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Sample records for chinese female gallstone

  1. Decreased NPC1L1 expression in the liver from Chinese female gallstone patients

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    Zhang Sheng-Dao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease is a very common disease in both industrialized and developing countries. Many studies have found that cholesterol gallstones are more common in women than men. The molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between female gallstone disease and hepatic sterol transporters are still undergoing definition and have not been evaluated in humans. Aims The aim of this study is to probe for underlying hepatic molecular defects associated with development of gallstones in female. Methods/Results Fifty-seven nonobese, normolipidemic Chinese female gallstone patients (GS were investigated with 12 age- and body mass index-matched female gallstone-free controls (GSF. The bile from the female GS had higher cholesterol saturation than that from the female GSF. The hepatic NPC1L1 mRNA levels were lower in female GS, correlated with SREBP2 mRNA. NPC1L1 downregulation was confirmed at protein levels. Consistently, immunohistochemistry showed decreased NPC1L1 expression in female GS. Conclusions The decreased hepatic NPC1L1 levels in female GS might indicate a downregulated reabsorption of biliary cholesterol in the liver, which, in turn, leads to the cholesterol supersaturation of bile. Our data are consistent with the possibility that hepatic NPC1L1 may be mediated by SREBP2.

  2. Gallstones

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    Gabriel E Njeze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a worldwide medical problem, but the incidence rates show substantial geographical variation, with the lowest rates reported in African populations. Publications in English language on gallstones which were obtained from reprint requests and PubMed database formed the basis for this paper. Data extracted from these sources included authors, country, year of publication, age and sex of patients, pathogenesis, risk factors for development of gallstones, racial distribution, presenting symptoms, complications and treatment. Gallstones occur worldwide, however it is commonest among North American Indians and Hispanics but low in Asian and African populations. High biliary protein and lipid concentrations are risk factors for the formation of gallstones, while gallbladder sludge is thought to be the usual precursor of gallstones. Biliary calcium concentration plays a part in bilirubin precipitation and gallstone calcification. Treatment of gallstones should be reserved for those with symptomatic disease, while prophylactic cholecystectomy is recommended for specific groups like children, those with sickle cell disease and those undergoing weight-loss surgical treatments. Treatment should be undertaken for a little percentage of patients with gallstones, as majority of those who harbor them never develop symptoms. The group that should undergo cholecystectomy include those with symptomatic gallstones, sickle cell disease patients with gall stones, and patients with morbid obesity who are undergoing laparotomy for other reasons.

  3. Gallstones

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    ... grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Causes The cause of gallstones varies. There ... important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , ...

  4. The association between gallstones and metabolic syndrome in urban Han Chinese: a longitudinal cohort study.

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    Zhu, Qian; Sun, Xiubin; Ji, Xiaokang; Zhu, Lin; Xu, Jing; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Chengqi; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun

    2016-01-01

    The precise association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and gallstone disease remains unclear in China. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between MetS and gallstone and evaluate whether counts of metabolic abnormalities had influence on gallstone disease. We fitted gender-specific generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models with data from a large-scale longitudinal study over 6-year follow-up to elucidate the real association. This study included 18291 participants with 3 times repeated measures at least who were free from a prior history of gallstone disease and cholecystectomy. A total of 873 cases of gallstones occurred during 6-year follow-up. The incidence density of gallstone in the group of subjects with MetS was higher than the group without MetS (10.27 vs 5.79). The GEE analyses confirmed and clarified the association between MetS and gallstone disease in males (RR = 1.33, P = 0.0020), while this association was not significant in females (RR = 1.15, P = 0.4962). With numbers of metabolic syndrome components increasing, the risk of gallstone disease showed corresponding increasing in males. In conclusion, the associations of MetS and gallstone are different in males and in females. And the risk of gallstone disease increases with the number of components of MetS for males but not for females.

  5. The NPC1L1 Polymorphism 1679C>G Is Associated with Gallstone Disease in Chinese Patients.

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    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick Type C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1 protein plays a key role in intestinal and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in humans. Genetic variation in NPC1L1 has been widely studied in recent years. We analyzed NPC1L1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinese gallstone disease patients to investigate their association with gallstone disease. NPC1L1 mRNA expression was also measured in liver biopsies from patients with cholesterol gallstone disease and compared between genotypes. The G allele of the g1679C>G (rs2072183 polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in patients with gallstones compared with gallstone-free subjects. Moreover, patients carrying the G allele had lower hepatic NPC1L1 mRNA expression and higher biliary cholesterol (molar percentages and cholesterol saturation index. Our study suggests that the G allele of the NPC1L1 polymorphism g1679C>G may be a positive marker of gallstone formation risk.

  6. The NPC1L1 Polymorphism 1679C>G Is Associated with Gallstone Disease in Chinese Patients

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    Fei, Jian; Zhang, Sheng-Dao; Han, Tian-Quan; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Niemann Pick Type C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) protein plays a key role in intestinal and hepatic cholesterol metabolism in humans. Genetic variation in NPC1L1 has been widely studied in recent years. We analyzed NPC1L1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Chinese gallstone disease patients to investigate their association with gallstone disease. NPC1L1 mRNA expression was also measured in liver biopsies from patients with cholesterol gallstone disease and compared between genotypes. The G allele of the g1679C>G (rs2072183) polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in patients with gallstones compared with gallstone-free subjects. Moreover, patients carrying the G allele had lower hepatic NPC1L1 mRNA expression and higher biliary cholesterol (molar percentages) and cholesterol saturation index. Our study suggests that the G allele of the NPC1L1 polymorphism g1679C>G may be a positive marker of gallstone formation risk. PMID:26800364

  7. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... on a prospective protocol, a systematic review of the literature was performed identifying all articles dealing with determinants of incident gallstones. Meta-analyses of comparable determinants were performed through fixed effect models. Results: Participants with no gallstones at baseline and with at least one...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  8. Chinese Female Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE; SARTOR

    2011-01-01

    "Many foreigners mistakenly believe that Chinese women are creatively oppressed,that they have been oppressed for centuries," Teacher Yang said,glancing at me wryly."That’s correct," I replied, lifting my eyebrows.

  9. Symptoms of gallstone disease.

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    Diehl, A K

    1992-11-01

    The most certain symptomatic manifestation of gallstones is episodic upper abdominal pain. Characteristically, this pain is severe and located in the epigastrium and/or the right upper quadrant. The onset is relatively abrupt and often awakens the patient from sleep. The pain is steady in intensity, may radiate to the upper back, be associated with nausea and lasts for hours to up to a day. Dyspeptic symptoms of indigestion, belching, bloating, abdominal discomfort, heartburn and specific food intolerance are common in persons with gallstones, but are probably unrelated to the stones themselves and frequently persist after surgery. Many, if not most, persons with gallstones have no history of pain attacks. Persons discovered to have gallstones in the absence of typical symptoms appear to have an annual incidence of biliary pain of 2-5% during the initial years of follow-up, with perhaps a declining rate thereafter. Gallstone-related complications occur at a rate of less than 1% annually. Those whose stones are symptomatic at discovery have a more severe course, with approximately 6-10% suffering recurrent symptoms each year and 2% biliary complications. The far higher rates of symptom development reported in a few studies raise the possibility that these incidence estimates may be too low. The best predictors of future biliary pain are a history of pain at the time of diagnosis, female gender and possibly obesity. The risk of acute cholecystitis appears to be greater in those with large solitary stones, that of biliary pancreatitis in those with multiple small stones, and that of gallbladder cancer in those with large stones of any number. Drugs that inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins may now be the treatment of choice in patients with gallstones who are suffering acute pain attacks. Persistent dyspeptic symptoms occur frequently following cholecystectomy. A prolonged history of such symptoms prior to surgery and evidence of significant psychological distress

  10. Blackberry pigment (whitlockite) gallstones in uremic patient.

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    Cariati, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Black pigment gallstones represent nearly the 15% of all gallstones and are usually related with the typical "hyperbilirubinbilia" factors as hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin, cirrhosis and with gallbladder mucosa (parietal) factors as adenomyomatosis. During a prospective study on 179 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease a 69-year-old female with predialysis chronic kidney disease was operated for symptomatic gallstone. The removed gallstones were black pigment gallstones, with an irregular (as small blackberry) surface. Analysis of the stones revealed a great amount of whitlockite (Ca Mg)3 (PO4)2. Recent studies on chronic renal failure patients found that chronic uremia is associated with an increased risk of gallstones formation (22%) as it seems in women affected by primary hyperparathyroidism (30%). The presence of calcium phosphate gallstones in these patients have been never described. In conclusion, further studies could be necessary to establish the role of chronic renal failure and of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in gallstones formation and, in particular, if dialysis and predialysis patients have an higher risk to develop cholesterol and black pigment gallstones in particular of the "blackberry" (whitlockite) subtype. PMID:22959097

  11. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  12. Gallstones and colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Torben; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstone disease in 145 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer was compared with gallstone prevalence in 4,159 subjects randomly selected from a population. The group of patients had a significantly higher prevalence of gallstone disease than the population (odds ratio = 1.......59; 95 percent confidence limits 1.04-2.45), whereas cholecystectomies occurred with equal frequency in the two groups. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more right-sided cancers in patients with gallstones than in patients without. These results, together with available literature, give...... substantial evidence for an association between gallstones and colorectal cancer, an association which is not due to cholecystectomy being a predisposing factor to colorectal cancer. Sporadic findings of an association between cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer can be explained by the above relationship....

  13. Serum insulin, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, and gallstone disease among type 2 diabetics in Chinese population: A community-based study in Kinmen, Taiwan

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    Chi-Ming Liu; Chung-Te Hsu; Hui-Chuan Shih; De-Chuan Chan; Pesus Chou; Tao-Hsin Tung; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jorn-Hon Liu; Yeh-Kuang Tsai; Victor Tze-Kai Chen; Tseng-Nip Tam; Hsu-Feng Lu; Kuang-Kuo Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association of serum insulin, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction with gallstone disease (GSD) in type 2 diabetics.METHODS: We used a community-based study conducted between 1991 and 1993 in Kinmen, Taiwan to identify type 2 diabetics. A screening program for GSD was performed in 2001 by a panel of specialists who employed real-time ultrasound sonography to examine the abdominal region after the patient had fasted for at least 8 h. Screening was conducted in 2001 on 848patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The HOMA method was used to compare the profile differences for insulin resistance (HOMA IR) and β-cell dysfunction (HOMA β-cell).RESULTS: We studied 440 type 2 diabetics who attended sonography check-ups. After excluding eight insulin-treated diabetics, the prevalence of GSD among the remaining 432 was 13.9% (26/187) among males and 14.7% (36/245) among females. After adjustment for other GSD-associated risk factors in addition to age and obesity, GSD risk increased among females with levels of serum insulin [4th vs 1st quartile odds ratios (OR)= 4.46 (95%CI: 1.71-11.66)] and HOMA IR [4th vs 1st quartile OR = 4.46 (95% CI: 1.71-11.66)]. Better HOMA β-cell function was significantly related to decreased risk of GSD [4th vs 1st quartile OR = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.03-1.70)].Among males, age and central obesity were the most significant risk factors for GSD. No association of GSD with serum insulin, HOMA IR, and HOMA β-cell was observed among males.CONCLUSION: Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction are risk factors for GSD in females, but not males with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Differentiation of various traditional Chinese medicines derived from animal bile and gallstone: simultaneous determination of bile acids by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

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    Qiao, Xue; Ye, Min; Pan, De-lin; Miao, Wen-juan; Xiang, Cheng; Han, Jian; Guo, De-an

    2011-01-01

    Animal biles and gallstones are popularly used in traditional Chinese medicines, and bile acids are their major bioactive constituents. Some of these medicines, like cow-bezoar, are very expensive, and may be adulterated or even replaced by less expensive but similar species. Due to poor ultraviolet absorbance and structural similarity of bile acids, effective technology for species differentiation and quality control of bile-based Chinese medicines is still lacking. In this study, a rapid and reliable method was established for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 18 bile acids, including 6 free steroids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid) and their corresponding glycine conjugates and taurine conjugates, by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). This method was used to analyze six bile-based Chinese medicines: bear bile, cattle bile, pig bile, snake bile, cow-bezoar, and artificial cow-bezoar. Samples were separated on an Atlantis dC₁₈ column and were eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-water containing ammonium acetate. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Total ion currents of the samples were compared for species differentiation, and the contents of bile acids were determined by monitoring specific ion pairs in a selected reaction monitoring program. All 18 bile acids showed good linearity (r² > 0.993) in a wide dynamic range of up to 2000-fold, using dehydrocholic acid as the internal standard. Different animal biles could be explicitly distinguished by their major characteristic bile acids: tauroursodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid for bear bile, glycocholic acid, cholic acid and taurocholic acid for cattle bile, glycohyodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid for pig bile, and taurocholic acid for snake bile. Furthermore, cattle bile, cow

  15. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined bas...

  16. Dieting and Gallstones

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    ... from animal sources, such as dairy products, eggs, meat, and poultry. Cholesterol gallstones are yellow in color. ... Training & Career Development Research at NIDDK Research Resources Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Health Topics ...

  17. Studies on gallstone in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Sen Shi; Jing-Yun Ma; Li-Hong Zhu; Bo-Rong Pan; Wang Zuo-Ren; Lian-Sheng Ma

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODCTlON Gallstone is one of the common primary diseases of bile system. Chinese researchers have done comprehensive and thorough studies on it, but there are still some problems we have not solved. It is necessary to review the achievements we have made in this field recently, to summarize the experiences and find the tendency so as to provide a sound foundation for the researches in the new century. Due to the popularization of molecular biological research methods, a rapid development of modern imaging techniques and medical equipment, the basic and clinical studies of cholelithiasis have set foot on the fast lane. Studies on the cause of cholelithiasis formation and its prevention have covered areas from epidemiological investigation at macroscopical level to molecular biological researches at microcosmic level. Clinical studies include prevention and treatment of cholelithiasis with traditional Chinese medicine, popularization of micro-injury surgery,treatment of complicated calculus of bile duct, and other aspects.

  18. Pathogenesis of gallstones.

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    Carey, M C

    1992-01-01

    Gallstones are composed principally of cholesterol monohydrate crystals (cholesterol stones) or the acid salt of calcium bilirubinate (pigment stones). Cholesterol stones and the black variety of pigment gallstones form in sterile gallbladder bile whereas brown pigment gallstones form in infected bile. Biliary supersaturation is the principal pathophysiological defect and is hepatic in origin. Supersaturation results from excessive secretion of cholesterol or bilirubin conjugates, the precursors of unconjugated bilirubin, and/or, deficient secretion of bile salt and lecithin, the solubilizers of these otherwise insoluble lipids. As has now being clarified for cholesterol stones, an imbalance in pro- and antinucleating biliary proteins, hypersecretion of gallbladder mucin and gallbladder dysmotility possibly from cholesterol "toxicity" to sarcolemma, all interact to promote nucleation. Crystallisation results in suspension of cholesterol crystals or bilirubinate salts in gallbladder mucin gel and is known as "biliary sludge". It is believed today that this stage is essential for evolution of both cholesterol and pigment stones. Brown pigment gallstones form principally in the bile ducts. These stones result from infection of the biliary tree, most commonly due to obstruction from migrating gallbladder stones. Chemical compositions of brown and black pigment stones are different: In black stones, calcium bilirubinate is polymerized and oxidatively degraded but in brown stones, calcium bilirubinate is present as the unpolymerised salt. Brown stones differ also from black stones in containing calcium fatty acid soaps, a result of bacterial phospholipase A1 hydrolysis of biliary lecithin. Both types of pigment gallstones may contain crystalline inorganic calcium salts especially carbonate (gallbladder stones) and phosphate (bile ducts stones). Since a molecular understanding of the multiple defects that lead to cholesterol and pigment gallstones is becoming a reality

  19. Gallstone disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus-the link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the factors predisposing patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. One hundred type 2 diabetic patients and 100 age and gender-matched controls underwent real time ultrasonography to study factors predisposing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to gallstone disease. The age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes mellitus and serum lipids were determined in the individuals enrolled for the study. Fifteen percent of the diabetic patients had ultrasound evidence of gallstone disease as compared to 7% in non-diabetic controls. There was a steady increase in the incidence of gallstone disease in diabetic patients with age with a peak incidence in the seventh decade i.e. 60-69 years, and a decline in the eighth decade i.e. 70 - 79 years. The average age of the diabetic patients with gallstone disease - 59.1+ 9.5 years was significantly higher than in those without gallstone disease - 51.8 + 10.5 years (p 0.014). The mean duration of disease in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 5.0 + 4.9 years compared with 4.5 + 3.8 years in the diabetic patients without gallstone disease (p=0.772). The mean serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels - 4.3 + 1.3 mmol/L and 1.5 + 0.8 mmol/L respectively in the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was higher than in those without gallstone disease - 3.4 + 0.5 mmol/L (p=0.0941) and 1.4 + 0.7 mmol/L (p=0.712) respectively. The mean body mass index for the diabetic patients with gallstone disease was 26.2 + 5.5 kg /m 2 compared with 25.7 + 6.7 kg/m2 in those without gallstone disease (p=0.755) . Increasing age is a risk factor for gallstone disease in diabetic patients. Hyperlipidaemia, female gender, heavier weight and a longer duration of diabetes mellitus appear to be associated risk factors. (author)

  20. Symptomatic gallstones: A disease of young Saudi women

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    Murshid Khalid

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi females and at a younger age than reported in the literature, probably due to overweight and factors related to reproductivity. We conclude that gallstones are common in Saudi women and affect them at a younger age than western women, weight and fertility appear to be important risk factors.

  1. Laparoscopic Management of Gallstone Ileus

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, David J.; Evan, Stephen J.; Kavic, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is an uncommon entity that was first described by Bartholin in 1654. Despite advances in peri-operative care, morbidity and mortality remain high in patients with gallstone ileus because: 1) they are geriatric patients; 2) they often have multiple comorbidities; 3) presentation to the hospital is delayed; 4) many are volume depleted with electrolyte abnormalities; and 5) the diagnosis of gallstone ileus is difficult to make. Traditional management has entailed open laparotomy ...

  2. Lifestyle and gallstone disease: Scope for primary prevention

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    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150 from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150 were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results : Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P 60 years was relatively more susceptible (28%. Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%. Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.

  3. PROBING INTO THE PREVALENCE AND FACTORS OF GALLSTONES FORMATION IN JHARKHAND REGION IN INDIA

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    Rajani Sharma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone is one of the major gastrointestinal problems. There are many factors which leads to gallstone formation, like age, sex, obesity etc. Many factors are still under study. In our study we have tried to analyse our data of gallstone patients with the factors which have already been studied in past elsewhere but not in Jharkhand. In a data survey in Jharkhand region of India, we have tried to study different risk factors of gallstone formation. It was analysed that cholesterol rich diet especially nonvegetarian consumption (68% of patients were nonvegetarian and age are the major influencing factors. Gallstones are found more frequently in women than men. The ratio of male to female gallstone patients is about 1: 3. It was seen that 72.6% of the cases were in the age of 21-50. This means that with growing age incidence of gallstone increases. In our study we found out that genetics, diabetes and smoking are not much related to gallstone formation.

  4. Association between thyroid function and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry V(o)lzke; Daniel M Robinson; Ulrich John

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate those associations using data of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania.METHODS: A study population of 3 749 residents aged 20-79 years without previously diagnosed thyroid disease was available for analyses. Serum TSH was used to assess thyroid function. Cholelithiasis was defined by either a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of gallstones on ultrasound. Logistic regression was performed to analyze independent associations between thyroid function and cholelithiasis.RESULTS: There were 385 persons (10.3%) with low (<0.3 mIU/L), 3 321 persons (88.6%) with normal and 43 persons (1.2%) with high serum TSH levels (>3 mIU/L).The proportion of cholelithiasis among males and females was 14.4% and 25.3%, respectively. Among males, there was an independent relation between high serum TSH and cholelithiasis (OR 3.77; 95%-CI 1.06-13.41; ,P<0.05). zAlso among males, there was a tendency towards an elevated risk of cholelithiasis in persons with low serum TSH (OR 1.40; 95%-CI 0.96-2.02; P = 0.07). In the female population, no such relation was identified.CONCLUSION: There is an association between thyroid and gallstone disease with a gender-specific relation between hypothyroidism and cholelithiasis.

  5. Incidence of gallstone disease in Italy: Results from a multicenter, population-based Italian study (the MICOL project)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Antonio Colecchia; Ada Dormi; Simona Capodicasa; Tommaso Staniscia; Adolfo F Attili; Paola Loria; Paolo Pazzi; Giuseppe Mazzella; Claudia Sama

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate gallstone incidence and risk factors in a large population-based study.METHODS:Gallstone incidence and risk factors,were evaluated by structured questionnaire and physical examination,respectively,in 9611 of 11 109(86.5%)subjects who were gallstone-free at the cross-sectional study.RESULTS:Six centers throughout Italy enrolled 9611 subjects (5477 males,4134 females,aged 3079 years),9517 of whom were included into analysis:424 subjects (4.4%) had gallstones and 61 (0.6%)had been cholecystectomized yielding a cumulative incidence of 0.67% per year (0.66% in males,0.81% in females).Increasing age,a high body mass index (BMI),a history of diabetes,peptic ulcer and angina,and low cholesterol and high triglyceride levels were identified as risk factors in men while,in females,the only risk factors were increasing age and a high BMI.Increasing age and pain in the right hypocondrium in men and increasing age in females were identified as predictors of gallstones.Pain in the epigastrium/right hypocondrium was the only symptom related to gallstones;furthermore,some characteristics of pain(forcing to rest,not relieved by bowel movements)were significantly associated with gallstones.No correlation was found between gallstone characteristics and clinical manifestations,while increasing age in men and increasing age and BMI in females were predictors of pain.CONCLUSION:Increasing age and BMI represent true risk factors for gallstone disease (GD);pain in the right hypocondrium and/or epigastrium is confirmed as the only symptom related to gallstones.

  6. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  7. Radiographic features of oral cholecystograms of 448 symptomatic gallstone patients: Implications for nonsurgical therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Plaisier, P.W.; Brakel, Koen; Hul, René; Bruining, Hajo

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSince radiographic findings on oral cholecystography (OCG) have implications for the eligibility for nonsurgical therapy of elderly patients, we investigated the OCGs of 448 symptomatic gallstone patients (109 male, 339 female; mean age, 49.8 ± 14 (range, 21–88)). Opacification of the gallbladder was found in 323 cases (72.1%). Calcifications of gallstones were found in 85 opacified gallbladders (26.3%). Solitary and multiple stones were calcified in 35.3% and 18.2%, respectively ...

  8. Reproductive efficiency of captive Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubisch, H Michael; Falkenstein, Kathrine P; Deroche, Chelsea B; Franke, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    Reproductive and survival records (n=2,913) from 313 Chinese-origin and 365 Indian-derived rhesus macaques at the Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) spanning three generations were studied. Least-squares analysis of variance procedures were used to compare reproductive and infant survival traits while proportional hazards regression procedures were used to study female age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death. Chinese females were older at first parturition than Indian females because they were older when placed with males, but the two subspecies had similar first postpartum birth interval (1st PPBI) and lifetime postpartum birth interval (LPPBI). Females that gave birth to stillborn infants had shorter first postpartum birth intervals (1st PPBI) than females giving birth to live infants. Postpartum birth intervals decreased in females from age 3 to 12 but then increased again with advancing age. Chinese infants had a greater survival rate than Indian infants at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year of age. Five hundred and forty-three females (80.01%) had uncensored, or true records for age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from the birth until death whereas 135 females (19.91%) had censored records for these traits. Low- and high-uncensored observations for age at death were 3 and 26 years for Chinese, and 3 and 23 years for Indian females. Uncensored number of infants born per female ranged from 1 to 15 for Chinese females and 1 to 18 for Indian females. Each of these traits was significantly influenced by the origin×generation interaction in the proportional hazards regression analyses, indicating that probabilities associated with age at death, number of infants born per female, and time from last birth to death for Chinese and Indian females did not rank the same across generations.

  9. Research on Chinese Female Entrepreneurs’ Leadership--From the Perspective of Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qi; Ding, Zizheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to understand the connection between femaleentrepreneurs’ leadership and empowerment in the context China, based on theories of leadership and entrepreneurship. The thesis is based on the feminist research by presenting 6 qualitative case studies of Chinese female entrepreneurs. The conclusion is that:1. There exists a necessary link between female entrepreneurs’ leadership andempowering way of management.2. Chinese female entrepreneurs tend to apply empowerment to...

  10. Increased Risk of Depressive Disorder following Cholecystectomy for Gallstones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chieh Tsai

    Full Text Available Prior studies indicate a possible association between depression and cholecystectomy, but no study has compared the risk of post-operative depressive disorders (DD after cholecystectomy. This retrospective follow-up study aimed to examine the relationship between cholecystectomy and the risk of DD in patients with gallstones in a population-based database.Using ambulatory care data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6755 patients who received a first-time principal diagnosis of gallstones at the emergency room (ER were identified. Among them, 1197 underwent cholecystectomy. Each patient was then individually followed-up for two years to identify those who were later diagnosed with DD. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the risk of developing DD between patients with gallstone who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy.Of 6755 patients with gallstones, 173 (2.56% were diagnosed with DD during the two-year follow-up. Among patients who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy, 3.51% and 2.36% later developed depressive disorder, respectively. After adjusting for the patient's sex, age and geographic location, the hazard ratio (HR of DD within two years of gallstone diagnosis was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.02-2.04 for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. Females, but not males, had a higher the adjusted HR of DD (1.61; 95% CI, 1.08-2.41 for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not.There is an association between cholecystectomy and subsequent risk of DD among females, but not in males.

  11. Gender and metabolic differences of gallstone diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Sun; Hong Tang; Shan Jiang; Li Zeng; En-Qiang Chen; Tao-You Zhou; You-Juan Wang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease in the general population of Chengdu, China. METHODS: This study was conducted at the West China Hospital. Subjects who received a physical examination at this hospital between January and December 2007 were included. Body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum lipid and lipoproteins concentrations were analyzed. Gallstone disease was diagnosed by ultrasound or on the basis of a history of cholecystectomy because of gallstone disease. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors for gallstone disease, and the Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the incidence of metabolic disorders between subjects with and without gallstone disease. RESULTS: A total of 3573 people were included, 10.7% (384/3573) of whom had gallstone diseases. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the incidence of gallstone disease in subjects aged 40-64 or ≥ 65 years was significantly different from that in those aged 18-39 years ( P < 0.05); the incidence was higher in women than in men ( P < 0.05). In men, in women than in men ( P < 0.05). In men, a high level of fasting plasma glucose was obvious in gallstone disease ( P < 0.05), and in women, hypertriglyceridemia or obesity were significant in gallstone disease ( P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We assume that age and sex are profoundly associated with the incidence of gallstone disease; the metabolic risk factors for gallstone disease were different between men and women.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ying Chen; Qiao-Hua Qiao; Shan-Chun Zhang; Yu-Hao Chen; Guan-Qun Chao; Li-Zheng Fang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the development of gallstone disease (GSD).METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 7570 subjects (4978 men aged 45.0 ± 8.8 years,and 2592 women aged 45.3 ± 9.5 years) enrolled from the physical check-up center of the hospital.The subjects included 918 patients with gallstones (653 men and 265 women) and 6652 healthy controls (4325 men and 2327 women) without gallstones.Body mass index (BMI),waist circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured.Colorimetric method was used to measure cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Dextrose oxidizing enzyme method was used to measure FPG.Subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the information on demographic data,age,gender,histories of diabetes mellitus,hypertension,and chronic liver disease and so on.Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ (ATP Ⅲ) criteria.Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or attenuated ultrasound transmission.RESULTS:Among the 7570 subjects,the prevalence of the gallstone disease was 12.1% (13.1% in men and 10.2% in women).BMI,waist circumference,systolic blood pressure,diastolic blood pressure,fasting blood glucose and serum triglyceride (TG) in cases group were higher than in controls,while serum high-density lipid was lower than in controls.There were significant differences in the waist circumference,blood pressure,FPG and TG between cases and controls.In an ageadjusted logistic regression model,metabolic syndrome was associated with gallstone disease.The age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for GSD in men was 1.29 [95%confidence interval (CI),1.09-1.52; P =0.0030],and 1.68 (95% CI,1.26-2.25; P =0.0004) in women; the overall age-adjusted odds ratio of MetS for

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Effectiveness of Chinese Therapeutic Food on Regulating Female Reproductive Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Fu; Hong Xu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Chinese therapeutic food on female reproductive hormones in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Chinese kiwi fruit extract (Hong En No. 1) was provided for Australian peri-menopausal women for one month. Chinese medical assessment and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE) tests were conducted. Twenty-six urinary samples (pre and post-trial) which met the requirement of testing were analysed, the ra...

  14. Gallstones: new insights into an old story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiderington, Evan; Lee, Sum P.; Ko, Cynthia W.

    2016-01-01

    Gallstones, particularly cholesterol gallstones, are common in Western populations and may cause symptoms such as biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis or gallstone pancreatitis. Recent studies have allowed for a better understanding of the risk of symptoms or complications in patients with gallstones. In addition, newer data suggest an association of gallstones with overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal cancers, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Knowledge of appropriate indications and timing of cholecystectomy, particularly for mild biliary pancreatitis, has gradually accumulated. Lastly, there are exciting possibilities for novel agents to treat or prevent cholesterol stone disease. This review covers new advances in our understanding of the natural history, clinical associations, and management of gallstone disease. PMID:27508070

  15. The epidemiology of gallstones in women

    OpenAIRE

    Pixley, Fiona; Mann, Jim; Dr. Jim Mann

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 652 nonvegetarian and 130 vegetarian women aged 40-70 years using real-time ultrasonography was carried out to determine the prevalence of gallstones. 24.6% of nonvegetarian women were found to have gallstones compared with 11.5% of vegetarian women (p < 0.05). Each participant completed a postal questionnaire on general health aspects and dietary habits. Aetiological factors shown to have a strong influence on the development of gallstones included increasin...

  16. A survey on concomitant common bile duct stone and symptomatic gallstone and clinical values in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ayoub, Abbass; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Bananzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Ghahramani, Leila; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Khazraei, Hajar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Common bile duct stone (CBDS) as a result of gallstone is one of the gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, the incidence of CBDS and symptomatic gallstone in Shiraz were investigated, and their management suggested. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that enrolled among 560 patients. The incidence of gallstone together with CBDS was evaluated using an ultrasonography studyand clinical data in the period between March 2014 and 2014 in Shiraz. Comparison between data was done using Student’s t-test or Chi-square test. Results: Of these patients, 18.6% were male, and 81.4% were female with a mean age of 47.67 ± 0.74 years. The concomitant rate of gallstone and CBDS was 8.6%. 6.8% of patients with concomitant of gallstone and CBDS showed symptoms while 1.8% had not been diagnosed before the operation. The mean of serum alkaline phosphatase level in patients with the only gallstone was 255.80 IU/L and patients with concomitant gallstone, and CBDS was 580.88 IU/L with a significant difference between two groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, liver function tests (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase) showed a significant difference between two groups of patients (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Clinical variables such as tenderness, fever, and Morphy sign were more severein patients with concomitant gallstone and CBDS. The concomitant rate of gallstone and CBDS in our society is less that Western countries and asymptomatic patients showed fewer ratios than other countries. We think the approach for asymptomatic CBDS patients with gallstone can be affected by our results. PMID:27656616

  17. Gallstones are associated with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben M; Vindsand Naver, Astrid; Mogensen, Ulla B;

    2015-01-01

    significant evidence was found with regard to hepatic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association of HS with gallstones, but not with hepatic dysfunction. The association with gallstones may be partly explained by the comorbidity of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity as a part of MetS....

  18. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate. PMID:23593957

  19. Bone mineral density in young female Chinese dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, S; Hsu, H; Fong, Y; Chiu, C.; Kao, A.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate of the effect of dancing on bone mineral density (BMD) we compared 29 Chinese girls who had been receiving regular ballet training for at least 6 years with a control group of 20 nonathletic sex- and age-matched Chinese girls. BMD was measured at the second to fourth lumbar spine and at the right femoral neck using a commercial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometer (DEXA). There were no significant differences in either measured BMD or spinal BMD after adjusting for body weight (body m...

  20. Chinese Female Jet-Fighter Pilots Change New Uniforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Prior to the 60th anniversary of founding of People’s Republic of China that marks calendar day of Oct.1st this year, Chinese armed forces stage on a new change of uniforms to welcome the birthday of the New China that was announced

  1. Oral and contact dissolution of gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfield, L J; Marks, J W

    1993-04-01

    The appropriate selection of patients for treatment with oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)--a drug that has virtually no side effects--results in about 50% of patients experiencing safe dissolution of gallstones within 2 years. Eligible patients have small (less than 20 mm in diameter) radiolucent gallstones in a gallbladder visualized by oral cholecystography (OCG); ideal candidates are thin women who have gallstones that are less than 15 mm in diameter, floating when observed by OCG, or of low density on computed tomographic (CT) scanning. Contact dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is rapid, effective more often than UDCA, and safe but requires the expertise of an interventional radiologist. Any size and number of cholesterol gallstones that are not CT-dense will be dissolved by MTBE, leaving at most only insoluble debris that is clinically innocuous. Although gallstones recur after dissolution by UDCA or MTBE in 50% of patients within 5 years, recurrent gallstones are usually asymptomatic and/or can probably be dissolved. We conclude that oral or contact dissolution provides an alternative treatment to cholecystectomy for about 30% of patients with symptomatic gallstones. PMID:8480875

  2. Breaking the Barriers in Chinese Female Career Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Career development is an important part of modern human resource management. Women are an important and integral part in human resources. Paying at ention to women's career development can’t be ignored both for women own career development and the economic development of society. But compared to men, the Chinese women encounter more barriers in the process of career development, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these barriers and put forward corresponding countermeasures to break the barriers.

  3. The number of metabolic abnormalities associated with the risk of gallstones in a non-diabetic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with gallstones, independent of hepatitis C infection or chronic kidney disease (CKD, in a non-diabetic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 8,188 Chinese adult participants that underwent a self-motivated health examination were recruited into the final analysis after excluding the subjects who had a history of cholecystectomy, diabetes mellitus, or were currently using antihypertensive or lipid-lowering agents. Gallstones were defined by the presence of strong intraluminal echoes that were gravity-dependent or that attenuated ultrasound transmission. RESULTS: A total of 447 subjects (5.5% had gallstones, with 239 (5.1% men and 208 (6.0% women. After adjusting for age, gender, obesity, education level, and lifestyle factors, included current smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and CKD, there was a positive association between metabolic syndrome and gallstones. Moreover, as compared to subjects without metabolic abnormalities, subjects with one, two, and three or more suffered from a 35, 40, and 59% higher risk of gallstones, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Non-diabetic subjects with metabolic syndrome had a higher risk of gallstones independent of hepatitis C or CKD, and a dose-dependent effect of metabolic abnormalities also exists.

  4. Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_160497.html Gallstones Linked to Higher Heart Disease Risk Researcher says study highlights a connection between ... may have a slightly increased risk of developing heart disease down the road, a large new study suggests. ...

  5. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan Chen; Yu-Bei Huang; Xue-Ou Liu; Ying Gao; Hong-Ji Dai; Feng-Ju Song; Wei-Qin Li; Jing Wang; Ye Yan; Pei-Shan Wang; Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort stud...

  6. A detailed breast model and its application for Chinese female breast dose estimation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA protocol for breast dosimetry is based on the calculations of Dance which used very simple models of the breast based on the western female data. In order to estimate the dose more precisely in the mammographic examination for the Chinese female, a 3D detailed breast model was constructed. This model contains the detailed structures in the breast, including skin, subcutaneous fat, Cooper's ligaments, and fibro-glandular region containing intra-glandular fat, gland, ductal system, and terminal ductal lobular units. And the size of this breast model was adjusted to represent the characteristic of Chinese female. The glandular tissue conversion coefficients were calculated using this detailed breast model with Monte Carlo code, Geant4. The comparison between the data obtained in this study and the data from Dance was carried out. The discrepancy may come from both the structure and size of the breast models

  7. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specially trained technician performs the procedure in a health care provider’s office, outpatient center, or hospital, and a radiologist—a doctor who specializes in medical imaging—interprets ...

  8. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produces bile—a fluid that carries toxins and waste products out of the body and helps the ... leak bile and cause a painful and possibly dangerous infection. One or more additional operations may be ...

  9. A Chinese Visible Human-based computational female pelvic phantom for radiation dosimetry simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate voxel phantom is needed for dosimetric simulation in radiation therapy for malignant tumors in female pelvic region. However, most of the existing voxel phantoms are constructed on the basis of Caucasian or non-Chinese population. Materials and Methods: A computational framework for constructing female pelvic voxel phantom for radiation dosimetry was performed based on Chinese Visible Human datasets. First, several organs within pelvic region were segmented from Chinese Visible Human datasets. Then, polygonization and voxelization were performed based on the segmented organs and a 3D computational phantom is built in the form of a set of voxel arrays. Results: The generated phantom can be converted and loaded into treatment planning system for radiation dosimetry calculation. From the observed dosimetric results of those organs and structures, we can evaluate their absorbed dose and implement some simulation studies. Conclusion: A voxel female pelvic phantom was developed from Chinese Visible Human datasets. It can be utilized for dosimetry evaluation and planning simulation, which would be very helpful to improve the clinical performance and reduce the radiation toxicity on organ at risk.

  10. Female Cross-Dressing in Chinese Literature Classics and their English Versions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Bo Tso Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-dressing, as a cultural practice, suggests gender ambiguity and allows freedom of self expression. Yet, it may also serve to reaffirm ideological stereotypes and the binary distinctions between male and female, masculine and feminine, homosexual and heterosexual. To explore the nature and function of cross-dressing in Chinese and Western cultures, this paper analyzes the portrayals of cross-dressing heroines in two Chinese stories: The Ballad of Mulan (500-600 A.D., and The Butterfly Lovers (850-880 A.D.. Distorted representations in the English translated texts are also explored..

  11. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  12. A Prediction Rule for Risk Stratification of Incidentally Discovered Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: No one knows exactly what proportion of gallstones cause clinical events among subjects unaware of their gallstone status. We investigated the long-term occurrence of clinical events of gallstones and associations between ultrasound observations and clinical events. METHODS: We...

  13. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...

  14. Radiologic and ultrasonographic diagnosis of gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, J T

    1988-01-01

    Several new nonsurgical modes of therapy for gallstone disease are being introduced almost simultaneously in the United States. These include orally administered bile acids, contact dissolution with methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Paralleling these developments is a similar period of transition in the field of gallstone imaging. Technical considerations in performing ultrasonographic, roentgenographic, and cholecystographic studies become more important, since the criteria for use of the nonsurgical techniques place a greater emphasis on gallstone morphology. In ultrasonography, sizing artifacts from reflective surfaces, optimizing measurements, magnifying hard-copy images, positioning the patient, and optimizing transducer frequencies will need to be addressed. In roentgenography, coned views of the right upper quadrant, with the patient prone, will give the best results. Oral cholecystography (OCG) has largely been replaced by ultrasonography for the detection of gallstones, but it is still an essential part of the imaging workup because it permits adequate visualization of the gallbladder to assure patency of the cystic duct. Correlation of the findings from the several techniques has disclosed new insights and encouraged the use of tailored techniques. Based on the current criteria for the use of orally administered ursodeoxycholic acid, an estimated 60-70% of all patients who have gallstones may be suitable candidates for such treatment. PMID:3062081

  15. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (Olympic Games. Selected anthropometric variables, including height, body mass, percentages of body fat, girths, breadths, lengths and skin-folds were measured. Only iliac crest skin-fold of international athletes was significantly lower than it is in national group. Girth of forearm and lower limbs, length of lower limbs, and all skin-folds of national athletes were significantly lower than those from average level group. Percentages of body fat, girth of forearm and calf, length of lower limbs, and skin-folds at sites of subscapular, abdominal and iliac crest of athletes from average level group were significantly higher than those in international athletes. Positive correlation was found between forearm girth and PB, and between the subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners. PMID:26987158

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of gallstones in adult health screening population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not

  18. Multi-Analytic Approach Elucidates Significant Role of Hormonal and Hepatocanalicular Transporter Genetic Variants in Gallstone Disease in North Indian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Anshika; Mishra, Avshesh; Singh, Rajan; Rai, Rajani; Srivastava, Neena; Mittal, Balraj

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is a multifactorial and multistep disease. Apart from female gender and increasing age being the documented non-modifiable risk factor for gallstones the pathobiological mechanisms underlying the phenotypic expression of CGD appear to be rather complex, and one or more variations in genes could play critical roles in the diverse pathways further progressing to cholesterol crystal formation. In the present study we performed genotyping score, Multi...

