  1. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  2. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  3. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  4. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  5. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  6. Fermentation process and nutritional analysis of scallop skirt sauce%扇贝裙边酱发酵工艺及营养成分分析的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓茹; 王颉; 张亮

    2011-01-01

    为了降低扇贝酱产品成本,增加贝类产品的附加值,以扇贝裙边为主要原料,经米曲霉和豆粕制曲,扇贝裙边与豆曲的质量比为4∶1,加入中性蛋白酶2000U/g,添加12%食盐,在40℃恒温培养箱中发酵8d后以1%接种量接种耐盐四联球菌,在30℃恒温培养箱中发酵7d,25℃恒温培养箱中后熟30d,磨细后真空包装、灭菌制成扇贝裙边酱。对其营养成分、理化指标及游离氨基酸分析结果表明:蛋白质含量为20.04g/100g,脂肪含量为0.82g/100g,氨基酸态氮为1.76g/100g,19种游离氨基酸总量为9.82g/100g,游离的必需氨基酸总量为4.16g/100g。以上5个指标除脂肪含量外均显著高于由贝柱和豆粕、贝柱和面粉发酵生产的扇贝豆酱和扇贝面酱。该研究为降低扇贝酱产品成本提供了实验依据。%A fermentation process of scallop skirt sauce was studied to reduce scallop sauce product cost,and to increase added value of shellfish. Scallop skirt and soybean koji(Aspergillus oryzae culture on soybean meal)mixture(4∶ 1 by weight),containing 2000U/g neutral protease and 12% salt,was incubated for 8 days at 40℃,and inoculated with Tetragenococcus halophilus at 1% level. After fermentation at 30℃ for 7 days,and aging at 25℃ for 30 days,the mixture was ground into fine powder. The powder was vacuum packed,sterilized,and named as scallop skirt sauce. Nutritional and amino acid analysis showed that the scallop skirt sauce contains 20. 04g/100g of protein,0. 82g/100g of lipids,1. 76g/100g of amino acid nitrogen,9. 82g/100g of 19 free amino acids,and 4. 16g/100g of free essential amino acids. Except fat content,all other 4 specifications wrer significantly higher than those of scallop soy sauce or scallop flour sauce that were made from scallop with soy meal or flour,respectively. This study provided experimental data to reduce scallop product cost.

  7. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  8. Fish Hold Effluent and Fish Hold Cleaning Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats

  9. Significant Effects of Fishing Gear Selectivity on Fish Life History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenlin; SUN Peng; YAN Wei; HUANG Liuyi; TANG Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual’s traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectiv-ity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. Ac-cording to the existing tend of exploited fish individual’s life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  10. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  11. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  12. 生鲜调理鱼香肉丝在销售中的细菌变化%Changes of bacteria on fresh prepared fried shredded pork with sweet and sour sauce during the process of sales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗云; 朱应举; 张建威; 张秋会; 赵改名; 柳艳霞

    2011-01-01

    In order to protect the interests of consumers and enhance the health quality of prepared food, the bacteria changes of fresh prepared fried shredded pork with Sweet and sour sauce at different seasons and sale times were reported in the trial. The results showed that the microorganisms in prepared meat products during the processing of sales increased regularly, and in spring the micro-organisms were significantly higher than in winter, In spring, the total number of bacteria have reached to 7. 191 9 lg(CFU/g)after 9 h on the sales, and made a great impact on fresh prepared fried shredded pork with Sweet and sour sauce. In addition, Pseudomonas, Intestinal bacteria, Lactic acid bacteria increased with the extension of the sales' times,but The proportion of them had short odds. Therefore, they were the main microorganisms in fresh prepared fried shredded pork with Sweet and sour sauce.%对不同季节和不同销售时间生鲜调理鱼香肉丝中的细菌变化进行研完.结果表明,生鲜调理鱼香肉丝中微生物在销售过程中呈上升趋势,而且春季微生物含量明显高于冬季,春季销售9h时细菌总数已达到7.1919 1g(CFU/g),对生鲜调理鱼香肉丝的安全性影响较大;假单胞菌、肠道菌、乳酸菌在销售过程中随着销售时间的延长不断增加,但三者所占比例变化不大,是生鲜调理鱼香肉丝中的主要微生物.

  13. 耐盐乳酸菌添加对高盐稀态酱油风味的影响%The Impact of Adding Salt-tolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Flavor of High-salt Liquid Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚晨晨; 王猛; 沈艾彬

    2016-01-01

    In the fermentation process of high-salt liquid soy sauce,the addition of salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria has a great influence on the final flavor components of soy sauce.Through adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th and 45th day of fermentation,research the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds.The results show that adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 45th day,the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds is higher than that adding and without adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th day.The research has laid a foundation for its future application in the industrial production of brewed soy sauce with good flavor.%高盐稀态酱油发酵过程中,耐盐乳酸菌的添加时间对于酱油最终风味成分的影响很大。通过分别在发酵30,45天添加耐盐乳酸菌、未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,研究总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量。研究表明:发酵45天添加耐盐乳酸菌,总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量均高于30天添加和未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,为其以后应用于工业生产酿造出风味良好的酱油打下基础。

  14. 阳江豆豉菌种的筛选及前发酵工艺条件优化%Screening of Optimal Fermentation Starter and Optimization of Primary Fermentation for Yangjiang Lobster Sauce Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶慧兰; 曲直; 孙乔润; 问小龙; 蒋爱民

