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Sample records for chinese female gallstone

  1. Gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel E Njeze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a worldwide medical problem, but the incidence rates show substantial geographical variation, with the lowest rates reported in African populations. Publications in English language on gallstones which were obtained from reprint requests and PubMed database formed the basis for this paper. Data extracted from these sources included authors, country, year of publication, age and sex of patients, pathogenesis, risk factors for development of gallstones, racial distribution, presenting symptoms, complications and treatment. Gallstones occur worldwide, however it is commonest among North American Indians and Hispanics but low in Asian and African populations. High biliary protein and lipid concentrations are risk factors for the formation of gallstones, while gallbladder sludge is thought to be the usual precursor of gallstones. Biliary calcium concentration plays a part in bilirubin precipitation and gallstone calcification. Treatment of gallstones should be reserved for those with symptomatic disease, while prophylactic cholecystectomy is recommended for specific groups like children, those with sickle cell disease and those undergoing weight-loss surgical treatments. Treatment should be undertaken for a little percentage of patients with gallstones, as majority of those who harbor them never develop symptoms. The group that should undergo cholecystectomy include those with symptomatic gallstones, sickle cell disease patients with gall stones, and patients with morbid obesity who are undergoing laparotomy for other reasons.

  2. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  3. Spontaneous resolution of a gallstone ileus.

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    Roberts, Ja; Lambrianides, Al

    2012-03-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis, usually associated with an internal biliary fistula. Management of gallstone ileus is surgical with enterolithotomy the procedure of choice, followed by fistula closure either as a one or two stage procedure. In this case a 66 year old female presented with colicky abdominal pain, computed tomography (CT) clearly showing a gallstone ileus and cholecystoduodenal fistula. Despite this the patient refused surgery and went on to have spontaneous resolution of the obstruction and passage of gallstones.

  4. Spontaneous resolution of a gallstone ileus

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    Roberts, JA; Lambrianides, AL

    2012-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis, usually associated with an internal biliary fistula. Management of gallstone ileus is surgical with enterolithotomy the procedure of choice, followed by fistula closure either as a one or two stage procedure. In this case a 66 year old female presented with colicky abdominal pain, computed tomography (CT) clearly showing a gallstone ileus and cholecystoduodenal fistula. Despite this the patient refused surgery and went on to have ...

  5. Chemical characterization of gallstones: an approach to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallstone disease in Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshi Weerakoon

    Full Text Available Records on gallstones and associated ailments in Sri Lankan community are scarce, despite frequent detection of gallstone disease. Identification of the chemical composition of gallstones in the local setting is important in defining aetiopathogenic factors which in turn are useful in implementing therapeutic and preventive strategies. This study aimed to describe the chemical composition of gallstones and the socio-demographic factors of a cohort of Sri Lankan patients with gallstone disease.Data on clinical and socio-demographic factors, and gallstones removed at surgery were collected from patients with cholelithiasis admitted to Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka from May 2011 to December 2012. External and cross sectional morphological features of gallstones were recorded by naked eye observation. Compositional analysis was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X - ray Powder Diffraction, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to identify the microstructure of gallstones.Data of 102 patients were analyzed. Of them majority (n = 77, 76% were females with a female: male ratio of 3:1. Mean age of the study group was 46.1±11.6 years. All the patients had primary gallbladder stones. According to the physical and chemical analysis, majority (n = 54, 53% were pigment gallstones followed by mixed cholesterol gallstones (n = 38, 37%. Only 10 (9% had pure cholesterol gallstones. Calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate were the commonest calcium salts identified in pigment gallstones and core of mixed cholesterol gallstones.Presence of a pigment nidus in gallstones is a common feature in majority of Sri Lankan patients denoting the possible role of elevated unconjugated bilirubin in bile on the pathogenesis of GS. Hence it is imperative to explore this further to understand the aetiopathogenesis of GS among Sri Lankans.

  6. Recurrent Gallstone Ileus

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    Hayes, Nicolas; Saha, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical small bowel obstructions caused by gallstones account for 1% to 3% of cases. In these patients, 80% to 90% of residual gallstones in these patients will pass through a remaining fistula without consequence. Recurrent gallstone ileus has been reported in 5% of patients. We report the case of a woman, aged 72 years, who presented with mechanical small bowel obstruction caused by gallstone ileus. After successful surgical therapy for gallstone ileus, the patient's symptoms recurred, a...

  7. Gallstone ileus: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabrousse, E.; Bartholomot, B.; Sohm, O.; Kastler, B. [Dept. of Radiology A, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France); Wallerand, H. [Dept. of Surgery, CHU Jean Minjoz, University of Besancon (France)

    2000-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of recurrent gallstone cholecystitis. The classic radiographic triad of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia and ectopic gallstone on abdominal plain radiograph is described with CT imaging. Because of the better resolution of CT compared with abdominal radiography and its recent accession to emergency use, radiologists should be aware of CT findings of gallstone ileus. We report a case in which gallstone ileus was initially diagnosed by CT. (orig.)

  8. Complications of gallstones: the Mirizzi syndrome, gallstone ileus, gallstone pancreatitis, complications of "lost" gallstones.

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    Zaliekas, Jill; Munson, J Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Gallstones cause various problems besides simple biliary colic and choplecystitis. With chronicity of inflammation caused by gallstone obstruction of the cystic duct, the gallbladder may fuse to the extrahepatic biliary tree, causing Mirizzi syndrome, or fistulize into the intestinal tract, causing so-called gallstone ileus. Stones may pass out of the gallbladder and travel downstream through the common bile duct to obstruct the ampulla of Vater resulting in gallstone pancreatitis, or pass out of the gallbladder inadvertently during surgery, resulting in the syndromes associated with lost gallstones. This article examines these varied and complex complications, with recommendations for management based on the literature, the data, and perhaps some common sense.

  9. Recurrent gallstone ileus.

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    Hayes, Nicolas; Saha, Sanjoy

    2012-11-01

    Mechanical small bowel obstructions caused by gallstones account for 1% to 3% of cases. In these patients, 80% to 90% of residual gallstones in these patients will pass through a remaining fistula without consequence. Recurrent gallstone ileus has been reported in 5% of patients. We report the case of a woman, aged 72 years, who presented with mechanical small bowel obstruction caused by gallstone ileus. After successful surgical therapy for gallstone ileus, the patient's symptoms recurred, and she was diagnosed with recurrent gallstone ileus requiring a repeat operation. While management of gallstone ileus can be achieved through a single-stage operation including enterolithotomy and cholecystectomy with repair of biliary-enteric fistula or by enterolithotomy alone, the literature supports enterolithotomy alone as the treatment of choice for gallstone ileus due to decreased mortality and morbidity. However, the latter approach does not obviate potential recurrence. We present this case of recurrent gallstone ileus to elucidate and review the pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and consensus recommendations regarding management of this disorder.

  10. Gallstone ileus: a review.

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    Masannat, Yazan; Masannat, Yanal; Shatnawei, Abdullah

    2006-12-01

    This article aims to review gallstone ileus in the literature addressing the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, radiological findings and treatment options of the condition. A literature search was done on gallstone ileus, for the period 1966-2005. Gallstone ileus is a disease of the elderly, causing up to one fourth of non-strangulation intestinal obstructions in patients older than 65 years of age. It is often missed or diagnosed late. The presentation is that of intestinal obstruction preceded by biliary complaints. Radiological features on plain X-rays include features of intestinal obstruction and pneumobilia, and an aberrant gallstone. Treatment depends on the site of the impacted stone, but surgery is needed in many cases. Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of a common condition. Because it primarily affects the elderly, mortality and morbidity are high, although they have improved over the years. Early diagnosis and treatment improve the outcome.

  11. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  12. Serum insulin, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and gallstone disease among type 2 diabetics in Chinese population: A community-based study in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Ming Liu; Chung-Te Hsu; Hui-Chuan Shih; De-Chuan Chan; Pesus Chou; Tao-Hsin Tung; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jorn-Hon Liu; Yeh-Kuang Tsai; Victor Tze-Kai Chen; Tseng-Nip Tam; Hsu-Feng Lu; Kuang-Kuo Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association of serum insulin, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction with gallstone disease (GSD) in type 2 diabetics.METHODS: We used a community-based study conducted between 1991 and 1993 in Kinmen, Taiwan to identify type 2 diabetics. A screening program for GSD was performed in 2001 by a panel of specialists who employed real-time ultrasound sonography to examine the abdominal region after the patient had fasted for at least 8 h. Screening was conducted in 2001 on 848patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The HOMA method was used to compare the profile differences for insulin resistance (HOMA IR) and β-cell dysfunction (HOMA β-cell).RESULTS: We studied 440 type 2 diabetics who attended sonography check-ups. After excluding eight insulin-treated diabetics, the prevalence of GSD among the remaining 432 was 13.9% (26/187) among males and 14.7% (36/245) among females. After adjustment for other GSD-associated risk factors in addition to age and obesity, GSD risk increased among females with levels of serum insulin [4th vs 1st quartile odds ratios (OR)= 4.46 (95%CI: 1.71-11.66)] and HOMA IR [4th vs 1st quartile OR = 4.46 (95% CI: 1.71-11.66)]. Better HOMA β-cell function was significantly related to decreased risk of GSD [4th vs 1st quartile OR = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03-1.70)].Among males, age and central obesity were the most significant risk factors for GSD. No association of GSD with serum insulin, HOMA IR, and HOMA β-cell was observed among males.CONCLUSION: Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction are risk factors for GSD in females, but not males with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Differentiation of various traditional Chinese medicines derived from animal bile and gallstone: simultaneous determination of bile acids by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

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    Qiao, Xue; Ye, Min; Pan, De-lin; Miao, Wen-juan; Xiang, Cheng; Han, Jian; Guo, De-an

    2011-01-01

    Animal biles and gallstones are popularly used in traditional Chinese medicines, and bile acids are their major bioactive constituents. Some of these medicines, like cow-bezoar, are very expensive, and may be adulterated or even replaced by less expensive but similar species. Due to poor ultraviolet absorbance and structural similarity of bile acids, effective technology for species differentiation and quality control of bile-based Chinese medicines is still lacking. In this study, a rapid and reliable method was established for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 18 bile acids, including 6 free steroids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid) and their corresponding glycine conjugates and taurine conjugates, by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). This method was used to analyze six bile-based Chinese medicines: bear bile, cattle bile, pig bile, snake bile, cow-bezoar, and artificial cow-bezoar. Samples were separated on an Atlantis dC₁₈ column and were eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-water containing ammonium acetate. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Total ion currents of the samples were compared for species differentiation, and the contents of bile acids were determined by monitoring specific ion pairs in a selected reaction monitoring program. All 18 bile acids showed good linearity (r² > 0.993) in a wide dynamic range of up to 2000-fold, using dehydrocholic acid as the internal standard. Different animal biles could be explicitly distinguished by their major characteristic bile acids: tauroursodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid for bear bile, glycocholic acid, cholic acid and taurocholic acid for cattle bile, glycohyodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid for pig bile, and taurocholic acid for snake bile. Furthermore, cattle bile, cow

  14. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Risk of Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female gender and increasing age are key risk factors for gallstone disease; therefore, postmenopausal women are at high risk. Estrogen increases cholesterol saturation of bile and may further increase gallstone risk, but population-based evidence is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective...... was to examine the association between postmenopausal estrogen therapy and risk of gallstone disease and the impact of duration of treatment and use of opposing progestin. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based case-control study. Cases were postmenopausal women (defined as aged ≥45 years) with gallstone...... disease identified in the period 1996-2010. For each case, we selected ten population controls matched to cases by age and sex. We defined exposure as any use of estrogen (opposed and unopposed by progestin). Cases/controls were categorized as current estrogen users if their last prescription was redeemed...

  15. Hepatobiliary imaging in gallstone ileus

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    Bocobo, G.R.; Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Rao, H.; Aseltine, D. Jr.; Spencer, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging was performed in a woman who, at subsequent surgery, was found to have gallstone ileus due to a large gallstone obstructing the proximal jejunum. The triad of findings (failure of the radiopharmaceutical to pass beyond the point of obstruction, marked reflux into the stomach, and nonvisualization of the gallbladder) is nonspecific but, in the appropriate clinical setting, should suggest the possibility of gallstone ileus.

  16. Laparoscopic Treatment of Gallstone Ileus

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    Huseyin Y. Bircan; Bora Koc; Umit Ozcelik; Ozgur Kemik; Alp Demirag

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis that has high morbidity and mortality. An intestinal obstruction can be caused by migration of a large gallstone through a biliary enteric fistula or by impaction within the intestinal tract. In this study, we present the case of an 81-year-old woman with a mechanical bowel obstruction by a gallstone that was treated by laparoscopy.

  17. Laparoscopic treatment of gallstone ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircan, Huseyin Y; Koc, Bora; Ozcelik, Umit; Kemik, Ozgur; Demirag, Alp

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis that has high morbidity and mortality. An intestinal obstruction can be caused by migration of a large gallstone through a biliary enteric fistula or by impaction within the intestinal tract. In this study, we present the case of an 81-year-old woman with a mechanical bowel obstruction by a gallstone that was treated by laparoscopy.

  18. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People's Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year,Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced by Chairman Mao 60 years ago.On Aug.30th,a ceremony was started at an air-force base in North China to show a new generation of air-force uniforms for the female jet-fighter pilots.A total of 16 Chinese female jetfighter pilots to debut on National Day are expected to appear in new dress for an unprecedented dress parade on the Oct.1st.

  19. Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

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    Van Erpecum, K J; Van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

    1999-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.

  20. Lifestyle and gallstone disease: Scope for primary prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150 from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150 were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results : Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P 60 years was relatively more susceptible (28%. Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%. Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.

  1. Open Cholecystectomy for Surgical Treatment of Gallstones

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    Jorge Luis Estepa Pérez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: cholecystectomy is one of the surgical procedures that are still practiced despite the passing of time. It remains the appropriate method to perform in the absence of advanced technology. Objective: to describe the results of the open cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallstones. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in patients operated on for gallstones in 2012 in the María G. Guerrero Ramos Comprehensive Diagnostic Center in the Capital District, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The information was obtained from medical records and a data collection model. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, associated diseases, signs and symptoms, results of the surgical treatment, outcome and complications. Results: a total of 147 patients underwent surgery; the 41-60 year age group and female patients predominated; right hypochondrial pain and intolerance to fatty foods and grains were the major signs and symptoms. Cefazolin was the most widely used antibiotic. Patients recovered satisfactorily, complications were minimal. Conclusions: open cholecystectomy remains useful for the treatment of gallstones in the absence of advanced technology.

  2. The Progression of Cholelithiasis to Gallstone Ileus: Do Large Gallstones Warrant Surgery?

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    Freeman, Michael H; Mullen, Matthew G; Friel, Charles M

    2016-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, classically occurring in patients with recurrent cholecystitis. The incidence of biliary enteric fistula and gallstone ileus in patients with large, asymptomatic gallstones is not known. We report a case of gallstone ileus, which occurred in the setting of a large, asymptomatic gallstone. This case suggests that large gallstones may warrant cholecystectomy, even in asymptomatic patients.

  3. PROBING INTO THE PREVALENCE AND FACTORS OF GALLSTONES FORMATION IN JHARKHAND REGION IN INDIA

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    Rajani Sharma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone is one of the major gastrointestinal problems. There are many factors which leads to gallstone formation, like age, sex, obesity etc. Many factors are still under study. In our study we have tried to analyse our data of gallstone patients with the factors which have already been studied in past elsewhere but not in Jharkhand. In a data survey in Jharkhand region of India, we have tried to study different risk factors of gallstone formation. It was analysed that cholesterol rich diet especially nonvegetarian consumption (68% of patients were nonvegetarian and age are the major influencing factors. Gallstones are found more frequently in women than men. The ratio of male to female gallstone patients is about 1: 3. It was seen that 72.6% of the cases were in the age of 21-50. This means that with growing age incidence of gallstone increases. In our study we found out that genetics, diabetes and smoking are not much related to gallstone formation.

  4. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry V(o)lzke; Daniel M Robinson; Ulrich John

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate those associations using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania.METHODS: A study population of 3 749 residents aged 20-79 years without previously diagnosed thyroid disease was available for analyses. Serum TSH was used to assess thyroid function. Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on ultrasound. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent associations between thyroid function and cholelithiasis.RESULTS: There were 385 persons (10.3%) with low (<0.3 mIU/L), 3 321 persons (88.6%) with normal and 43 persons (1.2%) with high serum TSH levels (>3 mIU/L).The proportion of cholelithiasis among males and females was 14.4% and 25.3%, respectively. Among males, there was an independent relation between high serum TSH and cholelithiasis (OR 3.77; 95%-CI 1.06-13.41; ,P<0.05). zAlso among males, there was a tendency towards an elevated risk of cholelithiasis in persons with low serum TSH (OR 1.40; 95%-CI 0.96-2.02; P = 0.07). In the female population, no such relation was identified.CONCLUSION: There is an association between thyroid and gallstone disease with a gender-specific relation between hypothyroidism and cholelithiasis.

  5. Incidence of gallstone disease in Italy: Results from a multicenter, population-based Italian study (the MICOL project)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Antonio Colecchia; Ada Dormi; Simona Capodicasa; Tommaso Staniscia; Adolfo F Attili; Paola Loria; Paolo Pazzi; Giuseppe Mazzella; Claudia Sama

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate gallstone incidence and risk factors in a large population-based study.METHODS:Gallstone incidence and risk factors,were evaluated by structured questionnaire and physical examination,respectively,in 9611 of 11 109(86.5%)subjects who were gallstone-free at the cross-sectional study.RESULTS:Six centers throughout Italy enrolled 9611 subjects (5477 males,4134 females,aged 3079 years),9517 of whom were included into analysis:424 subjects (4.4%) had gallstones and 61 (0.6%)had been cholecystectomized yielding a cumulative incidence of 0.67% per year (0.66% in males,0.81% in females).Increasing age,a high body mass index (BMI),a history of diabetes,peptic ulcer and angina,and low cholesterol and high triglyceride levels were identified as risk factors in men while,in females,the only risk factors were increasing age and a high BMI.Increasing age and pain in the right hypocondrium in men and increasing age in females were identified as predictors of gallstones.Pain in the epigastrium/right hypocondrium was the only symptom related to gallstones;furthermore,some characteristics of pain(forcing to rest,not relieved by bowel movements)were significantly associated with gallstones.No correlation was found between gallstone characteristics and clinical manifestations,while increasing age in men and increasing age and BMI in females were predictors of pain.CONCLUSION:Increasing age and BMI represent true risk factors for gallstone disease (GD);pain in the right hypocondrium and/or epigastrium is confirmed as the only symptom related to gallstones.

  6. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

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    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  7. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

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    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  8. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

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    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  9. Gender and metabolic differences of gallstone diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Sun; Hong Tang; Shan Jiang; Li Zeng; En-Qiang Chen; Tao-You Zhou; You-Juan Wang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease in the general population of Chengdu, China. METHODS: This study was conducted at the West China Hospital. Subjects who received a physical examination at this hospital between January and December 2007 were included. Body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum lipid and lipoproteins concentrations were analyzed. Gallstone disease was diagnosed by ultrasound or on the basis of a history of cholecystectomy because of gallstone disease. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease, and the Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the incidence of metabolic disorders between subjects with and without gallstone disease. RESULTS: A total of 3573 people were included, 10.7% (384/3573) of whom had gallstone diseases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the incidence of gallstone disease in subjects aged 40-64 or ≥ 65 years was significantly different from that in those aged 18-39 years ( P < 0.05); the incidence was higher in women than in men ( P < 0.05). In men, in women than in men ( P < 0.05). In men, a high level of fasting plasma glucose was obvious in gallstone disease ( P < 0.05), and in women, hypertriglyceridemia or obesity were significant in gallstone disease ( P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We assume that age and sex are profoundly associated with the incidence of gallstone disease; the metabolic risk factors for gallstone disease were different between men and women.

  10. Laparoscopic enterolithotomy is a valid option to treat gallstone ileus.

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    Shiwani, Muhammad Hanif; Ullah, Quat

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a well-recognized clinical entity. It usually affects elderly female patients, and very often diagnosis can be delayed resulting in high morbidity and mortality. An abdominal x-ray and computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen may show classical radiological features of small bowel obstruction, pneumobilia, and an ectopic gallstone. Laparotomy and enterlithotomy with or without definite biliary surgery is an established treatment. Since 1992, many cases of laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy have been reported. Only a few cases of a totally laparoscopic approach have been documented. We present the case of a 75-year-old lady who presented with features of intestinal obstruction. A plain x-ray of the abdomen and a CT scan confirmed the classical features of gallstone ileus. A totally laparoscopic enterolithotomy was performed using 6 ports. A 6-cm gallstone was retrieved through a longitudinal enterotomy. The transverse closure of the enterotomy was performed with intracorporeal suturing, resulting in an uneventful postoperative recovery. We suggest that a CT scan helps in the early diagnosis of the cause of intestinal obstruction, and totally laparoscopic enterolithomy with intracorporeal enterotomy repair is a valid, safe option.

  11. Retroperitoneal Abscess Formation as a Result of Spilled Gallstones during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: An Unusual Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris Chatzimavroudis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstone disease that seems to exceed that of the traditional open method is the gallbladder perforation and gallstone spillage. Its incidence can occur in up to 40% of patients, and in most cases its course is uneventful. However in few cases an abdominal abscess can develop, which may lead to significant morbidity. Rarely an abscess formation due to spilled and lost gallstones may occur in the retroperitoneal space. We herein report the case of a female patient who presented with clinical symptoms of sepsis six months following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Imaging investigations revealed the presence of a retroperitoneal abscess due to retained gallstones. Due to patient’s decision to refuse abscess’s surgical drainage, she underwent CT-guided drainage. The 24-month followup of the patient has been uneventful, and the patient remains in good general condition.

  12. A Survey on Prevalence and Pathological Findings of Gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Raoofi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of 430 Lori-Bakhtiari sheep at a slaughterhouse in Iran, gallstones were found in the gallbladder of 7 sheep (1.6%. Biliary calculi were more frequent in adult and female sheep (<0.05. Chemical analysis of the gallstones revealed 6 sheep with pigment (bilirubin stones and 1 sheep with cholesterol stones. Chemical composition of bile in these sheep was evaluated. Bacteriologic analysis of the bile in the affected sheep revealed bacteria (Streptococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in 5 sheep. Microscopic examination of gallbladders revealed focal calcification, cystic glands, necrosis and atrophy of mucosal layer, edema, diffuse and focal infiltration of lymphocytes in submucosal layer, and hypertrophy of smooth muscles in sheep with gallstones. It was concluded that the prevalence of both types of gallstones in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep is low. Cholelithiasis can cause chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, but it is not likely to become clinically significant.

  13. Determinants for gallstone formation - a new data cohort study and a systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Only few determinants of gallstone formation have been identified in cohort studies. The aim was to identify further determinants for gallstones in a Danish cohort and to perform a meta-analysis of results from existing cohorts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from a cohort study was used...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. RESULTS: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one....... In addition, BMI was positively associated in men. The systematic review additionally identified associations for comorbidities, parity, and dietary factors. Meta-analysis confirmed the significant associations for incident gallstones and age, female sex, BMI, and non-HDL cholesterol. No significant...

  14. Impaired cholecystokinin-induced gallbladder emptying incriminated in spontaneous "black" pigment gallstone formation in germfree Swiss Webster mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie E; Leonard, Monika R; Hayden, Joshua A; Brophy, Megan Brunjes; Bernert, Kara R; Lavoie, Brigitte; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Whary, Mark T; Mawe, Gary M; Nolan, Elizabeth M; Carey, Martin C; Fox, James G

    2015-02-15

    "Black" pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile in the presence of excess bilirubin conjugates ("hyperbilirubinbilia") from ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, or induced enterohepatic cycling (EHC) of unconjugated bilirubin. Impaired gallbladder motility is a less well-studied risk factor. We evaluated the spontaneous occurrence of gallstones in adult germfree (GF) and conventionally housed specific pathogen-free (SPF) Swiss Webster (SW) mice. GF SW mice were more likely to have gallstones than SPF SW mice, with 75% and 23% prevalence, respectively. In GF SW mice, gallstones were observed predominately in heavier, older females. Gallbladders of GF SW mice were markedly enlarged, contained sterile black gallstones composed of calcium bilirubinate and cholecystokinin (CCK), gallbladders of fasted GF SW mice showed impaired emptying (females: 29%; males: 1% emptying), whereas SPF SW females and males emptied 89% and 53% of volume, respectively. Bilirubin secretion rates of GF SW mice were not greater than SPF SW mice, repudiating an induced EHC. Gallstones likely developed in GF SW mice because of gallbladder hypomotility, enabled by features of GF physiology, including decreased intestinal CCK concentration and delayed intestinal transit, as well as an apparent genetic predisposition of the SW stock. GF SW mice may provide a valuable model to study gallbladder stasis as a cause of black pigment gallstones.

  15. [The treatment of gallstone disease in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, S. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Goor, H. van; Cools, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gallstone diseases (asymptomatic, symptomatic and complicated) are frequently seen in the elderly; the prevalence increases proportionally with age. At higher ages (> 60 years) the presentation of symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is frequently atypical. Complicated gallstone disease (

  16. Metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ying Chen; Qiao-Hua Qiao; Shan-Chun Zhang; Yu-Hao Chen; Guan-Qun Chao; Li-Zheng Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the development of gallstone disease (GSD).METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 7570 subjects (4978 men aged 45.0 ± 8.8 years,and 2592 women aged 45.3 ± 9.5 years) enrolled from the physical check-up center of the hospital.The subjects included 918 patients with gallstones (653 men and 265 women) and 6652 healthy controls (4325 men and 2327 women) without gallstones.Body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured.Colorimetric method was used to measure cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Dextrose oxidizing enzyme method was used to measure FPG.Subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the information on demographic data,age,gender,histories of diabetes mellitus,hypertension,and chronic liver disease and so on.Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (ATP Ⅲ) criteria.Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or attenuated ultrasound transmission.RESULTS:Among the 7570 subjects,the prevalence of the gallstone disease was 12.1% (13.1% in men and 10.2% in women).BMI,waist circumference,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and serum triglyceride (TG) in cases group were higher than in controls,while serum high-density lipid was lower than in controls.There were significant differences in the waist circumference,blood pressure,FPG and TG between cases and controls.In an ageadjusted logistic regression model,metabolic syndrome was associated with gallstone disease.The age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for GSD in men was 1.29 [95%confidence interval (CI),1.09-1.52; P =0.0030],and 1.68 (95% CI,1.26-2.25; P =0.0004) in women; the overall age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for

  17. Laparoscopic-Assisted Enterolithotomy for Gallstone Ileus

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rahul A.; Shah, Chetan R.; Balsara, K P

    2013-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis seen usually in elderly population with comorbidities. Most of the cases present as acute intestinal obstruction with the diagnosis being made intraoperatively. There exists controversy regarding appropriate emergency surgical treatment of gallstone ileus as to whether biliary tract surgery should be done during the first operation. Laparoscopy in recent years is also being used for management of such cases. We report a case of gallston...

  18. A survey on concomitant common bile duct stone and symptomatic gallstone and clinical values in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ayoub, Abbass; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Bananzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Ghahramani, Leila; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Khazraei, Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Common bile duct stone (CBDS) as a result of gallstone is one of the gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, the incidence of CBDS and symptomatic gallstone in Shiraz were investigated, and their management suggested. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that enrolled among 560 patients. The incidence of gallstone together with CBDS was evaluated using an ultrasonography studyand clinical data in the period between March 2014 and 2014 in Shiraz. Comparison between data was done using Student’s t-test or Chi-square test. Results: Of these patients, 18.6% were male, and 81.4% were female with a mean age of 47.67 ± 0.74 years. The concomitant rate of gallstone and CBDS was 8.6%. 6.8% of patients with concomitant of gallstone and CBDS showed symptoms while 1.8% had not been diagnosed before the operation. The mean of serum alkaline phosphatase level in patients with the only gallstone was 255.80 IU/L and patients with concomitant gallstone, and CBDS was 580.88 IU/L with a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, liver function tests (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase) showed a significant difference between two groups of patients (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Clinical variables such as tenderness, fever, and Morphy sign were more severein patients with concomitant gallstone and CBDS. The concomitant rate of gallstone and CBDS in our society is less that Western countries and asymptomatic patients showed fewer ratios than other countries. We think the approach for asymptomatic CBDS patients with gallstone can be affected by our results. PMID:27656616

  19. Abdominal Symptoms and Incident Gallstones in a Population Unaware of Gallstone Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    criteria were no gallstones or cholecystectomy at baseline and attending a reexamination. Results. Of 3,785 participants, 2,845 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Changes in overall abdominal pain were not significantly different between incident gallstones or gallstone-free participants. Multiple adjusted...... logistic regression analyses showed that incident gallstones were significantly associated with debut of abdominal pain with projection, localized in the whole upper abdomen, and of longer duration. No significant associations for functional symptoms were identified. Conclusions. A new onset of abdominal......Introduction. Symptoms associated with newly formed gallstones have never been studied in a population unaware of their gallstones. The objective of this population-based cohort study was to determine which debut of abdominal symptoms was associated with newly formed gallstones. Materials...

  20. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate.

  1. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People’s Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year, Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced

  2. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  4. Breaking the Barriers in Chinese Female Career Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Career development is an important part of modern human resource management. Women are an important and integral part in human resources. Paying at ention to women's career development can’t be ignored both for women own career development and the economic development of society. But compared to men, the Chinese women encounter more barriers in the process of career development, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these barriers and put forward corresponding countermeasures to break the barriers.

  5. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  6. Laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy for gallstone ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul A; Shah, Chetan R; Balsara, K P

    2013-06-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis seen usually in elderly population with comorbidities. Most of the cases present as acute intestinal obstruction with the diagnosis being made intraoperatively. There exists controversy regarding appropriate emergency surgical treatment of gallstone ileus as to whether biliary tract surgery should be done during the first operation. Laparoscopy in recent years is also being used for management of such cases. We report a case of gallstone ileus diagnosed preoperatively and successfully treated by laparoscopic-assisted enterolithotomy.

  7. The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD, in a non-diabetic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. RESULTS: A total of 447 subjects (5.5% had gallstones, with 239 (5.1% men and 208 (6.0% women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.

  8. Twice recurrent gallstone ileus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Rhys

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of bowel obstruction and results from the passage of gallstones into the bowel. Case presentation We present the case of an 83-year-old Caucasian woman who had three episodes of gallstone ileus, each of which was managed with simple enterotomy. This sequence is one of the first reported in the medical literature and may be seen to challenge the traditional surgical approach of enterotomy alone. Conclusions The available evidence comparing enterotomy alone with combined enterotomy, cholecystectomy, and fistula closure in the management of gallstone ileus is reviewed. Neither approach is clearly identified as superior, but available series suggest that simple enterotomy may be safer than a combined approach and does not result in a higher rate of recurrent biliary disease.

  9. Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160497.html Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk Researcher says study highlights a connection between ... may have a slightly increased risk of developing heart disease down the road, a large new study suggests. ...

  10. Emergency ultrasound and gallstone ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zironi, Gianni; Modolon, Cecilia; Cavazza, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of mechanical obstruction due to a biliary stone that wedges the intestinal lumen. It is a surgical emergency representing a clinical and diagnostic challenge: the clinical manifestations are rarely specific, often causing diagnostic delay that can adversely affect the prognosis. Emergency ultrasound could be useful in assessing the level and identifying the cause of bowel obstruction. We report a case of a 74-year-old patient with a 6-day history of constipation and crampy abdominal pain without previous history of abdominal diseases. Emergency ultrasound led to an early diagnosis showing dilated small bowel loops with a shadowing mass inside consistent with an ileal stone, in the absence of aberrant located stone on plain abdominal film.

  11. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  12. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  13. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may cause swelling or infection in the: Gallbladder (cholecystitis) Tube that carries bile from the liver to ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 55. Read More Acute cholecystitis Bile Cholangitis Choledocholithiasis Chronic cholecystitis Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic ...

  14. Construction of boundary-surface-based Chinese female astronaut computational phantom and proton dose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjuan; Jia, Xianghong; Xie, Tianwu; Xu, Feng; Liu, Qian

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid development of China's space industry, the importance of radiation protection is increasingly prominent. To provide relevant dose data, we first developed the Visible Chinese Human adult Female (VCH-F) phantom, and performed further modifications to generate the VCH-F Astronaut (VCH-FA) phantom, incorporating statistical body characteristics data from the first batch of Chinese female astronauts as well as reference organ mass data from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP; both within 1% relative error). Based on cryosection images, the original phantom was constructed via Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) boundary surfaces to strengthen the deformability for fitting the body parameters of Chinese female astronauts. The VCH-FA phantom was voxelized at a resolution of 2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)for radioactive particle transport simulations from isotropic protons with energies of 5000-10 000 MeV in Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. To investigate discrepancies caused by anatomical variations and other factors, the obtained doses were compared with corresponding values from other phantoms and sex-averaged doses. Dose differences were observed among phantom calculation results, especially for effective dose with low-energy protons. Local skin thickness shifts the breast dose curve toward high energy, but has little impact on inner organs. Under a shielding layer, organ dose reduction is greater for skin than for other organs. The calculated skin dose per day closely approximates measurement data obtained in low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  15. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  16. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  18. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  19. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  20. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  1. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ling ZHOU; Qiu-xiong LIN; Chuan-yue WANG; Wen-biao LI; Shu-guang LIN; Huan-de LI; Xin LI; Huai-yan PENG; Xi-yong YU; Ming YANG; Feng-li SU; Feng WANG; Rong-hua ZHU; Chun-yu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the multiple dose clinical pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its main active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The subjects were 23 Chinese female inpatients aged 18-65 years who met the CCMD-Ⅲ (third revision of the Chinese Criteria of Mental Disorders) criteria for schizophrenia. Subjects were tested after 17 d of treatment with 2 mg risperidone twice daily. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone were assayed by using validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: Risperidone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax was 1.6 h) and its Tin in plasma was short (3.2 h).9-hydroxy-risperidone was quickly metabolized from the parent drug with a mean Tmax of 2.5 h. It had a long half-life of 24.7 h. The Cssav of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 36.9±33.1 and 110.6±30.5 μg·h·L-1, respectively, and the AUCss0-12 were 443.2±397.4 and 1327.2±402.3 μg·h·L-1, respectively. CL/F and V/F of risperidone were 8.7±6.2 L/h and 34.1±24.3 L, respectively. Interindividual variations for pharmacokinetic parameters were quite large for risperidone. All 23 subjects experienced high prolactin levels when treated with risperidone. However there was no correlation between prolactin level and the concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, or the active moiety. Conclusion: Risperidone showed large interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics. Administration of risperidone resulted in high serum prolactin levels. The results indicate that systemic exposure to risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in female Chinese schizophrenic patients is higher relative to published data for white Caucasian patients. Larger studies regarding the PK/PD relationship may be required to develop a reasonable clinical dosage regimen for Chinese female patients.

  2. Sonographic demonstration of a gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uebel, H.E.; Wilhelm, F.

    1987-04-01

    A woman of 60 years of age with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation and radiological signs of small bowel obstruction was subjected to sonographic examination. Careful examination of the entire abdomen demonstrated a hyperechoic object within the distended terminal ileum with an intensive acoustic shadow. The gallbladder was not visible. This strongly suggested gallstone ileus, especially since the patient had a history of gallbladder disease. She was treated immediately by enterotomy and extraction of a noncalcified obstructing stone. The value of ultrasound in detecting gallstones causing small bowel obstruction is discussed.

  3. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  4. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  5. The Influence of Sister Carrie’s Female Consciousness on Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳

    2015-01-01

    Since Sister Carrie’s publication, it has attracted various criticism and comments on Carrie. There are many studies to explore Sister Carrie from various perspectives. The influence of Carrie’s female consciousness on Chinese women is the focus to discuss in the thesis. From Carrie, we realize Carrie is brave and successful in that “survival for the fittest” world. We cannot deny that Carrie is of great importance in present China in enlightening people’s value and women’s social position.

  6. Osteopontin Deficiency Alters Biliary Homeostasis and Protects against Gallstone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Shao, Wei-Qing; Chen, Zong-You; Zhu, Wen-Wei; Lu, Lu; Cai, Duan; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Jia, Hu-Liang; Lu, Ming; Chen, Jin-Hong

    2016-08-03

    The precipitation of excess biliary cholesterol as solid crystals is a prerequisite for cholesterol gallstone formation, which occurs due to disturbed biliary homeostasis. Biliary homeostasis is regulated by an elaborate network of genes in hepatocytes. If unmanaged, the cholesterol crystals will aggregate, fuse and form gallstones. We have previously observed that the levels of osteopontin (OPN) in bile and gallbladder were reduced in gallstone patients. However, the role and mechanism for hepatic OPN in cholesterol gallstone formation is undetermined. In this study, we found that the expression of hepatic OPN was increased in gallstone patients compared with gallstone-free counterparts. Then, we observed that OPN-deficient mice were less vulnerable to cholesterol gallstone formation than wild type mice. Further mechanistic studies revealed that this protective effect was associated with alterations of bile composition and was caused by the increased hepatic CYP7A1 expression and the reduced expression of hepatic SHP, ATP8B1, SR-B1 and SREBP-2. Finally, the correlations between the expression of hepatic OPN and the expression of these hepatic genes were validated in gallstone patients. Taken together, our findings reveal that hepatic OPN contributes to cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating biliary metabolism and might be developed as a therapeutic target for gallstone treatments.

  7. Delayed phlegmon with gallstone fragments masquerading as soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura F.; Bateni, Cyrus P.; Bishop, John W.; Canter, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Complications from lost gallstones after cholecystectomy are rare but varied from simple perihepatic abscess to empyema and expectoration of gallstones. Gallstone complications have been reported in nearly every organ system, although reports of malignant masquerade of retained gallstones are few. We present the case of an 87-year-old woman with a flank soft tissue tumor 4 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The initial clinical, radiographic and biopsy findings were consistent with soft tissue sarcoma (STS), but careful review of her case in multidisciplinary conference raised the suspicion for retained gallstones rather than STS. The patient was treated with incisional biopsy/drainage of the mass, and gallstones were retrieved. The patient recovered completely without an extensive resectional procedure, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary sarcoma care to optimize outcomes for potential sarcoma patients. PMID:27333918

  8. Gallstone ileus of duodenum with huge duodenal stone

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ehsan; Mohammad Reza Ahangaran

    2006-01-01

    Gastrointestinal obstruction by a gallstone is an uncommon but important complication of biliary stone disease which mostly affects the elderly. The classic triad of radiological features includes pneumobilia, ectopic gallstone and evidence of intestinal obstruction. Terminal ileum is the most common site of obstruction, followed by jejunum and gastric outlet. We present a case of duodenal gallstone ileus of a large, fluid-density mixed biliary stone with a peripheral rim of hyperdensity (ver...

  9. Aspirin prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S P; Carey, M C; LaMont, J T

    1981-03-27

    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  10. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (smoke in the workplace (passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking.

  11. Gallstone ileus of duodenum with huge duodenal stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal obstruction by a gallstone is an uncommon but important complication of biliary stone disease which mostly affects the elderly. The classic triad of radiological features includes pneumobilia, ectopic gallstone and evidence of intestinal obstruction. Terminal ileum is the most common site of obstruction, followed by jejunum and gastric outlet. We present a case of duodenal gallstone ileus of a large, fluid-density mixed biliary stone with a peripheral rim of hyperdensity (very fine calcification in CT scan. KEY WORDS: Gallstone ileus, duodenum, intestinal obstruction.

  12. The role and mechanism of fatty acids in gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-Dong Wu; Kazuhisa Uchiyama; Ying Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholelithiasis is a common entity in China, but its etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Pigment stones of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct still form a high proportion in China, while they are rare in Europeans. To date, reports on fatty acids in stones remain few. We analyzed the quantity of fatty acids in different stones from Chinese and Japanese cases and discussed the role and mechanism of fatty acids in the formation of pigment stones. METHODS: Clinical data from 18 Chinese and 37 Japanese patients with different types of stones were analyzed using the procedure for extracting fatty acids from gallstones and high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The total fatty acid and free fatty acid contents of pigment stones were markedly higher than those in black or cholesterol stones. The ratio of free saturated to free unsaturated fatty acids was highest in intrahepatic and less in extrahepatic pigment stones, which were signiifcantly different from the other two kinds of stones. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that phospholipase participates in the course of pigment stone formation. The action of phospholipase A1 is more important than phospholipase A2.

  13. Crystallogeny fundamentals of the cholesterol gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jie; Zhou Jianli; He Lijun; Qu Xingang; Gu Lin; Yang Haimin

    2007-01-01

    The nucleation mechanism and crystal growth process of the cholesterol gallstone are studied and a systematic theory expounded by crystallogeny is proposed. Normal feed and stone-forming feed were used to raise guinea pigs in the control and stone-causing groups respectively. The state and transformation of liquid crystal vesicles, the appearance of crystal nuclei, and the formation of microcrystal grains were observed under a polarizing microscope during the experimental period. It was found that the liquid crystal vesicles in the bile of the control group were small, scattered, and always existed as single forms, and no shaped gallstone crystals were formed.While in the stone-causing group, liquid crystal vesicles grew to larger ones, and then aggregated to form large liquid crystal cells. Solid crystal growth along the edge of these liquid crystal cells formed microcrystal grains. These demonstrated that bile liquid crystal vesicles form the basic nuclei of cholesterol gallstone. Heterogeneous nucleation is the common process in the formation of crystal nuclei and crystal growth.

  14. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  15. Value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Kastberg Petersen, K.; Topp, S.W.