  19. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-03-01

    Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  20. THE DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE GALLSTONE PANCREATITIS

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    Elena Gologan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute gallstone pancreatitis is a severe form of pancreatitis caused by an ampullary blocked gallstone. The clinical course combines elements of severe pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice with angiocolitis. Complications are very frequent in the absence of spontaneous, interventional or surgical desobstruction. The diagnosis is based upon clinical features, biochemical paramethers with cholestasis, hyperamilasemia, hyperamilasuria, hyperlipasemia, metabolic disorders. Imagistic assay is undoubtful necessary for the diagnosis; it allows identifying most of the complications, and some of these investigations are very useful in the desobstruction procedures, done at proper moment.

  1. Colonic gallstones:a case repor t

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zakir K Mohamed; Shlok Balupuri; Leslie H Boobis

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Colonic gallstone is an uncommon entity with high morbidity and mortality due to various reasons. It remains a diagnostic challenge because of delayed and non-speciifc presentations, especially in the elderly population, often with multiple co-morbidities. METHOD:We present a case of 81-year-old woman who had a large bowel obstruction due to colonic gallstone. RESULTS:Immediately after a cholecysto-colonic ifstula was found by laporotomy, she underwent a single stage enterolithotomy, cholecystectomy and ifstula closure. CONCLUSIONS:A single stage enterolithotomy, cholecys-tectomy and ifstula closure is ideal for this condition. Various other surgical options in the literature are discussed.

  2. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  3. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  4. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ling ZHOU; Qiu-xiong LIN; Chuan-yue WANG; Wen-biao LI; Shu-guang LIN; Huan-de LI; Xin LI; Huai-yan PENG; Xi-yong YU; Ming YANG; Feng-li SU; Feng WANG; Rong-hua ZHU; Chun-yu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the multiple dose clinical pharmacokinetics of risperidone and its main active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, in Chinese female patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The subjects were 23 Chinese female inpatients aged 18-65 years who met the CCMD-Ⅲ (third revision of the Chinese Criteria of Mental Disorders) criteria for schizophrenia. Subjects were tested after 17 d of treatment with 2 mg risperidone twice daily. Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone were assayed by using validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) methods. Results: Risperidone was rapidly absorbed (Tmax was 1.6 h) and its Tin in plasma was short (3.2 h).9-hydroxy-risperidone was quickly metabolized from the parent drug with a mean Tmax of 2.5 h. It had a long half-life of 24.7 h. The Cssav of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 36.9±33.1 and 110.6±30.5 μg·h·L-1, respectively, and the AUCss0-12 were 443.2±397.4 and 1327.2±402.3 μg·h·L-1, respectively. CL/F and V/F of risperidone were 8.7±6.2 L/h and 34.1±24.3 L, respectively. Interindividual variations for pharmacokinetic parameters were quite large for risperidone. All 23 subjects experienced high prolactin levels when treated with risperidone. However there was no correlation between prolactin level and the concentration of risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, or the active moiety. Conclusion: Risperidone showed large interindividual variations in pharmacokinetics. Administration of risperidone resulted in high serum prolactin levels. The results indicate that systemic exposure to risperidone and 9-hydroxy-risperidone in female Chinese schizophrenic patients is higher relative to published data for white Caucasian patients. Larger studies regarding the PK/PD relationship may be required to develop a reasonable clinical dosage regimen for Chinese female patients.

  5. Parity and serum lipid levels: a cross-sectional study in chinese female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Haichen; Yang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jing; Liu, Henghui; Wang, Youxin; Pan, Yuanming; Xia, Yunlong

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive factors have been shown to correlate with lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parity and serum lipid levels in community-based Chinese female adults. A total of 4,217 female participants were enrolled. Parity was recorded according to questionnaire and serum lipid profile, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), was measured. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of parity to serum lipid levels, while adjusting for demographics and metabolic risk factors. Parity in this population ranged from 0 to 7. After adjusting for potential confounders, it indicated that females with more than 2 parities appeared to be less likely to suffer from abnormal serum TC level compared with nulliparae (parity = 2, odds ratio (OR) = 0.457, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.284-0.736; parity ≥ 3, OR = 0.363, 95% CI = 0.202-0.653). These findings suggested that parity could correlate with lipid metabolism in Chinese women. Individuals with higher parity appeared to have a lower total cholesterol in blood. PMID:27645134

  6. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  7. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  8. Delayed phlegmon with gallstone fragments masquerading as soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Laura F.; Bateni, Cyrus P.; Bishop, John W.; Canter, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Complications from lost gallstones after cholecystectomy are rare but varied from simple perihepatic abscess to empyema and expectoration of gallstones. Gallstone complications have been reported in nearly every organ system, although reports of malignant masquerade of retained gallstones are few. We present the case of an 87-year-old woman with a flank soft tissue tumor 4 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The initial clinical, radiographic and biopsy findings were consistent with soft tissue sarcoma (STS), but careful review of her case in multidisciplinary conference raised the suspicion for retained gallstones rather than STS. The patient was treated with incisional biopsy/drainage of the mass, and gallstones were retrieved. The patient recovered completely without an extensive resectional procedure, emphasizing the importance of multidisciplinary sarcoma care to optimize outcomes for potential sarcoma patients. PMID:27333918

  9. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Takuya; Tomizawa, Naoki; Andoh, Tatsumasa; Arakawa, Kazuhisa; Enokida, Yasuaki; Ozawa, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This ca...

  10. Gallstone obstruction in anastomotic stricture: A very rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Veli Ülger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare but serious complication of cholelithiasis. It is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction but it accounts up to 25% of non-strangulated small bowel obstructions in elderly. Obstruction usually occurs in the terminal ileum. Although the most frequent mechanism of gallstone ileus is migration of the gallstone through a gallbladder-duodenal fistula, there have been cases of bowel obstruction caused by gallstones without any findings of bilio-enteric fistula during the operation. The diagnosis is usually delayed due to nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT scan is the optimal way to diagnose the gallstone ileus. It can identify the site and nature of the obstruction. The optimal surgical approach is a matter of debate. Enterolithotomy is the most performed operation. One stage operation should be performed in selected low risk patients. In this study, we report a 55 years old male patient who underwent surgical intervention due to gallstone ileus. During the operation, we observed that two individual gallstones lead to obstruction in anastomoticstricture which was due to the patient’s prior small bowel resection. Also, no fistula was found during the operation between the gall bladder and the gastrointestinal tract of patient. The gallstones were removed by enterolithotomy. Because there was no gallstone in the allbladder, we did not perform cholecystectomy. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1: 72-74

  11. Comparative study on body shape satisfaction and body weight control between Korean and Chinese female high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Yoona; Hyun, Whajin

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare body shape satisfaction, body image perception, weight control status, and dietary habits of Korean and Chinese female high school students in order to provide information for proper body image perception of adolescents. 221 students in Yongin, a city in Korea, and 227 students in Weihai, a city in China, were surveyed using questionnaires. Body shape satisfaction was significantly higher in Chinese students (P < 0.001) compared to Korean students. 76.2% of...

  12. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Ying

    2001-01-01

    [1]Soloway, R. D., Trotman, B. W., Maddrey, W. C. et al., The influence of hemolysis, infection and stasis on the calcium salts in pigment gallstones, Dig. Dis. Sci., 1986, 31: 454-460.[2]Cheng, L. J., Zhang, Y., Ma, J. S. et al., Chemical preparation and properties of ditaurobilirubin disodium salt, Chemical Reagents, 2000, 22(2): 70-71.[3]Ma. J. S., Wang, C. Q., Yan F., Hypocrellin A-sensitized photooxidation of bilirubin in aprotic solvents, Photographic Science and Photochemistry, 1991, 9(1): 58-61.[4]Yang, Z. H., Wang, K., Liu, X. T., Studies of electron-spin-resonance on bilirubin free radicals, Science in China, Series B,1992, 35(9): 1093-1100.[5]Ostrow, J. D., Overview the bile pigment metabolism, in Bile Pigments and Jaundice: Molecular, Metabolic, and Medical Aspects (ed. Ostrow, J. D.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 1986, 1-6.[6]Ouyang, J. M., Li, C., Li, Y. Q. et al., Monolayer and Langmuir-Blodgett films of bilirubin dihexadecyl ester, Thin Solid Films, 1999, 348: 242-247.[7]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X, S. et al., Structure characteristics of bilirubin gallstone, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1979,24: 1054-1056.[8]Zhou, X. S., Wang, S. S., Wu, J. G. et al., Pigment gallstones study, Chinese Medical Journal, 1982, 95(12): 905-911.[9]Wu, J. G., Shen, G. R., Zhou, X. S. et al., Study on the composition, structure and mechanism of formation of bilirubin gallstone, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1980, 1: 34-43.[10]Zhou, X. S., Shen, G. R., Wu, J. G. et al., A spectroscopic study of pigment gallstone in China, Biospectroscopy, 1997,3(3): 371-380.[11]Soloway, R. D., Wu, J. G., Analysis of Gallstones, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo: CRC Press, 1995, 167-190.[12]Yang, Z. L., Weng, S. F., Wu, J. G., Study on the composition of pigment gallstones, Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 1998, 34(4): 429-434.[13]Soloway, R. D., Song, Y. Y., Wu, J. G. et al., Serial Fourier

  13. Acute Pancreatitis – Beyond Gallstones and Alcohol

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    Omid Sadr-Azodi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the pancreas. The incidence of the disease has increased markedly during the past decades. Whilst alcohol abuse and gallstone disease might explain a large proportion of the disease etiology, in one quarter of the patients, the cause remains unknown. Life-style and pharmaceutical drug use are potential risk factors for the disease. This brief review highlights the recent research on the role of these factors in the etiology of acute pancreatitis.

  14. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (smoke in the workplace (passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking.

  15. Crystallogeny fundamentals of the cholesterol gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jie; Zhou Jianli; He Lijun; Qu Xingang; Gu Lin; Yang Haimin

    2007-01-01

    The nucleation mechanism and crystal growth process of the cholesterol gallstone are studied and a systematic theory expounded by crystallogeny is proposed. Normal feed and stone-forming feed were used to raise guinea pigs in the control and stone-causing groups respectively. The state and transformation of liquid crystal vesicles, the appearance of crystal nuclei, and the formation of microcrystal grains were observed under a polarizing microscope during the experimental period. It was found that the liquid crystal vesicles in the bile of the control group were small, scattered, and always existed as single forms, and no shaped gallstone crystals were formed.While in the stone-causing group, liquid crystal vesicles grew to larger ones, and then aggregated to form large liquid crystal cells. Solid crystal growth along the edge of these liquid crystal cells formed microcrystal grains. These demonstrated that bile liquid crystal vesicles form the basic nuclei of cholesterol gallstone. Heterogeneous nucleation is the common process in the formation of crystal nuclei and crystal growth.

  16. The role and mechanism of fatty acids in gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-Dong Wu; Kazuhisa Uchiyama; Ying Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholelithiasis is a common entity in China, but its etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Pigment stones of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct still form a high proportion in China, while they are rare in Europeans. To date, reports on fatty acids in stones remain few. We analyzed the quantity of fatty acids in different stones from Chinese and Japanese cases and discussed the role and mechanism of fatty acids in the formation of pigment stones. METHODS: Clinical data from 18 Chinese and 37 Japanese patients with different types of stones were analyzed using the procedure for extracting fatty acids from gallstones and high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The total fatty acid and free fatty acid contents of pigment stones were markedly higher than those in black or cholesterol stones. The ratio of free saturated to free unsaturated fatty acids was highest in intrahepatic and less in extrahepatic pigment stones, which were signiifcantly different from the other two kinds of stones. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that phospholipase participates in the course of pigment stone formation. The action of phospholipase A1 is more important than phospholipase A2.

  17. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

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    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  18. IFNG polymorphisms are associated with tuberculosis in Han Chinese pediatric female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Feng, Wei-Xing; Wu, Xi-Rong; Xiao, Jing; Miao, Qing; Sun, Lin; Wang, Bin-Bin; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Shen, Dan; Shen, A-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential susceptibility to human tuberculosis (TB), a re-emerging infectious disease throughout the world. Genetic variations in the IFNG gene coding for interferon gamma (IFN-γ), have been identified in TB patients. To investigate the association of the IFNG polymorphisms with TB susceptibility in Chinese pediatric population. A case-control study of 189 TB patients and 164 controls was performed using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in peripheral blood. Three SNPs of IFNG, including -1616C/T (rs2069705), +874A/T (rs2430561), and +3234C/T (rs2069718), were selected for genotyping and analysis. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequent among TB patients (P = 0.108 and P = 0.088), especially in females (both P = 0.029), although this difference was not significant since Bonferroni corrected significance threshold was 0.025 (two of three SNPs were found to be in linkage disequilibrium). More pronounced differences for the +874 and +3234 polymorphisms were found under the genotype comparison between TB cases and controls in the total population [P = 0.026 (borderline non-significance) and P = 0.020, respectively], and in the female subgroup (P = 0.020 and P = 0.020). The dominant model of inheritance was shown to be significant for +874A and +3234C alleles (both P = 0.019) in the female subgroup. The +874A and +3234C alleles were more frequently found in extrapulmonary TB patients than in controls (P = 0.039). Haplotype analysis carried out on these three SNPs showed the TTT haplotype to be more frequent in controls than in TB cases, and this difference showed a strong significance (P = 0.005). The +874A and +3234C alleles may be related to TB susceptibility in the female subgroup in the Chinese pediatric population of North China. The higher rate of +874A (known to correlate with lower IFN-γ expression) in the extrapulmonary

  19. Oral cholecystography in contemporary gallstone imaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, D D; Torres, W E; Laufer, I

    1991-01-01

    The introduction of nonoperative alternatives to elective cholecystectomy in the management of gallstones has resurrected use of oral cholecystography (OCG). This article reviews basic principles involved in the proper performance of OCG and interpretation of the resulting images. The role of OCG in the current management of gallstones is discussed. PMID:1984325

  20. Back to the gallstone: a mischievous cause of morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paul; Manzelli, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs) are the gold standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease worldwide. However, with this technique comes the increased risk of retained spilled gallstones. We describe a case of a 77-year-old man who presented 2 months after undergoing a LC, with right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed no significant complications, but he continued to have grumbling pains. These were investigated with an abdominal CT scan, prompting suspicion of a colorectal malignancy with pleural metastasis. However, on review by two different multidisciplinary teams, the final conclusion was probable residual gallstones with associated inflammation. This diagnosis was rather dramatically confirmed when the patient went on to expel gallstones percutaneously from his back and coughed out of his respiratory tract. This case highlights the importance of operative documentation of spilled gallstones, which can, in addition to more surprising consequences, mimic malignancy on investigation. This can lead to delay in correct management and cause undue patient distress. PMID:27317757

  1. Radiographic features of oral cholecystograms of 448 symptomatic gallstone patients: implications for nonsurgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisier, P W; Brakel, K; van der Hul, R L; Bruining, H A

    1994-02-01

    Since radiographic findings on oral cholecystography (OCG) have implications for the eligibility for nonsurgical therapy of elderly patients, we investigated the OCGs of 448 symptomatic gallstone patients (109 male, 339 female; mean age, 49.8 +/- 14 (range, 21-88)). Opacification of the gallbladder was found in 323 cases (72.1%). Calcifications of gallstones were found in 85 opacified gallbladders (26.3%). Solitary and multiple stones were calcified in 35.3% and 18.2%, respectively (P 40 years), there was a significant increase in calcifications (P < 0.02) and a non-significant increase in opacification with increasing age. It is concluded that age is a determinant for calcification of gallstones and not opacification of the gallbladder. Since multiple stones are proportionately observed more in clinical studies than in epidemiologic studies, it is suggested that multiplicity of stones predisposes to biliary complaints. That solitary stones are more likely to be calcified than multiple stones, adds to the hypothesis that solitary and multiple stones have a different pathogenesis. Elderly patients, in whom non-surgical therapy is most likely to be indicated and cost-effective, are less likely to be suitable for this form of treatment, since age is a determinant for stone calcification. PMID:8168584

  2. Primary hyperparathyroidism presenting as acute gallstone pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jian-hong; ZHANG Quan-bao; LI Yu-min; ZHU You-quan; LI Xun; SHI Bin

    2010-01-01

    @@ Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a generalized disorder of calcium metabolism resulting from an abnormally high level of serum calcium and an increased level of parathormone (PTH).1,2 Traditionally, symptomatic PHPT patients present with a variety of disorders including fatigue, amyotrophy, memory impairment, emotional instability, hallucination, irritation, loss of consciousness, abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, constipation, acute pancreatitis, refractory peptic ulcer, osteopenia, hypertension, etc.3-5 Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an uncommon presentation of PHPT.6-8 We report a typical case of primary hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemic crisis presenting as acute gallstone pancreatitis.

  3. Therapy of gallstone disease:What it was,what it is,what it will be

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piero; Portincasa; Agostino; Di; Ciaula; Leonilde; Bonfrate; David; QH; Wang

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol gallstone disease is a common clinical condition influenced by genetic factors,increasing age,female gender,and metabolic factors.Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is currently considered the gold standard in treating patients with symptomatic gallstones,new perspectives regarding medical therapy of cholelithiasis are currently under discussion,also taking into account the pathogenesis of gallstones,the natural history of the disease and the analysis of the overall costs of therapy.A careful selection of patients may lead to successful nonsurgical therapy in symptomatic subjects with a functioning gallbladder harboring small radiolucent stones.The classical oral litholysis by ursodeoxycholic acid has been recently paralleled by new experimental observations,suggesting that cholesterol-lowering agents which inhibit cholesterol synthesis (statins) or intestinal cholesterol absorption (ezetimibe),or drugs acting on specific nuclear receptors involved in cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis,might be proposed as additional approaches for treating cholesterol gallstones.In this review we discuss old,recent and future perspectives on medical treatment of cholesterol cholelithiasis.

  4. Work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses: the mediating effect of psychological capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout among nurses not only threatens their own health, but also that of their patients. Exploring risk factors of nurse’ burnout is important to improve nurses’ health and to increase the quality of health care services. This study aims to explore the relationship between work-family conflict and burnout among Chinese female nurses and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of September and October 2010. A questionnaire that consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the work-family conflict scale and the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24 scale, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to nurses in Liaoning province, China. A total of 1,332 individuals (effective response rate: 78.35% became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of psychological capital. Results Both work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict were positively related with emotional exhaustion and cynicism. However, work interfering family conflict was positively related with professional efficacy whereas family interfering work conflict was negatively related with it. Psychological capital partially mediated the relationship of work interfering family conflict with emotional exhaustion and cynicism; and partially mediated the relationship of family interfering work conflict with emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Conclusion Work-family conflict had effects on burnout and psychological capital was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Psychological capital was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout.

  5. Chinese female breast cancer patients show a better overall survival than their male counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Liang-ping; ZHOU Fei-fei; GUO Gui-fang; WANG Fang; WANG Xi; YUAN Zhong-yu; ZHANG Bei

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud It is not clear if there is a difference in prognosis between male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of MBC and FBC patients in China and the prognosis of MBC and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients.Methods Thirty-five MBC patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 1969 and 2004 were enrolled in the study. Seventy FBC patients who were matched with the MBC patients for TNM stage, year of diagnosis, and age at diagnosis were simultaneously enrolled in the study. A second group comprising 18 MBC patients and their corresponding 36 matched postmenopausal FBC patients were also enrolled. The whole group and the postmenopausal groups were compared for five- and ten-year survivals. Results All the factors that could potentially affect prognosis were comparable among the groups except more FBC than MBC patients underwent endocrine therapy and a modified radical mastectomy. The 5- and 10-year survivals in the whole group were 81.6% and 60.3% for men and 90.7% and 73.5% for women (P=0.02). The 5- and 10-year survival in the postmenopausal group was 82.5% and 100% for men and 66.0% and 85.9% for women (P=0.159).Conclusions Chinese FBC patients had a better prognosis than Chinese MBC patients. However, MBC patients and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients had a similar prognosis.

  6. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Chen; Pei-Shan Wang; Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen; Yu-Bei Huang; Xue-Ou Liu; Ying Gao; Hong-Ji Dai; Feng-Ju Song; Wei-Qin Li; Jing Wang; Ye Yan

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especial y for Chinese females. Thus, we systematical y searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR:1.04;95%CI:0.89-1.20;I2=13.9%, P=0.248;n=31). The OR of exposure to husband’s smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband’s smoke (<20 and≥20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (<300 and≥300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband’s smoking.

  7. Active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk for Chinese females: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Huang, Yu-Bei; Liu, Xue-Ou; Gao, Ying; Dai, Hong-Ji; Song, Feng-Ju; Li, Wei-Qin; Wang, Jing; Yan, Ye; Wang, Pei-Shan; Wang, Yao-Gang; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that smoking and passive smoking could increase the risk of breast cancer, but the results were inconsistent, especially for Chinese females. Thus, we systematically searched cohort and case-control studies investigating the associations of active and passive smoking with breast cancer risk among Chinese females in four English databases (PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Wiley) and three Chinese databases (CNKI, WanFang, and VIP). Fifty-one articles (3 cohort studies and 48 case-control studies) covering 17 provinces of China were finally included in this systematic review. Among Chinese females, there was significant association between passive smoking and this risk of breast cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-1.85; I2 = 75.8%, P < 0.001; n = 26] but no significant association between active smoking and the risk of breast cancer (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.89-1.20; I2 = 13.9%, P = 0.248; n = 31). The OR of exposure to husband's smoking and to smoke in the workplace was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50) and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.07-2.59), respectively. The OR of light and heavy passive smoking was 1.11 and 1.41, respectively, for women exposed to their husband's smoke (< 20 and ≥ 20 cigarettes per day), and 1.07 and 1.87, respectively, for those exposed to smoke in the workplace (< 300 and ≥ 300 min of exposure per day). These results imply that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and the risk seems to increase as the level of passive exposure to smoke increases among Chinese females. Women with passive exposure to smoke in the workplace have a higher risk of breast cancer than those exposed to their husband's smoking. PMID:24823992

  8. Study on features of female fetal reproductive system development in Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunbo; ZHANG Guixue; HU Pengfei; HUANG He; ZHENG Peng; LI Wanhua

    2007-01-01

    Some charaterasics of female fetal reproductive system were studied in different gestation phases of Chinese northeast fine-wool sheep. The results showed that reproductive system consisted of ovary, oviduct, uterus and genitalia. The fetal ovaries were granular in early phase and became elliptic in later phase. The functional formula of ovarian weight, length and volume was obtained.Primary oocyte was encapsulated by monolayer cells in 7-week fetal ovary cortex. Primordial follicles were formed in 8-week fetal ovary, the follicular cells were sporadically arranged and not always regular. Complete organization of primordial follicles appeared until 10-week gestation, most of them scattered in nests in the following weeks of gestation. Two types of follicular complexes were found in fetal. There were continuous and quick mitosis of oogonia in fetal ovaries, large complexes were formed by oogoniaes encapsulated by multilayer of follicular cells, then they differentiated into small complexes, one or more primary oocytes were formed by mitosis of oogonia, primordial follicles which were caused by follicular cell approaching into them developed.

  9. Stereoselectivity in metabolic 3-reduction of tibolone in healthy Chinese female volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming ZUO; Ming-jie GAO; Zhen LIU; Lei CAI; Geng-li DUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the stereoselectivity in human metabolic 3-reduction oftibolone. Methods: Twenty healthy Chinese female volunteers were given a singleoral dose of tibolone (2.5 mg), and serial blood samples were collected aftertreatment. The plasma concentrations of the two pharmacologically active 3-hydroxyl metabolites of tibolone, 3α-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3α-HMN)and 3β-hydroxyl-7-methyl- norethynodrel (3β-HMN) in plasma were determinedby using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method.Results: The apparent elimination half-life (T1/2) of 3α-HMN was 1.43±0.52 h, andthat of 3β-HMN was 1.53±0.60 h. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) werefound to be 8.75±4.36 μg/L for 3α-HMN and 3.59±1.81 μg/L for 3β-HMN. Areash-1. L-1 for 3α-HMN and 9.89±4.93 μg.h-1. L-1 for 3β-HMN. Conclusion: Stereoselective differences exist in the pharmacokinetics of tibolone metabolism in humans.

  10. Determinants for Clinical Events in Gallstone Carriers Unaware of their Gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønsted Shabanzadeh, Daniel; Tue Sørensen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , vocational training, and inversely association to a higher physical activity level when compared to being sedentary. Multiple adjusted models confirmed association for total events and body mass index and for complicated events and physical activity. No significant associations were identified for alcohol......, coffee, diet, smoking, or visits to general practitioner and clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: Body mass index, vocational training, and physical activity level were associated to clinical events in long-term follow-up of unaware gallstone carriers. Future trials should investigate clinical effects...... was median 17.5 years and 99.8% complete. Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Gallstone events occurred in 16.6% participants of whom 7.2% were complicated and 9.4% were uncomplicated. Total events were associated to body mass index. Complicated events were associated to coffee consumption...

  11. Computed tomographic evaluation of gallstone calcification for biliary lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslowitz, P L; Fishman, E K; Kafonek, D R; Lillemoe, K D; Mitchell, S; Widlus, D M; Saba, G P

    1991-04-01

    As the Food and Drug Administration trials for biliary lithotripsy in the United States near completion, future criteria for patient eligibility remain to be defined. Gallstone calcification greater than 3-mm partial rim on plain film (KUB) or oral cholecystogram (OCG) has excluded patients thus far, since early results of gallstone clearance (lithotripsy plus chemodissolution) were suboptimal with calcified stones. To evaluate the usefulness of these criteria for gallstone fragmentation, computed tomographic (CT) scans were performed on 20 patients immediately prior to lithotripsy to evaluate gallstone density and 24 hours after lithotripsy to observe the CT appearance of fragmentation. The adequacy of fragmentation was determined by pre- and post-lithotripsy sonography. This report constitutes the results of these investigations. PMID:10149158

  12. Calcified gallstone fissures: the reversed Mercedes Benz sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijk, S P

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the occurrence of an unusual radiating pattern of calcification in the center of large radiolucent gallstones. The radiographic findings are attributed to calcium deposition within the fissures of biliary calculi. PMID:3556975

  13. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  14. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Spilled Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Narendra; Kumar, Hemanth; Verma, GR

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old woman who presented with a necrotizing soft tissue infection of the right anterior abdominal wall, 1 year after open cholecystectomy for gallbladder perforation. Surgical exploration revealed pigmented gallstones along with pus in the abdominal wall and gallbladder fossa. Intraoperative spillage of gallstones is common during both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but, in rare cases, can lead to serious complications including necrotizing infection of the abdominal wall. PMID:27144208

  15. Successful endoscopic treatment of colonic gallstone ileus using electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin; D; Zielinski; Lincoln; E; Ferreira; Todd; H; Baron

    2010-01-01

    The surgical management of gallstone ileus is complex and potentially highly morbid.Initial management requires enterolithotomy and is generally followed by fistula resection at a later date.There have been reports of gallstone extraction using various endoscopic modalities to relieve the obstruction,however,to date,there has never been a published case of endoscopic stone extraction from the colon using electrohydraulic lithotripsy.In this report,we present the technique employed to successfully perform an...

  16. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sala Abdalla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions.

  17. Gallbladder contractility and volume characteristics in gallstone dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Chuan Chan; Tzu-Ming Chang; Cheng-Jueng Chen; Teng-Wei Chen; Jyh-Cherng Yu; Yao-Chi Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Tt is difficult to differentiate gallstone dyspepsia and functional dyspepsia by clinical symptoms and signs. We hypothesized that gallstone dyspepsia was related to abnormal gallbladder motility. We aimed to differentiate gallstone dyspepsia from functional dyspepsia by measuring gallbladder motility.METHODS: We measured gallbladder volume changes in response to gastric distension (saline 500 mL) and fatty meal in 10 normal volunteers (controls) and 62 patients with gallstones and dyspepsia before cholecystectomy. Forty cholecystectomized patients were symptom free or had improvement (group I), while the remaining 22 patients had persistent dyspepsia (group II). Gallbladder volume change and ejection fraction were analyzed and compared among the three groups.RESULTS: In group I, there were significant decreases in gallbladder volumes 5-25 min after gastric distension,compared to fasting volumes. Compared to normal volunteers and group II, group I had significantly decreased gallbladder volumes 10-20 min after drinking 500 mL of normal saline and 10 to 50 min after eating fatty meal.CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that increased gallbladder contraction after gastric distension or fatty meal may be related to dyspeptic symptoms in uncomplicated gallstone disease. These findings may be useful in differentiating functional dyspepsia from gallstone dyspepsia, patients with the latter disease may benefit from laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  18. Measurement of calcium content of gallstones by computed tomography and the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Masashi; Tamasawa, Naoki; Takebe, Kazuo (Hirosaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Makino, Isao; Sakuraba, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Toyokazu

    1990-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between gallbladder function and calcification of gallstones, we studied gallbladder contractility by oral cholecystography, the computed tomography (CT) number of stones for 30 gallstone patients, calcium content of 13 stones operatively extirpated, and the degree of inflammatory change in 13 surgical gallbladder specimens. There was significant correlation between the calcium content and CT numbers of stones, and 1% of the calcium content of gallstone was approximately equal to 40 Hounsfield Units (HU) of the CT number. The calcium content of stones in patients with normal gallbladder contractility was extrapolated to be below 1.5%, while that with poor contractility ranged from 0% to 21%. Additionally there is a possibility that calcium content increases, related to the inflammatory change of gallbladder. Hence our results suggested that measurement of the CT number of stones is useful to evaluate the calcium content of gallstones, and that the gallbladder contractility could be one of the factors to influence calcification of stones. (author).

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine Compound Mianbu Mix-fang Is Effective in Treating Immunological Infertility: a Female Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王望九; 汤明礼; 李笑梅; 陈永华; 产美英; 胡德宝; 戴宁; 黄震; 孔梅

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the therapeutic effectivess of Traditional Chinese Medicinecompound mixture Mianbu Fang (Immunological infertility therapy) on immunologi-cal infertility caused by antisperm antibody (AsAb) in female mice.Materials & Methods Forty-two female Kunming mice were evenly divided into 7groups by weight. Group A was control group; Group B was model of infertility.Group C, D and E were fed with normal, half and double dosage of Mianbu Ⅰ respec-tively. Group F and G were fed with Mianbu Ⅱ and prednisone Acetates respectively.Animal model of immunological infertility were set up by injecting mice sperm to theother 36 Kunming female mice except Group A. The AsAb levels in serum, cervicalmucus were measured, the histological and immunohistochemistry changes in ovary andendometrium were observed, and the pregnancy indexes were compared in differentgroups.Results Compared with the infertility model group, the AsAb level in serum andcervical mucus in treatment group was lower. Less immune compounds in ovary andendometrium and atretic follicle of ovary was found in treatment group than in modeland control group. The immune compounds in ovary and endometrium were less in thetreatment group than that in the model and control group.Conclusion By regulating immunological system, Traditional Chinese Medicinecompound mixfang Mianbu Fang lowers AsAb in the circulation system and specialorgans, eliminates immunological compound, repairs tissue impairment and increases pregnancy of female mice.

  20. Analysis of female nasal characteristics in Chinese beautiful Han's females%中国美貌汉族女性鼻部特征的测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖青; 米丛波; 李运科; 宋美云; 杨川

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on nose characteristics of beautiful Chinese Han nationality female was established for diagnosis and treatment of aesthetic plastic surgery. OBJECTIVE: To explore nose aesthetic features of Chinese Han nationality beauty female through the measurement of 30 beautiful Chinese Han nationality females. METHODS: 30 cases of anteroposteriorfemale and lateral star photos were selected from fashion magazines, movies, TV series and 16 external nose indexes from 30 Chinese beautiful females were measured by using photoshop CS 3.0 software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The external nose height, length, width, depth, and the proportion related to aesthetics and anatomical data from stars were obtained, it included: nose wide/nose long=1: 1.15, the nose deep/nose wide=1: 2, the nose wide/ the angular distance=1: 0.94, nose wide/quarrel spacing=1: 1.43, and the ratio was relate with each other. The results shows that the ratio between labial groove spacing with nose width of Chinese beauty female is close to golden ratio 1:0.618, and the external nose relative face is not outstanding.%背景:目前,鼻外型的美学指标尚不统一建立中国美貌汉族女性鼻部特征的数据库,可以为美容整形治疗计划的制定提供理论依据.目的:对公众广泛接受的30例中国美貌汉族女性的鼻部特征进行了测量,观察中国美貌汉族女性鼻部的美学特征.方法:选取30例时尚杂志、电影、电视剧中美女明星的正、侧位脸型的照片,利用photoshop CS 3.0软件对30例中国美貌汉族女性的16个外鼻指标进行测量分析.结果与结论:实验获得明星外鼻的长度、宽度、高度、深度和相关比例等多组美学、解剖学数据,包括:鼻宽-鼻长比为1∶1.15,鼻深-鼻宽比为1∶2,鼻宽-内眦间距比为1∶0.94,鼻宽-口角间距比为1∶1.43,且各比例相互间有一定相关性.结果证实,中国美貌女性鼻唇沟间距与鼻宽之比接近黄金比1∶0.618,外鼻相对面部不够突出.

  1. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  2. Women on Women Femininity and Independence in the Work of Chinese Contemporary Female Artists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    ■The history of China, as seen through the eyes of a Chinese woman, would no doubt present a very different story to that which we are accustomed to. The centuries of oppression endured by Chinese women were ratified by the teachings of Confucius which assert that

  3. Changes in Gallbladder Motility and Gallstone Formation Following Laparoscopic Gastric Banding for Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal O Al-Jiffry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is associated with cholesterol gallstone formation, a risk compounded by rapid weight loss. Laparoscopic gastric banding allows for a measured rate of weight loss, but the subsequent risk for developing gallstones is unknown.

  4. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Norberto C. Chavez-Tapia; Daniel Motola-Kuba; Karla Sanchez-Lara; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Héctor Baptista; Martha H. Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish an association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and the development of gallstone disease.METHOIDS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in a check-up unit in a university hospital in Mexico City. We enrolled 245 subjects, comprising 65 subjects with gallstones (36 women, 29 men) and 180 controls (79women and 101 men without gallstones). Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma insulin, and serum lipids and lipoproteins levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Unconditional logistic regressionanalysis (univariate and multivariate) was used to calculate the risk of gallstone disease associated with the presence of at least three of the criteria (Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ). Analyses were adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Among 245 subjects, metabolic syndrome was present in 40% of gallstone disease subjects, compared with 17.2% of the controls, adjusted by age and gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.79; 95%CI, 1.46-5.33; P = 0.002),a dose-dependent effect was observed with each component of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.36, 95%CI, 0.72-7.71;P = 0.16 with one component and OR = 5.54, 95%CI,1.35-22.74; P = 0.02 with four components of metabolic syndrome). Homeostasis model assessment was significantly associated with gallstone disease (adjusted OR = 2.25;95%CI, 1.08-4.69; P = 0.03).CONCLUSION: We conclude that as for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, gallstone disease appears to be strongly associated with metabolic syndrome.

  5. Complicated gallstone disease in Sweden 1988-2006 : a register study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandzén, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Background The gallstone prevalence in the western world is 10-20%. Most gallstones are silent, but symptoms and complications appear in 20-40%. The incidence of symptom development in patients with silent gallstones is 2-4% per year. The indication for surgical (including endoscopic) treatment of gallstones is symptoms of certain magnitude, and no contraindications. During the past three decades an intense technical development in imaging (ultrasound, computerised tomography and magnetic res...

  6. Analysis Algerian's Gallstones with Infrared Spectrum and Methods of Prevention and Treatment for Cholelithiasis in Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the type of Algerian's gallstones and put forward relative measures of prevention and treatment, The NICOLET 170SX FT-IR spectrometer was used to measure the infra-red spectrum and analyze the feature of spectrum of Algerian's gallstones. The results shown that Algerian have cholesterol gallstones. Reasons to form Algerian's multiple cholesterol gallstones were investigated. We have put forward five suggestions to prevent and treat cholelithiasis.

  7. Management of gallstones and gallbladder disease in patients undergoing gastric bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernabé; M; Quesada; Gustavo; Kohan; Hernán; E; Roff; Carlos; M; Canullán; Luis; T; Chiappetta; Porras

    2010-01-01

    The appropriate management of gallstones and gallbladder disease in patients undergoing gastric bypass remains unknown.Several therapeutic modalities are used and include performing cholecystectomy on all patients at the time of gastric bypass,performing concomitant cholecystectomy only when patients have gallstones and performing cholecystectomy only in the presence of both symptoms and gallstones.Some groups administer ursodeoxycholic acid for gallstone prevention in the postoperative period.All treatment...

  8. User Experience of Office Chairs and Anthropometrics of Female Chinese and Hong Kong Chinese Office and Factory Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitenbach, E.F.R.; Jochems, A.J.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.; Ball, R.; Eijk, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    In Hong Kong it was noticed that female office and factory workers use chairs that are oversized and can't support their sitting posture in a comfortable way. In order to set up general recommendations to design a more appropriate office chair, a research of the user experience of office chairs was

  9. Postmenopausal Estrogen Therapy and Risk of Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maja Hellfritzsch; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine;

    2013-01-01

    was to examine the association between postmenopausal estrogen therapy and risk of gallstone disease and the impact of duration of treatment and use of opposing progestin. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a population-based case-control study. Cases were postmenopausal women (defined as aged ≥45 years) with gallstone...... disease identified in the period 1996-2010. For each case, we selected ten population controls matched to cases by age and sex. We defined exposure as any use of estrogen (opposed and unopposed by progestin). Cases/controls were categorized as current estrogen users if their last prescription was redeemed...... OR for former users was 1.35 (95 % CI 1.28-1.42). The results suggested a duration response for current users. Use of unopposed estrogen was associated with higher adjusted ORs than estrogen opposed by progestin. CONCLUSION: Postmenopausal estrogen therapy was associated with increased risk of gallstone disease...

  10. Cholesterol gallstone disease: the current status of nonsurgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilhartz, L E

    1988-07-01

    Gallstone disease is a common disease that appears to be related to a Western diet. The underlying pathogenesis is a subtle alteration in the liver such that excessive cholesterol is extracted from the liver cell by bile acids undergoing an enterohepatic recirculation. Gallstone disease progresses through well-defined stages, beginning with a bile supersaturated with cholesterol and proceeding to crystal formation, stone growth, and finally symptoms caused by impaction of a stone in either the cystic duct or the common bile duct. The natural history is that most stones never cause symptoms. Stones that cause symptoms have been present for an average of 12 years. The treatment of truly asymptomatic stones should be observation. Ultrasonography of the right upper quadrant is the gold standard for the diagnosis of stones in the gallbladder. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of stones in the common bile duct. Oral cholecystogram (OCG) helps select patients who have noncalcified, floating stones that may be dissolved with bile acids or methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Therapy with chenodiol has been a disappointment because of a low complete response rate. The ideal candidate for attempted dissolution with chenodiol would be a thin woman with hypercholesterolemia and a small number of symptomatic, small, floating, radiolucent gallstones. Ursodeoxycholic acid (Urso), when it is available, will have all of the attributes of chenodiol and virtually none of the side effects. Rapid dissolution of gallstones with MTBE shows great promise of being a generally available means of dissolving gallstones. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy also shows promise, but its general availability may be limited by the cost of the equipment needed. As of now, the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones remains cholecystectomy, unless there is a compelling reason not to operate. PMID:3044106

  11. Comparison of cholecystosonography, cholecystography and CT in patients with gallstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Tatsumi; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Fujii, Koichi; Yoshida, Akio; Uno, Tamotsu (Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan))

    1982-12-01

    Cholecystosonography, cholecystography and CT were true positive in 93.3%, 71.2% and 69.7% of patients with gallstones, respectively. Cholecystosonography was significantly more sensitive than the other two. True negative rates were more than 95% in the three tests. Cholecystography and CT were competitive with sonography in 0.54 and 0.6 of true positives, respectively. Competitive or complementary rate was thought to be an index for an effective combination of tests. Though sonography is most suitable for screening, cholecystography and CT have their own particular diagnostic values on gallstones.

  12. I Am the Invincible Sword Goddess: Mediatization of Chinese Gender Ideology through Female Kung-Fu Practitioners in Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Hiramoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The media are avid portrayers of gender binarism and the belief in male-female distinctions, which are mainly attributed to perceived differences of a physical nature. In this paper, we investigate representations of female kung-fu practitioners (nuxia in films to discuss how processes of mediation and mediatization depict their femininity, so as to mitigate their appropriation of Chinese martial arts masculinity. Often, nuxias are portrayed as empowered women who are equipped to take control of their own lives and to courageously take on challenges from a variety of opponents. However, multimodal deconstruction of the various characteristics of nuxias must be placed in an Asian-specific context in order to understand the femininity specific to these characters and to move beyond Western gender ideologies displayed by the media. Perpetuating Confucian patriarchal ideals, nuxia roles constantly and consistently associate conformation to Confucian values with virtuousness and non-conformation with wickedness. We therefore can use the ideals of Confucianism as a more accurate foundation in deconstructing the identities of nuxias, which allows us to better understand the mediation and mediatization processes of ideologies associated with Chinese femininity and masculinity in martial arts films.