    2012-01-01

    Two dominant strains for the primary fermentation of Yangjiang lobster sauce were isolated from its koji which were identified as Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae respectively based on their 18S rRNA sequences and morphological features. One vigorous strain with high protease activity was picked from colonies of each of the identified strains and cultured in wheat bran medium. The effects of koji-making temperature and time as well as fermentation starters (the picked strains used jointly or separately) on strain growth, the contents of amino nitrogen, reducing sugar and total acids and sensory quality of lobster sauce were investigated. The results showed that the lobster sauce produced by 56 h fermentation at 36 ℃ with both picked strains exhibited the best quality.%从广东阳江豆豉的曲醅中筛选出两株前发酵优势菌,经18S rRNA基因序列分析和菌株形态观察鉴定确定为米曲霉与米根霉,再选出长势旺盛,高产蛋白酶的菌株,以麸皮培养基扩大培养,单菌或双菌混合进行制曲。通过研究曲料中的氨基态氮含量与菌种生长情况,及成品的氨基态氮、还原糖、总酸含量与风味评定,确定豆豉前发酵最优菌种组合,发酵温度与发酵时间。结果表明,以米曲霉与米根霉混合制曲,于36℃条件下发酵56h,生产出的豆豉品质最好。

  15. Study of radiation in fresh tomatoes (lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and in the levels of sauce lycopene; Estudo da radiacao ionizante em tomates in natura (lycopersicum esculentum Mill) e no teor de licopeno do molho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Adriana Diaz Toni

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and at the same time to evaluate the influence of irradiation on the content of lycopene in a sauce made with these fruits irradiated. For this reason tomatoes were subjected to five treatments: control, T1 (0.25 kGy), T2 (0.5 kGy), T3 (1.0 kGy) and T4 (2.0 kGy) and evaluated at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 days after irradiation, for the following analysis: maturity, texture, color, soluble solids, pH, acidity and total mass. Measurements were made of lycopene in fresh tomatoes and sauce by open column chromatography according to the ripening of them. The results showed that only the mass was not significantly different (p> 0.05). Treatments 1 and 2 proved to be effective in delaying the maturation and in the maintenance of firm texture (p <0.05). While T4 caused chemical reactions in the structure of tomato, compelling it to mature earlier because of pectin degradation. The completion of a sauce made from tomatoes irradiated to 0.25 kGy, didn't show a significant difference (p> 0.05) when compared to control. However, it didn't indicate lycopene degradation, as the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 kGy. Thus we can conclude that low doses are effective for maintaining pH, firmness, delayed senescence, mass and, in addition to not degrading the major bioactive compound of tomato, lycopene, suggest a higher bioavailability of this one, depending on the radiation application. (author)

  16. Analysis of the Volatile Fragrance Component from Fuling Zhacai Sauce with the GC-MS%涪陵榨菜酱油香气成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林奇; 江波; 王庆; 周尚

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The characteristic data for the evaluation and identification of the inherent quality of Fuling Zhacai sauce could be provided through the preliminary analysis of the volatile fragrance component from it. [ Method] The volatile component in Fuling Zhacai0 sauce sample was isolated with solvent extraction action and identified with GC-MS. [ Result] More than 30 kinds of volatile fragrance components was identified, among which, main component was carboxide, ethanol, acid, ester, ketone, phenol, heterocyclic compound and sulfo-compounds and those component could contribute the formation of fragrance. [ Conclusion ] Main component of volatile fragrance was assured,which result could be used for the control of the internal quality of Fuling Zhecai sauce.%[目的]初步分析涪陵榨菜酱油中挥发性香气成分,为其内在质量评价和鉴定提供特征数据.[方法]采用乙醚萃取法提取榨菜酱油中的香气成分,并用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析鉴定.[结果]鉴定出30多种化合物,其中主要成分是醇类、羧酸类、酯类、酮类、酚类以及杂环化合物(如呋喃类、吡嗪类、吡咯类)和一些含硫化合物等,它们对涪陵榨菜酱油的风味贡献较大.[结论]GC-MS分析方法明确了涪陵榨菜酱油中的挥发性香气成分,可以辅助甩于其内在质量控制.

  17. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  18. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  19. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...

  20. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pat

  1. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  2. Fish in Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients:500 grams mutton and 750 grams live fish Condiments:Salt for taste, ginger, scallion, soup, water chestnut powder, gourmet powder Method: 1.Quick-boil the clean mutton. then put scallion, ginger, salt, gourmet powder and pepper powder into it and cook until

  3. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  4. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  5. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  6. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  7. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  8. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  9. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  10. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  11. 应用铁强化酱油改善寄宿制学生缺铁性贫血的研究%Study on the effectiveness of iron fortification soy sauce in controlling iron deficiency anemia in boarding students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解铁强化酱油对试食者铁缺乏及贫血的改善效果,为青少年铁缺乏及贫血的预防和控制提供科学依据. 方法:选择成县纸坊中学98名寄宿学生, 进行为期一年的人体试食铁强化酱油试验, 并利用氰化高铁法测定试食者试食前后血红蛋白含量.结果:试食铁强化酱油1年后,试食者血红蛋白升高11.69g/L.其中女生组血红蛋白含量平均升高8.55g/L;男生组血红蛋白含量平均升高16.44g/L;男生组血红蛋白升高值比女生组大,且男生组年龄愈大增高愈显著. 结论:铁强化酱油可以提高试食者血红蛋白含量,可以有效预防青少年缺铁性贫血.%Objective: In order to understand the effects of improvement on iron deficiency anemia by iron fortification soy sauce in boarding students,which provide a scientific basis in controlling iron deficiency anemia. Methods:Zhi Fang middle school students of cheng county were selected as testees to use iron fortification soy sauce in the period of one year,and hemoglobin content be tested by the cyanmethemoglobin determination method. Results: Try to eat iron fortification soy sauce 1 years later,the hemoglobin content in the blood of the testees were rised by 11.69g/L. Which girls' group were 8.55g/L, boys' group were 16.44g/L, and the boys group value was higher than the girls', and the bigger theirs age, the more significantly it increased. Couclusion: Iron fortification soy sauce could increase the hemoglobin content in the blood, which could be effectively prevent iron deficiency anemia by teenagers.