    1988-10-01

    Two patients are presented, both of whom were admitted to hospital because of abdominal pains. In both patients, ultrasonography showed gallstones in the lower abdomen and in the small bowel loops were found to be dilated. In both cases it was possible to diagnose the gallstone ileus by ultrasonography and to mark the abdomen as a guide to the surgeon.

  16. Imaging findings of intragastric gallstone and bouveret's syndrome : case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong Youb; Seong, Hun; Park, Jong Yeon; Seo, Chang Hye; Jang, Kyung Jae; Cho, Seong Rak [Department of Radiology, Dae Dong Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a well-known complication of cholelithiasis, but is relatively rare. Most ectopic gallstones are located in the small bowel; they are rarely found in the stomach and duodenum. We describe the imaging findings of a case of intragastric gallstone, as well as a case in which duodenal obstruction was caused by a large gallstone (Bouveret's syndrome). (author)

  17. Gallstone ileus as a cause of upper intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbock

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus, a mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by the passage of a gallstone into the intestinal lumen through a fistula, although not common, deserves to more carefully studied due to its morbidity and mortality. Its incidence among older-age groups explains its association with chronic and degenerative diseases, which increase the complexity of the treatment choice.The need and appropriateness of a surgical approach to a cholecystenteric fistula to solve the obstructive emergency, in a one or two stage procedure, has been discussed in the literature. It has also been reported that gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of upper intestinal obstruction. Intestinal obstruction is seen more frequently after a gallstone impacts at the ileocecal valve. The authors report a case of gallstone ileus as a cause of upper intestinal obstruction and discuss its diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Chinese female breast cancer patients show a better overall survival than their male counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Liang-ping; ZHOU Fei-fei; GUO Gui-fang; WANG Fang; WANG Xi; YUAN Zhong-yu; ZHANG Bei

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud It is not clear if there is a difference in prognosis between male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of MBC and FBC patients in China and the prognosis of MBC and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients.Methods Thirty-five MBC patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 1969 and 2004 were enrolled in the study. Seventy FBC patients who were matched with the MBC patients for TNM stage, year of diagnosis, and age at diagnosis were simultaneously enrolled in the study. A second group comprising 18 MBC patients and their corresponding 36 matched postmenopausal FBC patients were also enrolled. The whole group and the postmenopausal groups were compared for five- and ten-year survivals. Results All the factors that could potentially affect prognosis were comparable among the groups except more FBC than MBC patients underwent endocrine therapy and a modified radical mastectomy. The 5- and 10-year survivals in the whole group were 81.6% and 60.3% for men and 90.7% and 73.5% for women (P=0.02). The 5- and 10-year survival in the postmenopausal group was 82.5% and 100% for men and 66.0% and 85.9% for women (P=0.159).Conclusions Chinese FBC patients had a better prognosis than Chinese MBC patients. However, MBC patients and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients had a similar prognosis.

  19. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses: the mediating effect of psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse’ burnout is important to improve nurses’ health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24 scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35% became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Results Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Conclusion Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout.

  20. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Chen; Pei-Shan Wang; Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen; Yu-Bei Huang; Xue-Ou Liu; Ying Gao; Hong-Ji Dai; Feng-Ju Song; Wei-Qin Li; Jing Wang; Ye Yan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especial y for Chinese females. Thus, we systematical y searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR:1.04;95%CI:0.89-1.20;I2=13.9%, P=0.248;n=31). The OR of exposure to husband’s smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband’s smoke (<20 and≥20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (<300 and≥300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband’s smoking.

  1. A Prediction Rule for Risk Stratification of Incidentally Discovered Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    % confidence interval [CI], 1.45-3.69), acute cholecystitis (HR, 9.49; 95% CI, 2.05-43.92), and uncomplicated events (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.38-4.71), including cholecystectomy (HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.29-5.60). Multiple stones were associated with all events (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81), complicated events (HR, 2.......52; 95% CI, 1.05-6.04), and common bile duct stones (HR, 11.83; 95% CI, 1.54-91). There was an association between gallstones more than 5 years old and acute cholecystitis. Female sex was associated with all and uncomplicated events. We found a negative association between participant age and all events......, uncomplicated events, and acute cholecystitis. Comorbidities and female-associated factors (intake of birth control pills or estrogens and number of births) were not associated with events. Compared with men with a single stone of 10 mm or smaller (reference), women with multiple stones greater than 10 mm had...

  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as acute gallstone pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hong; ZHANG Quan-bao; LI Yu-min; ZHU You-quan; LI Xun; SHI Bin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a generalized disorder of calcium metabolism resulting from an abnormally high level of serum calcium and an increased level of parathormone (PTH).1,2 Traditionally, symptomatic PHPT patients present with a variety of disorders including fatigue, amyotrophy, memory impairment, emotional instability, hallucination, irritation, loss of consciousness, abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, constipation, acute pancreatitis, refractory peptic ulcer, osteopenia, hypertension, etc.3-5 Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an uncommon presentation of PHPT.6-8 We report a typical case of primary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemic crisis presenting as acute gallstone pancreatitis.

  3. Therapy of gallstone disease:What it was,what it is,what it will be

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piero; Portincasa; Agostino; Di; Ciaula; Leonilde; Bonfrate; David; QH; Wang

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol gallstone disease is a common clinical condition influenced by genetic factors,increasing age,female gender,and metabolic factors.Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is currently considered the gold standard in treating patients with symptomatic gallstones,new perspectives regarding medical therapy of cholelithiasis are currently under discussion,also taking into account the pathogenesis of gallstones,the natural history of the disease and the analysis of the overall costs of therapy.A careful selection of patients may lead to successful nonsurgical therapy in symptomatic subjects with a functioning gallbladder harboring small radiolucent stones.The classical oral litholysis by ursodeoxycholic acid has been recently paralleled by new experimental observations,suggesting that cholesterol-lowering agents which inhibit cholesterol synthesis (statins) or intestinal cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe),or drugs acting on specific nuclear receptors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis,might be proposed as additional approaches for treating cholesterol gallstones.In this review we discuss old,recent and future perspectives on medical treatment of cholesterol cholelithiasis.

  4. Association of Female Reproductive Factors with Hypertension, Diabetes and LQTc in Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bayi; Chen, Yequn; Xiong, Jianping; Lu, Nan; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-01-01

    The association of female reproductive factors (FRFs) with cardiovascular risk factors among different population was variable and inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine the association between FRFs and hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and long heart-rate-corrected QT interval (LQTc) in Chinese post-menopausal women (Post-MW). A total of 8046 Post-MW from the China Chaoshan Biobank Cohort Study were included for analysis. Logistic regression and general linear regression models were used to estimate the association between FRFs and hypertension, DM, and LQTc. Compared with women with 0 or 1 live birth, increasing risk of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.96), DM (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.22–2.22), and LQTc (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01–2.09) were observed in women who had five or more live births. Further analysis demonstrated that the association between parity and hypertension, DM, and LQTc was mediated by lifestyle and dyslipidemia. Women with more live births had increased body mass index and waist circumstance, and were inclined to consume more salty food, animal fat, and alcohol, but less meat, vegetable, fish, plant oil, and tea, compared with that had fewer live births (all P < 0.05). PMID:28211485

  5. Study on features of female fetal reproductive system development in Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunbo; ZHANG Guixue; HU Pengfei; HUANG He; ZHENG Peng; LI Wanhua

    2007-01-01

    Some charaterasics of female fetal reproductive system were studied in different gestation phases of Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep. The results showed that reproductive system consisted of ovary, oviduct, uterus and genitalia. The fetal ovaries were granular in early phase and became elliptic in later phase. The functional formula of ovarian weight, length and volume was obtained.Primary oocyte was encapsulated by monolayer cells in 7-week fetal ovary cortex. Primordial follicles were formed in 8-week fetal ovary, the follicular cells were sporadically arranged and not always regular. Complete organization of primordial follicles appeared until 10-week gestation, most of them scattered in nests in the following weeks of gestation. Two types of follicular complexes were found in fetal. There were continuous and quick mitosis of oogonia in fetal ovaries, large complexes were formed by oogoniaes encapsulated by multilayer of follicular cells, then they differentiated into small complexes, one or more primary oocytes were formed by mitosis of oogonia, primordial follicles which were caused by follicular cell approaching into them developed.

  6. Gallstone ileus one quarter of a century post cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedon, Mahmud; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Majeed, Ali W; Zavos, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare but potentially serious complication of cholelithiasis. It is usually preceded by history of biliary symptoms. It usually occurs as a result of a large gallstone creating and passing through a cholecysto-enteric fistula. Most of the time, the stone will pass the GI tract without any problems, but large enough stones can cause obstruction. The two most common locations of impaction are the terminal ileum and the ileocaecal valve because of the anatomical small diameter and less active peristalsis. We present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus 24 years after an open cholecystectomy.

  7. The development of Gallstone solvent temperature adaptive PID control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; BING; QIAO; BO; YAN

    2012-01-01

    The paper expatiated the work principle,general project,and the control part of the corresponding program of the temperature system in the gallstone dissolving instrument.Gallstone dissolving instrument adopts automatic control solvent cycle of direct solution stone treatment,replacing the traditional external shock wave rock row stone and gallblad-der surgery method.PID control system to realize the gall stone solvent temperature intelligent control,the basic principle of work is as solvent temperature below the set temperature,the relay control heater to solvent to be heated,conversely,no heating,achieve better able to dissolve the the rapeutic effect of gallstones.

  8. Determinants for Clinical Events in Gallstone Carriers Unaware of their Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Daniel; Tue Sørensen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , vocational training, and inversely association to a higher physical activity level when compared to being sedentary. Multiple adjusted models confirmed association for total events and body mass index and for complicated events and physical activity. No significant associations were identified for alcohol......, coffee, diet, smoking, or visits to general practitioner and clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: Body mass index, vocational training, and physical activity level were associated to clinical events in long-term follow-up of unaware gallstone carriers. Future trials should investigate clinical effects...... was median 17.5 years and 99.8% complete. Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Gallstone events occurred in 16.6% participants of whom 7.2% were complicated and 9.4% were uncomplicated. Total events were associated to body mass index. Complicated events were associated to coffee consumption...

  9. Gallstone ileus of the colon: leave no stone unturned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemans, P B; Vles, G F; Fransen, S; Vliegen, R; Sosef, M N

    2013-01-01

    A case of gallstone ileus of the colon with illustrative pictures is presented, making the physicians more aware of this rare entity. Furthermore, the use of imaging modalities for diagnosis and decision making in management strategy is discussed.

  10. Gallstone Ileus of the Colon: Leave No Stone Unturned

    OpenAIRE

    P. B. Salemans; Vles, G. F.; S. Fransen; Vliegen, R.; Sosef, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    A case of gallstone ileus of the colon with illustrative pictures is presented, making the physicians more aware of this rare entity. Furthermore, the use of imaging modalities for diagnosis and decision making in management strategy is discussed.

  11. AGE AND GENDER PECULIARITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF GALLSTONE DISEASE

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    N. A. Hohlacheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. Study of the role of risk factors in mechanized gall stone formation depending on sex and age of patients. Material and methods We examined 210 patients with stage I gallstone disease (GSD. In verification of diagnosis used an ultrasound study of the hepatobiliary system, multi-grade duodenal sounding with subsequent macroscopic, microscopic, chemical and physical examination of bile. In the portions “b” and “C” bile was determined the total concentration of bile acids, cholesterol, with the subsequent calculation it consists of cholesterol ratio. Estimation of surface tension of bile viscosity and bile. In the studied blood levels of total cholesterol, lipoproteins of very low density, lowdensity lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, were determined the coefficient of atherogenicity. To assess the degree of accumulation of body fat was used the Quetelet index. Studied the relative risk of anamnestic risk factors of GSD. Results. The features of biliary lithogenesis based on gender and age of patients. High value PR for the gall stone formation are female gender — 3,16, Mature and elderly age (older than 50 of 3.67. In young women, gall-stone formation is mainly due to the increase of cholesterol level of bile, at the age of 50 years with a decline in zhelchnokamennaja pool, increased viscosity and surface tension of bile. The most important risk factors of cholecystolithiasis are also gender differences: if women is multiple pregnancies and (or childbirth (more than 3 — OR 4,62, overweight (BMI over 26 — OR is 4.57 and the violation of the principles of good nutrition (eating disorders, overeating or starvation, the use of large quantities of animal fats — OR 3,94, for men it’s physical inactivity — OR a 4.25, the increase in KA — PR 3.87 and burdened by GSD genetics — OR of 2.05. Conclusion. The data obtained can be used in the organization of dispensary work with patients with hepatobiliary

  12. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Ying

    2001-01-01

    [1]Soloway, R. D., Trotman, B. W., Maddrey, W. C. et al., The influence of hemolysis, infection and stasis on the calcium salts in pigment gallstones, Dig. Dis. Sci., 1986, 31: 454-460.[2]Cheng, L. J., Zhang, Y., Ma, J. S. et al., Chemical preparation and properties of ditaurobilirubin disodium salt, Chemical Reagents, 2000, 22(2): 70-71.[3]Ma. J. S., Wang, C. Q., Yan F., Hypocrellin A-sensitized photooxidation of bilirubin in aprotic solvents, Photographic Science and Photochemistry, 1991, 9(1): 58-61.[4]Yang, Z. H., Wang, K., Liu, X. T., Studies of electron-spin-resonance on bilirubin free radicals, Science in China, Series B,1992, 35(9): 1093-1100.[5]Ostrow, J. D., Overview the bile pigment metabolism, in Bile Pigments and Jaundice: Molecular, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects (ed. Ostrow, J. D.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 1986, 1-6.[6]Ouyang, J. M., Li, C., Li, Y. Q. et al., Monolayer and Langmuir-Blodgett films of bilirubin dihexadecyl ester, Thin Solid Films, 1999, 348: 242-247.[7]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X, S. et al., Structure characteristics of bilirubin gallstone, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1979,24: 1054-1056.[8]Zhou, X. S., Wang, S. S., Wu, J. G. et al., Pigment gallstones study, Chinese Medical Journal, 1982, 95(12): 905-911.[9]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X. S. et al., Study on the composition, structure and mechanism of formation of bilirubin gallstone, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1980, 1: 34-43.[10]Zhou, X. S., Shen, G. R., Wu, J. G. et al., A spectroscopic study of pigment gallstone in China, Biospectroscopy, 1997,3(3): 371-380.[11]Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G., Analysis of Gallstones, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo: CRC Press, 1995, 167-190.[12]Yang, Z. L., Weng, S. F., Wu, J. G., Study on the composition of pigment gallstones, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1998, 34(4): 429-434.[13]Soloway, R. D., Song, Y. Y., Wu, J. G. et al., Serial Fourier

  13. Nationwide epidemiological study of severe gallstone disease in Taiwan

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    Lin Jou-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aimed to assess the nationwide trends in the incidence of severe gallstone disease in Taiwan among adults aged ≥20. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database collected during 1997–2005. Patients with incident severe gallstone disease (acute cholecystitis, biliary pancreatitis, acute cholangitis and gallstone-related procedures (elective and non-elective cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography [ERCP] that led to hospital admission were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic and procedure codes. Annual incidence rates of gallstone-related complications and procedures were calculated and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated assuming a Poisson distribution. Results The hospital admission rate for severe gallstone disease increased with advancing age and the age-standardized rate (95% CI per 1000 population was 0.60 (0.59–0.60 for men and 0.59 (0.59–0.60 for women. Men had a higher rate of acute cholecystitis, probably due to the substantially lower rate of elective cholecystectomy among men than women. For those aged 20–39, hospital admissions for all gallstone-related complications and procedures increased significantly. For those aged ≥60, incidences of biliary pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, and hospital admission for gallstone receiving ERCP increased significantly without substantial change in the incidence of acute cholecystitis and despite a decreased rate of elective cholecystectomy. Conclusion This population-based study found a substantial increase in the rate of admission for severe gallstone disease among those aged 20–39. Concurrently, the incidences of biliary pancreatitis and acute cholangitis have risen among those aged ≥60.

  14. Successful endoscopic treatment of colonic gallstone ileus using electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin; D; Zielinski; Lincoln; E; Ferreira; Todd; H; Baron

    2010-01-01

    The surgical management of gallstone ileus is complex and potentially highly morbid.Initial management requires enterolithotomy and is generally followed by fistula resection at a later date.There have been reports of gallstone extraction using various endoscopic modalities to relieve the obstruction,however,to date,there has never been a published case of endoscopic stone extraction from the colon using electrohydraulic lithotripsy.In this report,we present the technique employed to successfully perform an...

  15. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of gallstone ileus: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Kyeong; Lee, Chae Kyeong; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Jun Hee [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    Gallstone ileus is a relatively uncommon complication of gallbladder stone. It accompanies the fistula from gallbladder to small intestine, usually to duodenum with the mechanical obstruction of small bowel. The stone is most commonly located in the distal ileum. Its diagnosis can be made when the stone is detected in the obstructed bowel lumen by ultrasound. Here we report one case of gallstone ileus diagnosed by ultrasound and confirmed surgically.

  16. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

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    Sala Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions.

  17. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  18. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  19. Women on Women Femininity and Independence in the Work of Chinese Contemporary Female Artists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■The history of China, as seen through the eyes of a Chinese woman, would no doubt present a very different story to that which we are accustomed to. The centuries of oppression endured by Chinese women were ratified by the teachings of Confucius which assert that

  20. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-fang TAO; Zeng ZHANG; Yao-hua KE; Jin-wei HE; Wen-zhen FU; Chang-qing ZHANG; Zhen-lin ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To assess associations of the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population.Methods:This cross-sectional study included 1382 female participants free of type 2 diabetes who were recruited in Shanghai.Blood samples were collected within a winter season and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D,fasting plasma glucose and insulin,and other biochemical parameters were determined.Insulin resistance and β-cell function were assessed using the homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B),respectively.Results:Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for age,parathyroid hormone,Ca2+ and BMI revealed that independent inverse associations existed between the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-IR (P<0.001) and between the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and HOMA-B (P=0.001).Conclusion:Serum vitamin D level is significantly and independently associated with insulin resistance and β-cell function in a healthy Chinese female population.

  1. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement. PMID:28168198

  2. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  3. Associations of Occupational Stressors, Perceived Organizational Support, and Psychological Capital with Work Engagement among Chinese Female Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.

  4. Changes in Gallbladder Motility and Gallstone Formation Following Laparoscopic Gastric Banding for Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal O Al-Jiffry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is associated with cholesterol gallstone formation, a risk compounded by rapid weight loss. Laparoscopic gastric banding allows for a measured rate of weight loss, but the subsequent risk for developing gallstones is unknown.

  5. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Norberto C. Chavez-Tapia; Daniel Motola-Kuba; Karla Sanchez-Lara; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Héctor Baptista; Martha H. Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish an association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and the development of gallstone disease.METHOIDS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a check-up unit in a university hospital in Mexico City. We enrolled 245 subjects, comprising 65 subjects with gallstones (36 women, 29 men) and 180 controls (79women and 101 men without gallstones). Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Unconditional logistic regressionanalysis (univariate and multivariate) was used to calculate the risk of gallstone disease associated with the presence of at least three of the criteria (Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ). Analyses were adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Among 245 subjects, metabolic syndrome was present in 40% of gallstone disease subjects, compared with 17.2% of the controls, adjusted by age and gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.79; 95%CI, 1.46-5.33; P = 0.002),a dose-dependent effect was observed with each component of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.36, 95%CI, 0.72-7.71;P = 0.16 with one component and OR = 5.54, 95%CI,1.35-22.74; P = 0.02 with four components of metabolic syndrome). Homeostasis model assessment was significantly associated with gallstone disease (adjusted OR = 2.25;95%CI, 1.08-4.69; P = 0.03).CONCLUSION: We conclude that as for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, gallstone disease appears to be strongly associated with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Analysis Algerian's Gallstones with Infrared Spectrum and Methods of Prevention and Treatment for Cholelithiasis in Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the type of Algerian's gallstones and put forward relative measures of prevention and treatment, The NICOLET 170SX FT-IR spectrometer was used to measure the infra-red spectrum and analyze the feature of spectrum of Algerian's gallstones. The results shown that Algerian have cholesterol gallstones. Reasons to form Algerian's multiple cholesterol gallstones were investigated. We have put forward five suggestions to prevent and treat cholelithiasis.

  7. Management of gallstones and gallbladder disease in patients undergoing gastric bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernabé; M; Quesada; Gustavo; Kohan; Hernán; E; Roff; Carlos; M; Canullán; Luis; T; Chiappetta; Porras

    2010-01-01

    The appropriate management of gallstones and gallbladder disease in patients undergoing gastric bypass remains unknown.Several therapeutic modalities are used and include performing cholecystectomy on all patients at the time of gastric bypass,performing concomitant cholecystectomy only when patients have gallstones and performing cholecystectomy only in the presence of both symptoms and gallstones.Some groups administer ursodeoxycholic acid for gallstone prevention in the postoperative period.All treatment...

  8. Predictors of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers: an application of the protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Lin, Danhua; Su, Shaobing; Zhang, Chen; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    We utilized Protection Motivation Theory to assess predictors of intention and behavior of consistent condom use among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs). A self-administered questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional survey among 700 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, self-efficacy, and response costs predicted consistent condom use intention and behavior among FSWs. Sexually transmitted infection/ HIV prevention programs need to reduce FSWs' perceptions of positive extrinsic rewards and intrinsic rewards for engaging in consistent condom use, reduce FSWs' perception of response costs for using a condom, and increase condom use self-efficacy among FSWs.

  9. Identification of Helicobacter pylori DNA in gallstones using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Farshad

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies showed a possible relationship between infections caused by some of Helicobacter members and gallstones formation. The aim of this study was identification of Helicobacter members in gallstones from patients with biliary diseases. Methods: Gallstones and bile samples from 33 patients were subjected to rapid urease test, culture and Multiplex-PCR using primers based on 16s rRNA and isocitrate dehydrogenase genes to identify Helicobacter genus and H. pylori species genes, respectively. This PCR was also done on bile samples from 40 autopsied gallbladders with normal pathology (as a control group. Results: In 18.1% of stones and 12.1% of bile samples, H. pylori DNA was detected using PCR. Rapid urease and cultures tests were negative for all samples. The genome of H. pylori was not detected in control group using PCR. Conclusion: H. pylori DNA was detected in gallstone, however, we are not sure of H. pylori viability in these samples. To clarify the clinical role of Helicobacter in gallbladder diseases, more investigations are needed to ascertain whether this microorganism is innocent bystander or active participant in gallstone formation.

  10. Current Views on Genetics and Epigenetics of Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Di Ciaula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease, one of the commonest digestive diseases in western countries, is induced by an imbalance in cholesterol metabolism, which involves intestinal absorption, hepatic biosynthesis, and biliary output of cholesterol, and its conversion to bile acids. Several components of the metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia are also well-known risk factors for gallstones, suggesting the existence of interplay between common pathophysiological pathways influenced by insulin resistance, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Cholesterol gallstones may be enhanced, at least in part, by the abnormal expression of a set of the genes that affect cholesterol homeostasis and lead to insulin resistance. Additionally, epigenetic mechanisms (mainly DNA methylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and noncoding microRNAs may modify gene expression in the absence of an altered DNA sequence, in response to different lithogenic environmental stimuli, such as diet, lifestyle, pollutants, also occurring in utero before birth. In this review, we will comment on various steps of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones and interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The epigenomic approach may offer new options for therapy of gallstones and better possibilities for primary prevention in subjects at risk.

  11. Mirizzi syndrome and gallstone ileus: an unusual presentation of gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Marcelo A; Csendes, Attila

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the case of a man with an unusual complication of gallstone disease. An 85-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with a 3-week history of abdominal pain in the right upper abdominal quadrant. Thoracoabdominal radiography demonstrated that the whole extrahepatic biliary tree, including the common bile duct, common hepatic duct, gallbladder, and left and right hepatic ducts, were visibly delineated by air. The operative findings revealed a small shrunken gallbladder, a fistula between the gallbladder fundus and the gastric antrum, and a cholecystohepatic fistula, corresponding to Mirizzi syndrome, type II. A large gallstone was found impacted in the jejunum. This patient seems to have developed initially a cholecystohepatic fistula. Due to the acute inflammatory process, the stone eroded through the gallbladder wall and into the gastric antrum, passing from the antrum into the small bowel, where it became impacted. We suggest that the natural history of Mirizzi syndrome does not end with a cholecystobiliary fistula but that the continuous inflammation in the triangle of Calot may result in a complex fistula involving not only the biliary tract but also the adjacent viscera.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of mental health problems among monogamous Chinese female patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T F; You, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) increases risk of HIV infection and has profound psychological consequences. The present study examined the mental health problems (poor emotional well-being, insomnia, probable depression) and their associated factors among monogamous Chinese female STD patients. A total of 537 Chinese female STD patients who self-reported having had only one male sex partner in the last 12 months were recruited from a STD clinic in Hong Kong. They completed a survey including measures of mental health, STD-related history, perceptions, feelings related to STD infection, and perceptions toward condom use. Results showed that 22% had poor emotional well-being, 25.7% had insomnia, and 43% were probable cases of depression. Unemployment, worsened relationship with partners after STD diagnosis, STD history in last three months, finding STD examinations embarrassing, and feelings of helplessness were significant risk factors for poor emotional well-being and insomnia. Also, unemployment, worsened relationships with partners after STD diagnosis, and perceived high chance of STD in the coming six months were significant risk factors for probable depression. Perceived efficacy of condom use for STD prevention was a significant protective factor against poor emotional well-being and probable depression. Findings suggest that interventions are warranted to improve the mental health among this population.

  13. I Am the Invincible Sword Goddess: Mediatization of Chinese Gender Ideology through Female Kung-Fu Practitioners in Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Hiramoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The media are avid portrayers of gender binarism and the belief in male-female distinctions, which are mainly attributed to perceived differences of a physical nature. In this paper, we investigate representations of female kung-fu practitioners (nuxia in films to discuss how processes of mediation and mediatization depict their femininity, so as to mitigate their appropriation of Chinese martial arts masculinity. Often, nuxias are portrayed as empowered women who are equipped to take control of their own lives and to courageously take on challenges from a variety of opponents. However, multimodal deconstruction of the various characteristics of nuxias must be placed in an Asian-specific context in order to understand the femininity specific to these characters and to move beyond Western gender ideologies displayed by the media. Perpetuating Confucian patriarchal ideals, nuxia roles constantly and consistently associate conformation to Confucian values with virtuousness and non-conformation with wickedness. We therefore can use the ideals of Confucianism as a more accurate foundation in deconstructing the identities of nuxias, which allows us to better understand the mediation and mediatization processes of ideologies associated with Chinese femininity and masculinity in martial arts films.

  14. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases.

  15. [A case of jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Akiko; Yamada, Masami; Takehira, Yasunori; Kageyama, Fujito; Yoshii, Shigeto; Murohisa, Gou; Yoshida, Kenichi; Iwaoka, Yasushi; Terai, Tomohiro; Uotani, Takahiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Noritake, Hidenao; Ikematu, Yoshito; Kanai, Toshikazu

    2008-04-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare but important cause of small bowel obstruction in the geriatric population. A 65-year-old man with a twenty year history of cholecystolithiasis was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical exams showed abdominal defence and rebound tenderness. A plain abdominal X-ray suggested a small bowel obstruction and pneumobilia. CT scan revealed a 2.5-cm gallstone at the jejunum and air in the biliary tree. The patient underwent a emergency laparotomy based on a diagnosis of panperitonitis with a perforation associated with gallstone ileus. Operative findings revealed a jejunal perforation and a impacted stone on the anal side of perforation. Enterolithotomy and jejunal resection were performed with cholecystectomy and repairment of the cholecystoduodenal fistula.

  16. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as a gallstone ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebally, Shaheel M; Sehgal, Rishabh; Kelly, Justin; Faul, Peter N; Waldron, David

    2013-12-16

    Metastatic breast cancer to the small bowel (SB) presenting as gallstone ileus and resulting in SB obstruction has not been described previously. A 76-year-old woman with previous metastatic breast cancer to the axial spine and hips presented with abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. CT scanning revealed SB obstruction consistent with gallstone ileus. The patient underwent two segmental SB resections for distal ileal strictures mimicking what appeared to be macroscopic Crohn's disease. The entero-biliary fistula was undisturbed. Pathological analysis revealed the dual pathologies of gallstone ileus and metastatic carcinoma from a breast primary causing luminal SB obstruction. Improvements in staging and treatment modalities have contributed to the increased overall long-term survival for breast cancer, compelling clinicians to consider metastatic breast cancer as a differential diagnosis in women presenting with new onset of gastrointestinal symptoms in order that appropriate treatment be administered in a timely fashion.

  17. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  18. Development of a duodenal gallstone ileus with gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret syndrome four months after successful treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease with cholecystitis and cholangitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnekendonk Guido

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cases of gallstone ileus account for 1% to 4% of all instances of mechanical bowel obstruction. The majority of obstructing gallstones are located in the terminal ileum. Less than 10% of impacted gallstones are located in the duodenum. A gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a gallstone ileus is known as Bouveret syndrome. Gallstones usually enter the bowel through a biliary enteral fistula. Little is known about the formation of such fistulae in the course of gallstone disease. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman born in Germany with a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone ileus (Bouveret syndrome, with a large gallstone impacted in the third part of the duodenum. Diagnostic investigations of our patient included plain abdominal films, gastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography, which showed a biliary enteric fistula between the gallbladder and the duodenal bulb. Our patient was successfully treated by laparotomy, duodenotomy, extraction of the stone, cholecystectomy, and resection of the fistula in a one-stage surgical approach. Histopathological examination showed chronic and acute cholecystitis, with perforated ulceration of the duodenal wall and acute purulent inflammation of the surrounding fatty tissue. Four months prior to developing a gallstone ileus our patient had been hospitalized for cholecystitis, a large gallstone in the gallbladder, cholangitis and a small obstructing gallstone in the common biliary duct. She had been treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, balloon extraction of the common biliary duct gallstone, and intravenous antibiotics. At the time of her first presentation, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic examination (including esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had not shown any evidence of a biliary enteral fistula. In the four months preceding the

  19. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  20. Analysis on the Educational Background of Chinese Female Academicians%中国女院士的教育背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 李斌

    2014-01-01

    Science education is the necessary soil for the generation of Chinese female scientific groups.Female academicians mark the peak of the women image in sciences.Taking Chinese female academicians as an example,this paper tries to focus on clarifying the educational growth trajectory of female academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chinese Academy of Engineering and Aca-demia Sinica in (Taiwan),in order to provide the reference for the contemporary women's education in science,the women's education of science and technology in the modern and contemporary age,and show the whole overall style of female academicians.%科学教育是中国女性科学群体产生的必要土壤,女院士是女性科学形象的高峰标志。文章以中国女院士群体为样本,试图厘清中国科学院、工程院与台湾中央研究院女院士的教育成长轨迹,以期为现当代女子科技教育提供借鉴参考,展示我国女院士的整体风采。

  1. Radiological findings in biliary fistula and gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikarinen, H. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Paeivaensalo, M. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Tikkakoski, T. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Saarela, A. [Univ. Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Surgery

    1996-11-01

    Purpose: Biliary fistual and gallstone ileus are rarely found. The diagnosis is difficult and may be delayed until operation. We reviewed the radiological findings in a retrospective material. Material and Methods: The cases of 16 patients treated for biliary fistula were analyzed with respect to findings at imaging. Ten patients had a spontaneous fistula. Nine of them had an internal bilioduodenal fistula and one had an external fistula with stones passing through a subcutaneous abscess. Five patients also had gallstone ileus and one patient a rare gastric outlet obstruction caused by a gallstone (Bouveret`s syndrome). Six patients had an iatrogenic fistula. One of them had internal bile ascites and 5 an external fistula, one of which was a biliocystic fistula resulting from attempted hepatic cyst sclerotherapy. Results: Various imaging modalities were used and there was often a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging did not show the fistula itself in any of the spontaneous cases. However, a nonvisualized or shrunken gallbladder seen at US often coexisted in these cases. CT yielded the diagnosis in one case of gallstone ileus, and a Gastrografin metal yielded it in the case of Bouveret`s syndrome. Fistulography and cholangiography provided a correct diagnosis of fistula in all cases of iatrogenic biliocutaneous fistulas. Conclusion: Patients with biliary fistula usually undergo examinations with nonspecific results. The imaging findings could be more specific if the possibility of this diagnosis were remembered. (orig.).

  2. Gallstone Ileus of the Colon: Leave No Stone Unturned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Salemans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of gallstone ileus of the colon with illustrative pictures is presented, making the physicians more aware of this rare entity. Furthermore, the use of imaging modalities for diagnosis and decision making in management strategy is discussed.

  3. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Shiraishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This case was admitted to our hospital following acute-onset abdominal pain and vomiting. We diagnosed gallstone ileus with cholecystoduodenal fistula by computed tomography and performed totally laparoscopic surgery using only three 5 mm abdominal ports with transvaginal specimen extraction and enterectomy. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula repair were performed 8 months after the initial surgery. The patient experienced additional pain relief and good cosmetic outcomes. In conclusion, using transvaginal hybrid NOTES may become a future option to minimize the invasiveness of other laparoscopic procedures.

  4. Vitamin D and gallstone disease-A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Jørgensen, Torben; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    sample. Determinants of vitamin D status were also explored. A random sample of 4130 people from the population of Copenhagen with ages 41–71 years were invited (N = 4130) and 2650 participants were included. Ultrasound examinations were performed to assess gallstone status and blood samples were drawn...... to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D and biomarkers of renal and hepatic function. Gallstone disease was found in 422 participants. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models. Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not significantly associated with gallstone disease. Time of birth during low vitamin D....... Findings suggest gallstones to be associated to low vitamin D exposure in utero and to renal failure suggesting that vitamin D might have an impact on gallstone disease. Future studies should explore associations for vitamin D and gallstone disease prospectively....

  5. Gallstone impacted in the rectosigmoid junction causing a biliary ileus and a sigmoid perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerschaver, O; Van Maele, V; Vereecken, L; Kint, M

    2009-01-01

    A gallstone ileus is an unusual form of bowel obstruction. Colonic gallstone ileus is rare, difficult to diagnose, and still has a high mortality rate. We present a case of biliary ileus caused by an impacted gallstone, causing necrosis and perforation of the rectosigmoid junction. A Hartmann's procedure was performed to treat the perforation and the obstruction. Cholecystectomy and closure of the cholecysto-colonic fistula were delayed until restoration of the intestinal continuity.

  6. Investigation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectra of Human Gallstones on Colloidal Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scatterihg (SERS) spectra of human gallstones is investigated. Complicated Raman bands were due to multiple components that include bilirubin, bilirubinate salts, cholesterol, fatty salts and proteins. The results suggest that besides bilirubin and cholesterol, fatty salts and proteins may play an important role in the formation of gallstone. The experimental data supply an useful information for the research of the formation mechanism of gallstones.

  7. Ezetimbe as potential treatment for cholesterol gallstones: The need for clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; H; Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and gallstones. High fat diets (unsaturated fats) rich in cholesterol have been demonstrated to produce not only gallstones but also NAFLD and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a high incidence of gallstones is being reported in association with insulin resistance and NAFLD. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best definitive therapy for symptomatic gallbladder disease. Ezetimibe is a drug that inhibits the absorption o...

  8. Ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with female metabolic syndrome in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHEN Yi-song; SUN Kai; XUE Hao; SONG Xiao-dong; WANG Yi-bo; FAN Xiao-han; HAN Yun-feng; HUI Ru-tai

    2008-01-01

    Background The ghrelin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis.Therefore,the ghrelin receptor gene (GHSR) is an excellent candidate for studying metabolic syndrome.This study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in ghrelin receptor gene are associated with metabolic syndrome in Chinese population.Methods Subjects consisted of 698 patients aged 41 to 80 years,diagnosed as metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) 2005 criteria,and 762 age-and gender-matched controls.Three variants within the GHSR were selected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Odds ratios were estimated using a case-control study design by controlling confounding factors.Results The NA genotype (rs2922126) in the promoter was associated with metabolic syndrome (OR 1.41,95%CI 1.03-1.94),increased waist circumference (OR 1.75,95%CI 1.26-2.42),and increased fast blood glucose (OR 1.49,95%CI 1.07-2.06) in women.The A/A genotype (rs509030) in the intron was associated with lower plasma high density lipoprotein in women (OR 1.37,95%CI 1.02-1.84).Conclusion The polymorphisms within GHSR might be a genetic risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women.

  9. Radiological contribution to the diagnosis of gallstone ileus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souchon, R.; Baer, U.; Bauknecht, K.J.; Kania, U.

    1983-05-01

    Between 1969 and 1982, 8 patients of ours were operated on for gallstone ileus. Signs found in the preoperative X-ray examination indicating this condition are analyzed retrospectively. The frequency and specificity of the X-ray signs found in the abdominal survey radiograph are compared with those reported in the literature. The value of oral contrast media administration in the detection of a cholecystointestinal fistula and localization of the obstruction is discussed.

  10. Gallstone spillage caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are occasional incidences of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and there have been frequent reports on such a topic in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports about spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Here, we report the radiologic findings of spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis in a 55-year-old man.

  11. Characteristics of mRNA levels of hepatic key enzymes in cholesterol metabolism of genetically gallstone-susceptible mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力

    2004-01-01

    @@ Our previous study1 indicated that biliary cholesterol hypersecretion was the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation. Lith genes determine biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice.

  12. Low serum levels of ghrelin are associated with gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Martha H Ramos; Héctor A Baptista-González; Misael Uribe; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Luisa Bermejo-Martínez; Antonio R Villa; Norberto C Chávez-Tapia; Daniel Zamora-Valdés; Raúl Pichardo-Bahena; Blanca Barredo-Prieto; Martha H Uribe-Ramos

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of ghrelin in gallstone disease.METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 150 subjects, 38 with gallstones (cases) and 112 controls. We also did a real-time PCR-RT study in twenty gallbladder samples each. Body mass index (BMI),serum insulin, ghrelin, and serum lipids were measured.Logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariate) were conducted to estimate the probability of gallstone disease associated with serum ghrelin concentrations.RESULTS: Cases were statistically different from controls in gender distribution (P = 0.01), age (53 vs 44 yr, P = 0.002), BMI (28 vs 25; P = 0.004), and glucose (5.26 vs 4.98 mmol/L; P = 0.05). The prevalence of ghrelin serum levels above the third tercile was lower in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model, we found a protective effect, when ghrelin values were higher than the median value (OR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.82, P = 0.02). Twenty (20%) gallbladder specimens expressed ghrelin mRNA.CONCLUSION: Serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with a protective effect of GD.

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves gastrointestinal motility defects in gallstone patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Colecchia; G Mazzella; L Sandri; F Azzaroli; M Magliuolo; P Simoni; ML Bacchi-Reggiani; E Roda; D Festi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To simultaneously evaluate the presence of defects in gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as in intestinal transit in gallstone patients (GS) and the effect of chronic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration on these parameters and on serum bile acids and clinical outcome in GS and controls (CTR).METHODS: After a standard liquid test meal, gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound), oroileal transit time (OI∏) (by an immunoenzymatic technique)and serum bile acids (by HPLC) were evaluated before and after 3 mo of UDCA (12 mg/kg bw/d) or placebo administration in 10 symptomatic GS and 10 matched healthy CTR.RESULTS: OI∏ was longer in GS than in CTR (P <0.0001); UDCA significantly reduced OI∏ in GS (P <0.0001), but not in CTR. GS had longer gastric halfemptying time (t1/2) than CTR (P < 0.0044) at baseline;after UDCA, t1/2 significantly decreased (P < 0.006) in GS but not in CTR. Placebo administration had no effect on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in both GS and CTR.CONCLUSION: The gallstone patient has simultaneous multiple impairments of gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as of intestinal transit. UDCA administration restores these defects in GS, without any effect in CTR. These results confirm the pathogenetic role of gastrointestinal motility in gallstone disease and suggest an additional mechanism of action for UDCA in reducing bile cholesterol supersaturation.

  14. Microstructural analysis of bile: relevance to cholesterol gallstone pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M; Pakula, R; Konikoff, F M

    2000-07-01

    The study of physical-chemical factors and pathways leading to cholesterol crystallization in bile has important clinical relevance. The major processes in cholesterol gallstone formation can be subdivided into nucleation, formation and precipitation of solid crystals (crystallization), crystal growth, crystal agglomeration and stone growth. A clear understanding of the microstructural events occurring during the earliest stages of these processes in bile is crucial for the identification of factors possibly delaying or preventing precipitation of cholesterol crystals and, therefore, gallstone formation in bile. Detection and characterization of microstructures in native and model biles can be achieved by both direct and indirect techniques. Direct imaging techniques provide more readily interpretable information, but sample preparation problems, particularly for electron microscopy, are a source of artifacts. Moreover, microscopic techniques provide only qualitative data without the possibility to quantitate or to analyse the composition of microstructures. Several indirect techniques have been used to obtain additional microstructural information about nucleating bile. These techniques have the disadvantage of often being model dependent in addition to constraints specific for each method. The systematic, judicious use of a combination of complementary direct and indirect techniques have led to a comprehensive understanding of the various microstructural processes and interactions occurring during bile secretion, flow in the biliary tract and storage in the gallbladder. This forms the basis for our current understanding of cholesterol nucleation, crystallization and gallstone formation.