  13. Do Not Cry for Me, Confucius: The Reconstruction of Chinese Female Identity During the Cultural Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese women were portrayed as delicate and submissive. The most famous proverbs prevailed in imperial China were “A woman without knowledge is a woman of virtue” and “It is the law of nature that woman should be held under the dominance of man.” Indeed, the rule of surviving in a society for any ancient Chinese women was “three obedience and four virtues”: a woman had to be obedient to her father before marriage, to her husband after marriage and to her son after her husband's d...

  14. Development of a duodenal gallstone ileus with gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret syndrome four months after successful treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease with cholecystitis and cholangitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnekendonk Guido

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cases of gallstone ileus account for 1% to 4% of all instances of mechanical bowel obstruction. The majority of obstructing gallstones are located in the terminal ileum. Less than 10% of impacted gallstones are located in the duodenum. A gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a gallstone ileus is known as Bouveret syndrome. Gallstones usually enter the bowel through a biliary enteral fistula. Little is known about the formation of such fistulae in the course of gallstone disease. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman born in Germany with a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone ileus (Bouveret syndrome, with a large gallstone impacted in the third part of the duodenum. Diagnostic investigations of our patient included plain abdominal films, gastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography, which showed a biliary enteric fistula between the gallbladder and the duodenal bulb. Our patient was successfully treated by laparotomy, duodenotomy, extraction of the stone, cholecystectomy, and resection of the fistula in a one-stage surgical approach. Histopathological examination showed chronic and acute cholecystitis, with perforated ulceration of the duodenal wall and acute purulent inflammation of the surrounding fatty tissue. Four months prior to developing a gallstone ileus our patient had been hospitalized for cholecystitis, a large gallstone in the gallbladder, cholangitis and a small obstructing gallstone in the common biliary duct. She had been treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, balloon extraction of the common biliary duct gallstone, and intravenous antibiotics. At the time of her first presentation, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic examination (including esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had not shown any evidence of a biliary enteral fistula. In the four months preceding the

  15. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  16. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takuya; Tomizawa, Naoki; Andoh, Tatsumasa; Arakawa, Kazuhisa; Enokida, Yasuaki; Ozawa, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This case was admitted to our hospital following acute-onset abdominal pain and vomiting. We diagnosed gallstone ileus with cholecystoduodenal fistula by computed tomography and performed totally laparoscopic surgery using only three 5 mm abdominal ports with transvaginal specimen extraction and enterectomy. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula repair were performed 8 months after the initial surgery. The patient experienced additional pain relief and good cosmetic outcomes. In conclusion, using transvaginal hybrid NOTES may become a future option to minimize the invasiveness of other laparoscopic procedures. PMID:27429831

  17. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Naoki; Andoh, Tatsumasa; Arakawa, Kazuhisa; Enokida, Yasuaki; Ozawa, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This case was admitted to our hospital following acute-onset abdominal pain and vomiting. We diagnosed gallstone ileus with cholecystoduodenal fistula by computed tomography and performed totally laparoscopic surgery using only three 5 mm abdominal ports with transvaginal specimen extraction and enterectomy. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula repair were performed 8 months after the initial surgery. The patient experienced additional pain relief and good cosmetic outcomes. In conclusion, using transvaginal hybrid NOTES may become a future option to minimize the invasiveness of other laparoscopic procedures. PMID:27429831

  18. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427

  19. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Shiraishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This case was admitted to our hospital following acute-onset abdominal pain and vomiting. We diagnosed gallstone ileus with cholecystoduodenal fistula by computed tomography and performed totally laparoscopic surgery using only three 5 mm abdominal ports with transvaginal specimen extraction and enterectomy. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula repair were performed 8 months after the initial surgery. The patient experienced additional pain relief and good cosmetic outcomes. In conclusion, using transvaginal hybrid NOTES may become a future option to minimize the invasiveness of other laparoscopic procedures.

  20. Association analysis between HOXD9 genes and the development of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Chinese female Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is a congenital or acquired deformation or misalignment of the hip joint which affects mainly females. We hypothesized that HOXD9 gene could be regulated in acetabular size or shape and related in DDH developing. Methods Two hundred and nine Chinese Han female DDH patients and 173 ethnic, age matched healthy female controls were genotyped for HOXD9 two tag SNPs using sequenom method. Results One of the two tag SNPs, rs711822, was not shown significantly differences in genotypic or allelic distribution between case and control group. Comparing the genotypic distribution of rs711819, there was significant differences between DDH patients group and control group (χ2 = 7.54, df =2, P =0.023, and the association to DDH developing reached significance (P =0.045, OR =1.79, 95 % CI: 1.01-3.17 by dominant mode. Conclusion In conclusion, the association between one tag SNP of HOXD9 gene and the development of DDH reach significant in our study population, this result indicate the positive correlation between HOXD9 gene and DDH developing. Further study in larger sample size and different population as well as functional studies will help to understand the pathogenesis of DDH.

  1. Female Specific Association between NNMT Gene and Schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Yong; Lv, Zhuang-wei; Sun, Mao; Wu, Dan; Chen, Xin-Yu; Wu, Yuan-ming

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that alterations in one carbon metabolism might play an important role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SZ). Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is one of the key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. To examine whether NNMT gene was associated with SZ in Han Chinese population, we selected seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NNMT gene, and investigated its association with SZ from a cohort of 42 SZ patients and 86 healthy controls by Mass-ARRA...

  2. Dose conversion coefficients for Chinese reference adult male and female voxel phantoms from idealized neutron exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Huan; Qiu, Rui; Yang, Yue; Pan, Yu-Xi; Liu, Li-Ye

    2015-01-01

    A new set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the Chinese reference adult voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF are presented for six idealized external neutron exposures from 10-8 MeV to 20 MeV. The voxel phantoms CRAM and CRAF were adjusted from the previous phantoms CNMAN and CNWM respectively, and the masses of individual organs have been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. The calculation of organ-absorbed doses and effective doses were performed with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. The resulting dose conversion coefficients were compared with those published in ICRP Publication 116, which represents the reference Caucasian. The organ-absorbed dose conversion coefficients of most organs are in good agreement with the results in ICRP Publication 116, however, obvious discrepancies are observed for some organs and certain geometries. For neutrons with energies above 2 MeV, the effective dose conversion coefficients of Chinese reference adult are almost identical to those of ICRP Publicatio...

  3. Analysis on the Educational Background of Chinese Female Academicians%中国女院士的教育背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 李斌

    2014-01-01

    Science education is the necessary soil for the generation of Chinese female scientific groups.Female academicians mark the peak of the women image in sciences.Taking Chinese female academicians as an example,this paper tries to focus on clarifying the educational growth trajectory of female academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Chinese Academy of Engineering and Aca-demia Sinica in (Taiwan),in order to provide the reference for the contemporary women's education in science,the women's education of science and technology in the modern and contemporary age,and show the whole overall style of female academicians.%科学教育是中国女性科学群体产生的必要土壤,女院士是女性科学形象的高峰标志。文章以中国女院士群体为样本,试图厘清中国科学院、工程院与台湾中央研究院女院士的教育成长轨迹,以期为现当代女子科技教育提供借鉴参考,展示我国女院士的整体风采。

  4. [Diagnostic methods of gallstones--plain radiogram and contrast examination of biliary system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T

    1993-07-01

    There is a wide spectrum of diagnostic imaging modalities to evaluate the biliary system, such as plain radiogram, echogram (US), oral cholecystogram (OCG), intravenous cholangiogram (DIC), CT, MRI, and RI scintigram. Since the late 1970's US, non-invasive and easily available, is the first choice of examination when gallstones are suspected because of achievement of detailed resolution. OCG or DIC is rarely performed for gallstones. However, it was not until the advent of various measures of treatment for gallstones, other than cholecystectomy, such as dissolution therapy or extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones, that contrast examination of the biliary system has been re-utilized to evaluate the characteristics, number and size of gallstones, and patency of cystic duct, which are important data. The indications and significance of plain and contrast examinations for gallstone disease is discussed. PMID:8366591

  5. Imaging examination in the diagnosis of gall-stones and acute cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loxton, A.J. (Stellenbosch Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology)

    1985-06-01

    X-ray radiography of the chest and abdomen can be of use when gall-stones or cholecystitis are suspected, but it is not always necessary. An ultrasonographic examination can also be very useful. If no gall-stones can be found, a cholecystogram must be done. Cholecystography also plays an important part in the tracing of gall-stones. The diagnosis of cholecystitis is best done by means of scintiscanning.

  6. Ezetimbe as potential treatment for cholesterol gallstones: The need for clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; H; Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and gallstones. High fat diets (unsaturated fats) rich in cholesterol have been demonstrated to produce not only gallstones but also NAFLD and insulin resistance. Interestingly, a high incidence of gallstones is being reported in association with insulin resistance and NAFLD. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best definitive therapy for symptomatic gallbladder disease. Ezetimibe is a drug that inhibits the absorption o...

  7. Investigation of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectra of Human Gallstones on Colloidal Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scatterihg (SERS) spectra of human gallstones is investigated. Complicated Raman bands were due to multiple components that include bilirubin, bilirubinate salts, cholesterol, fatty salts and proteins. The results suggest that besides bilirubin and cholesterol, fatty salts and proteins may play an important role in the formation of gallstone. The experimental data supply an useful information for the research of the formation mechanism of gallstones.

  8. Osteoporosis increases subsequent risk of gallstone: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Klahan, Sukhontip; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Chien, Shu-Chen; Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Chun-Yi; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Lin, Ching-I; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is expressed in various tissues. It participates in the bone remodeling process and stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts. It is also a core protein of cholesterol gallstones. We hypothesized osteoporotic patients might have higher risk in developing gallstones and conducted a population-based study to examine the risk of developing gallstone in osteoporotic patients in Taiwan. Methods A total of 1,638 patients diagnosed wi...

  9. Can pigment gallstones be induced by biliary stricture and prevented by medicine in Guinea pigs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xu; Xiao-Feng Ling; Wan-Hua Zhang; Xiao-Si Zhou

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the relationship between biliary stricture and pigment gallstone formation, and the prevention of pigment gallstones with medicine.METHODS: One hundred and eighteen male guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: stricture group (S, n = 30) underwent partial ligation of common bile duct, and fed on regular chow; S plus medicine group (S+M, n = 27) underwent the same operation but fed on medicinal chow (0.3 g chenodeoxycholic acid, 0.5 g glucurolactone, and 0.5 g aspirin were mixed up in 1.2 kg regular chow); medicinal control group (C+M, n = 30) was free of operation, and fed on medicinal chow; and control group (C, n = 31) was free of operation and fed on regular chow. One week later, laparotomy was performed, and the bile of gallbladder was collected, measured, and cultured.RESULTS: Gallstones were identified. Pigment gallstones were induced by biliary stricture in 95% (22/23) of S group. In the S+M group, the incidence of gallstone was reduced to 55% (11/20, vs S group, P<0.01). The changes of indirect bilirubin and ionized calcium in the bile were consistent with gallstone incidences.CONCLUSION: Biliary stricture can cause pigment gallstone formation in guinea pigs, and the medicines used can lower the incidence of gallstones. The bilirubin and ionized calcium play important roles in pigment gallstone formation.

  10. Gallstone spillage caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There are occasional incidences of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and there have been frequent reports on such a topic in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no reports about spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis. Here, we report the radiologic findings of spilled stones caused by spontaneously perforated hemorrhagic cholecystitis in a 55-year-old man.

  11. The importance of imaging methods in gallstone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available surgical and non-surgical therapy options for treatment of gallstone disease are presented. Conventional cholecystectomy is regarded as standard therapy of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Other modes of therapy may be indicated under certain circumstances, depending on the results of imaging procedures. In this context conventional X-ray examination, oral and intravenous cholecystography, sonography, computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography/cholecystography, and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed, and their influence on therapeutic decisions is explained. (orig.)

  12. Low serum levels of ghrelin are associated with gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Martha H Ramos; Héctor A Baptista-González; Misael Uribe; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Luisa Bermejo-Martínez; Antonio R Villa; Norberto C Chávez-Tapia; Daniel Zamora-Valdés; Raúl Pichardo-Bahena; Blanca Barredo-Prieto; Martha H Uribe-Ramos

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of ghrelin in gallstone disease.METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 150 subjects, 38 with gallstones (cases) and 112 controls. We also did a real-time PCR-RT study in twenty gallbladder samples each. Body mass index (BMI),serum insulin, ghrelin, and serum lipids were measured.Logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariate) were conducted to estimate the probability of gallstone disease associated with serum ghrelin concentrations.RESULTS: Cases were statistically different from controls in gender distribution (P = 0.01), age (53 vs 44 yr, P = 0.002), BMI (28 vs 25; P = 0.004), and glucose (5.26 vs 4.98 mmol/L; P = 0.05). The prevalence of ghrelin serum levels above the third tercile was lower in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model, we found a protective effect, when ghrelin values were higher than the median value (OR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.09-0.82, P = 0.02). Twenty (20%) gallbladder specimens expressed ghrelin mRNA.CONCLUSION: Serum ghrelin concentrations are associated with a protective effect of GD.

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves gastrointestinal motility defects in gallstone patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Colecchia; G Mazzella; L Sandri; F Azzaroli; M Magliuolo; P Simoni; ML Bacchi-Reggiani; E Roda; D Festi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To simultaneously evaluate the presence of defects in gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as in intestinal transit in gallstone patients (GS) and the effect of chronic ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) administration on these parameters and on serum bile acids and clinical outcome in GS and controls (CTR).METHODS: After a standard liquid test meal, gallbladder and gastric emptying (by ultrasound), oroileal transit time (OI∏) (by an immunoenzymatic technique)and serum bile acids (by HPLC) were evaluated before and after 3 mo of UDCA (12 mg/kg bw/d) or placebo administration in 10 symptomatic GS and 10 matched healthy CTR.RESULTS: OI∏ was longer in GS than in CTR (P <0.0001); UDCA significantly reduced OI∏ in GS (P <0.0001), but not in CTR. GS had longer gastric halfemptying time (t1/2) than CTR (P < 0.0044) at baseline;after UDCA, t1/2 significantly decreased (P < 0.006) in GS but not in CTR. Placebo administration had no effect on gastric emptying and intestinal transit in both GS and CTR.CONCLUSION: The gallstone patient has simultaneous multiple impairments of gallbladder and gastric emptying, as well as of intestinal transit. UDCA administration restores these defects in GS, without any effect in CTR. These results confirm the pathogenetic role of gastrointestinal motility in gallstone disease and suggest an additional mechanism of action for UDCA in reducing bile cholesterol supersaturation.

  14. Characteristics of mRNA levels of hepatic key enzymes in cholesterol metabolism of genetically gallstone-susceptible mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力

    2004-01-01

    @@ Our previous study1 indicated that biliary cholesterol hypersecretion was the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation. Lith genes determine biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice.

  15. Management and outcome of recurrent gallstone ileus:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shovkat; Ahmad; Mir; Zeiad; Hussain; Christine; Ann; Davey; Glenn; Vincent; Miller; Srinivas; Chintapatla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To help the surgeon in decision making whentreating a patient with recurrent gallstone ileus(RGSI). METHODS: A systematic review related to RGSI was performed using the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE via Pub Med from May 1912 to April 2015. All languages were included and the grey literature was also searched. The abstracts were explored for relevance to the topic and full texts obtained as appropriate. A manual search was carried out by scrutinising the reference lists of all the full text articles and further articles were identified and obtained. Total of 903 articles were identified, 656 were excluded after abstract review, 247 full text articles were reviewed and 91 articles selected for final analysis. There were 113 cases of RGSI. RESULTS: There were 113 cases of RGSI reported in 91 articles. The majority of the recurrences, 62.6%, occurred within 6 wk of the index event. The male to female ratio was 1:7. The mean age was 69.6 years(SD 11.2) with a range of 38-95 years. The small bowel was the commonest site of impaction(92.2%). Treatment data was available for 104 patients. The two main operations performed were:(1) Enterolithotomy without repair of biliary fistula in 70.1% of all patients with a procedural mortality rate of 16.4%(12/73) and(2) a single stage surgery approach involving enterolithotomy with cholecystectomy and repair of the biliary enteric fistula in 16.3% with a procedural mortality of 11.7%(2/17). A subset analysis over last 25 years showed mortality from eneterolithotomy was 4.8% while single stage mortality was 22.2%. Enterolithotomy alone was the commonest operation performed for RGSI with four patients(5.4%) having a further recurrence of gallstone ileus. CONCLUSION: Enterolithotomy alone or followed by a delayed two-stage treatment approach is the preferred choice offering low mortality and reduced risk of recurrence.

  16. Evaluation the susceptibility of five polymorphisms in microRNA-binding sites to female breast cancer risk in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bang-Shun; Pan, Yu-Qin; Lin, Kang; Ying, Hou-Qun; Wang, Feng; Deng, Qi-Wen; Sun, Hui-Ling; Gao, Tian-Yi; Wang, Shu-Kui

    2015-11-15

    Polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) binding site have been widely discussed to be associated with cancer risk; however, the associations were unclear in Chinese population. To investigate the associations of five polymorphisms (rs11097457, rs1434536, rs1970801, rs1044129, rs11169571) in miRNA binding sites with breast cancer risk, a total of 435 female patients with breast cancer and 439 age- and gender-matched tumor-free individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Sequenom MassARRAY was applied to detect the polymorphisms, and the immunohistochemistry assay was used to measure the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and CerbB-2. The data showed that these polymorphisms were not associated with breast cancer risk or clinical characters of breast cancer in all participants and sub-group with the exception that, in the sub-group of women with their first menstruation after 14 years old, those who carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk. In short, this case-control study provided the evidence that women with their first menstruation after 14 years old and carried rs1970801 T allele (genotype TT/GT) were associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  17. [Gas-containing gallstones: value of the "Mercedes-Benz" sign at CT examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabrousse, E; Bartholomot, B; Narboux, Y; Barrali, E; Chirouze, C; Kastler, B

    2000-11-01

    Gas-containing gallstones are well-known in vitro. The typical triradiate arrangement of fissures filled with gas, first described on abdominal plain films, was named by Meyers the "Mercedes-Benz" sign. This sign is absent of the recent literature. We report a case where gas was the only CT sign suggesting the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder. PMID:11104980

  18. Extreme Bilirubin Levels as a Causal Risk Factor for Symptomatic Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2013-01-01

    In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease.......In individuals without blockage of their bile ducts, levels of plasma bilirubin likely reflect levels of biliary bilirubin; higher biliary bilirubin levels may increase the risk of gallstone disease....

  19. Ultrasonographic assessment of gallbladder bile exchanges in healthy subjects and in gallstone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, M; Guarino, M P; Vavassori, P; Alloni, R; Emerenziani, S; Arullani, A; Pallone, F

    2001-11-01

    Impaired gallbladder motility may contribute to gallstone pathogenesis by providing time for nucleation and aggregation of cholesterol crystals. Simultaneous scintigraphic-ultrasonographic techniques have been proposed to assess alternating phases of gallbladder emptying and filling. To evaluate patterns of gallbladder motility and of postprandial bile flow by means of a single ultrasonographic technique, 12 healthy volunteers and 20 gallstone patients underwent minute-by-minute gallbladder ultrasonography for 3 h postprandially. Mathematical analysis of volume measurements was used to estimate hepatic and cholecystic bile flux through the gallbladder. Compared to controls, gallstone patients showed greater amounts of unexchanged cholecystic-to-hepatic bile (11% vs. 1%, p scintigraphic-sonographic studies in comparable groups of subjects. This study provides new ultrasonographic variables, which better express gallbladder bile retention in gallstone patients and strongly discriminate gallstone patients from controls. PMID:11750742

  20. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neng; Xia, Xianghou; Han, Shufen; Wang, Guiping; Zhang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk) for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  1. Effects of 8-Week Hatha Yoga Training on Metabolic and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy, Female Chinese Subjects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of an 8 wk Hatha yoga training on blood glucose, insulin, lipid profiles, endothelial microparticles (EMPs, and inflammatory status in healthy, lean, and female Chinese subjects. A total of 30 healthy, female Chinese subjects were recruited and randomized into control or yoga practice group. The yoga practice included 8 wks of yoga practice (2 times/wk for a total of 16 times. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after yoga training. Plasma was isolated for the measurement of lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, EMPs, and inflammatory cytokines. Whole blood was cultured ex vivo and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Pam3Cys-SK4. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated for the measurement of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression. Yoga practice significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin levels, and CD31+/CD42b− EMPs. Cultured whole blood from the yoga group has reduced proinflammatory cytokines secretion both at unstimulated condition and when stimulated with Pam3Cys-SK4; this might be associated with reduced TLR2 protein expression in PBMCs after yoga training. Hatha yoga practice in healthy Chinese female subjects could improve hallmarks related to MetS; thus it can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the primary MetS prevention for the healthy population. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-14005747.

  2. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by a distal gallstone ileus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rasim Gencosmanoglu; Resit Inceoglu; Caglar Baysal; Sertac Akansel; Nurdan Tozun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a large gallstone migrated through a cholecystoduodenal fistula has been referred as Bouveret's syndrome. Endoscopic lithotomy is the first-step treatment,however, surgery is indicated in case of failure or complication during this procedure.METHODS: We report herein an 84-year-old woman presenting with features of gastric outlet obstruction due to impacted gallstone. She underwent an endoscopic retrieval which was unsuccessful and was further complicated by distal gallstone ileus. Physical examination was irrelevant.RESULTS: Endoscopy revealed multiple erosions around the cardia, a large stone in the second part of the duodenum causing complete obstruction, and wide ulceration in the duodenal wall where the stone was impacted. Several attempts of endoscopic extraction by using foreign body forceps failed and surgical intervention was mandatory. Preoperative ultrasound evidenced pneumobilia whilst computerized tomography showed a large stone, 5 cm×4 cm×3 cm, loggingat the proximal jejunum and another one, 2.5 cm×2 cm×2 cm,in the duodenal bulb causing a closed-loop syndrome. She underwent laparotomy and the jejunal stone was removed by enterotomy. Another stone reported as located in the duodenum preoperatively was found to be present in the gallbladder by intraoperative ultrasound. Therefore,cholecystoduodenal fistula was broken down, the stone was retrieved and cholecystectomy with duodenal repair was carried out. She was discharged after an uneventful postoperative course.CONCLUSION: As the simplest and the least morbid procedure, endoscopic stone retrieval should be attempted in the treatment of patients with Bouveret's syndrome.When it fails, surgical lithotomy consisting of simple enterotomy may solve the problem. Although cholecystectomy and cholecystoduodenal fistula breakdown is unnecessary in every case, conditions may urge the surgeon to perform such operations even though they carry high

  3. Value of CT in the diagnosis and management of gallstone ileus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih-Yung Yu; Cheng-Yu Chen; Chang-Chyi Lin; Rong-Yaun Shyu; Chung-Bao Hsieh; Hurng-Sheng Wu; Yeu-Sheng Tyan; Jen-I Hwang; Chang-Hsien Liou; Wei-Chou Chang

    2005-01-01

    IM: To retrospectively establish the diagnostic criteria of gallstone ileus on CT, and to prospectively apply these criteria to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CT to confirm or exclude gallstone ileus in patients who presented with acute small bowel obstruction (SBO). Another purposewas to ascertain whether the size of ecctopic gallstones would affect treatment strategy.METHODS: Fourteen CT scans in cases of proved gallstone ileus were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists for the presence or absence of previously reported CT findings to establish the diagnostic criteria. These criteria were applied in a prospective contrast enhanced CT study of 165 patients with acute SBO, which included those 14 cases of gallstone ileus. The hard copy images of 165 CT studies were reviewed by a different group of two radiologists but without previous knowledge of the patient's final diagnosis. All CT data were further analyzed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of gallstone ileus when using CT in prospective evaluation of acute SBO. The size of ectopic gallstone on CT was correlated with the clinical course.RESULTS: The diagnostic criteria of gallstone ileus on CT were established retrospectively, which included: (1) SBO; (2) ectopic gallstone; either rim-calcified or total-calcified; (3) abnormal gall bladder with complete air collection, presence of air-fluid level, or fluid accumulation with irregular wall. Prospectively, CT confirmed the diagnosis in 13 cases of gallstone ileus with these three criteria. Only one false negative case could be identified. The remaining 151 patients are true negative cases and no false positive case could be disclosed. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of CT in diagnosing gallstone ileus were 93%, 100%; and 99%, respectively. Surgical exploration was performed in 13 patients of gallstone ileus with ectopic stones sized larger than 3 cm. One patient recovered uneventfully following conservative treatment with an

  4. Impaired gallbladder motility and delayed orocecal transit contribute to pigment gallstone and biliary sludge formation in β-thalassemia major adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piero Portincasa; Giuseppe Palasciano; Antonio Moschetta; Massimo Berardino; Agostino Di Ciaula; Michele Vacca; Giuseppe Baldassarre; Anna Pietrapertosa; Rosario Cammarota; Nunzia Tannoia

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility defects exist in gallstones patients and to a lesser extent in pigment gallstone patients. To investigated the role of gallbladder and gastrointestinal motility disorders in pigment gallstone formation in β-thalassemia major.METHODS: Twenty-three patients with β-thalassemia major (16 females; age range 18-37 years) and 70 controls (47 females, age range 18-40 years) were studied for gallbladder and gastric emptying (functional ultrasonography),orocecal transit (OCTT, H2-breath test), autonomic dysfunction (sweat-spot, cardiorespiratory reflex tests),bowel habits, gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life (all with questionnaires). Gallbladder content (ultrasonography)was examined before and during 8-12 mo follow-up.RESULTS: Gallstones and/or biliary sludge were found in 13 (56%) patients. β-thalassemia major patients had increased fasting (38.0±4.8 mL vs20,3±0.7 mL, P= 0.0001)and residual (7.9±1.3 mL vs5.1±0.3 mL, P= 0.002) volume and slightly slower emptying (24.9±1.7 min vs20.1±0.7 min,P = 0.04) of the gallbladder, together with longer OCTT (132.2±7.8 min vs99.7±2.3 min, P= 0.00003) than controls.No differences in gastric emptying and bowel habits were found. Also, patients had higher dyspepsia (score: 6.7±1.2vs 4.9±0.2, P = 0.027), greater appetite (P = 0.000004)and lower health perception (P = 0.00002) than controls.Autonomic dysfunction was diagnosed in 52% of patients (positive tests: 76.2% and 66.7% for parasympathetic and sympathetic involvement, respectively). Patients developing sludge during follow-up (38%, 2 with prior stones) had increased fasting and residual gallbladder volume.CONCLUSION: Adult β-thalassemia major patients have gallbladder dysmotility associated with delayed small intestinal transit and autonomic dysfunction. These abnormalities apparently contribute together with haemolytic hyperbilirubinemia to the pathogenesis of pigment gallstones/sludge in β-thalassemia major.

  5. The role of oral contraceptive (OCP use in symptomatic gallstone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimian SF

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the relation between oral contraceptive (OCPs use, body mass index, parity, familial history of gallstone disease, history of diabetes, history of hyperlipidemia and gallstone disease in women, we have undertaken a case-control study. The study population comparison 80 hospital patients with diagnosed acute gallstone disease as case group and 200 controls who were patients in hospital with no history of gallstone disease. The data were analyzed by Chi-square and T-student test. The results revealed that: The use of OCPs in case group is higher than that of control group. But there is no significant difference between them. No relation was found between gallstone disease and body mass index, parity, history of diabetes, familial history of gallstone disease, use of OCPs of different types and duration of use. While there was a significant difference between the 2 groups regarding history of hyperlipidemia (P<0.05. Finally we found no correlation between the history of use, types and duration of use of OCPs and symptomatic gallstone disease. There was no indication of any interaction between oral contraceptive use and other risk factors and duration of OCP use and other risk factors in the production of disease.

  6. Preventing a Mass Disease: The Case of Gallstones Disease: Role and Competence for Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone formation is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors. We searched and reviewed the available literature to define how the primary prevention of gallstones (cholesterol gallstones in particular) could be applied in general practice. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case–controlled studies were analyzed and graded for evidence quality. The epidemiological data confirmed that genetic factors are estimated to account for only approximately 25% of the overall risk of gallstones, while metabolic/environmental factors are at least partially modifiable in stone-free risk groups, and are thus modifiable by primary prevention measures related to diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors (i.e., rapid weight loss, bariatric surgery, somatostatin or analogues therapy, transient gallbladder stasis, and hormone therapy). There is no specific recommendation for the secondary prevention of recurrent gallstones. Family physicians can contribute to preventing gallstones due to their capability to identify and effectively manage several risk factors discussed in this study. Although further studies are needed to better elucidate the involvement of epigenetic factors that may regulate the effect of environment and lifestyle on gene expression in the primary prevention of gallstone formation, preventive interventions are feasible and advisable in the general practice setting. PMID:27468338

  7. Preventing a Mass Disease: The Case of Gallstones Disease: Role and Competence for Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portincasa, Piero; Di Ciaula, Agostino; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2016-07-01

    Gallstone formation is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors. We searched and reviewed the available literature to define how the primary prevention of gallstones (cholesterol gallstones in particular) could be applied in general practice. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies and case-controlled studies were analyzed and graded for evidence quality. The epidemiological data confirmed that genetic factors are estimated to account for only approximately 25% of the overall risk of gallstones, while metabolic/environmental factors are at least partially modifiable in stone-free risk groups, and are thus modifiable by primary prevention measures related to diet, lifestyle, and environmental factors (i.e., rapid weight loss, bariatric surgery, somatostatin or analogues therapy, transient gallbladder stasis, and hormone therapy). There is no specific recommendation for the secondary prevention of recurrent gallstones. Family physicians can contribute to preventing gallstones due to their capability to identify and effectively manage several risk factors discussed in this study. Although further studies are needed to better elucidate the involvement of epigenetic factors that may regulate the effect of environment and lifestyle on gene expression in the primary prevention of gallstone formation, preventive interventions are feasible and advisable in the general practice setting. PMID:27468338

  8. Stratification of gallstone fragments: the key to more effective fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, J T; Laufer, I; Wisniewski, F; Malet, P F

    1992-04-01

    During previous experiments with in vitro fragmentation in a simulated gallbladder, we noticed that stone fragments tended to stratify with the dust and smaller fragments settled to the dependent portion, while the larger fragments settled on top. We reviewed the oral cholecystogram (OCG) of 10 patients examined 6 months following gallstone lithotripsy. In all cases with adequate visualization of stone fragments, the stratification phenomenon was observed. We hypothesized that adjusting the shock wave focus to target on these large fragments would improve the efficiency of fragmentation. To test this hypothesis, we fragmented three matched pairs of gallstones in vitro. For each pair, the stones were removed from the same gallbladder and the stone weights of the two stones were within 10%. The smaller member of each pair was fragmented using the "old method" with the focus on the fragment line. The larger stone was fragmented with the "new method" with the focus in the acoustic shadow deep to the echogenic line caused by the dust and small fragments in the dependent portion. The distribution of fragments was analyzed by passing the fragments through a series of filters. With the new method of targeting, the proportion of fragments less than 1.5 mm was doubled while the fragments greater than 5 mm were eliminated. The new method of targeting, taking into account the stratification of stone fragments, produces more effective fragmentation and should lead to more rapid clearance of fragments from the gallbladder. PMID:10149180

  9. Íleo biliar: enterolitotomia videoassistida Gallstone ileus: videoassisted enterolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Queiroz de Godoy

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment, morbidity and mortality of patients with gallstone ileus depend on an accurate diagnosis made in time, and also on a more adequate therapeutic option.A detailed clinical evaluation is fundamental for such diagnosis. Complementary exams like a simple radiological study of the abdomen, high and low endoscopies, an ultrasonography, and a tomography can also be performed. The therapeutic options include the removal of the obstructive factor separately, the performance of a treatment in two separate stages, or the performance of a complete treatment (removal of the calculus, cholecystectomy, and the closing of the fistula.This study aims to present a case report of an elderly man of high surgical risk, presenting gallstone ileus. He was submitted to an isolated videoassisted enterolithotomy through a minilaparotomy. Taking into consideration the patient’s advanced age and the lack of evidence as to other biliary associated pathologies, the chosen treatment seemed to be a good alternative. The evolution was good, and after an 8 month follow-up the patient was found well and with no biliary symptoms whatsoever.

  10. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  11. Gonad maturity in female Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis from the southern Baltic Sea – the first description of ovigerous females and the embryo developmental stage

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    Dagmara Wójcik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes for the first time the gonad maturity stage of Eriocheir sinensis females (carapace width 55.20–78.10 mm collected in the autumns and winters of 2005–2012 in the Gulf of Gdańsk and Vistula Lagoon (southern Baltic Sea. Seventeen females had gonads in the penultimate stage, which indicates that spawning would shortly take place. Four other females had gonads in the last stage, which means they were already carrying eggs. These accounted, on average, for 17.9 ± 2.9% of female weight and were in the 3rd and 4th embryo developmental stage. The results show that the low salinity of southern Baltic Sea (≤ 7 PSU permits mating and fertilization as well as embryo development in E. sinensis. It is still not clear, whether such a salinity level will enable hatching and the complete larval cycle.

  12. Increased susceptibility to diet-induced gallstones in liver fatty acid binding protein knockout mices⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yan; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Kennedy, Susan M; Luo, Jianyang; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait mapping identified a locus colocalizing with L-Fabp, encoding liver fatty acid binding protein, as a positional candidate for murine gallstone susceptibility. When fed a lithogenic diet (LD) for 2 weeks, L-Fabp−/− mice became hypercholesterolemic with increased hepatic VLDL cholesterol secretion. Seventy-five percent of L-Fabp−/− mice developed solid gallstones compared with 6% of wild-type mice with an increased gallstone score (3.29 versus 0.62, respectively; P < 0.01). H...

  13. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2009-01-01

    measured in patients having their first attack of either alcohol- or gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive patients were prospectively included over a 15-month period, sixty of them being either alcohol- or gallstone-induced. All patients were treated according...... to a standardized algorithm. Blood samples were obtained immediately on admission and, again, at days 1, 2, and 14. RESULTS: A significant effect of the etiology on the levels of IL-8 in the alcohol group as compared to the gallstone group (P=0.003) was found. No etiologic differences were observed for IL-6, IL-18...

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS ON THE ARSENIC CONTENT IN GALLSTONES OF INHABITANTS FROM SOUTHERN POLAND

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    Jerzy Kwapulińki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out on the changes in arsenic content in concretions of gallstones which were taken from 93 women (33 smoking and 60 no smoking and 40 men (14 smoking and 26 no smoking, respectively. The elemental composition of gallstones was determined with ICP-AES method (Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Studies on arsenic occurrence in concretions of gallstones showed the presence of its higher concentrations in case of women (0,55 µg/g in comparison with men (0,50 µg/g. It was shown a differences in pattern of changes of arsenic concentration in gallstones in case of influence of behaviour factors (age, place of living, education, diet, coffee and alcohol consumption, smoking, obesity.

  15. Gallstone ileus obstructing within an incarcerated lumbar hernia: an unusual presentation of a rare diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziesmann, Markus Tyler; Alotaiby, Nouf; Al Abbasi, Thamer; Rezende-Neto, Joao B

    2014-12-03

    We describe an unusual case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with signs and symptoms of small-bowel obstruction and a clinically appreciable, irreducible, left-sided lumbar hernia associated with previous iliac crest bone graft harvesting. Palpation of the hernia demonstrated a small, firm mass within the loops of herniated bowel. CT scanning recognised an intraluminal gallstone at the transition point, establishing the diagnosis of gallstone ileus within an incarcerated lumbar hernia. The proposed explanatory mechanism is that of a gallstone migrating into an easily reducible hernia containing small bowel causing obstruction at the hernia neck by a ball-valve mechanism, resulting in proximal bowel dilation and thus hernia incarceration; it remains unclear when the stone entered the hernia, and whether it enlarged in situ or prior to entering the enteral tract. This is only the second reported instance in the literature of an intraluminal gallstone causing hernia incarceration.

  16. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2014-01-01

    disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...... variation in ABCG5/8, which associates with decreased levels of plasma LDL cholesterol protects against MI, but increases the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. These results suggest that MI and gallstones, 2 seemingly unrelated diseases, are intrinsically linked via the function of the ABCG5...

  17. Prevalence of gallstones and risk factors in Caucasian women in a rural Canadian community.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C. N.; Johnston, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease was studied in a rural Caucasian population. All the women aged 15 to 50 years were asked to complete a questionnaire, undergo cholecystography and keep a food record for 4 consecutive days. The gallbladder status was assessed in 73%. The prevalence of gallstones in this population, 167/1000, was considerably higher than that reported in the Framingham study (59/1000) but was not significantly different from that recently found in Micmac In...

  18. Hepatic Mttp deletion reverses gallstone susceptibility in L-Fabp knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Yan; Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Newberry, Elizabeth P.; Kennedy, Susan,; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that L-Fabp KO mice are more susceptible to lithogenic diet (LD)-induced gallstones because of altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism and increased canalicular cholesterol secretion. Other studies demonstrated that liver-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-LKO) reduced LD-induced gallstone formation by increasing biliary phospholipid secretion. Here we show that mice with combined deletion (i.e., DKO mice) are protected from LD-ind...

  19. Progress in the study on the composition and formation mechanism of gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Our serial studies from 1970s on chemical composition, structure determination and formation mechanism of gallstones were reviewed. The chemical component investigation of brown-pigment gallstone demonstrated that it consists of macromolecules such as proteins, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, bilirubin polymers and pigment polymers, and biomolecules such as cholesterol, bile salts, calcium salts of carbonate, phosphate, fatty acids and bilirubinate as well as various metal ions. The binding of metal ions with bile salts and bilirubin plays important roles in gallstone formation, i.e., calcium bilirubinate complex is the major constitute of brown-pigment gallstones, and copper bilirubinate complex is critical in the black color appearance of black-pigment gallstone. The cross section of many gallstones exhibits a concentric ring structure composed of various small particles with a fractal character. This is nonlinear phenomenon in gallstone formation. A typical model system of metal ions-deoxycholate (or cholate)-gel was chosen to mimic an in vitro pattern formation system. The experimental results suggested that a nonlinear scientific concept should be considered in understanding gallstone formation. Minor changes in the chemical composition and/or the microenvironment may lead to very different precipitate patterns with a variety of shapes, colors, appearances, and structures. A new model was suggested that periodical templets of periodical and fractal patterns were formed in the initial stage, then the spatio-temporal patterns grew gradually on it. Furthermore, the interaction between divalent metal ions and bile salts in vitro was investigated, and the results indicated that non-stoichiometric M(DC)2-NaDC mixed complexes with mixed micelles structure can be formed in physiological condition.

  20. Relation of cholesterol metabolism to pediatric gallstone disease: a retrospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko; Gylling, Helena; Nissinen, Markku J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholesterol metabolism may be involved in pediatric gallstone disease. We aimed to reveal cholesterol metabolites and phytosterols and their relation to stone composition of sterols in children having black pigment and cholesterol stones. Methods We performed retrospective controlled clinical study, in which we examined parameters of cholesterol metabolism and liver function values in serum (n = 28) and gallstones (n = 46) of consecutively cholecystectomized children. Serum values ...

  1. Effects of dietary cholesterol on cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis in patients with cholesterol gallstones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, F

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism produced by dietary cholesterol in gallstone subjects and matched controls. Healthy women were recruited and, after confirming the presence or absence of radiolucent gallstones, they were studied on regular diets and again on the same diet supplemented with five eggs daily for 15-18 d. Studies included plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, dietary records, cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, plasma clearance of ...

  2. High level of deoxycholic acid in human bile does not promote cholesterol gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulf Gustafsson; Staffan Sahlin; Curt Einarsson

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study whether patients with excess deoxycholic acid (DCA) differ from those with normal percentage of DCA with respect to biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation of gallbladder bile.METHODS: Bile was collected during operation through puncturing into the gallbladder from 122 cholesterol gallstone patients and 46 gallstone-free subjects undergoing cholecystectomy. Clinical data, biliary lipids, bile acid composition,presence of crystals and nucleation time were analyzed.RESULTS: A subgroup of gallstone patients displayeda higher proportion of DCA in bile than gallstone free subjects.By choosing a cut-off level of the 90th percentile, a group of 13 gallstone patients with high DCA levels (mean 50percent of total bile acids) and a large group of 109 patients with normal DCA levels (mean 21 percent of total bile acids)were obtained. The mean age of the patients with high DCA levels was higher than that of the group with normal levels (mean age: 62 years vs45 years) and so was the mean BMI (28.3 vs. 24.7). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were slightly higher in the DCA excess groups compared with those in the normal DCA group. There was no difference in biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals in bile between patients with high and normal levels of DCA.CONCLUSION: Gallstone patients with excess DCA were of older age and had higher BMI than patients with normal DCA. The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals. It is concluded that DCA in bile does not seem to contribute to gallstone formation in cholesterol gallstone patients.

  3. New attempts using computed tomography in determining indication of gallstone dissolution therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuki, K.