  12. Determination of the Content of Sodium in Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%酱油中甜蜜素应用气相色谱法的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清清

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the content of sodium in soy sauce was measured by gas chromatography, the results showed that the average recovery rate of sweet element was higher, and the accuracy of gas chromatography was also high.%本文利用气相色谱法对酱油中的甜蜜素含量进行了测量,结果表明:利用气相色谱分析,甜蜜素的平均回收率比较高,而且气相色谱法的精准度也很高。

  13. Isolation of flavor producing yeast and analysis on aroma characteristics in the natural soy sauce mash%天然酱醪中生香酵母的分离鉴定及香气特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽云

    2012-01-01

    An excellent yeast HT. Y309 screened from the natural sauce mash with good flavor, had obvious advantages in aroma, growth rate, salt tolerance, ethanol production capacity, been identified Zygosaccharomyes rouxii by colony and cell morphology analysis, sugar fermentation and other physiological and biochemical characteristics and 18SRNA sequence analysis. To research the aroma characteristics and the contribution to soy sauce flavor of the yeast HT. Y309, Simultaneous Distillation Extraction (SDE) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to compare the volatile flavor compounds in soy sauce with and without HT. Y309 fermentation. Results showed that the soy sauce with the yeast HT. Y309 fermentation had the main volatile flavor characteristic components of propanol, butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol,-and β-phenylethanol, furfural , benzeneacetaldehyde and other aldehydes, and 4-hydroxy-ethyl-5-methyl-3-furanone (HEMF).%从风味良好的天然酱醪中分离、筛选获得一株优良的生香酵母HT.Y309,在香气、生长速度、耐盐性、产乙醇能力方面具有明显优势.通过菌落和细胞形态分析、生理生化特征分析和18S rRNA序列分析,该菌株被鉴定为鲁氏酵母.采用同步蒸馏萃取法与气相色谱-质谱联用相结合的方法,对比添加和未添加HT.Y309发酵的酱油挥发性风味成分,研究HT.Y309香气特征及对酱油风味的贡献.结果表明,添加鲁氏酵母HT.Y309发酵所得的酱油的主要挥发性风味特征成分是正丙醇、正丁醇、异丁醇、异戊醇和p苯乙醇等多元醇,糠醛、苯乙醛等醛类物质以及4-羟基-2-乙基-5-甲基-3-呋喃酮.

  14. Determination of Potassium Sorbate in Soy Sauce Based on UV Spectrophotometry and Space Angle Criterion%基于子空间夹角判据-UV法直接稀释测定酱油中的山梨酸钾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粟晖; 陈成; 姚志湘; 刘柳; 方凤

    2014-01-01

    基于向量-子空间夹角判据结合紫外分光光度法,提出了一种直接稀释测定酱油中山梨酸钾含量的新方法。该方法通过分别构建酱油本底、山梨酸钾标准品和待测酱油样品的紫外光谱库,运用向量-子空间夹角判据测定酱油中的山梨酸钾含量。结果表明:该方法计算结果与高效液相色谱法相比相对误差小于4.34%,方法被用于实际样品测定,回收率为95.00%~104.00%,相对标准偏差小于3.00%,该分析结果表明该法稳定、准确、简便快速、实用灵活,可用于食品防腐剂现场批量定量测定。%A new direct determination of potassium sorbate in soy sauce is established based on the vec-tor-subspace angle criterion and the UV spectrophotometer.In the study,three multi-wavelength UV spectral libraries,including background of soy sauce,potassium sorbate standard samples and soy sauce samples are respectively constructed to compute the content of potassium sorbate in soy sauce by using vector-subspace angle criterion.The result shows that compared with the result of high per-formance liquid chromatography,the relative error of the result of vector-space angle criterion is less than 4.34%,the recoveries of potassium sorbate are 95.00%~104.00%,the relative standard devia-tion (n= 4)is less than 3.00%.The analysis result shows that the method is stable,accurate,sim-ple,rapid,practical and flexible;it can be used for on-site batch and quantitative determination of food preservatives.

  15. Study on the Determination of the Content of Sodium in Soy Sauce by Gas Chromatography%酱油中甜蜜素应用气相色谱法含量测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少伟

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the soy sauce before treatment is optimized, and explore the solid style of pretreatment method and the inlfuence of the meteorological chromatographic analysis, aims to improve the accuracy of cyclamate reagent for detection.%本文对酱油的前处理方式进行了优化,并探究了固体式样的前处理方式及对气象色谱分析的影响,旨在提高甜蜜素试剂检测的准确性。

  16. Effects of vinegar, soy sauce, and ethanol on the viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae%食醋、酱油和乙醇对旋毛虫肌幼虫活力影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂花; 覃金红; 罗超; 李俊飞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察食醋、酱油及乙醇两两混合溶液1∶1(v/v)对旋毛虫肌幼虫活力的影响.方法 将200条旋毛虫肌幼虫分别置于食醋(总酸浓度4.5%)和酱油(含19.3%NaCl)、酱油和乙醇(体积分数为40%)、醋和乙醇混合溶液及生理盐水中处理不同时间,观察其活力.结果 肌幼虫经醋和乙醇的混合溶液处理30、60、90、120、150和180 min的死亡率分别为7.4%、12.5%、18.6%、40.3%、72.6%和100%;乙醇和酱油处理组及醋和酱油处理组肌幼虫全部死亡所需的时间分别为24 h和72 h.结论 乙醇和醋混合液对旋毛虫肌幼虫的杀伤作用较强,乙醇和酱油混合液杀伤作用次之,醋和酱油混合液的杀伤作用较弱.%Objective To observe the effects of mixtures of vinegar (4.5% acid) and soy sauce (19. 3% NaC1), soy sauce and ethanol, and vinegar and ethanol on the viability of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae. Methods Two hundred muscle larvae of T. spiralis were treated with the each mixture, and the viability of T. spiralis was observed at different times. Results The mortality rate of T. spiralis muscle larvae treated with the vinegar-ethanol mixture for 30,60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min was 7.4%, 12.5%, 18.6%, 40.3%, 72.6%, and 100%, respectively. The mortality rate of muscle larvae treated with the soy sauce-ethanol mixture for 24 hr was 100%; the mortality rate of muscle larvae treated with the vinegar-soy sauce mixture for 72 hr was also 100%. Conclusion Compared to mixtures of soy sauceethanol and vinegar-ethanol, a mixture of vinegar-ethanol was the most potent at killing T. spiralis muscle larvae.