  15. Evaluation the susceptibility of five polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites to female breast cancer risk in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Lin, Kang; Ying, Hou-Qun; Wang, Feng; Deng, Qi-Wen; Sun, Hui-Ling; Gao, Tian-Yi; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2015-11-15

    Polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) binding site have been widely discussed to be associated with cancer risk; however, the associations were unclear in Chinese population. To investigate the associations of five polymorphisms (rs11097457, rs1434536, rs1970801, rs1044129, rs11169571) in miRNA binding sites with breast cancer risk, a total of 435 female patients with breast cancer and 439 age- and gender-matched tumor-free individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Sequenom MassARRAY was applied to detect the polymorphisms, and the immunohistochemistry assay was used to measure the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and CerbB-2. The data showed that these polymorphisms were not associated with breast cancer risk or clinical characters of breast cancer in all participants and sub-group with the exception that, in the sub-group of women with their first menstruation after 14 years old, those who carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk. In short, this case-control study provided the evidence that women with their first menstruation after 14 years old and carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  16. Management and outcome of recurrent gallstone ileus:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shovkat; Ahmad; Mir; Zeiad; Hussain; Christine; Ann; Davey; Glenn; Vincent; Miller; Srinivas; Chintapatla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To help the surgeon in decision making whentreating a patient with recurrent gallstone ileus(RGSI). METHODS: A systematic review related to RGSI was performed using the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE via Pub Med from May 1912 to April 2015. All languages were included and the grey literature was also searched. The abstracts were explored for relevance to the topic and full texts obtained as appropriate. A manual search was carried out by scrutinising the reference lists of all the full text articles and further articles were identified and obtained. Total of 903 articles were identified, 656 were excluded after abstract review, 247 full text articles were reviewed and 91 articles selected for final analysis. There were 113 cases of RGSI. RESULTS: There were 113 cases of RGSI reported in 91 articles. The majority of the recurrences, 62.6%, occurred within 6 wk of the index event. The male to female ratio was 1:7. The mean age was 69.6 years(SD 11.2) with a range of 38-95 years. The small bowel was the commonest site of impaction(92.2%). Treatment data was available for 104 patients. The two main operations performed were:(1) Enterolithotomy without repair of biliary fistula in 70.1% of all patients with a procedural mortality rate of 16.4%(12/73) and(2) a single stage surgery approach involving enterolithotomy with cholecystectomy and repair of the biliary enteric fistula in 16.3% with a procedural mortality of 11.7%(2/17). A subset analysis over last 25 years showed mortality from eneterolithotomy was 4.8% while single stage mortality was 22.2%. Enterolithotomy alone was the commonest operation performed for RGSI with four patients(5.4%) having a further recurrence of gallstone ileus. CONCLUSION: Enterolithotomy alone or followed by a delayed two-stage treatment approach is the preferred choice offering low mortality and reduced risk of recurrence.

  17. INTERMITTENT GALLSTONE ILEUS FOLLOWING ENDOSCOPIC BILIARY SPHINCTEROTOMY - A CASE-REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OSKAM, J; HEITBRINK, M; SCHATTENKERK, ME

    1993-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with periods of colicky abdominal pain following endoscopic sphincterotomy and lithotripsy for choledocholithiasis. A diagnosis of intermittent gallstone ileus was made, while it appeared that a large gallstone, that was not removed from the common bile duct, obsructed

  18. Effect of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) on cholesterol gallstones and bile secretion in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Silvia; Carmona, Agustín; Luis, Juana; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas, René

    2005-09-01

    Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC.) Coville is used for the treatment of gallstones in traditional Mexican medicine. The possible prevention or elimination of gallstones by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the leaves and twigs of L. tridentata was tested in hamsters fed a rich carbohydrate, fat-free diet. In addition, the effects of the ethanolic extract and its main metabolite, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, on bile secretion in the perfused liver were tested. In the experiment on prevention of gallstones, the dry ethanolic extract at a level of 0.5% of diet completely inhibited gallstone formation, lowered biliary moles percent cholesterol and increased the proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid of hepatic bile. The dry aqueous extract at a level of 1% of diet did not affect gallstone frequency or biliary parameters. In the experiment on elimination of gallstones, the ethanolic extract significantly reduced gallstone frequency, gallbladder bile cholesterol concentration and moles percent cholesterol. Both the ethanolic extract and nordihydroguaiaretic acid had cholestatic effects in the perfused liver, with an EC50 of 34 and 28 mg dL-1, respectively, when perfused for 10 min. This effect was reversible with concentrations up to 40 mg dL-1. The results indicate that L. tridentata could be useful in the treatment of gallstone disease, however care must be taken due to its hepatotoxicity.

  19. Elevated body mass index as a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease. Whether this reflects a causal association is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we studied 77,679 individuals from the general population. Of these, 4,106 developed symptomatic gallstone...

  20. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs, and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  1. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Qin, Liqiang; Luo, Li; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  2. Which Abdominal Symptoms are Associated with Clinical Events in a Population Unaware of Their Gallstones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High rates of persistent symptoms are found following cholecystectomy in patients with gallstones. The aim of this population based cohort study was to determine which symptoms were associated with the development of clinical gallstone events in a population unaware of their gallstones....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three random population samples from Copenhagen (N = 6037) were examined with ultrasound during 1982-1994. Participants were not informed about gallstone status. Abdominal symptoms were assessed at baseline through a questionnaire. Follow-up for clinical events was performed through...... central registers until 2011. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Participants unaware of their gallstones (N = 595) were followed for median 17.5 years. A total of 16.6% participants developed clinical events. Both uncomplicated and complicated events were associated with high...

  3. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by a distal gallstone ileus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasim Gencosmanoglu; Resit Inceoglu; Caglar Baysal; Sertac Akansel; Nurdan Tozun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a large gallstone migrated through a cholecystoduodenal fistula has been referred as Bouveret's syndrome. Endoscopic lithotomy is the first-step treatment,however, surgery is indicated in case of failure or complication during this procedure.METHODS: We report herein an 84-year-old woman presenting with features of gastric outlet obstruction due to impacted gallstone. She underwent an endoscopic retrieval which was unsuccessful and was further complicated by distal gallstone ileus. Physical examination was irrelevant.RESULTS: Endoscopy revealed multiple erosions around the cardia, a large stone in the second part of the duodenum causing complete obstruction, and wide ulceration in the duodenal wall where the stone was impacted. Several attempts of endoscopic extraction by using foreign body forceps failed and surgical intervention was mandatory. Preoperative ultrasound evidenced pneumobilia whilst computerized tomography showed a large stone, 5 cm×4 cm×3 cm, loggingat the proximal jejunum and another one, 2.5 cm×2 cm×2 cm,in the duodenal bulb causing a closed-loop syndrome. She underwent laparotomy and the jejunal stone was removed by enterotomy. Another stone reported as located in the duodenum preoperatively was found to be present in the gallbladder by intraoperative ultrasound. Therefore,cholecystoduodenal fistula was broken down, the stone was retrieved and cholecystectomy with duodenal repair was carried out. She was discharged after an uneventful postoperative course.CONCLUSION: As the simplest and the least morbid procedure, endoscopic stone retrieval should be attempted in the treatment of patients with Bouveret's syndrome.When it fails, surgical lithotomy consisting of simple enterotomy may solve the problem. Although cholecystectomy and cholecystoduodenal fistula breakdown is unnecessary in every case, conditions may urge the surgeon to perform such operations even though they carry high

  4. Value of CT in the diagnosis and management of gallstone ileus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-Yung Yu; Cheng-Yu Chen; Chang-Chyi Lin; Rong-Yaun Shyu; Chung-Bao Hsieh; Hurng-Sheng Wu; Yeu-Sheng Tyan; Jen-I Hwang; Chang-Hsien Liou; Wei-Chou Chang

    2005-01-01

    IM: To retrospectively establish the diagnostic criteria of gallstone ileus on CT, and to prospectively apply these criteria to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT to confirm or exclude gallstone ileus in patients who presented with acute small bowel obstruction (SBO). Another purposewas to ascertain whether the size of ecctopic gallstones would affect treatment strategy.METHODS: Fourteen CT scans in cases of proved gallstone ileus were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists for the presence or absence of previously reported CT findings to establish the diagnostic criteria. These criteria were applied in a prospective contrast enhanced CT study of 165 patients with acute SBO, which included those 14 cases of gallstone ileus. The hard copy images of 165 CT studies were reviewed by a different group of two radiologists but without previous knowledge of the patient's final diagnosis. All CT data were further analyzed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of gallstone ileus when using CT in prospective evaluation of acute SBO. The size of ectopic gallstone on CT was correlated with the clinical course.RESULTS: The diagnostic criteria of gallstone ileus on CT were established retrospectively, which included: (1) SBO; (2) ectopic gallstone; either rim-calcified or total-calcified; (3) abnormal gall bladder with complete air collection, presence of air-fluid level, or fluid accumulation with irregular wall. Prospectively, CT confirmed the diagnosis in 13 cases of gallstone ileus with these three criteria. Only one false negative case could be identified. The remaining 151 patients are true negative cases and no false positive case could be disclosed. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CT in diagnosing gallstone ileus were 93%, 100%; and 99%, respectively. Surgical exploration was performed in 13 patients of gallstone ileus with ectopic stones sized larger than 3 cm. One patient recovered uneventfully following conservative treatment with an

  5. The surgical treatment of a rare complication: gallstone ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Marcello; Cardì, Francesco; Brancato, Giovanna; Calò, Piergiorgio; Donati, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe 3 cases of gallstone ileus observed in two different hospitals and evaluate the current rarity of this complication of the biliary lithiasis and/or of cholangiocarcinomas. There were two cases of stones at the ileal level and one case in the left colon. In one case a single surgical intervention was carried out while in the other a two-step strategy was adopted. Notwithstanding the fact that the correct strategy to adopt is still controversial in literature, the authors discuss the single and double step strategies and propose that the second intervention of the 2-step strategy should not be performed in high risk surgical patients.

  6. Impaired gallbladder motility and delayed orocecal transit contribute to pigment gallstone and biliary sludge formation in β-thalassemia major adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piero Portincasa; Giuseppe Palasciano; Antonio Moschetta; Massimo Berardino; Agostino Di Ciaula; Michele Vacca; Giuseppe Baldassarre; Anna Pietrapertosa; Rosario Cammarota; Nunzia Tannoia

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility defects exist in gallstones patients and to a lesser extent in pigment gallstone patients. To investigated the role of gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility disorders in pigment gallstone formation in β-thalassemia major.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with β-thalassemia major (16 females; age range 18-37 years) and 70 controls (47 females, age range 18-40 years) were studied for gallbladder and gastric emptying (functional ultrasonography),orocecal transit (OCTT, H2-breath test), autonomic dysfunction (sweat-spot, cardiorespiratory reflex tests),bowel habits, gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life (all with questionnaires). Gallbladder content (ultrasonography)was examined before and during 8-12 mo follow-up.RESULTS: Gallstones and/or biliary sludge were found in 13 (56%) patients. β-thalassemia major patients had increased fasting (38.0±4.8 mL vs20,3±0.7 mL, P= 0.0001)and residual (7.9±1.3 mL vs5.1±0.3 mL, P= 0.002) volume and slightly slower emptying (24.9±1.7 min vs20.1±0.7 min,P = 0.04) of the gallbladder, together with longer OCTT (132.2±7.8 min vs99.7±2.3 min, P= 0.00003) than controls.No differences in gastric emptying and bowel habits were found. Also, patients had higher dyspepsia (score: 6.7±1.2vs 4.9±0.2, P = 0.027), greater appetite (P = 0.000004)and lower health perception (P = 0.00002) than controls.Autonomic dysfunction was diagnosed in 52% of patients (positive tests: 76.2% and 66.7% for parasympathetic and sympathetic involvement, respectively). Patients developing sludge during follow-up (38%, 2 with prior stones) had increased fasting and residual gallbladder volume.CONCLUSION: Adult β-thalassemia major patients have gallbladder dysmotility associated with delayed small intestinal transit and autonomic dysfunction. These abnormalities apparently contribute together with haemolytic hyperbilirubinemia to the pathogenesis of pigment gallstones/sludge in β-thalassemia major.

  7. Effect of Nourishing “Yin”-Removing “Fire” Chinese Herbal Mixture on Hypothalamic NKB/NK3R Expression in Female Precocious Rats

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    Shiran Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present study aims to investigate the effects of nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture on the hypothalamic NKB/NK3R expression in female precocious model rats. Materials and Methods. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal (N, central precocious puberty (CPP model (M, CPP fed with Chinese herbal mixture (CHM, and CPP fed with normal saline (MS. Rats on postnatal day 5 were given a single subcutaneous injection of 300 μg to establish CPP model rats. Rats of CHM and MS groups were continuously administered with nourishing “Yin”-removing “Fire” Chinese herb mixture or saline since postnatal day 15. The expressions of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R were detected by means of real-time PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence histochemistry. Results. The day of vaginal opening and establishment of two regular estrous cycles were delayed in the CHM group compared with M and MS groups. The expression of hypothalamic NKB/NK3R mRNA and protein in the arcuate nucleus (ARC and medial preoptic (MPO area were decreased significantly in the CHM group compared with the M and MS groups on the day of onset-puberty. Conclusions. These results indicate that the NKB/NK3R signaling pathway might be involved in the effect of herbal mixture treatment on CPP.

  8. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower (P Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  9. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598 was lower (P<0.0001 than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071. Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  10. Preventing a Mass Disease: The Case of Gallstones Disease: Role and Competence for Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone formation is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors. We searched and reviewed the available literature to define how the primary prevention of gallstones (cholesterol gallstones in particular) could be applied in general practice. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case–controlled studies were analyzed and graded for evidence quality. The epidemiological data confirmed that genetic factors are estimated to account for only approximately 25% of the overall risk of gallstones, while metabolic/environmental factors are at least partially modifiable in stone-free risk groups, and are thus modifiable by primary prevention measures related to diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors (i.e., rapid weight loss, bariatric surgery, somatostatin or analogues therapy, transient gallbladder stasis, and hormone therapy). There is no specific recommendation for the secondary prevention of recurrent gallstones. Family physicians can contribute to preventing gallstones due to their capability to identify and effectively manage several risk factors discussed in this study. Although further studies are needed to better elucidate the involvement of epigenetic factors that may regulate the effect of environment and lifestyle on gene expression in the primary prevention of gallstone formation, preventive interventions are feasible and advisable in the general practice setting. PMID:27468338

  11. The role of oral contraceptive (OCP use in symptomatic gallstone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian SF

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relation between oral contraceptive (OCPs use, body mass index, parity, familial history of gallstone disease, history of diabetes, history of hyperlipidemia and gallstone disease in women, we have undertaken a case-control study. The study population comparison 80 hospital patients with diagnosed acute gallstone disease as case group and 200 controls who were patients in hospital with no history of gallstone disease. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and T-student test. The results revealed that: The use of OCPs in case group is higher than that of control group. But there is no significant difference between them. No relation was found between gallstone disease and body mass index, parity, history of diabetes, familial history of gallstone disease, use of OCPs of different types and duration of use. While there was a significant difference between the 2 groups regarding history of hyperlipidemia (P<0.05. Finally we found no correlation between the history of use, types and duration of use of OCPs and symptomatic gallstone disease. There was no indication of any interaction between oral contraceptive use and other risk factors and duration of OCP use and other risk factors in the production of disease.

  12. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

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    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  13. Íleo biliar: enterolitotomia videoassistida Gallstone ileus: videoassisted enterolithotomy

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    Álvaro Queiroz de Godoy

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment, morbidity and mortality of patients with gallstone ileus depend on an accurate diagnosis made in time, and also on a more adequate therapeutic option.A detailed clinical evaluation is fundamental for such diagnosis. Complementary exams like a simple radiological study of the abdomen, high and low endoscopies, an ultrasonography, and a tomography can also be performed. The therapeutic options include the removal of the obstructive factor separately, the performance of a treatment in two separate stages, or the performance of a complete treatment (removal of the calculus, cholecystectomy, and the closing of the fistula.This study aims to present a case report of an elderly man of high surgical risk, presenting gallstone ileus. He was submitted to an isolated videoassisted enterolithotomy through a minilaparotomy. Taking into consideration the patient’s advanced age and the lack of evidence as to other biliary associated pathologies, the chosen treatment seemed to be a good alternative. The evolution was good, and after an 8 month follow-up the patient was found well and with no biliary symptoms whatsoever.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS ON THE ARSENIC CONTENT IN GALLSTONES OF INHABITANTS FROM SOUTHERN POLAND

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    Jerzy Kwapulińki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out on the changes in arsenic content in concretions of gallstones which were taken from 93 women (33 smoking and 60 no smoking and 40 men (14 smoking and 26 no smoking, respectively. The elemental composition of gallstones was determined with ICP-AES method (Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Studies on arsenic occurrence in concretions of gallstones showed the presence of its higher concentrations in case of women (0,55 µg/g in comparison with men (0,50 µg/g. It was shown a differences in pattern of changes of arsenic concentration in gallstones in case of influence of behaviour factors (age, place of living, education, diet, coffee and alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity.

  15. Gallstone ileus obstructing within an incarcerated lumbar hernia: an unusual presentation of a rare diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesmann, Markus Tyler; Alotaiby, Nouf; Al Abbasi, Thamer; Rezende-Neto, Joao B

    2014-12-03

    We describe an unusual case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction and a clinically appreciable, irreducible, left-sided lumbar hernia associated with previous iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Palpation of the hernia demonstrated a small, firm mass within the loops of herniated bowel. CT scanning recognised an intraluminal gallstone at the transition point, establishing the diagnosis of gallstone ileus within an incarcerated lumbar hernia. The proposed explanatory mechanism is that of a gallstone migrating into an easily reducible hernia containing small bowel causing obstruction at the hernia neck by a ball-valve mechanism, resulting in proximal bowel dilation and thus hernia incarceration; it remains unclear when the stone entered the hernia, and whether it enlarged in situ or prior to entering the enteral tract. This is only the second reported instance in the literature of an intraluminal gallstone causing hernia incarceration.

  16. Immediate Postoperative Pain: An Atypical Presentation of Dropped Gallstones after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

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    Samba Binagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the United States. A common complication is dropped gallstones, and the diversity of their presentation poses a substantial diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a 58-year-old man presenting with chronic right upper quadrant hours status post cholecystectomy. Imaging demonstrated retained gallstones in the perihepatic space and symptoms remitted following their removal via laparoscopic operation. Gallstones are lost in roughly 1 in 40 cholecystectomies and are usually asymptomatic. The most common presentations are months or years status post cholecystectomy due to fistula, abscess, or sinus tract formation. We report this case hoping to bring light to a rare presentation for dropped gallstones and provide advice on the management of this common complication of cholecystectomy.

  17. Known risk factors do not explain disparities in gallstone prevalence between Denmark and northeast Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    .52-2.36)) had approximatively twice the odds of gallstones than Danes. Inclusion of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, coffee use) did not affect this result, whereas adjustment for body mass index (BMI), lipids, diabetes, and use of oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and parity......OBJECTIVES: Gallstones are a common disease worldwide, with disparities in the prevalence of the disease in different settings. The aim of the present study was to assess if different distributions of risk factors could explain the disparities in the prevalence of gallstone disease between Denmark...... regression models were performed to assess the confounding effect of selected risk factors on regional disparities in gallstone disease. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and vocational training, German subjects (women: Odds ratio, OR, 2.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.07-2.91); men: OR, 1.89 (95% CI: 1...

  18. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  19. Extreme Bilirubin Levels as a Causal Risk Factor for Symptomatic Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease....

  20. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Nuclear Receptor Function and Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

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    Mary Carmen Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease is highly prevalent in western countries, particularly in women and some specific ethnic groups. The formation of water-insoluble cholesterol crystals is due to a misbalance between the three major lipids present in the bile: cholesterol, bile salts, and phospholipids. Many proteins implicated in biliary lipid secretion in the liver are regulated by several transcription factors, including nuclear receptors LXR and FXR. Human and murine genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological evidence is consistent with the relevance of these nuclear receptors in gallstone formation. In addition, there is emerging data that also suggests a role for estrogen receptor ESR1 in abnormal cholesterol metabolism leading to gallstone disease. A better comprehension of the role of nuclear receptor function in gallstone formation may help to design new and more effective therapeutic strategies for this highly prevalent disease condition.

  1. High level of deoxycholic acid in human bile does not promote cholesterol gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulf Gustafsson; Staffan Sahlin; Curt Einarsson

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study whether patients with excess deoxycholic acid (DCA) differ from those with normal percentage of DCA with respect to biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation of gallbladder bile.METHODS: Bile was collected during operation through puncturing into the gallbladder from 122 cholesterol gallstone patients and 46 gallstone-free subjects undergoing cholecystectomy. Clinical data, biliary lipids, bile acid composition,presence of crystals and nucleation time were analyzed.RESULTS: A subgroup of gallstone patients displayeda higher proportion of DCA in bile than gallstone free subjects.By choosing a cut-off level of the 90th percentile, a group of 13 gallstone patients with high DCA levels (mean 50percent of total bile acids) and a large group of 109 patients with normal DCA levels (mean 21 percent of total bile acids)were obtained. The mean age of the patients with high DCA levels was higher than that of the group with normal levels (mean age: 62 years vs45 years) and so was the mean BMI (28.3 vs. 24.7). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were slightly higher in the DCA excess groups compared with those in the normal DCA group. There was no difference in biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals in bile between patients with high and normal levels of DCA.CONCLUSION: Gallstone patients with excess DCA were of older age and had higher BMI than patients with normal DCA. The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals. It is concluded that DCA in bile does not seem to contribute to gallstone formation in cholesterol gallstone patients.

  2. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Our serial studies from 1970s on chemical composition, structure determination and formation mechanism of gallstones were reviewed. The chemical component investigation of brown-pigment gallstone demonstrated that it consists of macromolecules such as proteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, bilirubin polymers and pigment polymers, and biomolecules such as cholesterol, bile salts, calcium salts of carbonate, phosphate, fatty acids and bilirubinate as well as various metal ions. The binding of metal ions with bile salts and bilirubin plays important roles in gallstone formation, i.e., calcium bilirubinate complex is the major constitute of brown-pigment gallstones, and copper bilirubinate complex is critical in the black color appearance of black-pigment gallstone. The cross section of many gallstones exhibits a concentric ring structure composed of various small particles with a fractal character. This is nonlinear phenomenon in gallstone formation. A typical model system of metal ions-deoxycholate (or cholate)-gel was chosen to mimic an in vitro pattern formation system. The experimental results suggested that a nonlinear scientific concept should be considered in understanding gallstone formation. Minor changes in the chemical composition and/or the microenvironment may lead to very different precipitate patterns with a variety of shapes, colors, appearances, and structures. A new model was suggested that periodical templets of periodical and fractal patterns were formed in the initial stage, then the spatio-temporal patterns grew gradually on it. Furthermore, the interaction between divalent metal ions and bile salts in vitro was investigated, and the results indicated that non-stoichiometric M(DC)2-NaDC mixed complexes with mixed micelles structure can be formed in physiological condition.

  3. Colovesical fistula due to a lost gallstone following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, F; Awwad, Z M; Masad, J

    2001-01-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old man with a colovesical fistula caused by a gallstone that was lost during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy 7 months earlier. The patient was cured after undergoing colonoscopic removal of the stone. To our knowledge this is the first case report of such a complication in the English literature. The report reviews the outcome and complications of retained intraperitoneal gallstones.

  4. Prevalence of gallstone disease in first-degree relatives of patients with cholelithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Francesco Attili; Adriano De Santis; Fabia Attili; Enrico Roda; Davide Festi; Nicola Carulli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of familiality on the prevalence of gallstone disease (GD) in Italy.METHODS: Families of 79 subjects with gallstones (cases) and of 79 subjects without gallstones (controls)were investigated for the presence of gallstones by ultrasonography. Index cases and index controls were matched for age, sex, and operative unit. Sixty-three and sixty-two husbands and wives of index cases and index controls, respectively, were also studied.RESULTS: Overall,the prevalence of GD was significantly higher (X2=14.52, P<0.001) in the 202 first-degree relatives of subjects with gallstones than that in the 201 first-degree relatives of subjects without gallstones (28.6% vs 12.4%, relative risk (RR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.63). In particular,prevalence of GD was significantly higher in mothers,fathers, and sisters of index cases than that in the respective family members of index controls. The highest RR was observed in mothers (RR=2.35, 95%CI 1.38-4.3).Prevalence of GD was not obviously different in brothers and also in husbands and wives of index cases and index controls. Family members of index cases did not differ from family members of control cases with respect to the most important risk factors for gallstones (age, diabetes,BMI, and number of pregnancies) with an exception of a higher prevalence of diabetes in fathers of index controls than in fathers of index cases.CONCLUSION: This study confirms that familiality plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of gallstones.

  5. Gallstone ileus following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy: a case report

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    Goyal Amit

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gallstone ileus is a mechanical obstruction caused by the impaction of one or more gallstones within the lumen of any part of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the disorder is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction (1% to 2%, it has been reported to cause up to 25% of cases of non-strangulated small bowel obstruction in patients over 65 years of age. Case presentation We report a case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with gallstone ileus following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis. She had a history of terminal ileum resection with ileocolic anastomosis for Crohn's disease. A 3 cm gallstone was found to be impacted just proximal to the previous ileocolic anastomosis. A second gallstone was found on digital examination of the proximal small bowel. Conclusion A gallstone may enter the gastrointestinal tract following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy and impact proximal to an anastomotic stricture as demonstrated here. The radiographic image of small bowel obstruction plus air in the biliary tree is a classic diagnostic finding. After stone extraction, the entire small bowel and colon should be digitally examined for further stones.

  6. Spontaneous gallstone formation in deer mice: interaction of cholesterol, bile acids, and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginnett, Dorothy A; Theis, Jerold H; Kaneko, J Jerry

    2003-01-01

    A study of the physiologic and ecologic factors involved in a spontaneous seasonal gallstone cycle of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus gambelii) was conducted at the Tulelake National Wildlife Refuge (California, USA) from March 1991 to June 1992. The specific hypothesis examined was whether or not seasonal increases in dietary fiber intake provides the necessary conditions for a solubility defect, or supersaturation mechanism, resulting in precipitation of cholesterol gallstones. Results indicated that in addition to the seasonal gallstone prevalence cycle, these deer mice exhibit significant seasonal cycling in serum cholesterol, serum bile acids, fecal bile acids, and diet composition. These physiologic and dietary cycles were phase-advanced 3 mo over the gallstone prevalence cycle, indicating an approximate 3 mo time period for gallstone formation under field conditions. Further, seasonal dietary fiber (plant material and seeds) was positively correlated with both serum cholesterol and the fecal bile acids. This suggests that in wild deer mice, variations in dietary fiber may significantly affect the resorption of bile acids, thereby providing a potential physiologic and nutritional mechanism for spontaneous cholesterol gallstone formation.

  7. Hyodeoxycholic acid: a new approach to gallstone prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSherry, C K; Mosbach, E H; Cohen, B I; Une, M; Stenger, R J; Singhal, A K

    1985-01-01

    Hyodeoxycholic acid and its isomer, 6 beta-hyodeoxycholic acid, when added to a lithogenic diet prevented the formation of cholesterol gallstones and crystals in prairie dogs. This beneficial effect occurred in the presence of bile supersaturated with cholesterol. Hyodeoxycholic acid abolished the feedback inhibition of hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and prevented elevations in serum and liver cholesterol observed in animals fed a 0.4 percent cholesterol diet. The gallbladder bile of the animals fed hyodeoxycholic acid and 6 beta-hyodeoxycholic acid contained abundant liquid crystals. This suggests that these bile acids prevented the transition of cholesterol from its liquid crystalline phase to solid crystals and stones.

  8. Gallstone-relatedcomplicationsafterRoux-en-Y gastricbypass:aprospectivestudy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachid G Nagem; Alcino Lázaro-da-Silva

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric  bypass  is  a  widespread  bariatric procedure that carries a high incidence of gallstone formation postoperatively. Controversy exists regarding the importance and consequences of gallstones in these patients. There are surgeons  who  consider  gallstone-related  complications after  gastric  bypass  important  enough  to  require  routine removal of the gallbladder during gastric bypass (prophylactic cholecystectomy). However, this can lead to increased costs and risks. This study aimed to identify complications related to cholelithiasis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 40 morbidly obese patients free of gallbladder disease. The patients underwent open RYGBP at a public hospital in Brazil from February to October 2007. They were followed up clinically and ultrasonographically at 6 months and 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. Of the patients, 38 patients were followed up for 3 years. RESULTS: Eleven  patients  (28.9%)  developed  cholelithiasis, four (10.5%) experienced biliary pain, and 2 suffered from acute  biliary  pancreatitis  (5.3%).  These  patients  had  their gallbladders removed laparoscopically. No patient presented with  acute  cholecystitis,  choledocholithiasis,  or  bile  duct dilation during the follow-up period. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone-related complications after RYGBP were relatively common. Some of these complications, like acute pancreatitis, are known to have potentially severe outcomes. It seems reasonable to perform cholecystectomy

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese females aged 15 to 45 years: a phase I trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Cai Zhu; Chang-Gui Li; Hong-Xing Pan; Yi-Ju Zhang; Dan Bi; Hai-Wen Tang; Sanjoy Datta

    2011-01-01

    Globally,about 70% of cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 or HPV-18 infection. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies in China showed that HPV was present in 98% of cervical cancer samples. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix(R)* has shown a high level of protection against HPV-16/18 infections and associated cervical lesions. This phase I trial (NCT00549900)assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the vaccine in Chinese. Thirty healthy Chinese females, aged 15 to 45 years with a median age of 29.5 years, received three doses of Cervarix(R) in Months 0, 1, and 6. Safety was assessed via recording solicited local and systemic symptoms within 7days and unsolicited symptoms within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events, new onset of chronic diseases, and other medically significant conditions were recorded throughout this trial. As an exploratory objective, HPV-16/18 antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples collected in Months 0 and 7. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported local symptom. Two subjects reported medically significant adverse events. Both cases were assessed as unrelated to vaccination by the investigator. In Month 7, 100% seroconversion was observed for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with high geometric mean antibody titers. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine,evaluated for the first time in Chinese females, was generally well tolerated and immunogenic, as previously shown in global studies.

  10. High rate of complicated idiopathic gallstone disease in pediatric patients of a North American tertiary care center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise Herzog; Guylaine Bouchard

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To assess spectrum and etiology of gallstones and biliary sludge in the pediatric population of a North American tertiary care centre.METHODS:Retrospective review of abdominal ultrasounds recorded at Saint Justine Hospital over a period of 24 mo(8/2003 to 8/2005)in patients<19 years of age.Patients<2 years of age were analyzed separately.RESULTS:The presence of gallstones was noted in 127 patients.In 107 it was a new diagnosis,in 48/105 (45.7%)patients>2 years of age idiopathic gallstone disease was found.These 48 patients represent 2.1% of the population who required ultrasound for abdominal pain.Complicated gallstone disease occurred in 28/48 with idiopathic disease,mainly adolescent girls.Patients with hemolytic disorders,cystic fibrosis,oncologic diseases or kidney transplantation and gallstones were asymptomatic and stones were detected during routine abdominal ultrasound.Twenty two patients<2 years of age not consulting for abdominal pain had gallstone disease of diverse etiology.Biliary sludge was seen in 84 patients,78.5% on total parenteral nutrition.In 4 patients,sludge progressed to gallstones.CONCLUSION:Idiopathic gallstone disease and its rate of complication are more frequent in our cohort than expected from previous studies.Adolescent girls with abdominal pain and idiopathic gallstones require special attention for complicated disease course.

  11. Possible relationship between intestinal barrier function and formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Lei Sun; Bei-Bei Fu; Yang Su

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of bacteria in bile is an important factor in the formation of pigment gallstones. The bile of healthy people is sterile and bacteria in the biliary system come from endogenous infection from the gut. Yet, the route of bacterial translocation into the bile duct is still unclear. Theoretically, two routes exist:one is through the intestinal barrier and the other is by direct relfux from the sphincter of Oddi. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between the effectiveness of intestinal barrier and the formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters. METHODS: Thirty-two hamsters were divided into an experimental and a control group, with 16 hamsters in each group. A low protein and high cellulose diet was given for 6 weeks to induce the formation of pigment gallstones in the experimental group (PS) and a normal diet was given to the control group (CON). Morphological changes, changes in the levels of serum endotoxin and diamine oxidase, and changes in the numbers of B lymphocytes, plasma cells and secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA) in the intestinal mucosa were assessed after 6 weeks. RESULTS:Four hamsters died during lithogenesis and body weight decreased in the PS group. Pigment gallstones were found in 11 hamsters at the end of the experiment, giving a lithogenesis rate of 91.67%. The serum endotoxin level before and after gallstone formation in the PS group was 0.2960±0.1734 U/ml and 8.2964±4.6268 U/ml, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS:A low protein and high cellulose diet can markedly reduce intestinal barrier function and facilitate the formation of pigment gallstones. The decrease of intestinal barrier function may take part in the formation of pigment gallstones.

  12. Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Gallstone Ileus. A Case Presentation Oclusión intestinal por íleo biliar. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayquel Monzón Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Gallstone ileus is the mechanical obstruction of the digestive tract caused by the impact of a calculation in the intestinal lumen. It is a rare complication of gallstones occurring in only 0.1% of patients. The case of a female, 89 years old patient suffering from diabetes, hypertension and a heart condition, who attended the Surgery Emergency Service of the Hospital for abdominal pain and vomiting is presented. Through physical examination and complementary radiological tests it was detected the presence of a mechanical intestinal obstruction for which the patient underwent emergency surgery. As the cause of occlusion it was found a thick gallstone in a jejunal loop. The patient progressed satisfactorily and was discharged 5 days after surgery.

    El íleo biliar es la obstrucción mecánica del tubo digestivo producida por el impacto de un cálculo en la luz intestinal. Es una complicación rara de la litiasis biliar que ocurre en apenas el 0,1 % de los pacientes. Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 89 años, diabética, hipertensa  y con afección cardiaca que acudió al Cuerpo de Guardia de Cirugía del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, de Cienfuegos, por dolor abdominal y vómitos.  Se constató mediante examen físico y radiológico la presencia de una oclusión intestinal mecánica por lo cual fue  intervenida quirúrgicamente de urgencia. Se encontró como causa de la oclusión un grueso cálculo en un asa yeyunal. La paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente y fue dada de alta a los 5 días de operada.

  13. On Female Poets and Their Works in Chinese Russian Immigrants%论中国俄罗斯侨民女诗人及作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲雪萍

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学,是俄罗斯文学当中极具特色的一支,近年来受到了越来越多人的关注。文章研究俄侨女诗人的创作"共性"特征,并在此框架下就其作品的题材和女性形象等加以分析。首先,根据《松花江畔紫丁香》一书中收寻的作品剖析女诗人创作的普遍题材;其次,在此基础上,解析大量作品中彰显的艺术特色;最后,又着重解读女诗人笔下的女诗人形象,进而挖掘俄侨作品中的共性和个性,努力找寻女诗人作品中独到之处,进而阐述俄侨女诗人作品的研究价值。%Chinese Russian immigrant literature is an extremely unique branch of Russian literature and much attention is given to it in recent years. This paper mainly focuses on the common features of Russian immigrant female poets and analyzes the themes and female images. The first point is to explore the common theme of female poets in their works taking Lilac along Songhua River as example. Then, it goes to analyze the artistic features of the works. And lastly the paper interprets the female poet images and finds their common features and uniqueness and points out their research value.

  14. Gallstone ileus analysis of radiological findings in 27 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassandro, Francesco E-mail: f.lassandro@tiscalinet.it; Gagliardi, Nicola; Scuderi, Maria; Pinto, Antonio; Gatta, Gianluca; Mazzeo, Raffaele

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the clinical value of plain abdominal film, abdominal sonography and abdominal CT in diagnosing gallstone ileus in 27 patients. Material and methods: 27 patients (23 women and 4 men, age range 58-96 years; mean age 71.5 years) with surgically proven gallstone ileus were submitted to plain film, sonography and CT of the abdomen. Abdominal plain films were performed in 19 cases in upright position (postero-anterior projection), in eight cases in supine position. Abdominal US were performed with 3.5 and/or 7.5 MHz probes. CT was performed with a helical unit (slice thickness 4 mm, reconstruction interval 4 mm, pitch 1.5), after intravenous contrast agent (120 ml) infusion (3 ml/s, 55 s acquisition delay from bolus starting) and using a power injector. The following findings were searched on: pneumobilia, air in gallbladder, cholecysto-digestive fistula, extraluminal fluid, bowel loops dilatation, intestinal air-fluid levels, ectopic stones. Results: Plain abdominal films showed the following findings: air-fluid levels (77.78% of cases), bowel loops dilatation (88.89%), site of obstruction (44.4%), pneumobilia (37.04%), air in gallbladder (3.70%), ectopic stone (33.33%). Abdominal sonography demonstrated bowel loops dilatation (44.44%), extraluminal fluid (14.81%), ectopic stones (14.81%), gallbladder abnormalities, (37.04%), pneumobilia (55.56%). CT findings retrospectively observed were: bowel loops dilatation (92.59%), air-fluid levels (37.04%), bilio-digestive fistula (14.81%), pneumobilia (88.89%), ectopic stone (81.48%), extraluminal fluid (22.22%). The Rigler's triad, that is pneumobilia, bowel mechanical obstruction and ectopic stone detection was observed 4 times with RX (14.81%), 3 times with US (11.11%) and 21 times with CT (77.78%). Conclusions: Air-fluid levels and bowel loop dilatation were the radiological findings more frequently observed in our series. Plain abdominal film allowed us mainly to identify signs of

  15. Comparable rate of EGFR kinase domain mutation in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese male and female never-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hua SUN; Rong FANG; Bin GAO; Xiang-kun HAN; Jun-hua ZHANG; William PAO; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer patients with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations frequently show good responses to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including Iressa and Tarceva, in clinical studies[1-3]. Previous studies have demonstrated that EGFR kinase domain mutations are commonly observed in lung adenocarcinomas, never-smokers,East Asian, and females[4-8].

  16. A yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula enhances mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity in various tissues of male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hoi Yan; Chiu, Po Yee; Poon, Michel K T; Ko, Kam Ming

    2005-01-01

    The practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) always emphasizes the prevention of diseases and delaying the onset of senility. In this regard, the maintenance of a balance of Yin and Yang-two opposing components involved in life activities as exemplified by the antagonistic action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems-is essential in achieving a healthy condition. Previous studies have shown that long-term treatment with a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula (VI-28) could increase red cell CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in male human subjects. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic VI-28 treatment (80 and 240 mg/kg/day for 30 days) on red cell CuZn-SOD activity as well as mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant components in various tissues of male and female rats. The results indicated that VI-28 treatment increased red cell CuZn-SOD activity as well as mitochondrial ATP generation capacity, reduced glutathione and alpha-tocopherol levels, and Mn-SOD activity in brain, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle tissues in both male and female rats to varying extents. The VI-28?induced increase in mitochondrial antioxidant capacity in various tissues was evidenced by the significant reduction in the extent of reactive oxygen species generation assessed by in vitro measurement. The red cell CuZn-SOD activities correlated positively with tissue mitochondrial antioxidant component levels/activity. The beneficial effect of VI-28 treatment on mitochondrial functional ability and antioxidant capacity may have clinical implications in the prevention of age-related diseases.

  17. Gallstone ileus in a patient with Crohn's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelen, C; Huyghe, M

    2012-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare complication of cholelithiasis. Only 0,3-0,5% of all patients with gallstones will eventually suffer from this condition. It is well known that there is an increased prevalence of gallstones among patients with Crohn's disease, but gallstone ileus remains even in these patients an unfrequent condition. Because of the rarity of this disease and its presentation as an intestinal (sub)obstruction, mostly without biliary symptoms, diagnosis and surgical treatment are often delayed. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman with a long history of Crohn's disease presenting with intermittent symptoms of intestinal obstruction since several weeks. Symptoms were thought to be due to recurrence of Crohn's disease, but the patient did not respond to steroid therapy. Resection of the diseased ileocolic segment was performed and a large impacted stone was detected proximal of the stenotic segment. With this case report we want to emphasize how easily diagnosis of gallstone ileus can be missed, especially in Crohn's patients and we would like to discuss the different treatment options.

  18. Perforated Closed-Loop Obstruction Secondary to Gallstone Ileus of the Transverse Colon: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Carr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gallstone ileus (GSI of the colon is an extremely rare entity with potentially serious complications including perforation. Case Presentation. An 88-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distension. Clinical exam revealed signs of peritonism. Computed tomography (CT revealed GSI of the transverse colon with a closed-loop large bowel obstruction (LBO and caecal perforation. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy was performed, the gallstone was removed, and a primary bowel anastomosis was undertaken. A Foley catheter was sutured into the residual gallbladder bed to create a controlled biliary fistula. The patient recovered well postoperatively with no complications. He was discharged home with the Foley catheter in situ. Discussion. Gallstone ileus is a difficult diagnosis both clinically and radiologically with only 50% of cases being diagnosed preoperatively. Most commonly it is associated with impaction at the ileocaecal valve and small bowel obstruction. Gallstone ileus should also be considered as a rare but potential cause of LBO. This is the first reported case of caecal perforation secondary to gallstone ileus of the transverse colon. Successful operative management consisted of a one-stage procedure with right hemicolectomy and formation of a controlled biliary fistula.

  19. Perforated closed-loop obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus of the transverse colon: a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, S P; MacNamara, F T; Muhammed, K M; Boyle, E; McHugh, S M; Naughton, P; Leahy, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Gallstone ileus (GSI) of the colon is an extremely rare entity with potentially serious complications including perforation. Case Presentation. An 88-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distension. Clinical exam revealed signs of peritonism. Computed tomography (CT) revealed GSI of the transverse colon with a closed-loop large bowel obstruction (LBO) and caecal perforation. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy was performed, the gallstone was removed, and a primary bowel anastomosis was undertaken. A Foley catheter was sutured into the residual gallbladder bed to create a controlled biliary fistula. The patient recovered well postoperatively with no complications. He was discharged home with the Foley catheter in situ. Discussion. Gallstone ileus is a difficult diagnosis both clinically and radiologically with only 50% of cases being diagnosed preoperatively. Most commonly it is associated with impaction at the ileocaecal valve and small bowel obstruction. Gallstone ileus should also be considered as a rare but potential cause of LBO. This is the first reported case of caecal perforation secondary to gallstone ileus of the transverse colon. Successful operative management consisted of a one-stage procedure with right hemicolectomy and formation of a controlled biliary fistula.