    1987-03-01

    Subjects for this study were 32 patients who had radiolucent stones in the gallbladder disclosed by conventional cholecystography. In all 12 patients with complete or partial dissolution of gallstones by gallstone dissolution therapy, the gallstone features on the CT scan were shown as an iso-density or a low-density in contrast to the bile, whereas, in 20 unresponsive patients, they were shown as shells of high-density in 9 out of 20 patients, and as a high-density in contrast to the bile in 7 out of 20 patients. If the gallstones contained 1.0 to 4.0 % of calcium, the calcification could not be detected by conventional radiographic examinations, but could be clearly detected by CT examinations. In the present study, we concluded that the patients with gallstones containing more than 1 % of calcium were not suitable for dissolution therapy and that CT examinations were very useful for deciding about using dissolution therapy of the gallstones.

  4. Thyroid dysfunction, either hyper or hypothyroidism, promotes gallstone formation by different mechanisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Xing; Zhao, Qun-zi; Zheng, Shu; Qing, Wen-jie; Miao, Chun-di; Sanjay, Jaiswal

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated comprehensively the effects of thyroid function on gallstone formation in a mouse model. Gonadectomized gallstone-susceptible male C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into three groups each of which received an intervention to induce hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism. After 5 weeks of feeding a lithogenic diet of 15% (w/w) butter fat, 1% (w/w) cholesterol, and 0.5% (w/w) cholic acid, mice were killed for further experiments. The incidence of cholesterol monohydrate crystal formation was 100% in mice with hyperthyroidism, 83% in hypothyroidism, and 33% in euthyroidism, the differences being statistically significant. Among the hepatic lithogenic genes, Trβ was found to be up-regulated and Rxr down-regulated in the mice with hypothyroidism. In contrast, Lxrα, Rxr, and Cyp7α1 were up-regulated and Fxr down-regulated in the mice with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction, either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, promotes the formation of cholesterol gallstones in C57BL/6 mice. Gene expression differences suggest that thyroid hormone disturbance leads to gallstone formation in different ways. Hyperthyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by regulating expression of the hepatic nuclear receptor genes such as Lxrα and Rxr, which are significant in cholesterol metabolism pathways. However, hypothyroidism induces cholesterol gallstone formation by promoting cholesterol biosynthesis. PMID:27381728

  5. Gallstone-relatedcomplicationsafterRoux-en-Y gastricbypass:aprospectivestudy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachid G Nagem; Alcino Lázaro-da-Silva

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric  bypass  is  a  widespread  bariatric procedure that carries a high incidence of gallstone formation postoperatively. Controversy exists regarding the importance and consequences of gallstones in these patients. There are surgeons  who  consider  gallstone-related  complications after  gastric  bypass  important  enough  to  require  routine removal of the gallbladder during gastric bypass (prophylactic cholecystectomy). However, this can lead to increased costs and risks. This study aimed to identify complications related to cholelithiasis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of 40 morbidly obese patients free of gallbladder disease. The patients underwent open RYGBP at a public hospital in Brazil from February to October 2007. They were followed up clinically and ultrasonographically at 6 months and 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. Of the patients, 38 patients were followed up for 3 years. RESULTS: Eleven  patients  (28.9%)  developed  cholelithiasis, four (10.5%) experienced biliary pain, and 2 suffered from acute  biliary  pancreatitis  (5.3%).  These  patients  had  their gallbladders removed laparoscopically. No patient presented with  acute  cholecystitis,  choledocholithiasis,  or  bile  duct dilation during the follow-up period. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone-related complications after RYGBP were relatively common. Some of these complications, like acute pancreatitis, are known to have potentially severe outcomes. It seems reasonable to perform cholecystectomy

  6. Accuracy of ultrasound and oral cholecystography in assessing the number and size of gallstones: implications for non-surgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, K; Laméris, J S; Nijs, H G; Ginai, A Z; Terpstra, O T

    1992-09-01

    Prior to non-surgical therapy of gallstones it is important to assess their number and size. In order to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound (US) and oral cholecystography (OCG) in counting and measuring gallstones, a prospective blind study was conducted to compare the results of US (n = 99) and OCG (n = 36), either alone or in combination (n = 34), with the number and size of gallstones retrieved after cholecystectomy. The number of gallstones was accurately estimated by US and OCG in 74% and 69% of the cases, respectively. In assessing the presence of up to three, five or 10 gallstones both US and OCG proved reliable. In measuring the size of gallstones, there was 19% accuracy with US compared with only 3% with OCG. With an accepted measurement error of 3 mm these values increased to 80% for US and 44% for OCG. US proved more reliable than OCG in discriminating gallstones smaller or larger than 10 mm and smaller or larger than 20 mm, but with US, detection of gallstones larger than 30 mm was problematic. Both US and OCG underestimated gallstone size. The combination of both techniques did not significantly improve the assessment of either number or size of gallstones compared with the results obtained with US or OCG alone. It is concluded that (1) both US and OCG have some limitations in assessing the number and size of gallstones, (2) the combination of both examinations does not improve accuracy, and (3) patient selection for non-surgical treatment of gallstones can be started by US alone. PMID:1393414

  7. High rate of complicated idiopathic gallstone disease in pediatric patients of a North American tertiary care center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise Herzog; Guylaine Bouchard

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To assess spectrum and etiology of gallstones and biliary sludge in the pediatric population of a North American tertiary care centre.METHODS:Retrospective review of abdominal ultrasounds recorded at Saint Justine Hospital over a period of 24 mo(8/2003 to 8/2005)in patients<19 years of age.Patients<2 years of age were analyzed separately.RESULTS:The presence of gallstones was noted in 127 patients.In 107 it was a new diagnosis,in 48/105 (45.7%)patients>2 years of age idiopathic gallstone disease was found.These 48 patients represent 2.1% of the population who required ultrasound for abdominal pain.Complicated gallstone disease occurred in 28/48 with idiopathic disease,mainly adolescent girls.Patients with hemolytic disorders,cystic fibrosis,oncologic diseases or kidney transplantation and gallstones were asymptomatic and stones were detected during routine abdominal ultrasound.Twenty two patients<2 years of age not consulting for abdominal pain had gallstone disease of diverse etiology.Biliary sludge was seen in 84 patients,78.5% on total parenteral nutrition.In 4 patients,sludge progressed to gallstones.CONCLUSION:Idiopathic gallstone disease and its rate of complication are more frequent in our cohort than expected from previous studies.Adolescent girls with abdominal pain and idiopathic gallstones require special attention for complicated disease course.

  8. A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marks Robert S

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholelithiasis is the gallstone disease (GSD where stones are formed in the gallbladder. The main function of the gallbladder is to concentrate bile by the absorption of water and sodium. GSD has high prevalence among elderly adults. There are three major types of gallstones found in patients, White, Black and Brown. The major chemical component of white stones is cholesterol. Black and brown stones contain different proportions of cholesterol and bilirubin. The pathogenesis of gallstones is not clearly understood. Analysis of the chemical composition of gallstones using various spectroscopic techniques offers clues to the pathogenesis of gallstones. Recent years has seen an increasing trend in the number of cases involving children. The focus of this study is on the analysis of the chemical composition of gallstones from child and adult patients using spectroscopic methods. Methods In this report, we present FTIR spectroscopic studies and fluorescence microscopic analysis of gallstones obtained from 67 adult and 21 child patients. The gallstones were removed during surgical operations at Soroka University Medical Center. Results Our results show that black stones from adults and children are rich in bilirubin. Brown stones are composed of varying amounts of bilirubin and cholesterol. Green stones removed from an adult, which is rare, was found to be composed mainly of cholesterol. Our results also indicated that cholesterol and bilirubin could be the risk factors for gallstone formation in adults and children respectively. Fluorescence micrographs showed that the Ca-bilirubinate was present in all stones in different quantities and however, Cu-bilirubinate was present only in the mixed and black stones. Conclusions Analysis based on FTIR suggest that the composition of black and brown stones from both children and adults are similar. Various layers of the brown stone from adults differ by having varying quantities of

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus-16/18AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in healthy Chinese females aged 15 to 45 years: a phase I trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Cai Zhu; Chang-Gui Li; Hong-Xing Pan; Yi-Ju Zhang; Dan Bi; Hai-Wen Tang; Sanjoy Datta

    2011-01-01

    Globally,about 70% of cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 or HPV-18 infection. A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies in China showed that HPV was present in 98% of cervical cancer samples. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix(R)* has shown a high level of protection against HPV-16/18 infections and associated cervical lesions. This phase I trial (NCT00549900)assessed the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the vaccine in Chinese. Thirty healthy Chinese females, aged 15 to 45 years with a median age of 29.5 years, received three doses of Cervarix(R) in Months 0, 1, and 6. Safety was assessed via recording solicited local and systemic symptoms within 7days and unsolicited symptoms within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious adverse events, new onset of chronic diseases, and other medically significant conditions were recorded throughout this trial. As an exploratory objective, HPV-16/18 antibody titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum samples collected in Months 0 and 7. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported local symptom. Two subjects reported medically significant adverse events. Both cases were assessed as unrelated to vaccination by the investigator. In Month 7, 100% seroconversion was observed for both anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 with high geometric mean antibody titers. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine,evaluated for the first time in Chinese females, was generally well tolerated and immunogenic, as previously shown in global studies.

  10. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones: A comparison of outcomebetween acute and chronic cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is now a common method of treatingsymptomatic gallstones and it is increasingly being requested by the informedgeneral public. Our aim was to evaluate the role of LC for cholelithiasis andto establish its outcome and the effect of gender on the results. BetweenSeptember 1994 and June 99, all patients who underwent LC for cholelithiasiswere retrospectively reviewed. They were classified as having acute orchronic cholecystitis (AC or CC). There were 791 patients with CC (633females, 158 males) and 204 patients with AC (124 females, 80 males).Conversion to open cholecystectomy was needed in 0.76% and 11.8% of thepatients with CC and AC, respectively (P<0.00). Four percent of the femalepatients with AC needed conversion as compared to 23.8% in the males(P<0.00). The low conversion rate in CC limited gender comparison. Medianoperation time in the patients with CC was 53+-16 minutes as compared to74.5+-35.7 minutes in those with AC (P<0.00). Operation time in the malepatients with CC and AC was significantly higher than in the female patients,even after excluding the converted cases (P<0.00). Median postoperative stayfor patients with CC was 1.33+-0.9 days as compared to 1.9+-1.34 days inpatients with AC (P<0.00). No statistical significance in the hospital staywas found between males and females (in CC and AC). There was no mortality inthe series. There were three bile duct injuries in the patients with CC. Inpatients with successful LC, gallbladder perforation occurred in 18% and 31%of CC and AC patients, respectively, (P<0.003). Missed stones occurred in1.4% and 3.3% of the patients with successful LC for CC and AC, respectively.Bile collection, which was treated with open drainage, occurred in fourpatients with CC and one patient with AC. LC for symptomatic cholelithiasisis safe and feasible; it should be the first choice before resorting to opensurgery. In patients with AC as compared to CC, there is an increasedconversion rate

  11. 21世纪以来中国电影女导演创作研究%Female Directors' Chinese Movie Production since the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳晓英

    2012-01-01

    新世纪以来,两岸三地中国电影女导演的创作呈现出非常活跃的态势,老中青几代电影人纷纷推出自己的新作,成为新世纪中国影坛不可忽视的一股创作力量。在新世纪中国电影女导演的影片中,两性形象的塑造有着诸多相似之处,女性力量的张扬、女性气质的挥洒与男性形象的令人失望交相辉映,充分展现出新世纪中国女性自我实现的信心和行动力,她们在不无落寞的独舞中努力绽放仅仅属于女性的精彩。%since the new century, female directors ' Chinese movie production in the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong is very active. The old, middle - aged and young directors promote their recent works in abundance, which has become a dominant force in the movie circle in the new century. In their movies, the male and female images share many similarities, with females' power, unrestrained femininity and disappointing masculinity adding radiance to each other, displaying Chinese women' s confidence in self -fulfillment and momentum, women have held up their sky by bursting their beauty into full bloom in their private world.

  12. Possible relationship between intestinal barrier function and formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Lei Sun; Bei-Bei Fu; Yang Su

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of bacteria in bile is an important factor in the formation of pigment gallstones. The bile of healthy people is sterile and bacteria in the biliary system come from endogenous infection from the gut. Yet, the route of bacterial translocation into the bile duct is still unclear. Theoretically, two routes exist:one is through the intestinal barrier and the other is by direct relfux from the sphincter of Oddi. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between the effectiveness of intestinal barrier and the formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters. METHODS: Thirty-two hamsters were divided into an experimental and a control group, with 16 hamsters in each group. A low protein and high cellulose diet was given for 6 weeks to induce the formation of pigment gallstones in the experimental group (PS) and a normal diet was given to the control group (CON). Morphological changes, changes in the levels of serum endotoxin and diamine oxidase, and changes in the numbers of B lymphocytes, plasma cells and secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA) in the intestinal mucosa were assessed after 6 weeks. RESULTS:Four hamsters died during lithogenesis and body weight decreased in the PS group. Pigment gallstones were found in 11 hamsters at the end of the experiment, giving a lithogenesis rate of 91.67%. The serum endotoxin level before and after gallstone formation in the PS group was 0.2960±0.1734 U/ml and 8.2964±4.6268 U/ml, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS:A low protein and high cellulose diet can markedly reduce intestinal barrier function and facilitate the formation of pigment gallstones. The decrease of intestinal barrier function may take part in the formation of pigment gallstones.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of gallstone disease in an Iranian population:a study on cadavers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esmaail Farzaneh; Hassan Toifghi Zavvareh; Jaber Gharadaghi; Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The prevalence of gallstones is low in Asians. In Iran, many factors inlfuence the prevalence of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallbladder stones and their chemical characteristics in a population by the study of cadavers. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, autopsies were performed on 253 cadavers of more than 13 years old. The cadavers were studied to determine the number, location of stone formation, chemical composition, dry weight, and mean diameter of stones in the gallbladder and common bile duct. RESULTS:The prevalence of gallstone disease in these cadavers was 6.3% (men 4.7%, women 8.6%, not signiifcantly different, P=0.216). There was a positive relationship between the age and prevalence of gallstone disease (P=0.033). The most common stone compositions were cholesterol and oxalate. The mean diameter (P=0.0058) and dry weight (P CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of gallstones differed among age groups. Diameter and dry weight of gallstones were dependent on location of stone formation and chemical composition.

  14. Hepatic Mttp deletion reverses gallstone susceptibility in L-Fabp knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Fung, Ho Yee Joyce; Newberry, Elizabeth P; Kennedy, Susan; Luo, Jianyang; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Davidson, Nicholas O

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that L-Fabp KO mice are more susceptible to lithogenic diet (LD)-induced gallstones because of altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism and increased canalicular cholesterol secretion. Other studies demonstrated that liver-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-LKO) reduced LD-induced gallstone formation by increasing biliary phospholipid secretion. Here we show that mice with combined deletion (i.e., DKO mice) are protected from LD-induced gallstone formation. Following 2 weeks of LD feeding, 73% of WT and 100% of L-Fabp KO mice developed gallstones versus 18% of Mttp-LKO and 23% of DKO mice. This phenotype was recapitulated in both WT and L-Fabp KO mice treated with an Mttp antisense oligonucleotide (M-ASO). Biliary cholesterol secretion was increased in LD-fed L-Fabp KO mice and decreased in DKO mice. However, phospholipid secretion was unchanged in LD-fed Mttp-LKO and DKO mice as well as in M-ASO-treated mice. Expression of the canalicular export pump ABCG5/G8 was reduced in LD-fed DKO mice and in M-ASO-treated L-Fabp KO mice. We conclude that liver-specific Mttp deletion not only eliminates apical lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes but also attenuates canalicular cholesterol secretion, which in turn decreases LD-induced gallstone susceptibility.

  15. A study on the choice of treatment for gallstones by ultrasonography and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Yoji; Takeguchi, Toichiro; Sagawa, Hirohumi; Shimamura, Teruomi (Amakusa Central Hospital, Hondo, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1992-03-01

    In 183 patients with gallstones we compared the chemical composition with the ultrasonographic patterns and CT values of gallstones; the gallbladder (GB) contraction by yolk stimulation and the degree of inflammation with the thickness of GB wall measured by ultrasonography (US), and investigated the treatment for gallstones. According to the Tsuchiya's ultrasonographic classification, in stones larger than 10 mm in diameter, type I and II indicated cholesterol stones and type III did calcium bilirubinate stones or black stones; in smaller than 10 mm in diameter, the accumulated type without an acoustic shadow showed black stones. Although the diagnosis of chemical composition was insufficient by US. On the other hand, CT values closely reflected chemical composition. Gallstones with CT values less than 80 consisted of cholesterol, ones more than 80 and less than 200 consisted of bilirubine calcium, ones more than 200 showed that they contained more than 5 percent calcium carbonate and were positive in abdominal X-ray examination. Cases of less than 3 mm thickness of GB wall by US had a good GB contraction and a slight inflammation in GB wall; more than 5 mm had a poor contraction and a severe inflammation. In conclusion, chemical composition of gallstones, GB contraction and pathology of GB wall were able to be estimated by US and CT, and it should be helpful for the clinical choice of surgical or nonsurgical treatment such as bile acid resolution, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy and cholecystectomy under laparotomy. (author).

  16. Spontaneous Cholecystocutaneous Fistula: A Rare Presentation of Gallstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Sayed

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula, one of the rarest complications of acute cholecystitis, has been reported in fewer than 25 cases over the past 50 years. Not only is this case rare but interestingly the patient experienced no pain or symptoms consistent with gallbladder pathology leading up to her hospitalisation. Furthermore, laboratory studies, microbiology and computed tomography scanning did not establish a diagnosis until the fistula passed calculi.An 85-year-old lady with multiple co-morbidities presented to the Emergency Department with an erythematous soft and non-tender mass in her right flank. The mass had spontaneously ruptured and was discharging a serous-like material. Prior to further investigation a working diagnosis of an eroding/fungating caecal tumour was made. The lesion continued to discharge over a 3 month period which heralded the passage of 11 small, brown calculi thought to be gallstones. At this point spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula was diagnosed and was later confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging cholangiopancreatography.

  17. Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease and Infection with Opisthorchis felineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, Irina V.; Petrov, Vjacheslav A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Ivanova, Polina G.; Merzlikin, Nikolay V.; Sazonov, Alexey E.; Ogorodova, Ludmila M.; Brindley, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum, bile from participants with opisthorchiasis showed greater numbers of Synergistetes, Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, TM7 and Verrucomicrobia. Numbers of > 20 phylotypes differed in bile of the O. felineus-infected compared to non-infected participants, including presence of species of the genera Mycoplana, Cellulosimicrobium, Microlunatus and Phycicoccus, and the Archaeans genus, Halogeometricum, and increased numbers of Selenomonas, Bacteroides, Rothia, Leptotrichia, Lactobacillus, Treponema and Klebsiella. Conclusions/Significance Overall, infection with the liver fluke O. felineus modified the biliary microbiome, increasing abundance of bacterial and archaeal phylotypes. PMID:27447938

  18. Relationship between bilirubin free radical and formation of pigment gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Tao Liu; Jian Hu

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the main progresses made inour group in the field of the mechanism of pigment gallstoneformation. It was found that after treetment with freeradicals, bilirubin (BR) was changed into free radical itself,and a semiquinone free radical and a superoxide free radicalbound with metal were recognized, which was detected byESR (electron spin resonance). By the meana of NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) and IR (Infra-red spectra), itwas postulated that bilirubin polymerized through thereaction between the vinyl group and the hydroxyl groupunder the attack of free radicals. It was also found thatbilirubin free radical were liable to calcify in a kinetic study.Because of its chemical properties, bilirubin free radical wasshown to be cytotoxic to hepetocyte, which wasdemonstrated based on the following facts: induction ofphospholipid peroxidation (LPO), leakage of lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) and decrease of glutathione. As tothe mechanism of bilirubin-induced cytotoxicity, it waspostulated that the main target of bilirubin free radical wasthe cell membrane, including phospholipid and membranebound proteins, especially spectrin, a content ofcytoskeleton. Based on the results mentioned above, it wasdeduced that bilirubin free radical is the key factor thatinitiates and promotes the formation of pigment gallstone,which is consistent with other researches in recent years.

  19. On Female Poets and Their Works in Chinese Russian Immigrants%论中国俄罗斯侨民女诗人及作品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲雪萍

    2012-01-01

    中国俄罗斯侨民文学,是俄罗斯文学当中极具特色的一支,近年来受到了越来越多人的关注。文章研究俄侨女诗人的创作"共性"特征,并在此框架下就其作品的题材和女性形象等加以分析。首先,根据《松花江畔紫丁香》一书中收寻的作品剖析女诗人创作的普遍题材;其次,在此基础上,解析大量作品中彰显的艺术特色;最后,又着重解读女诗人笔下的女诗人形象,进而挖掘俄侨作品中的共性和个性,努力找寻女诗人作品中独到之处,进而阐述俄侨女诗人作品的研究价值。%Chinese Russian immigrant literature is an extremely unique branch of Russian literature and much attention is given to it in recent years. This paper mainly focuses on the common features of Russian immigrant female poets and analyzes the themes and female images. The first point is to explore the common theme of female poets in their works taking Lilac along Songhua River as example. Then, it goes to analyze the artistic features of the works. And lastly the paper interprets the female poet images and finds their common features and uniqueness and points out their research value.

  20. Molecular characterization of the Chinese alligator follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (FSHβ) and its expression during the female reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhu, Xue; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to China, it has a highly specialized reproductive pattern with low fecundity. Up to date, little is known about the regulation of its female reproductive cycle. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a glycoprotein hormone, plays a key role in stimulating and regulating ovarian follicular development and egg production. In this study, the complete FSHβ cDNA from the ovary of the Chinese alligator was obtained for the first time, it consists of 843-bp nucleotides, including 120-bp nucleotides of the 5'-untranslated region (UTR), 396-bp of the open reading frame, and 3'-UTR of 327-bp nucleotides. It encodes a 131-amino acid precursor molecule of FSHβ with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids followed by a mature protein of 113 amino acids. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high identities with the American alligator (100%) and birds (89-92%). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the FSHβ amino acid sequence indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Tissue distribution analyses indicated that FSHβ mRNA is expressed in ovary, intestine and liver with the highest level in the ovary, while not in stomach, pancreas, heart, thymus and thyroid. Expression of FSHβ in ovary increases in May (breeding prophase) and peaks in July (breeding period), it is maintained at high levels through September, then decreases significantly in November (post-reproductive period) and remains relatively low from January to March (hibernating period). These temporal changes of FSHβ expression implicated that it might play an important role in promoting ovarian development during the female reproductive cycle. PMID:25626184

  1. Comparable rate of EGFR kinase domain mutation in lung adenocarcinomas from Chinese male and female never-smokers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-hua SUN; Rong FANG; Bin GAO; Xiang-kun HAN; Jun-hua ZHANG; William PAO; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Lung cancer patients with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations frequently show good responses to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including Iressa and Tarceva, in clinical studies[1-3]. Previous studies have demonstrated that EGFR kinase domain mutations are commonly observed in lung adenocarcinomas, never-smokers,East Asian, and females[4-8].

  2. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: If differences of inflammatory pathways in acute pancreatitis exist for various etiologies, selective and specific antiinflammatory and other modulatory treatment regimens might be indicated. Circulating levels of prominent proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8, 18, and TNF-alpha were...... measured in patients having their first attack of either alcohol- or gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive patients were prospectively included over a 15-month period, sixty of them being either alcohol- or gallstone-induced. All patients were treated according...... to a standardized algorithm. Blood samples were obtained immediately on admission and, again, at days 1, 2, and 14. RESULTS: A significant effect of the etiology on the levels of IL-8 in the alcohol group as compared to the gallstone group (P=0.003) was found. No etiologic differences were observed for IL-6, IL-18...

  3. A population-based cohort study of symptomatic gallstone disease in diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Ming Liu; Chung-Te Hsu; Chung-Yi Li; Chu-Chieh Chen; Meng-Lun Liu; Jorn-Hon Liu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) and to evaluate the risk of symptomatic GSD among diabetic patients.METHODS:The study was conducted by analyzing the National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) dataset of ambulatory care patients,inpatient claims,and the updated registry of beneficiaries from 2000 to 2008.A total of 615 532 diabetic patients without a prior history of hospital treatment or ambulatory care visits for symptomatic GSD were identified in the year 2000.Age-and gender-matched control individuals free from both GSD and diabetes from 1997 to 1999 were randomly selected from the NHIR database (n =614 871).The incidence densities of symptomatic GSD were estimated according to the subjects' diabetic status.The distributions of age,gender,occupation,income,and residential area urbanization were compared between diabetic patients and control subjects using Cox proportion hazards models.Differences between the rates of selected comorbidities were also assessed in the two groups.RESULTS:Overall,60 734 diabetic patients and 48 116control patients developed symptomatic GSD and underwent operations,resulting in cumulative operation rates of 9.87% and 7.83%,respectively.The age and gender distributions of both groups were similar,with a mean age of 60 years and a predominance of females.The diabetic group had a significantly higher prevalence of all comorbidities of interest.A higher incidence of symptomatic GSD was observed in females than in males in both groups.In the control group,females under the age of 64 had a significantly higher incidence of GSD than the corresponding males,but this difference was reduced with increasing age.The cumulative incidences of operations for symptomatic GSD in the diabetic and control groups were 13.06 and 9.52 cases per 1000 person-years,respectively.Diabetic men exhibited a higher incidence of operations for symptomatic GSD than did their counterparts in the control group (12.35vs 8.75 cases per

  4. Thin-layer chromatography to monitor cholesterol gallstone dissolution by methyl tert-butyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, H B; vanSonnenberg, E; Schteingart, C D; Hofmann, A F; Casola, G; Mathieson, J R

    1991-07-01

    We describe a simple and inexpensive method of monitoring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) dissolution of cholesterol gallstones with thin-layer chromatography (TLC) in 10 patients. TLC is a routine semiquantitative laboratory method that can be used to measure the cholesterol concentration present in the MTBE and bile mixture aspirated through the cholecystostomy catheter during gallstone dissolution. TLC is practical in the clinical setting because it can be used to determine if gallstone dissolution is occurring and when MTBE lavage is no longer effective. TLC is performed in the laboratory with routine material and is completed in 15 min. Each TLC measurement costs about $1. The procedure provides objective and specific chemical information on effectiveness and progression of gallstone dissolution, apart from the radiologic and sonographic studies. In our study, TLC signaled effective dissolution in the initial phase of gallstone dissolution by detecting large amounts of cholesterol in the MTBE and bile mixture even before a visible change in size or shape of the stone became apparent by transcatheter cholecystography or by sonography (six of 10 patients). Conversely, lack of cholesterol on TLC after 1 hr or more of MTBE infusion indicates that the stones are pigmented or contain substantial calcium. This means that dissolution with MTBE will be ineffective and that solvent infusion should be terminated. In those cases in which dissolution is progressing well, when TLC shows decreasing amounts of cholesterol in the effluent, only residual fragments insoluble to MTBE remain or the stone is sequestered from MTBE; at this point, solvent infusion should be discontinued or the catheter must be repositioned. Monitoring the rate of cholesterol dissolution by TLC provides important complementary information to cholecystography and sonography during gallstone treatment with MTBE. PMID:2048533

  5. Costal cartilage measurement during rhinoplasty in Chinese female%鼻成形术中国人女性软骨体积测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艇; 杨明洁; 杜轶男; 谷红波; 张宇; 刘靓; 秦宏智

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究多个省级地区女性国人手术中取材的第六肋软骨形态结构及解剖学参数,为进行耳鼻部整形再造时需要肋软骨移植的临床应用提供设计依据.[方法]根据从2010年11月-2011年7月的60位女性国人肋软骨移植鼻整形手术中取出的第六软骨在测量板上的照片所作的回顾性测量并进行多重逐步回归分析.[结果]数据统计结果提示,可取出的肋软骨的平均中轴曲线长度为(7.373±1.200) cm,厚度(0.911±0.093) em.软骨的厚度与年龄呈正相关,具有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]提供了相对较广地域范围国人女性的肋软骨数据,对需要鼻再造、复杂鼻整形及耳再造等需要肋软骨移植的手术设计提供了数据参考.%To summarize anatomy data for clinic application of 6th rib cartilage harvest from infra - mammary fold incision during rib cartilage transplant rhinoplasty of Chinese females. [ Methods ] Data are retrospectively collected and analyzed of photographs of 6th rib cartilages over measure grid plate from 60 patients of Chinese women those accept surgeries from November of 2010 to July of 2011. The mean and standard deviation of the measurement data were calculated and correlation analysis of multiple stepwise regressions was made. [ Results ] The mean and standard deviation of central line length and thickness of 6th rib cartilage were as follow: (7. 373 ?1. 200) cm and (0.911 ?. 093 ) cm. Age had a positive correlation with thickness of 6th rib cartilages with statistically significance of P < 0.05. [Conclusion] The result helps prognosis of quantities of donor rib cartilage in ear/nose plastic and reconstructive surgeries of Chinese females.

  6. A comparison of cholecystosonography, cholecystography and CT in patients with gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholecystosonography, cholecystography and CT were true positive in 93.3%, 71.2% and 69.7% of patients with gallstones, respectively. Cholecystosonography was significantly more sensitive than the other two. True negative rates were more than 95% in the three tests. Cholecystography and CT were competitive with sonography in 0.54 and 0.6 of true positives, respectively. Competitive or complementary rate was thought to be an index for an effective combination of tests. Though sonography is most suitable for screening, cholecystography and CT have their own particular diagnostic values on gallstones. (author)

  7. [Gallbladder contraction and microscopi observation of the gallbladder wall in gallstone patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Zhang, S; Han, T

    1995-03-01

    On the basis of oral cholecystography (OCG), we selected gallstone patients for nontoperative intervention. Their gallbladder function was considered as normal when gallbladder contracted over 50%-75% after a fat meal at 1 hour. We collected 99 gallstone patients and 19 normal controls; gallbladder function was normal in 77 patients and poor in 22. After a fat meal gallbladder volumes were calculated by B ultrasonography. The results showed that both fasting and residual volume in patients with so-called normal contraction were significantly greater than that in the controls (P OCG. PMID:7555394

  8. Ultrasound as the initial dignostic study in patients with suspected gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, K S; Scholten, D J; Dean, R E

    1980-08-01

    The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of ultrasound versus oral cholecystography (OCG) in the preoperative diagnosis of gallstones was studied in 144 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The 89 per cent accuracy of ultrasound was similar to the 92 per cent achieved with OCG. However, ultrasound was found to have a lower false-positive rate and a greater sensitivity with far fewer indeterminate studies than OCG. A high rate of nonvisualization diminished the usefulness of OCG as a first-line test. Because of a greater sensitivity less tendency for false-positive results, and a moninvasive nature, ultrasound should be the initial diagnostic study of choice in patients with suspected gallstones. PMID:7406352

  9. Known risk factors do not explain disparities in gallstone prevalence between Denmark and northeast Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen;

    2009-01-01

    .52-2.36)) had approximatively twice the odds of gallstones than Danes. Inclusion of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, coffee use) did not affect this result, whereas adjustment for body mass index (BMI), lipids, diabetes, and use of oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and parity...... regression models were performed to assess the confounding effect of selected risk factors on regional disparities in gallstone disease. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and vocational training, German subjects (women: Odds ratio, OR, 2.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.07-2.91); men: OR, 1.89 (95% CI: 1...

  10. Prevalence of needle sharing, commercial sex behaviors and associated factors in Chinese male and female injecting drug user populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Wang, Renfan; Chen, Hongyao; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhang, Linglin; Hu, Xianyou; Lei, Zhangquan; Li, Zhenglin; Cai, Hua; Wang, Tao; Tsui, Hiyi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate prevalence and associated factors of commercial sex behaviors and condom use at commercial sex, as well as prevalence of needle sharing among injecting drug users (IDUs) in China. In this study, 162 IDUs were recruited by peer workers in Dazhou, Sichuan and were anonymously interviewed by using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and interaction between gender and the studied independent variables were tested for significance. The results of this study showed that the male and female respondents, respectively 11.7 and 16.9% were HIV positive; 34.0 and 40.7% engaged in commercial sex and 23.3 and 11.9% shared needles with others in the last six months. Percent using a condom in the last episode of commercial sex was 30.3% for males and 76.2% for females. The multivariate analyses showed that higher drug dosage (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) and reduced sexual drive (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) were associated with lower likelihood for commercial sex among male IDUs while higher drug dosage (OR=9.1, 95% CI: 1.0-86.0), perceived difficulty in finding a job (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.3-20.1) and lack of family support (OR=4.0, 95% CI: 1.1-15.4) were associated with commercial sex among female IDUs. Similarly, unknown HIV status (OR=8.2, 95% CI: 1.7-9.2) and having a regular sex partner (OR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-10.9) was associated with needle sharing. It is concluded that male and female IDUs were sexually active and often engaged in commercial sex. Drug dosage and reduced sexual drive were relevant but did not stop commercial sex behaviors. More supportive social environment is required to prevent female IDUs to enter sex work. PMID:19085218

  11. 我国高等学校中的女性领导特征调查研究%A Survey of the Female Leaders of Chinese Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺

    2015-01-01

    本文采用履历研究法,对我国1166所普通本科高等学校的7796位校级领导的简历进行整理分析研究。研究发现:我国高校领导中女性数量较少,且存在女性领导担任正职少、副职多的纵向隔离现象,以及女性担任党委领导多、行政领导少的横向隔离现象。此外,女性自身教育与学术背景偏低、国际化经历不足等问题,制约了女性领导的发展。我国的高校领导研究还未将性别因素作为一个主要的分析范畴和内容来对待,这一领域还需要更多的学术与政策关注。%Using Curriculum Vitae research method, this paper studies the characteristics of female leaders of Chinese universities. By studying 7796 top-level university leaders at 1166 Chinese universities, this paper finds that, there are not only insufficient women leaders in higher education institutions, but also segregation at both vertical and horizontal levels. The relatively insufficient educational and academic background and international experience are factors that restrict women from gaining leadership in higher education. The paper argues that gender differences deserve more academic and policy attention in the realm of university leadership.

  12. A Survey of the Female Leaders of Chinese Universities%我国高等学校中的女性领导特征调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺

    2015-01-01

    Using Curriculum Vitae research method, this paper studies the characteristics of female leaders of Chinese universities. By studying 7796 top-level university leaders at 1166 Chinese universities, this paper finds that, there are not only insufficient women leaders in higher education institutions, but also segregation at both vertical and horizontal levels. The relatively insufficient educational and academic background and international experience are factors that restrict women from gaining leadership in higher education. The paper argues that gender differences deserve more academic and policy attention in the realm of university leadership.%本文采用履历研究法,对我国1166所普通本科高等学校的7796位校级领导的简历进行整理分析研究。研究发现:我国高校领导中女性数量较少,且存在女性领导担任正职少、副职多的纵向隔离现象,以及女性担任党委领导多、行政领导少的横向隔离现象。此外,女性自身教育与学术背景偏低、国际化经历不足等问题,制约了女性领导的发展。我国的高校领导研究还未将性别因素作为一个主要的分析范畴和内容来对待,这一领域还需要更多的学术与政策关注。

  13. Predicting gallstone composition with CT: in vivo and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, K; Laméris, J S; Nijs, H G; Terpstra, O T; Steen, G; Blijenberg, B C

    1990-02-01

    Chemical composition of gallstones is of major importance in selecting patients for nonsurgical therapy. In a combined in vivo and in vitro study of predictive potential, 50 patients undergoing cholecystectomy were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and either plain abdominal radiography or oral cholecystography (OCG). The largest stone surgically removed from each patient was subjected to in vitro CT and chemical analysis. The authors found an inverse relationship between CT attenuation numbers and cholesterol content and a good positive correlation between CT attenuation numbers and calcium content. In vivo CT analysis improved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values compared to plain abdominal radiography and OCG in detection of cholesterol stones. Using their prediction rule (a CT number smaller than 140 HU indicates a pure cholesterol gallstone), the authors correctly classified gallstones in 17 (84%) of another 20 patients. In vivo CT analysis can enable reliable prediction of gallstone composition and should play an important role in the selection of patients for nonsurgical treatment. PMID:2296642

  14. Diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yie, Miyeon [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi, E-mail: jkm7290@empal.com [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Yul [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, 896 Pyungchon-dong, Dongan-gu, Anyang-city, Kyungki-do 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT features of the gallbladder in the prediction of gallstone pancreatitis. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent a diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan for acute pancreatitis were included. The readers assessed the presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, enhancement of gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) wall, pericholecystic fat strands, GB wall thickening, stone in the GB or CBD, and focal or diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis on abdominal CT scans. In addition, the maximal transverse luminal diameters of the GB and CBD were measured. Results: The presence of pericholecystic increased attenuation of the liver parenchyma, GB wall enhancement and thickening, pericholecystic fat strands, stone in the GB or CBD, and diffuse manifestations of pancreatitis achieved statistical significance for differentiation of gallstone induced pancreatitis from non-biliary pancreatitis (p < 0.05). The mean values of maximal transverse luminal diameter of GB and CBD were significantly higher in gallstone induced pancreatitis group (39.67 {+-} 7.26 mm, 10.20 {+-} 4.13 mm) than non-biliary pancreatitis group (27.01 {+-} 6.14 mm, 3.85 {+-} 2.51 mm, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Gallbladder features of CT in patients with pancreatitis could be the valuable clues for the diagnosis of gallstone induced pancreatitis.

  15. Ternary complexes of albumin-Mn(II)-bilirubin and Electron Spin Resonance studies of gallstones

    CERN Document Server

    Chikvaidze, E N; Kirikashvili, I N; Mamniashvili, G I

    2009-01-01

    The stability of albumin-bilirubin complex was investigated depending on pH of solution. It was shown that the stability of complex increases in presence of Mn(II) ions. It was also investigated the paramagnetic composition of gallstones by the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. It turned out that all investigated gallstones contain a free bilirubin radical-the stable product of its radical oxidation. Accordingly the paramagnetic composition gallstones could be divided on three main types: cholesterol, brown pigment and black pigment stones. ESR spectra of cholesterol stones is singlet with g=2.003 and splitting between components 1.0 mT. At the same time the brown gallstones, besides aforementioned signal contain the ESR spectrum which is characteristics for Mn(II) ion complexes with inorganic compounds and, finally, in the black pigment stones it was found out Fe(III) and Cu(II) complexes with organic compounds and a singlet of bilirubin free radical. It is supposed that crystallization centers of gallst...

  16. Effect of intestinal transit on the formation of cholesterol gallstones in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Bei-Bei Fu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of "intestinal transit" has become a new ifeld of interest in the study of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. This study was undertaken to further test this notion and ascertain the relationship between impaired intestinal transit function and cholesterol gallstones. METHODS: A total of 64 hamsters were divided into 2 groups, experimental and control. Each was subdivided into 4 subgroups for sacriifce at different time. A high-cholesterol diet and a standard diet were fed to each group. The geometric center, which represents the intestinal transit function was calculated. RESULTS: The growth of all hamsters was normal. Cholesterol gallstones were found in 2 hamsters at the end of the 4th week. The geometric center values for the experimental and control groups were 2.3891±0.3923 vs. 2.7730±0.5283, at the end of week 3;1.8148±0.4312 vs. 3.2294±1.1613 at week 4;1.8451±0.3700 vs. 2.9075±0.3756 at week 5;and 1.8025±0.3413 vs. 3.0920±0.5622 at week 6. CONCLUSION: A high cholesterol diet can signiifcantly reduce the intestinal transit function and facilitate the formation of cholesterol gallstones.

  17. Antilithogenic influence of dietary capsaicin and curcumin during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstone in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubha, Malenahalli C; Reddy, Raghunatha R L; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2011-04-01

    Spice bioactive compounds, capsaicin and curcumin, were both individually and in combination examined for antilithogenic potential during experimental induction of cholesterol gallstones in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced by feeding mice a high-cholesterol (0.5%) diet for 10 weeks. Groups of mice were maintained on a lithogenic diet that was supplemented with 0.015% capsaicin/0.2% curcumin/0.015% capsaicin + 0.2% curcumin. The lithogenic diet that contained capsaicin, curcumin, or their combination reduced the incidence of cholesterol gallstones by 50%, 66%, and 56%, respectively, compared with lithogenic control. This was accompanied by reduced biliary cholesterol and a marginal increase in phospholipid in these spice-fed groups. Increased cholesterol saturation index and cholesterol : phospholipid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds. The antilithogenic influence of spice compounds was attributable to the cholesterol-lowering effect of these dietary spices in blood and liver, as well as a moderate increase in phospholipids. Decreased activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase caused by the lithogenic diet were countered by the combination of capsaicin and curcumin. The increased lipid peroxidation and the decreased concentration of ascorbic acid in the liver that was caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by the dietary spice compounds, individually or in combination. Thus, while the capsaicin and curcumin combination did not have an additive influence in reducing the incidence of cholesterol gallstones in mice, their combination nevertheless was more beneficial in enhancing the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzyme ─ glutathione reductase in the lithogenic situation. The antioxidant effects of dietary spice compounds are consistent with the observed reduction in cholesterol gallstones formed under lithogenic condition.