  17. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  18. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  19. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  20. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...

  1. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  2. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  3. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  4. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  5. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  6. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  7. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  8. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  9. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  10. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  11. Fish freshness rapid detection based on fish-eye image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zang, Yue; Wo, Qiqi; Zou, Chen; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Dadong

    Study a new method for detecting fish freshness. During the experiment, we choose freshest fish-eyes images via digital camera to add computing the synthesis of the latest fish-eye image .Next figure out every image's signal strength. Finally, we analysis relation between the change of the image's energy and the value (pH, electrical conductivity, TVBN) by Modeling of Partial Least Squares Regression. The result shows that we can detect freshness of fish quickly, conveniently, simply and accurately through the fish-eye image energy change.

  12. Chromohalobacter is a Causing Agent for the Production of Organic Acids and Putrescine during Fermentation of Ganjang, a Korean Traditional Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-12-01

    Ganjang, a Korean traditional fermented soy sauce, is prepared by soaking doenjang-meju (fermented soybeans) in approximately 20% (w/v) solar salt solution. The metabolites and bacterial communities during ganjang fermentation were simultaneously investigated to gain a better understanding of the roles of the microbial population. The bacterial community analysis based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that initially, the genus Cobetia was predominant (0 to 10 d), followed by Bacillus (5 to 74 d), and eventually, Chromohalobacter became predominant until the end of the fermentation process (74 to 374 d). Metabolite analysis using (1)H-NMR showed that carbon compounds, such as fructose, galactose, glucose, and glycerol, probably released from doenjang-meju, increased rapidly during the early fermentation period (0 to 42 d). After removal of doenjang-meju from the ganjang solution (42 d), the initial carbon compounds remained nearly constant without the increase of fermentation products. At this point, Bacillus species, which probably originated from doenjang-meju, were predominant, suggesting that Bacillus is not mainly responsible for ganjang fermentation. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, α-aminobutyrate, γ-aminobutyrate, and putrescine increased quickly with the rapid decrease of the initial carbon compounds, while Chromohalobacter, probably derived from the solar salts, was predominant. Multivariate redundancy analysis indicated that the Chromohalobacter population was closely correlated with the production of the organic acids and putrescine during the ganjang fermentation. These results may suggest that Chromohalobacter is a causing agent responsible for the production of organic acids and putrescine during ganjang fermentation and that the solar salts, not doenjang-meju, is an important microbial source for ganjang fermentation.

  13. 腌菜型复合骨汤肉酱调料的开发%Development of Complex Seasoning of Meat Sauce with Bone Soup and Pickles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰; 王文亭; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 王卫; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    The livestock bone is used as main material,and chicken bone,crucian,etc.are added with a small quantity to reduce fishy smell.Bone oil is separated by centrifuge after all the materials are boiled,and the clear soup remainder is made into a complex bone puree by vacuum concentration.Stir livestock and poultry meat pieces into minced meat with deodorization or without deodorization,then being fried with pickles to be as meat solids.Finally,pack bone oil,bone puree and solids into bags according to a certain ratio,and complex meat sauce products are obtained after atmospheric steriliza-tion,the shelf life can be more than 6 months,the product may be used as convenient seasoning of rice flour noodles,vermicelli,noodles,soup and cooked food.%以畜骨为主要原料,并辅以鸡骨、鲫鱼等来减轻腥味,组合熬制后经过离心分离得到复合骨油,!汤真空浓缩制备复合骨浓汤。再用畜禽分割碎肉,经过脱膻或不脱膻后搅成肉糜,与腌菜一并经过炒制后作为肉酱固形物,最后将骨油、骨浓汤、固形物按一定比例装袋,常压杀菌后得到复合肉酱成品,保质期达6个月以上,可作为米线、粉丝、面条、汤汁、菜肴的方便调料。

  14. Avocado Consumption Enhances Human Postprandial Provitamin A Absorption and Conversion from a Novel High–β-Carotene Tomato Sauce and from Carrots12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E.; Cooperstone, Jessica L.; Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Young, Gregory S.; Harrison, Earl H.; Francis, David M.; Clinton, Steven K.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high–β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210. PMID:24899156

  15. Avocado consumption enhances human postprandial provitamin A absorption and conversion from a novel high-β-carotene tomato sauce and from carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Rachel E; Cooperstone, Jessica L; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Young, Gregory S; Harrison, Earl H; Francis, David M; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2014-08-01