  20. Hepatic Mttp deletion reverses gallstone susceptibility in L-Fabp knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that L-Fabp KO mice are more susceptible to lithogenic diet (LD)-induced gallstones because of altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism and increased canalicular cholesterol secretion. Other studies demonstrated that liver-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-LKO) reduced LD-induced gallstone formation by increasing biliary phospholipid secretion. Here we show that mice with combined deletion (i.e., DKO mice) are protected from LD-induced gallstone formation. Following 2 weeks of LD feeding, 73% of WT and 100% of L-Fabp KO mice developed gallstones versus 18% of Mttp-LKO and 23% of DKO mice. This phenotype was recapitulated in both WT and L-Fabp KO mice treated with an Mttp antisense oligonucleotide (M-ASO). Biliary cholesterol secretion was increased in LD-fed L-Fabp KO mice and decreased in DKO mice. However, phospholipid secretion was unchanged in LD-fed Mttp-LKO and DKO mice as well as in M-ASO-treated mice. Expression of the canalicular export pump ABCG5/G8 was reduced in LD-fed DKO mice and in M-ASO-treated L-Fabp KO mice. We conclude that liver-specific Mttp deletion not only eliminates apical lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes but also attenuates canalicular cholesterol secretion, which in turn decreases LD-induced gallstone susceptibility.

  1. A study on the choice of treatment for gallstones by ultrasonography and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yoji; Takeguchi, Toichiro; Sagawa, Hirohumi; Shimamura, Teruomi (Amakusa Central Hospital, Hondo, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1992-03-01

    In 183 patients with gallstones we compared the chemical composition with the ultrasonographic patterns and CT values of gallstones; the gallbladder (GB) contraction by yolk stimulation and the degree of inflammation with the thickness of GB wall measured by ultrasonography (US), and investigated the treatment for gallstones. According to the Tsuchiya's ultrasonographic classification, in stones larger than 10 mm in diameter, type I and II indicated cholesterol stones and type III did calcium bilirubinate stones or black stones; in smaller than 10 mm in diameter, the accumulated type without an acoustic shadow showed black stones. Although the diagnosis of chemical composition was insufficient by US. On the other hand, CT values closely reflected chemical composition. Gallstones with CT values less than 80 consisted of cholesterol, ones more than 80 and less than 200 consisted of bilirubine calcium, ones more than 200 showed that they contained more than 5 percent calcium carbonate and were positive in abdominal X-ray examination. Cases of less than 3 mm thickness of GB wall by US had a good GB contraction and a slight inflammation in GB wall; more than 5 mm had a poor contraction and a severe inflammation. In conclusion, chemical composition of gallstones, GB contraction and pathology of GB wall were able to be estimated by US and CT, and it should be helpful for the clinical choice of surgical or nonsurgical treatment such as bile acid resolution, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and cholecystectomy under laparotomy. (author).

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  3. Prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease in Canadian Micmac Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C N; Johnston, J L; Weldon, K L

    1977-10-08

    The prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease was studied between October 1973 and June 1976 in Canadian Micmac Indian women aged 15 to 50 years in an inland rural community near Shubenacadie, NS. Of 132 women at risk 98 underwent cholecystography, 6 had a history of cholecystectomy (verified from hospital records) and 3 had cholecystectomy because of cholecystitis during the 3 years of the study. Of the 17 abnormal cholecystograms 10 showed radiolucent gallstones, and repeated studies documented gallstones in 6 of the 7 radiographs on which the gallbladder was not visualized. The prevalence of gallstones was found to be 211/1000, and that of gallbladder disease, 240/1000. The peak prevalence was at 30 to 39 years of age. The women with gallbladder disease were significantly more obese and of greater parity than those without gallbladder disease even when age was controlled. The Micmac Indian women of Nova Scotia appear to be at a much higher risk for the development of cholesterol gallstones and gallbladder disease than Caucasian women in Framingham, Massachusetts.

  4. Relationship between bilirubin free radical and formation of pigment gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Tao Liu; Jian Hu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main progresses made inour group in the field of the mechanism of pigment gallstoneformation. It was found that after treetment with freeradicals, bilirubin (BR) was changed into free radical itself,and a semiquinone free radical and a superoxide free radicalbound with metal were recognized, which was detected byESR (electron spin resonance). By the meana of NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (Infra-red spectra), itwas postulated that bilirubin polymerized through thereaction between the vinyl group and the hydroxyl groupunder the attack of free radicals. It was also found thatbilirubin free radical were liable to calcify in a kinetic study.Because of its chemical properties, bilirubin free radical wasshown to be cytotoxic to hepetocyte, which wasdemonstrated based on the following facts: induction ofphospholipid peroxidation (LPO), leakage of lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) and decrease of glutathione. As tothe mechanism of bilirubin-induced cytotoxicity, it waspostulated that the main target of bilirubin free radical wasthe cell membrane, including phospholipid and membranebound proteins, especially spectrin, a content ofcytoskeleton. Based on the results mentioned above, it wasdeduced that bilirubin free radical is the key factor thatinitiates and promotes the formation of pigment gallstone,which is consistent with other researches in recent years.

  5. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone...... disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...

  6. The Ability of Bile to Scavenge Superoxide Radicals and Pigment Gallstone Formation in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Lin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After partial ligation of the common bile duct (CBD of guinea pigs, 14 of 16 animals developed pigment gallstones within one week (S group. Intraperitoneal injection of Vit. E and C, each 10 mg/kg daily from 3 days before CBD ligation to one week after the operation (S+V group, decreased the gallstone incidence to 5/14 (exact probability0.05, but Vit. E and C normalized the SR, and the difference between S group and S+V group was significant (p<0.05. These results suggested that Vit. E and C, known as antioxidants, enhanced the ability to scavenge oxygen radical in S+V group; and that in addition to the increases of UCB and Ca2+ concentrations, the participation of oxygen radicals might be of importance for pigment gallstone formation induced by bile duct obstruction.

  7. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation, pericholecystic abscess and cholecystoduodenal ifstula as the ifrst manifestations of gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vui Heng Chong; Kian Soon Lim; Varkey Vallickad Mathew

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is common, and complications that are frequently encountered include acute cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis, but rarely gallbladder perforation. METHOD: Data were retrospectively collected from clinical case notes and a literature review is presented. RESULTS: A 72-year-old lady presented with spontaneous gallbladder perforation, pericholecystic abscess and cholecystoduodenal ifstula as the ifrst manifestations of gallstone disease. She was previously well and had no abdominal complaints. Her condition was successfully managed with initial antibiotic therapy followed by interval cholecystectomy and ifstula repair. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlighted some uncommon but severe complications which occurred simultaneously as the ifrst manifestations of previously asymptomatic gallstone disease. Such complications need to be considered in patients suspected of intra-abdominal sepsis, even when there are no characteristic symptoms.

  8. A population-based cohort study of symptomatic gallstone disease in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Ming Liu; Chung-Te Hsu; Chung-Yi Li; Chu-Chieh Chen; Meng-Lun Liu; Jorn-Hon Liu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and to evaluate the risk of symptomatic GSD among diabetic patients.METHODS:The study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) dataset of ambulatory care patients,inpatient claims,and the updated registry of beneficiaries from 2000 to 2008.A total of 615 532 diabetic patients without a prior history of hospital treatment or ambulatory care visits for symptomatic GSD were identified in the year 2000.Age-and gender-matched control individuals free from both GSD and diabetes from 1997 to 1999 were randomly selected from the NHIR database (n =614 871).The incidence densities of symptomatic GSD were estimated according to the subjects' diabetic status.The distributions of age,gender,occupation,income,and residential area urbanization were compared between diabetic patients and control subjects using Cox proportion hazards models.Differences between the rates of selected comorbidities were also assessed in the two groups.RESULTS:Overall,60 734 diabetic patients and 48 116control patients developed symptomatic GSD and underwent operations,resulting in cumulative operation rates of 9.87% and 7.83%,respectively.The age and gender distributions of both groups were similar,with a mean age of 60 years and a predominance of females.The diabetic group had a significantly higher prevalence of all comorbidities of interest.A higher incidence of symptomatic GSD was observed in females than in males in both groups.In the control group,females under the age of 64 had a significantly higher incidence of GSD than the corresponding males,but this difference was reduced with increasing age.The cumulative incidences of operations for symptomatic GSD in the diabetic and control groups were 13.06 and 9.52 cases per 1000 person-years,respectively.Diabetic men exhibited a higher incidence of operations for symptomatic GSD than did their counterparts in the control group (12.35vs 8.75 cases per

  9. Gallstone ileus of the sigmoid colon: an unusual cause of large-bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Nadir; Subar, Daren; Loh, Mong-Yang; Goscimski, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone ileus of the colon is an exceedingly rare cause of large-bowel obstruction. It is usually the result of fistula formation between the gallbladder and large bowel facilitating entry of the stone into gastrointestinal tract. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography is an important diagnostic aid. Surgical management is the treatment of choice to prevent the disastrous complications of large-bowel obstruction. We describe the case of a 92-year-old man who presented with symptoms and signs of large-bowel obstruction. Radiological investigation showed a large gallstone impacted in the sigmoid colon. Open enterolithotomy was undertaken relieving the obstruction and the patient made a full recovery.

  10. Gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst: an unusual complication of cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamrah, Jasprit; Diep, Phuoc-Tan; Bennet, John; Warren, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    Cholecystitis can result in complications if not completely treated. These include gallbladder empyema, perforation and cholecystoenteric fistula. We report the first incidence of cholecystitis resulting in a gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst. A 71 year old patient presented with generalised peritonism that was worst in the epigastric area. Computer tomography (CT) revealed a perforated necrotic gallbladder. Emergency laparotomy, cholecystectomy, partial gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was required. The patient made a slow but full recovery. Pathology results revealed that chronic cholecystitis had resulted in a fistula with a duplication cyst overlying the greater curve of the stomach. Several one centimeter gallstones were found within the cyst cavity. PMID:24946358

  11. Study on soft tissue profile in chinese beautiful females%中国美貌汉族女性软组织侧貌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰睿; 乔珺; 米丛波; 潘旭; 张双

    2013-01-01

    目的:初步探讨中国美貌汉族女性软组织侧貌U1-STP指标、前额与上颌中切牙矢状向关系,为正畸、正颌外科及整形的临床诊治提供了美学评价的重要参考依据之一.方法:选取2008 ~2013年著名电影、电视剧及时尚杂志中面型美观、自然的美貌汉族女性75例,年龄18 ~ 36岁,对所有研究对象软组织侧貌图均采用Photoshop CS3图像处理软件进行测量分析、统计.结果:获得中国美貌汉族女性软组织侧貌U1-STP数据,发现45例女性(60%)上切牙颊面中点位于该平面之前(A);14例女性(19%)上切牙颊面中点位于该平面之上(N);16例女性(21%)上切牙颊面中点位于该平面之后(P);前额与上颌中切牙矢状向距离为(1.27±1.05) mm;前额倾斜度为(15.58± 2.61)°.结论:U1-STP指标结合了硬组织标志点及软组织标志线,是一种新的可靠的正畸正颌临床诊治美学参考指标.%Objective To investigate the UI-STP and the anteroposterior relationship of the maxillary central incisor to the forehead of Chinese Beautiful females,providing one of the clinical references of the aesthetic evaluation for orthodontics、orthognathic surgery and plastic surgery.Methods Totally 75 lateral pictures of famous beautiful females from 2008 to 2013 were collected from Chinese films and teleplay poster,ages ranging from 18 to 36 years.The measurements were performed with the application of Photoshop CS3,and the analysis to the data was carried out.Results The aesthetic data of Chinese beautiful females' U1-STP were obtained,the incisor was located in front of the STP (A)in 45 cases(60%);it was located on the plane(N)in 14 cases (19%);and it was behind(P)in 16 cases (21%);The distance between the maxillary central incisor to the forehead was (1.27 ±1.05)mm,the forehead inclination was(15.58±2.61)°.Conclusion The U1-STP relates a soft tissue reference with a hard tissue landmark,it could be a useful diagnostic and

  12. 我国高等学校中的女性领导特征调查研究%A Survey of the Female Leaders of Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺

    2015-01-01

    本文采用履历研究法,对我国1166所普通本科高等学校的7796位校级领导的简历进行整理分析研究。研究发现:我国高校领导中女性数量较少,且存在女性领导担任正职少、副职多的纵向隔离现象,以及女性担任党委领导多、行政领导少的横向隔离现象。此外,女性自身教育与学术背景偏低、国际化经历不足等问题,制约了女性领导的发展。我国的高校领导研究还未将性别因素作为一个主要的分析范畴和内容来对待,这一领域还需要更多的学术与政策关注。%Using Curriculum Vitae research method, this paper studies the characteristics of female leaders of Chinese universities. By studying 7796 top-level university leaders at 1166 Chinese universities, this paper finds that, there are not only insufficient women leaders in higher education institutions, but also segregation at both vertical and horizontal levels. The relatively insufficient educational and academic background and international experience are factors that restrict women from gaining leadership in higher education. The paper argues that gender differences deserve more academic and policy attention in the realm of university leadership.

  13. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9% participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses’ depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses’ depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses’ depressive symptoms.

  14. Association between Work-Family Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Female Nurses: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Psychological Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Junhui; Wu, Di; Liu, Li; Li, Xirui; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-12

    Depressive symptoms have been in the limelight for many kinds of people, but few studies have explored positive resources for combating depressive symptoms among Chinese nurses. The purpose of this study is to explore the association between work-family conflict (WFC) and depressive symptoms among Chinese female nurses, along with the mediating and moderating role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. This cross-sectional study was completed during the period of September and October 2013. A questionnaire that consisted of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Work-Family Conflict scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnair scale was distributed to nurses in Shenyang, China. A total of 824 individuals (effective response rate: 74.9%) participated. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of PsyCap in the relationship between WFC and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the moderating role of PsyCap. Both WFC and family-work conflict (FWC) were positively related with depressive symptoms. PsyCap positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. Self-efficacy and hope positively moderated the relationship of WFC with depressive symptoms. PsyCap partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Hope and optimism partially mediated the relationship of FWC with depressive symptoms. Work-family conflict, as the risk factor of depressive symptoms, can increase nurses' depressive symptoms, and PsyCap is a positive resource to combat nurses' depressive symptoms. PsyCap can aggravate the effects of WFC on depressive symptoms and FWC can impact PsyCap to increase nurses' depressive symptoms.

  15. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway with blood pressure and uric acid levels in Chinese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Weng, Chi-Feng; Shih, Bing-Fu; Tsao, Hsueh-Jen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Chuang, Fu-Tai; Hu, Chung-Yi; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-12-01

    Since the high degree of heritability of physiological traits was demonstrated by twin and adoption studies, contemporary researchers in the fields of clinical medicine, behavioral science, and genetics have acknowledged the crucial role of genetic factors in human physiology. The study described herein explores the association between physiological parameters and the dopaminergic system using molecular genetic techniques. A total of 558 Taiwanese female volunteers, ranging from 16 to 17 years, were recruited. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway were selected for analysis. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were associated significantly with the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and the dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) C1021T polymorphism. Furthermore, plasma uric acid was associated significantly with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Our study suggests the possible involvement of genetic polymorphisms in COMT and DBH in the regulation of blood pressure and plasma uric acid.

  16. 大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异的实验研究%Experimental Study on Differences in the Free Association of Chinese Characters between Male and Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异.方法:运用实验法对110名大学生的汉字自由联想进行分析.结果:(1)男女大学生对音联和字联的回忆率存在差异;(2)男女大学生对感觉情绪词的回忆率存在差异;(3)男女大学生对反映心理的关键字的回忆率存在差异;(4)男女大学生自由联想汉字的偏旁部首存在差异.结论:汉字自由联想法可以用来分析大学生的思维、个性和心理健康状况.%Aim: to probe the differences in the free association of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Method: analyzing the free association of Chinese characters among 110 college students by an experimental study. Results: (l)There is difference in recall rale of thyme association and word association between male and female college students; (2)There is difference in recall rate of identifying emotional words between male and female college students; (3)There is difference in recall rate of key words reflecting psychological world between male and female college students; (4)There is difference in free association of radicals of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Conclusion: the free association of Chinese characters can be applied to analyze the college students' thoughts, personalities and psychological health status.

  17. Effect of intestinal transit on the formation of cholesterol gallstones in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Bei-Bei Fu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of "intestinal transit" has become a new ifeld of interest in the study of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. This study was undertaken to further test this notion and ascertain the relationship between impaired intestinal transit function and cholesterol gallstones. METHODS: A total of 64 hamsters were divided into 2 groups, experimental and control. Each was subdivided into 4 subgroups for sacriifce at different time. A high-cholesterol diet and a standard diet were fed to each group. The geometric center, which represents the intestinal transit function was calculated. RESULTS: The growth of all hamsters was normal. Cholesterol gallstones were found in 2 hamsters at the end of the 4th week. The geometric center values for the experimental and control groups were 2.3891±0.3923 vs. 2.7730±0.5283, at the end of week 3;1.8148±0.4312 vs. 3.2294±1.1613 at week 4;1.8451±0.3700 vs. 2.9075±0.3756 at week 5;and 1.8025±0.3413 vs. 3.0920±0.5622 at week 6. CONCLUSION: A high cholesterol diet can signiifcantly reduce the intestinal transit function and facilitate the formation of cholesterol gallstones.

  18. Gallstone ileus diagnosed by technetium-99m dimethyliminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkin, C.M.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-02-01

    Tc-99m IDA cholescintigraphy frequently provides information regarding nonbiliary pathology, such as small bowel obstruction. The cholescintigraphic finding of functional cystic duct obstruction concomitant with persistent small bowel dilatation and lack of progression of labeled bile suggests the diagnosis of gallstone ileus.

  19. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yie, Miyeon [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi, E-mail: jkm7290@empal.com [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 {+-} 7.26 mm, 10.20 {+-} 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 {+-} 6.14 mm, 3.85 {+-} 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  20. Ternary complexes of albumin-Mn(II)-bilirubin and Electron Spin Resonance studies of gallstones

    CERN Document Server

    Chikvaidze, E N; Kirikashvili, I N; Mamniashvili, G I

    2009-01-01

    The stability of albumin-bilirubin complex was investigated depending on pH of solution. It was shown that the stability of complex increases in presence of Mn(II) ions. It was also investigated the paramagnetic composition of gallstones by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. It turned out that all investigated gallstones contain a free bilirubin radical-the stable product of its radical oxidation. Accordingly the paramagnetic composition gallstones could be divided on three main types: cholesterol, brown pigment and black pigment stones. ESR spectra of cholesterol stones is singlet with g=2.003 and splitting between components 1.0 mT. At the same time the brown gallstones, besides aforementioned signal contain the ESR spectrum which is characteristics for Mn(II) ion complexes with inorganic compounds and, finally, in the black pigment stones it was found out Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes with organic compounds and a singlet of bilirubin free radical. It is supposed that crystallization centers of gallst...

  1. Abdominal wall abscess containing gallstones as a late complication to laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed 17 years earlier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Mark; Christensen, Mads Mark

    2013-01-01

    of a 53-year-old woman who developed two abscesses--one intra-abdominally and one in the abdominal wall-17 years after an LC. Three gallstones were found during surgical excision of the abdominal wall abscess. Surgeons should strive to avoid perforation of the gall bladder during LC. If spillage...

  2. 从社会性别视角审视当代中国女性消费%Study on Chinese Contemporary Female Consumption from the Perspective of Social Gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁翠清

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of China’ s economy and society as well as the spreading of western consumption concept, Chi-nese contemporary female consumption shows some new features and developmental tendency.Leading by the so-called thought of man-made beauty, the Chinese female indulge in beauty consumption and unilaterally pursue fashion, resulting in the unbalance between material consumption and psychological consumption.The female become the slave of consumption.Society and law should take meas-ures to relieve the blockade of the traditional gender idea on Chinese female consumption; abolish the corruption of consumerism on Chinese female;rectify the misleading by public media on Chinese female;study the present legal system from social gender view and protect female consumers′legal rights.%我国经济及社会的高速发展,西方消费主义观念的传入,当代中国女性消费呈现出新的特点及发展趋势。女性在所谓人造美丽意念的引导下,沉迷于美丽消费,片面追求时尚,导致物质消费与精神消费失衡,女性被物化、异化,沦为他者、被看者和消费奴隶。社会及法律应积极采取措施解除传统性别观念对女性消费代理社会角色的禁锢;破除消费主义对当代中国女性的毒性腐蚀;纠正大众传媒对当代中国女性的误导;从社会性别视角审视我国现有相关法律制度,保障女性消费者的合法权益。

  3. Effect of beta-muricholic acid on the prevention and dissolution of cholesterol gallstones in C57L/J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Q-H; Tazuma, Susumu

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated whether beta-muricholic acid, a natural trihydroxy hydrophilic bile acid of rodents, acts as a biliary cholesterol-desaturating agent to prevent cholesterol gallstones and if it facilitates the dissolution of gallstones compared with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). For gallstone prevention study, gallstone-susceptible male C57L mice were fed 8 weeks with a lithogenic diet (2% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid) with or without 0.5% UDCA or beta-muricholic acid. For gallstone dissolution study, additional groups of mice that have formed gallstones were fed chow with or without 0.5% beta-muricholic acid or UDCA for 8 weeks. One hundred percent of mice fed the lithogenic diet formed cholesterol gallstones. Addition of beta-muricholic acid and UDCA decreased gallstone prevalence to 20% and 50% through significantly reducing biliary secretion rate, saturation index, and intestinal absorption of cholesterol, as well as inducing phase boundary shift and an enlarged Region E that prevented the transition of cholesterol from its liquid crystalline phase to solid crystals and stones. Eight weeks of beta-muricholic acid and UDCA administration produced complete gallstone dissolution rates of 100% and 60% compared with the chow (10%). We conclude that beta-muricholic acid is more effective than UDCA in treating or preventing diet-induced or experimental cholesterol gallstones in mice.

  4. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-04-01

    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  5. Visualization of extracellular matrix components within sectioned Salmonella biofilms on the surface of human gallstones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Marshall

    Full Text Available Chronic carriage of Salmonella Typhi is mediated primarily through the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of cholesterol gallstones. Biofilms, by definition, involve the formation of a bacterial community encased within a protective macromolecular matrix. Previous work has demonstrated the composition of the biofilm matrix to be complex and highly variable in response to altered environmental conditions. Although known to play an important role in bacterial persistence in a variety of contexts, the Salmonella biofilm matrix remains largely uncharacterized under physiological conditions. Initial attempts to study matrix components and architecture of the biofilm matrix on gallstone surfaces were hindered by the auto-fluorescence of cholesterol. In this work we describe a method for sectioning and direct visualization of extracellular matrix components of the Salmonella biofilm on the surface of human cholesterol gallstones and provide a description of the major matrix components observed therein. Confocal micrographs revealed robust biofilm formation, characterized by abundant but highly heterogeneous expression of polysaccharides such as LPS, Vi and O-antigen capsule. CsgA was not observed in the biofilm matrix and flagellar expression was tightly restricted to the biofilm-cholesterol interface. Images also revealed the presence of preexisting Enterobacteriaceae encased within the structure of the gallstone. These results demonstrate the use and feasibility of this method while highlighting the importance of studying the native architecture of the gallstone biofilm. A better understanding of the contribution of individual matrix components to the overall biofilm structure will facilitate the development of more effective and specific methods to disrupt these bacterial communities.

  6. Gallstone Ileus: a Surgical Emergency Presentation Íleo biliar: presentación en la urgencia quirúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Jiménez Prendes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The case of a 60 years old female patient with a history of gallstones that was admitted as an emergency because of abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal distension of 2 days is presented. The patient presented also secondary moderate dehydration. In a simple abdominal radiography, radiological signs of intestinal occlusion were found. Electrolyte imbalance was corrected and an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Through this procedure, a large stone was found in the terminal ileum. Enterolithotomy was performed along with enterorraphy, thus solving the occlusion.Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 60 años de edad, con antecedentes de litiasis vesicular, que ingresó de urgencia por presentar un cuadro de dolor abdominal, vómitos y distensión en el abdomen con 2 días de evolución. De forma secundaria presentó una deshidratación moderada. En la radiografía simple de abdomen se constataron signos radiológicos de oclusión intestinal. Se corrigió el desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico y se realizó una laparotomía exploradora, en la que se encontró un cálculo grande enclavado en el íleon terminal. Se realizó una enterolitotomía con enterorrafia y resolvió el cuadro oclusivo.

  7. Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism,and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio; Báez; Yasuo; Tsuchiya; Alfonso; Calvo; Martha; Pruyas; Kazutoshi; Nakamura; Chikako; Kiyohara; Mari; Oyama; Masaharu; Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effects of genetic variants associated with gallstone formation and capsaicin (a pungent component of chili pepper) metabolism on the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC).METHODS: A total of 57 patients with GBC, 119 patients with gallstones, and 70 controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from their blood or paraffi n block sample using standard commercial kits. The statuses of the genetic variants were assayed using Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays or Custom Taqman SNP Genotypi...

  8. 中国不同性别亚健康人群差异分析%Sub-health status in male and female Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀; 何裕民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore different sub-health status between populations of different gender. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze sub-health status of 13 439 people in 8 provinces in China. Results Sub-health status of male was much more expressed in sexual life( male:5. 22 ± 1.06,femal:4.92 ±0. 96), while female was much more expressed in physical and psychological symptoms ( physical symptoms score for male: 104. S3 ± 20.47, for female; 110.27 ±20.90:psychological score for male:53.63 ±8.04,for female:55. 89 ±7. 88;P0.05). For somatic symptoms, the men had a hypo-immunity and were susceptible to cold or with a longer period of the disease compared to the woman (P < 0.001). While women felt tired easily and frequently had digestive problem, poor sleep, autonomic nervous disorders, allergy, aging apperance, a variety of pain or discomfort, constipation, and frequent drug usage (P < 0.001). In psychological symptoms, women showed more depression, anxiety problem,memory loss,and severe stress than men(P<0.001 for all). There was a significant difference in sexual satisfaction score between the men and the women with sub-health (P <0.01) and the men were more likely to worry about sexuality than women (P < 0. 01). Conclusion The symptoms of sub-health are different between men and-women in Chinese population.%目的 探讨不同性别亚健康状态人群症状表现差异.方法 采用流行病学横断面调查方法对中国8个省市13 439名各类人群进行亚健康状态调查分析.结果 男、女性亚健康症状性生活得分分别为(5.22±1.06)、(4.92±0.96)分,躯体症状分别为(104.53±20.47)、(110.27±20.90),心理方面分别为(53.63±8.04)、(55.89±7.88)分,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);社会适应性方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在躯体症状方面,男性免疫力低下,易患有感冒或感冒不易痊愈;与男性比较,女性易感到疲劳,消化系统不适多见,睡眠差,多有植

  9. Distinct role of the Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms in determining the risk of breast cancer among Han Chinese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Xing-Han; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoters of Fas and FasL are significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent. This case–control study was performed to explore the associations between Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms and breast cancer. Materials and methods A hospital-based case–control study of 560 Han Chinese females with breast cancer (583 controls) was conducted. The MassARRAY system was used to search for a possible association between the disease risk and the two single nucleotide polymorphisms, Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPStats software to conduct Pearson’s chi-square tests in five different genetic models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjustment to age and body mass index. PHASE v2.1 software was used to reconstruct all common haplotypes. Results A statistically significant association was found between Fas rs1800682 and increased breast cancer risk (AG vs AA: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.06–1.78; AA+AG vs GG: OR =1.32, 95% CI =1.04–1.66), and also it was found that the FasL rs763110 polymorphism may decrease the risk. Stratified analyses demonstrated that the rs763110 polymorphism was associated with lower breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females (heterozygote model: OR =0.69, 95% CI =0.49–0.97; dominant model: OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.51–0.96). The T allele of rs763110 was also associated with a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis (allele model: OR =0.75, 95% CI =0.57–0.97) and an increased risk of the breast cancer being human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (allele model: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.03–1.18). Moreover, haplotype analysis showed that Ars1800682Trs763110 was associated to a statistically significant degree with lower risk of breast cancer (OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.53–0.91). Conclusion These data suggest that

  10. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  11. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers John B

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk. Case presentation We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula. Conclusion We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy.

  12. Genetic variation in the cholesterol transporter NPC1L1, ischaemic vascular disease, and gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Ezetimibe reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein 1 (NPC1L1), the transporter responsible for cholesterol uptake from the intestine into enterocytes and from the bile into hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that genetic...... developed IVD or symptomatic gallstone disease, respectively, during follow-up from 1977 to 2013. We genotyped four common NPC1L1 variants, previously associated with reduced LDL cholesterol levels, thus mimicking the effect of ezetimibe, and calculated a weighted genotype score. With increasing genotype...... score, LDL cholesterol decreased stepwise up to 3.5% (0.12 mmol/L) and total cholesterol up to 1.9% (0.11 mmol/L) (P-trend: 2 × 10(-12) and 2 × 10(-9)). The cumulative incidence by age of IVD decreased, while that of symptomatic gallstone disease increased as a function of increasing genotype score (P...

  13. Gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst: an unusual complication of cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasprit Bhamrah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystitis can result in complications if not completely treated. These include gallbladder empyema, perforation and cholecystoenteric fistula.We report the first incidence of cholecystitis resulting in a gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst. A 71 year old patient presented with generalised peritonism that was worst in the epigastric area. Computer tomography (CT revealed a perforated necrotic gallbladder. Emergency laparotomy, cholecystectomy, partial gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was required. The patient made a slow but full recovery.Pathology results revealed that chronic cholecystitis had resulted in a fistula with a duplication cyst overlying the greater curve of the stomach. Several one centimeter gallstones were found within the cyst cavity.

  14. Perforated Closed-Loop Obstruction Secondary to Gallstone Ileus of the Transverse Colon: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, S. P.; MacNamara, F. T.; Muhammed, K. M.; Boyle, E; S. M. McHugh; Naughton, P.; Leahy, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Gallstone ileus (GSI) of the colon is an extremely rare entity with potentially serious complications including perforation. Case Presentation. An 88-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distension. Clinical exam revealed signs of peritonism. Computed tomography (CT) revealed GSI of the transverse colon with a closed-loop large bowel obstruction (LBO) and caecal perforation. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy w...

  15. Gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst: an unusual complication of cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jasprit Bhamrah; Phuoc-Tan Diep; John Bennet; Hugh Warren

    2010-01-01

    Cholecystitis can result in complications if not completely treated. These include gallbladder empyema, perforation and cholecystoenteric fistula. We report the first incidence of cholecystitis resulting in a gallstone fistula with a gastric duplication cyst. A 71 year old patient presented with generalised peritonism that was worst in the epigastric area. Computer tomography (CT) revealed a perforated necrotic gallbladder. Emergency laparotomy, cholecystectomy, partial gastrectomy and Roux-e...

  16. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in-patients with gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Jungst; Anna Niemeyer; Iris Muller; Benedikta Zundt; Gunther Meyer; Martin Wilhelmi; Reginald del Pozo

    2001-01-01

    AIM An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid components of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones.METHODS Viscosity of bile ( mpa. s ) wasmeasured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non-Newtonian property of bile at law shear rates.RESULTS Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mpa. s, mean ± SEM, n --28) and mixed stones (3.50±0.68 mPa. s; n =8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mpa. s,n -6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r=0.65; P<0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P<0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles.CONCLUSION The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones.

  17. A Case of an Abdominal Wall Abscess Associated with Spilled Gallstones: Imaging Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Youn Mi; Kim, Hyuk Jung; Bak, Cheol Hee [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been the gold standard for symptomatic gall stones for the last 20 years. The spillage of stones is reported in up to one-third of all LCs but clinical squeals caused by dropped gallstones are uncommon. We recently observed a patient with late abdominal wall abscess formation as a result of dropped gall stones after LC, who in the end, underwent open surgery because the medical therapy including antibiotics and percutaneous catheter drainage was not fully effective

  18. 南京市城区女性性功能障碍的调查%An investigation on female sexual dysfunction among urban Chinese women in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱霞; 潘连军; 陈湘玉; 潘锋; 阚延静

    2011-01-01

    目的:女性性功能障碍(FSD)是影响女性生活质量的常见疾病,有关中国女性FSD的报道少见.本研究探讨南京城区女性FSD的发病情况,为制定中国女性FSD的防治策略提供依据.方法:本研究为回顾性调查,调查对象为2008年8月至2009年3月在南京医科大学附属南京市妇幼保健院进行健康体检的20岁以上女性及其女性陪护人.采用女性性功能指数(FSFI)问卷评估性功能,以FSFI评分总分<25分作为FSD的诊断标准.以各单项评分的中位数作为诊断各类型性功能障碍的标准.结果:共发放问卷1 002份,收回有效问卷609份,有效问卷回收率60.8%.本组女性FSFI得分(24.21±4.40)分,随着年龄增长,FSFI评分及各单项评分逐渐下降.本调查各年龄组总的FSD发生率为56.8%,随年龄增长,FSD发生率逐渐增加,<29岁组为47.1%,30~39岁组为57.0%,40~49组为75.0%,50岁以上高达90.3%.最常见的性功能障碍类型为性满意度下降(43.2%),其次为性高潮障碍(41.7%)、性交疼痛(40.2%)、性欲低下(35.1%)、阴道润滑障碍(31.4%)及性唤起困难(29.6%).结论:FSD是困扰中国城市女性的常见问题,最常见的类型为性满意度下降及性高潮障碍.%Objective: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common problem affecting women's quality of life. However, reports are rarely seen on sexual problems in Chinese women. This study is to investigate the prevalence of FSD among urban Chinese women in Nanjing and offer some evidence for the establishment of preventative measures for FSD in China. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey was conducted in Nanjing, China between August 2008 and March 2009. The sexual function of 609 women aged 20 - 56 years from the urban area of Nanjing were investigated using the Female Sexual Function Index ( FSFI ). The total FSFI score of < 25 was used as the diagnostic criterion for FSD. Results: The total FSFI score was 24.21 ± 4.40 in this group of women

  19. Gastrointestinal migrating motor complex during early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ling; Bai Wenyuan; Ma Yongzhi; Gu Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes of gastrointestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) during the early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation. Methods: Totally 45 healthy adult guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups, that is, normal control, group B (1% cholesterol diet for 2 weeks) and group C (1% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks). Three pairs of silver electrodes were inserted into the gastric antrum, duodenum and jejunum of every animal respectively. Record of gastrointestinal MMC of these guinea pigs were recorded and analyzed.Gallbladder bile was taken to detect the formation of cholesterol gallstone. Results: There were only 29 guineapigs living. The MMC cycle time and the duration of phase Ⅱ were prolonged significantly and gradually compared with the control group (P<0.01), but the duration of phase Ⅲ became significantly and gradually shorter. Conclusion:During the early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation, the MMC cycle time and the duration of phase Ⅱ are prolonged and the duration of phase Ⅲ is shortened

  20. Human gallbladder morphology after gallstone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanSonnenberg, E; Zakko, S; Hofmann, A F; D'Agostino, H B; Jinich, H; Hoyt, D B; Miyai, K; Ramsby, G; Moossa, A R

    1991-06-01

    The effects of methyl tert-butyl ether exposure on the human gallbladder in five patients who were treated for gallstones by contact dissolution is described. Two patients underwent cholecystectomy within 1 week of methyl tert-butyl ether treatment, one patient 2 weeks after, another 10 weeks after, and one 12 weeks after. Indications for cholecystectomy were bilirubinate stones (resistant to methyl tert-butyl ether), catheter dislodgement, bile leakage, and gallstone recurrence (2 patients). Gallstones were dissolved completely in three patients, there was approximately 50% stone reduction in one patient, and no dissolution occurred in the fifth patient. Each gallbladder was examined grossly and histologically. Electron microscopic evaluation was performed in one cases. Typical inflammatory findings of chronic cholecystitis were observed in each gallbladder and were most conspicuous in the submucosa; the mucosal and serosal surfaces were intact. Mild acute inflammatory changes were noted in the submucosa in the two patients with the shortest interval between methyl tert-butyl ether administration and cholecystectomy. There were no ulcerations in the mucosa and no unusual wall thickening or fibrosis in any patient. These observations support the safety of methyl tert-butyl ether perfusion in the human gallbladder; the mild acute changes may be a transient and reversible phenomenon.

  1. Litíase vesicular assintomática em mulheres: aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos Asymptomatic gallstones in women: epidemiologic and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Cunha Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar variáveis clínicas e ultra-sonográficas como presença ou ausência de barro biliar, espessura da parede e medida transversal da vesícula biliar, idade, paridade, presença ou ausência de diabetes melitus associadas à litíase vesicular assintomática, bem como determinar a sua prevalência em pacientes submetidas ao exame ultra-sonográfico. MÉTODO: Foram analisadas, em estudo prospectivo, 265 pacientes do sexo feminino, atendidas na Escola de Ultra-sonografia e Reciclagem Médica de Ribeirão Preto - EURP, durante o período de janeiro a setembro de 2001. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa relacionada à litíase da vesícula biliar e: espessura da parede da vesícula biliar, barro biliar, diâmetro transverso da vesícula biliar, faixa etária, paridade, passando de 4,1% na nulíparas, para 39,1% nas multíparas e diabéticas. A prevalência de litíase na vesícula biliar, em pacientes assintomáticas, foi de 14.7%. CONCLUSÕES: A litíase vesicular assintomática em mulheres ocorre principalmente com o decorrer da idade e da paridade. Os achados ultra-sonográficos mais freqüentemente encontrados foram: presença de barro biliar e de espessamento da parede da vesícula biliar.BACKGROUND: Our objective is to analyze ultrasonographic and clinical variables such as the presence or absence of bile sludge, thickness of the gallbladder wall, transverse measurement of the gallbladder, age, parity, and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus and to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic gallstones in female patients submitted to ultrasonographic examination. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 265 female patients attended at the Ultrasonographic and Medical Updating School of Ribeirão Preto during the period from January to September 2001. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in gallstones and gallbladder wall thickness, bile sludge, transverse

  2. A Gender Perspective of North American Sinologists in the Studies of Chinese Female Writers%论北美汉学界中国女作家研究中的性别视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2015-01-01

    In recent years ,the sinological studies in North America have witnessed a new turn .A group of female sinologists deviate from the traditional sinological studies and have adopted the perspective of gender in their broad and in-depth studies of contemporary and modern Chinese female w riters .Based on the theo-ries of gender criticism ,biography text criticism ,ideological context as well as gender politics ,their re-search has provided a new way of studying and understanding Chinese modern and contemporary female writers and set up a platform of communication ,exchanges and dialogue for scholars both at home and abroad .%近年来北美汉学研究出现了新的转折,一批女性汉学家运用性别批评理论,从传记生平考据、意识形态语境以及性别政治等角度,对中国现当代女作家进行了广泛而深入的研究,对传统的汉学研究形成了强有力的冲击,为重新认识中国现当代女作家及创作提供了新的研究视角和解读方式,为海内外学界跨文化的沟通、交流与对话搭建平台。

  3. Effects of gibberellin A4/7, 6-benzylaminopurine and chlormequat chloride on the number of male and female strobili and immature cones in Chinese Pine (Pinus tabuliformis) with foliar sprays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; FAN Jun-feng; ZHANG Shuo-xin; HUANG Zhong-lian; YANG Pei-hua; MA Zhen-hua; Keith E. Woeste

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of plant growth regulators, gibberellinA (GA),6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and chlormequat chloride (CCC), wereevaluated for their ability to promote strobilus and cone production in aChinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.) clonal seed orchard. Treatments(0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg-L) were applied during three periods (June-July, July-August and August-September) in 2005. Of the three plantgrowth regulators, GA was the best for promoting flower and coneproduction. Trees sprayed with GA(500 mg·L) from June to Septem-ber had significantly more female strobili and immature cones than con-trols and other treatments (p≤0.0001). The best time to apply GA was inJune. BA at 500 mg.L significantly increased female flower and imma-ture cone production, compared to other treatments and controls(p≤0.0001), while promotion of male strobili was unchanged. Chlorme-quat chloride at 1000 mg.L significantly increased the number of malestrobili, compared to the other treatments (P≤0.0001). Spraying CCC at500 mg.L significantly increased the number of female strobili, com-pared to controls (p0.05). These results are important for improving seed productionand seed orchard management of Chinese pine.

  4. Empirical Analysis of the Behavioral Characteristics and Factors Influencing Chinese Female Entrepreneurship%中国女性创业的行为特征与影响因素实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琪; 张永胜

    2012-01-01

    女性创业越来越受到政府和学术界的关注。女性创业具有巨大的发展潜力与增长空间,与男性创业相比,女性创业有自身的特点。文章在理论分析的基础上,运用中央电视台《致富经》栏目和清华大学中国创业研究中心共同完成的中国百姓创业致富调查所得数据,对中国女性群体在创业活动中的行为特征、影响因素以及相互关系作了实证分析,并提出了有效促进女性创业的对策建议。%Female entrepreneurship is increasingly concerned by the government and academia. It has huge potential for development and growth. Compared to male entrepreneurship, female entrepreneurship has its own characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this article uses the data from the "Survey of Chinese Entrepreneurial Wealth" co-conducted by CCTV "Become Rich Classics" column and National Entrepreneurship Research Center of Tsinghua University to analyze empirically the behavioral characteristics, important factors affecting female entrepreneurship and their correlations of Chinese female group in the entrepreneurial activities. Finally, the paper puts forward effective countermeasures for promoting female entrepreneurship.