  18. 大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异的实验研究%Experimental Study on Differences in the Free Association of Chinese Characters between Male and Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异.方法:运用实验法对110名大学生的汉字自由联想进行分析.结果:(1)男女大学生对音联和字联的回忆率存在差异;(2)男女大学生对感觉情绪词的回忆率存在差异;(3)男女大学生对反映心理的关键字的回忆率存在差异;(4)男女大学生自由联想汉字的偏旁部首存在差异.结论:汉字自由联想法可以用来分析大学生的思维、个性和心理健康状况.%Aim: to probe the differences in the free association of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Method: analyzing the free association of Chinese characters among 110 college students by an experimental study. Results: (l)There is difference in recall rale of thyme association and word association between male and female college students; (2)There is difference in recall rate of identifying emotional words between male and female college students; (3)There is difference in recall rate of key words reflecting psychological world between male and female college students; (4)There is difference in free association of radicals of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Conclusion: the free association of Chinese characters can be applied to analyze the college students' thoughts, personalities and psychological health status.

  19. Effects of 3 Feeding Modes on the Volatile and Nonvolatile Compounds in the Edible Tissues of Female Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Kejin; Wu, Na; Wang, Xichang; Wu, Xugan; Wang, Shuai; Long, Xiaowen; Wei, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    To reveal the impact of different feeding modes on the flavor quality of female Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) this study was conducted to compare the sensory evaluation scores, flavor compounds in meat and hepatopancreas of female E. sinensis fed with 3 feeding modes, that is, natural diets (NDs), traditional diets (TDs), and formulated diets (FDs). The result showed that crabs fed with ND had significantly lower sensory scores than the other 2 feeding modes in both edible tissues. The odor and taste profiles were evaluated by Electronic nose (E-nose) and tongue (E-tongue) techniques, respectively; results of perchloric acid showed each edible tissue had significant differences among the 3 modes. Contents of volatile compounds were measured by Headspace-solid phase micro extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. A total of 35 and 44 volatile compounds were identified in meat and hepatopancreas, respectively. ND mode of meat had the highest relative odor activity value (ROAV) summation among the 3 diet modes. TD mode of hepatopancreas had significantly higher ROAV summations. Based on the analysis of free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides, nonvolatile compounds were evaluated by equivalent umami concentration (EUC) and taste active values (TAVs) methods. For both meat and hepatopancreas, TD had the highest contents of umami amino acid, as for the 5'-nucleotide, FD had the highest 5'-inosin monophosphate concentrations. Overall, the EUC and TAVs of TD were higher than that of FD, whereas ND mode had the lowest values in the 2 edible tissues. In conclusion, TD mode had the best performance in terms of sensory evaluation, ROAVs of aroma-active compounds, and nonvolatile active compounds. PMID:26919186

  20. Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism,and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio; Báez; Yasuo; Tsuchiya; Alfonso; Calvo; Martha; Pruyas; Kazutoshi; Nakamura; Chikako; Kiyohara; Mari; Oyama; Masaharu; Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To determine the effects of genetic variants associated with gallstone formation and capsaicin (a pungent component of chili pepper) metabolism on the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC).METHODS: A total of 57 patients with GBC, 119 patients with gallstones, and 70 controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from their blood or paraffi n block sample using standard commercial kits. The statuses of the genetic variants were assayed using Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays or Custom Taqman SNP Genotypi...

  1. 中国不同性别亚健康人群差异分析%Sub-health status in male and female Chinese populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀; 何裕民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore different sub-health status between populations of different gender. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze sub-health status of 13 439 people in 8 provinces in China. Results Sub-health status of male was much more expressed in sexual life( male:5. 22 ± 1.06,femal:4.92 ±0. 96), while female was much more expressed in physical and psychological symptoms ( physical symptoms score for male: 104. S3 ± 20.47, for female; 110.27 ±20.90:psychological score for male:53.63 ±8.04,for female:55. 89 ±7. 88;P0.05). For somatic symptoms, the men had a hypo-immunity and were susceptible to cold or with a longer period of the disease compared to the woman (P < 0.001). While women felt tired easily and frequently had digestive problem, poor sleep, autonomic nervous disorders, allergy, aging apperance, a variety of pain or discomfort, constipation, and frequent drug usage (P < 0.001). In psychological symptoms, women showed more depression, anxiety problem,memory loss,and severe stress than men(P<0.001 for all). There was a significant difference in sexual satisfaction score between the men and the women with sub-health (P <0.01) and the men were more likely to worry about sexuality than women (P < 0. 01). Conclusion The symptoms of sub-health are different between men and-women in Chinese population.%目的 探讨不同性别亚健康状态人群症状表现差异.方法 采用流行病学横断面调查方法对中国8个省市13 439名各类人群进行亚健康状态调查分析.结果 男、女性亚健康症状性生活得分分别为(5.22±1.06)、(4.92±0.96)分,躯体症状分别为(104.53±20.47)、(110.27±20.90),心理方面分别为(53.63±8.04)、(55.89±7.88)分,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);社会适应性方面差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在躯体症状方面,男性免疫力低下,易患有感冒或感冒不易痊愈;与男性比较,女性易感到疲劳,消化系统不适多见,睡眠差,多有植

  2. Distinct role of the Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms in determining the risk of breast cancer among Han Chinese females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Jin, Tian-Bo; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Hua-Feng; Guan, Hai-Tao; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Liu, Xing-Han; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the promoters of Fas and FasL are significantly associated with breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies were inconsistent. This case–control study was performed to explore the associations between Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110 polymorphisms and breast cancer. Materials and methods A hospital-based case–control study of 560 Han Chinese females with breast cancer (583 controls) was conducted. The MassARRAY system was used to search for a possible association between the disease risk and the two single nucleotide polymorphisms, Fas rs1800682 and FasL rs763110. Statistical analyses were performed using SNPStats software to conduct Pearson’s chi-square tests in five different genetic models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after adjustment to age and body mass index. PHASE v2.1 software was used to reconstruct all common haplotypes. Results A statistically significant association was found between Fas rs1800682 and increased breast cancer risk (AG vs AA: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.06–1.78; AA+AG vs GG: OR =1.32, 95% CI =1.04–1.66), and also it was found that the FasL rs763110 polymorphism may decrease the risk. Stratified analyses demonstrated that the rs763110 polymorphism was associated with lower breast cancer risk among postmenopausal females (heterozygote model: OR =0.69, 95% CI =0.49–0.97; dominant model: OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.51–0.96). The T allele of rs763110 was also associated with a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis (allele model: OR =0.75, 95% CI =0.57–0.97) and an increased risk of the breast cancer being human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (allele model: OR =1.37, 95% CI =1.03–1.18). Moreover, haplotype analysis showed that Ars1800682Trs763110 was associated to a statistically significant degree with lower risk of breast cancer (OR =0.70, 95% CI =0.53–0.91). Conclusion These data suggest that

  3. Bouveret's syndrome complicated by distal gallstone ileus after laser lithotropsy using Holmium: YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers John B

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bouveret's syndrome is an unusual presentation of duodenal obstruction caused by the passage of a large gallstone through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Endoscopic therapy has been used as first-line treatment, especially in patients with high surgical risk. Case presentation We report a 67-year-old woman who underwent an endoscopic attempt to fragment and retrieve a duodenal stone using a Holmium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser (Ho:YAG which resulted in small bowel obstruction. The patient successfully underwent enterolithotomy without cholecystectomy or closure of the fistula. Conclusion We conclude that, distal gallstone obstruction, due to migration of partially fragmented stones, can occur as a possible complication of laser lithotripsy treatment of Bouveret's syndrome and might require urgent enterolithotomy.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines in alcohol or gallstone induced acute pancreatitis. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders Møller; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer;

    2009-01-01

    , TNF-alpha, or CRP. Furthermore, no significant differences, either regarding the need for treatment at the intensive care unit or of 30-day mortality, were found. CONCLUSION: The present study confirms previous findings and supports the hypothesis that, except for IL-8, the biochemical profile......OBJECTIVES: If differences of inflammatory pathways in acute pancreatitis exist for various etiologies, selective and specific antiinflammatory and other modulatory treatment regimens might be indicated. Circulating levels of prominent proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, 8, 18, and TNF-alpha were...... measured in patients having their first attack of either alcohol- or gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five consecutive patients were prospectively included over a 15-month period, sixty of them being either alcohol- or gallstone-induced. All patients were treated according...

  5. Genetic variation in the cholesterol transporter NPC1L1, ischaemic vascular disease, and gallstone disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Bo Kobberø; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Ezetimibe reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by inhibiting Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein 1 (NPC1L1), the transporter responsible for cholesterol uptake from the intestine into enterocytes and from the bile into hepatocytes. We tested the hypothesis that genetic...... developed IVD or symptomatic gallstone disease, respectively, during follow-up from 1977 to 2013. We genotyped four common NPC1L1 variants, previously associated with reduced LDL cholesterol levels, thus mimicking the effect of ezetimibe, and calculated a weighted genotype score. With increasing genotype...... score, LDL cholesterol decreased stepwise up to 3.5% (0.12 mmol/L) and total cholesterol up to 1.9% (0.11 mmol/L) (P-trend: 2 × 10(-12) and 2 × 10(-9)). The cumulative incidence by age of IVD decreased, while that of symptomatic gallstone disease increased as a function of increasing genotype score (P...

  6. Successful Multimodality Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by an Impacted Gallstone (Bouveret's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N. Rogart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bouveret's syndrome is a rare condition of gastric outlet obstruction resulting from the migration of a gallstone through a choledochoduodenal fistula. Due to the large size of these stones and the difficult location in which they become impacted, endoscopic treatment is unsuccessful and most patients require surgery. We report the case of an elderly male who presented with nausea and hematemesis, and was found on CT scan and endoscopy to have an obstructing gallstone in his duodenal bulb. After several endoscopic sessions and the use of multiple instruments including a Holmium: YAG laser and electrohydraulic lithotripter, fragmentation and endoscopic removal of the stone were successful. We believe this to be the first case of Bouveret's syndrome successfully treated by endoscopy alone in the United States. We describe the difficulties encountered which necessitated varied and innovative therapeutic techniques.

  7. Polymorphisms in GEMIN4 and AGO1 Genes Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961 in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1 and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study. The total number of lung cancer cases and cancer-free controls were 473 and 395 in the case-control study. Four SNPs showed statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. After Bonferroni correction, rs7813 and rs595961 were evidently still associated with lung cancer risk. In the stratified analysis, our results revealed that all five SNPs were associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma; after Bonferroni correction, significant association was maintained for rs7813, rs910924 and rs595961. Haplotype analysis showed GEMIN4 haplotype C-A-G-T was a protective haplotype for lung cancer. In the combined unfavorable genotype analysis, with the increasing number of unfavorable genotypes, a progressively increased gene-dose effect was observed in lung adenocarcinoma. We also found that individuals exposed to cooking oil fumes showed a relatively high risk of lung cancer, but no interactions were found between cooking oil fume exposure or passive smoking exposure with these SNPs, either on an additive scale or a multiplicative scale. Overall, this is the first study showing that rs7813 and rs595961 could be meaningful as genetic markers for lung cancer risk.

  8. Multi-analytic approach elucidates significant role of hormonal and hepatocanalicular transporter genetic variants in gallstone disease in North Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshika Srivastava

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD is a multifactorial and multistep disease. Apart from female gender and increasing age being the documented non-modifiable risk factor for gallstones the pathobiological mechanisms underlying the phenotypic expression of CGD appear to be rather complex, and one or more variations in genes could play critical roles in the diverse pathways further progressing to cholesterol crystal formation. In the present study we performed genotyping score, Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR and Classification and Regression Tree analysis (CART to identify combinations of alleles among the hormonal, hepatocanalicular transporter and adipogenesis differentiation pathway genes in modifying the risk for CGD. DESIGN: The present case-control study recruited total of 450 subjects, including 230 CGD patients and 220 controls. We analyzed common ESR1, ESR2, PGR, ADRB3, ADRA2A, ABCG8, SLCO1B1, PPARγ2, and SREBP2 gene polymorphisms to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to CGD risk, using multi-analytical approaches (G-score, MDR, and CART. RESULTS: Single locus analysis by logistic regression showed association of ESR1 IVS1-397C>T (rs2234693, IVS1-351A>G (rs9340799 PGR ins/del (rs1042838 ADRB3-190 T>C (rs4994 ABCG8 D19H (rs11887534, SLCO1B1 Exon4 C>A (rs11045819 and SREBP2 1784G>C (rs2228314 with CGD risk. However, the MDR and CART analysis revealed ESR1 IVS1-397C>T (rs2234693 ADRB3-190 T>C (rs4994 and ABCG8 D19H (rs11887534 polymorphisms as the best polymorphic signature for discriminating between cases and controls. The overall odds ratio for the applied multi-analytical approaches ranged from 4.33 to 10.05 showing an incremental risk for cholesterol crystal formation. In conclusion, our muti-analytical approach suggests that, ESR1, ADRB3, in addition to ABCG8 genetic variants confer significant risk for cholesterol gallstone disease.

  9. The importance of imaging methods in gallstone disease. Die Bedeutung bildgebender Verfahren beim Gallensteinleiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersjes, W. (Institut fuer Klinische Strahlenkunde, Klinikum der Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)); Thelen, M.

    1993-05-01

    The available surgical and non-surgical therapy options for treatment of gallstone disease are presented. Conventional cholecystectomy is regarded as standard therapy of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Other modes of therapy may be indicated under certain circumstances, depending on the results of imaging procedures. In this context conventional X-ray examination, oral and intravenous cholecystography, sonography, computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography/cholecystography, and magnetic resonance imaging are discussed, and their influence on therapeutic decisions is explained. (orig.)

  10. Aetiological and clinical aspects of symptomatic gallstone disease and pancreatic cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Banim, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This work investigated in a UK prospective cohort study, firstly, the aetiology of gallstone disease, and secondly, that of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on physical activity and diet. The epidemiological studies benefitted from the accuracy of measurement tools, namely a validated physical activity questionnaire and a sevenday food diary (7-DFD). These novel methods aided the improved definition of risk factors thus highlighting biological mechanisms leading to disease and ...

  11. Does Computed Tomography (CT) Overestimate Common-Bile-Duct Diameter in the Evaluation of Gallstone Pancreatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadia Maqsood; Naeem Goussous; Madhumithaa Parthasarathy; Charlotte Horne; Guneet Kaur; Lisa Setiawan; Amanda Sautter; Stephanie James; Hamid Ferdosi; Anne Sill; Gopal C. Kowdley; Steven C Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a common reason for inpatient admissions in the United States with around 300,000 admissions annually. Gallstones are the most common etiology for acute pancreatitis, and may be associated with a dilated common bile duct. The diameter of the common bile duct is commonly assessed with ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Methods A retrospective analysis of a database of patients who underwent cholecystectomy at our institution from 20...

  12. A Brief Evaluation for Pre-Estimating the Severity of Gallstone Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haxiaobieke Kasimu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An uncomplicated and easy-to-use method of pre-estimating the severity of gallstone pancreatitis shortly after admission was required in order to direct clinicians for monitoring and/or transferring to a specialized center. Objective To determine the role of brief assessment in pre-estimating the severity of gallstone pancreatitis at admission. Patients Fifty-eight patients with gallstone pancreatitis were consecutively followed regarding the course of complications. Main outcome variables Sensitivity analysis of the Biliary Ranson score (>3, the modified Imrie score (>3, the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE-II score (>5, white blood cell count (>14.5 x103 /dL, blood urea nitrogen (>12 mg/dL, random blood sugar (>150 mg/dL, pulse rate (>100 beats/min and combinations of the four brief assessments were compared using the z-test. Two-tailed P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Both the Biliary Ranson score >3 and the modified Imrie score >3 had a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 96.7%. Both the APACHE-II score >5 and random blood sugar >150 mg/dL had a sensitivity of 89.3% which is comparable to a Biliary Ranson score >3 and a modified Imrie score >3. Conclusion As compared to a Biliary Ranson score >3, a modified Imrie score >3 and an APACHE-II score >5, random blood sugar >150 mg/dL can be considered as an oversimplified and effective prognostic indicator at admission in patients with gallstone pancreatitis.

  13. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in-patients with gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Jungst; Anna Niemeyer; Iris Muller; Benedikta Zundt; Gunther Meyer; Martin Wilhelmi; Reginald del Pozo

    2001-01-01

    AIM An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid components of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones.METHODS Viscosity of bile ( mpa. s ) wasmeasured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non-Newtonian property of bile at law shear rates.RESULTS Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mpa. s, mean ± SEM, n --28) and mixed stones (3.50±0.68 mPa. s; n =8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mpa. s,n -6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r=0.65; P<0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P<0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles.CONCLUSION The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones.

  14. Human gallbladder morphology after gallstone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanSonnenberg, E; Zakko, S; Hofmann, A F; D'Agostino, H B; Jinich, H; Hoyt, D B; Miyai, K; Ramsby, G; Moossa, A R

    1991-06-01

    The effects of methyl tert-butyl ether exposure on the human gallbladder in five patients who were treated for gallstones by contact dissolution is described. Two patients underwent cholecystectomy within 1 week of methyl tert-butyl ether treatment, one patient 2 weeks after, another 10 weeks after, and one 12 weeks after. Indications for cholecystectomy were bilirubinate stones (resistant to methyl tert-butyl ether), catheter dislodgement, bile leakage, and gallstone recurrence (2 patients). Gallstones were dissolved completely in three patients, there was approximately 50% stone reduction in one patient, and no dissolution occurred in the fifth patient. Each gallbladder was examined grossly and histologically. Electron microscopic evaluation was performed in one cases. Typical inflammatory findings of chronic cholecystitis were observed in each gallbladder and were most conspicuous in the submucosa; the mucosal and serosal surfaces were intact. Mild acute inflammatory changes were noted in the submucosa in the two patients with the shortest interval between methyl tert-butyl ether administration and cholecystectomy. There were no ulcerations in the mucosa and no unusual wall thickening or fibrosis in any patient. These observations support the safety of methyl tert-butyl ether perfusion in the human gallbladder; the mild acute changes may be a transient and reversible phenomenon.

  15. Slow intestinal transit: a motor disorder contributing to cholesterol gallstone formation in the ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q W; Scott, R B; Tan, D T; Shaffer, E A

    1996-06-01

    Impaired gallbladder motility is an established factor in cholesterol gallstone formation. We assessed whether altered small intestinal smooth muscle contractility with slow transit might potentiate gallstone formation by further impeding enterohepatic cycling of bile acids. Ground squirrels were fed a 1% or a trace (controls) cholesterol diet. Small intestinal transit was evaluated from 51Cr distribution in conscious, fasted animals 20 minutes after infusion into the proximal jejunum. Small intestinal and gallbladder smooth muscle contractility was determined in vitro. Biliary lipid secretion was measured from the cannulated common duct and the bile salt pool size calculated by isotope dilution. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) assessed bile salt profile. In animals on the 1% cholesterol diet, aboral transit was significantly delayed, the maximal contractile response to bethanechol was markedly increased (P <.05) with no change in median effective concentration in either circular or longitudinal muscle strips from both the jejunum and ileum, and the gallbladder contractile responses to bethanechol and cholecystokinin (CCK) were decreased. Cholesterol saturation index and the fraction of deoxycholic acid in the pool doubled, whereas the total bile salt pool size remained unchanged in cholesterol-fed animals. In this model, a high-cholesterol diet is associated with altered small intestinal smooth muscle contractility and prolonged small intestinal transit, in addition to diminished gallbladder contractility. The resulting sluggish enterohepatic cycling of bile salts, associated with expanded deoxycholate pool, contributes to cholesterol gallstone formation. PMID:8675191

  16. Gastrointestinal migrating motor complex during early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ling; Bai Wenyuan; Ma Yongzhi; Gu Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes of gastrointestinal migrating motor complex (MMC) during the early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation. Methods: Totally 45 healthy adult guinea pigs were randomly and equally divided into 3 groups, that is, normal control, group B (1% cholesterol diet for 2 weeks) and group C (1% cholesterol diet for 4 weeks). Three pairs of silver electrodes were inserted into the gastric antrum, duodenum and jejunum of every animal respectively. Record of gastrointestinal MMC of these guinea pigs were recorded and analyzed.Gallbladder bile was taken to detect the formation of cholesterol gallstone. Results: There were only 29 guineapigs living. The MMC cycle time and the duration of phase Ⅱ were prolonged significantly and gradually compared with the control group (P<0.01), but the duration of phase Ⅲ became significantly and gradually shorter. Conclusion:During the early stage of cholesterol gallstone formation, the MMC cycle time and the duration of phase Ⅱ are prolonged and the duration of phase Ⅲ is shortened

  17. Discrepancies between cholecystography and ultrasonography in the detection of recurrent gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, D; Ruppin, D C

    1985-01-01

    As part of the British Gallstone Study Group's multi-centre post-dissolution trial of different treatment regimes designed to prevent recurrence after complete gallstone dissolution, the frequency of concordance and discordance between oral cholecystography (OCG) and ultrasonography (U/S), and between repeat U/S studies, in diagnosing recurrent stones was recorded. Before entering the trial, all patients had had complete gallstone dissolution, confirmed by 2 normal OCGs 3 months apart during continued bile acid treatment; and all but three had also had at least 1 normal U/S examination of the gallbladder. During 6-24 months follow-up, from a total of 129 U/S examinations, gallstone recurrence was detected on 25 occasions (19 definite and 6 probable) in 14 patients, and from a total of 71 OCGs, recurrent stones were detected on 11 occasions in 10 patients. All the presumed recurrences developed in the absence of symptoms. On 67 occasions, the OCG and U/S studies were performed within 8 weeks of each other and of these, there was discordance in 15 (22%). On 11 occasions (6 patients), ultrasound suggested recurrent stones despite a normal OCG whilst on 4 occasions (4 patients) stones diagnosed on OCG were not confirmed by ultrasound. Of the 25 instances of U/S recurrence, a further U/S examination was performed on 17 occasions in 11 patients which failed to confirm the initial findings on 8 occasions (7 patients). After 1 year's follow-up, the predicted recurrence rates (pooled data from all 3 treatment groups), as calculated by life table analysis, were 29.3 +/- 7.1%, when the diagnosis was based on 1 U/S; 15.4 +/- 5.8% on 1 OCG; 14.9 +/- 5.6% on 2 successive U/S studies, and 8.1 +/- 4.5% on 1 U/S plus 1 OCG. At 24 months, the corresponding values were 37.2 +/- 8.3, 31.5 +/- 8.6, 18.3 +/- 6.3, and 22.4 +/- 8.6%. These results show that following complete gallstone dissolution by bile acid treatment, there is both intra- and inter-technique variation in the detection

  18. Diagnosis and interventional therapy for ductal gallstones; Diagnostik und interventionelle Therapie von Gallengangssteinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.-J.; Hoffmann, M.; Pauls, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-11-01

    Different imaging modalities recently underwent considerable improvements for the visualization of ductal gallstones. The declining significance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been accepted unanimously. This paradigm shift is mostly due to improvements in transabdominal ultrasound, the increased availability of endoscopic ultrasound, and the use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). In particular, MRCP is limited only in visualizing very small intraductal gallstones due to spatial resolution restrictions, whereas the detection rate of larger concretions is comparable to that with ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound. Patients with biliary pancreatitis benefit greatly from noninvasive MRCP visualization, establishing it as the preferred imaging modality. Particularly if ductal gallstones requiring further intervention are highly suspected, ERCP is preferable to other imaging modalities. If that suspicion is moderate, MRCP would be the imaging modality of choice, and transabdominal ultrasound would be performed if ductal gallstones are considered improbable. In up to 90% of cases, removal can be achieved endoscopically. Using a percutaneous approach smaller concretions can be extracted directly. However, larger gallstones need to be broken down into smaller fragments. For lithotripsy, either cholangioscopically-guided laser or electrohydraulic procedures are easy and effective. In case of strictures due to biliodigestive anastomoses, additional papillary balloon dilatation may be required. (orig.) [German] Um die Diagnostik von Gallengangssteinen konkurrieren mehrere Verfahren. Die Bedeutung der endoskopischen retrograden Cholangiopankreatographie (ERCP) ist ruecklaeufig, was im Wesentlichen durch die Verbesserung des transabdominellen Ultraschalls, durch die zunehmende Verbreitung des endoskopischen Ultraschalls und durch die Magnetresonanzcholangiopankreatographie (MRCP) bedingt ist. Die MRCP ist wegen der begrenzten

  19. 南京市城区女性性功能障碍的调查%An investigation on female sexual dysfunction among urban Chinese women in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱霞; 潘连军; 陈湘玉; 潘锋; 阚延静

    2011-01-01

    目的:女性性功能障碍(FSD)是影响女性生活质量的常见疾病,有关中国女性FSD的报道少见.本研究探讨南京城区女性FSD的发病情况,为制定中国女性FSD的防治策略提供依据.方法:本研究为回顾性调查,调查对象为2008年8月至2009年3月在南京医科大学附属南京市妇幼保健院进行健康体检的20岁以上女性及其女性陪护人.采用女性性功能指数(FSFI)问卷评估性功能,以FSFI评分总分<25分作为FSD的诊断标准.以各单项评分的中位数作为诊断各类型性功能障碍的标准.结果:共发放问卷1 002份,收回有效问卷609份,有效问卷回收率60.8%.本组女性FSFI得分(24.21±4.40)分,随着年龄增长,FSFI评分及各单项评分逐渐下降.本调查各年龄组总的FSD发生率为56.8%,随年龄增长,FSD发生率逐渐增加,<29岁组为47.1%,30~39岁组为57.0%,40~49组为75.0%,50岁以上高达90.3%.最常见的性功能障碍类型为性满意度下降(43.2%),其次为性高潮障碍(41.7%)、性交疼痛(40.2%)、性欲低下(35.1%)、阴道润滑障碍(31.4%)及性唤起困难(29.6%).结论:FSD是困扰中国城市女性的常见问题,最常见的类型为性满意度下降及性高潮障碍.%Objective: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common problem affecting women's quality of life. However, reports are rarely seen on sexual problems in Chinese women. This study is to investigate the prevalence of FSD among urban Chinese women in Nanjing and offer some evidence for the establishment of preventative measures for FSD in China. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey was conducted in Nanjing, China between August 2008 and March 2009. The sexual function of 609 women aged 20 - 56 years from the urban area of Nanjing were investigated using the Female Sexual Function Index ( FSFI ). The total FSFI score of < 25 was used as the diagnostic criterion for FSD. Results: The total FSFI score was 24.21 ± 4.40 in this group of women

  20. Genetic and functional identification of the likely causative variant for cholesterol gallstone disease at the ABCG5/8 lithogenic locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Kampen, Oliver; Buch, Stephan; Nothnagel, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    The sterolin locus (ABCG5/ABCG8) confers susceptibility for cholesterol gallstone disease in humans. Both the responsible variant and the molecular mechanism causing an increased incidence of gallstones in these patients have as yet not been identified. Genetic mapping utilized patient samples fr...

  1. Sterol transporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8, gallstones, and biliary cancer in 62,000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    Gallstone disease, a risk factor for biliary cancer, has a strong heritable component, but the underlying genes are largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that ABCG8 (adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G8) Asp19His (D19H) genotype predicted risk of gallstones and biliary cancer ...

  2. A Gender Perspective of North American Sinologists in the Studies of Chinese Female Writers%论北美汉学界中国女作家研究中的性别视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩

    2015-01-01

    In recent years ,the sinological studies in North America have witnessed a new turn .A group of female sinologists deviate from the traditional sinological studies and have adopted the perspective of gender in their broad and in-depth studies of contemporary and modern Chinese female w riters .Based on the theo-ries of gender criticism ,biography text criticism ,ideological context as well as gender politics ,their re-search has provided a new way of studying and understanding Chinese modern and contemporary female writers and set up a platform of communication ,exchanges and dialogue for scholars both at home and abroad .%近年来北美汉学研究出现了新的转折,一批女性汉学家运用性别批评理论,从传记生平考据、意识形态语境以及性别政治等角度,对中国现当代女作家进行了广泛而深入的研究,对传统的汉学研究形成了强有力的冲击,为重新认识中国现当代女作家及创作提供了新的研究视角和解读方式,为海内外学界跨文化的沟通、交流与对话搭建平台。

  3. Empirical Analysis of the Behavioral Characteristics and Factors Influencing Chinese Female Entrepreneurship%中国女性创业的行为特征与影响因素实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琪; 张永胜

    2012-01-01

    女性创业越来越受到政府和学术界的关注。女性创业具有巨大的发展潜力与增长空间,与男性创业相比,女性创业有自身的特点。文章在理论分析的基础上,运用中央电视台《致富经》栏目和清华大学中国创业研究中心共同完成的中国百姓创业致富调查所得数据,对中国女性群体在创业活动中的行为特征、影响因素以及相互关系作了实证分析,并提出了有效促进女性创业的对策建议。%Female entrepreneurship is increasingly concerned by the government and academia. It has huge potential for development and growth. Compared to male entrepreneurship, female entrepreneurship has its own characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, this article uses the data from the "Survey of Chinese Entrepreneurial Wealth" co-conducted by CCTV "Become Rich Classics" column and National Entrepreneurship Research Center of Tsinghua University to analyze empirically the behavioral characteristics, important factors affecting female entrepreneurship and their correlations of Chinese female group in the entrepreneurial activities. Finally, the paper puts forward effective countermeasures for promoting female entrepreneurship.

  4. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  5. Role of oral cholecystography, real-time ultrasound, and CT in evaluation of gallstones and gallbladder function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzio, L; Innocenti, P; Genovesi, N; Di Felice, F; Napolitano, A M; Contantini, R; Di Giandomenico, E

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of oral cholecystography (OCG), real-time ultrasound (RUS), and computed tomography (CT) to detect gallstones and to analyze their size, number, and composition was tested preoperatively in 37 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Gallbladder response to a standard meal was also evaluated by OCG and RUS. Gallstones were analyzed chemically for calcium, cholesterol, and bilirubin content. The results show that RUS is the most valuable test for detecting gallstones and is similar to OCG in measuring their size and number, whereas CT underestimates the stone size. Gallbladder function in terms of contractibility can be evaluated by RUS and OCG, but RUS provides useful information even if the gallbladder is not opacified at OCG. CT is more accurate than OCG in detecting the presence of calcium, and CT attenuation numbers are positively correlated with calcium content of the stone (r = 0.87, p less than 0.01). PMID:1612312

  6. 中韩女将小说中“谪降”母题研究%Motif of “Banished from Heaven” in Chinese and South Korean Novels about Female Generals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 王琪

    2014-01-01

    比较中韩女将小说,主要人物经历中均设有“谪降”母题,成为一种惯用叙述模式,而中韩两国均存在极大的相似性,甚至复制的痕迹。中国“谪降”母题历时悠久,来源于传统道教文化,而韩国“谪降”母题鲜有自身文化因子的影响因素,可以考虑其是受到中国传统道教文化和中国通俗小说的深刻影响。挖掘中国因素对韩国“谪降”母题的具体影响,有利于促进中韩文学间相互影响关系的进一步研究。%It is found by comparison that there is motif of “banished from Heaven” in both Chinese and South Korean novels about female generals .As a customary narration style , the motif of Chinese and Japanese novels is very similar.Coming from the Taoist culture , this motif of Chinese novels has a long history .The motif of South Ko-rean novels is formed profoundly influenced by both the Chinese Taoist culture and the popular Chinese novels , while having rare trace of its own cultural factors .

  7. Prevention of gallstones by Lidan Granule: Insight into underlying mechanisms using a guinea pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, XIAO; LIANG, XIAOQIANG; DU, YIJIE; ZHANG, YAN; YANG, MENG; GONG, WEIYI; LIU, BAOJUN; DONG, JINGCHENG; ZHANG, NINGXIA; ZHANG, HONGYING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the mechanism of action of Lidan Granule (LDG) for the prevention of gallstones using a guinea pig model. One hundred guinea pigs were divided into five groups randomly: control (standard diet and saline), model [lithogenic diet (LD) and saline], LDG-H (LD and 2 g/kg of LDG), LDG-L (LD and 1 g/kg of LDG), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (LD and UDCA) as the positive control. At 6 weeks, the rate of gallstone formation and weight of the adrenal gland were recorded and serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured. Levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the hypophysis, and serum cortisol were determined. Bile components were tested with colorimetry. At 6 weeks, the rate of gallstone formation was significantly decreased in the LDG-H (14.29%) and LDG-L (21.43%) groups compared to the model group (81.25%; P<0.01). LDG treatment decreased the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (P<0.01). LDG decreased bile cholesterol and increased bile acid and phospholipid levels in the bile (P<0.01). LDG treatment recovered the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by increasing the expression of CRH (P<0.01) and ACTH (P<0.05). LDG made the bile less lithogenic, improved the function of the HPA axis, and regulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines for the prevention of cholelithiasis. PMID:27347405

  8. 从2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛看中国女冰现状%Analyzing the Current Situation of Chinese Female Ice Hockey from 2014 World Ice Hockey Championships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志男

    2014-01-01

    通过对2014年世界女子冰球锦标赛B组各队比赛成绩、技战术进行统计,对目前中国女子冰球队的状态进行分析,深刻总结训练和比赛中存在的问题。中国女冰在技战术的综合能力上与世界强队相比具有较大差距,尤其是在攻区抢断、回追阻截、射门得分、防守反击等方面的问题较为突出。提出加强个人技战术的培养,结合比赛提高对抗能力,培养多变的战术体系,形成自己的技战术风格等对策和建议,旨在提高女冰的技战术水平,对中国女冰重返世界强队取得冬奥会参赛资格显得尤为重要。%By counting the performance,techniques and tactics of Group B in 2014 World Female Ice Hockey Championships,technical analyze the current situation of Chinese female ice hockey team, deeply summarize the existing problems in training and competitions. The comprehensive ability of techniques and tactics of Chinese female ice hockey team compared with the strong power list of the world with a large gap,especially on stealing in attacking zone,back up and trackles,scoring and defencing and fighting back. Put forward to strengthen the cultivation of individual techniques and tactics,improve counterforce,cultivate variable tactics system,form their own technical and tactical style,in order to improve the technical and tactical level of female ice hocky team,it is extremely important for Chinese female ice hockey team returning the world strong team to get qualification for Winter Olympics.

  9. 中国女性对于FMR1突变产前筛查的态度调查%Acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 章远志

    2012-01-01

    Objective Study the attitude of Chinese female population on prenatal screening of FXS in order to investigate the feasibility of offering prenatal screening.Methods Two hundred and eighty four women with no family history of mental retardation or FXS were recruited in the study.They were grouped into:females married with child (ren) (67/284),females married without child (54/284),unmarried single women (163/284).Then the participants were tested whether they retained the basic genetic knowledge of fragile X by using the adapted questionnaire.Results The proportions of the women who preferred to have prenatal screening for FXS in each group were 77.6%,66.7% and 74.9%.Further more,95.5% of the women in the first female group would like to terminate the pregnancy if a positive result of FXS was reported,so did 92.6% of the women in the second female group and 90.2% of women in the third female group.Conclusion There is a big acceptance of prenatal screening for FMR1 mutation in Chinese female population.Most people would like to take prenatal screening of fragile X syndrome.%目的 调查中国女性对于脆性X综合征产前筛查的态度.方法 随机调查284位没有智力发育障碍及脆性X综合征家族史的女性,分为已婚已育(67/284)、已婚未育(54/284)及未婚未育(163/284)三组.结果 各组愿意接受产前筛查的比率分别为77.6%、66.7%及74.9%.而各组选择在得知产前筛查结果阳性时愿意终止妊娠的比率分别为95.5%、92.6%及90.2%.结论 在中国女性群体中对FMR1基因突变进行产前筛查有较高的接受度.大多数人选择接受针对脆X综合征的产前筛查.

  10. [Optimization of diet therapy in patients with gallstones complicated with obesity and impaired glucose tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, S K

    2003-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of a diet with lower glycaemic index on clinico-metabolic parameters in obese patients with gallstones and impaired glucose tolerance. The results investigations indicated that the lowering of glycaemic index and the caloric reduction of diet have a beneficial effects on dynamic of parameters of functional status of liver and gallbladder. It was noted the increase of medical effect of diet in correction of obesity and impaired parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in this patients in process of dietotherapy. PMID:14619611

  11. Effects of Choleretics on Bile Compositions Drained from Patients with Pigment Gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bai-jun; CUI Nai-qiang; LI Dong-hua; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide evidence for three-level prevention of cholelithiasis by means of observing the effects of some choleretics on bile compositions drained from patients with pigment gallstone.Methods: Twenty-seven patients suffering from primary pigment gallstones and having received treatment of choledochostomies plus T-tube or endoscopic nasal bile drainage (ENBD) were divided equally into three UDA group) and combination of LDL and UDA (the LDL+ UDA group) through oral intake(7 patients in each group). Besides, 6 post-operational patients got no treatment with any drug were allocated in the control group. Bile of all the patients was collected before treatment and on the 1, 3, 5, 7th day after the treatment started to detect levels of total bile acid (TBA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic cheno-desoxycholic acid (GCDCA), total bilirubin (TBIL), uncombined bilirubin (UCB), concentration of calcium ion (Ca2+ ) as well as the bacterio-genetic and endogenous β-glucuronidase activity for comparing.Results: Levels of TBA, GCA, TCA and GCDCA got gradually increased in the UDA group and the LDL+ UDA group after treatment ( P<0.05), while those in the LDL group remained unchanged, showing an insignificant difference as compared with those in the control group. In the LDL group and the LDL + UDA group, TBIL gradually increased while UCB gradually decreased in the course of treatment ( P<0.05). Moreover, levels of Ca2+ and endogenous β-glucuronidase activity got significantly lowered (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined use of LDL and UDA could elevate levels of TBA, GCA, TCA, GCDCA, enhance the excretion of TBIL in patients with pigment gallstone after bile drainage, lower levels of UCB and Ca2+ and the activity of endogenous β-glucuronidase in the bile, so as to reduce the possibility of stone formation of bile, and therefore, it could be used to prevent the production of pigment gallstone, especially to prevent post

  12. RISKS FOR BREAST CANCER IN CHINESE FEMALE:A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW%中国女性乳腺癌危险因素的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴清然

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the risks for breast cancer in Chinese females. [Methods] We comprehensively searched the databases including CNKI, VIP and CBM disc for the case control studies about the risks of breast cancer. [ Results] There were 19 studies in total involving 5 522 participants in case group versus 5 714 participants in control group. It revealed that three factors, the age of menopause ≤44, the first delivery age≤25 and the age of menarche≥17, may be protective factors for the disease. BMI≥24 may be an impertinent factor, while others may be risks for breast cancer. [Conclusion] This systematic review analyses on common risk factors for breast cancer. By enlarging sample size, we reduce the possibility of bias from single study. But as a second evaluation, its reliability is influenced by the quality of included studies and some other factors. So higher quality could be gotten from prospective cohort studies, which provides more reliable data in order to guide the primary prevention of breast cancer.%[目的]系统评价乳腺癌(breast carcinoma)的相关危险因素.[方法]全面检索中国期刊全文数据库、中文科技期刊全文数据库(重庆维普)、中国生物医学文献数据库,从建库截至2010年5月31日,国内公开发表的关于中国女性乳腺癌危险因素的独立病例对照研究.采用RevMan5.O进行Meta分析.[结果]共纳入19项研究,均采用平行的病例对照研究设计,病例组合计5522人,对照组合计5714人.绝经年龄≤44岁,初产年龄≤25岁及初潮年龄≥17岁3个因素可能是乳腺癌发生的保护性因素;BMI≥24可能与疾病发生的相关性不大;而流产次数、是否哺乳、主动与被动吸烟情况等均可能为乳腺癌发生的危险因素.[结论]本系统评价对多种乳腺癌常见相关危险因素进行了综合性分析,通过扩大样本含量,减少了单项研究产生偏倚的可能性.但因本文为二次评价,其论证强度受到纳入研

  13. Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bih-Ru Wang,1,2,* Yuh-Lih Chang,1,2,* Tzeng-Ji Chen,3,4 Jen-Hwey Chiu,5,6 Jing Chong Wu,7 Min-Shan Wu,1 Chia-Lin Chou,1 Yueh-Ching Chou1,2,81Department of Pharmacy, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department and Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Hospital and Health Care Administration, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 7Traditional Medicine Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 8College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Many female breast cancer (FBC patients take Chinese herbal medicine (CHM and Western medication (WM concurrently in Taiwan. Despite the possibility of interactions between the CHM and WM mentioned in previous studies, the pattern of these coprescriptions in FBC patients remains unclear. Hence, the aim of the present study is to investigate the utilization of coprescriptions of CHM and WM among the FBC patients in Taiwan.Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using the sampled cohort in 2009 obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. There were 3,507 FBC patients identified from the registry for catastrophic illness patients. Ambulatory visit records, corresponding prescriptions, and the data of beneficiaries belonging to the FBC patients were further extracted. A total of 1,086 FBC patients used CHM at least once. CHM and WM prescribed within any overlapping duration were defined as coprescriptions.Results: There were 868 (80.0% patients simultaneously receiving CHM and WM. A total of 4,927 CHM prescriptions and 6,358 WM

  14. 中国女性乳腺癌人群归因危险估计%Population-attributable risk estimates for breast cancer in Chinese females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓凤; 姜勇; 曲宸绪; 王建炳; 陈万青; 李辉; 乔友林

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估已知乳腺癌危险因素对我国女性人群的人群归因危险,为中国女性乳腺癌的预防与控制提供依据.方法 利用文献中人群暴露率和相对危险度的数据,计算已知危险因素的人群归因分值(PAF),并利用全国第三次死因调查的数据估计乳腺癌的归因死亡和发病人数.人群暴露率的数据主要来源于大样本、大范围的代表全国人群的调查数据,相对危险度的数据来自Meta分析研究和中国或其他国家的大样本的单个研究资料.结果 居前5位的乳腺癌发病的危险因素依次为良性乳腺疾病(RR =2.62)、乳腺癌家族史(RR =2.39)、吸烟(RR=l.86)、超重(RR=1.60)和月经初潮年龄(RR=l.54).生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的PAF分别为27.84%、23.55%、15.09%、3.60%和2.49%,五大危险因素总PAF为55.95%.2005年,我国女性乳腺癌归因于生殖因素、生活方式、良性乳腺疾病、外源性激素治疗及乳腺癌家族史的发病和死亡人数分别为79 862和22 456例.结论 预防控制各种不良生活方式将可能显著降低中国乳腺癌发病与死亡.%Objective To estimate the contribution of known identified risk factors to breast cancer incidence and mortality in China,and provide evidence to support the prevention and control of breast cancer for Chinese females.Methods We calculated the proportion of breast cancer attributable to specific risk factors.Data on exposure prevalence were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population.Data on relative risks were obtained from Meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies.Cancer mortality and incidence were taken from the Third National Death Survey and from cancer registries in China.Results The first 5 risk factors of breast cancer in China were benign breast disease (RR =2.62),family history of breast cancer

  15. Rehabilitation of Female Prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE women imprisoned for various crimes undergo a reeducation and rehabilitation program which often results in repentance for past wrongdoings, and providing an avenue for them to make a fresh start. Female prisoners study general education courses, learn basic legal concepts and working skills as part of a rehabilitation program that helps reintigrate them into society upon release.