    Dietary lipids have been shown to increase bioavailability of provitamin A carotenoids from a single meal, but the effects of dietary lipids on conversion to vitamin A during absorption are essentially unknown. Based on previous animal studies, we hypothesized that the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids with dietary lipid would enhance conversion to vitamin A during absorption compared with the consumption of provitamin A carotenoids alone. Two separate sets of 12 healthy men and women were recruited for 2 randomized, 2-way crossover studies. One meal was served with fresh avocado (Persea americana Mill), cultivated variety Hass (delivering 23 g of lipid), and a second meal was served without avocado. In study 1, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was a tomato sauce made from a novel, high-β-carotene variety of tomatoes (delivering 33.7 mg of β-carotene). In study 2, the source of provitamin A carotenoids was raw carrots (delivering 27.3 mg of β-carotene and 18.7 mg of α-carotene). Postprandial blood samples were taken over 12 h, and provitamin A carotenoids and vitamin A were quantified in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions to determine baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve. Consumption of lipid-rich avocado enhanced the absorption of β-carotene from study 1 by 2.4-fold (P avocado enhanced the efficiency of conversion to vitamin A (as measured by retinyl esters) by 4.6-fold in study 1 (P avocado for maximum absorption and conversion to vitamin A, especially in populations in which vitamin A deficiency is prevalent. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01432210.

  16. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  17. The first record of the Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, Chinese pond mussel (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae is one of the most invasive aquatic macroinvertebrate species found in Europe. We report the Chinese pond mussel for the first time in Montenegro, in August 2012, in Lake Šasko (Adriatic part of the Central Mediterranean subarea. One specimen of the Chinese pond mussel was observed in a habitat with a predominantly silt-clay substrate. The main pathway of species introduction was evaluated to be via fish stocking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002 i br. ON 173025

  18. Development of Intermediate Foodstuff Derived from Freshwater Fish in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xichang; Yutaka Fukuda; CHEN Shunsheng; Masahito Yokoyama; CHENG Yudong; YUAN Chunhong; QU Yinghong; Morihiko Sakaguchi

    2005-01-01

    According to the three-dimensional contour maps showing the gel-forming properties of surimi derived from freshwater fish, 8 species of surimi were classified into two types. The V-valley type surimi (silver carp, big-head carp, Chinese snake head and blunt snout bream) shows easy setting, low resistance to gel collapse, high enhancement ability with two-step heating, and narrow optimum heating temperature and time area, which are of the same characteristics as the walleye pollack surimi. In contrast, the Plateau type surimi (tilapia, grass carp, mud carp and common carp) exhibits difficult setting, high resistance to gel collapse, no enhancement ability with two-step heating, and wide optimum heating temperature and time area. There are seasonal changes of gelling properties of silver carp surimi, and the setting ability of surimi gel is higher in winter and lower in summer. The marine fish meat gels and the freshwater fish meat gels have the same acceptability for inland Chinese according to the sensory evaluation results. A slight increase in sensory scorings of kamaboko gels occurred when the extract from walleye pollack muscle was added, especially in the odor scoring of silver carp kamaboko gels.

  19. Ocho diferentes especies de parásitos gastrointestinales fueron identificadas en cerdos de traspatio en El Municipio de El Sauce - León. Nicaragua (Eight different species gastrointestinal parasites were identified in free roaming pigs in EL Sauce - Leon. Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz A. Luna

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó con cerdos criados en traspatio en el municipio de El Sauce, Departamento de León, Nicaragua En el primer estudio se determinó la prevalencia de Parásitos Gastrointestinales (PGI en 60 cerdos de patio sacrificados en matadero. Se identificaron 6 tipos de especies de parásitos gastrointestinales: Macrachantorinchus hirudinaceu, Oesophagustomun spp, Áscaris suum, Trichuris suis e Hyostrongylus rubidus, siendo este ultimo el de mayor prevalencia. Se determinó la prevalencia de PGI en heces de cerdos en dos grupos de edades. Se identificaron los helmintos Ascaris suum, Hyostrongylus, rubidus, Strongiloides ransomi, Oesophagostomun spp, y Trichuris suis. Los protozoos encontrados fueron Isospora suis y Eimeria sp. Con una mayor frecuencia se encontró Ascaris suum (42.86% e Hyostrongylus (39.80%, en el grupo mayor de seis meses, en el grupos menor de seis meses los más frecuentes eran Áscaris suum (48.98% y Trichuris (45.92%. La intensidad de infestación de H. rubidus fue significativamente más alto en grupo de cerdos mayores de seis y T. suis e Isospora suis tuvieron diferencia significativa en el grupo menor de seis meses. En resumen identificamos ocho especies de parásitos gastrointestinales en los cerdos de traspatio, que son de importancia económica. This work was done with free roaming pigs in El Sauce, Department of Leon, Nicaragua. In the first studies the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites were found in 60 pigs in the slaughterhouse where there was 6 types of gastrointestinal parasites identified: Macrachantorinchus hirudinaceus, Oesophagostomun spp, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Hyostrongylus rubidus, the last one with the biggest prevalence. Later the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in feces was found in two groups with different age, where the helminths Ascaris suum, Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Oesophagostomun spp, and Trichuris suis were identified. The protozoo that

  20. Determination of melamine in sauce and bean-sauce with solid phase extraction and ion pair chromatography%固相萃取-离子对色谱法测定酱油与黄豆酱中的三聚氰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支晓芳; 李晓敏; 戴新华; 弓爱君; 方向