  5. Gallstone ileus inducing obstructive jaundice at the afferent loop of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy after bile duct cancer surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Gu; Hwang, Shin; Joo, Yo-Han; Cho, Yu-Jeong; Choi, Kyunghak

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of gallstone ileus is occasionally challenging due to the variability of its presentation. We herein present a very rare case of gallstone ileus inducing obstructive jaundice at the afferent loop of Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy after 10 years of bile duct cancer surgery. We describe the case of a 74-year-old Korean woman with obstructive jaundice, treated conservatively. She showed severely impaired liver function test and obstructive jaundice. The computed tomography (CT) scan led to a diagnosis of very rare type of gallstones ileus at the afferent jejunal loop. Since the clinical manifestation was improved, we decided to observe her closely. On the next follow-up CT scan, the gallstone disappeared with mild distension of the afferent bowel loop, implicating spontaneous passage of the gallstone. She recovered and returned to normal life after 10 days of initiation of clinical manifestations. We presume that the gallstone may enter the afferent jejunal loop through the hepaticojejunostomy and later increase in size. The presence of narrow tract of intestine may facilitate the incidence of gallstone ileus. It appears to be the first report on this rare type of gallstone ileus inducing obstructive jaundice.

  6. Sterol transporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8, gallstones, and biliary cancer in 62,000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    Gallstone disease, a risk factor for biliary cancer, has a strong heritable component, but the underlying genes are largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that ABCG8 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8) Asp19His (D19H) genotype predicted risk of gallstones and biliary cancer ...

  7. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  8. 从2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛看中国女冰现状%Analyzing the Current Situation of Chinese Female Ice Hockey from 2014 World Ice Hockey Championships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志男

    2014-01-01

    通过对2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛B组各队比赛成绩、技战术进行统计,对目前中国女子冰球队的状态进行分析,深刻总结训练和比赛中存在的问题。中国女冰在技战术的综合能力上与世界强队相比具有较大差距,尤其是在攻区抢断、回追阻截、射门得分、防守反击等方面的问题较为突出。提出加强个人技战术的培养,结合比赛提高对抗能力,培养多变的战术体系,形成自己的技战术风格等对策和建议,旨在提高女冰的技战术水平,对中国女冰重返世界强队取得冬奥会参赛资格显得尤为重要。%By counting the performance,techniques and tactics of Group B in 2014 World Female Ice Hockey Championships,technical analyze the current situation of Chinese female ice hockey team, deeply summarize the existing problems in training and competitions. The comprehensive ability of techniques and tactics of Chinese female ice hockey team compared with the strong power list of the world with a large gap,especially on stealing in attacking zone,back up and trackles,scoring and defencing and fighting back. Put forward to strengthen the cultivation of individual techniques and tactics,improve counterforce,cultivate variable tactics system,form their own technical and tactical style,in order to improve the technical and tactical level of female ice hocky team,it is extremely important for Chinese female ice hockey team returning the world strong team to get qualification for Winter Olympics.

  9. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydrolase (CYP7A1) c.-278A>C promoter polymorphism in gallstone disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzyszyn, Zygmunt; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Lener, Agnieszka; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Pawlik, Andrzej; Droździk, Marek

    2008-03-01

    There is growing evidence that gallstone formation may be genetically determined. Cholesterol 7alpha-hydrolase (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the first, rate-limiting reaction of cholesterol catabolic pathway. Recently, a common c.-278A>C polymorphism (rs3808607:G>T) has been described in CYP7A1 gene, associated with altered plasma lipid levels. The aim of this study was to verify the finding that CYP7A1 polymorphism may be associated with gallstone disease. Frequency and distribution of the studied alleles did not differ significantly between the patients (-278C; minor allele frequency: 0.45) and the controls (0.48). No significant gender-related differences of allele frequencies or distribution were noted. We conclude that CYP7A1 promoter polymorphism is not a valuable marker of gallstone disease susceptibility in a Polish population.

  10. 中国女性对于FMR1突变产前筛查的态度调查%Acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 章远志

    2012-01-01

    Objective Study the attitude of Chinese female population on prenatal screening of FXS in order to investigate the feasibility of offering prenatal screening.Methods Two hundred and eighty four women with no family history of mental retardation or FXS were recruited in the study.They were grouped into:females married with child (ren) (67/284),females married without child (54/284),unmarried single women (163/284).Then the participants were tested whether they retained the basic genetic knowledge of fragile X by using the adapted questionnaire.Results The proportions of the women who preferred to have prenatal screening for FXS in each group were 77.6%,66.7% and 74.9%.Further more,95.5% of the women in the first female group would like to terminate the pregnancy if a positive result of FXS was reported,so did 92.6% of the women in the second female group and 90.2% of women in the third female group.Conclusion There is a big acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population.Most people would like to take prenatal screening of fragile X syndrome.%目的 调查中国女性对于脆性X综合征产前筛查的态度.方法 随机调查284位没有智力发育障碍及脆性X综合征家族史的女性,分为已婚已育(67/284)、已婚未育(54/284)及未婚未育(163/284)三组.结果 各组愿意接受产前筛查的比率分别为77.6%、66.7%及74.9%.而各组选择在得知产前筛查结果阳性时愿意终止妊娠的比率分别为95.5%、92.6%及90.2%.结论 在中国女性群体中对FMR1基因突变进行产前筛查有较高的接受度.大多数人选择接受针对脆X综合征的产前筛查.

  11. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bih-Ru Wang,1,2,* Yuh-Lih Chang,1,2,* Tzeng-Ji Chen,3,4 Jen-Hwey Chiu,5,6 Jing Chong Wu,7 Min-Shan Wu,1 Chia-Lin Chou,1 Yueh-Ching Chou1,2,81Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Traditional Medicine Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Many female breast cancer (FBC patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM and Western medication (WM concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions.Results: There were 868 (80.0% patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM

  12. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  13. 中国女性乳腺癌人群归因危险估计%Population-attributable risk estimates for breast cancer in Chinese females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓凤; 姜勇; 曲宸绪; 王建炳; 陈万青; 李辉; 乔友林

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估已知乳腺癌危险因素对我国女性人群的人群归因危险,为中国女性乳腺癌的预防与控制提供依据.方法 利用文献中人群暴露率和相对危险度的数据,计算已知危险因素的人群归因分值(PAF),并利用全国第三次死因调查的数据估计乳腺癌的归因死亡和发病人数.人群暴露率的数据主要来源于大样本、大范围的代表全国人群的调查数据,相对危险度的数据来自Meta分析研究和中国或其他国家的大样本的单个研究资料.结果 居前5位的乳腺癌发病的危险因素依次为良性乳腺疾病(RR =2.62)、乳腺癌家族史(RR =2.39)、吸烟(RR=l.86)、超重(RR=1.60)和月经初潮年龄(RR=l.54).生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的PAF分别为27.84%、23.55%、15.09%、3.60%和2.49%,五大危险因素总PAF为55.95%.2005年,我国女性乳腺癌归因于生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的发病和死亡人数分别为79 862和22 456例.结论 预防控制各种不良生活方式将可能显著降低中国乳腺癌发病与死亡.%Objective To estimate the contribution of known identified risk factors to breast cancer incidence and mortality in China,and provide evidence to support the prevention and control of breast cancer for Chinese females.Methods We calculated the proportion of breast cancer attributable to specific risk factors.Data on exposure prevalence were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population.Data on relative risks were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies.Cancer mortality and incidence were taken from the Third National Death Survey and from cancer registries in China.Results The first 5 risk factors of breast cancer in China were benign breast disease (RR =2.62),family history of breast cancer

  14. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer

    2009-01-01

    , TNF-alpha, or CRP. Furthermore, no significant differences, either regarding the need for treatment at the intensive care unit or of 30-day mortality, were found. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms previous findings and supports the hypothesis that, except for IL-8, the biochemical profile...... to a standardized algorithm. Blood samples were obtained immediately on admission and, again, at days 1, 2, and 14. RESULTS: A significant effect of the etiology on the levels of IL-8 in the alcohol group as compared to the gallstone group (P=0.003) was found. No etiologic differences were observed for IL-6, IL-18...

  15. Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

    2014-06-01

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients.

  16. Gallstone-Induced Perforation of the Common Bile Duct in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dabbas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of ductal stones. We report the case of a twenty-year-old woman presenting at term with biliary peritonitis caused by common bile duct (CBD perforation due to an impacted stone in the distal common bile duct. The patient had suffered a single herald episode of acute gallstone pancreatitis during the third trimester. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy, bile duct exploration, and removal of the ductal stone. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  17. Perceived Multiple Intelligences among Male and Female Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: The Structure of the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure of perceived multiple intelligences of 1,464 Chinese gifted students using the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile. To evaluate whether perceived multiple intelligences could be applied adequately across boys and girls, a model hypothesizing different degrees of equivalence across the two gender groups was…

  18. Proportion research of under 1/3 soft tissue profile in Chineses beautiful females%中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖青; 米丛波; 宋美云; 杨川

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨公众审美标准,研究中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的美学特征.方法:选取时尚杂志、电影、电视剧作品中美貌女性35例,年龄18~35岁,计算机图像处理进行标准化,分别测量8项常用的面下1/3软组织比例.结果:①中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3中,上唇皮肤部分占整个上唇的66%,上唇红高度约占上唇的40%,下唇的外形皮肤部分占整个下唇的52%,下唇红高度约占下唇的68%,下唇与下颌高度比为36%,颏部与下领高度比值为62%(近似黄金指数0.618),下颌高度占下面高度的66%;②中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3许多比例值间都有较强的正相关关系.结论:①初步建立了中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的软组织侧貌比例值范围;②比例值初步分析出中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的侧貌特征,有利于与类似研究进行比较分析.%Objective To find out the facial profile standard of beautiful female in Chinese people and discuss appreciation of the beauty trend. Methods 35 lateral pictures of famous beautiful females superstars were collected, ages ranging from 18 to 35 years. They were standardized by computer and measuremented 8 proportion indexes of surface under 1/3 soft tissue. Results ①Surface under 1/3 soft tissue of the beautiful females.The chin occupied 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The cutaneous part occupied 2/3 of the entire upper lip height and the vermilion 1/3. The cutaneous part occupied more than 1/3 of the entire lower lip height. the lower lip occupied more than 1/3 of the entire mandibular height. The chin occupied more than 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The mandibular occupied more than 2/3 of the following department of face; ②lndex of soft tissue 1/3 of under face profile in Chinese beautiful females have relativity. Conclusion ①Sept up soft tissue profile in the lower third of the beautiful females normal value scope in Chinese;②Measure proportion

  19. Role of nucleation of bile liquid crystal in gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Yang; Jie Wu; Jin-Yi Li; Lin Gu; Min-Fei Zhou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of bile liquid crystal in the process of gallbladder stone formation and to provide bases for preventing and treating cholelithiasis.METHODS: 46 guinea pigs, half males and half females,were randomly divided into control group and stone-causing group. Normal feed and stoneleading feed were used respectively to raise guinea pigs in the control group and stone-causing group. The guinea pigs were killed in three batches during the raising period. Under polarizing microscope, the pattern changes of bile liquid crystal in the gallbladder biles of the guinea pigs in the control group and stone-causing group were dynamicly observed respectively in single-blind trial.RESULTS: It was found that there were few crystals in the guinea pigs′biles of the control group, and their Malta cross was small and scattered, and existed in single form. With the increase of the feeding days, bile liquid crystals grew and Malta cross became bigger with their distribution densified, denser somewhere, but always existed in single form. While those of the stone-causing group had more bile liquid crystals, Malta cross was big and merged in strings.With the increase of the feeding days, bile liquid crystals grew in amount and strings of Malta cross increased and became bigger. The crosses in strings were arranged more and more regularly and they gradually changed into stone crystals.CONCLUSION: Formation of gallbladder stone is a process of nucleation from different substances, and the causing-stone gallbladder bile is a constantly supersaturated solution, and bile liquid crystal is a nucleation factor in the formation of gallbladder stones. The process of nucleation includes gathering, merging and phase-changing of bile liquid crystals.The process of gathering, merging of bile liquid crystal is the key to nucleation.

  20. Effect of surgical methods of cholecystectomy on immunity and stress reaction in patients with gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Gang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of the selection of surgical methods of cholecystectomy on the immunity and stress reaction in patients with gallstones.Methods:A total of 150 patients with gallstones merged with cholecystitis who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2013 to May, 2015 for cholecystectomy were included in the study and divided into LC group and MC group with 75 cases in each group. The patients in LC group were performed with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while the patients in MC group were performed with mini-incision cholecystectomy. The related indicators of immunological function and stress reaction in the two groups were compared.Results:The immunological functions 1d after operation in the two groups were reduced, and the reduced degree of CD3+ and CD4+ in MC group was more significant (P0.05).Conclusions:LC and MC have their own advantages and disadvantages. The two surgical methods have small effects on the immunological function, but MC has a great effect on the postoperative stress reaction; therefore, during the treatment process, the surgical method should be selected according to the patients practical physical conditions.

  1. Serum leptin levels and insulin resistance are associated with gallstone disease in overweight subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Luisa B Bermejo-Martínez; Yolanda Vi(n)als; Norberto C Chavez-Tapia; Irina Vander Graff; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Martha H Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish an association between the serum leptin levels and the development of gallstone disease (GD).METHODS: We carried out a non-matched case-controlled study in a university hospital in Mexico City. Two hundred and eighty-seven subjects were included: 97 cases with gallstones and 190 controls. Body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma leptin, insulin, serum lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Unconditional logistic regression analysis (univariate and multivariate)stratified by BMI was used to calculate the risk of GD.RESULTS: The multivariate conditional regression analysis revealed a model for those patients with BMI <30. The selected variables in the model were HOMA-IR index with OR = 1.31, P= 0.02 and leptin higher than median with OR = 2.11, P= 0.05. In the stratum of BMI ≥30, we did not find a useful model.CONCLUSION: We concluded that insulin resistance and the development of GD appears to be associated with serum leptin levels in subjects with overweight, but not in obese subjects with similar metabolic profiles.

  2. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for complex gallstone disease: A report of five cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei; Lai-Gen Shen; He-Ming Zheng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe the use of hand-assisted laparoscopic surg-ery (HALS) as an alternative to open conversion for complex gall-stone diseases, including Mirizzi syndrome (MS) and mimic MS.METHODS: Five patients with MS and mimic MS of 232 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies were analyzed. HALS without a hand-port device was performed as an alternative to open conversion if the anatomy was still unclear after the neck of the gallbladder was reached.RESULTS: HALS was performed on three patients with MS type Ⅰ and 2 with mimic MS owing to an undear or abnormal anatomy, or an unusual circumstance in which an impacted stone was squeezed out from the infundibulum or the aberrant cystic duct impossible with laparoscopic approach. The median operative time was 165 min (range, 115-190 min). The median hand-assisted time was 75 min (range, 65-100 min). The median postoperative stay was 4 d (range, 3-5 d). The postoperative course was uneventful, except for 1 patient complicated with a minor incision infection. CONCLUSION: HALS for MS type Ⅰ and mimic MS is safe and feasible. It simplifies laparoscopic procedure, and can be used as an alternative to open conversion for complex gallstone diseases.

  3. Levels of serum leptin, cholecystokinin, plasma lipid and lipoprotein differ between patients with gallstone or/and those with hepatolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Ming Lei; Ming-Xin Ye; Wen-Guang Fu; Yue Chen; Cheng Fang; Jing Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:A signiifcant relationship exists among food intake and nutritional status and cholelithiasis, including gallstone and hepatolithiasis. Leptin is associated with obesity. This study was to investigate the differences in serum leptin levels in patients with gallstone and hepatolithiasis and to evaluate the relationships among leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK), lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. METHODS:Body mass index (BMI), serum leptin, CCK, insulin, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, and liver function were measured in 382 patients with gallstone (GS group), 83 patients with hepatolithiasis (HS group) and 30 healthy controls (control group). The values of these indices were compared among the groups. In each group, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefifcient among these indices were evaluated. RESULTS:There were notable differences in serum leptin, CCK, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, apolipoprotein-a (APO-a), globulin, direct reacting bilirubin, and BMI between the GS and HS groups (P CONCLUSIONS:Leptin participates in modulating lipid metabolism. There are notable differences in leptin, serum lipid, and CCK between patients with gallstone and those with hepatolithiasis. The role of leptin in the pathophysiological course of cholelithiasis needs further investigation.

  4. The influence of gallbladder function on the symptomatology in gallstone patients, and the outcome after cholecystectomy or expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Kjaergaard; Qvist, Niels

    2007-01-01

    gallstone disease. Fifty-six patients had a functioning gallbladder and 44 had a nonfunctioning gallbladder. Patients with a nonfunctioning gallbladder had significantly more vomiting and received more pain-killing injections during pain attacks. Otherwise, there were no differences in pain patterns...

  5. 我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(下)--文化与配饰%A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 2) - Culture and Accessories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    Each nationality has its own cultural heritage of wedding customs, while female wedding dress also have stable heritage in terms of culture and accessories. The female wedding dress of Chinese minority nationalities is also regarded as an important embodiment of ethnic aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste. The female wedding dresses of Yao, Miao, Shui, Hui, Zhuang, Dong, Korean, Tibetan and Tu nationalities are the most distinctive and important ethnic costumes.%我国任何民族的婚俗都有其传承特点,而女性嫁衣的文化解读及配饰亦有其稳定的传承性,少数民族女性嫁衣亦被认为是民族审美理想和审美趣味的重要体现。在我国少数民族女性嫁衣中,瑶族、苗族、水族、回族、壮族、侗族、朝鲜族、藏族及土族女性嫁衣都是颇具特点、也极为重要的民族服饰。

  6. RELN基因rs12705169位点与女性偏执型精神分裂症关联%Positive association between rs12705169 in RELN and female schizophrenia patients in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟云; 张红星; 赵晶媛; 宋学勤; 李文强; 郝伟; 吕路线

    2012-01-01

    目的 以中国汉族偏执型精神分裂症患者为研究对象,重复验证RELN(Reelin)基因单核苷酸多态性与精神分裂症的关联性.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版为诊断标准(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition,DSM-Ⅳ)在河南省北部地区收集326 例偏执型精神分裂症患者(男女各半),在同一地域招募健康体检者334 名(男女各半) 作为对照,检测RELN 基因rs12705169、rs11764507 和rs17157643 单核苷酸多态性位点.结果 仅发现患者组和对照组之间rs12705169 位点的基因型和等位基因频率差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01).按性别分层后进一步分析,rs12705169 在女性患者和对照之间基因型和基因频率分布差异具有统计学意义(CC:OR = 0.27,95%CI = 0.18 ~ 0.45; AC:OR = 0.43,95%CI = 0.29 ~ 0.63,P < 0.01).结论 RELN 基因多态性与中国女性偏执型汉族精神分裂症存在关联,RELN 基因可能是精神分裂症的易感基因.%Objective To analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) , in RELN gene and paranoid schizophrenia, and to determine if the RELN gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Methods The participants consisted of 326 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (163 males and 163 females) and 334 healthy controls (167 males and 167 females). All patients were unrelated Han Chinese born and living in the North Henan province. The concurrent diagnoses were made by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (1994). Healthy controls were recruited from volunteers with simple nonstructured interview performed by psychiatrists. Three SNPs were selected and genotyped. Genotyping was performed using the Real-time PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and controls to assess the association to schizophrenia. Results A

  7. 从Mrs Dalloway两个译本的比较中探究译者的女性意识%Female Consciousness in Translators:Contrastive Study of Two Chinese Versions of Mrs Dalloway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑川

    2013-01-01

    The study of feminist translation theory starts very late in China, researchers begin to pay attention to the feminist translation in the late 20th century.By comparing two Chinese versions of Mrs Dalloway from the perspective of feminist transla-tion theory,this paper is to probe into translator`s female consciousness in the translation of feminist text.%女性主义翻译理论研究在我国起步较晚,20世纪末期翻译研究者才开始关注女性主义翻译。该文将从女性主义翻译理论角度出发,通过对Mrs Dalloway的两个中文译本的对比,探究译者在翻译女性主义文本过程中的女性意识显现。

  8. 我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis of the Hop Technique of Chinese Elite Female Triple Jumpers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹景川

    2012-01-01

    This research chooses the top eight athletes of the female triple jump finals in track and field events of the llth National Games as the objects, and takes the kinetic index of the hop techniques as the content of the research. In light of the relevant data of the world elite female triple jumpers, the research is trying to find out the factors which influence the hop technology of Chinese elite female triple jumpers. The results indicate that the touching-ground angle and the body' s anteversion angle of Chinese elite female triple jumpers is universally small, the tortuosity of the keen joint of the take-off leg is comparatively big, the angle of the hip is a little smaller, the keen joint of the take-off leg has a small range, the hip-bone joint angel and the pedaled and stretch range of the take-off leg are also smaller. The cushion period is a little longer; while in a very short time of the take-off leg leaving the ground, the take-off foot manifests the technique characteristics as the touching-ground angle is bigger than the take-off angle.%以参加第11届全运会田径比赛女子三级跳远决赛的前8名运动员作为研究对象,就其单足跳技术的运动学指标作为研究内容,结合世界优秀女子三级跳远运动员的相关资料,试图找出影响我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的因素所在。结果表明:我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员的着地角与躯干前倾角普遍偏小;起跳腿膝关节的弯曲程度较大,髋角偏小;起跳腿膝关节的蹬伸幅度小,缓冲时间较长;起跳腿离地瞬间的起跳脚表现出"着地角大于起跳角"技术特征。

  9. On the Chinese Female Image of Thousand Pieces of Gold-A Chinese American novel%论华裔美国小说《千金》中的华人女性形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瑞怡

    2013-01-01

      《千金》是华裔美国作家林露德的第一部传记体小说,塑造了一位早期进入美国西部的华人女性开拓者。女主人公腊露自尊自爱、坚毅刚强,她的一生坎坷曲折,她的精神贵逾千金。本文运用比较文学形象学的研究方法,分析林露德在创作过程中的阶段性差异,从中探讨女主人公形象的转变及其创新;同时,通过追寻林露德对华人女性形象的表述,不仅可以照见林露德幼年时的经历,也言说了她对华裔文化身份建构的思考。%  Thousand Pieces of Gold, giving shape of a Chinese woman pioneer of the western United States in the early stage, is the first biographical novel written by a Chinese American writer named Ruthanne Lum MeCun. Heroine La Lu is a woman with self-esteem, determination and full of twists and turns in her life. Her spirit is precious than a thousand gold. Through imagology research methods, this article make analyses of Ruthanne Lum MeCun’s staged differences in the creation process, from which to explore the transition and innovation of the Heroine’s image. At the same time, through Ruthanne Lum MeCun’s expression of the image of Chinese women, we can not only see the shadow of Lum MeCun’s childhood experiences but also show her concern about the construction of ethnic Chinese cultural identity.

  10. 中药祛斑胶囊治疗女性黄褐斑的临床研究%Clinical study of Chinese Medicine Removing Beverage Capsule in the Treatment of Female Chloasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王步安

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study and analyze the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine removing beverage capsule in the treatment of female chloasma. Methods:Selecting 38 cases of female melasma patients in the hospital from January, 2013 to December, 2013 as the research object, and randomly dividing them into the observation group and control group. The observation group was treated Chinese medicine removing beverage capsule, and the control group was treated with oral vitamin E and vitamin C. Detailed record and analysis of the curative effect of the two groups was done. Results:The effective rate of treatment group was 73.7%, which was significantly better than the control group 57.9%, with significant difference (P<0.05). The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion:The traditional Chinese medicine removing beverage capsule can effectively improve facial chloasma women, and this approach is worthy of popularization and application in clinic.%目的:研究并分析中药祛斑胶囊治疗女性黄褐斑的疗效。方法:选择我院于2013年1月到2013年12月收治的38例女性黄褐斑患者为研究对象,按随机方式分为观察组与对照组,观察组使用中药祛斑胶囊进行治疗,对照组患者口服维生素E与维生素C,针对两组患者治疗疗效进行详细记录与分析。结果:观察组治疗有效率为73.7%,显著优于对照组的57.9%,上述数据组间比较差异显著(p<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论:中药祛斑胶囊能够有效改善女性面部的黄褐斑,该种治疗方式是值得在临床中进行推广和使用的。

  11. 我国高等学校女性领导群体特征分析%On Characteristics of Female Leaders of Chinese Higher Education Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻恺; 王饮寒

    2015-01-01

    On the data base of resumes of 770 female leaders from 1,166 regular undergraduate colleges and universities,this research adopts CV research method to study similarities and differences of group characteristics of female leader in colleges and universities from school level,position and du-ties in China. The study found that there are few female leaders of the overall number with low pro-portion. School level,position and duties have a mutual influence on serving for female leaders. The higher the school level is,the better working conditions are for female leaders. There is little difference in female leadership characteristics between chief and deputy posts. Due to different positions,working conditions for female executive leaders are generally better than the Party leaders. Based on the current characteristics and current situation,the women themselves,colleges and universities as well as the com-munity need to work together to improve their post competence,optimize the service proportions and structure of female leaders in our organizations,create a social support system for their development,and optimize the educational ecology.%运用履历研究法,以我国1166所普通本科高等学校的770位校级女性领导的简历为数据基础,从学校层次、职位与职务三个维度探讨我国高等学校女性领导的群体特征,研究发现:我国本科院校女性领导总体人数少、比例低;学校层次、职位与职务彼此间对女性领导的任职具有相互影响;学校层次越高,女性领导的任职条件越好;正副职职位间,女性领导任职特征差异不大;不同职务间,女性行政领导的任职条件普遍优于党委领导。针对当前特征与现状,女性自身、高校以及社会需共同努力,提高女性自身任职能力,优化组织中女性领导的任职比例与结构,创建女性发展的社会支持系统,优化教育生态。

  12. Fatty liver, carotid disease and gallstones: A study of age-related associations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amedeo Lonardo; Paola Loria; Silvia Lombardini; Federica Scaglioni; Stefano Ballestri; Anna Maria Verrone; Marco Bertolotti; Lucia Carulli; Dorval Ganazzi; Nicola Carulli

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate carotid intima-media thickening (IMT)and plaques, gallstone disease (GD) and fatty liver (FL)as a function of age.METHODS: In 449 subjects, FL and carotid disease were assessed ultrasonographically. In a subgroup of 65/449 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), carotid disease, GD and associated factors were determined.RESULTS: FL of unspecified etiology was more common in younger and GD in older individuals. FL subjects had an increased prevalence of IMT and a decreased prevalence of plaques and manifested carotid disease earlier. Plaques were more common in subjects with GD.Age was an independent predictor of carotid disease outcome and FL was a protective factor for plaques. In NAFLD, there was an inverse correlation between body weight and age and the latter independently predicted carotid findings.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk in patients with FL and NAFLD needs to be assessed as a function of age and body weight.

  13. An unforgettable concurrence: Successfully managed gallstone ileus accompanied by diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikki Singal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of gall stones associated with potentially serious morbidity and mortality. Case Report: We reported a 60-year-old male case who presented with renal failure and pain in right hypochondriac region. He also had a history of brain infarcts along with diabetes which is an additional factor for mortality. On Computed Tomography of the abdomen, he was diagnosed to have cholecystocholedochal fistula including air in the gall bladder and obstruction in the distal part of the ileum. Computed tomography plays an important role to make the proper diagnosis and in treatment. Conclusion s: As in our case, diagnosis was challengeable because of renal failure,diabetes, septicaemia and intestinal obstruction (peritonitis. We did surgery on the basis of peritonitis which remains the only choice in such cases. . In follow- up of 1 month patient was doing well and asymptomatic.

  14. A Study on the Trends and Cultural Context of Chinese Female Traditional Wedding Dress%我国女性传统婚服的文脉与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非; 季勇

    2015-01-01

    我国女性传统婚服虽经漫长演变,其蕴含的民族特征与文化精髓至今依存。在追求个性的时代中,人们虽可自由选择婚服,但婚礼习俗依然带有传统特色。如加以引导、推广和创新,女性传统婚服依然有着满足现代消费者的基础。%Although Chinese female traditional wedding dress has experienced long-time evolution and development, the core cultural meaning and ethnic features have retained. In an era of pursuing individualism, though people can freely choose their wedding dress, wedding customs are still tinged with traditional characteristics. With necessary guidance, promotion and innovation, female traditional wedding dress will continue to play important role in meet personalized needs of contemporary people.

  15. 女性性功能量表的汉化及其信效度评价%Translation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) into Chinese and its reliability and validity evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼青青; 张琴薇; 姚慧岚; 田园; 嵇加佳; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    目的 翻译女性性功能量表(female sexual function index,FSFI)并评价其在普通人群和糖尿病患者中的信度及效度.方法 通过系统的翻译-回译形成中文版FSFI量表,再对其进行信、效度评价.结果 内容效度系数值为0.953;2次测量在每个维度均有良好的相关性,r值在0.817~0.922,以阴道润滑维度相关系数最高(0.922),而性唤起维度最低(0.817);所有样本(包括糖尿病与非糖尿病)各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.760~0.874;糖尿病样本中各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.783~0.882;而非糖尿病样本则为0.757~0.865.Pearson相关系数分析发现所有样本、糖尿病组及普通人群组各维度之间的相关性良好.结论 中文版FSFI有良好的内容效度、重测信度和内部一致性,可作为今后临床评估女性性功能的量表.%Objective To translate the Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI) into Chinese and establish its psychometric properties among ordinary Chinese people and diabetes patients.Methods A two-phase study design was applied.The Chinese version of FSFI was established by translation and back translation,then the reliability and validity of the FSFI were evaluated.Results The content validity coefficient of FSFI was 0.953.The test-retest reliability in each dimension had good correlations (r value was 0.817~0.922),with the highest correlation coefficient in vaginal lubrication dimension (0.922) and arousal dimension the minimum (0.817).In all samples (including diabetes and non diabetes) a reliability coefficients of the Cronbach alpha of each dimension was from 0.760 to 0.874.The Cronbach alpha of each dimension for the diabetic group was from 0.783 to 0.882,and from 0.757 to 0.865 in the non-diabetes group.Pearson correlation of each dimension was very good in total samples,the diabetes group,and the non-diabetes group.Conclusions The psychometric properties of the FSFI demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability

  16. A meta-analysis on overweight, obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population%超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 钱云; 靳子义; 董美华; 韩仁强; 周金意; 赵金扣; 张作风; 武鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Methods Literatures published in China and abroad about overweight,obesity and breast cancer risk among Chinese females were searched.We used "breast cancer","overweight"," obesity"," weight"," body mass index" and "risk factors" as keywords,to retrieve papers in Chinese literature databases including CNKI,Wanfang and Weipu database.The same strategy was used to retrieve English papers in English literature database including Embase database,PubMed,Science Direct,Elsevier and Cochrane database,supplemented by literature tracing method.Time range was from the founding of each database to April 2012.A total of 124 research papers were collected.Using Stata11.2 software,meta-analysis was conducted,combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the associations between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Results Eighteen studies were included in meta-analysis,among them 12 studies were in Chinese and 6 were in English,with a number of 7217 cases and 81 605 controls.Results showed a 7.7%increased risk of breast cancer among overweight or obesity women (OR =1.08,95% CI:1.04-1.12).Compared with normal BMI women,the OR(95% CI) of overweight or obesity women were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.56 (1.29-1.84) before and after the adjustment of menopausal status.Conclusion Overweight,obesity may be important risk factors of breast cancer in Chinese female population.The intervention and control activities may reduce the risk of breast cancer at population level.%目的 探讨超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌发病风险的关系.方法 收集国内外公开发表的关于超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌研究的文献,以“乳腺癌”、“超重”、“肥胖”、“体重”、“体质指数”、“体重指数”和“危险因素”为关键词,

  17. [Determination of trace elements in Mongolian medicine Susi-12 curing cholecystitis and gallstone disease by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Er-Deng-sang; Hang, Gai-ba-te-re; Ba, Tu; Duan, Yi-wen

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements in Mongolian medicine Susi-12 for cholecystitis and gallstones were analyzed in order to discuss the relation between Susi-12's drug action and the trace elements. The analysis was carried out using the pressure seal microwave digestion and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was found that the medicine contained great amount of trace elements, especially human-body-needed trace elements, such as Ca, Al, Mg, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn, Cu etc., whereas heavy metals are very little, e.g. the contents of Pb, Cb, As etc are below the country's limit. The recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 94.63%-106.40%. The relative standard deviation RSDSusi-12 can effectively control and cure cholecystitis and gallstones, and the effective rate reaches 91.2% to 100%. So the trace elements in Susi-12 must have a close connection with the drug action.

  18. [A case of gallstone ileus which the cholecystoduodenal fistula closed spontaneously after laparoscopic-assisted simple enterolithotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitoshi; Nogawa, Tatsuhiko; Jibiki, Masaaki

    2006-10-01

    A 47-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea and vomiting was admitted on the suspicion of gallstone ileus 4 days after onset. Upper gastrointestinal radiography by Gastrografin showed a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Laparoscopic-assisted simple enterolithotomy was performed. The omentum was severely adherent to the gall bladder and fistula, though biliary surgery was not performed. Without second look operation, for cholecystoduodenal fistula closed spontaneously.

  19. Usefulness of CT-scan in the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of gallstone ileus: report of two surgically treated cases

    OpenAIRE

    Michele, Danzi; Luciano, Grimaldi; Massimiliano, Fabozzi; Stefano, Reggio; Roberta, Danzi; Ernesto, Soscia; Bruno, Amato

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallstone ileus is a rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction, more frequent in elderly patients, whose treatment is essentially surgical, although some para-surgical and mini-invasive possibilities exist, allowing the solution of such obstructive condition in a completely non-invasive way. Description In our study, after reporting two cases of biliary ileus managed by our surgical division, we will analyze the most suitable diagnostic procedures and the therapeutic approaches to...

  20. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association.

  1. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  2. Influence of polymorphisms in insulin-like growth factor-1 on the risk of osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Xing, Wen-Hua; Yang, Xue-Jun; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Xia, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study in a Chinese postmenopausal population, and explore the potential role of the promoter region variation of the IGF-1 gene in bone mineral density and osteoporosis risk. 485 postmenopausal women with a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis and 485 age-matched controls were selected between 2012 and 2014. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for rs35767, rs2288377 and rs5742612 of IGF-1 genotyping. By conditional regression analysis, individuals carrying TT genotype and CT+TT genotype of rs35767 were found to be correlated with an elevated risk of osteoporosis, with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 1.90 (1.23-2.93) and 1.35 (1.04-1.76), respectively. Our study found that CT+TT genotype of rs35767 was significantly associated with moderate increased risk of osteoporosis in smokers and drinkers, and the ORs (95% CI) were 2.11 (1.06-4.20) and 2.36 (1.29-4.32), respectively. We found that those carrying CT+TT genotype of rs35767 had a significant lower BMD levels at L1-L4 vertebrae, femoral neck, total hip and trochanter compared to those with CC genotype. Our study suggests that TT genotype and CT+TT genotype of IGF-I rs35767 were associated with risk of osteoporosis and BMD levels.

  3. Association of the IGF-1 rs35767 and rs972936 polymorphisms with the risk of osteoporosis in a Chinese postmenopausal female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y K; Ma, H L; Guo, Y Z; Yang, B H; Pang, W X

    2015-11-13

    The aim of our study was to conduct a case-control study in a Chinese postmenopausal population to evaluate the roles of the IGF-1 rs35767 and rs972936 polymorphisms on bone mineral density (BMD) levels and osteoporosis risk. A total of 272 consecutive postmenopausal women with a primary diagnosis of osteoporosis and 272 controls were enrolled in the study between 2012 and 2014. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to genotype the rs35767 and rs972936 IGF-1 polymorphisms. By comparing the demographic characteristics between patients and controls, patients with osteoporosis were found to be more likely to have a habit of alcohol drinking (P = 0.023). Furthermore, the BMD levels of the L1-L4 vertebrae, femoral necks, total hips, and trochanters in patients with osteoporosis were significantly lower than those in controls. By conditional regression analysis, we found that the IGF-1 rs2288377 and rs972936 gene polymorphisms were not associated with the risk of osteoporosis (P osteoporosis.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of gallstone ileus: a report of 18 cases%胆石性肠梗阻的诊断及治疗:附18例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋嘉睿; 刘国清; 苗雄鹰; 谭兴国; 钟德玝

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨胆石性肠梗阻的诊断及外科治疗方法 .方法 回顾性分析18例胆石性肠梗阻患者的临床特点、诊治方法 及随访结果 .结果 18例平均年龄64.3岁,男女比例为1∶5.术前诊断率为77.8%.18例均经手术治疗,其中3例行一期肠切开取石手术,8例行一期行肠切开取石及二期胆囊切除加胆肠内瘘修补术,6例行一期手术解决肠道梗阻同时处理病变胆囊及胆肠内瘘,1例既往有胆肠内引流手术史患者一期行肠切开取石、胆肠吻合口切开取石、原胆肠吻合口整形术.术后并发症发生率38.9%,主要并发症为切口感染及肺部感染;死亡1例(5.5%),为术后第4天死于心肌梗塞.结论 胆石性肠梗阻以老年女性患者为主,有效的影像学检查可及时诊断并为治疗提供可靠依据.胆石性肠梗阻应尽早外科干预,并根据患者具体情况选择合适的手术方式.%Objective To explore the diagnosis and surgical treatment of gallstone ileus.Methods We retrospectively analysed the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up outcome of 18 patients with gallstone ileus.Results There were 18 patients with mean age of 64.3 years and a male to female ratio of 1∶ 5.Preoperative diagnosis rate was 77.8%.All 18 patients underwent laparotomy.Three patients underwententerolithotomy alone, eight had two-stage procedure and six had one-stage procedure; 1 patient, who undergoing biliary enteric drainage before, underwent one-stage enterolithotomy, plastic surgery of biliary-enteric anastomosis and lithotomy.The perioperative complication rate was 38.9% and the main complications were wound infection and pulmonary infection.One patient died from myocardial infarction, the perioperative mortality rate was 5.5%.Conclusions Elderly female patients are more susceptible to gallstone ileus.Effective use of imaging techniques can provide a timely diagnosis and reliable basis for the treatment of gallstone ileus.Surgical intervention

  5. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  6. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan [Keimyung University, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae Beom [Gyeonsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis

  7. 第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利技术统计分析研究%Statistical Analysis of the 30 th Olympic Games Chinese Female Basketball Team’ s Technical Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2015-01-01

    采用统计法、文献资料法、专家访谈法对第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利的技术指标进行统计分析,认为中国女篮在助攻数据上存在显著性差异,抢断数据存在非常显著性差异;运动员平均年龄较轻,身高上具有一定优势,但力量相对较差,对抗能力较弱;心理素质和对节奏的掌控、自我调节能力相对比较差,积极主动性不高;个人补、协防意识和技术较差,整体防守的积极主动性、攻击性不强。%On the basis of statistics , literature review and expert interview , this study statistically analyzes the 30th Olympic Games Chinese female basketball team ’ s tactic failures.The conclusions are: Chinese basketball team’s data of assists exhibit significant disparities;the data of steals exhibit highly significant disparities;the ath-letes’ average age is comparatively young;their heights are an advantage , but comparatively weak in physical and offensive strength;the athletes exhibit relatively weak mental strength , rhythm control , self-adjusting ability and aggressiveness;weaknesses are found in the aspects of individual fill-in and double-cover awareness and technique;the whole team exhibit lack of aggressiveness in defense and attack .

  8. The Struggle between the Chinese Female Students Studying Sports abroad and the Gender Stereotypes%性别刻板印象与近代女体育留学生的抗争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝强

    2016-01-01

    运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等方法,对在1903年至1963年期间出国的47位中国女体育留学生进行全面分析。研究认为,近代以来女体育留学生在获得国外博士学位、发展体育教育事业、取得优异运动成绩、培养高水平运动员、引进新兴运动项目、开展体育科学研究以及从事体育管理等方面,为发展中国体育事业做出了积极贡献;她们挑战并打破了近代以来在体育领域“女子不如男”的刻板印象,为中国妇女走出家门、走进体坛、走向世界起了开创性作用。%Using the research methods of literature review,logical analysis and so on, the paper summarizes 47 Chinese female students studying sports abroad during 1903-1963 . The author holds that since modern times the main contribution of these students mainly includes re-ceiving foreign doctorates,developing physical education, obtaining excellent results of competition, training high level athletes, introducing new sports to China, engaging in the sports management, and carrying out scientific re-search of sports. They broke the gender stereotypes in the field of sports since modern times and played a pioneering role for the Chinese women outside the home, into the sports and towards the world.