  16. Role of nucleation of bile liquid crystal in gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Yang; Jie Wu; Jin-Yi Li; Lin Gu; Min-Fei Zhou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of bile liquid crystal in the process of gallbladder stone formation and to provide bases for preventing and treating cholelithiasis.METHODS: 46 guinea pigs, half males and half females,were randomly divided into control group and stone-causing group. Normal feed and stoneleading feed were used respectively to raise guinea pigs in the control group and stone-causing group. The guinea pigs were killed in three batches during the raising period. Under polarizing microscope, the pattern changes of bile liquid crystal in the gallbladder biles of the guinea pigs in the control group and stone-causing group were dynamicly observed respectively in single-blind trial.RESULTS: It was found that there were few crystals in the guinea pigs′biles of the control group, and their Malta cross was small and scattered, and existed in single form. With the increase of the feeding days, bile liquid crystals grew and Malta cross became bigger with their distribution densified, denser somewhere, but always existed in single form. While those of the stone-causing group had more bile liquid crystals, Malta cross was big and merged in strings.With the increase of the feeding days, bile liquid crystals grew in amount and strings of Malta cross increased and became bigger. The crosses in strings were arranged more and more regularly and they gradually changed into stone crystals.CONCLUSION: Formation of gallbladder stone is a process of nucleation from different substances, and the causing-stone gallbladder bile is a constantly supersaturated solution, and bile liquid crystal is a nucleation factor in the formation of gallbladder stones. The process of nucleation includes gathering, merging and phase-changing of bile liquid crystals.The process of gathering, merging of bile liquid crystal is the key to nucleation.

  17. Serum leptin levels and insulin resistance are associated with gallstone disease in overweight subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahum Méndez-Sánchez; Luisa B Bermejo-Martínez; Yolanda Vi(n)als; Norberto C Chavez-Tapia; Irina Vander Graff; Guadalupe Ponciano-Rodríguez; Martha H Ramos; Misael Uribe

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish an association between the serum leptin levels and the development of gallstone disease (GD).METHODS: We carried out a non-matched case-controlled study in a university hospital in Mexico City. Two hundred and eighty-seven subjects were included: 97 cases with gallstones and 190 controls. Body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma leptin, insulin, serum lipid, and lipoprotein levels were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Unconditional logistic regression analysis (univariate and multivariate)stratified by BMI was used to calculate the risk of GD.RESULTS: The multivariate conditional regression analysis revealed a model for those patients with BMI <30. The selected variables in the model were HOMA-IR index with OR = 1.31, P= 0.02 and leptin higher than median with OR = 2.11, P= 0.05. In the stratum of BMI ≥30, we did not find a useful model.CONCLUSION: We concluded that insulin resistance and the development of GD appears to be associated with serum leptin levels in subjects with overweight, but not in obese subjects with similar metabolic profiles.

  18. Perceived Multiple Intelligences among Male and Female Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: The Structure of the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the structure of perceived multiple intelligences of 1,464 Chinese gifted students using the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile. To evaluate whether perceived multiple intelligences could be applied adequately across boys and girls, a model hypothesizing different degrees of equivalence across the two gender groups was…

  19. Proportion research of under 1/3 soft tissue profile in Chineses beautiful females%中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖青; 米丛波; 宋美云; 杨川

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨公众审美标准,研究中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3软组织侧貌比例的美学特征.方法:选取时尚杂志、电影、电视剧作品中美貌女性35例,年龄18~35岁,计算机图像处理进行标准化,分别测量8项常用的面下1/3软组织比例.结果:①中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3中,上唇皮肤部分占整个上唇的66%,上唇红高度约占上唇的40%,下唇的外形皮肤部分占整个下唇的52%,下唇红高度约占下唇的68%,下唇与下颌高度比为36%,颏部与下领高度比值为62%(近似黄金指数0.618),下颌高度占下面高度的66%;②中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3许多比例值间都有较强的正相关关系.结论:①初步建立了中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的软组织侧貌比例值范围;②比例值初步分析出中国美貌汉族女性面下1/3的侧貌特征,有利于与类似研究进行比较分析.%Objective To find out the facial profile standard of beautiful female in Chinese people and discuss appreciation of the beauty trend. Methods 35 lateral pictures of famous beautiful females superstars were collected, ages ranging from 18 to 35 years. They were standardized by computer and measuremented 8 proportion indexes of surface under 1/3 soft tissue. Results ①Surface under 1/3 soft tissue of the beautiful females.The chin occupied 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The cutaneous part occupied 2/3 of the entire upper lip height and the vermilion 1/3. The cutaneous part occupied more than 1/3 of the entire lower lip height. the lower lip occupied more than 1/3 of the entire mandibular height. The chin occupied more than 2/3 of the entire mandibular height. The mandibular occupied more than 2/3 of the following department of face; ②lndex of soft tissue 1/3 of under face profile in Chinese beautiful females have relativity. Conclusion ①Sept up soft tissue profile in the lower third of the beautiful females normal value scope in Chinese;②Measure proportion

  20. Relationship between Tourist Motivation and Satisfaction of Chinese Female Tourists to Korea%中国大陆女性赴韩旅游动机对游客满意度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 仇梦嫄; 沙润; 杨燕

    2015-01-01

    旅游动机与游客满意度是旅游研究的核心问题,但较少有将二者纳入一个模型中系统地探讨女性出境旅游动机与满意度之间的关系. 以中国大陆赴韩女性旅游者为例,从行为心理学视角,运用定量与定性分析方法分析赴韩女性旅游动机对游客满意度的影响. 结果显示:中国女性具有多种维度的赴韩旅游动机,且各维度动机间存在强度差异,不同维度的旅游动机强度与体验满意度呈倒"U"型曲线关系,当旅游动机强度过高或过低时,女性旅游体验满意度均较低,只有当动机强度适中时,才能使旅游者表现出比较理性的旅游心态与行为,获得较高的满意度.%Travel motivation and satisfaction of tourists has been the core issue of tourism research, But little research had the two into a model system in which to explore the relationship between women outbound travel moti-vation and satisfaction.This paper takes the Chinese female tourists who visit Korea for example, from the perspec-tive of behavioral psychology, analysis the relationship between the female' s travel motivation and satisfaction by u-sing the quantitative and qualitative methods.The result indicates that there are multi dimension of travel motivation for Chinese female to visit Korea and these motivations have different intensity.The relationship between the inten-sity of multi travel motivation and tourists' satisfaction likes an inverted"U" curve.When the intensity of motiva-tion is too high or too low, the female tourists' satisfaction is relatively low, only when the level of motivation is ap-propriate, female tourists may have a high satisfaction.

  1. 我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(下)--文化与配饰%A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 2) - Culture and Accessories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    Each nationality has its own cultural heritage of wedding customs, while female wedding dress also have stable heritage in terms of culture and accessories. The female wedding dress of Chinese minority nationalities is also regarded as an important embodiment of ethnic aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste. The female wedding dresses of Yao, Miao, Shui, Hui, Zhuang, Dong, Korean, Tibetan and Tu nationalities are the most distinctive and important ethnic costumes.%我国任何民族的婚俗都有其传承特点,而女性嫁衣的文化解读及配饰亦有其稳定的传承性,少数民族女性嫁衣亦被认为是民族审美理想和审美趣味的重要体现。在我国少数民族女性嫁衣中,瑶族、苗族、水族、回族、壮族、侗族、朝鲜族、藏族及土族女性嫁衣都是颇具特点、也极为重要的民族服饰。

  2. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 2) - Culture and Accessories%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(下)--文化与配饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    Each nationality has its own cultural heritage of wedding customs, while female wedding dress also have stable heritage in terms of culture and accessories. The female wedding dress of Chinese minority nationalities is also regarded as an important embodiment of ethnic aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste. The female wedding dresses of Yao, Miao, Shui, Hui, Zhuang, Dong, Korean, Tibetan and Tu nationalities are the most distinctive and important ethnic costumes.%我国任何民族的婚俗都有其传承特点,而女性嫁衣的文化解读及配饰亦有其稳定的传承性,少数民族女性嫁衣亦被认为是民族审美理想和审美趣味的重要体现。在我国少数民族女性嫁衣中,瑶族、苗族、水族、回族、壮族、侗族、朝鲜族、藏族及土族女性嫁衣都是颇具特点、也极为重要的民族服饰。

  3. RELN基因rs12705169位点与女性偏执型精神分裂症关联%Positive association between rs12705169 in RELN and female schizophrenia patients in a Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟云; 张红星; 赵晶媛; 宋学勤; 李文强; 郝伟; 吕路线

    2012-01-01

    目的 以中国汉族偏执型精神分裂症患者为研究对象,重复验证RELN(Reelin)基因单核苷酸多态性与精神分裂症的关联性.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版为诊断标准(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition,DSM-Ⅳ)在河南省北部地区收集326 例偏执型精神分裂症患者(男女各半),在同一地域招募健康体检者334 名(男女各半) 作为对照,检测RELN 基因rs12705169、rs11764507 和rs17157643 单核苷酸多态性位点.结果 仅发现患者组和对照组之间rs12705169 位点的基因型和等位基因频率差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01).按性别分层后进一步分析,rs12705169 在女性患者和对照之间基因型和基因频率分布差异具有统计学意义(CC:OR = 0.27,95%CI = 0.18 ~ 0.45; AC:OR = 0.43,95%CI = 0.29 ~ 0.63,P < 0.01).结论 RELN 基因多态性与中国女性偏执型汉族精神分裂症存在关联,RELN 基因可能是精神分裂症的易感基因.%Objective To analyze the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) , in RELN gene and paranoid schizophrenia, and to determine if the RELN gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Methods The participants consisted of 326 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (163 males and 163 females) and 334 healthy controls (167 males and 167 females). All patients were unrelated Han Chinese born and living in the North Henan province. The concurrent diagnoses were made by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) (1994). Healthy controls were recruited from volunteers with simple nonstructured interview performed by psychiatrists. Three SNPs were selected and genotyped. Genotyping was performed using the Real-time PCR. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between patients and controls to assess the association to schizophrenia. Results A

  4. Progress of the research on gallstones susceptibility genes%胆囊结石易感基因的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 贺学; 康龙丽

    2016-01-01

    The gallbladder stones (GD) is a kind of digestive system disease affected by multiple factors .The major causes are supersaturated cholesterol in bile and cholestasis ,as a result ,many factors that result in the change of cholesterol concentra‐tion in blood is likely to be associated with the formation of stones .In addition ,the female hormones ,pregnancy ,diabetes ,liver cirrhosis ,long‐term parenteral nutrition ,and hemolytic anemia can also cause gallbladder stones .More related studies show that people geographic and racial differences also played a very important role in the occurrence of the disease .Those factors men‐tioned above can be influenced by genetic factors to some extent ,and related study found that abnormal expression of relevant genes is closely related to the formation of gallstone disease .%胆囊结石(gallstone disease ,GD)是一种受多因素影响的消化道疾病。胆囊结石的主要原因是胆汁中胆固醇过饱和以及胆汁淤积。因此,很多影响胆固醇浓度的因素都可能与结石的形成有关。除此之外,女性激素分泌异常、妊娠、糖尿病、肝硬化、长期肠外营养、溶血性贫血等因素也可能引起胆囊结石。更有相关研究表明,人群地域和种族差异对该病的发生同样起了相当重要的作用。上述因素不乏受遗传因素的影响,研究发现,相关基因的异常表达,与胆囊结石的形成密切相关。

  5. 从Mrs Dalloway两个译本的比较中探究译者的女性意识%Female Consciousness in Translators:Contrastive Study of Two Chinese Versions of Mrs Dalloway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑川

    2013-01-01

    The study of feminist translation theory starts very late in China, researchers begin to pay attention to the feminist translation in the late 20th century.By comparing two Chinese versions of Mrs Dalloway from the perspective of feminist transla-tion theory,this paper is to probe into translator`s female consciousness in the translation of feminist text.%女性主义翻译理论研究在我国起步较晚,20世纪末期翻译研究者才开始关注女性主义翻译。该文将从女性主义翻译理论角度出发,通过对Mrs Dalloway的两个中文译本的对比,探究译者在翻译女性主义文本过程中的女性意识显现。

  6. 我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的生物力学分析%Biomechanical Analysis of the Hop Technique of Chinese Elite Female Triple Jumpers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹景川

    2012-01-01

    This research chooses the top eight athletes of the female triple jump finals in track and field events of the llth National Games as the objects, and takes the kinetic index of the hop techniques as the content of the research. In light of the relevant data of the world elite female triple jumpers, the research is trying to find out the factors which influence the hop technology of Chinese elite female triple jumpers. The results indicate that the touching-ground angle and the body' s anteversion angle of Chinese elite female triple jumpers is universally small, the tortuosity of the keen joint of the take-off leg is comparatively big, the angle of the hip is a little smaller, the keen joint of the take-off leg has a small range, the hip-bone joint angel and the pedaled and stretch range of the take-off leg are also smaller. The cushion period is a little longer; while in a very short time of the take-off leg leaving the ground, the take-off foot manifests the technique characteristics as the touching-ground angle is bigger than the take-off angle.%以参加第11届全运会田径比赛女子三级跳远决赛的前8名运动员作为研究对象,就其单足跳技术的运动学指标作为研究内容,结合世界优秀女子三级跳远运动员的相关资料,试图找出影响我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员单足跳技术的因素所在。结果表明:我国优秀女子三级跳远运动员的着地角与躯干前倾角普遍偏小;起跳腿膝关节的弯曲程度较大,髋角偏小;起跳腿膝关节的蹬伸幅度小,缓冲时间较长;起跳腿离地瞬间的起跳脚表现出"着地角大于起跳角"技术特征。

  7. Gallstones: a comparison of real-time ultrasonography and cholecystography with surgical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, E W; Hallgren, S E; Duran, L

    1987-08-01

    Real-time ultrasonography is more accurate and technically more efficient than gray scale ultrasonography in establishing the diagnosis of cholecystolithiasis. In prospective studies accuracy may be as high as 96%, and reflects the use of specific sonographic diagnostic criteria. Retrospective studies, however, reveal a lower accuracy rate of 90%, suggesting that practicing radiologists are not ready to accept these restricting criteria. On the other hand, oral cholecystography (OCG) is well tolerated and gives a reproducible, reliable result independent of technical expertise. It is 96% accurate in detecting the presence of gallstones and carries a sensitivity of .97. Both studies are prone to overinterpretation, which skews specificity and adversely affects diagnostic accuracy. In this retrospective review of 234 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy, real-time ultrasound was 90% accurate with a sensitivity of .96 in determining the presence of cholecystolithiasis. Oral cholecystography was 95% accurate with a sensitivity of .97. PMID:3303363

  8. Fatty liver, carotid disease and gallstones: A study of age-related associations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amedeo Lonardo; Paola Loria; Silvia Lombardini; Federica Scaglioni; Stefano Ballestri; Anna Maria Verrone; Marco Bertolotti; Lucia Carulli; Dorval Ganazzi; Nicola Carulli

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate carotid intima-media thickening (IMT)and plaques, gallstone disease (GD) and fatty liver (FL)as a function of age.METHODS: In 449 subjects, FL and carotid disease were assessed ultrasonographically. In a subgroup of 65/449 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), carotid disease, GD and associated factors were determined.RESULTS: FL of unspecified etiology was more common in younger and GD in older individuals. FL subjects had an increased prevalence of IMT and a decreased prevalence of plaques and manifested carotid disease earlier. Plaques were more common in subjects with GD.Age was an independent predictor of carotid disease outcome and FL was a protective factor for plaques. In NAFLD, there was an inverse correlation between body weight and age and the latter independently predicted carotid findings.CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk in patients with FL and NAFLD needs to be assessed as a function of age and body weight.

  9. The economic burden of gallstone lithotripsy. Will cost determine its fate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealon, W H; Urrutia, F; Fleming, D; Thompson, J C

    1991-06-01

    Gallstone lithotripsy (LITHO) was performed on 52 patients who underwent 107 procedures. Two hundred sixty-seven gallstone patients were screened and 215 (81%) were excluded. Excessive stone burden and nonvisualization by oral cholecystogram (OCG) were the most common reasons for exclusion. The hospital course of 100 excluded patients who later underwent elective cholecystectomy was evaluated for length of hospital stay (2.3 days) and total cost of treatment ($3685.00). Successful fragmentation to less than 5 mm was achieved in 43 LITHO patients (83%). Five LITHO patients (10%) required conversion to operative management. Complications of LITHO included acute cholecystitis (1 of 52 patients) and biliary colic (17 of 52 patients, or 33%). Multiple procedures in one patient were common. Costs for LITHO were calculated in two ways: first the individual cost for each of the 52 candidates; second the cost for successful LITHO was calculated by excluding five patients who required operation as well as five patients (10%) who are predicted failures of LITHO. Including the preoperative evaluation, treatment, recovery room, and follow-up, the individual LITHO cost for 52 patients was $8275.00. If the same total expenditure is calculated after excluding patients who required operation and those predicted to fail, the cost per 'successful' LITHO procedure was $10,245. The cost of 1 year of bile acid therapy is $1949.00 or $2413.00 per 'successful' procedure. Follow-up costs were $1232.00 per patient or $1525.00 per 'successful' procedure. The added LITHO cost incurred by screening eventual noncandidates was $904.00 per successful procedure. The sum of these individual costs was $15,087.00 per success, as compared to $3685.00 for cholecystectomy. No allowance was made for cost of stone recurrence. Lithotripsy costs appear to be sufficiently high to render the procedure unlikely to emerge as the treatment of choice. PMID:2039296

  10. Technique and training characteristics of Chinese elite female javelin throwers%我国女子标枪运动员技术特征与训练特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立冬; 曲淑华

    2016-01-01

    Chinese female javelin throwers have achieved great results both in Inchon Asia Games and Beijing World Championships,Zhang Li winning the gold medal in Asia Games,and Lv Huihui winning the silver medal in World Championships.Foreign javelin coaches’training theory and un-derstanding on technique had a deep influence on Chinese athletes.By using literature review,trac-ing method,interview and video-tapes,this paper made a comparison on the technique character-istics of domestic and international elite female javelin throwers.The results show that there is still a gap in release parameters between domestic athletes and international elite athletes.The release ve-locity is a decisive element to distance rather than the only parameter;Chinese athletes’release ve-locity is slow.Release angle tends to be larger,angle of trunk and impulse step are small while the delivery step is too long.In view of the above,we need to have a deep understanding on foreign coa-ches’technique and training theory,and this paper mainly introduce the four aspects:rotational throwing,shoulder joint strength training,force sequence and training characteristics.%运用文献资料法、跟踪法、访谈法及录像分析法,对国家队以及国内优秀运动员技术特征与国际优秀运动员进行对比。研究结果显示,与国际优秀运动员相比,国内运动员在出手参数方面仍存在一定差距,运动员出手速度偏低,出手速度是决定运动成绩的重要因素但不是唯一因素;出手角度呈偏大趋势;躯干倾角过小、冲量步过小而制动步过大,膝关节角度与国际优秀运动员一致。外教对标枪技术的理解与训练理念值得我们学习,研究主要从“旋转”掷标枪技术、肩关节力量训练、运动员发力顺序以及训练特征四个方面加以介绍。

  11. 我国高等学校女性领导群体特征分析%On Characteristics of Female Leaders of Chinese Higher Education Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻恺; 王饮寒

    2015-01-01

    On the data base of resumes of 770 female leaders from 1,166 regular undergraduate colleges and universities,this research adopts CV research method to study similarities and differences of group characteristics of female leader in colleges and universities from school level,position and du-ties in China. The study found that there are few female leaders of the overall number with low pro-portion. School level,position and duties have a mutual influence on serving for female leaders. The higher the school level is,the better working conditions are for female leaders. There is little difference in female leadership characteristics between chief and deputy posts. Due to different positions,working conditions for female executive leaders are generally better than the Party leaders. Based on the current characteristics and current situation,the women themselves,colleges and universities as well as the com-munity need to work together to improve their post competence,optimize the service proportions and structure of female leaders in our organizations,create a social support system for their development,and optimize the educational ecology.%运用履历研究法,以我国1166所普通本科高等学校的770位校级女性领导的简历为数据基础,从学校层次、职位与职务三个维度探讨我国高等学校女性领导的群体特征,研究发现:我国本科院校女性领导总体人数少、比例低;学校层次、职位与职务彼此间对女性领导的任职具有相互影响;学校层次越高,女性领导的任职条件越好;正副职职位间,女性领导任职特征差异不大;不同职务间,女性行政领导的任职条件普遍优于党委领导。针对当前特征与现状,女性自身、高校以及社会需共同努力,提高女性自身任职能力,优化组织中女性领导的任职比例与结构,创建女性发展的社会支持系统,优化教育生态。

  12. On Characteristics of Female Leaders of Chinese Higher Education Institutions%我国高等学校女性领导群体特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻恺; 王饮寒

    2015-01-01

    On the data base of resumes of 770 female leaders from 1,166 regular undergraduate colleges and universities,this research adopts CV research method to study similarities and differences of group characteristics of female leader in colleges and universities from school level,position and du-ties in China. The study found that there are few female leaders of the overall number with low pro-portion. School level,position and duties have a mutual influence on serving for female leaders. The higher the school level is,the better working conditions are for female leaders. There is little difference in female leadership characteristics between chief and deputy posts. Due to different positions,working conditions for female executive leaders are generally better than the Party leaders. Based on the current characteristics and current situation,the women themselves,colleges and universities as well as the com-munity need to work together to improve their post competence,optimize the service proportions and structure of female leaders in our organizations,create a social support system for their development,and optimize the educational ecology.%运用履历研究法,以我国1166所普通本科高等学校的770位校级女性领导的简历为数据基础,从学校层次、职位与职务三个维度探讨我国高等学校女性领导的群体特征,研究发现:我国本科院校女性领导总体人数少、比例低;学校层次、职位与职务彼此间对女性领导的任职具有相互影响;学校层次越高,女性领导的任职条件越好;正副职职位间,女性领导任职特征差异不大;不同职务间,女性行政领导的任职条件普遍优于党委领导。针对当前特征与现状,女性自身、高校以及社会需共同努力,提高女性自身任职能力,优化组织中女性领导的任职比例与结构,创建女性发展的社会支持系统,优化教育生态。

  13. Can variation in HIV/STD-related risk be explained by individual SES? Findings from female sex workers in a rural Chinese county

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Ran; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liang, Shaoling

    2008-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) at a macro level because the majority of new cases of HIV infection in the world have been reported in underdeveloped or developing countries. However, empirical data on the relationship between individual SES and HIV/STD related risk have been mixed. Employing quantitative data from 454 female sex workers, this study was designed to examine the profile of the study sample in terms of their individual...

  14. 我国女性传统婚服的文脉与趋势%A Study on the Trends and Cultural Context of Chinese Female Traditional Wedding Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非; 季勇

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese female traditional wedding dress has experienced long-time evolution and development, the core cultural meaning and ethnic features have retained. In an era of pursuing individualism, though people can freely choose their wedding dress, wedding customs are still tinged with traditional characteristics. With necessary guidance, promotion and innovation, female traditional wedding dress will continue to play important role in meet personalized needs of contemporary people.%我国女性传统婚服虽经漫长演变,其蕴含的民族特征与文化精髓至今依存。在追求个性的时代中,人们虽可自由选择婚服,但婚礼习俗依然带有传统特色。如加以引导、推广和创新,女性传统婚服依然有着满足现代消费者的基础。

  15. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  16. A Study on the Trends and Cultural Context of Chinese Female Traditional Wedding Dress%我国女性传统婚服的文脉与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非; 季勇

    2015-01-01

    我国女性传统婚服虽经漫长演变,其蕴含的民族特征与文化精髓至今依存。在追求个性的时代中,人们虽可自由选择婚服,但婚礼习俗依然带有传统特色。如加以引导、推广和创新,女性传统婚服依然有着满足现代消费者的基础。%Although Chinese female traditional wedding dress has experienced long-time evolution and development, the core cultural meaning and ethnic features have retained. In an era of pursuing individualism, though people can freely choose their wedding dress, wedding customs are still tinged with traditional characteristics. With necessary guidance, promotion and innovation, female traditional wedding dress will continue to play important role in meet personalized needs of contemporary people.

  17. 女性性功能量表的汉化及其信效度评价%Translation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) into Chinese and its reliability and validity evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼青青; 张琴薇; 姚慧岚; 田园; 嵇加佳; 刘超

    2013-01-01

    目的 翻译女性性功能量表(female sexual function index,FSFI)并评价其在普通人群和糖尿病患者中的信度及效度.方法 通过系统的翻译-回译形成中文版FSFI量表,再对其进行信、效度评价.结果 内容效度系数值为0.953;2次测量在每个维度均有良好的相关性,r值在0.817~0.922,以阴道润滑维度相关系数最高(0.922),而性唤起维度最低(0.817);所有样本(包括糖尿病与非糖尿病)各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.760~0.874;糖尿病样本中各维度的克朗巴赫α信度系数0.783~0.882;而非糖尿病样本则为0.757~0.865.Pearson相关系数分析发现所有样本、糖尿病组及普通人群组各维度之间的相关性良好.结论 中文版FSFI有良好的内容效度、重测信度和内部一致性,可作为今后临床评估女性性功能的量表.%Objective To translate the Female Sexual Function Index(FSFI) into Chinese and establish its psychometric properties among ordinary Chinese people and diabetes patients.Methods A two-phase study design was applied.The Chinese version of FSFI was established by translation and back translation,then the reliability and validity of the FSFI were evaluated.Results The content validity coefficient of FSFI was 0.953.The test-retest reliability in each dimension had good correlations (r value was 0.817~0.922),with the highest correlation coefficient in vaginal lubrication dimension (0.922) and arousal dimension the minimum (0.817).In all samples (including diabetes and non diabetes) a reliability coefficients of the Cronbach alpha of each dimension was from 0.760 to 0.874.The Cronbach alpha of each dimension for the diabetic group was from 0.783 to 0.882,and from 0.757 to 0.865 in the non-diabetes group.Pearson correlation of each dimension was very good in total samples,the diabetes group,and the non-diabetes group.Conclusions The psychometric properties of the FSFI demonstrated satisfactory validity and reliability

  18. [Determination of trace elements in Mongolian medicine Susi-12 curing cholecystitis and gallstone disease by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Er-Deng-sang; Hang, Gai-ba-te-re; Ba, Tu; Duan, Yi-wen

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements in Mongolian medicine Susi-12 for cholecystitis and gallstones were analyzed in order to discuss the relation between Susi-12's drug action and the trace elements. The analysis was carried out using the pressure seal microwave digestion and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was found that the medicine contained great amount of trace elements, especially human-body-needed trace elements, such as Ca, Al, Mg, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn, Cu etc., whereas heavy metals are very little, e.g. the contents of Pb, Cb, As etc are below the country's limit. The recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 94.63%-106.40%. The relative standard deviation RSDSusi-12 can effectively control and cure cholecystitis and gallstones, and the effective rate reaches 91.2% to 100%. So the trace elements in Susi-12 must have a close connection with the drug action.

  19. Analysis on risk factors of chronic diseases among Chinese female physicians%我国女医师慢性病相关危险因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐士格; 李晓燕; 王临虹; 王丽敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解女医师烟草暴露、饮酒、不合理饮食和身体活动4类慢性病相关危险因素的流行状况.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法抽取全国医疗机构和疾控机构的女医师共5 468名,以自填式问卷了解其一般人口学特征、慢性病相关危险因素(吸烟、饮酒、饮食和身体活动)的流行状况.结果 我国女医师的现在吸烟率为0.34%(95%CI:0.18%~0.50%),二手烟暴露率为76.49%(95%CI:75.18%~77.79%),有害饮酒率为1.82%(95%CI:1.45%~2.19%);蔬菜水果不足率为51.79%(95%CI:49.96%~53.62%);经常锻炼率为20.06%(95%CI:18.90%~21.23%),每日静态行为时间的中位数为7小时(P25~P75:4~10小时).结论 我国女医师存在一定水平的慢性病相关危险因素暴露,尤以二手烟暴露、蔬菜水果摄入量不足、身体活动不足更为突出.%Objective To describe the prevalence of risk factors of chronic diseases among Chinese female physicians, including tobacco exposure, alcohol drinking, unhealthy dietary and physical activity. Methods A total of 5 468 female physicians, which were sampled from nationwide medical institutions and disease control centers, were enrolled in the survey. The demographic characteristics and prevalence of chronic disease risk factors ( smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary and physical activity ) of them were understood with self-administered questionnaires. Results The current smoking rate, second-hand smoke exposure rate, harmful alcohol drinking rate, inadequate intake rate of vegetables and fruits and regular exercise rate of Chinese female physicians was 0. 34% ( 95% CI:0. 18% -0. 50% ), 76. 49% ( 95% CI: 75.18%-77.79% ), 1. 82% ( 95% CI: 1. 45%-2. 19% ), 51. 79% ( 95% CI:49. 96%-53. 62% ) and 20. 06% ( 95% CI: 18.90%-21. 23% ), respectively. The median of time spent on sedentary behaviors per day was 7 hours ( P25-P75 :4-10 hours ). Conclusion There is certain level of exposure to risk factors among Chinese female physicians

  20. A prospective cohort study on the association between coffee drinking and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-05-28

    Only one previous study has examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of acute pancreatitis, and it found a reduced risk for alcohol-related episodes among high consumers of coffee. Therefore, we examined (1) the association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and (2) whether this association was modified by alcohol intake. Data were obtained from two prospective cohorts, the Cohort of Swedish Men and the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 76 731 men and women (born 1914-1952). Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline with a FFQ, and the cohorts were followed up between 1998 and 2012 via linkage to national health registries. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. During 1 035 881 person-years of total follow-up, 383 cases (246 in men and 137 in women) of incident non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis were identified. Overall, and irrespective of whether a categorical or a continuous exposure model was used, we observed no association between coffee consumption and risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (e.g. the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for each 1 cup/d increase in coffee consumption was 0·97; 95 % CI 0·92, 1·03). There was no evidence of effect modification by alcohol intake (P interaction=0·77). In conclusion, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis in this large prospective cohort study. Because of the limited number of epidemiological studies and their conflicting results, further research is needed to elucidate this potential association.

  1. Fluoroscopy-Guided Percutaneous Gallstone Removal Using a 12-Fr Sheath in High-Risk Surgical Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwan [Keimyung University, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Joo [Andong General Hospital, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae Beom [Gyeonsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic cholecystolithotomy under fluoroscopic guidance in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis. Sixty-three consecutive patients of high surgical risk with acute calculous cholecystitis underwent percutaneous transhepatic gallstone removal under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using a Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance on three days after performing a percutaneous cholecystostomy. Large or hard stones were fragmented using either the snare guide wire technique or the metallic cannula technique. Gallstones were successfully removed from 59 of the 63 patients (94%). Reasons for stone removal failure included the inability to grasp a large stone in two patients, and the loss of tract during the procedure in two patients with a contracted gallbladder. The mean hospitalization duration was 7.3 days for acute cholecystitis patients and 9.4 days for gallbladder empyema patients. Bile peritonitis requiring percutaneous drainage developed in two patients. No symptomatic recurrence occurred during follow-up (mean, 608.3 days). Fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous gallstone removal using a 12-Fr sheath is technically feasible and clinically effective in high-risk surgical patients with acute cholecystitis

  2. Dif ferences and signiifcance of motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastrin in blood and gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Hai Zhang; Shuo-Dong Wu; Yang Su; Jun-Zhe Jin; Ying Fan; Hong Yu; Li-Kui Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The disorders of gallbladder motility may play an important role in the formation of gallstones. Many neural and hormonal factors and their interactions regulate gallbladder motility and bile lfow into the duodenum. Further study in these factors may help to reveal the etiology of gallbladder diseases. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship of the levels of motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and gastrin in blood and gallbladder tissues with the formation of cholelithiasis. METHODS:The levels of motilin, gastrin and VIP in blood and gallbladder tissues of 36 patients with gallbladder stones, 14 patients with gallbladder polyps, 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with common bile duct stones were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS:The level of motilin in plasma and gallbladder tissues of the gallbladder stone group was higher than that of the control and gallbladder polyp groups (P CONCLUSIONS:The abnormal excretion of hormonal factors is closely related to gallstone formation. The high level of VIP in gallbladder tissues may be an important cause of gallbladder hypomotility. The abnormal level of serum gastrin may be related to the gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with gallstones.

  3. A meta-analysis on overweight, obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population%超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 钱云; 靳子义; 董美华; 韩仁强; 周金意; 赵金扣; 张作风; 武鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Methods Literatures published in China and abroad about overweight,obesity and breast cancer risk among Chinese females were searched.We used "breast cancer","overweight"," obesity"," weight"," body mass index" and "risk factors" as keywords,to retrieve papers in Chinese literature databases including CNKI,Wanfang and Weipu database.The same strategy was used to retrieve English papers in English literature database including Embase database,PubMed,Science Direct,Elsevier and Cochrane database,supplemented by literature tracing method.Time range was from the founding of each database to April 2012.A total of 124 research papers were collected.Using Stata11.2 software,meta-analysis was conducted,combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the associations between overweight,obesity and the risk of breast cancer in Chinese female population.Results Eighteen studies were included in meta-analysis,among them 12 studies were in Chinese and 6 were in English,with a number of 7217 cases and 81 605 controls.Results showed a 7.7%increased risk of breast cancer among overweight or obesity women (OR =1.08,95% CI:1.04-1.12).Compared with normal BMI women,the OR(95% CI) of overweight or obesity women were 1.07 (1.03-1.11) and 1.56 (1.29-1.84) before and after the adjustment of menopausal status.Conclusion Overweight,obesity may be important risk factors of breast cancer in Chinese female population.The intervention and control activities may reduce the risk of breast cancer at population level.%目的 探讨超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌发病风险的关系.方法 收集国内外公开发表的关于超重肥胖与中国女性乳腺癌研究的文献,以“乳腺癌”、“超重”、“肥胖”、“体重”、“体质指数”、“体重指数”和“危险因素”为关键词,

  4. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  5. Experience of Southern Chinese: new challenges in treating young female breast cancer patients at child-bearing age--a call for multi-disciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Chu, Annie Tsz-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Compared with western populations, Southern Chinese, especially those residing in Hong Kong, are experiencing increasing breast cancer incidence and also a younger onset of breast cancer. Combating this problem and treating young women with breast cancer poses specific challenges and complicated considerations. With reference to the postponement in the age of marriage and reproduction in modern societies, the issue of fertility after breast cancer, especially for high-risk young patients, is one significant quality of life concern that cannot be underestimated as a secondary medical topic. While the issue has its significance and is confronting front-line breast cancer care teams of different disciplines, related research is mostly on Caucasians. In cultures where the traditional expectation on women for child-bearing is still prominent, young breast cancer patients may endure significant distress over fertility options after breast cancer. There is a lack of related data on Asian breast cancer survivors at child-bearing age, which calls for a pressing need to encourage qualitative groundwork, case reports, and cohort experiences in hope for providing insight and arouse research interest. In order to provide a long-term comprehensive multidisciplinary management service with encouragement to encompass prospects for a positive future among young breast cancer survivors, relevant disciplines need to collaborate and work efficaciously together both on clinical and research aspects of cancer-related fertility issues. PMID:22994790

  6. Feasibility and acute toxicity of 3-dimensional conformal external-beam accelerated partial-breast irradiation for early-stage breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery in Chinese female patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-yan; HE Zhen-yu; XUE Ming; CHEN Li-xin; WU San-gang; GUAN Xun-xing

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies worldwide have advocated the replacement of whole-breast irradiation with accelerated partial breast irradiation using three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiation (APBI-3DCRr) for early-stage breast cancer. But APBI can be only used in selected population of patients with early-staged breast cancer. It is not replacing the whole breast radiotherapy. This study aimed to examine the feasibility and acute normal tissue toxicity of the APBI-3DCRT technique in Chinese female patients who generally have smaller breasts compared to their Western counterparts.Methods From May 2006 to December 2009, a total of 48 Chinese female patients (with early-stage breast cancer who met the inclusion criteria) received APBI-3DCRT after breast-conserving surgery at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The total dosage from APBI-3DCRT was 34 Gy, delivered in 3.4 Gy per fractions, twice per day at intervals of at least six hours. The radiation dose, volume of the target area and volume of irradiated normal tissues were calculated.Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) 3.0.Results Among the 48 patients, the planning target volume for evaluation (PTVE) was (90.42±9.26) cm3, the ipsilateral breast volume (IBV) was (421.74±28.53) cm3, and the ratio between the two was (20.74±5.86)%. Evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of the PTVE revealed excellent dosimetric results in 14 patients and acceptable results in 34 patients. The dose delivered to the PTVE ranged from 93% to 110% of the prescribed dose. The average ratio of the volume of PTVE receiving 95% of the prescription dose (V95) was (99.26±0.37)%. The habituation index (HI) and the conformity index (CI) were 1.08±0.01 and 0.72±0.02, respectively, suggesting good homogeneity and conformity of the dose delivered to the target field. The radiation dose to normal tissues and organs was within the dose limitation.Subjects experienced mild acute

  7. 论20世纪中国女性写作的历史意识与史述传统%On the Historical Consciousness and Tradition of Chinese Female Writings in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王侃

    2011-01-01

    Women are the blind spots in China history of two thousand years, which makes "history" as a relative huge political concept for women. Thus, "history" or "historical narrative" is a writing topic for women to choose after they gain writing power which is significant for the modern Chinese women's writing. There are three stages to develop in the 20th Century for Chinese women writing: from the recognition of "female national writing" to looking at the history of revolutionary writing, and a broken and critical historical narrative in the 1990s to emphasize the building of the main type.%女性是两千年历史的盲点,这使得“历史”成为一个相对于女性的巨大的政治概念。由此,“历史”或“历史叙事”成为女性获得写作权力后必须面对的一个写作主题。这个主题的写作对于进入现代以来的中国女性写作意义非凡。20世纪中国女性写作的史述传统经历了由认同历史的“女性国民化写作”到审视历史的革命化写作的演进,并在20世纪90年代发展为旨在强调主体性构建的断裂式、批判性的历史叙事。

  8. 第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利技术统计分析研究%Statistical Analysis of the 30 th Olympic Games Chinese Female Basketball Team’ s Technical Failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2015-01-01

    采用统计法、文献资料法、专家访谈法对第30届奥运会中国女篮比赛失利的技术指标进行统计分析,认为中国女篮在助攻数据上存在显著性差异,抢断数据存在非常显著性差异;运动员平均年龄较轻,身高上具有一定优势,但力量相对较差,对抗能力较弱;心理素质和对节奏的掌控、自我调节能力相对比较差,积极主动性不高;个人补、协防意识和技术较差,整体防守的积极主动性、攻击性不强。%On the basis of statistics , literature review and expert interview , this study statistically analyzes the 30th Olympic Games Chinese female basketball team ’ s tactic failures.The conclusions are: Chinese basketball team’s data of assists exhibit significant disparities;the data of steals exhibit highly significant disparities;the ath-letes’ average age is comparatively young;their heights are an advantage , but comparatively weak in physical and offensive strength;the athletes exhibit relatively weak mental strength , rhythm control , self-adjusting ability and aggressiveness;weaknesses are found in the aspects of individual fill-in and double-cover awareness and technique;the whole team exhibit lack of aggressiveness in defense and attack .