    2011-01-01

    建立了固相萃取-离子对色谱法测定酱油与黄豆酱中的三聚氰胺.样品经甲醇提取,Waters MCX固相萃取柱净化.分析时用Inertsill ODS-SP C18色谱柱(5μm,4.6 x250mm)分离.水(缓冲液:0.01moL/L柠檬酸+0.01moL/L辛烷磺酸钠,pH=3.0):乙腈=92:8(V/V)溶液为流动相,流速1.0mL/min,在紫外波长240nm下检测.三聚氰胺在0.02~2.00mg/L的范围内,有良好的线性关系(r2=0.9999),方法栓出限为1.0mg/kg,加标回收率在83.5%~109.3%范围内,相对标准偏差小于5.0%.%A method was developed for the determination of melamine in sauce and bean-sauce with solid phase extraction and ion pair chromatography.Samples were extracted with methanol and purified by Waters MCX solid phase extraction column.Chromatographic analysis was performed on a Inertsill ODS-SP C18 column (5μm,4.6 ×250mm) with 0.01 mol/L + 0.01 mol/L citric acid buffer( pH = 3 ) -acetonitrile ( 92∶8 ) as mobile phase and detected at 240nm.The presented method showed good linear relationship ( r2 = 0.9999 ) for melamine in the range of 0.02~2.00mg/LThe detection limit was 1.0mg/kg,and the recoveries ranged from 83.5% to 109.3% with relative standard deviation less than 5.0%.The method is fast,accurate,simple for melamine analysis.

  1. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  2. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  3. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  4. Speciation in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  5. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  6. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  7. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  8. Of Fish and Micrornas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebrates and serves as an essential link to early vertebrate evolution. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are 18-22 nucleotide-long endogenous RNAs that bind to specific mRNAs, usually at the 3’-untranslate...

  9. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  10. A New model to forecast fishing ground ofScomber japonicus in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; CHEN Xinjun; GUAN Wenjiang; LI Gang

    2016-01-01

    The pelagic species is closely related to the marine environmental factors, and establishment of forecasting model of fishing ground with high accuracy is an important content for pelagic fishery. The chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea is an important fishing target for Chinese lighting purse seine fishery. Based on the fishery data from China’s mainland large-type lighting purse seine fishery for chub mackerel during the period of 2003 to 2010 and the environmental data including sea surface temperature (SST), gradient of the sea surface temperature (GSST), sea surface height (SSH) and geostrophic velocity (GV), we attempt to establish one new forecasting model of fishing ground based on boosted regression trees. In this study, the fishing areas with fishing effort is considered as one fishing ground, and the areas with no fishing ground are randomly selected from a background field, in which the fishing areas have no records in the logbooks. The performance of the forecasting model of fishing ground is evaluated with the testing data from the actual fishing data in 2011. The results show that the forecasting model of fishing ground has a high prediction performance, and the area under receiver operating curve (AUC) attains 0.897. The predicted fishing grounds are coincided with the actual fishing locations in 2011, and the movement route is also the same as the shift of fishing vessels, which indicates that this forecasting model based on the boosted regression trees can be used to effectively forecast the fishing ground of chub mackerel in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea.

  11. Production processing of Yongfeng hot pepper sauce by multi-strain fermentation%混合菌种发酵生产永丰辣酱的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏东林; 张忠刚; 周向荣; 谭欢; 陈亮

    2009-01-01

    用单因素和正交试验对影响永丰辣酱人工接种发酵工艺的发酵温度、发酵时间、酵母接种量和食盐用量等因子进行筛选.结果表明,添加11%的食盐、0.8%的鲁氏酵母种子液,在定期揿酱的前提下,28℃ ~40 ℃间歇式控温发酵30 d;所得人工接种发酵产品总酯含量高,且感官评价较好.%The fermentation technology of Yongfeng hot pepper sauce with artificial inoculation was optimized by single-factor test (temperature, time, yeast inoculum and concentration of edible salt) and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions were as follows: edible salt 11%, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii inoculum 0.8%, fermentation temperature 28℃~40℃ by intermittent type temperature control, fermentation time 30 d. Under above fermentation conditions, the sauce produced by artificial inoculation and multiple strain fermentation contained high content of total ester and performed good in sensory evaluation.

  12. 营养豆豉牛肉香菇辣椒酱制作®艺%The Production Process of Nutritious ChiIi Sauce with Fermented BIack Bean,Beef and Lentinus edodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂相珍; 申丽媛; 皇甫秋霞

    2016-01-01

    Nutritious chili sauce with fermented black bean,beef and Lentinus edodes is produced by taking dried fermented black bean, beef,Lentinus edodes and dried peppers as the main raw materials.The orthogonal design is used to research the optimal making formula.The result shows that the optimal making formula is:dried fermented black bean of 18%,beef of 17%,dried Lentinus edodes of 7%,dried peppers of 25%.The ingredients of finished product are abundant,and the color is red and brown.It's a kind of chili sauce with higher nutritional value.%营养豆豉牛肉香菇辣椒酱以豆豉、牛肉、香菇、辣椒为主要原料制作而成。通过正交实验确定其制作的最佳配方,即干豆豉的添加量为18%,牛肉的添加量为17%,干香菇的添加量为7%,干辣椒的添加量为25%。此成品主料丰富,颜色红、褐相间,是一种营养价值较高的辣椒酱。

  13. Determination of Glutamic acid in Sauce by Low Pressure Ion Chromatography%低压离子色谱法测定酱油中的谷氨酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永康; 张新申

    2001-01-01

    介绍了利用低压离子色谱法对酱油中的谷氨酸及盐的测定方法。样品经适当稀释后,以1.0mmol/L HNO3溶液作流动相,流速1.0ml/min。经电导检测器检测,进样量20μl谷氨酸检出限为0.73μg/ml,方法精密度为0.85%,对不同品牌酱油进行了测定,取得较好结果。%A method for determination of glutamic acid in sauce by LPIC is reported.Glutamic acid was separated on a seperation column before determination.The mobile phase used was 1.0mmol/L HNO3 at the flow rate of 1.0ml/min.Glutamic acid in fraction that eluted from the column were determinated by condutivity detector.Detection limit was 0.73μg/ml and precision was 0.85%.Determination on a variety of sauce was completed and fine results was obtained.