  9. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  10. Research on the Menstruation Related Issue in Female Reserve Forces for Chinese Table Tennis Players%中国乒乓球女子后备力量月经状况的调查与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永安; 李小娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the menstrual function of 67 players in the winter training of Women's Youth Team of Chinese Table Tennis Team. The result showed that early and long - term table tennis train- ing has no obvious adverse effects on the menstruation of the female players but the menarche age has the trends to get younger; a higher incidence of menstrual cycle abnormity, dysmenorrheal, premenstrual symp- toms but the low attendance rates and lack of the menstrual - related knowledge. Proposal: It is important to teach the female reserve forces adolescent physical knowledge, encourage the players to have an active treat- ment, strengthen ~ientific training.%对参加中国乒乓球女二队冬训67名运动员的月经状况进行问卷调查。结果表明:早期、长期系统的乒乓球训练对女子运动员月经初潮无明显及不良影响,但是月经初潮年龄有变小的趋势;运动员月经周期异常、痛经和经前期症状发生率较高,但是就诊率较低,月经相关知识欠缺。建议:重视时女子后备力量实施青春生理卫生知识教育、鼓励运动员积极治疗、加强科学训练。

  11. A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008 retrospective clinical study of endocrine therapy for Chinese females with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    Full Text Available Endocrine therapy (ET is one of the main systemic treatments for patients with breast cancer. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the performance of ET or relevant influencing factors in cancer treatment in China. By retrospectively analyzing the clinicopathological data on breast cancer collected from representative hospitals of 7 traditional areas in China in one random month from each year between year 1999 and 2008, we found that: 1 The rate of the use of hormone receptor (HR testing was 83.8% (3529/4211, with the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ rate and/or the progesterone receptor-positive (PR+ rate being 67.9% (2395/3529, and the ER-PR rate being 32.1% (1134/3529. 2 Of the 1599 patients who had received ET, 999 patients (58.3% were premenopausal while 600 (41.7% were postmenopausal; 1598 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT, whereas only 1 patient received palliative therapy. The medications mainly administered to patients were anti-estrogen agents (80.3% [1283/1598], followed by AIs (15.5% [248/1598]. Of the 1598 patients receiving AHT, 1416 patients (88.6% were positive for ER and/or PR, while 75 (4.7% were negative for both and 108 patients (6.7% had unknown HR status. The ratio of the use of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients with ER+ and/or PR+ status was 60.0% (1416/2395. 3 Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that geography, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were dependent factors affecting the application of ET in breast cancer treatment in China (P<0.001. In conclusion, the use of ET on Chinese women with breast cancer is increasingly and gradually accounted into the standardized process. Economic status, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were key factors affecting the application of ET. People residing in developed areas, engaging in mental labour, having history of chemotherapy and surgery are susceptible to accept ET.

  12. Hepatic expression of detoxification enzymes is decreased in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chai

    Full Text Available Levels of bile acid metabolic enzymes and membrane transporters have been reported to change in cholestasis. These alterations (e.g. CYP7A1 repression and MRP4 induction are thought to be adaptive responses that attenuate cholestatic liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms of these adaptive responses in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction remain unclear.We collected liver samples from cholestatic patients with biliary obstruction due to gallstones and from control patients without liver disease (n = 22 per group. The expression levels of bile acid synthetic and detoxification enzymes, membrane transporters, and the related nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors were measured.The levels of bile acid synthetic enzymes, CYP7B1 and CYP8B1, and the detoxification enzyme CYP2B6 were increased in cholestatic livers by 2.4-fold, 2.8-fold, and 1.9-fold, respectively (p<0.05. Conversely, the expression levels of liver detoxification enzymes, UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1-4, and GSTM1-4, were reduced by approximately 50% (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. The levels of membrane transporters, OSTβ and OCT1, were increased 10.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively, (p<0.05, whereas those of OSTα, ABCG2 and ABCG8 were all decreased by approximately 40%, (p<0.05 in human cholestatic livers. Hepatic nuclear receptors, VDR, HNF4α, RXRα and RARα, were induced (approximately 2.0-fold, (p<0.05 whereas FXR levels were markedly reduced to 44% of control, (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. There was a significantly positive correlation between the reduction in FXR mRNA and UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1, ABCG2/8 mRNA levels in livers of obstructive cholestatic patients (p<0.05.The levels of hepatic detoxification enzymes were significantly decreased in human obstructive cholestasis, and these decreases were positively associated with a marked reduction of FXR levels. These findings are consistent with impaired

  13. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 1) - The Workmanship and Colors%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(上)--做工与色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    我国少数民族女性嫁衣,不论做工还是色彩,都代表了民族服饰的一个较高水准,有的乃至是精致而时尚的民族服饰。在女性嫁衣中,有的以鱼皮为材料,有的用粗麻线和五色彩布圈缝制,有的则嵌以古老图腾和象征符,不仅做工细腻且别具韵味,亦有着丰富的文化内涵。%The female wedding dresses of Chinese minority nationalities represent the highest level of ethnic costumes in terms of both workmanship and colors and some are even exquisite and fashionable ethnic costumes. Among these wedding dresses, some are made from fish skin, some are sewn with hemp thread and five-color cloth coil and some are embedded with ancient totem and symbolic characters, exhibiting not only fine workmanship and unique charm, but also rich cultural connotations.

  14. 论20世纪中国女性文学创作中的漂泊意识%On the Wandering Consciousness in Twentieth Century Chinese Female Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟瑞青

    2016-01-01

    The literature works by the twentieth century Chinese women writers is an important part of Chinese new literature unique . Throughout the twentieth century Chinese women literature writing ,there has been a refuge for wandering nothing latent consciousness ,which has its different rendering features though each period .If we placed the women writers’ wandering consciousness in the context of the development of Chinese literature ,we can find its unique significance and value individuality .Women writers have obviously difference between mechanisms and manifestations in terms of awareness generated by wandering from male writers .Since the majority of women writers are more sensitive to their ow n sex characteristics , they have been looking for the existence or construction of their ow n culture from the resistance to the patriarchal culture in the process ,in order to explore female’s culture w hich has long been obscured the significance of individual life .It is female cultural construction process that women writers constantly toward self life to explore the depths of life ,spirit and emotion of the landing site ,in order to place their own long wandering soul and look for the cultural value of their ow n existence .%20世纪中国女性作家的文学创作是中国新文学中独具特色的重要组成部分。在20世纪中国女性文学创作中,一直有一种无所归依的漂泊意识,而且各个时期有着不同的呈现特点。如果把女作家的漂泊意识放置在整个20世纪中国文学发展的大背景中去考察,可以发现其独特的意义与个性价值。在漂泊意识产生的机制和表现形态方面,女作家与男作家显然不同。女作家更加敏感于自身的性别特点,在抗拒男权中心文化的过程中,她们一直在寻找或者建构着自己所存在的文化,发掘女性长期以来被男权文化遮蔽了的个体生命意义。女性文化建构的过程是女性作

  15. Expression profile of cholecystokinin type-A receptor in gallbladder cancer and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Rai; Mallika Tewari; Mohan Kumar; Tej Bali Singh; Hari S Shukla

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regulatorypeptidereceptorshaveattractedthe interest of oncologists as a new promising approach for cancer pathology, imaging and therapy. Although cholecystokinin (CCK) is a potent modulator of gallbladder contractility and plays a potential role in pancreatic carcinogenesis through CCK type-A receptor (CCKAR), its role in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is still unknown and immunohistochemical detection of CCKAR in the gallbladder has not yet been reported. This novel case-control study aimed to investigate the expression profile of CCKAR in GBC and gallstone disease (GSD). METHODS: This study included 162 samples of gallbladder: 94 fromGBCand68fromGSD.ExpressionofCCKARwasanalyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The results were statistically correlated with disease history including age, sex, presenceofgallstone,stageanddifferentiation. RESULTS: CCKAR was positive in 30/68 (44.1%) of GSD and 72/94 (76.6%) of GBC samples. Fifty-one of the 72 (70.8%) CCKAR-positive GBC samples showed over-expression. Interestingly, consistent results also appeared in the immuno-blotting study. CONCLUSIONS: CCKARexpressionwassignificantlyincreased in GBC compared to GSD. Moreover, CCKAR expression was associated with the degree of tumor differentiation, i.e., less expression in poorly-differentiated tumors. Thus, it has future prognostic and therapeutic implications in the management of GBC.

  16. Computed tomographic differentiation between alcoholic and gallstone pancreatitis: Significance of distribution of infiltration or fluid collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Sun Kim; Yongsoo Kim; Sung-Kyu Kim; Hyunchul Rhim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of various computed tomography (CT) findings including distribution of infiltration or fluid collection in differentiating the major etiologies of acute pancreatitis.METHODS: We reviewed 75 relatively severe cases of acute pancreatitis of alcoholic (n=43) or biliary stone(n=32) etiology having infiltration or fluid collection on CT. We compared the pancreatic size, CT grading,presence or absence of biliary calculi, and dilatation of pancreatic or bile duct. We also evaluated degree and the distribution of infiltration and fluid collection in each group.RESULTS: The sizes of pancreas were not different between alcohol group and stone group. Alcohol group showed higher CT grading than stone group (P<0.05). Presence of biliary stone and duct dilatation was statistically significant in differentiating etiology (P <0.05). Alcohol group showed significantly prominent peripancreatic pathology than stone group only in left peritoneal compartment (P = 0.020).CONCLUSION: Alcoholic pancreatitis tends to form more prominent peripancreatic changes than gallstone pancreatitis in relatively severe cases. This is evident on the anterior aspect of left abdomen. Although clinical history and some CT findings usually are a major determinant of the etiology, this pattern of peripancreatic pathology may have an ancillary role in determining the etiologies of acute pancreatitis in the equivocal cases.

  17. 中国青年女性软组织侧貌特征研究%Study on soft tissue profile of features in Chinese young females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兆霞; 梁丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the facial profile of aesthetic features about soft tissue in the normal young fe-males,evaluation of the young females′soft tissue of angles in facial profile,establish the relationship of the facial profile angles.The aim of this study was to provide a reference basis for aesthetics and plastic surgery of field op-eration treatment.Methods Seventy-two females in Grade 2010-2012 were selected randomly.The facial profile of angles in normal young females was measured and analyzed in the FreeHand MX software.Results The fron-tonasal angle,nasolabial angle and nasal tip angle were no difference in NoESR and E,ES,ESR (P>0.05).Up-per lip inclination angle,mentolabial sulcus inclination angle and ∠Z were significant difference between NoESR and E,ES,ESR (P0.05).Facial convexity angle and total facial convexity angle of soft tissue were significant difference between NoESR and E,ES,ESR (P0.05).The mean values of soft tissue of angles in facial profile were obtained from the ESR sample u-sing FreeHand MX software.Conclusion Young women facial profile of soft tissue of angles with ESR standard was harmonious,and the positive correlation between facial convexity angle,full facial convexity angle and ∠Z;the relations of forehead,nose,lips and chin were in harmony.The distance between trichion,soft tissue of nasal tip point,soft tissue pogonion and the tragus center was to equal.On the other hand facial profile of soft tissue of angles with NoESR,E,ES,standard was no harmonious,the position was been varied in forehead,nose,upper lips and chin.%目的:探讨正常青年女性侧貌软组织特征,建立符合侧貌美的青年女性侧面角度均值及各角度之间关系。方法选择72例2010-2012级在校汉族女学生,采用 FreeHand MX 软件对青年女学生面侧貌外部软组织角度进行测量分析。结果鼻额角、鼻唇角及鼻尖角在 NoESR 与 E、ES、ESR 之间差异无统计学意义(P >0.05);上唇

  18. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  19. 我国优秀女子链球选手投掷技术整体节奏的运动学研究%Kinematical Research on the Whole Pace and the Features of the Kip and Knee of the Throwing Technique of Chinese Elite Female Hammer Throwers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋伊

    2011-01-01

    运用近景动态三维录像分析系统对我国八名优秀女子链球运动员的旋转技术进行运动学分析.结果表明,我国女子链球运动员旋转技术的动作节奏和时间结构不合理,单双支撑时间比率低.%By using the method of close-range dynamic three-dimensional cinema, the author makes a kinematical analysis on the technique of torque for Chinese elite female hammer throwers. The study shows that the pace of movement and the construction of time of the technique of torque of Chinese female hammer throwers are irrational. Single and double support ratio is low.

  20. Intermittent gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone migrated through a cholecysto-gastric fistula: A new variant of "Bouveret's syndrome"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitry Arioli; Mario De Santis; Fabrizio Di Benedetto; Giorgio Enrico Gerunda; Maria Luisa Zeneroli; Ivo Venturini; Michele Masetti; Elisa Romagnoli; Antonella Scarcelli; Pietro Ballesini; Athos Borghi; Alessandro Barberini; Vincenzo Spina

    2008-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome, defined as gastric outlet obstruction due to a large gallstone, is still one of the most dramatic biliary gallstone complications. Although new radiological and endoscopic techniques have made pre-surgical diagnosis possible in most cases and the death rate has dropped dramatically, "one-stage surgery" (biliary surgery carried out at the same time as the removal of the gut obstruction) should be still considered as the gold standard for the treatment of gallstone ileus. In this case, partial gastric outlet obstruction resulted in an atypical and insidious clinical presentation that allowed us to perform the conventional one-stage laparatomic procedure that completely solved the problem, thus avoiding any further complications.

  1. Female Managers, Institutional Environment and Corporate Charitable Donation --Evidence from Chinese Capital Market%女性高管、制度环境与慈善捐赠——基于中国资本市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴强; 冯文滔

    2012-01-01

    本文实证研究了女性高管、制度环境对慈善捐赠行为的影响。研究结果表明,女性高管与中国上市公司的慈善捐赠显著正相关,即当公司中有女性高管、女性高管的比例越高,上市公司的慈善捐赠越多。本文进一步发现,政府干预调和了女性与公司捐赠之间的正相关关系,即当上市公司处于政府对市场干预较少的地区时,女性高管对公司慈善捐赠的正面影响显著下降,表明女性高管和外部制度环境之间呈现替代关系。本文的研究结论丰富了慈善捐赠相关领域的研究,且拓展了女性高管在公司决策中的经济后果研究。%Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, this paper empirically examines the influence of female man- agers on corporate charitable donation. The results show that female managers have a significantly positive impact on corporate charitable donation. In particular, the existence of female manager and the ratio of female managers are significantly positively associated with corporate charitable donation. Moreover, my paper also reveals that the positive association between female managers and corporate charitable donation is attenuated for firms located in provinces with better institutional environment. That is, the better the institutional environment is, the smaller the positive effect of female managers on corporate charitable donation is. This finding implies that there is a substitu- tion relationship between female managers and institutional environment. Above results are robust for a battery of sensitivity tests. San Cong Si De, Qin Nv Gong, and You Fu Gong. These old Chinese sayings reflect the narrow traditional value of Chinese women for thousands of years. However, the economic miracle of reforming and opening up in past 30 years changed the traditional views of the Chinese society towards women. Recent annual reports of Chinese lis- ted firms show that the female managers in the

  2. Analysis on the event-related potentials N400 of female Uyghur-Chinese bilingual students whose second language is Chinese%以汉语为第二语言的维汉双语女大学生事件相关电位N400分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白吉可; 陆佳骏; 张景玉; 郭恒; 李华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the cognitive characteristics of language of female Uyghur-Chinese Bilingual*. Methods Observations were made by match and mismatch two semantic N400 different wave of ERP( event-related potentials) , elicited from two primes; pictures and sentences while using verbs and nouns as the target stimulus. A total of 14 healthy right-handed women participated the test, a mean age of (21.2 ± 1.3) years who were Uyghur-Chinese bilinguals. Results on amplitudes: N400 different waves had a central top edge. The electrode distribution had a significant main effect (P <0.05). Hemispheres was not significant. The target stimuli was significant ( P < 0. 01 ) , the verb was higher than the noun. Primes was a very significant stimulus main effect (P < 0.01) , the sentence above the picture; on the latencies: the main effect of target stimuli was significantly! P <0.01). Sentence was later than the picture. Conclusion The result indicated that in Chinese representation of female Uighur-Chinese bilinguals: the verb and the noun is different, while the photo cognitive processing is more difficult than sentence.%目的 探讨以汉语为第二语育的女性维吾尔语-汉语双语者语言认知特点,为研究言语加工及识别过程中大脑的电位变化提供依据.方法 利用事件相关电位(ERP)技术对14名纯右利手,平均年龄(21.2±1.3)岁的女性健康维-汉双语被试者,基于动词、名词2种靶刺激,图片、句子2种启动刺激,匹配与不匹配2种语义条件下研究事件相关电位N400差异波的特点.结果 在波幅上N400差异波具有中央顶部优势,电极分布位置的主效应差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).左右半球差异无统计学意义.靶刺激的主效应显著(P<0.01),动词高于名词.启动刺激主效应显著(P<0.01),句子高于图片;在潜伏期上靶刺激的主效应显著(P<0.01),句子比图片潜伏期延迟.女性维汉双语者汉语认知:动词与名词之间存在

  3. Association of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G8 gene with gallstone disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and gallstone disease using meta-analysis and compared the hepatic ABCG5/G8 mRNA expression and biliary lipids composition in patients with different genotypes of T400K and Y54C. METHODS: Data were analyzed using the Stata/SE 11.0 software and a random- effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Hepatic mRNA expression of ABCG5/G8 genes in 182 patients with gallstone disease and 35 gallstone-free patients who underwent cholecystectomy were determined using real-time PCR. Genotypes of Y54C and T400K in the ABCG8 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using either genomic DNA or hepatic cDNA as template by Taqman assays. Biliary compostion in gallbladder bile was assayed in these patients as well. RESULTS: Ten papers including 13 cohorts were included for the final analysis. In the genotype model, the overall association between genotype with gallstone was significant for D19H (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 2.23-2.64, P<0.001, and for Y54C (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.83, P = 0.044, or T400K (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.96-1.43. P = 0.110. In allele model, minor alleles of D19H polymorphism (allele D: OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 2.10-2.42, P<0.001 and of T400K polymorphism (allele K: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.06-1.31, P<0.001 were related with an increased risk of gallstone disease. However, minor allele of Y54C polymorphism (allele Y, OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.96-1.21, P = 0.146 was not related with gallstone disease. I(2 statistics indicated no significant between-study heterogeneity for all genetic models for any of the three polymorphisms. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested the absence of publication bias as well. However, no association of T400K and Y54C polymorphism with hepatic ABCG8/G5 mRNA expression or biliary lipids composition was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed strong association of D19H polymorphism with gallstone

  4. Mucin gene expression in bile of patients with and without gallstone disease, collected by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Vilkin; Alex Geller; Zohar Levi; Yaron Niv

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pattern of mucin expression and concentration in bile obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in relation to gallstone disease.METHODS: Bile samples obtained at ERC from 29 consecutive patients, 17 with and 12 without gallstone disease were evaluated for mucin content by gel filtration on a Sepharose CL-4B column. Dot blot analysis for bile mucin apoproteins was performed with antibodies to Mucin 1 (MUC1), MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. Staining intensity score (0-3) was used as a measure of antigen expression. RESULTS: MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6 were demonstrated in 34.4%, 34.4%, 51.7%, 51.7%, 55.1% and 27.5% of bile samples, respectively. The staining intensity scores were 0.62 ± 0.94, 0.58 ± 0.90, 0.79 ± 0.97, 1.06 ± 1.22, 1.20 ± 1.26 and 0.41 ± 0.73, respectively. Mean mucin concentration measured in bile by the Sepharose CL-4B method was 22.8 ± 24.0 mg/mL (range 3.4-89.0 mg/mL). Mean protein concentration was 8.1 ± 4.8 mg/mL (range 1.7-23.2 mg/mL).CONCLUSION: High levels of MUC3, MUC5AC and MUC5B are expressed in bile aspirated during ERC examination. A specific pattern of mucin gene expression or change in mucin concentration was not found in gallstone disease.

  5. 非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 陈坤; 张海蕾; 朱益民

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women.Methods The results of 7 case-control studies from 1990 to 1999 were analyzed by Meta-analysis method in this study. The cumulative cases and controls were 1 115 and 1 520, respectively. Der Simonian and Nan Laid model were applied to process data. Results The pools OR values of family history of lung cancer, personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease, cooking oil fume pollution, coal pollution and exposure to environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) were 2.87,2.79,2.52,1.42 and 1.64 respectively. Conclusion Family history of lung cancer and personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease might serve as the most important risk factors of female lung cancer in China. There appeared also significantly positive relationship between female lung cancer and the degree of cooking oil fume pollution or pollution of coal burning. The effect on lung cancer of exposure to ETS was uncertain in this study which calls for further investigation. Bias and confounding factors were also discussed in this study.%目的 综合评价我国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的危险因素。方法 应用Meta分析方法对国内7篇有关非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素的病例对照研究进行定量综合分析,共累积病例1 115例,对照1 520例。统计处理采用Meta分析的随机效应模型。结果 肺部疾病史、家族肺癌史、油烟污染、煤烟污染、被动吸烟等5个研究因素的合并比值比(OR值)分别是2.87、2.79、2.52、1.42和1.64,进一步分层研究提示随着油烟污染程度的加重,其OR值也有明显的上升。结论 家族肺癌史、肺部疾病史、油烟污染、煤烟污染等因素可能与非吸烟女性肺癌的发生有关,被动吸烟的作用尚不能肯定。

  6. Two cases of cystic artery pseudoaneurysm rupture due to acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Shogo; Arahata, Kyouko; Itou, Asako; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kimura, Kayoko; Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Nishida, Jiro; Fujiyama, Yoshiki; Takigawa, Yutaka; Matsui, Junichi

    2016-09-01

    A cystic artery aneurysm is a rare cause of hemobilia. Herein, we report two cases of acute cholecystitis with a ruptured cystic artery pseudoaneurysm. Two patients (a 69-year-old man and an 83-year-old man) were admitted to our hospital because of acute cholecystitis with gallstone impaction in the neck. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed for both patients. After a few days of PTGBD, gallbladder hemorrhage was observed. Abdominal angiography showed cystic artery aneurysm. A transcatheter arterial embolization was therefore performed, followed by an open cholecystectomy.

  7. XbaⅠpolymorphisms of apolipoprotein B gene:Another risk factor of gallstone formation after radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To prospectively investigate the association between the XbaⅠpolymorphisms of apolipoprotein B (APOB)gene and gallstone formation following gastrectomy.METHODS:The study was conducted between January 2005 and December 2006.A total of 186 gastric cancer patients who had undergone radical gastrectomy were grouped according to XbaⅠpolymorphisms of APOB gene(X+X-group,n=24 and X-X-group,n =162)and compared.The XbaⅠpolymorphisms of APOB gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment len...

  8. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  9. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Z

    2016-01-01

    were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively. The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion: MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960 and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. Keywords: lung cancer, microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, cooking oil fume, interaction

  10. Ezetimibe: Its Novel Effects on the Prevention and the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella de Bari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe can significantly reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1, an intestinal sterol influx transporter that can actively facilitate the uptake of cholesterol for intestinal absorption. Unexpectedly, ezetimibe treatment also induces a complete resistance to cholesterol gallstone formation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in addition to preventing hypercholesterolemia in mice on a Western diet. Because chylomicrons are the vehicles with which the enterocytes transport cholesterol and fatty acids into the body, ezetimibe could prevent these two most prevalent hepatobiliary diseases possibly through the regulation of chylomicron-derived cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. It is highly likely that there is an intestinal and hepatic cross-talk through the chylomicron pathway. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby cholesterol and fatty acids are absorbed from the intestine could offer an efficacious novel approach to the prevention and the treatment of cholesterol gallstones and NAFLD.

  11. 中药、针灸加强排卵周期的促孕治疗经验%Effect of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture on female infertility by inducing ovarian cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江丹

    2011-01-01

    The disorders of reproductive and endocrinal system are the common cause of female infertility. The problems can be caused from either organic or dysfunctional reason. The author analyses the pathogenesis of the infertility common incident in the West and the mechanisms of acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments. The article is the report of how TCM therapies of which acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine are utilised together treat infertility. Acupuncture plays the unique role to support conceive by stimulating and strengthening the self-regulating, self-healing functions and promote ovulation; Chinese herbal medicine is able to be prescribed, according to the particular condition in the individual case and following the menstrual circle as well. United both of TCM therapies will make a good enough treating level in the lesser rates of patient visiting the clinic for gaining an expectant treating effect. This is a successful experience to manage TCM treatment during the practicing condition in the West. Some successful cases that are treated in UK which are involved in some natural pregnancies supported by TCM and pregnancies assisted with IVF treatment which is supported by TCM is illustrated in the paper.%女性不孕既有器质性病变的原因,也有由功能障碍导致的.作者总结了中医治疗不孕的机理,报道了联合应用针灸、中药,根据女性月经周期的变化规律,辨证治疗的经验和成功案例.具体方法是:第1周:补肾健脾,加强先、后天之本,而促进卵子的生长;第2周:补阴养精,活血化瘀,而促进卵子的成熟与排出;第3周:温阳育阴,以促黄体生成; 第4周:疏肝活血以调经,或健脾补肾以固胎.针灸通过加强人体自身调节与自愈的能力,并有确切的促排卵作用,在治疗中具有不可取代的作用;而中药则可以根据月经周期及病患的个体状况辨证加减,同样担负着重要的作用.这两种疗法的联合应用,可以让病患在较

  12. 中国城市女性面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型相关性研究%A Relevant Research on Facial Skin Conditions of Chinese Urban Females and TCM Constitutional Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲建宁; 王济; 赵亚; 熊卫国; 方程; 戴竞; 孙淑娴; 王琦; 魏少敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型的相关性,为从中医体质角度指导皮肤养护、增进皮肤健康提供新方法。方法在9个省会城市和直辖市招募女性志愿者2241名,以网络问卷的方式对受访者进行调查。体质类型判定依照中华中医药学会《中医体质分类与判定》标准进行,面部皮肤测评针对肤色、光泽度、细腻程度、水润度、紧致程度、弹性、均匀程度等指标进行评分;将皮肤状态按1~3、4~6、7~9分进行分组,比较不同分值的体质构成差异。结果被调查者中阳虚质、平和质最多;肤色偏黄者最多,其次为偏白、偏黑、偏红者;皮肤状态评分1~3分者中,阳虚质最多,气郁质次之;4~6分者中阳虚质和平和质均较多;得分7~9分者中平和质最多。结论平和质者各项皮肤指标得分均最高,偏颇体质会影响皮肤指标得分,对中国城市女性面部皮肤指标影响较大的体质类型是阳虚质和气郁质。%Objective To study the relationship between facial skin conditions and TCM constitutional types; To provide new means and methods for guidance of skin conservation and skin health improvement from the aspect of constitutional types. Methods Totally 2241 female volunteers in nine provincial capital cities and municipalities participated in this research, and were investigated by web questionnaire. Constitutional types were determined according to the“Classification and Judgment of TCM Constitutional Types”standard issued by China Association of Chinese Medicine. Skin color, glossiness, delicate degree, moistness, firmness, resilience, uniformity and other indicators were scored. Skin conditions were classified into three groups:1-3 score group, 4-6 score group, and 7-9 score group, and the constitutional differences among each group were compared. Results Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest

  13. Narrative Research of Female Educational Experiences in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suling

    2010-01-01

    Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…

  14. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. RESULTS: Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake. PMID:22408352

  15. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Ginanni Corradini; Edoardo Poli; Adriano De Santis; Aldo Roda; Carolina Colliva; Patrizia Simoni; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Flaminia Ferri; Michela Mordenti; Luigi Iuliano; Maria Siciliano; Maria Antonella Burza; Bruno Sordi; Barbara Caciotti; Maria Pacini

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease.METHODS:Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n =20) or tap (n =20) water controlled drinking.Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound,blood vitamin E,oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol.and 7-ketocholesterol),bile acid (BA),triglycerides,total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Food consumption,stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily.RESULTS:Blood lipids,oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption.Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P <0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL).Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83-1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol).The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid.The number of pasta (P < 0.001),meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group.Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups.CONCLUSION:Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  16. Two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Lu; Yao Cheng; Xian-Ze Xiong; Yi-Xin Lin; Si-Jia Wu; Nan-Sheng Cheng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-stage vs single-stage management for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones.METHODS:Four databases,including PubMed,Embase,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Science Citation Index up to September 2011,were searched to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Data were extracted from the studies by two independent reviewers.The primary outcomes were stone clearance from the common bile duct,postoperative morbidity and mortality.The secondary outcomes were conversion to other procedures,number of procedures per patient,length of hospital stay,total operative time,hospitalization charges,patient acceptance and quality of life scores.RESULTS:Seven eligible RCTs [five trials (n =621)comparing preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)/endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) + laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with LC +laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE);two trials (n =166) comparing postoperative ERCP/EST + LC with LC + LCBDE],composed of 787 patients in total,were included in the final analysis.The metaanalysis detected no statistically significant difference between the two groups in stone clearance from the common bile duct [risk ratios (RR) =-0.10,95% confidence intervals (CI):-0.24 to 0.04,P =0.17],postoperative morbidity (RR =0.79,95% CI:0.58 to 1.10,P =0.16),mortality (RR =2.19,95% CI:0.33 to 14.67,P =0.42),conversion to other procedures (RR =1.21,95% CI:0.54 to 2.70,P =0.39),length of hospital stay (MD =0.99,95% CI:-1.59 to 3.57,P =0.45),total operative time (MD =12.14,95% CI:-1.83 to 26.10,P =0.09).Two-stage (LC + ERCP/EST) management clearly required more procedures per patient than single-stage (LC + LCBDE) management.CONCLUSION:Single-stage management is equivalent to two-stage management but requires fewer procedures.However,patient's condition,operator's expertise and local resources should be taken into account in

  17. Oxidative Stress before and after Operation in Patients with Chronic Cholecystits Containing Gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship of oxidative,antioxidative constitutents and antioxidases in blood with chronic cholceysitits containing gallstone,levels of lipoperoxides(LPO),nitric oxide(NO),vitamin C(VC),vitamin E(VE) and β-carotene(β-CAR)in plasma as well as level of LPO,activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT) and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)in erythrocytes were investigated by spectrophotometric assay in 107 patients with this condition(PCg) and 100 healthy volunteers(HVs),Compared with HVs group,the average value of LPO and NO in plasma and that of LPO in erythrocytes of PCg group were significantly increased(P<0.0001),while that of VC,VE and β-CAR in plasma and the average activities of SOD,CAT and GSH-Px in erythrocytes were significantly decreased(P<0.0001),Linear regression and correlation analysis for 107 preoperative PCg showed that the vlue of LPO and NO in plasma and that of LPO in erythrocytes of PCg gradually increased (P<0.0001),representing a significant linear positive correlation.The value of VC,VE and β-CAR in plasma and that of SOD,CAT and GSH-Px in erythrocytes of PCg gradually decreased(P<0.0001),representing a significant linear negative correlation.Stepwise regression and correlation analysis for 107 preoperative PCg suggested that the closest correlation was observed between the course of disease and the value of NO and VC in plasma and that of SOD,GSH-Px and LPO in erythrocytes,r=0.7306,F=32.1408,P<0.0001,Compared with the preoperative PCg group,the average value of LPO and NO in plasma and that of LPO in erythrocytes of the postoperative PCg group were significantly decreased(P<0.0001),Furthermore,the average value of VC in plasma and that of SOD,CAT and GSH-Px in erythrocytes of the postoperative PCg group were significantly increased(P<0.0001),whereas no significant difference was found between their average value of VE and β-CAR in plasma,These finding suggested that oxidative stress was an aggravating pathologica

  18. Analysis of Curative Effect of Comprehensive Therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Female Endocrine Disorders%中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹胜雁

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical curative effect of comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on female endocrine disorders, so as to provide more reference data for clinical treatment of gynecological diseases. Methods: 122 patients with endocrine disorders treated in our hospital from June 2013 to May 2014 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 61 cases in each group. The control group was treated with western medicine and the observation group was treated with comprehensive therapy of TCM. The curative effects of the two groups were retrospectively compared. Results: The total effective rate of the control group was 68.9% and the observation group was 90.2%. The incidence of adverse reactions of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group. All the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Treating female endocrine disorders by comprehensive therapy of TCM can achieve good clinical effect. It can improve the hormone secretion, metabolism and pathogenic condition of the patients. So it is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨应用中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调的临床疗效,旨在为妇科临床治疗提供更多的参考数据。方法:选取我院妇科2013年6月—2014年5月收治的内分泌失调患者122例,随机将患者分为对照组及观察组各61例。对照组采用西医治疗,观察组进行中医综合治疗,对两组的临床效果进行回顾性比较。结果:对照组的治疗总有效率为68.9%,观察组为90.2%,且观察组的不良反应发生率明显优于对照组,两组比较差异均具有显著的统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用中医综合疗法对女性内分泌失调进行治疗可取得良好的临床疗效,对患者体内激素分泌状况、机体代谢功能、病情等均具有明显的改善作用,具有较高的临床价值,值得推广。

  19. Female-specific DNA sequences in geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M C; Lin, W C; Horng, Y M; Rouvier, R; Huang, C W

    2003-07-01

    1. The OPAE random primers (Operon Technologies, Inc., CA) were used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting in Chinese, White Roman and Landaise geese. One of these primers, OPAE-06, produced a 938-bp sex-specific fragment in all females and in no males of Chinese geese only. 2. A novel female-specific DNA sequence in Chinese goose was cloned and sequenced. Two primers, CGSex-F and CGSex-R, were designed in order to amplify a 912-bp sex-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment on genomic DNA from female geese. 3. It was shown that a simple and effective PCR-based sexing technique could be used in the three goose breeds studied. 4. Nucleotide sequencing of the sex-specific fragments in White Roman and Landaise geese was performed and sequence differences were observed among these three breeds.

  20. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, trends, and geographical distribution of HIV among Chinese female sex workers (2000–2011: implications for preventing sexually transmitted HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The HIV epidemic has shown a gradual declining or stabilizing trend among Chinese FSWs. Intervention efforts should be diverted to high-risk subgroups of FSWs, such as drug-using and low-tier FSWs.

  1. 腹腔镜联合尿道镜微创保胆取石术治疗小儿胆囊结石%Laparoscopy combined with urethroscope in cholecystolithotomy with gallbladder preserved in the treatment of pediatric gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 管考平; 刘树立; 李颀; 董宁; 乔国梁; 李龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨腹腔镜联合尿道镜微创保胆取石术治疗小儿胆囊结石的方法及临床应用价值。方法回顾性分析本院2009年8月至2013年8月采用腹腔镜联合尿道镜微创保胆取石术治疗的20例胆囊结石患儿临床资料,男11例,女9例,年龄1岁1月至15岁,胆囊多发并泥沙样结石13例,单发结石3例,遗传性球形红细胞增多症并胆囊结石4例。结果20例均顺利完成手术,手术时间30~90 min,出血量5~20 mL,无术中输血。4例遗传性球形红细胞增多症并胆囊结石患儿联合行腹腔镜下脾切除术。术后患儿临床症状基本消失,单纯胆囊结石患儿术后3d复查腹部彩超见结石无残留。随访6个月至4年,17例未发现胆囊结石复发;1例失访;1例术前大量泥沙样结石术后彩超可见少量结石残留,约0.1 cm大小,无临床症状;1例术前提示胆囊萎缩,胆囊多发结石合并胆囊炎,术后1周患儿仍腹痛,彩超发现胆囊少量泥沙样结石,予胆囊造瘘术,术后1个月拔除造瘘管,随访半年未见结石复发。结论腹腔镜联合尿道镜保胆取石术治疗小儿胆囊结石可保留胆囊功能,操作简单,术后恢复快、并发症少,复发率低,是治疗小儿胆囊结石的可行性方法。%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of minimally invasive laparoscopy combined with urethroscope in cholecystolithotomy with gallbladder preserved in the treatment of pediatric gallstone. Methods A retrospective review was made on the clinical data of 20 children with gallstone in our hospital from Aug. 2009 to Aug.2013,who underwent minimally invasive laparoscopy combined with urethroscope cholecystolitho-tomy with gallbladder preserved.Among them,1 1 patients were males and 9 were females with the age ranging from 1.1 to 15 years.Thirteen cases had multiple and muddy stones,3 cases with a single stone,and 4 cases had gallbladder stones combined with

  2. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  3. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  4. Long-term dietary supplementation with a yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula increases lifespan and mitigates age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability of various tissues in male and female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kam Ming; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Siu, Ada Hoi Ling; Chen, Na; Leong, Eriol Pou Kwan; Poon, Michel K T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether Vigconic 28 (VI-28), a Yang-invigorating Chinese herbal formula, could affect survival of aging animals, male and female C57BL/6J mice were given a VI-28-supplemented diet (0.05 and 0.5%, wt/wt) starting at 36 weeks of age, until death. VI-28 dietary supplementation at 0.05% significantly increased median lifespans of both male and female mice as compared to controls. Survival enhancement was associated with protection against age-associated impairments in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in various tissues. In conclusion, VI-28 could retard the aging process in mice, probably by mitigating age-associated declines in mitochondrial antioxidant status and functional ability in tissues.

  5. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  6. Genetic and functional identification of the likely causative variant for cholesterol gallstone disease at the ABCG5/8 lithogenic locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Kampen, Oliver; Buch, Stephan; Nothnagel, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The sterolin locus (ABCG5/ABCG8) confers susceptibility for cholesterol gallstone disease in humans. Both the responsible variant and the molecular mechanism causing an increased incidence of gallstones in these patients have as yet not been identified. Genetic mapping utilized patient samples from....... Transiently transfected HEK293 cells were used for [(3) H]-cholesterol export assays, analysis of protein expression, and localization of allelic constructs. Through fine mapping in German and Chilean samples, an ∼250 kB disease-associated interval could be defined for this locus. Lack of allelic imbalance...... linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.95). [(3) H]-cholesterol export assays of allelic constructs harboring these genetic candidate variants demonstrated increased transport activity (3.2-fold, P = 0.003) only for the ABCG8-19H variant, which was also superior in nested logistic regression models in German (P...

  7. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Beijing Celebrates 10th Anniversary of the CWJA On March 20, more than 200 female journalists gathered in Beijing together to celebrate the 10th Anniversary of the Capital Women Journalists’ Association. The celebration, ended with the establishment of a women’s media supervision network. Since its founding in March 1986, the CWJA has accomplished a great deal in uniting as many female journalists as possible. The association has made great strides in developing socialist journalism, promoting exchanges between Chinese and foreign female journalists, reporting on the achievements of women from all walks of life, and safeguarding the legal rights of women. The CWJA membership has grown from the original 5,000 women from 60 media units, to the current total of more than 7,000 from nearly 100 media units.

  8. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  9. Laparoscopic Management of a Proximal Jejunal Gallstone Ileus with Patulous Ampulla and Choledochal Cyst-a Report of Unusual Presentation and a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkhede, Rajvilas Anil; Bada, Vijaykumar C; Kona, Lakshmi Kumari

    2017-02-01

    Gallstone ileus is a diagnosis of rarity, and a proximal site of obstruction in a young patient is even rare. Of the three cases in our experience, we found two cases of gallstone ileus (GSI) with typical epidemiology and presentation, one had combination of multiple rare associations. We report such a case, suspected to have gallstone ileus on ultrasound and confirmed diagnosis on computed tomography. Presence of biliary-enteric fistula, old age, and obstructive features, as in typical cases, was a bigger asset for diagnosis, but it was difficult to entertain diagnosis of GSI in young girl in absence of a demonstrable biliary-enteric fistula, with uncommon association of choledochal cyst and sickle cell disease. A very surprising finding, dilated major papilla, could however explain the pathogenesis which has also been reported in the past. Although differential opinions regarding management exist, we decided to follow two-stage surgery as our institute protocol. A minimal access approach has been immensely helpful in accurate diagnosis, and expedative management with early recovery has been proven in the past studies which we agreed with our experience.

  10. Analysis of correlation between depression and gallstones in the aged%老年人抑郁与胆结石相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the relationship between depression and gallstones in the elderly in urban and rural areas. Methods:Using the GDS questionnaire and self made questionnaire.1 878 residents aged over 60 in a community in Shanghai were investigated and the physical examination was conducted.Results:The prevalence of gallstones in the elderly depression was higher.Conclusion:Depression in the elderly is one of the causes of gallstones.Strengthening the psychological intervention can prevent the formation of gallbladder stones.%目的:了解城乡结合地区老年人抑郁与胆结石的相关性。方法:应用GDS问卷及自制调查表,对上海某社区60岁以上1878例居民进行调查及体检。结果:老年人抑郁中胆结石的患病率更高。结论:老年人抑郁是胆结石成因之一,应加强社区抑郁心理干,预预防胆囊结石形成。

  11. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  12. The Evolution of Female Consciousness in Chinese American New Immigrant Novels from the Perspective of Five Divorced Women%从五个离婚的女性看美华新移民小说女性意识的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鸥

    2015-01-01

    From 1995 to 2010,great change had taken placed in the image of divorced females in the Chinese American new immigrant novels.In American Dream,American Love,American Lover to Gone Daily Trip,the divorce of heroines becomes reasonable.It can be regarded as the new female immigrants’ forceful response to the patriarchy,but marriage morality is still the main theme of the novels.In Traces the US (1 9 9 6 )by Zhang Ci in America,the heroine Xie Siyu disobeyed marriage morality to dissolve patriarchy,showing unusual radical female consciousness in Chinese American new immigrant novels.%1995年到2010年,美华新移民小说中离婚女性形象发生了很大的变化。从«美国梦里»、«美国爱情»、«美国情人»到«白日飘行»,女主人公离婚逐渐获得了合理性,可看做新移民女性对男权保守的“进阶突围”,但婚姻道德始终是小说中的重要主题。1996年张慈在美国出版的小说«浪迹美国»通过谢思羽反叛婚姻道德的方式消解男权,显示出美华新移民小说中少见的激进女性意识。

  13. Comparison on Response and Dissolution Rates Between Ursodeoxycholic Acid Alone or in Combination With Chenodeoxycholic Acid for Gallstone Dissolution According to Stone Density on CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Min; Hyun, Jong Jin; Choi, In Young; Yeom, Suk Keu; Kim, Seung Young; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hong Sik; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Chang Duck

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical dissolution of gallstone is usually performed on radiolucent gallstones in a functioning gallbladder. However, absence of visible gallstone on plain abdominal x-ray does not always preclude calcification. This study aims to compare the response and dissolution rates between ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone or in combination with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) according to stone density on computed tomography (CT) scan. A total of 126 patients underwent dissolution therapy with either UDCA alone or combination of CDCA and UDCA (CNU) from December 2010 to March 2014 at Korea University Ansan Hospital. In the end, 81 patients (CNU group = 44, UDCA group = 37) completed dissolution therapy for 6 months. Dissolution rate (percentage reduction in the gallstone volume) and response to therapy (complete dissolution or partial dissolution defined as reduction in stone volume of >50%) were compared between the 2 groups. Dissolution and response rates of sludge was also compared between the 2 groups. The overall response rate was 50.6% (CNU group 43.2% vs UDCA group 59.5%, P = 0.14), and the overall dissolution rate was 48.34% (CNU group 41.5% vs UDCA group 56.5%, P = 0.13). When analyzed according to stone density, response rate was 33.3%, 87.1%, 30.0%, and 6.2% for hypodense, isodense, hyperdense, and calcified stones, respectively. Response rate (85.7% vs 88.2%, P = 0.83) and dissolution rate (81.01% vs 85.38%, P = 0.17) of isodense stones were similar between CNU and UDCA group. When only sludge was considered, the overall response rate was 87.5% (CNU group 71.4% vs UDCA group 94.1%, P = 0.19), and the overall dissolution rate was 85.42% (CNU group 67.9% vs UDCA group 92.7%, P = 0.23). Patients with isodense gallstones and sludge showed much better response to dissolution therapy with CNU and UDCA showing comparable efficacy. Therefore, CT scan should be performed before medication therapy if stone dissolution is intended

  14. The prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products that contain dang-qui and risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen-treated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Tung Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. RESULTS: Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44-0.84. To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55-79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46-1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment.