  9. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  10. The Comparison of Female Images in Chinese and Western Classical Tragedies%中西古典悲剧中的女性形象比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锐

    2011-01-01

    The feminine images in Chinese classical tragedies are passive, responsible compared with these in western classical tragedies, they often has to do something and control theirselves, what' s more, they often obeyed the anticipation of male and the society unconsciously . Their images have manifested morality and justice esteem in China national culture, and neglected human nature and individual emotion. But in the Western classical tragedies, the feminine images manifested strong individualism ideas such as the humanist , respection to individuality and emotion. This kind of different national culture point of view in China and the West has the inalienable relation with different economic society lifes. Analysing the similarities and differences of these images, we can understand thoroughly China and the West culture tradition.%中国悲剧中的女性形象和西方悲剧中的女性形象相比,更多的是被动,是责任,是诸多的不得已和自控,而且更多的是不自觉地顺从了男性和社会对她们的期待。她们的形象体现了中国民族文化中对道义的推崇,对人性和个人情感的忽视。而西方古典悲剧中的女性形象则体现了西方以人为本、尊重个性、尊重情感的浓重的个人主义观念。这种不同的民族文化心态与中西不同的经济社会生活有着不可分割的联系。

  11. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K

    2016-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better. PMID:26886588

  12. 女医师自诉颈肩痛及其影响因素%Self-Reported Neck and Shoulder Pain and Its Influencing Factors among Chinese Female Medical Professionals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐士格; 王临虹; 王丽敏; 李晓燕; 王志会

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解女医师颈肩痛自报患病情况及其影响因素. [方法]采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法抽取全国医疗和疾病预防控制机构的女医师共5468名,以自填式问卷了解其一般人口学特征、工作相关情况、个人生活习惯及颈肩痛自报患病情况等. [结果]女医师的颈肩痛自报患病率为46.1%(95%CI:44.7%~47.4%).不同年龄、地区和机构类别间的颈肩痛自报患病率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同年龄组间,年龄越大自报患病率越高(P<0.05);不同地区间,西部自报患病率最高,东部次之,中部最低(P<0.05);不同机构间,医疗机构自报患病率高于疾控机构(P<0.05).多因素非条件logistic回归分析显示,教育程度高、工作年限长、加班、值夜班、静态行为时间长、饮酒和入睡困难是颈肩痛的危险因素. [结论]我国女医师颈肩痛自报患病率较高,其危险因素来自人口学特征、工作相关情况和个人生活习惯等多个方面.%[ Objective ] To estimate the prevalence of neck and shoulder pain (NSP) and its influential factors among Chinese female medical professionals. [ Methods ] A multistage, stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select 5 468 female medical professionals from medical institutions and centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) in China. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics, work-related conditions, lifestyle, and self-reported prevalence of NSP. [ Results ] The self-reported NSP prevalence was 46.1% (95%CI: 44.7%-47.4%), and significantly different among different age groups, regions, and institutions (P<0.05). The older age group showed a higher self-reported NSP prevalence (P<0.05). The highest self-reported prevalence was found in western area, followed by eastern area and middle area (P<0.05). Female medical professionals in medical institutions

  13. Research on the Menstruation Related Issue in Female Reserve Forces for Chinese Table Tennis Players%中国乒乓球女子后备力量月经状况的调查与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永安; 李小娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the menstrual function of 67 players in the winter training of Women's Youth Team of Chinese Table Tennis Team. The result showed that early and long - term table tennis train- ing has no obvious adverse effects on the menstruation of the female players but the menarche age has the trends to get younger; a higher incidence of menstrual cycle abnormity, dysmenorrheal, premenstrual symp- toms but the low attendance rates and lack of the menstrual - related knowledge. Proposal: It is important to teach the female reserve forces adolescent physical knowledge, encourage the players to have an active treat- ment, strengthen ~ientific training.%对参加中国乒乓球女二队冬训67名运动员的月经状况进行问卷调查。结果表明:早期、长期系统的乒乓球训练对女子运动员月经初潮无明显及不良影响,但是月经初潮年龄有变小的趋势;运动员月经周期异常、痛经和经前期症状发生率较高,但是就诊率较低,月经相关知识欠缺。建议:重视时女子后备力量实施青春生理卫生知识教育、鼓励运动员积极治疗、加强科学训练。

  14. A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008 retrospective clinical study of endocrine therapy for Chinese females with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    Full Text Available Endocrine therapy (ET is one of the main systemic treatments for patients with breast cancer. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the performance of ET or relevant influencing factors in cancer treatment in China. By retrospectively analyzing the clinicopathological data on breast cancer collected from representative hospitals of 7 traditional areas in China in one random month from each year between year 1999 and 2008, we found that: 1 The rate of the use of hormone receptor (HR testing was 83.8% (3529/4211, with the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ rate and/or the progesterone receptor-positive (PR+ rate being 67.9% (2395/3529, and the ER-PR rate being 32.1% (1134/3529. 2 Of the 1599 patients who had received ET, 999 patients (58.3% were premenopausal while 600 (41.7% were postmenopausal; 1598 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT, whereas only 1 patient received palliative therapy. The medications mainly administered to patients were anti-estrogen agents (80.3% [1283/1598], followed by AIs (15.5% [248/1598]. Of the 1598 patients receiving AHT, 1416 patients (88.6% were positive for ER and/or PR, while 75 (4.7% were negative for both and 108 patients (6.7% had unknown HR status. The ratio of the use of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients with ER+ and/or PR+ status was 60.0% (1416/2395. 3 Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that geography, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were dependent factors affecting the application of ET in breast cancer treatment in China (P<0.001. In conclusion, the use of ET on Chinese women with breast cancer is increasingly and gradually accounted into the standardized process. Economic status, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were key factors affecting the application of ET. People residing in developed areas, engaging in mental labour, having history of chemotherapy and surgery are susceptible to accept ET.

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: evolution, early results, and impact on nonsurgical gallstone therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, J C; Velez, M A; Teplick, S K; Mueller, P R; Rattner, D W; Broadwater, J R; Lang, N P; Eidt, J F

    1991-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a surgical technique first performed in France, has gained widespread acceptance among surgeons in the United States. The abdominal cavity is inflated by carbon dioxide, a video monitor is inserted via a laparoscope placed periumbilically, and the gallbladder is freed and removed from the liver bed by using small subcostal ports for access and dissection. Intraoperative cholangiography is routinely performed, but uncertainty exists about how best to manage choledocholithiasis. Compared with traditional cholecystectomy, initial reports describing laparoscopic cholecystectomy cite shorter recovery times because no large incisions are made, thus potentially reducing the cost and morbidity of cholecystectomy. A survey of 614 early cases supports these claims, with a reported complication rate of 1.5% and quick resumption of normal activities by patients. Because of its promise for reduced morbidity, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is challenging open cholecystectomy as the therapeutic gold standard for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Thus, the standard to which the nonsurgical gallstone therapies, such as lithotripsy and contact dissolution, will be compared may shift to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. As the laparoscopic complications are similar to those of traditional cholecystectomy, such as abscesses and bile leaks, their percutaneous treatment should not change. PMID:1830188

  16. Computed tomographic differentiation between alcoholic and gallstone pancreatitis: Significance of distribution of infiltration or fluid collection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Sun Kim; Yongsoo Kim; Sung-Kyu Kim; Hyunchul Rhim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the usefulness of various computed tomography (CT) findings including distribution of infiltration or fluid collection in differentiating the major etiologies of acute pancreatitis.METHODS: We reviewed 75 relatively severe cases of acute pancreatitis of alcoholic (n=43) or biliary stone(n=32) etiology having infiltration or fluid collection on CT. We compared the pancreatic size, CT grading,presence or absence of biliary calculi, and dilatation of pancreatic or bile duct. We also evaluated degree and the distribution of infiltration and fluid collection in each group.RESULTS: The sizes of pancreas were not different between alcohol group and stone group. Alcohol group showed higher CT grading than stone group (P<0.05). Presence of biliary stone and duct dilatation was statistically significant in differentiating etiology (P <0.05). Alcohol group showed significantly prominent peripancreatic pathology than stone group only in left peritoneal compartment (P = 0.020).CONCLUSION: Alcoholic pancreatitis tends to form more prominent peripancreatic changes than gallstone pancreatitis in relatively severe cases. This is evident on the anterior aspect of left abdomen. Although clinical history and some CT findings usually are a major determinant of the etiology, this pattern of peripancreatic pathology may have an ancillary role in determining the etiologies of acute pancreatitis in the equivocal cases.

  17. CURRENT SITUATION OF FEMALE RUGBY TEAMS IN CHINESE COLLEGES AND SOME MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENTS%我国高校女子英式"七人制"橄榄球运动队发展现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟勇; 王长权; 郎健

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing returned questionnaires and interviews, the current situation of female rugby teams in Chinese colleges was assessed and problems identified. Proposed solutions and countermeasures against identified problems were put forward, in the hope to promote rugby in colleges and universities.%为结合高校现有资源开展英式"七人制"橄榄球运动,在促进高校竞技体育发展的同时为国家培养出更多优秀的橄榄球人才,从而实现奥运金牌战略目标.本文运用问卷调查、专家访谈等方法对现阶段我国高校女子"七人制"橄榄球运动队发展现状进行分析,找出高校女子"七人制"橄榄球运动发展中的优势和不足,提出相应的解决方案,为女子"七人制"橄榄球运动在高校中快速、健康发展提出合理化建议.

  18. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 1) - The Workmanship and Colors%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(上)--做工与色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    我国少数民族女性嫁衣,不论做工还是色彩,都代表了民族服饰的一个较高水准,有的乃至是精致而时尚的民族服饰。在女性嫁衣中,有的以鱼皮为材料,有的用粗麻线和五色彩布圈缝制,有的则嵌以古老图腾和象征符,不仅做工细腻且别具韵味,亦有着丰富的文化内涵。%The female wedding dresses of Chinese minority nationalities represent the highest level of ethnic costumes in terms of both workmanship and colors and some are even exquisite and fashionable ethnic costumes. Among these wedding dresses, some are made from fish skin, some are sewn with hemp thread and five-color cloth coil and some are embedded with ancient totem and symbolic characters, exhibiting not only fine workmanship and unique charm, but also rich cultural connotations.

  19. A Study on Female Wedding Dress of Chinese Minority Nationalities (Part 1) - The Workmanship and Colors%我国少数民族女性嫁衣研究(上)--做工与色彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王革非

    2015-01-01

    The female wedding dresses of Chinese minority nationalities represent the highest level of ethnic costumes in terms of both workmanship and colors and some are even exquisite and fashionable ethnic costumes. Among these wedding dresses, some are made from fish skin, some are sewn with hemp thread and five-color cloth coil and some are embedded with ancient totem and symbolic characters, exhibiting not only fine workmanship and unique charm, but also rich cultural connotations.%我国少数民族女性嫁衣,不论做工还是色彩,都代表了民族服饰的一个较高水准,有的乃至是精致而时尚的民族服饰。在女性嫁衣中,有的以鱼皮为材料,有的用粗麻线和五色彩布圈缝制,有的则嵌以古老图腾和象征符,不仅做工细腻且别具韵味,亦有着丰富的文化内涵。

  20. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhihua; Li, Hang; Cui, Zhigang; Ren, Yangwu; Li, Xuelian; Wu, Wei; Guan, Peng; Qian, Biyun; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zhou, Baosen

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to be very important in the development of lung cancer. This study assesses the association between polymorphisms in miRNA-related (miR)-26a-1, miR-605, and miR-16-1 genes and risk of lung cancer, as well as the effect of gene–environment interaction between miRNA polymorphisms and cooking fume exposure on lung cancer. Methods A case–control study including 268 diagnosed nonsmoking female lung cancer patients and 266 nonsmoking female controls was carried out. Three miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960) were analyzed. Both additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed. Results MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer. Carriers with TT genotype of miR-16-1 rs1022960 were observed to have a decreased risk of lung cancer compared with CC and CT genotype carriers (odds ratio =0.550, 95% confidence interval =0.308–0.983, P=0.044). MiR-26a-1 rs7372209 and miR-605 rs2043556 showed no statistically significant associations with lung cancer risk. There were no significant associations between the three single nucleotide polymorphisms and lung adenocarcinoma. People with exposure to both risk genotypes of miR-26a-1 rs7372209 and cooking oil fumes were more likely to develop lung cancer than those with only genetic risk factor or cooking oil fumes (odds ratios were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively). The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960) and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. PMID:26855588

  1. Intermittent gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone migrated through a cholecysto-gastric fistula: A new variant of "Bouveret's syndrome"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitry Arioli; Mario De Santis; Fabrizio Di Benedetto; Giorgio Enrico Gerunda; Maria Luisa Zeneroli; Ivo Venturini; Michele Masetti; Elisa Romagnoli; Antonella Scarcelli; Pietro Ballesini; Athos Borghi; Alessandro Barberini; Vincenzo Spina

    2008-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome, defined as gastric outlet obstruction due to a large gallstone, is still one of the most dramatic biliary gallstone complications. Although new radiological and endoscopic techniques have made pre-surgical diagnosis possible in most cases and the death rate has dropped dramatically, "one-stage surgery" (biliary surgery carried out at the same time as the removal of the gut obstruction) should be still considered as the gold standard for the treatment of gallstone ileus. In this case, partial gastric outlet obstruction resulted in an atypical and insidious clinical presentation that allowed us to perform the conventional one-stage laparatomic procedure that completely solved the problem, thus avoiding any further complications.

  2. Chinese Consumers' Preferences for Livestock Products

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xuehua; Marchant, Mary A.; Qin, Xiang Dong; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    This research surveyed over 784 Chinese consumers in Shanghai and Nanjing in 2001 and 2002, evaluating their preferences for livestock product attributes using ordered-probit models and factor analyses. Empirical results confirm the heterogeneity of Chinese livestock retail markets and suggest that livestock distributors should focus on Chinese female consumers and young consumers considering cooking convenience as a key attribute. Chinese consumers with higher incomes placed less importance ...

  3. 盐度对中华绒螯蟹雌性亲蟹代谢的影响%Effect of salinity on the metabolism of female Chinese crabs,Eriocheir sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄平; 贾小燕; 冯广朋; 章龙珍; 王瑞芳

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of salinity on the metabolism of female Chinese crabs (Eriocheir sinensis). The crabs, body weight (55.59 ± 6.24) g, were held at salinities of 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24, (16 ± l)tl, and we measured oxygen consumption, CO2 production, and ammonia-N excretion. Using this data, we calculated the respiratory quotient, oxygen-nitrogen ratio, energy consumption rate, and metabolic substrate ratio. Salinity had a significant effect on the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate (P0.05). Between salinity 12-24, CO2 production and energy consumption were significantly lower than in the control group. Salinity had no effect on the respiratory quotient and oxygen-nitrogen ratio (P>0.05). Our results suggest that lipids are used preferentially as an energy source. Furthermore, proteins were utilized to a much greater extent than carbohydrates. The proportion of lipids in the metabolic substrate increased as salinity increased. Conversely, the carbohydrate metabolic substrate ratio decreased as salinity increased, whereas the protein metabolic substrate ratio remained constant. At salinity 24, the ratio of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid used as metabolic substrate was 6.4:14.6:79.0. During the reproductive migration, the female Chinese crab migrates from fresh water into the Yangtze River estuary. Thus, individuals must adjust to the higher salinity and modify their energy metabolism. Our results suggest that energy consumption decreases after entering salt water, allowing female crabs to divert energy into reproduction.%测定了不同盐度(0,6,12,18,24)条件下,中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)雌性亲蟹的耗氧率、CO2排出率及NH3-N排泄率,并研究了其呼吸熵、氧氮比、代谢率及能源物质供能比随盐度的变化情况.结果表明,体质量为(55.59±6.24)g的中华绒螯蟹雌性亲蟹,在水温(16±1)℃条件下,盐度对其耗氧率及NH3-N排泄率影响显著(P<0.05).在实验盐度范围内(0~24),

  4. Association of three common single nucleotide polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G8 gene with gallstone disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and gallstone disease using meta-analysis and compared the hepatic ABCG5/G8 mRNA expression and biliary lipids composition in patients with different genotypes of T400K and Y54C. METHODS: Data were analyzed using the Stata/SE 11.0 software and a random- effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Hepatic mRNA expression of ABCG5/G8 genes in 182 patients with gallstone disease and 35 gallstone-free patients who underwent cholecystectomy were determined using real-time PCR. Genotypes of Y54C and T400K in the ABCG8 gene were determined by allelic discrimination using either genomic DNA or hepatic cDNA as template by Taqman assays. Biliary compostion in gallbladder bile was assayed in these patients as well. RESULTS: Ten papers including 13 cohorts were included for the final analysis. In the genotype model, the overall association between genotype with gallstone was significant for D19H (OR = 2.43, 95%CI: 2.23-2.64, P<0.001, and for Y54C (OR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.01-1.83, P = 0.044, or T400K (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 0.96-1.43. P = 0.110. In allele model, minor alleles of D19H polymorphism (allele D: OR = 2.25, 95%CI: 2.10-2.42, P<0.001 and of T400K polymorphism (allele K: OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.06-1.31, P<0.001 were related with an increased risk of gallstone disease. However, minor allele of Y54C polymorphism (allele Y, OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.96-1.21, P = 0.146 was not related with gallstone disease. I(2 statistics indicated no significant between-study heterogeneity for all genetic models for any of the three polymorphisms. Funnel plot and Egger's test suggested the absence of publication bias as well. However, no association of T400K and Y54C polymorphism with hepatic ABCG8/G5 mRNA expression or biliary lipids composition was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed strong association of D19H polymorphism with gallstone

  5. A possible variant of Bouveret's syndrome presenting as a duodenal stump obstruction by a gallstone after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Shruti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bouveret's syndrome is characterized by gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone in the duodenum, usually in association with a cholecystoduodenal fistula. Case presentation We report the case of a 69-year-old Caucasian man who developed duodenal stump obstruction due to an impacted gallstone after having previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy. Conclusions Duodenal stump obstruction after Roux-en-Y gastrectomy is rare, and may be difficult to manage. Patients who present with upper gastrointestinal or pancreatobiliary pathology after previous gastric surgery should be managed in centres with the availability of appropriate endoscopic and surgical experience.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria from bile fluids of patients with gallstone disease in Isfahan city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemi Seyed-Masih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are one of the important agents in the creation of gallstones in the gallbladder. In recent years the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL is increasing and of concern in hospitalized patients worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria from the bile specimens of patients with chronic and acute cholecystitis who had been operated by single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC in Isfahan (Iran 2 using an antibiogram susceptibility test and molecular technique. The bile fluids of 91 patients were obtained from the Al-Zahra hospital and were cultured on specific media for the isolation of Gram-negative and positive bacteria and the disk diffusion test was done to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria. Finally, bacterial DNA was extracted from the bile samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to investigate extended-spectrum β-lactamases genes. The bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in bile specimens cultured with high frequency, and the results showed that biliary infection increased with aging in patients with gallstone disease operated by SILC. The results showed a high frequency of ESBL genes including TEM, SHV, and CTX-M in isolated bacteria (especially Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.. Thus, evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and screening of ESBLs bacteria in patients with gallstones are essential. Prescribing suitable drugs, designing good strategies, and informing the medical community could decrease bile infection and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in clinical centers and hospitals.

  7. Female Managers, Institutional Environment and Corporate Charitable Donation --Evidence from Chinese Capital Market%女性高管、制度环境与慈善捐赠——基于中国资本市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴强; 冯文滔

    2012-01-01

    本文实证研究了女性高管、制度环境对慈善捐赠行为的影响。研究结果表明,女性高管与中国上市公司的慈善捐赠显著正相关,即当公司中有女性高管、女性高管的比例越高,上市公司的慈善捐赠越多。本文进一步发现,政府干预调和了女性与公司捐赠之间的正相关关系,即当上市公司处于政府对市场干预较少的地区时,女性高管对公司慈善捐赠的正面影响显著下降,表明女性高管和外部制度环境之间呈现替代关系。本文的研究结论丰富了慈善捐赠相关领域的研究,且拓展了女性高管在公司决策中的经济后果研究。%Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, this paper empirically examines the influence of female man- agers on corporate charitable donation. The results show that female managers have a significantly positive impact on corporate charitable donation. In particular, the existence of female manager and the ratio of female managers are significantly positively associated with corporate charitable donation. Moreover, my paper also reveals that the positive association between female managers and corporate charitable donation is attenuated for firms located in provinces with better institutional environment. That is, the better the institutional environment is, the smaller the positive effect of female managers on corporate charitable donation is. This finding implies that there is a substitu- tion relationship between female managers and institutional environment. Above results are robust for a battery of sensitivity tests. San Cong Si De, Qin Nv Gong, and You Fu Gong. These old Chinese sayings reflect the narrow traditional value of Chinese women for thousands of years. However, the economic miracle of reforming and opening up in past 30 years changed the traditional views of the Chinese society towards women. Recent annual reports of Chinese lis- ted firms show that the female managers in the

  8. 非吸烟女性肺癌发病危险因素的Meta分析%Meta-analysis of risk factors on lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 陈坤; 张海蕾; 朱益民

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk factors of lung cancer in non-smoking Chinese women.Methods The results of 7 case-control studies from 1990 to 1999 were analyzed by Meta-analysis method in this study. The cumulative cases and controls were 1 115 and 1 520, respectively. Der Simonian and Nan Laid model were applied to process data. Results The pools OR values of family history of lung cancer, personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease, cooking oil fume pollution, coal pollution and exposure to environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) were 2.87,2.79,2.52,1.42 and 1.64 respectively. Conclusion Family history of lung cancer and personal history of non-neoplastic lung disease might serve as the most important risk factors of female lung cancer in China. There appeared also significantly positive relationship between female lung cancer and the degree of cooking oil fume pollution or pollution of coal burning. The effect on lung cancer of exposure to ETS was uncertain in this study which calls for further investigation. Bias and confounding factors were also discussed in this study.%目的 综合评价我国非吸烟女性肺癌发病的危险因素。方法 应用Meta分析方法对国内7篇有关非吸烟女性肺癌危险因素的病例对照研究进行定量综合分析,共累积病例1 115例,对照1 520例。统计处理采用Meta分析的随机效应模型。结果 肺部疾病史、家族肺癌史、油烟污染、煤烟污染、被动吸烟等5个研究因素的合并比值比(OR值)分别是2.87、2.79、2.52、1.42和1.64,进一步分层研究提示随着油烟污染程度的加重,其OR值也有明显的上升。结论 家族肺癌史、肺部疾病史、油烟污染、煤烟污染等因素可能与非吸烟女性肺癌的发生有关,被动吸烟的作用尚不能肯定。

  9. Ezetimibe: Its Novel Effects on the Prevention and the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornella de Bari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe can significantly reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations by inhibiting the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1, an intestinal sterol influx transporter that can actively facilitate the uptake of cholesterol for intestinal absorption. Unexpectedly, ezetimibe treatment also induces a complete resistance to cholesterol gallstone formation and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in addition to preventing hypercholesterolemia in mice on a Western diet. Because chylomicrons are the vehicles with which the enterocytes transport cholesterol and fatty acids into the body, ezetimibe could prevent these two most prevalent hepatobiliary diseases possibly through the regulation of chylomicron-derived cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver. It is highly likely that there is an intestinal and hepatic cross-talk through the chylomicron pathway. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby cholesterol and fatty acids are absorbed from the intestine could offer an efficacious novel approach to the prevention and the treatment of cholesterol gallstones and NAFLD.

  10. Risk of peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a 10-year Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, E M; Drewes, A M; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    for peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the adjusted relative risks among UCEP patients or = 1 year after upper endoscopy were for peptic ulcer 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-18.4] and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-3.4), for oesophagitis 8.2 (95% CI 1...

  11. Polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and cooking oil fume exposure as well as their interaction on the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Z

    2016-01-01

    were 2.136, 1.255, and 1.730, respectively. The measures of biological interaction and logistic models indicate that gene–environment interactions were not statistically significant on additive scale or multiplicative scale. Conclusion: MiR-16-1 rs1022960 may be associated with the risk of lung cancer in a Chinese nonsmoking female population. The interactions between miRNA polymorphisms (miR-26a-1 rs7372209, miR-605 rs2043556, and miR-16-1 rs1022960 and cooking oil fumes were not statistically significant. Keywords: lung cancer, microRNA, single nucleotide polymorphism, cooking oil fume, interaction

  12. Gallbladder motor function in obese versus lean females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucio, C; Besser, P; Jonderko, K

    1988-02-01

    Gallbladder motility was studied in 18 obese women and in 18 lean females by means of an ultrasonographic method. The fasted and meal-stimulated gallbladder volumes as well as the amount of the ejected bile were significantly larger in the obese when compared to the lean controls. A significant positive correlation was found between the fasted or meal-stimulated gallbladder volume and the body mass as well as the obesity indices (the absolute overweight and body mass index). Moreover, the amount of the ejected bile correlated significantly with the fasted gallbladder volume. The results suggest that altered gallbladder motility should be considered a risk factor accounting for the increased incidence of gallstones in the obese.

  13. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  14. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. RESULTS: Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake. PMID:22408352

  15. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefano Ginanni Corradini; Edoardo Poli; Adriano De Santis; Aldo Roda; Carolina Colliva; Patrizia Simoni; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Flaminia Ferri; Michela Mordenti; Luigi Iuliano; Maria Siciliano; Maria Antonella Burza; Bruno Sordi; Barbara Caciotti; Maria Pacini

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease.METHODS:Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n =20) or tap (n =20) water controlled drinking.Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound,blood vitamin E,oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol.and 7-ketocholesterol),bile acid (BA),triglycerides,total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Food consumption,stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily.RESULTS:Blood lipids,oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption.Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P <0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL).Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P <0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83-1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol).The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid.The number of pasta (P < 0.001),meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group.Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups.CONCLUSION:Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  16. Female Managers, Institutional Environment and Corporate Charitable Donation --Evidence from Chinese Capital Market%女性高管、制度环境与慈善捐赠——基于中国资本市场的经验证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜兴强; 冯文滔

    2012-01-01

    本文实证研究了女性高管、制度环境对慈善捐赠行为的影响。研究结果表明,女性高管与中国上市公司的慈善捐赠显著正相关,即当公司中有女性高管、女性高管的比例越高,上市公司的慈善捐赠越多。本文进一步发现,政府干预调和了女性与公司捐赠之间的正相关关系,即当上市公司处于政府对市场干预较少的地区时,女性高管对公司慈善捐赠的正面影响显著下降,表明女性高管和外部制度环境之间呈现替代关系。本文的研究结论丰富了慈善捐赠相关领域的研究,且拓展了女性高管在公司决策中的经济后果研究。%Using a sample of Chinese listed firms, this paper empirically examines the influence of female man- agers on corporate charitable donation. The results show that female managers have a significantly positive impact on corporate charitable donation. In particular, the existence of female manager and the ratio of female managers are significantly positively associated with corporate charitable donation. Moreover, my paper also reveals that the positive association between female managers and corporate charitable donation is attenuated for firms located in provinces with better institutional environment. That is, the better the institutional environment is, the smaller the positive effect of female managers on corporate charitable donation is. This finding implies that there is a substitu- tion relationship between female managers and institutional environment. Above results are robust for a battery of sensitivity tests. San Cong Si De, Qin Nv Gong, and You Fu Gong. These old Chinese sayings reflect the narrow traditional value of Chinese women for thousands of years. However, the economic miracle of reforming and opening up in past 30 years changed the traditional views of the Chinese society towards women. Recent annual reports of Chinese lis- ted firms show that the female managers in the

  17. 中国城市女性面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型相关性研究%A Relevant Research on Facial Skin Conditions of Chinese Urban Females and TCM Constitutional Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲建宁; 王济; 赵亚; 熊卫国; 方程; 戴竞; 孙淑娴; 王琦; 魏少敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between facial skin conditions and TCM constitutional types; To provide new means and methods for guidance of skin conservation and skin health improvement from the aspect of constitutional types. Methods Totally 2241 female volunteers in nine provincial capital cities and municipalities participated in this research, and were investigated by web questionnaire. Constitutional types were determined according to the“Classification and Judgment of TCM Constitutional Types”standard issued by China Association of Chinese Medicine. Skin color, glossiness, delicate degree, moistness, firmness, resilience, uniformity and other indicators were scored. Skin conditions were classified into three groups:1-3 score group, 4-6 score group, and 7-9 score group, and the constitutional differences among each group were compared. Results Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest proportion. Yellowish skin color accounted for the largest proportion, and the next were white, dark and reddish. Yang-deficiency constitutional type accounted for the largest proportion in 1-3 score group, and the second was Qi-stagnation; Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest proportion in 4-6 score group; mild constitutional type accounted for the largest proportion in 7-9 score group. Conclusion People with mild constitutional type got highest score in every skin index, while biased constitutional types influenced the score in varied degrees. The constitutional types which influenced Chinese urban females’ facial skin index more were Yang-deficiency and Qi-stagnation constitutional types.%目的:研究面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型的相关性,为从中医体质角度指导皮肤养护、增进皮肤健康提供新方法。方法在9个省会城市和直辖市招募女性志愿者2241名,以网络问卷的方式对受访者进行调查。体质类型判定依照中华中医药学会《

  18. 中国城市女性面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型相关性研究%A Relevant Research on Facial Skin Conditions of Chinese Urban Females and TCM Constitutional Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲建宁; 王济; 赵亚; 熊卫国; 方程; 戴竞; 孙淑娴; 王琦; 魏少敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究面部皮肤状态与中医体质类型的相关性,为从中医体质角度指导皮肤养护、增进皮肤健康提供新方法。方法在9个省会城市和直辖市招募女性志愿者2241名,以网络问卷的方式对受访者进行调查。体质类型判定依照中华中医药学会《中医体质分类与判定》标准进行,面部皮肤测评针对肤色、光泽度、细腻程度、水润度、紧致程度、弹性、均匀程度等指标进行评分;将皮肤状态按1~3、4~6、7~9分进行分组,比较不同分值的体质构成差异。结果被调查者中阳虚质、平和质最多;肤色偏黄者最多,其次为偏白、偏黑、偏红者;皮肤状态评分1~3分者中,阳虚质最多,气郁质次之;4~6分者中阳虚质和平和质均较多;得分7~9分者中平和质最多。结论平和质者各项皮肤指标得分均最高,偏颇体质会影响皮肤指标得分,对中国城市女性面部皮肤指标影响较大的体质类型是阳虚质和气郁质。%Objective To study the relationship between facial skin conditions and TCM constitutional types; To provide new means and methods for guidance of skin conservation and skin health improvement from the aspect of constitutional types. Methods Totally 2241 female volunteers in nine provincial capital cities and municipalities participated in this research, and were investigated by web questionnaire. Constitutional types were determined according to the“Classification and Judgment of TCM Constitutional Types”standard issued by China Association of Chinese Medicine. Skin color, glossiness, delicate degree, moistness, firmness, resilience, uniformity and other indicators were scored. Skin conditions were classified into three groups:1-3 score group, 4-6 score group, and 7-9 score group, and the constitutional differences among each group were compared. Results Yang-deficiency and mild constitutional types accounted for the largest

  19. Birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes across two generations in Chinese females%女性出生体重与2型糖尿病风险的跨代研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铭灵; 方红; 张华; 严玉洁; 姚保栋; 秦国友; 徐望红

    2015-01-01

    目的 探索女性出生体重与T2DM的代际关联.方法 2012年11月至2013年1月对10 324名上海市有亲缘关系的2~4代女性开展横断面调查,通过问卷调查出生信息及T2DM史.将所有对象分成连续2代,共6 436对母女纳入分析.运用通径分析方法评估母代出生体重及T2DM患病状况对子代的影响;并采用中介效应分析方法分析子代出生体重是否为2代T2DM患病风险的中介因素.结果 2代人群的出生体重呈正相关,母代出生体重每增加1kg,子代出生体重平均增加0.335 kg(95%CI:0.307 ~ 0.363).与无T2DM母亲的子代相比,患T2DM母亲的子代出生体重平均高0.066 kg(95%CI:0.025 ~ 0.107),患T2DM的风险增加3.173倍(95%CI:1.946~5.174).≥20岁研究对象中,调整年龄后,未见出生体重对成年期T2DM的影响.通径和中介分析显示,母代出生体重对子代出生体重的影响较大;子代出生体重高是母代患T2DM与子代患T2DM的中介因素,并减弱了二者关联的2.8%.结论 母代出生体重及T2DM状况对子代出生体重及成年后的T2DM风险有一定影响.%Objective To evaluate the association between birth weight and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) across two generations in Chinese females.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 10 324 blood-related females in Shanghai from November 2012 to January 2013.A structured questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic information,birth weight,lifestyle factors and diagnosis of T2DM.Path analysis was performed to estimate the matemal effect of birth weight and diabetes status on their offspring,and mediation analysis was conducted to test whether birth weight mediates the association between maternal and daughters' diabetes status.Results A positive association was observed between maternal and daughters' birth weight.One kg increase in maternal birth weight was associated with an average of 0.335 (95%CI:0.307-0.363) kg elevated

  20. Construction of a Voxel Phantom of Chinese Adult Female for Radiation Dosimetry%一个中国成年女性体素模型的建立及辐射剂量学应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉海; 李桃生

    2013-01-01

    开发了一个基于中国女性彩色解剖断层图像的体素剂量学模型VPCF,并用FLUKA程序计算了光子能量在0.02~10 MeV范围内的20个能量点、外照射方向为腹背向(AP)、背腹向(PA)的组织或器官剂量转换因子和有效剂量转换系数,并与ICRP 74号报告的推荐值、CRAM和Regina的计算值进行了比较.结果表明:VPCF有些器官(如膀胱)的剂量转换因子与ICRP 74号出版物差别较大;有效剂量转换系数的差别不如器官或组织的剂量转换因子明显;VPCF的有效剂量转换系数要大于ICRP 74号出版物推荐值、CRAM和Regina的计算值.%A voxel phantom of Chinese female called VPCF has been constructed. The FLUKA code was utilized for computation of dose conversion coefficients ( DCCs) expressed in absorbed dose per air kerma or effective dose per air kerma free-in-air due to a broad parallel beam of mono-energetic photons impinging in anterior-posterior and posterior-anterior directions of the 20 mono-energetic photon beams of energies in the range of 20 keV—10 MeV. The resultant dose coefficients were compared with those from ICRP Publication 74, CRAM and Regina. The results indicate noticeable differences between VPCF and CRAM for some organ' s dose conversion coefficients ( e. g. bladder) . Smaller differences for the effective dose conversion coefficient are found than for the dose conversion coefficients in individual organs. Comparing with ICRP Publication 74,Regina and CRAM, the VPCF's effective dose conversion coefficients are larger.

  1. Narrative Research of Female Educational Experiences in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suling

    2010-01-01

    Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…

  2. Analysis of Curative Effect of Comprehensive Therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Female Endocrine Disorders%中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹胜雁

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical curative effect of comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on female endocrine disorders, so as to provide more reference data for clinical treatment of gynecological diseases. Methods: 122 patients with endocrine disorders treated in our hospital from June 2013 to May 2014 were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 61 cases in each group. The control group was treated with western medicine and the observation group was treated with comprehensive therapy of TCM. The curative effects of the two groups were retrospectively compared. Results: The total effective rate of the control group was 68.9% and the observation group was 90.2%. The incidence of adverse reactions of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group. All the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Treating female endocrine disorders by comprehensive therapy of TCM can achieve good clinical effect. It can improve the hormone secretion, metabolism and pathogenic condition of the patients. So it is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨应用中医综合治疗女性内分泌失调的临床疗效,旨在为妇科临床治疗提供更多的参考数据。方法:选取我院妇科2013年6月—2014年5月收治的内分泌失调患者122例,随机将患者分为对照组及观察组各61例。对照组采用西医治疗,观察组进行中医综合治疗,对两组的临床效果进行回顾性比较。结果:对照组的治疗总有效率为68.9%,观察组为90.2%,且观察组的不良反应发生率明显优于对照组,两组比较差异均具有显著的统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用中医综合疗法对女性内分泌失调进行治疗可取得良好的临床疗效,对患者体内激素分泌状况、机体代谢功能、病情等均具有明显的改善作用,具有较高的临床价值,值得推广。

  3. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  4. The 'Jack Stone' or 'Mercedes Benz' sign--anew theory to explain the presence of gas within fissures in gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F W

    1977-07-01

    Gas within clefts of fissures in gallstones is not a very common finding, but when it occurs is, characteristic and indicates the presence of one or more calculi. It closely resembles the appearance of a 'Jack Stone' but has previously been termed the 'Mercedes Benz' sign. Only a few cases have previously been recognised in the U.K. Most reported cases have been associated with biliary colic or cholecystitis. Various theories have been put forward to explain the presence of gas, but the author believes that the gas is released from solution by negative pressure within cholesterol stones undergoing internal fissuring due to their crystalline structure, i.e. the gas is released from solution from the small amount of fluid trapped in the calculus, in the same way that gas may be 'pulled' out of solution in a joint, a degenerate intervertebral disc or the fibro-cartilage of the symphysis pubis. PMID:872516

  5. The 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test in gallstone patients with and without duodenal diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess whether gallstone patients with duodenal diverticula have bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small bowel, the results of the 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test were compared in 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, and in 24 without diverticula. All patients had been treated with endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) for stones in the common bile duct before the study, and cholecystectomy had previously been performed in 20 patients. No significant differences between the groups were found concerning age, sex and body weight. Cummulative 14CO2 expired in 3 h in percentage of administered dose of 14C-d-xylose was 8.55% (7.58-9.57%) and 7.38% (6.32-8.96%) in patients with and without diverticula, respectively (p=0.06), indicating a higher bacterial activity in the small bowel in patients with duodenal diverticula than in those without diverticula. The results appeared to be influenced by cholecystectomy

  6. 数字化虚拟中国人女性一号(VCH-F1)实验数据集研究报告%Research report of experimental database establishment of digitized virtual Chinese No.1 female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世镇; 原林; 唐雷; 黄文华; 戴景兴; 李鉴轶; 刘畅; 王兴海; 洪辉文; 李华; 罗述谦; 秦笃烈; 曾绍群; 吴涛; 张美超; 吴坤成; 焦培峰; 陆云涛; 陈浩; 李培良; 郜元; 王彤; 樊继宏

    2003-01-01

    目的为建造具有东方人种特征的中国数字化虚拟人,获取中国女性人体数字图像的数据集.方法通过广州市遗体捐献中心,选取一位因食物中毒急性死亡19岁女性尸体,经CT、MRI采集图像后,在股动脉灌注红色填充剂,冷冻包埋,在JZ1500A立式铣床上,以400mm刀盘切削,转速850r/m,断面间距0.2 mm,用第三代富士数码相机摄像.结果按中国解剖学会的加以评价,VCH-F1体型指数为94%,有较大的代表性.共获取断面图像8 556个,图像总像数649万,每个文件数据量为17.5MB,VCH-F1数据集总量149.7GB.共编制6个不同版本,分别为VCH-F1(149.73GB、6.60GB、0.27GB)及VCH-F1头部数据集(1.93GB、0.67GB、0.46GB).结论借鉴国外经验和教训,VCH-F1在下列几个方面有所改进和提高:(1)尸体选材代表性较大;(2)血管标记鲜明,对后续图像配准和分割提供了良好条件;(3)立式切削较卧式切削更符合人体生理姿势;(4)本文采用的人体的冷存,一次装夹,双温冰库,大口径刀盘处理,能提高图像质量和工作效率.VCH-F1的实验数据集,在若干关键技术上有所改进和提高,构建了切削精度高,血管显示鲜明,体型代表性良好,为我国今后虚拟人体的物理化和生理化,提供了一个高质量的框架.%Objective To establish digitized virtual Chinese No. 1 female (VCH-F 1) image database. Methods A 19 years old female cadaver was scanned by CT, MRI, and perfused with red filling material through formal artery before freezing and embedding. The whole body was cut by JZ1500A vertical milling machine with a 0.2 mm inter-spacing. All the images was produced by Fuji FinePix S2 Pro camera. Results The body index of VCH-F1 was 94%. We cut 8 556 sections of the whole body,and each image was 17.5 MB in size and the whole database reached 149.7 GB. We have totally 6 versions of the database for different applications. Conclusions Compared with other databases,VCH-F1 has good

  7. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products That Contain Dang-Qui and Risk of Endometrial Cancer among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Tung Wu; Jung-Nien Lai; Yueh-Ting Tsai

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the ...