  14. 川味香辣腊肉辣椒酱制作工艺%The Production Process of Sichuan-styIe Spicy Bacon ChiIi Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂相珍; 申丽媛

    2016-01-01

    文章以四川腊肉、黄豆酱、菜籽油、干辣椒为主要原料制作川味香辣腊肉辣椒酱。通过正交试验确定其制作的最佳配方,即腊肉17%,黄豆酱7%,菜籽油54%,干辣椒10%。其成品颜色红、褐相间,口感香辣可口,是一种具有川味特色的辣椒酱。%In this paper,take Sichuan bacon,soybean paste,rapesee d oil,dried peppers as the main raw materials to produce a kind of Sichuan-style spicy bacon chili sauce.The optimal making formula is determined by orthogonal experiment design.The result shows that the optimal making formula is bacon of 17%,soybean paste of 7%,rapeseed oil of 54%,dried peppers of 10%.The color of the finished product is red and brown with spicy and toothsome taste.It is a kind of chili sauce with Sichuan specialty.

  15. 改进低盐固态发酵酱油生产技术提高产品品质%Improvement on the low-salt solid-state fermented soy sauce production technology to enhance product quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宝忠

    2011-01-01

    The improvement on the technology and equipment of the low-salt solid-state soy sauce production could significanfiy improve flavor.Reducing the usage of wheat bran dosage, increasing the usage of starch material and the salt and Changing the high-temperature fermentation into normal temperature, were helpful for the function of the beneficial microorganism and enzyme, which could improve the flavor soy sauce flavor effect significantly.%在低盐固态发酵酱油生产工艺及设备的基础上,适当改进,可以明显的提高酱油的风味.减少配料中麸皮用量,增加小麦等淀粉质原料的用量,适当提高发酵体系中的食盐含量,改高温发酵为常温发酵,有利于有益微生物和酶系的作用,对提高酱油风味有显著的效果.

  16. 基于GRNN和粒子群算法的酱油种曲培养条件优化%Optimization of koji cultivation conditions in soy sauce production base on GRNN and PSO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如意; 王学雷

    2012-01-01

    The spores number is an important index of soy sauce's koji quality. In order to improve the quality of soy sauce koji, Based on process data, A General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) with cross validation for optimizing model parameter was proposed to predict the final spores number, then particle swarm optimization (PSO) combined with GRNN was applied to optimize cultivation conditions. Simulation shows the algorithm runs fast and the optimization result is practical to guide koji production.%孢子数是酱油种曲质量的一个重要指标.为提高种曲质量,基于培养过程数据,给出一种广义回归神经网络和粒子群算法相结合的优化种曲培养条件方法.首先建立预测种曲孢子数的广义回归神经网络模型,并利用交叉验证确定GRNN模型的最优参数,而后使用粒子群算法寻优种曲培养条件.仿真实验显示优化结果可应用于实践指导生产,且算法易于实施、运行速度快.

  17. Comparative Study on Soybean Dregs Sauce Powder Prepared by Spray Drying and Vacuum Drying%两种干燥工艺--喷雾干燥和真空干燥所获得豆渣酱粉的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贵兴; 陈霞; 刘丽君; 刘昊飞; 李进荣; 赵春杰; 谭懿

    2014-01-01

    以豆渣酱为原料,采用喷雾干燥和真空干燥制备豆渣酱粉,确定最佳的工艺条件。相对于真空干燥豆渣酱粉,喷雾干燥豆渣酱粉的感官指标、理化指标更好,所以选择喷雾干燥制粉,优化后的喷雾干燥条件为:进口温度180℃,出口温度80℃。制得的豆渣酱粉口味良好、保存期长,具有一定的市场应用前景。%Soybean dregs sauce powder was prepared by vacuum drying and spray drying using soybean dregs sauce as raw material, and the optimal conditions were determined. Spray drying had better sensory, physical and chemical index than that of vacuum drying. The optimal conditions to produce soybean dregs sauce powder by spray drying process were as follows: inlet temperature of 180℃, outlet temperature of 80℃. The prepared soybean dregs sauce powder has nice flavor, long shelf life and great market potential.

  18. Simultaneous Determination of 8 kinds of Biogenic Amines in Soy Sauce by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定酱油中的8种生物胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阳; 赵谋明; 赵海锋

    2012-01-01

    本文建立了高效液相色谱法同时检测酱油中色胺、苯乙胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺、亚精胺和精胺的方法.采用5%三氯乙酸溶液为样品提取溶剂,提取液经丹璜酰氯柱前衍生30 min,最终HPLC进行定性和定量分析.本方法中8种生物胺的线性范围为1.0~50μg/mL,相关系数R2大于0.99,检出限(S/N=3)为0.075~0.3 μg/mL.在添加水平为1.00和5.00 μg/mL时,样品的平均回收率在83%-111%之间,相对标准偏差为0.43%~19.0%.本方法具有线性范围广,灵敏度和准确度高等优点,适用于酱油中生物胺的检测.采用本方法对市售10种酱油进行检测,总生物胺含量的范围为50.82~1898.17 μg/mL,其中酪胺、腐胺和苯乙胺是酱油样品中含量最多的生物胺.%An analytical method for simultaneous determination of trypatamine, phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine in soy sauce by HPLC was developed Biogenic amines in soy sauce were extracted with a mixture of 5% TCA, and then derived with dansyl chloride for 30 min, HPLC was used to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, linear range was 1.0~50 μg/mL for biogenic amines and the correlation coefficient (R2) was greater than 0.99. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.075-0.3 μg/mL. At the spiked levels of 1.00 and 5.00 μg/mL, the average recoveries were 83%~111% with the relative standard deviations of 0.43 %~ 19%. The results showed that the proposed method has a good linearity and sensitivity which is suitable to detect biogenic amines in soy sauce. The established method has been successfully applied to determine biogenic amines in 10 commercial soy sauce samples, and the values of total biogenic amines were in the range of 50.82~1898.17 μg/mL. Tyramine, putrescin and phenylethylamine were found to be predominant amines in soy sauce samples.