  15. The Analysis of the Anxiety Expression of the Female Awareness in Chinese Women Documentary%试析中国女性纪录片中女性意识的焦虑抒发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔菲

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, all kinds of the cultural and ideological trends swarmed into China. The feminist movement and the feminist consciousness came to the orient. Meanwhile, a group of female directors who explored female consciousness of their own life were not satisfied with shaping the female from the male's views in the movies. They tried to seek for the female unique life experience. Taking documentary films Go Back to Phoenix Bridge for example, This article tries to investigate the female's mood and sorrow deep inside, explore the female group implemented animadversion, backlash and battle cry to the unfair oppression of the ideology from the society and culture and analyze the anxious expression of the female awareness.%20世纪80年代,各种文化思潮涌入中国,女权运动与女性主义意识也踏上了东方这片土地.与此同时,一批探索女性自我意识的导演,不满足影视中以男性为中心视角来塑造女性,试图寻找女性独特的意识体验,女性纪录片应运而生.文章以《回到凤凰桥》等纪录片为例,在剖析女性内心深处的情感和悲痛的过程中,探讨女性群体对社会、文化在其意识形态上的压迫所进行的批判、反抗以及呐喊,分析女性意识的焦虑抒发.

  16. Gallstones Risk Factor and Prevalence in the Elderly in Jeju Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Joon Lock; Park, Jae Jin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Ji Min; Jung, Hong Ryang; Lim, Chung Hwan; Kim, Jung Gu [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Gallbladder stone is the most common disease of biliary tract. It is lead to acute abdominal pain. The cholecystitis which is caused by in gallbladder stone occurs frequently and the possibility of the gallbladder cancer comes to be high. Our study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors gallbladder stone in a population who community. We enrolled a total of 826 (male : 297, female : 529) persons who 60 or older in Jeju-do 10 places from 2008 July one months. The height, weight, liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, were all measurement. They had their gallbladder examined with using ultrasonography. Statistical significance was defined as a p-value less than 0.05. Among 826 persons, gallbladder stone was found in 49 persons (5.9%). The male is 6.1% and the female is 5.8%, the male 1.03 times appeared more highly the female. The body mass index above of 23.0 kg/m{sup 2} with the gallbladder stone was 69.3% (p<0.047). The gallbladder stone appeared highly according to age increases. The obesity is the risk factor of gallbladder stone. The weight management and diet control is a possibility of reducing a gallbladder stone creation.

  17. Pregnancy is not a risk factor for gallstone disease: Results of a randomly selected population sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Walcher; Bernhard Otto Boehm; Wolfgang Kratzer; Mark Martin Haenle; Martina Kron; Birgit Hay; Richard Andrew Mason; Alexa Friederike Alice von Schmiesing; Armin Imhof; Wolfgang Koenig; Peter Kern

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and selection of the study population for cholecystolithiasis in an urban population in Germany, in relation to our own findings and to the results in the international literature.METHODS: A total of 2 147 persons (1 111 females,age 42.8±12.7 years; 1 036 males, age 42.3±13.1 years)participating in an investigation on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis were studied for risk factors and prevalence of gallbladder stone disease.Risk factors were assessed by means of a standardized interview and calculation of body mass index (BMI). A diagnostic ultrasound examination of the gallbladder was performed. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, using the SAS statistical software package.RESULTS: Gallbladder stones were detected in 171study participants (8.0%, n = 2 147). Risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease included age, sex, BMI, and positive family history. In a separate analysis of female study participants, pregnancy (yes/no)and number of pregnancies did not exert any influence.CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study confirm that age, female sex, BMI, and positive family history are risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease. Pregnancy and the number of pregnancies,however, could not be shown to be risk factors. There seem to be no differences in the respective prevalence for gallbladder stone disease in urban and rural populations.

  18. 基于女性地理学视角的中国城市女性居民社会-生活空间研究综述%REVIEW ON SOCIAL- LIVING SPACE RESEARCHES OF CHINESE URBAN FEMALE RESIDENTS --BASED ON THE FEMINISM GEOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锴; 李开宇

    2012-01-01

    Feminism geography has got significantly theoretical influences in the western countries in the later 20th century. The classical geography saw the space problem with neutral or male perspective which is based on male knowledge system and male evaluation system. And the feminist geography not only criticizes the traditional geo- graphical position on space that are regarded as based on patriarchy system, but also presents the essence of social justice and humanism. With the rapid development of Chinese urbanization, Chinese economy and society problem has got more complexity and diversification. Based on the neo - humanism theory, the academic circle should give much attention on the urban female residents to promote their living quality. And we try to review and appraise the current literatures in the aspects of the urban female social - living space, and tentatively propose from four as- pects: the urban female family space, the urban female work space, the urban female shopping space and the ur- ban female recreation space in order to get the summary and analysis of Chinese feminism geography studies.%城市化的快速发展导致当代中国城市社会问题日益复杂和多元化。在以人为本、追求社会公平、公正的“新人本主义”发展观思潮下,学术界需要对城市女性这样一个重要的亚群体单元加以关注,以提高城市中女性群体生活质量。女性地理学在西方国家经过近40年的发展,从以人为本、重视差异的后现代人本主义思潮中汲取丰富的养分,在理论以及实践上都趋于成熟。尝试性从女性地理学视角回顾目前中国多元化社会、快速城市化发展下的城市女性居民社会-生活空间问题的现有研究成果,分别从城市女性家庭行为空间、城市女性工作行为空间、城市女性购物行为空间、城市女性休闲娱乐空间4个方面进行梳理总结以期得出相关启示。

  19. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China-a report from 32 Chinese cancer registries,2003-2007%中国女性乳腺癌的发病和死亡现况——全国32个肿瘤登记点2003-2007年资料分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲宙; 陈万青; 吴春晓; 郑荣寿; 陈建国; 杨念念; 王宁; 张思维; 郑莹

    2012-01-01

    one of the most common cancers among Chinese women. The incidence and mortality rates of female breast cancer in urban areas are significantly higher than those in rural areas, although the overall incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in Chinese women are still at a medium or low level in the world.

  20. A population-based follow-up study on gallstone disease among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao-Hsin Tung; Hsiao-Man Ho; Hui-Chuan Shih; Pesus Chou; Jorn-Hon Liu; Victor TK Chen; De-Chuan Chan; Chi-Ming Liu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the incidence of and risk factors for gallstone disease (GSD) among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen,Taiwan.METHODS: A screening program for GSD was performed by two specialists who employed real-time abdominal ultrasound to examine the abdominal region after patients had fasted for at least eight hours. Screening, which was conducted in 2001, involved 848 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. After exclusion of 63subjects with prevalent GSD, 377 participants without GSD were invited in 2002 for a second round of screening. A total of 281 (74.5%) subjects were re-examined.RESULTS: Among the 281 type 2 diabetics who had no GSD at the first screening, 10 had developed GSD by 2002. The incidence was 3.56% per year (95%CI:1.78% per year-6.24% per year). Using a Cox regression model, age (RR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.14), waist circumference (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29), and ALT (RR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26) appeared to be significantly correlated with development of GSD.CONCLUSION: Older age is a known risk factor for the development of GSD. Our study shows that greater waist circumference and elevated ALT levels are also associated with the development of GSD among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen.

  1. 苦难的歌者——解读加华小说《红浮萍》的女性主体性表现%Suffering Singer-On Female Subjectivity in Chinese Canadian Novel Daughters of the Red Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镜

    2012-01-01

    In Daughters of the Red Land, elist, describes three generations of women' s the masterpiece of Li Yan, a Chinese Canadian novfate and experience from 1940s to the era of Chinese and opening - up, presenting the changes of a big family and society. From the perspective of Feminism, the paper interprets female subjectivity in surviving and love motif in the novel, revealing the tortures, confusions and struggles that women experience in seeking of true self, independent personality and indignity.%旅加华人作家李彦通过《红浮萍》描写了中国四十年代至改革开放时期三代女性的人生境遇,呈现了一个家族和历史的变迁。本文从女性主义视角出发,对小说中生存和爱情母题的女性主体性表现进行解读,力求揭示苦难中的女性找寻自我、追求独立人格与尊严过程中的曲折、困惑及为之付出的不懈努力。

  2. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  3. Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marvin D; Carey, Martin C

    2015-01-01

    Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams for unconjugated bilirubin IXα (UCB) in bile are yet to be determined for understanding the physical chemistry of pigment gallstone formation. Also, UCB is a molecule of considerable biomedical importance because it is a potent antioxidant and an inhibitor of atherogenesis. We employed principally a titrimetric approach to obtain metastable and equilibrium UCB solubilities in model bile systems composed of taurine-conjugated bile salts, egg yolk lecithin (mixed long-chain phosphatidylcholines), and cholesterol as functions of total lipid concentration, biliary pH values, and CaCl2 plus NaCl concentrations. Metastable and equilibrium precipitation pH values were obtained, and average pKa values of the two carboxyl groups of UCB were calculated. Added lecithin and increased temperature decreased UCB solubility markedly, whereas increases in bile salt concentrations and molar levels of urea augmented solubility. A wide range of NaCl and cholesterol concentrations resulted in no specific effects, whereas added CaCl2 produced large decreases in UCB solubilities at alkaline pH values only. UV-visible absorption spectra were consistent with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between UCB and bile salts that were strongly influenced by pH. Reliable literature values for UCB compositions of native gallbladder biles revealed that biles from hemolytic mice and humans with black pigment gallstones are markedly supersaturated with UCB and exhibit more acidic pH values, whereas biles from nonstone control animals and patients with cholesterol gallstone are unsaturated with UCB.

  4. 23例女性甲状腺功能减退中医证治规律探讨%Study on differentiation-prescription rules of 23 female patients with hypothyroidism by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中药“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲状腺功能减退(简称甲减)患者的治疗效果,探索中药防治甲减新思路.方法:观察甲减患者应用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗前后的临床表现和甲状腺功能改变并评估疗效.结果:患者在服用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗后,临床症状明显改善,甲状腺功能治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲减治疗有效,说明部分甲减患者病机属于“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”所主病机,丰富了中医对甲减的认识.%Objective; The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction on patients with hypothyroidism and to assess hypothyroidism using traditional Chinese medicine. Methods; Observe the clinical manifestations and the change of thyroid functions on patients with hypothyroidism before and after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction, and then assess the effect of the decoction. Result; Clinical symptoms of patients with hypothyroidism are improved significantly after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction; and there is significant difference between the thyroid functions before and after the treatment ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; The treatment of hypothyroidism by use of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is effective, which indicates that pathogenesis of some patients with hypothyroidism is mainly based on which Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is used in traditional Chinese medicine theory, thereby enriching knowledge of hypothyroidism in traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Normative values of pulmonary function testing in Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑劲平; 钟南山

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To compare the difference in pulmonary function between Caucasians and Chinese and assess the best reference values of pulmonary function for Chinese adults. Methods Values for pulmonary function were predicted by tests on 4773 Chinese healthy subjects (male: 2560, female: 2213, aged 15-78 years) in six parts (north, northeast, northwest, east, southwest and south) of China. Prediction equations of the European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), other equations for overseas Chinese or for Caucasians were also selected. The regression coefficients of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) were summarized. Results ECSC predictions were closer to the Chinese ones than other selected equations. Comparison with ECSC predictions showed that on average the values for FVC, FEV1 were 5.3% smaller in Chinese males and 3.3% smaller in Chinese females, with the maximal differences in south China and the minimal differences in North China. RV and TLC in Chinese were lower than in Caucasians (males 4.8%, 5.5%, respectively; females 8.7% and 6.0%, respectively). Conversion factors were given for adjusting ECSC equations to fit Chinese. Conclusions For predicting values of pulmonary function in Chinese, we suggest to use the equations reported here. Alternatively, ECSC regression equations may be used with appropriate conversion factors.

  6. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  7. ApoB-100, ApoE and CYP7A1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican patients with cholesterol gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sánchez-Cuén; Jaime; Aguilar-Medina; Maribel; Arámbula-Meraz; Eliakym; Romero-Navarro; José; Granados; Julio; Sicairos-Medina; Laura; Ramos-Payán; Rosalío

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the possible association of the ApoB100 (Xba Ⅰ ), ApoE (Hha Ⅰ ) and CYP7A1 (Bsa Ⅰ ) gene polymorphisms, with the development of cholesterol gallstone disease (GD) in a Mexican population. METHODS: The polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by ethnicity, age and sex: patients with GD (n = 101) and stone-free control subjects (n = 101). RESULTS: Allelic frequencies in patients and controls were: 34....

  8. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  9. 我国优秀女子链球运动员关键动作技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis on the Key Motion Technique of Chinese Elite Female Hammer Throwers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾谊; 张青粉

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors which influenced and restrict‐ed the performance of some Chinese elite hammer throwers by using the three‐dimensional pho‐tographic measuring method .Methods :1 ) captured the video of athletes with fixed three‐di‐mensional photography ;2) get the raw kinematics data from the video used APAS motion anal‐ysis system ;3) get the smooth data form raw analysis data used digital filtering method and the cut frequency was 8Hz .The result shows that 1 ) The double support phase of Chinese athletes was insufficient .2) The motion of Chinese throwers in the wind were insufficient and lead to excessive velocity increment in the first turn .A few throwers also experienced negative increment of hammer speed in other turns .3) Our athletes generally used the technique charac‐terized by “lift late and land early” to increase the acceleration distance of the hammer .Conclu‐sion :1) Chinese athletes should increase the hammer velocity of the last phase of swing .2 ) Throwers should keep the center of gravity as far as possible in the period of double support in order to reduce the influence of "runner" effect on the hammer speed .3 ) Throwers should prolong the double support phase .%研究目的:通过拍摄我国部分优秀女子链球运动员的动作,对影响和制约运动员成绩发挥的因素进行了分析和研究。研究方法:1)用立体定机拍摄法,获得运动员比赛视频录像;2)利用APAS运动图像分析系统对比赛视频进行解析,获得原始运动学参数;3)数字滤波法,对原始运动学参数进行低通滤波平滑,截断频率为8 Hz。研究结果:1)我国运动员双支撑时间不足;2)我国运动员普遍存在预摆动作不充分的现象,导致旋转第1圈链球速度增量过大,个别运动员在旋转过程中还出现了链球速度的负增长。3)我国运动员普遍采用“晚抬早落”的旋转技术

  10. The emerging of"female citizen":The subject identity of modern Chinese women through literary practices%女国民的兴起:近代中国女性主体身份与文学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔以钢; 刘堃

    2009-01-01

    The construction of"citizen-state"relations in the intellectual World of modern China and the establishment of individual citizenship in political discourse have opened up a political and discourse sphere for modern women to strive for new identities,wherein some intellectually advanced women have managed to establish their individual identity as"female citizen"by carrying the debate on the relationship between women and the state with regard to their rights and responsibilities,and on the relationship between gender role and citizenship.Though the idea of"female citizen"was not provided with a political theory of practical significance,the subject identity of women,however,was repeatedly spoken about and strengthened in brand-new literary practices,resulting in a dynamic discourse of "female citizen":in the meantime,disagreements concerning the concepts of"female rights,""civil rights,"and "natural rights"have all helped ereate significant tension inside the related discourse sphere.%近代中国思想界对"围民一国家"关系的建构及个体国民身份在政治话语中的确立,为近代女性谋求新的身份认同开拓了话语空间和政治空间.近代先进女性也正是在这种话语空间和政治空间中,通过女性与国家之间责任和权利关系的辩难以及性别角色与国民身份的博弈,确立了独立的个体身份--"女国民".尽管这一概念并未形成系统而具有实践指导意义的政治理论,但她们通过别开生面的文学实践,一再言说和强化着这一主体身份,形成了声势颇为浩大的"女国民"话语;同时也因对"女权"、"民权"、"天赋人权"等概念的不同理解,在相关话语场的内部形成了富有意义的张力.

  11. 论20世纪50—70年代中国文学女性身体形态脸谱化叙述%Portraits of Female Body in the Chinese Literature in 1950-1970

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传霞; 蒋凯旋

    2012-01-01

    1949年中国大陆的女性解放运动,拓展了女性参与社会生产的广度和深度,以“铁姑娘”为代表的女英雄形象的出现,改变了社会对女性能力的评价,打破了女性柔弱无力的僵化性别印象,在一定程度上触动了“男主外,女主内”的传统性别分工模式以及支持这一模式的文化观念系统,为女性争取到了更多地参与到社会公共领域的权力,改变了传统社会评判女性的标准,瓦解了传统社会对女性角色的设定,但是,消匿女性特征的女英雄和凸显女性性别特征的反面女性的脸谱化文学叙述,又将中国社会具有巨大进步意义现代性社会性别建构推向了另一个二元对立、不平等的性别神话之中。%The women's liberation movement in Mainland China since 1949 had expanded the depth and width of women's participation in social production. As well, the appearance of "Iron Girl" images as women's heroines changed the evaluation of women's capability in society and broke the fixed gender based image of women being weak and helpless. At certain level, it challenged the tradition of gender based division of labor as "men managing outside while women managing inside the households" as well as its cultural values and helped win rights for women to participate in social and public processes. It, moreover, helped change the traditional standards of evaluating women and undermine the traditional female stereotypes. However, the existence of women heroines without female characteristics and female negative characters with distinct female characteristic facial profiles in literary writings again created a dichotomy and inequality in the mythical construction of gender order.

  12. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  13. 胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠和免患鼠肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的差别%Differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion in genetically gallstone-susceptible and gallstone-resistant mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion of genetically gallstone-susceptible (C57L) and resistant (AKR) mice and the mechanism of cholesterol gallstone formation.Methods The inbred C57L and AKR mice were fed a lithogenic diet containing 15% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for four weeks. Hepatic cholesterol content and secretion rates of biliary lipids, as well as phenotypes of the liver and gallbladder were determined and examined before and after the feeding of the lithogenic diet. Results Both before and after ingestion of the lithogenic diet, hepatic secretion rates of all biliary lipids in C57L mice were markedly higher than that of AKR mice (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively), whereas hepatic cholesterol contents of C57L mice were significantly lower than that of AKR mice (P<0.05). Furthermore, after consumption of the lithogenic diet, the increase in hepatic secretion rate of biliary cholesterol in C57L mice was significantly higher than that in AKR mice (P<0.01). Cholesterol gallstones formed in C57L mice and fatty livers developed in AKR mice. Conclusions Biliary cholesterol hypersecretion is the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation, lith genes have effects on biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice. Lithogenic bile is formed at the canalicular membrane and precedes the development of cholesterol gallstones. It is most likely that cholesterol and bile acid hyposecretion make the AKR strain susceptible to the development of fatty livers and resistant to gallstone formation.%目的研究胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠(C57L)和免患鼠(AKR)肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的特征以及胆囊胆固醇结石形成的机制.方法用含15%脂肪、1.25%胆固醇和0.5%胆酸的结石餐饲喂C57L和AKR鼠四周,检测并比较两种鼠在结石餐干预前、后肝脏胆固醇含量、肝内胆汁中脂质的分泌率以及胆

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Connie Suk-Han Ho; Simpson Wai-Lap Wong; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs). Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic s...

  15. A lateral cephalometric study of sella turcica in Southern Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Makhbuol, MZB; Wong, RWK; Rabie, ABM

    2012-01-01

    The dimensions of sella might be associated with pathological conditions, yet data related to these are scanty. This study is to quantitatively investigate the dimensions of sella in southern Chinese population. This retrospective pilot study consists 150 randomly selected Chinese lateral cephalometric radiographs (50 females and 100 males) presented to PPDH for Orthod...

  16. Estimation on the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and relat- ed female group%中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数值估测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明华; 于增照; 张北川; 史同新; 李秀芳; 李洋; 王燕飞; 朱明泉

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:In the new social demography and medical background,to estimate the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and related female groups to provide scientific basis for the related research in China.Methods:According to the population provided by 201 3 China Statistical Yearbook and the related data offered by professor Pan’s "Multilayer equal probability sexology sampling survey a-bout China adult population"in 201 0,data sample calculation was performed.Results:The total number of Chi-nese male homosexuality (including bisexuality)may significantly exceed 21 million.The number of sexually active MSM was about 9.224 million;the number of female homosexuality in China was up to 1 2 million.The number of sexually active WSW was about 8.1 67 million;there were approximately 1 3.6 million female whose spouses were male homosexuality.There were nearly 1 0 million female whose spouses were MSM.Conclusion:There are huge numbers of homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior and related groups of women in China.Their physical and psychological health need to be paid particular attention by medical community and other related com-munity.In the next ten years,the number of"visible"homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior will increase.While the number of female whose fixed sex-partners are male homosexuality and MSMwill continue to decline.%目的:在新的社会人口学和医学背景下,估测中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数量,为当今中国的相关研究提供科学依据。方法:主要根据《2013年中国统计年鉴》提供的人口基数和潘绥铭2010年对中国成年人口的多层等概率性学抽样调查给出的相关数据进行计算。结果:估测我国男同性爱者(包括男双性爱者)总人口极可能明显超过2100万,性活跃期男男性行为者约922.4万;我国女同性爱者总人口可达1200万左右,

  17. Prediction of percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Singaporean and Beijing Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Jingzhong Wang,; Fu Po Lin,; Schmidt, G.

    2000-01-01

    Body composition was measured in 205 male and female Beijing Chinese and in 148 male and female Singaporean Chinese, age 34 (mean) (range 18-68) years and body mass index (BMI) 22.3 (15.9-38.5) kg/m 2. In Beijing Siri's two-compartment model based on densitometry was used as a reference technique an

  18. 我国跆拳道优秀女选手历届奥运会技、战术特征研究%Study on Taekwondo's Technical and Tactical Characteristics of the Chinese Elite Female Athletes in the 27th,28th and 29th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会景

    2011-01-01

    我国自1995年引进开展跆拳道项目以来,经过教练员、运动员及其相关人员的努力,我国跆拳道女子项目已进入世界先进水平的行列,多次在奥运会上成功夺冠。本文综合运用录像观摩、常规数理统计和调查访问等研究方法,对我国优秀跆拳道女选手在奥运会比赛中的技、战术运用情况进行分析、归纳和总结,以期为跆拳道技、战术训练科学化提供参考和理论依据,并为备战2012年奥运会提供有效的、可供参考的理论依据。%Since 1995,China has introduced and developed Taekwondo.With the coaches and athletes' efforts,Chinese women's Taekwondo has entered the ranks of advanced level in the world,winning the gold medal in the Olympic Games for several times.By watching video of competition,statistics and interviews,the paper researched the technical and tactical characteristics of Chinese elite female athletes in the 27th、28th and 29th Olympic Games.The purpose is to provide theoretical basis and reference to the skill training of Taekwondo,and provide effective references for the 2012 Olympic Games.

  19. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  20. Velocity characteristics of the rotation technique of Chinese elite female discus throwers%我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的速度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁从万; 王鹏; 刘海国

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、三维高速影像解析法和数理统计法,对现阶段我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的时空特征进行分析,得出以下结论:重心和铁饼的分速度大小及比例对运动员技术风格的形成有重要影响;在旋转技术完成瞬间,李艳凤和宋爱民的铁饼合速度分别是最大和最小的,不同的是李艳风水平分速度占的比例大,宋爱民垂直分速度占的比例大,孙太凤在左脚单支撑阶段铁饼速度较快,导致腾空和过渡阶段铁饼速度下降;在左脚单支撑阶段,宋爱民右髋的速度最大导致她重心轨迹偏向左,孙太凤最慢的右髋速度和最快的右肩速度使她的重心轨迹偏右;李艳凤在过渡阶段过快的肩关节速度是她获得较快饼速的主要原因之一。在形成最后用力双支撑瞬间,我国运动员的肩轴角速度要大于髋轴,说明我国运动员已经开始最后用力。%This article adopted the methods of literature, expert interview, photography of three dimensional in high speed, and mathematic statistics to analyze the rotation technique of Chinese elite women's discus throwers. It has been shown that size and proportion of component velocity of CG and discus have very important influence to form athlete' s technique style ; Body -discus system at flight and transition stage is very complex and the most difficulty controllable. System changes in the two stages have the decisive effect to form personal optimum technique; the second and third rotation axis of Chinese athletes have steady velocity transfer. Hip and knees velocity of the second axis decide the style of displacement. The shoulder velocity of third has a close relation to the space - time characteristics of discus.

  1. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  2. 国家女子网球队运动员大力发球技术的运动学分析%A Kinematics Analysis of the Female Chinese National Tennis Players' Power Serve Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇亮; 周兴龙; 朱文斐

    2012-01-01

    通过国家队网球运动员的大力发球的运动学指标分析,以期提高我国网球运动员发球水平,并为教练员教学、训练提供理论依据。利用两台200Hz高速摄像机对8名国家网球队女队员发球进行三维拍摄,通过jE京体育大学视迅解析系统对所拍摄影像进行三维重构及运动学解析。结果显示:运动员抛球离手时,抛球高度平均为3.67m,最高点到击球点落差平均为1.10m。球拍后引时,膝关节最小角度分别为持拍侧91.35°、非持拍侧104.64°。“搔背”动作完成时,拍头均低于重心,平均落差为0.21m。击球后平均球速为42.64m/s,击球点高度平均为2.57m。由此可见,我国网球运动员发球时抛球较高,建议降低抛球高度;相对于FB技术,FU技术能使运动员获得更大幅度的躯干扭转角度;缓冲结束时刻,部分运动员过度顶髋的现象造成下肢发力不充分,最终导致球速下降。“搔背”动作是典型的超越器械动作,下肢的充分蹬伸是动作质量的保证。%By analyzing the kinematics indicators of the power serve of the national tennis players, to improve the serve quality of China's tennis players, to provide both the player and coach with a better understanding of the mechanical basis of the serve, 8 Chinese national tennis team players have been taken as the subject in this research 8 players were filmed using two cameras, threc-dimensional direct linear transformation set-up. Two highspeed cameras were used to record the calibration frame, which was necessary for calculating three-dimensional coordinate data using the direct linear transformation (DLT) method. Data were processed by Shi Xun Analysis System of Beijing Sport University. The result shows that the ball was hit at a mean distance of 1.10m below a peak ball toss height of 3.67m. In backswing, the front knee flexion angle was 91.35°and the back one was 104

  3. Feel Fine with Chinese Folk Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoZi

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese folk music band “Feel Fine” is composed of three accomplished young female instrumentalists. These young musicians, since their debut, have brought to audiences fresh music experiences with their splendid costumes, extraordinary skills and pop-style music.

  4. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  5. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  6. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  7. Arduous Female Body - Shape---historical reflection of modern Chinese women's involvement in sports%艰难的女性身体塑造--我国近代女子体育参与的历史思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 蒋苏

    2014-01-01

    以民国女性的"身体"塑造为研究对象,通过对民国时期画报、图像、照片资料的解读、分析,使得史料的表述更具“张力”。通过研究,突出社会结构变迁层面对女性身体塑造的影响。女性的身体生物性塑造,暗合了"强种保国"的军国主义的思维;在道德身体的塑造上,对塑造新女性、新国民的历史进程中,发挥了一定的作用;在沟通态的身体上,体育运动的参与,突破了女性的存在空间,是时代变革在她们身体塑造过程中的力量彰显。%Women's " body" shaping in the republic of China is used as the research object. The paper analyzes the pictorials, images and photographs in the period of the Republic of China, which makes the expression of the materials more forceful. The research highlights the influence of social level structure change on female body shaping. The biologi-cal shaping of women's body coincides with the military philosophy of “strengthening the seed to protect the country”. The moral shaping of women's bodies plays a role in shaping new women and new citizens. In the communication mode of body shaping, the involvement of sports breaks through the space in which women exist and this is the reflection of the power in their body - shaping process.

  8. 腹腔镜联合胆道镜治疗胆结石68例%Laparoscopic treatment of gallstones 68 cases of biliary microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅聿铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate and study laparoscopic treatment of gallstones biliary mirror effect.Methods 2009-2010 my income 68 cases of hepatobiliary surgery hospital patients with gallstones (including gallbladder stones and bile duct stones),divided into two groups.laparoscopic biliary mirror treatment group,36 patients;traditional open surgery group,32 patients were observed before and after surgery of the indicators and differences in intraoperative complications. Results the two groups no difference in operative time.Other indicators were statistically different(P<0.05).Conclusion The laparoscopic and endoscopic treatment of gallstones in the bile duct and traditional open surgery,based on a similar time,there is less blood loss.trauma, wound infection rate is small.the advantages of rapid postoperative recovery.%目的 探讨和研究腹腔镜联合胆道镜治疗胆结石的疗效.方法 将2009年至2010年收入我院肝胆外科的68例胆结石患者(包括胆囊结石和胆管结石),分为两组,腹腔镜联合胆道镜治疗组,36名患者;传统开腹手术组,32名患者,观察两组手术前后各项指标和术中并发症发生的差异.结果 两组比较手术时间无差异,其他各项指标比较均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 腹腔镜和胆道镜联合治疗胆结石在与传统开腹手术时间相似的基础上,有出血量少、创伤小、切口感染率小、患者术后恢复快等优点.

  9. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  10. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  11. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  13. Reação peritoneal tardia ao calculo biliar humano, de colesterol, deixado na cavidade abdominal de ratos Late peritoneal reaction to human cholesterol gallstone left into abdominal cavity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bertges

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os resultados tardios da colocação de cálculos biliares humanos, de colesterol, na cavidade peritoneal de ratos. Constituíram-se cinco grupos: cinco ratos foram apenas laparotomizados com manuseio da cavidade; cinco foram laparotomizados e receberam um ponto com fio monofilamentar cinco zeros no sulco paracólico direito e mesentério; dez receberam cálculos que foram deixados livres na cavidade peritoneal; em dez, os clculos foram fixados no sulco paracólico direito e, finalmente, dez tiveram clculos fixados no mesentério. Os animais foram mortos após cinco meses de pós-operatório quando se observou a cavidade abdominal e foi coletado material para estudo histopatológico. Concluiu-se que os cálculos não foram absorvidos, desenvolveram uma reação peritoneal do tipo corpo estranho com formação de plastrão e foram envolvidos por tecido fibroso e células inflamatórias.It was evaluated the late results of human gallstones placed into peritoneal cavity of rats. Five groups were created. In the first (group A five rats were submitted only to laparotomy and handling of abdominal cavity, in the second (group B five rats were submitted to laparotomy and a stitch was placed into right abdominal wall and in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum, in the third (group C ten rats received a gallstone left free into abdomen, in the fourth (group D ten rats received a gallstone fixed into right abdominal wall and in the fifth (group E ten rats received a gallstone fixed in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum. One rat in each group was selected to be use as a pilot and were re-laparotomized after 1 month and 3 months, in order to look for any possible alteration. All rats were dead after five months when the abdominal cavity was observed and specimens were collected around the gallstones to histopathology. ln groups A and B there were not important macroscopic alterations. The gallstones were not absorved in groups C, D

  14. Clinical significance of MSCT and MRI diagnosis of gallstone ileus%胆石性肠梗阻MSCT、MRI诊断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恩龙; 赵振国; 谢秀海; 隋海晶; 钱帮伟; 黄玉章

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application and the value of multi-slice spiral CT(MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ihe diagnosis of gallstone ileus. Methods 17 patients of gallstone ileus obstruction confirmed by surgical findings, who had CT and MRI scans and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. MSCT were performed in all patients, MRI were performed in .seven patients. Results MSCT showed intestinal obstruction in all cases, including incomplete small-bowel obstruction in 13 cases and complete obstruction in 4 cases. Other findings included cctopic stone in 17 cases,of which 10 cases in the ilcum,5 cases in the jejunum ,2 cases with stones both in the gallbladder and the duodenum, pneumo- gallbladder in 17 cases, pneum obilia in 14 cases. All gallstone obstruction patients, 15 cases showed biliary-enteric fistula, which were showed in 13 cases by MSCT, clearly showed in 7 cases by MRI. Conclusion MSCT and MRI are valuable for posit inning and qualitative diagnosing gallstone ileus, which can provide comprehensive informal ion regarding the exact number, size, and location of eciopic stones and the site of intestinal obstruction or direct visualization of a biliary-enteric fistula,especially MRI hns a unique advantage in clearly showing the biliary-enteric fistula,and to help clinicians in the therapeutic management of patients and the judgment of prognosis.%目的 探讨多层螺旋CT及MRI在胆石性肠梗阻诊断中的价值及临床意义.方法 回顾分析17例经手术证实的胆石性肠梗阻病例的CT、MRI检查资料.17例均行CT检查,7例行MRI检查.结果 多层螺旋CT显示肠梗阻共17例,不完全性小肠梗阻13例,完全性肠梗阻4例;异位结石17例,其中10例位于回肠,5例位于空肠,2例于胆囊及十二指肠内均可见结石,胆囊积气17例,胆管积气14例.17例中15例合并胆肠瘘,13例MSCT显示瘘口,7例行MRI检查,均可明确显示瘘口.结论 多层螺旋CT及MRI在胆石性肠

  15. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  16. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  17. Dieting and Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Health tips from Dr. Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current ... the liver. The gallbladder helps the body digest foods by storing and releasing bile into the small ...

  18. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  19. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium ox

  20. 盆底康复仪结合中医调护治疗女性性功能障碍的临床效果研究%Study on the clinical effect of Chinese medicine nursing for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction combined with pelvic floor rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    言彩蝶; 黄慧红; 梁鸿

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of Chinese medicine nursing combined with pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment of female sexual dysfunction. Methods Female sexual dysfunction 60 patients selected in July 2014~October 2014 by the hospital gynecology clinic“medical history questionnaire” investigate the initial diagnosis of patients with female sexual dysfunction were randomly divided into ob⁃servation group and control group(30 cases)both groups were given bio-electric stimulation therapy,based on this observation group were treated with acupressure,emotional nursing music therapy,the treatment period of 8 weeks. Results After treatment,the observation group and control group response rate was 93.33% and 73.33%,respectively.Clinical observation group was significantly higher,the difference was statistically sig⁃nificant(P<0.05).Comprehensive treatment of pelvic floor muscle strength,frequency of sexual activity,quality of life and the incidence of dyspa⁃reunia has improved significantly,comparing with before treatment differences were statistically significant( P<0.05) ,after treatment than before treatment,comparison between the two groups at the same time the differences were statistically significant( P<0.05) ,the observation group than the control group.Conclusion TCM nursing binding instrument pelvic floor rehabilitation treatment of female sexual dysfunction can improve the prognosis of integrated pelvic floor muscle strength,improve the prognosis of patient quality of life,worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨中医调护结合盆底康复仪治疗女性性功能障碍的临床效果。方法女性性功能障碍患者60例,选取2014年7月~2014年10月本院妇科门诊经《病史问卷调查表》调查初步诊断为女性性功能障碍的患者随机分为观察组与对照组各30例,两组都给予生物电刺激进行治疗,在此基础上观察组加用穴位按摩、情志调护音

  1. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  2. Empirical Study on Functional Training of Chinese Female Hockey Team Preparing for London Olympic Games%中国女子曲棍球队备战第30届夏季奥运会过程中体能训练的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琪; 王明波; 裴怡然; 赵焕彬

    2014-01-01

    Functional training of the Chinese female hockey team was studied during the prepa-ration for 2012 London Olympic Games ,and a functional training method system specified for elite female hockey players was constructed .The preparation period was divided into three macro-cycles ,and each macro-cycle was divided into three micro-cycles :basic physical function development ,general motion function development and specific function development .Each mi-cro-cycle had specific training goals and different emphases .After 19 months of systematic im-plementation ,the athletes’ court physical fitness test results were comprehensively improved , and the Functional Movement Screen (FMS ) score ,starting velocity ,speed ,agility ,functional strength ,anaerobic endurance have been significantly increased(P<0 .01) .%以备战第30届夏季奥运会(2012,英国·伦敦)过程中中国女子曲棍球队的体能训练为研究对象,建立了体能训练系统,把备战过程划分为3个大周期,每个大周期又划分为“身体基本运动功能训练周期”、“一般运动功能训练周期”和“专项运动功能训练周期”3个中周期,在每个中周期中有其明确的体能训练目标,在训练安排比例上有所侧重。通过长达19个月的系统实施,应用功能性体能训练的理念与方法,全面提高运动员场地体能测试的成绩,在身体基本功能性动作筛查(FMS )、起动速度、速度、灵敏性、功能性力量、无氧耐力几个方面都得到明显提高(P<0.01)。

  3. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  4. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  5. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the opti

  6. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  7. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  8. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor femenino About Human Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. The female needs a ... like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of themselves ...

  9. 我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员体质与体成分特点及相关性研究%STUDY ON CHARACTERISTIC OF PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION AND CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL HEALTH OF OUTSTANDING YOUNG CHINESE SNOW PROJECT FEMALE ATHLETE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴菲; 魏亚茹

    2016-01-01

    With the methods of document,test and mathematical statistic,the author investigated the physique,body composition characteristics and correlation between body composition and physical health,and studied the principle and characteristics in order to provide the beneficial reference for improving body function and quality of elite female athletes of teenagers in Ice and Snow project. The results showed that:1)Body composition of outstanding young female athletes of Chinese snow project has its own characteristics,body fat rate is relatively low and a higher lean body mass. Compared with the foreign excellent ice snow athletes,body fat rate was not significant but significant difference in lean body weight existed;2 )Body function and quality of female athletes are in good condition,but the pulmonary function,strength and coordination still has potential to be further improved in the quality of the sports training;3 )There was positive correlation between the lean body weight and the ratio of lung capacity while then was negative correlation between body weight,fat content,body fat rate and BMI and the ratio of lung capacity. Also,there was negative correlation between body weight,fat content,body fat rate with standing long jump and flexibility. Body weight,body fat rate and fat content were positively correlated with grip. There was positive correlation between lean body mass with standing long jump and grip strength. It is conclucled that there were correlation between body composition and physical health of Chinese elite female athletes on the snow.%采用文献资料法、测试法、数理统计法对我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员体质、体成分特点及相关性进行分析,研究其规律及特点,为最大限度发挥我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员的身体机能、素质提供有益参考。研究结果显示:1)我国优秀青少年雪上项目女运动员体成分具有自身特点,体脂率较低,瘦体重较

  10. Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The cause of the female urethral syndrome has previously been obscure, as it has been associated by definition with a lack of objective findings but a plethora of subjective complaints of retropubic pressure, dyspareunia, urinary frequency, and dysuria. There is now strong evidence that the microscopic paraurethral glands connected to the distal third of the urethra in the prevaginal space are homologous to the prostate. They stain histologically for prostate-specific antigen and, like the pr...

  11. A comparison of the effect of work stress on burnout and quality of life between female nurses and female doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si-Ying; Li, Huang-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of work stress on job burnout and quality of life between female nurses and doctors in China. The participants were 947 female nurses and 685 female doctors selected from Fujian provinces by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey was used to measure quality of life; the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was applied for occupational stress; and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to assess job burnout. Occupational stress (indicated by different stressors) played an important role in job burnout and quality of life among female nurses and female doctors when taking into account other potential influencing factors simultaneously. These results show that it is important to adopt different preventive measures to prevent burnout and improve quality of life among the 2 populations according to the different stressors.

  12. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Radiological Findings in Gallstone Ileus%胆石性肠梗阻的影像对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴华; 张蔚; 刘海峰; 吴彪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To comparatively analyze the effectiveness of MSCT (Multi-Slice Spiral Computerized Tomography), erect abdominal plain iflms and upper gastrointestinal imaging in diagnosis of gallstone ileus. Methods Retrospective analysis of 10 patients with conifrmed gallstone ileus from 2011 to 2013 were made. Of the 10 cases, all underwent abdominal MSCT and erect abdominal plain films; 7 were examined with upper gastrointestinal imaging. Radiological findings of the allotriolith, intestinal obstruction, pneumatosis in the gallbladder and biliary tract as well as cholecysto-intestinal fistulas obtained by three imaging techniques were comparatively analyzed. Results The detection rates of the allotriolith, intestinal obstruction, pneumatosis in the gallbladder and biliary tract revealed by MSCT were 100%, 90%, 90%respectively versus 20%, 90%, 10%by erect abdominal plain iflms and 28.6% (2/7), 100% (7/7), 0 by upper gastrointestinal imaging. MSCT (50%) was inferior to the upper gastrointestinal imaging [100%(7/7)] in display of cholecysto-intestinal ifstulas. Conclusion In comparison with other two imaging techniques, MSCT showed the greatest effectiveness in diagnosis of the gallstone ileus;the upper gastrointestinal imaging was of comparatively highest signiifcance for detection of cholecysto-intestinal ifstulas (Fistulas of Stomach and Duodenum);the erect abdominal plain iflm was proven to be an imaging technique with the least effectiveness.%目的:比较分析多层螺旋CT(Muti-slice Spiral CT,MSCT)、站立位腹部平片、上消化道造影对于胆石性肠梗阻的诊断价值。方法回顾性分析2011年~2013年确诊胆石性肠梗阻10例,均行腹部MSCT及站立位腹部平片检查,7例行上消化道造影检查。对比分析异位结石、肠梗阻、胆囊及胆道积气、胆肠内瘘的影像学表现。结果MSCT、腹部平片、上消化道造影对异位结石的检出率分别为:100%、20%、28.6%(2/7);肠梗阻:90

  14. Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.