  19. Fish utilization of a salt marsh intertidal creek in the Yangtze River estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Binsong; Fu, Cuizhang; Zhong, Junsheng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Wu, Jihua

    2007-07-01

    The structure and temporal variations of the fish community in salt marshes of Chinese estuaries are poorly understood. Fish utilization of a salt marsh intertidal creek in the Yangtze River estuary was studied based on quarterly sampling surveys in July and November, 2004, and February and May, 2005. Fishes were collected by consecutive day and night samplings using fyke nets during the ebbing spring tides. A total of 25,010 individuals were caught during the study. 17 families and 33 species were documented, and the most species-rich family was Gobiidae. Three species, Synechogobius ommaturus, Chelon haematocheilus and Lateolabrax maculatus together comprised 95.65% of the total catch, which were also the most important commercial fishery species in the Yangtze River estuary. The fish community was dominated by juvenile individuals of estuarine resident species. Time of year significantly affected fish use of salt marshes, but no significant effects of diel periodicity on the fish community were found except for fish sampling in July. These findings indicate that salt marshes in the Yangtze River estuary may play important nursery roles for fish community.

  20. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  1. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  2. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  3. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  4. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  5. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  6. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  7. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  8. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  9. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  10. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  11. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  12. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  13. Separation and Identification of Different Brands of Soy Sauce by Electronic Nose with Variety of Recognize Patterns%基于电子鼻不同识别模式对不同品牌酱油的区分与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安莹; 孙桃

    2016-01-01

    This test has analyzed 14 samples of three different brands of soy sauce by using different identification patterns of a new intelligent electronic nose.The results show that the electronic nose sensors have a specific reaction to the flavor of all kinds of soy sauce,it can collect the characteristic data of different brands of soy sauce effectively and distinguish different brands of brewed soy sauce effectively by the model based on PCA analysis.A 100% recognition rate is acquired,when the soy sauce of three different brands is detected by the model based on DFA analysis. LDA could successfully distinguish the soy sauce.Therefore,electronic nose combined with proper recognition algorithms is able to differentiate and identify different brands of soy sauce.%试验采用一款新型智能电子鼻系统,对3种不同品牌的14个酱油样品进行不同识别模式分析。结果表明:电子鼻传感器对各种酱油的气味有特定的反应,能够有效收集不同品牌酱油的特征数据;运用 PCA 分析电子鼻检测的数据,可以有效区分不同品牌的酿造酱油;运用 DFA 建立的3种不同品牌酱油的识别模型,可以正确识别酱油品牌,识别率为100%;运用 LDA 线性判别分析,可以区分3种不同品牌的酱油。因此,电子鼻结合适当的识别模式可以用于不同品牌酱油的区分和识别。

  14. Composition and Transformation of Protein during the Fermentation of Low-saIt SoI id-state Soy Sauce%低盐固态酱油酿造过程中蛋白质组分构成及变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩亚芬; 巩欣; 马千苏; 高浩渊; 程永强; 纪凤娣; 鲁绯

    2015-01-01

    低盐固态酱油原料利用率低,废弃物酱油渣中残留大量蛋白质,造成极大的原料浪费。采用Osborne分级提取法,按照溶解性将蛋白质分类,通过分析酱油酿造过程中总蛋白及四种蛋白质组分的变化规律,发现酱油中氨基酸态氮的主要来源是清蛋白和谷蛋白,酱油渣中残留蛋白质组分主要为谷蛋白(74.21%),进一步分析表明:原料蒸煮过程中蛋白质变性过度和部分谷蛋白不易被酶水解是造成酱油渣中谷蛋白残留的主要原因。%The utilization efficiency of raw materials during the production of low-salt solid-state soy sauce is low.Large quantities of protein left in soy sauce residue results in a huge waste of raw materials.Fermentation process of low-salt solid-state soy sauce is studied and protein is classified according to solubility based on the extracting method of Osborne.The variation of total protein and four protein components during the brewing of soy sauce is also investigated.The results show that albumin and glutelin are the main sources of amino acid nitrogen in soy sauce and the principal protein remained in soy sauce residue is glutelin (74.21%). Further analysis shows that, excessive denaturation of protein during the steaming process of raw materials and incomplete enzymatic hydrolysis of glutelin lead to the remaining of glutelin in the soy sauce residue.

  15. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  17. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  18. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  19. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  20. The history of Makassan trepang fishing and trade.

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    Kathleen Schwerdtner Máñez

    Full Text Available The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow coastal waters of Island Southeast Asia. For at least 300 years, trepang has been a highly priced commodity in the Chinese market. Originally, its fishing and trade was a specialized business, centred on the town of Makassar in South Sulawesi (Indonesia. The rise of trepang fishing in the 17(th century added valuable export merchandize to the rich shallow seas surrounding the islands of Southeast Asia. This enabled local communities to become part of large trading networks and greatly supported their economic development. In this article, we follow Makassan trepang fishing and trading from its beginning until the industrialization of the fishery and worldwide depletion of sea cucumbers in the 20(th century. Thereby, we identify a number of characteristics which trepang fishing shares with the exploitation of other marine resources, including (1 a strong influence of international markets, (2 the role of patron-client relationships which heavily influence the resource selection, and (3 the roving-bandit-syndrome, where fishermen exploit local stocks of valuable resources until they are depleted, and then move to another area. We suggest that understanding the similarities and differences between historical and recent exploitation of marine resources is an important step towards effective management solutions.