    1993-01-01

    Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adve

  15. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  16. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... habits, their periods may stop. Triad Factor #3: Osteoporosis Estrogen is lower in girls with female athlete triad. Low estrogen levels and poor nutrition, especially low calcium intake, can lead to osteoporosis, the third aspect of the triad. Osteoporosis is ...

  17. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... in the skin called a follicle. In general, baldness occurs when the hair follicle shrinks over time, ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  19. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  20. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  1. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  2. 2011年中国女医师休闲锻炼和业余静态行为情况分析%Analyzing the situation of leisure-time physical exercise and sedentary behaviors in Chinese female medical doctors during 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓燕; 齐士格; 王临虹

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解2011年我国女医师休闲锻炼和业余静态行为情况.方法 2011年在全国9个省份共125家医疗和疾控机构中抽取女医师5468名进行自填式问卷调查.计算我国不同机构类别、地区、年龄女医师的经常锻炼率、业余静态行为时间.结果 我国女医师业余时间经常锻炼率为20.3%(95%CI:19.2%~21.4%).医疗和疾控机构分别为18.9%、21.3%,东、中、西部分别为17.7%、19.8%、23.9%、<35、35~和≥45岁组分别为15.3%、20.5%、27.9%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).医疗机构中,内科类(15.3%)、外科类(17.5%)低于其他临床类(23.7%)和辅助类(25.9%)科室,三级医院(15.4%)低于二级医院(23.6%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);疾控机构中,不同科室间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),地市级疾控机构(26.9%)高于其他各级疾控机构(17.7%~19.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).我国女医师每天业余静态行为时间中位数为4.2 h(P25-P75:3.0~6.3 h),医疗和疾控机构分别为4.0、4.5 h,东、中、西部分别为4.2、4.5、4.0 h,<35、35~和≥45岁组分别为4.5、4.0、4.5 h,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);医疗机构中,外科类(3.5 h)短于其他科室(均为4.0 h),三级医院(4.0h)较二级医院(3.8 h)长;疾控机构中,不同科室间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);国家级疾控机构(5.0 h)长于其他各级疾控机构(均为4.5 h).结论 我国女医师业余时间经常锻炼率较低,平均业余静态行为时间明显过长.%Objective To investigate the situation of leisure-time physical exercise and sedentary behaviors in Chinese female medical doctors during 2011.Methods A total of 5 468 medical female doctors collected from 125 hospitals and centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) of 9 provinces in China were investigated using questionnaire.According to medical organizations,areas and age,the rates of regular

  3. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  4. Shimoda's Program for Japanese and Chinese Women's Education

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Shimoda Program for Japanese and Chinese Women's Education" Mamiko Suzuki discusses Western developments as a facet of educational curricula in Japan in the early twentieth century. When in the early 1900s a number of elite Chinese women traveled to Tokyo — for most, their first time abroad — to receive a modern education, it was at Jissen Women's Academy, which was the first to enroll female Chinese students in Tokyo and thus a crucial site for the development of a modern pan...

  5. Scanorama in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Scanorama, the SAS on-board magazine,is now also available in Chinese. Table-tennis star,J-O Waldner, Scandinavian design and delicious Norwegian seafood are what SAS Chinese customers can read about while sitting on board SAS flights on the Copenhagen - Beijing and Copenhagen-Shanghai routes. The magazine uses the written Chinese language that is read by nearly one billion mainland Chinese.

  6. On Chinese Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文娟

    2016-01-01

    Just as the long history of our country, Chinese characters also have their long histories through thousands of years. There have been many great scientific works or documents studying on the origin of Chinese characters. From them, it can easily be found that each Chinese character has its own history. If we study on the history of a specific Chinese character, its motivation will be found.

  7. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  8. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  9. 肝脏胰岛素抵抗诱发胆结石形成的研究%Induction of gallstone formation by hepatic insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 徐良; 李林涛; 查斯洛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the induction effect of hepatic insulin resistance on gallstone formation.Methods Liver insulin receptor knockout mice were employed as research subjects (mouse model),and the incidence of gallstones caused by hthogenic diet was measured.Secretion of bile acids and the expression of related enzymes such as cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1),cholesterol 12 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp8b1),cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp7b1) and cholesterol 27 alpha hydroxylase (Cyp27a1),the expression of the farnesoid derivative X receptor (farnesoid-X-receptor,FXR),liver cholesterol content and the cholesterol transporter ATP binding cassette transporter G5 (Abcg5) and Abcg8 expression were assayed.Results The incidence of gallstones in model group was 100%,about 8 times higher than normal mice after lithogenic diet administration.Bile acid level in model mice was 9.2 μmol/g and less than the value of 14.9 μmol/g in normal group significantly.The FXR and Cyp7a1,Cyp8b1,Cyp7bl and Cyp27a1 expression levels were all decreased,and cholesterol content was 2.2 mg/g liver tissue in model mice,and that was 1.2 mg/g liver tissue in normal mice (P < 0.05).The expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 was also increased in model mice.Conclusion The hepatic insulin resistance in mice inhibits FXR,Cyp7a1,Cyp8b1,Cyp7b1 and Cyp27a1 expression,and increases Abcg5 and Abcg8 expression,resulting in the decreased bile acid levels and increased cholesterol ratio,finally inducing formation of gallstones.%目的 观察肝脏胰岛素抵抗对胆结石形成的诱导作用.方法 使用肝脏胰岛素受体敲除小鼠作为研究对象(模型鼠),分别研究致结石饮食条件下胆结石的发生;胆酸的分泌量和胆固醇7-羟化酶(Cyp7a1)、胆固醇12α羟化酶(Cyp8b1)、胆固醇7α羟化酶(Cyp7b1)和胆固醇27α羟化酶(Cyp27a1)的表达以及法尼酯衍生物X受体(FXR)的表达;肝胆固醇的含量以及胆固醇转运体三 磷酸腺苷结合盒转运体G5(Abcg5

  10. Cálculo biliar "perdido": um novo problema para o ginecologista na abordagem do abdome agudo? "Lost" gallstone: a new problem for the gynecologist in acute abdomen management ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Menegoci

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com 35 anos de idade, submetida à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica há 1 ano e que apresentou quadro sugestivo de salpingite aguda com abscesso. Durante a laparotomia notou-se um abscesso que era limitado anteriormente pelo peritônio parietal e músculo reto anterior direito do abdome, e posteriormente pelo corno uterino e pelo ligamento redondo à direita. Neste abscesso havia estrutura a seguir identificada como cálculo biliar. São discutidos os aspectos relacionados à patogenia, tratamento e prevenção desta complicação que vem sendo relatada com freqüência em virtude do maior uso da cirurgia laparoscópica.The authors report a case of a thirty-five-year-old patient, submitted to videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy one year ago, who appearently had acute salpingitis with abscess. During the laparotomy an abscess was observed, anteriorly limited by parietal peritoneum and the abdominal right anterior rectus muscle, and posteriorly by the horn of the uterus and by the right round ligament. In this abscess there was a structure later identified as gallstone. The aspects related to the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention, which have been reported frequently due to the increasing number of laparoscopic surgeries, are discussed.

  11. 某中医医院连续3年女性生殖系统感染解脲脲原体的耐药性%Antimicrobial resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum from reproductive systems of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志红; 吕春兰; 苏大林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance and change trends ofUreaplasma urealyticum (Uu) from reproductive system of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years. Methods Antimicrobial resistance of Uu isolated from gynaecology leucorrhea and cervical secretion specimens of patients of dermatology & sexually transmitted diseases department and gynaecology department from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results A total of 327 Uu strains were isolated,except resistance rates of Uu to doxycycline(5.23%-6.12%)and josamycin(0-1 .96%)remained at a relatively low level in three consecutive years,resistance rate to the other antimicrobials showed an upward trend year by year,but the difference was not significant (P >0.05).The resistance of Uu to ofloxacin,clarithromycin and sparfloxacin were relatively high(42.11 %-61 .40%),to josamycin,doxycycline and minocycline were lower(0-13.07%),and multidrug re-sistance was serious.Conclusion Antimicrobial resistanc of Uu isolated from reproductive system of female patients in this hospital is high.It is necessary to realize the status and change trends of antimicrobial resistance of Uu for the treatment of disease and control of the emergence of multidrug resistance pathogens.%目的:了解某中医医院女性生殖系统解脲脲原体(Uu)感染患者连续3年的耐药现状和变化趋势。方法对该中医医院2011年1月—2013年12月皮肤性病科和妇科门诊及住院女性患者送检的白带及宫颈分泌物标本分离的 Uu 的耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果共分离 Uu 327株,其3年耐药率,除多西环素(5.23%~6.12%)和交沙霉素(0~1.96%)较低外,其余抗菌药物均稍有增高,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。Uu 对氧氟沙星、克拉霉素、司帕沙星的耐药率(42.11%~61.40%)较高,对交沙霉素、多西环素

  12. Validation of the Offending-Related Attitudes Questionnaire of CRIME-PICS II Scale (Chinese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Wu, Joseph; Kwok, Yan Yuen; Liu, Liu

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the first part of the Chinese version of the CRIME-PICS II Scale, a self-administrated instrument assessing offending-related attitudes. Data were collected from three samples: male Hong Kong young offenders, female Mainland Chinese prisoners, and Hong Kong college students.…

  13. Family Mastery Enhances Work Engagement in Chinese Nurses: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling; Chen, Wei-qing; Wang, Hai-jiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) theory of work-family enrichment and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of work engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008), this study focused on the family-to-work enrichment process by investigating the effect of family mastery on work engagement in a Chinese context. A sample of 279 Chinese female nurses…

  14. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  15. Violent female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Female violent offending is an understudied topic in Spanish-speaking countries. This review explores themajor research findings accumulated internationally over the last decade (2003-2013 about women'sviolence and crimes. The focus of the review is the intimate partner violence (IPV and sexual violencecommitted by females, the psychopathy and violence risk assessment, and the treatment and recidivism ofthese female offenders. Although the female offender topic is too wide to review all crime typologies (childphysical abuse is not included, for example the review indicates that: there are legal and police biases inthe treatment of women offenders; women can commit the same IPV and share the motivations of maleoffenders; sexual violence has a low prevalence, but there are many limitations in this research topic;predicting the risk of non-specific violence is feasible with the available tools; psychopathy is less prevalentamong adult female offenders, although there are fewer differences with male offenders among adolescentsamples; research about treatments is very limited and there are not effectiveness evidences; and last,recidivism rates for violent crimes are very low (in cases where information is available. Main implicationsand research lines are discussed.

  16. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  17. B7-H4基因多态性与乳腺浸润性导管癌预后的相关性研究%Relationship between the polymorphisms of B7-H4 gene and the prognosis of breast infiltrative ductal carcinoma in Chinese Han females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大林; 章婕; 傅振坤; 许凤燕; 李殿俊

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨B7-H4基因rs10754339、rs10801935和rs3738414等单核苷酸多态性(SNP)位点多态性与黑龙江省妇女乳腺浸润性导管癌预后的相关性.方法 取280例乳腺浸润性导管癌患者的外周血提取基因组DNA,利用聚合酶链式反应限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)技术进行B7-H4单核苷酸多态性检测,引用统计学软件分析基因多态性与患者临床指标(包括肿瘤大小,淋巴结转移,以及雌激素受体、孕激素受体和P53基因的表达)间的关系(卡方检验计算P值),进而确定该基因与黑龙江省汉族妇女乳腺癌预后的相关性.结果 B7-H4基因的rs10754339中,AA和AG基因型发生频率在雌激素受体表达阳性和阴性患者中有统计学差异(χ~2=4.06,P<0.05;χ~2=3.97,P<0.05),AA基因型和G等位基因发生频率在孕激素受体表达阳性和阴性患者中有显著差异(χ~2=4.74,P<0.05;χ~2=5.30,P<0.05).rs10801935中,AA基因型和C等位基因发生频率在孕激素受体表达阳性和阴性患者中有显著差异(χ~2=5.36,P<0.05;χ~2=5.90,P<0.05),而AC基因型发生频率在P53基因表达阳性和阴性患者中有显著差异(χ~2=5.82,P<0.05).结论 B7-H4基因多态性与乳腺浸润性导管癌患者雌激素受体,孕激素受体及P53基因的表达有关联,与乳腺癌患者的预后有一定相关性.%Objective To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of B7-H4 gene (in cluding rsl0754339, rs10801935 and rs3738414) and the prognosis of infiltrating ductal carcinoma in Chinese women of Heilongjiang province. Methods Two hundreds and eighty Chinese females with infiltrative ductal carcinoma were included in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rsl0754339, rsl0801935 and rs3738414 in B7-H4 gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. The association of the SNPs of B7 H4 gene with the clinical features of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma (including tumor size, lymph node in volvement , and the expression status

  18. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  19. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  20. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findings....... Such a review is indtended to provide some insight into how scholars in different social contexts, who study apparently the same phenomenon, direct their focus. It should also enrich research into female entrepreneurship in both regions of the world and provide directions for further research in the field....

  1. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  2. Gender and the Politics of Female Infanticide and Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle T. King. Between Birth and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 264 pp. $50.00 (cloth/e-book. Elizabeth J. Remick. Regulating Prostitution in China: Gender and Local Statebuilding, 1900–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 288 pp. $45.00 (cloth/e-book. The two works under review are both compelling historical studies that use gender as a category of analysis to make important contributions to our understanding of the construction of the modern Chinese state, the periodization of modern Chinese history, and the political and cultural significance of controlling the female body. While both books engage with gender as broadly construed, they adopt different approaches. Michelle King’s analysis focuses on discursive representations that took place, for the most part, outside the context of the state—what Confucian elites, foreign experts and missionaries, and Chinese nationalists wrote about female infanticide over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This discursive approach has been used before but rarely to such insightful effect. King’s research deepens our understanding of gender and imperialism in the nineteenth century by illustrating how imperialist notions of China as a backward and heathen place were constructed in part on dubious claims that identified female infanticide as an emblematically Chinese cultural practice. Elizabeth Remick’s gender analysis, in contrast, centers on the state institutions that were developed in the early 1900s to regulate prostitution, including tax policies, licensing fees, zoning regulations, medical examinations, and police supervision. Her study of the newly erected local and provincial government regulatory regimes is a pathbreaking demonstration of how the regulation of gender roles was at the heart of state-building efforts in early twentieth-century China...

  3. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  4. Metagenomic analysis reveals gallstone types associated with gut microbiome community composition%常见三种类型胆结石胆汁中细菌群落的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶华; 王敏; 邹玉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨常见三种类型胆结石胆汁中所含微生物群落的差异性.方法 采用末端限制性片断长度多态性(T-RFLP)技术对50例三种类型胆结石患者的胆汁细菌群落进行基因序列分析.结果(1)细菌16S rDNA基因片段的阳性检出率为76%(38/50),三组之间阳性检出率差异无统计学意义;(2)三组细菌16S rDNA基因片段分析,纯胆固醇组的细菌群落主要以肺炎克雷伯氏菌和金黄色葡萄球菌为主;胆色素结石组主要包括普通变形杆菌、厌氧消化球菌等;混合性结石胆汁组主要为厌氧消化球菌、丙酸杆菌,其中还包括了胆色素结石胆汁组中未检测到的黄微杆菌和希氏短杆菌.结论 胆结石患者胆汁标本中细菌检出率较高,但各组细菌群落构成各有不同,且成分较为复杂.%Objective To determine if the types of gallstones are associated with different bacterial profiles in bile. Methods Gallstones and bile samples were obtained from 50 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Gallstone chemical composition was determined by infrared spectrometry analysis using KBr tablets. The bacteria composition of corresponding bile samples were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T - RFLP) genetic sequencing of 16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Results Three types of gallstones were detected and the patients were grouped accordingly: pure cholesterol stones (n = 25 patients), pigment gallstones (n = 11), and mixed stones (n = 14). The overall positive detection rate of bacterial 16S rDNA gene fragments was 86% (43/50), and the positive rate was not significantly different among the three groups. The microbiome of the pure cholesterol group was mainly composed of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The bile pigment stones group was mainly composed of Proteus vulgaris. The mixed group was mainly composed of anaerobic digestion bacteria propionic acid bacteria, and Microbacterium flavum

  5. Prevalência e fisiopatologia da litíase biliar em pacientes submetidos a transplante de órgãos Prevalence and physiopathology of gallstone in transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Uili Coelho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar revisão da prevalência e dos principais mecanismos fisiopatológicos que levam a formação da litíase biliar em pacientes submetidos a transplante de órgãos. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura abrangendo 29 publicações obtidas das bases Medline/Pubmed, Scielo e Lilacs com cruzamento dos unitermos "transplante, transplante renal, transplante hepático, cálculo biliar, colecistite.". Vários estudos que utilizaram a ultrassonografia demonstraram aumento na prevalência da litíase biliar em pacientes submetidos a transplante de órgãos. A taxa de formação de cálculos novos após o transplante variou de 10 a 55% e a total (cálculos formados antes e após o transplante de 17 a 68%. Tanto o ganho como a perda de peso rápida, que podem ocorrer após o transplante, predispõem à formação de cálculos biliares. O uso do imunossupressor ciclosporina é considerado como o principal fator que aumenta a incidência de litíase biliar após o transplante. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de litíase biliar é maior nos pacientes submetidos a transplante de órgãos do que na população geral. As principais alterações que ocorrem no paciente transplantado que predispõem a formação dos cálculos são as alterações do peso corporal, uso de imunossupressores, diabete melito e hiperlipidemia.INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study is to review the prevalence and the main physiopathologic mechanisms that result in gallstone formation in transplant patients. METHODS: Literature review with 29 papers included in Medline/Pubmed, Scielo and Lilacs database, crossing key-words "transplantation; kidney transplantation; liver transplantation; gallstone; cholecystitis". Several ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated an increase in gallstone prevalence in transplant patients. The formation rate of new stones after transplantation varied from 10 to 55% and the rate of total stones

  6. On Female Consumption Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平

    2012-01-01

    This is an observation by the daily deliberation of China major consuming force-female,which should be a great master piece.Because of the not-in-depth study and analysis,I can only put it in the air as a clue for further research by experts.

  7. Female sexual dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a controversial condition, which has prompted much debate regarding its aetiology, components, and even its existence. Our inability to work together as clinicians, psychologists, patients, and advocates hinders our understanding of FSD, and we will only improve...

  8. 复杂胆囊结石患者行腹腔镜胆囊次全切除术的临床疗效观察%Clinical curative effect observation of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in patients with complicated gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓强

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in patients with complicated gallstone.Methods:40 patients with complicated gallstone were selected.They were randomly divided into two groups.The control group were given conventional operation treatment,and the observation group were given laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. The clinical effects of two groups were compared.Results:The operation time,intraoperatve blood soss and hospitalization time of the observation group were better than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The patients with complicated gallstone are given laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in clinic.It can not only shorten the hospitalization time,reduce the intraoperatve blood soss,but also can improve the treatment effect,and improve the life quality of patients.%目的:探析复杂胆囊结石患者行腹腔镜胆囊次全切除术的临床效果。方法:收治复杂胆囊结石患者40例,随机分为两组,对照组给予常规手术治疗,观察组给予腹腔镜胆囊次全切术,对比两组治疗效果。结果:观察组的手术时间、术中出血量以及住院时间均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:临床上对复杂胆囊结石患者行腹腔镜胆囊次全切术,不仅可以缩短住院时间、降低术中出血量,还能提高治疗效果,改善患者的生活质量。

  9. The sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators Alligator sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].

  10. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  11. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  12. Female athletes and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malara Marzena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and a low bone mineral density (BMD. As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

  13. Press Reviews of Mei Lanfang in the Soviet Union, 1935, by Female Writers: Neher Versus Shaginyan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2016-01-01

    There are two interesting female exceptions to the all-male chorus reviewing the Chinese performer of female roles Mei Lanfang and his troupe in the local newspapers during Mei's Soviet tour in the spring of 1935. One is the well-established Russian writer Marietta Shaginyan (1888-1982), whose re......, and to uncover why Neher's expert professional analysis has so far been unduly and sadly neglected. To further set off their contrasting views of Mei Lanfang and Chinese theatre, I compare these to the more well-known viewpoints of Sergei Tretyakov and Bertolt Brecht....

  14. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  15. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  16. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. INGUINAL HERNIA IN FEMALES

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    9 patients of inguinal hernia in females were diagnosed in a total of 50 patients who presented with congenital groin problems, 8 of these were managed surgically. There were 6 small children, 1 young girl and 2 elderly ladies. All children were managed by herniotomy and herniorrhaphy was done in women. 2 patients under one year presented with irreducible hernia, one of them on exploration was found to be having sliding hernia with incarcerated ovary and tube as contents while other one had i...

  18. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  19. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  20. Not Your Father's Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The government's first annual report on the evolution of the Chinese language contains some surprisesThe Chinese people are proud of their language, which they consider the most essential part of their civilization of 5,000 years. The charm of the language includes its ideographic writing system, in which the structure of the characters is directly related

  1. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...

  2. Predicate Movements in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1975-01-01

    The movements of such higher predicates as time, locative, and complementation verbs are studied, and Tai's Predicate Placement Constraint is rejected as an incorrect account of predicate movements in Chinese. It is proposed, on the other hand, that there is only leftward movement involving predicates in Chinese. (Author)

  3. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  4. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  5. Chinese Conversation Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the features of Chinese conversation structure. Specifically speaking, the structure will be analyzed from the following four aspects:openings and pre-sequence, adjacency pairs, pre-closing and closing. Generally speak-ing, Chinese conversation structure is similar to English conversation structure. But still a lot of differences are found due to cul-tural factors.

  6. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  7. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  8. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  9. Female entrepreneurial activity in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária DÉZSI-BENYOVSZKI; Tünde Petra SZABÓ; Ágnes NAGY

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the female entrepreneurial activity in Romania. We will compare the socio-demographic characteristics, the entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions of female early-stage entrepreneurs and the female employees in order to highlight the main differences. Using a logistic regression we will identify the main influencing factors of the probability of becoming a female early-stage entrepreneur.

  10. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  11. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life.

  12. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  13. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  14. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  15. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  16. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  17. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  18. [Female athlete triad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Luc; Giusti, Vittorio

    2009-08-05

    The practitioner, as well as specialist such as gynecologist and endocrinologist, may face in their office women with eating disorders, abnormalities of menstrual cycles and low bone mass, which may be the first hints of the female athlete triad. In these situations, the practitioner may search other findings of these triad by looking at some particular physical findings and by using appropriate questionnaire. In some advanced forms of this triad specific abnormalities of eating disorders (anorexia and boulimia) may be present as well as amenorrhea and osteoporosis, which may disturb the well-being and cause health damages of women practising sport either as amateur or in a elite setting. An appropriate handling of such disorders has to be proposed to these women.

  19. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    in one entity. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a new entity which is suggested to be defined as Restless Genital Syndrome. Aims.  The aims of this brief review are to give definitions of the different types of FSAD, describe their aetiology, prevalence and comorbidity with somatic....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  20. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both tr

  1. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  2. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  3. Analysis the Clinical Effect of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Laparotomy in Treatment of Gallstone%腹腔镜胆囊切除术和开腹手术治疗胆结石的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conventional open cholecystectomy in treatment of the gallstones.Methods Selected 120 patients with gallstones from May 2014 to May 2015 were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group, each group had 60 cases. The control group was given conventional open cholecystectomy, the observation group was treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and compared the clinical treatment effect of two groups.Results Compared with the control group ,the observation group of patients’ average operation time was ( 55.24±4.65 ) mins and the average bleeding volume ( 42.16±10.63 ) ml were decreased, and the incidence of postoperative complications was 13.33% lower than the control group 40.00%,P<0.05, had difference statistically signiifcance.Conclusion Compared with the conventional open cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallstones, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has more clinical advantages.%目的:探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术和开腹手术用于治疗胆结石的临床疗效并进行比较分析。方法选取2014年5月~2015年5月于我院就诊的胆结石患者120例,将患者随机分为观察组和对照组,各60例,对照组入院之后给予开腹手术治疗,观察组采用腹腔镜胆囊切除手术进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床治疗效果。结果观察组平均手术时间(55.24±4.65)min及手术平均出血量(42.16±10.63)ml均减少,术后并发症发生率为13.33%低于对照组40.00%,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论与传统的开腹手术治疗胆结石相比,腹腔镜胆囊切除术具有缩减手术时间、减少手术出血量以及降低术后并发症发生率的临床疗效,更具有临床优势。

  4. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  5. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  6. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  7. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  8. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  9. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  10. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Compiled by the Central Document Compiling Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CPC), the third volume of the Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping was published by the People’s Publishing House and was issued nationwide on November 2, 1993.

  11. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  12. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  13. Expats rank Chinese cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Lv Dong

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, April The results of the "2011 Amazing China- The Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners" election are released. Expats choose Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and other cities as Chinas 10 most attractive cities for foreigners.

  14. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  15. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  16. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  18. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  19. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  20. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  1. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  2. Plasma cholecystokinin in obese patients before and after jejunoileal bypass with 3:1 or 1:3 jejunoileal ratio--no role in the increased risk of gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T I; Toftdahl, D B; Højgaard, L

    1994-01-01

    bypass surgery with either a 1:3 jejunoileal ratio (n = 14) or a 3:1 ratio (n = 15), and in unoperated obese patients (n = 7). Plasma CCK levels were determined during fasting and during 150 min following ingestion of a liquid test meal. RESULTS: There were no significant changes over time following......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Jejunoileal bypass surgery for obesity increases the risk of gallstone formation, and, contrary to expectations, the incidence is greater in patients with a long as compared to a short ileum left in continuity. Impaired gallbladder motility due to reduced cholecystokinin (CCK......) stimulation could be an explanation. The aim of this study was to investigate the CCK levels in such patients. SETTING: The randomized trial of bypass surgery named The Danish Obesity Project. DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared plasma levels of CCK in obese patients at three, nine or 15 months after jejunoileal...

  3. The necessity of female population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C

    1989-01-01

    Justification for and an illustrative example of female focused population studies in China is given in this article. Many questions which have not been empirically answered have been raised about women. Traditional Chinese social norms favor males over females. How has this tradition affected women's fertility, mortality, lifespan, education, and employment? How is this impact felt and to what extent? Empirical research on women is appropriate for the development of the women's movement. Women's issues are universal, of importance socially, politically, and economically. There have been 3 women's liberation movements: during the 1898 Reformation, the 1911 Revolution, and the May 4th Movement in 1919. In the past 10 years, there have been debates about Chinese women's liberation consciousness. Although women make up 50% of the population, educational levels are still below men and employment options are limited. The changing roles of women and future implications need to be investigated. Reform has benefited women, yet in economically underdeveloped areas of the north and south west there is a higher early marriage rate than in more developed areas. What accounts for this pattern? What is woman's role in reproduction in light of changing government policy? The value of women's contribution to family life and reproduction, and to economic life directly needs to be assessed. Statistical information, even though it has been collected, is not generally published as sex specific figures for urban and rural populations, the nonagricultural population, educational levels, or new employment. This prevents an appraisal of the current status or an assessment of the extent of change in the status of women. The governmental statistical system, the departmental statistical system, and statistical departments of enterprises and institutions such as the All China Federation of Women should make available indices on women. Sources of relevant statistics also need to be increased

  4. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...

  5. Fatores preditivos de coledocolitíase em doentes com litíase vesicular Predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tércio de Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores clínicos, bioquímicos e ultra-sonográficos preditivos de coledocolitíase no período pré-operatório de doentes portadores de litíase vesicular avaliados por colangiografia. MÉTODOS: Analisamos prospectivamente 148 doentes portadores de litíase vesicular, relacionando critérios pré-operatórios clínicos, bioquímicos e ultra-sonográficos. Todos estes doentes foram submetidos à colangiografia, podendo esta ser endoscópica pré-operatória ou realizada pelo cirurgião durante a colecistectomia. Foram calculados os valores da sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo (VPP e negativo (VPN, e acurácia para cada um dos critérios estudados, além da correlação de Spearman, Odds ratio e análise de regressão logística para a variável coledocolitíase. RESULTADOS: Os resultado obtidos mostraram que na análise univariada, a presença de icterícia na internação, a elevação de fosfatase alcalina, gama glutamiltransferase (gamaGT, aspartato aminotransferase, alanina aminotransferase, bilirrubina total, e ultra-sonografia (USG com presença de dilatação de vias biliares e visibilização de cálculo na via biliar principal (VBP tiveram diferença estatisticamente significante para coledocolitíase em nossa amostra (pBACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining gallstones assessed by cholangiography. METHODS: In a prospective study, 148 patients were analyzed regarding clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic data. All patients underwent cholangiography, either preoperative endoscopic or during cholecystectomy. Each variable was compared between the ones who sustained lithiasis in the biliary tree and the others, in order to find out the predictors of choledocholithiasis. Sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy were

  6. 肝硬化合并胆囊结石的相关因素研究%Analysis of related factors of gallstones in hepatocirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕胜; 张伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study related factors and risk factors of hepatocirrhosis with gallstone for the reference of pre-vention and treatment. Methods From May 2011 to March 2013 in our hospital 180 cases of patients with cirrhosis were selected and were divided into stones groups and non-stone group, the general information, laboratory tests, and B-test results were analyzed. Results The Child-Pugh classification, drink of stones group were serious higher than non-stone group (P<0.05), levels of serum total bilirubin, endotoxin, estrogen were significantly higher than non-calcu-lus group (P <0.05), portal vein width, gallbladder wall thickness and ascites rate of stones groups were higher than non-stone group (P <0.05). Child-Pugh classification, ET, E2, liver cirrhosis ascites were risk factors for gallbladder stones (P<0.05), in decreasing order of risk as ascites liked ET,E2, Child-Pugh classification. Conclusion Child-Pugh high grade, high concentrations of endotoxin, estrogen in patients with cirrhosis and ascites are risk factors for gall-stones.%目的:研究肝硬化合并胆囊结石的相关因素并筛选危险因素,为临床防治提供参考。方法选择2011年5月~2013年3月我院收治的180例肝硬化患者,分为结石组和非结石组,分析两组一般资料、实验室检查和B超检查结果。结果结石组Child-Pugh分级较非结石组严重,饮酒率高于非结石组(P<0.05),结石组血清总胆红素、内毒素、雌激素水平均显著高于非结石组(P<0.05),结石组门静脉宽度、胆囊壁厚度均大于非结石组,腹水率高于非结石组(P<0.05)。 Child-Pugh分级、内毒素、雌激素、腹水是肝硬化合并胆囊结石的危险因素(P<0.05),危险度顺序由高到低为腹水、内毒素、雌激素、Child-Pugh分级。结论 Child-Pugh高分级、高浓度内毒素、雌激素及腹水是肝硬化患者发生胆囊结石的高危因素。

  7. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  8. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  9. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  10. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  11. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  12. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  13. Thoughts on the World Conference on Women. A Chinese woman writes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, R

    1995-01-01

    Increasing social consciousness about human rights issues in China has, in turn, stimulated Chinese women's awareness of their individual rights. The Chinese government, however, has maintained tight control over the dissemination of feminist ideas and restricted media coverage of the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995. To discredit feminism, Chinese officials link it with sexual liberation, single motherhood, and lesbianism. Nonetheless, there is a new awareness that government statistics on the high rates of female employment conceal the reality that Chinese women are concentrated in low-paying, low-status occupations. In contrast to official propaganda, a United Nations Development Report ranked China 23rd in the world for women's participation in politics and the economy. In the course of preparing for the World Conference, a few nonofficial, grass-roots Chinese women's organizations were able to present their ideas.

  14. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  15. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    for asymmetric games when some valuations are zero. In that case we prove that the auctioneer can stabilize the game by placing his own ticket in each basket. On the other hand, when all the valuations are strictly positive, a pure Nash equilibrium is guaranteed to exist, and the equilibrium strategies......Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  16. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  17. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar.

  18. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  19. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  20. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  1. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  2. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  3. Sleep Quality among Female Hospital Staff Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Li Chien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate sleep quality of hospital staff nurses, both by subjective questionnaire and objective measures. Methods. Female staff nurses at a regional teaching hospital in Northern Taiwan were recruited. The Chinese version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index (C-PSQI was used to assess subjective sleep quality, and an electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC technique was used to analyze objective sleep stability. Work stress was assessed using questionnaire on medical worker’s stress. Results. A total of 156 staff nurses completed the study. Among the staff nurses, 75.8% (117 had a PSQI score of ≥5 and 39.8% had an inadequate stable sleep ratio on subjective measures. Nurses with a high school or lower educational degree had a much higher risk of sleep disturbance when compared to nurses with a college or higher level degree. Conclusions. Both subjective and objective measures demonstrated that poor sleep quality is a common health problem among hospital staff nurses. More studies are warranted on this important issue to discover possible factors and therefore to develop a systemic strategy to cope with the problem.

  4. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  5. Chinese Colleges Need More Endowment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I talk about the importance of increased college endowments. First I will introduce the limited financial situation of current Chinese colleges. Second, I will present an analysis on the financial reports of STU and Yale. Thirdly, I will describe the current Chinese College endowment situation. In conclusion I will present four suggestions for enhancing current Chinese college endowments.

  6. How Iconic Are Chinese Characters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The study explores the notion that some Chinese characters contain pictorial indications of meanings that can be used to help retrieve the referent. Thirty adults with no prior knowledge of Chinese guessed the meanings of twenty Chinese characters by choosing between one of two photographs. Half of the characters were considered to be iconic and…

  7. Directory of Chinese American Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese American Librarians Association, River Forest, IL.

    This directory was compiled by the Chinese American Librarians Association based on replies to questionnaires sent to more than 500 Chinese American librarians in the United States and research based on secondary sources. Information provided on each person includes: name, name in Chinese, position/title, institution, institution's address, field…

  8. Chinese Contemporary Art: Ink Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PiDaojian

    2003-01-01

    Chinese ink painting is an age-old art tradition that embodies distinctive characteristics of Chinese culture. In these exquisite paintings, artists integrate nature and everyday life to show how the two exist in harmonyalso a frequent theme in Chinese philosophy.

  9. Central Corneal Thickness in Adult Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The central corneal thickness (CCT) in age 48 years or less of Chinese was characterized and its relationship with gender, age, refraction and intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated.Right eyes of 1669 participants were included in this study (880 men, 52.7 % and 789 women,47.3 %). Mean age of the samples was 23.8±5.9 years. After the examination of corneal topography and refraction, Goldman applanation tonometry was carried out by one physician. Tonometric values were the mean of three consecutive readings. Subsequently, another physician carried out ultrasonic pachymetry with the DGH 2000 AP ultrasonic pachymeter. Six measuremen ts were made at the center of the cornea of each eye. The mean value was used for analysis. The results showed that mean CCT of male participants was 551.33± 34. 62 μm, 5.79 μm more than that of female participants. Linear regression analyses revealed that CCT was negatively related with age only in female and no association was found between refractive status and CCT. IOP was positively related to CCT, and there was a difference in IOP of 1.5 mmHg (1 mmHg=0. 133 kPa) per 100 μm difference in CCT. Ocular hypertension group was prone to have thicker cornea than average. The results indicated that in adult Chinese CCT tended to decrease with aging in female only. IOP measured by Goldmann tonometry was positively related with CCT so that CCT should be measured along with IOP.

  10. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  11. Self-Esteem as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…

  12. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  13. Changes on Human Spirits Discussion on World Values of Novels Looking at the Sky and Beyond the Sky by Chinese Dutch Female Writer Lin Mei%以社会众生灵魂相探究“人类精神”生态嬗变--荷兰华裔女作家林湄长篇小说《天望》《天外》的世界性价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红旗

    2016-01-01

    《天望》《天外》是荷兰华裔女作家林湄,运用俯仰天地的特殊“边缘”视角,超越时空与文化的跨国界、跨宗教、跨文体的写作方式,以隐喻的诗哲性语言、博爱的性别关怀伦理,书写曾经领跑世界现代文明的欧洲这一片人文沃土,华丽表层之下弥漫着自然与精神的重重雾霾,导致生存与此的人类患上极度的恐惧焦虑症。在这两部作品里,林湄关于灵魂与人性、时空与存在、家国与宗教、钱权与欲望、有限与无限等等哲学问题的沉思,以东西方人性的情感世界内核、婚姻家庭物象的文学叙事,走进了社会众生的一个个灵魂的秘境深处。并以一代代人的灵魂镜像群,寻找人类之爱的心性同构,探究“人类精神”生态之嬗变的世界性意义。%Looking at the Sky and Beyond the Sky are two novels that is written by Chinese Dutch female writer Lin Mei. With a trans-border, interfaith and across-genre writing method, the author, from a special marginal perspective, tries to show us a real Europe, which once led to the world’s modern civilization, is filled with natural and spiritual degradation under its gorgeous surface, leaving the citizens suffering from the extreme fear and anxiety. In these two books, Lin ponders over the philosophical problems of the soul and humanity, time, space and existence, home and religion, and money, rights and desire, as well as the finite and infinite. With the literary narration of emotional world, marriage and family of humanity in western and eastern world, Lin also delves into the deep inside of human beings. At the same time, she also tries to find the heart isomorphism for the love from human mirror groups, so as to explore the world values of changes on human spirits. .

  14. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  15. Foreign female immigrants in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Fakiolas, Rossetos

    2000-01-01

    Strong push, pull and network formation factors account for the over 600,000 foreign immigrants, mostly economic and with irregular status, who have been since the early 1990s in Greece, a traditionally emigration country. Over a quarter of them are females who have come alone, marking the new trend in female migration. And like their male counterparts, they find jobs due to their wage and job flexibility. The recent Greek policy to regularise irregular or undocumented immigrants (UI), that i...

  16. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  17. Aetiological factors in oesophageal cancer in Singapore Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, U W; Breslow, N; Hong, J G; Sridharan, M; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1974-03-15

    Analysis of a hospital-based case-control study of esophageal cancer among Singapore Chinese (composed of Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, and other dialect groups) revealed the following statistically significant risk factors for both sexes: 1) belonging to either Hokkien or Teochew dialect group; 2) consuming beverages at temperatures stated subjectively to be burning hot before illness; and 3) smoking Chinese cigarettes. Additional risk factors for males were birth in China and consumption of Samsu (Chinese wine). Bread, potato, and banana consumption was reported at significantly lower levels in male esophagus cancer patients than controls. Esophageal cancer was less common in males who attended school for more than 8 years. Multivariate analysis (joint influence of selected variables) confirmed the strong effects of dialect group and beverage temperature for both sexes. For females, Chinese cigarette smoking remained a risk factor; for males, Samsu consumption. Smoking western cigarettes and drinking strong liquors were not significantly related for either sex. These findings suggest that esophageal cancer is more likely to occur among traditional Chinese who maintain dietary patterns which include Samsu and scalding beverages but avoid bland foodstuffs not native to the culture. The greater risk in Teochew and Hokkien may be due in part to beverage temperature, since "burning hot" was cited more frequently in these dialect groups. However, these differences are based on subjective impressions and require further verification.

  18. Maternal investment and reproductive success in Chinese water deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christiane MAUGET; Robert MAUGET

    2009-01-01

    Among cervids, maternal investment, estimated as the amount of resources and care allocated to the offspring, was expected to be related to species body size. Therefore, maternal investment in a herd of captive Chinese water deer Hydropotes inermis, a relatively small species of cervid, was investigated over 3 years. Except during the lactation period, reproductive females spent about 2-fold more time resting than feeding. During lactation, the amount of time spent feeding increased highly (25.3 min/h during lactation vs 17.3 min/h during the gestation period). Females spent less than 30% of time in communal behaviours with offspring. They did not reject alien fawns during this care period. Frequency and duration of suckling events decreased exponentially from the second week onwards. More than 10% of suckling bouts were non-filial. Prenatal investment leads to a mean litter mass (about 12% of maternal mass) higher than in most cervid species. Postnatal investment in fawns represents a daily mass gain of ca. 85 g/d during the first 2 weeks, without any sexual difference. Female production, timing and synchrony of births and survival of fawns characterized reproductive success. Seventy percent of mature females gave birth, with a mean of 1.9 offspring per female. The sex ratio was even. Births were synchronous, 80% of births occurring in 25 days. In this herd, 0.74 fawn per female was successfully weaned and 0.56 fawn per female survived through their first year. Based on these results we conclude that reproductive strategy of Chinese water deer was efficient and characterized by mother-offspring relationships typical of hiders and high levels of pre- and postnatal investments. This strategy seems typical of small species of cervids without marked sexual dimorphism.[Current Zoology 55(2):102-110,2009].

  19. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  20. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the importance of whatever activities they are a part of-a form of Sinocentrism --and relations among all others belong to the periphery of the Chinese...Siemens, 22 73-74 "Silent Treatment," 68-69 Trade agreements, 4. See a/so Singapore, 32 Agreements; Compensatory Sinocentrism , 86 trade I----- Index / 105