  8. 胆囊结石相关危险因素的探讨%The risk factors of gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于岚; 何小东; 武峤; 刘卫; 洪涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索胆囊结石发生的相关危险因素,为防治胆囊结石提供理论依据。方法 回顾性分析北京协和医院2007年1月至2010年5月间体检者的临床资料,对其中的4087例胆囊结石患者(病例组)和20 435例无胆囊结石体检者(对照组)按照年龄、性别进行1∶5配比以作病例对照研究。对计数资料采用x2检验,计量资料采用t检验;对相关危险因素先用单因素条件Logistic回归分析方法筛选出有统计学意义的可疑危险因素,再用多因素条件Logistic回归法进行分析。结果单因素分析显示,糖尿病、收缩压、舒张压、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇及体重指数6个因素在病例组与对照组之间差异有统计学意义(P<o.05)。多因素分析证实,去除了年龄、性别的影响后,糖尿病、收缩压、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇及体重指数仍与胆囊结石显著相关,其比值(95%可信区间)分别为0.825 (0.736~0.925)、0.908 (0.828~0.996)、1.211 (1.056~1.389)和0.746 (0.691~0.805)。总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇在病例组与对照组间之差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 糖尿病、收缩压增高、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇降低及肥胖是胆囊结石形成的独立危险因素。因此,应该通过控制糖尿病、减轻体重、控制血压、调整血脂等措施来预防胆囊结石的发生。%Objective To determine the risk factors of gallstones. Methods A case-control study was conducted on 4087 patients with gallstones (the study group) and 20435 individuals without gallstones (the control group) at the Health Center of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between January 2007 to May 2010. Using age and sex, the study and the control groups were matched in 1 : 5 ratio. Data were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and conditional logistic regression. Results Univariate analysis showed significant differences in

  9. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors. PMID:25112219

  10. Female sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  11. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  12. A randomized controlled trial to compare a restrictive strategy to usual care for the effectiveness of cholecystectomy in patients with symptomatic gallstones (SECURE trial protocol)

    OpenAIRE

    de Reuver, P. R.; van Dijk, A. H.; Wennmacker, S. Z.; Lamberts, M. P.; Boerma, D.; Den Oudsten, B. L.; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Donkervoort, S. C.; Roukema, J.A.; Westert, G.P.; Drenth, J.P.H.; van Laarhoven, C. J. H.; Boermeester, M A

    2016-01-01

    Background Five to 22 % of the adult Western population has gallstones. Among them, 13 to 22 % become symptomatic during their lifetime. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Remarkably, cholecystectomy provides symptom relief in only 60-70 % of patients. The objective of this trial is to compare the effectiveness of usual (operative) care with a restrictive strategy using a standardized work-up with stepwise selection for cholecystectomy in patients ...

  13. Analysis of correlation between depression and gallstones in the aged%老年人抑郁与胆结石相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the relationship between depression and gallstones in the elderly in urban and rural areas. Methods:Using the GDS questionnaire and self made questionnaire.1 878 residents aged over 60 in a community in Shanghai were investigated and the physical examination was conducted.Results:The prevalence of gallstones in the elderly depression was higher.Conclusion:Depression in the elderly is one of the causes of gallstones.Strengthening the psychological intervention can prevent the formation of gallbladder stones.%目的:了解城乡结合地区老年人抑郁与胆结石的相关性。方法:应用GDS问卷及自制调查表,对上海某社区60岁以上1878例居民进行调查及体检。结果:老年人抑郁中胆结石的患病率更高。结论:老年人抑郁是胆结石成因之一,应加强社区抑郁心理干,预预防胆囊结石形成。

  14. Yang Hua's Modern Chinese Painting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Yang Hua, a female painter from Hainan Province forms her style of modern Chinese painting with an original, exotic and ingenious means of artistic expression. Full of vigor, her paintings convey intimacy among human beings. She expresses her feelings towards nature and society through her dimly visible and disorderly pictures. The harmony of abstract and

  15. FEMALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL. Bulotta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  16. Sex and the Contemporary Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENXINXIN

    2005-01-01

    THE importance of a mutually fulfilling sex life has gained greater acknowledgement in China in recent years but it is nonetheless a taboo topic. There have been few social surveys on this delicate subject, particularly as regards the degree of sexual satisfaction enjoyed by Chinese women,The 35-question survey on female attitudes to sex, formulated by the Chinese Sexology Society and the Chinese Medical Association, was, therefore, a major breakthrough. Sponsored by Sina.com and carried out in major Chinese cities from August to September 2004, the survey attracted 400,000 hits and drew 31,482 responses.

  17. The Evolution of Female Consciousness in Chinese American New Immigrant Novels from the Perspective of Five Divorced Women%从五个离婚的女性看美华新移民小说女性意识的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓鸥

    2015-01-01

    From 1995 to 2010,great change had taken placed in the image of divorced females in the Chinese American new immigrant novels.In American Dream,American Love,American Lover to Gone Daily Trip,the divorce of heroines becomes reasonable.It can be regarded as the new female immigrants’ forceful response to the patriarchy,but marriage morality is still the main theme of the novels.In Traces the US (1 9 9 6 )by Zhang Ci in America,the heroine Xie Siyu disobeyed marriage morality to dissolve patriarchy,showing unusual radical female consciousness in Chinese American new immigrant novels.%1995年到2010年,美华新移民小说中离婚女性形象发生了很大的变化。从«美国梦里»、«美国爱情»、«美国情人»到«白日飘行»,女主人公离婚逐渐获得了合理性,可看做新移民女性对男权保守的“进阶突围”,但婚姻道德始终是小说中的重要主题。1996年张慈在美国出版的小说«浪迹美国»通过谢思羽反叛婚姻道德的方式消解男权,显示出美华新移民小说中少见的激进女性意识。

  18. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  19. Pregnancy is not a risk factor for gallstone disease: Results of a randomly selected population sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Walcher; Bernhard Otto Boehm; Wolfgang Kratzer; Mark Martin Haenle; Martina Kron; Birgit Hay; Richard Andrew Mason; Alexa Friederike Alice von Schmiesing; Armin Imhof; Wolfgang Koenig; Peter Kern

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and selection of the study population for cholecystolithiasis in an urban population in Germany, in relation to our own findings and to the results in the international literature.METHODS: A total of 2 147 persons (1 111 females,age 42.8±12.7 years; 1 036 males, age 42.3±13.1 years)participating in an investigation on the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis were studied for risk factors and prevalence of gallbladder stone disease.Risk factors were assessed by means of a standardized interview and calculation of body mass index (BMI). A diagnostic ultrasound examination of the gallbladder was performed. Data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, using the SAS statistical software package.RESULTS: Gallbladder stones were detected in 171study participants (8.0%, n = 2 147). Risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease included age, sex, BMI, and positive family history. In a separate analysis of female study participants, pregnancy (yes/no)and number of pregnancies did not exert any influence.CONCLUSION: Findings of the present study confirm that age, female sex, BMI, and positive family history are risk factors for the development of gallbladder stone disease. Pregnancy and the number of pregnancies,however, could not be shown to be risk factors. There seem to be no differences in the respective prevalence for gallbladder stone disease in urban and rural populations.

  20. Gallstones Risk Factor and Prevalence in the Elderly in Jeju Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyun Sun; Choi, Joon Lock; Park, Jae Jin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Ji Min; Jung, Hong Ryang; Lim, Chung Hwan; Kim, Jung Gu [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Gallbladder stone is the most common disease of biliary tract. It is lead to acute abdominal pain. The cholecystitis which is caused by in gallbladder stone occurs frequently and the possibility of the gallbladder cancer comes to be high. Our study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors gallbladder stone in a population who community. We enrolled a total of 826 (male : 297, female : 529) persons who 60 or older in Jeju-do 10 places from 2008 July one months. The height, weight, liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, were all measurement. They had their gallbladder examined with using ultrasonography. Statistical significance was defined as a p-value less than 0.05. Among 826 persons, gallbladder stone was found in 49 persons (5.9%). The male is 6.1% and the female is 5.8%, the male 1.03 times appeared more highly the female. The body mass index above of 23.0 kg/m{sup 2} with the gallbladder stone was 69.3% (p<0.047). The gallbladder stone appeared highly according to age increases. The obesity is the risk factor of gallbladder stone. The weight management and diet control is a possibility of reducing a gallbladder stone creation.

  1. Gallstones Risk Factor and Prevalence in the Elderly in Jeju Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallbladder stone is the most common disease of biliary tract. It is lead to acute abdominal pain. The cholecystitis which is caused by in gallbladder stone occurs frequently and the possibility of the gallbladder cancer comes to be high. Our study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors gallbladder stone in a population who community. We enrolled a total of 826 (male : 297, female : 529) persons who 60 or older in Jeju-do 10 places from 2008 July one months. The height, weight, liver function tests, lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, were all measurement. They had their gallbladder examined with using ultrasonography. Statistical significance was defined as a p-value less than 0.05. Among 826 persons, gallbladder stone was found in 49 persons (5.9%). The male is 6.1% and the female is 5.8%, the male 1.03 times appeared more highly the female. The body mass index above of 23.0 kg/m2 with the gallbladder stone was 69.3% (p<0.047). The gallbladder stone appeared highly according to age increases. The obesity is the risk factor of gallbladder stone. The weight management and diet control is a possibility of reducing a gallbladder stone creation.

  2. The Analysis of the Anxiety Expression of the Female Awareness in Chinese Women Documentary%试析中国女性纪录片中女性意识的焦虑抒发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔菲

    2015-01-01

    In the 1980s, all kinds of the cultural and ideological trends swarmed into China. The feminist movement and the feminist consciousness came to the orient. Meanwhile, a group of female directors who explored female consciousness of their own life were not satisfied with shaping the female from the male's views in the movies. They tried to seek for the female unique life experience. Taking documentary films Go Back to Phoenix Bridge for example, This article tries to investigate the female's mood and sorrow deep inside, explore the female group implemented animadversion, backlash and battle cry to the unfair oppression of the ideology from the society and culture and analyze the anxious expression of the female awareness.%20世纪80年代,各种文化思潮涌入中国,女权运动与女性主义意识也踏上了东方这片土地.与此同时,一批探索女性自我意识的导演,不满足影视中以男性为中心视角来塑造女性,试图寻找女性独特的意识体验,女性纪录片应运而生.文章以《回到凤凰桥》等纪录片为例,在剖析女性内心深处的情感和悲痛的过程中,探讨女性群体对社会、文化在其意识形态上的压迫所进行的批判、反抗以及呐喊,分析女性意识的焦虑抒发.

  3. A population-based follow-up study on gallstone disease among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen, Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao-Hsin Tung; Hsiao-Man Ho; Hui-Chuan Shih; Pesus Chou; Jorn-Hon Liu; Victor TK Chen; De-Chuan Chan; Chi-Ming Liu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the incidence of and risk factors for gallstone disease (GSD) among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen,Taiwan.METHODS: A screening program for GSD was performed by two specialists who employed real-time abdominal ultrasound to examine the abdominal region after patients had fasted for at least eight hours. Screening, which was conducted in 2001, involved 848 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. After exclusion of 63subjects with prevalent GSD, 377 participants without GSD were invited in 2002 for a second round of screening. A total of 281 (74.5%) subjects were re-examined.RESULTS: Among the 281 type 2 diabetics who had no GSD at the first screening, 10 had developed GSD by 2002. The incidence was 3.56% per year (95%CI:1.78% per year-6.24% per year). Using a Cox regression model, age (RR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.14), waist circumference (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.01-1.29), and ALT (RR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26) appeared to be significantly correlated with development of GSD.CONCLUSION: Older age is a known risk factor for the development of GSD. Our study shows that greater waist circumference and elevated ALT levels are also associated with the development of GSD among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen.

  4. 月经初潮年龄对中国女性乳腺癌临床病理特征及分子表型的影响%Influence of age at menarche on clinical pathological features and molecular phenotype in Chinese female breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚; 王珂

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索中国女性月经初潮年龄对乳腺癌临床病理特征及分子表型的影响。方法:收集本院收治的女性乳腺癌临床资料共210例,按月经初潮年龄分为≤13岁组和>13岁组,采用卡方检验分别比较各组间临床病理特征及分子表型的差异。结果:月经初潮年龄越早(≤13岁),腋窝淋巴结转移几率越高,同时肿瘤分期越晚(P <0.05);初潮年龄越早,非 Luminal 型出现的比例越高(P <0.05)。结论:月经初潮越早,乳腺癌的恶性程度越高并且多呈现出非 Luminal 型的分子表型。%Objective:To investigate the influence of age at menarche on tumor clinical characteristics and molec-ular subtypes in Chinese females with breast cancer.Methods:The clinical findings of 2 1 0 Chinese females with breast cancer were divided into 2 groups:≤13 years old and >13 years old,then analyzed as age at menarche retro-spectively.Results:The age of menarche ≤13 years old was a higher risk factor of axillary lymph nodes metastasis, later TNMstaging and non -Luminal subtype than that of >13 years old(P <0.05).Conclusion:Earlier age at menarche might be related to higher grade malignancy,TNMstaging and appearance of non -Luminal subtype in Chi-nese females with breast cancer.

  5. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  6. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China-a report from 32 Chinese cancer registries,2003-2007%中国女性乳腺癌的发病和死亡现况——全国32个肿瘤登记点2003-2007年资料分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄哲宙; 陈万青; 吴春晓; 郑荣寿; 陈建国; 杨念念; 王宁; 张思维; 郑莹

    2012-01-01

    one of the most common cancers among Chinese women. The incidence and mortality rates of female breast cancer in urban areas are significantly higher than those in rural areas, although the overall incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in Chinese women are still at a medium or low level in the world.

  7. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  8. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. PMID:26371449

  9. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  10. The status of occupational health of female migrant workers in traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine and bio-pharmaceutical industry in Gansu province%甘肃省制药行业女工职业卫生现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖萍泰; 寇振霞; 李芝兰; 何玉红; 俞文兰; 周安寿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of occupational health of female migrant workers in different kinds of pharmaceutical industries in Gansu province and to provide the basis for improving occupational health condition. Methods One thousand eight hundreds and one female workers from 16 enterprises were selected by cluster sampling in Gansu province and investigated by interviewing and questionnaires.Ressuts There were statistical significances of education level, status of residency registrations, employment relationship and occupational hazards among female workers in three types of enterprises (P<0.05 or P<0.01 ).The morbidities of skin disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 4.46%, 2.53% and 3.70%,respectively. The morbidities of reproductive system disease in female workers for three kinds of enterprises were 48.57%, 36.70% and 36.11%, respectively. Conclusion The levels of education and working conditions of female workers in the traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine plants are low. There are more severe occupational hazards in female workers of the traditional Chinese medicine plants.%目的 分析甘肃省制药行业中药、西药和生物制品企业女工职业卫生现状,为改善其职业健康状况提供科学依据。方法 采用整群抽样方法,选取甘肃省制药行业16家企业1801名女工进行面访式问卷调查。结果 中药、西药和生物制品企业女工文化程度构成的差异有统计学意义(X2=205.98,P<0.01),户籍类型构成的差异有统计学意义(x2=76.27,P<0.01);三类企业女工雇佣关系、女工从业情况和接触职业性危害因素情况的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);女工患皮肤病者在中药制品企业42人(4.46%),西药制品企业19人(2.53%),生物制品企业4人(3.70%);中药制品企业患生殖系统疾病女工457人(48.57%),西药制品企业276人(36.70%),生物制品企业39人(36.11

  11. ApoB-100, ApoE and CYP7A1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican patients with cholesterol gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sánchez-Cuén; Jaime; Aguilar-Medina; Maribel; Arámbula-Meraz; Eliakym; Romero-Navarro; José; Granados; Julio; Sicairos-Medina; Laura; Ramos-Payán; Rosalío

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the possible association of the ApoB100 (Xba Ⅰ ), ApoE (Hha Ⅰ ) and CYP7A1 (Bsa Ⅰ ) gene polymorphisms, with the development of cholesterol gallstone disease (GD) in a Mexican population. METHODS: The polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by ethnicity, age and sex: patients with GD (n = 101) and stone-free control subjects (n = 101). RESULTS: Allelic frequencies in patients and controls were: 34....

  12. A RARE CASE OF GIANT GALL STONE IN A YOUNG PREPUBERTAL FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of gallbladder stone disease ( C holelithiasis is rising high in our country due to changes in life style and food habits. Its prevalence is more in females as compared to males. Besides various well established causes of cholelithiasis , some important anatomical/genetic factors playing a pivotal role in the stone formation are : 1. Crypts or sinuses in the mucosal folds of gallbladder called crypts of luschka. 2. LiTh1 and LiTh2 genes concerned with cholesterol metabolism , and polymorphism of apo - lipoprotein B gene. These above mentioned factors need to be considered as important eti opathogenic basis in the gallstone formation especially in high risk patients. An extra mural compression of CBD by a giant gall stone with clinical features simulating as choledocolithiasis ( A n example of exception of Courvoisier’s law should also be kept in mind while planning the line of treatment.

  13. 徐州地区胆结石的溶剂萃取的FTIR研究%Investigation of FTIR Spectra Analysis of Gallstones from Xuzhou Region by Solvent Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹文萱; 王敬; 张楠; 王建怀; 鲍亚星; 孙存杰; 李壮福

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is a preliminary exploration of the possible way the gallstones are formed. Five categories of gallstones from clinical surgery in Xuzhou region were extracted by a series of solvents. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the structure of morphological changes between gallstone and residue by extracting. The gallstone samples are from clinical surgeries in Xuzhou region where gallstone disease is quite common. Samples were extracted with a series of solvents, and then FTIR and other instrumental analysis were applied to characterize the composition, structure and morphological changes of the samples both before and after the extraction. The results show that the gallstone samples can be classified as 5 types: cholesterol-type, cholesterol-based hybrid type with salt, bilirubin and protein as its insoluble substances, brown pigment type and black pigment type gallstones. The results also indicate that protein plays a key role in gallstone nuclea-tion process by providing a sediment matrix for the formation of gallstones. Both cholesterol and carbonated hydroxyapatite are found in the insoluble substances of the samples. It is possible that cholesterol was accompanied by carbonated hydroxyapatite and there are interactions between them, and these interactions contribute to the crystallization process and speed up the formation of gallstones. All the results above may provide useful references for the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention of gallstones.%胆石病是徐州地区的多发病之一,针对徐州地区临床术中取出的五类胆结石利用系列溶剂萃取,用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)分别表征萃取前后的成分、结构及形态变化.结果表明:所取的五类徐州地区胆结石分别为胆固醇型、难溶物分别为胆红素盐、蛋白质的胆固醇为主的混合型、棕色色素型和黑色色素型胆结石.蛋白质为胆结石的形成提供沉淀基质,对于

  14. An Analysis of Literary Translation from the Perspective of Feminism:Case Study of the First Female Chinese Translator’s Version of Jane Eyre%女性主义视域下的文学翻译分析--以《简·爱》的女性译者译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林治勋

    2014-01-01

    女性主义翻译理论强调译者的存在,强调译者对原文的占有和摆布,使女性译者与男性译者拥有同样的话语权。对于女性主义翻译理论的研究可以拓宽翻译研究的视野,从不同视角对翻译实践进行观察。本文以我国第一本《简•爱》的女性译者译本为例,分析女性主义对文学翻译在不同层面的影响。%The theory of feminism translation gives emphasis on the existence of the translator, emphasizing the translator’s the possession and manipulation of the original text, which endows female translators the same discursive power as that of male translators. The study on feminism translation broadens the field of translation study and observes translation practice from different perspectives. This paper tries to analyze the influence of feminism on literary translation in different aspects by examining the first female Chinese translator’s version of Jane Eyre.

  15. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  16. 23例女性甲状腺功能减退中医证治规律探讨%Study on differentiation-prescription rules of 23 female patients with hypothyroidism by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春勇

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中药“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲状腺功能减退(简称甲减)患者的治疗效果,探索中药防治甲减新思路.方法:观察甲减患者应用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗前后的临床表现和甲状腺功能改变并评估疗效.结果:患者在服用“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”治疗后,临床症状明显改善,甲状腺功能治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”对甲减治疗有效,说明部分甲减患者病机属于“柴胡桂枝干姜汤”所主病机,丰富了中医对甲减的认识.%Objective; The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction on patients with hypothyroidism and to assess hypothyroidism using traditional Chinese medicine. Methods; Observe the clinical manifestations and the change of thyroid functions on patients with hypothyroidism before and after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction, and then assess the effect of the decoction. Result; Clinical symptoms of patients with hypothyroidism are improved significantly after the treatment of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction; and there is significant difference between the thyroid functions before and after the treatment ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; The treatment of hypothyroidism by use of Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is effective, which indicates that pathogenesis of some patients with hypothyroidism is mainly based on which Chaihu guizhi ganjiang decoction is used in traditional Chinese medicine theory, thereby enriching knowledge of hypothyroidism in traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is it a conscious preference among Turkish patients with symptomatic gallstones?--prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, Asim; Düşünceli, Fikret; Güllüoğlu, Bahadir M; Yeğen, Cumhur; Aktan, A Ozdemir; Yalin, Rifat

    2004-10-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has the advantages of early return to full daily activity, early return to work, and better cosmetic result, as well as quickly resolving pain. Yet how this information about the procedure influences a patient's attitude toward laparocopy is not known. In this study we analyzed the factors that play role in the decision-making process of patients who choose laparoscopic surgery, and we also evaluated patients' knowledge of laparoscopy and their expectations. A questionnaire was used in evaluating 98 patients suffering from symptomatic cholelithiasis scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2001 and January 2002. Females constituted 81% of the study population. Most of the patients (56%) were housewives. While 45% of the patients had an educational status of primary school degree only, 14% had graduated from a university. Forty-three patients described their level of knowledge about laparoscopy as "low" (had only heard about laparoscopy). In 61% of the patients the surgeon was the sole decision maker about the type of the operation. Almost none of the patients had a preference for the time of discharge from the hospital after surgery, and only three of the actively working patients offered a time interval for return to work. From this study we concluded that most patients have inadequate information about laparoscopic surgery, that the type of operation is dictated mostly by the surgeon, and that early discharge and early return to work are not important for many patients. PMID:15573265

  18. 胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠和免患鼠肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的差别%Differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion in genetically gallstone-susceptible and gallstone-resistant mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion of genetically gallstone-susceptible (C57L) and resistant (AKR) mice and the mechanism of cholesterol gallstone formation.Methods The inbred C57L and AKR mice were fed a lithogenic diet containing 15% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for four weeks. Hepatic cholesterol content and secretion rates of biliary lipids, as well as phenotypes of the liver and gallbladder were determined and examined before and after the feeding of the lithogenic diet. Results Both before and after ingestion of the lithogenic diet, hepatic secretion rates of all biliary lipids in C57L mice were markedly higher than that of AKR mice (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively), whereas hepatic cholesterol contents of C57L mice were significantly lower than that of AKR mice (P<0.05). Furthermore, after consumption of the lithogenic diet, the increase in hepatic secretion rate of biliary cholesterol in C57L mice was significantly higher than that in AKR mice (P<0.01). Cholesterol gallstones formed in C57L mice and fatty livers developed in AKR mice. Conclusions Biliary cholesterol hypersecretion is the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation, lith genes have effects on biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice. Lithogenic bile is formed at the canalicular membrane and precedes the development of cholesterol gallstones. It is most likely that cholesterol and bile acid hyposecretion make the AKR strain susceptible to the development of fatty livers and resistant to gallstone formation.%目的研究胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠(C57L)和免患鼠(AKR)肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的特征以及胆囊胆固醇结石形成的机制.方法用含15%脂肪、1.25%胆固醇和0.5%胆酸的结石餐饲喂C57L和AKR鼠四周,检测并比较两种鼠在结石餐干预前、后肝脏胆固醇含量、肝内胆汁中脂质的分泌率以及胆

  19. 壮医的“公药”、“母药”与中医药学“对药”的内涵思考%Reflection on Connotation of “Male Herb” and “Female Herb” in Zhuang Nationality Medicine and “Matched Herb” of ;Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐汉庆; 黄岑汉; 黄秀峰; 李克明; 窦锡彬; 李晓华

    2015-01-01

    壮医药理论是壮族先民长期医疗实践经验的总结,具有浓郁的民族特色。“阴阳为本”是壮医药理论体系的重要组成部分。“公药”、“母药”的配伍以壮医阴阳思想为指导,配伍规律有主药配主药、主药配帮药、主药配带药、主药配解毒药,这与中药“对药”的配伍应用既相类似也有差异。通过总结相关“公药”、“母药”的应用实践经验,与中药“对药”的配伍应用进行比较,进一步认识“公药”、“母药”与“对药”的学术内涵。加强壮医药与中医药的交流,使两者相互借鉴,更好地指导临床工作。%Zhuang people have accumulated and summarized lots of medicine knowledge in long time of practice , which is characterized with Zhuang nationality .“Yin‐Yang thoughts”is an important part of Zhuang nationality medicine theory ,which is the guide of combination of “male herb” and “female herb” .There are some rules about the combination of “male herb” and“female herb”such as combination of main herb and main herb ,combination of main herb and auxiliary herb ,combination of main herb and guide herb ,combination of main herb and detoxify herb ,to which the rules of combination of “matched herb” of Traditional Chinese Medicine are similar .Meanwhile ,there is difference between them .Comparing the difference will promote better understnding of the academic value of “male herb”,“female herb” and “matched herb”,and provide better guidance for clinical application of Zhuang nationality medicine with more communication and reference with Traditional Chinese Medicine .

  20. Discussion on problems of Chinese Female Basketball from Development Trend of World Basketball Movement%从世界篮球运动发展趋势谈中国男篮亟需解决的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖荣亮; 郑尚武

    2016-01-01

    通过对欧美篮球运动发展趋势的分析,揭示中国男子篮球在近些年国际赛事中竞赛成绩不理想的深层原因;提出中国男篮应坚持走自己“快、灵、准、全、逼防”的技战术风格,在最基础的选材、育人时就要注重球员必须具备“优质”体能,在技术和战术素养的培养中更要立足于谋求全队各位置的“平衡”发展,以形成全队“内外结合、多点进攻”的团队优势。%Through the analysis of the development trend of Europe and the United States basketball , it reveals deep reasons about the Chinese men's basketball competition results in international competitions in recent years. It puts forward that Chinese men's basketball team should adhere to the “quick, spirit, accurate, complete, and forced” tactical style; focus on players must have “high quality” physical ability on basic materials, educational. In the cultivation of the technique and tactics, must base on seeking the “balance”the development of the location , in order to form a team of “combination of inside and outside , the more offensive”team advantage.

  1. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  2. 论20世纪50—70年代中国文学女性身体形态脸谱化叙述%Portraits of Female Body in the Chinese Literature in 1950-1970

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传霞; 蒋凯旋

    2012-01-01

    1949年中国大陆的女性解放运动,拓展了女性参与社会生产的广度和深度,以“铁姑娘”为代表的女英雄形象的出现,改变了社会对女性能力的评价,打破了女性柔弱无力的僵化性别印象,在一定程度上触动了“男主外,女主内”的传统性别分工模式以及支持这一模式的文化观念系统,为女性争取到了更多地参与到社会公共领域的权力,改变了传统社会评判女性的标准,瓦解了传统社会对女性角色的设定,但是,消匿女性特征的女英雄和凸显女性性别特征的反面女性的脸谱化文学叙述,又将中国社会具有巨大进步意义现代性社会性别建构推向了另一个二元对立、不平等的性别神话之中。%The women's liberation movement in Mainland China since 1949 had expanded the depth and width of women's participation in social production. As well, the appearance of "Iron Girl" images as women's heroines changed the evaluation of women's capability in society and broke the fixed gender based image of women being weak and helpless. At certain level, it challenged the tradition of gender based division of labor as "men managing outside while women managing inside the households" as well as its cultural values and helped win rights for women to participate in social and public processes. It, moreover, helped change the traditional standards of evaluating women and undermine the traditional female stereotypes. However, the existence of women heroines without female characteristics and female negative characters with distinct female characteristic facial profiles in literary writings again created a dichotomy and inequality in the mythical construction of gender order.

  3. The emerging of"female citizen":The subject identity of modern Chinese women through literary practices%女国民的兴起:近代中国女性主体身份与文学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔以钢; 刘堃

    2009-01-01

    The construction of"citizen-state"relations in the intellectual World of modern China and the establishment of individual citizenship in political discourse have opened up a political and discourse sphere for modern women to strive for new identities,wherein some intellectually advanced women have managed to establish their individual identity as"female citizen"by carrying the debate on the relationship between women and the state with regard to their rights and responsibilities,and on the relationship between gender role and citizenship.Though the idea of"female citizen"was not provided with a political theory of practical significance,the subject identity of women,however,was repeatedly spoken about and strengthened in brand-new literary practices,resulting in a dynamic discourse of "female citizen":in the meantime,disagreements concerning the concepts of"female rights,""civil rights,"and "natural rights"have all helped ereate significant tension inside the related discourse sphere.%近代中国思想界对"围民一国家"关系的建构及个体国民身份在政治话语中的确立,为近代女性谋求新的身份认同开拓了话语空间和政治空间.近代先进女性也正是在这种话语空间和政治空间中,通过女性与国家之间责任和权利关系的辩难以及性别角色与国民身份的博弈,确立了独立的个体身份--"女国民".尽管这一概念并未形成系统而具有实践指导意义的政治理论,但她们通过别开生面的文学实践,一再言说和强化着这一主体身份,形成了声势颇为浩大的"女国民"话语;同时也因对"女权"、"民权"、"天赋人权"等概念的不同理解,在相关话语场的内部形成了富有意义的张力.

  4. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  5. 女性高管参与对企业技术创新的影响——基于创业板企业的实证研究%The impact of female executives participation on technological innovation——evidence from Chinese GEM companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾萍; 邬绮虹

    2012-01-01

    全球女性高管的强势崛起引起了社会各界的广泛关注,越来越多的学者开始探索女性参与高管团队对于企业经营管理的影响。然而,女性高管参与对企业技术创新的影响仍然是学术界尚未深入探讨的问题。本文以中国创业板企业为研究对象,探讨女性高管参与对企业技术创新的影响。同时,考察女性高管人力资本与行业差异作为情境因素对于女性高管参与和企业技术创新之间关系的调节作用。研究结果表明:女性高管参与对于企业技术创新具有显著的促进作用,不同行业企业的技术创新存在显著差异;女性高管人力资本强化了女性高管参与对企业技术创新的正面影响;行业差异调节了女性高管参与和企业技术创新的关系,科技与电信行业企业中,女性高管参与对于企业技术创新的积极作用更为明显。%It has attracted wide attention that female executives are strongly raising all over the world.An increasing number of scholars have explored how female participation in top management teams affects corporate performance.The problem of female executives' impact on technological innovation has not been in-depth investigated.This paper uses the data of Chinese GEM companies during 2009 to 2010,empirically examines the relationship between female executives and technological innovation.Meanwhile,we investigate how human capital and industry moderate the relationship between female executives and technological innovation.The results show that women executives have a positive significant effect on technological innovation.Human capital strengthens the positive significant effect of female executives on innovation performance.Industry factor plays a significant regulatory role in relationship between female executives and technological innovation;In technology and telecommunications companies,female executives have a stronger impact on promoting innovation.

  6. Analysis of Chinese Elite Female Swimmer Ye Shi-wen’s Turning Technique in Individual Medley%我国优秀女子混合泳运动员叶诗文的转身技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 陈立新; 李波; 沈思佳; 陈洁; 郑燕; 蔡合玉; 李征艳; 应春意; 韩照岐; 程燕; 张明飞; 高捷; 周兴龙; 蒋川

    2015-01-01

    The research applies sport biomechanics methods ,i .e .strength testing and video an‐alysis .By comparing and analyzing Ye Shi‐wen’ s turning technical parameters in IM with some other female IM elites in the world ,we obtained world‐class female swimmers’ technical characteristic during the turn as well as the development trend of turning on women’s IM .On the basis of summarization and analysis of this information ,the research advises Ye Shi‐wen how to optimize and improve turning technique in training .%研究采用视频分析和力量测试的运动生物力学方法,通过对比和分析叶诗文与部分世界级女子混合泳运动员的转身技术参数,获取了女子混合泳世界级运动员转身技术特点以及发展趋势。在总结和分析这些信息的基础上,对叶诗文在训练中如何改进和优化转身技术提出建议。

  7. Inspiration of American STEM Intervention Programs on Chinese female civil engineering higher education%美国 STEM 学科干预措施对我国建筑女性培养启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2015-01-01

    对旨在提高美国STEM学科女大学生教育水平的干预计划进行了分类,总结了干预计划应着重考虑的四个因素,指出建筑工程类隶属于STEM学科体系,美国的女性STEM学科对我国建筑工程类学科女大学生教育问题有重要启示:可以深化该方面的理论研究,丰富教育实践活动的类型和内容,并重视加强政府的引导作用。%The STEM intervention programs aiming to improve the female education level are classified,and four factors should be emphasized for the implementation of STEM intervention programs. In China,the female undergraduate education in civil engineering should be taken seriously, the theoretic analysis should be further studied,the types and content of intervention programs should be enriched,and the guidance of govern-ment should be stressed.

  8. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  9. Estimation on the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and relat- ed female group%中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数值估测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明华; 于增照; 张北川; 史同新; 李秀芳; 李洋; 王燕飞; 朱明泉

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:In the new social demography and medical background,to estimate the numbers of Chinese homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behaviors and related female groups to provide scientific basis for the related research in China.Methods:According to the population provided by 201 3 China Statistical Yearbook and the related data offered by professor Pan’s "Multilayer equal probability sexology sampling survey a-bout China adult population"in 201 0,data sample calculation was performed.Results:The total number of Chi-nese male homosexuality (including bisexuality)may significantly exceed 21 million.The number of sexually active MSM was about 9.224 million;the number of female homosexuality in China was up to 1 2 million.The number of sexually active WSW was about 8.1 67 million;there were approximately 1 3.6 million female whose spouses were male homosexuality.There were nearly 1 0 million female whose spouses were MSM.Conclusion:There are huge numbers of homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior and related groups of women in China.Their physical and psychological health need to be paid particular attention by medical community and other related com-munity.In the next ten years,the number of"visible"homosexuality and people with same-sex sexual behavior will increase.While the number of female whose fixed sex-partners are male homosexuality and MSMwill continue to decline.%目的:在新的社会人口学和医学背景下,估测中国同性爱者、同性性行为者和相关女性群体人口数量,为当今中国的相关研究提供科学依据。方法:主要根据《2013年中国统计年鉴》提供的人口基数和潘绥铭2010年对中国成年人口的多层等概率性学抽样调查给出的相关数据进行计算。结果:估测我国男同性爱者(包括男双性爱者)总人口极可能明显超过2100万,性活跃期男男性行为者约922.4万;我国女同性爱者总人口可达1200万左右,

  10. 索契冬奥会中外单板滑雪U型场地女子优秀运动员实力比较研究%Comparative Research on the Performance of Chinese and Foreign Elite Female Half-pipe Snowboarders in Sochi Winter Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春来; 孟述; 王化梁

    2014-01-01

    With the methods of observation statistics,contrastive analysis and interview,the paper analyzes the performance and results of Chinese and foreign female half-pipe snowboarders in finals in Sochi Winter Olympics,which purpose is to understand the current technical development and find out Chinese snowboarders' shortages. It thinks that the main cause of Chinese snowboarders not winning a medal is the lower strength,and the frontside1080 or backside900 will be chosen by more female snowboarders to compete in the next Winter Olympics. It suggests that Chinese snowboarders should further increase the difficulty of front and back side turn,and look for the breakthrough in diversity of movement based on improving the quality and success rate of existing skills. At the next Winter Olympics,it should be to get rid of the mind-set of"combination of spurt and keep",and full exert the high difficult tricks in the final two rounds in order to create more opportunities and possibility of breakthrough the zero medal.%采用运用观察统计法、对比分析法及访谈法对索契冬奥会单板滑雪U型场地女子决赛中外优秀运动员比赛完成情况及结果进行分析,总结项目的技术发展现状,查找我们与国外优秀运动员实力上的差距,认为与国外优秀运动员实力上的差距是我国女子运动员在本次比赛中未能获得奖牌的主要原因;在下一届冬奥会中,frontside1080或backside900必然为多数女子运动员所选用。建议我国运动员在提高现有难度动作完成质量与成功率的基础上,进一步提高前、后刃转体动作的难度,并在动作多样性方面寻求突破;下一届冬奥会中,我们应突破“冲、保结合”的思维定势,在决赛的两轮比赛中全力冲击高难度动作,为实现奖牌零的突破创造更多的机会与可能。

  11. Interpretation of the marriage values of contemporary Chinese female through boycott against Baihe net-work%从“万人抵制百合网”事件解读当代中国女性婚姻价值观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丛烨; 曹顺仙; 曹宁校

    2014-01-01

    During the Spring Festival holiday in 2014,many people on micro blogs criticized an advertise-ment of Baihe Network,a famous dating website in China.People launched a boycott against Baihe Network because they thought the advertisement propagandized old values which were against the present social moralities.This dis-cussion demonstrated Chinese female’s awareness of values in different aspects,freedom of marriage and gender e-quality.%2014年的春节假期,国内著名婚恋网站百合网投放的广告遭到了微博上网友的批判,发起“万人抵制百合网”的话题,多数网友认为这个广告宣传了旧的价值观念,有悖于现有的社会道德。这样的“万人抵制百合网”体现了当代我国的女性对自身在各方面的价值体现、自己婚姻自由、男女地位平等的重视。

  12. 我国跆拳道优秀女选手历届奥运会技、战术特征研究%Study on Taekwondo's Technical and Tactical Characteristics of the Chinese Elite Female Athletes in the 27th,28th and 29th Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会景

    2011-01-01

    我国自1995年引进开展跆拳道项目以来,经过教练员、运动员及其相关人员的努力,我国跆拳道女子项目已进入世界先进水平的行列,多次在奥运会上成功夺冠。本文综合运用录像观摩、常规数理统计和调查访问等研究方法,对我国优秀跆拳道女选手在奥运会比赛中的技、战术运用情况进行分析、归纳和总结,以期为跆拳道技、战术训练科学化提供参考和理论依据,并为备战2012年奥运会提供有效的、可供参考的理论依据。%Since 1995,China has introduced and developed Taekwondo.With the coaches and athletes' efforts,Chinese women's Taekwondo has entered the ranks of advanced level in the world,winning the gold medal in the Olympic Games for several times.By watching video of competition,statistics and interviews,the paper researched the technical and tactical characteristics of Chinese elite female athletes in the 27th、28th and 29th Olympic Games.The purpose is to provide theoretical basis and reference to the skill training of Taekwondo,and provide effective references for the 2012 Olympic Games.

  13. 中国女子足球运动员运动损伤规律及防治的初步研究%The Prevention and Treatment of Injuries in Chinese Female Football Players

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马国川; 欧阳孝

    2001-01-01

    1997年春训时,对国家队等8支女子足球队共175名运动员进行了运动损伤调查及病因分析,结果显示:女子足球运动损伤发生率为235.4%,其中急性损伤占41.8%,慢性损伤占58.2%。发病率列前6位的运动损伤依次为踝关节扭伤、膝关节韧带损伤、大腿后肌群拉伤、颈椎劳损、踝部骨关节病、腰肌劳损。损伤原因为:训练水平不足、训练缺乏科学性、人为因素、客观原因。针对病因,我们以广东队等4队93名运动员作为防治组(陕西队等3队58人作为自然对照组),采取了综合防治措施。1998年春训时调查结果显示:防治组运动损伤发生率为105.4%,而对照组运动损伤发生率为229.3%,二者有显著性差异(P<0.05),表明在目前条件下,采取本文综合性防治措施是行之有效的。%For the purpose of preventing and treating the injuries in female football players, we investigated the incidence and the types of injuries, and analyzed the causes that lead to the injuries in 175 players from 8 female football teams. The results were as follows: (1) The incidence of injuries was 235.4 %, including 41.8 % of acute and 58.2 % of chronic injuries. (2) The main injures included contusion (46.5 %), sprain (22.8 %), muscle torsion (11.5 %), and abrasion (10.9 %). (3) The injuries usually occurred in ankle (22%), knee (14.8 %), thigh (14 %), head and neck (9.5 %), leg (8.5 %), foot (7.4 %), lumbar (6.6 %). (4) The major causes of injuries included: inadequate training (33.3 %), disobeying training principles (25.2 %), man-made factors (24.2 %),and others (17.5 %). In accordance with the causes, 93 players from Guangdong, Henan, Shandong, Bayi female football teams in 1997 were taken as the treatment group with various prevention and treatment measures, while 58 players from Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi female football teams were taken as the control group. The

  14. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  15. Velocity characteristics of the rotation technique of Chinese elite female discus throwers%我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的速度特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁从万; 王鹏; 刘海国

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、三维高速影像解析法和数理统计法,对现阶段我国优秀女子铁饼运动员旋转技术的时空特征进行分析,得出以下结论:重心和铁饼的分速度大小及比例对运动员技术风格的形成有重要影响;在旋转技术完成瞬间,李艳凤和宋爱民的铁饼合速度分别是最大和最小的,不同的是李艳风水平分速度占的比例大,宋爱民垂直分速度占的比例大,孙太凤在左脚单支撑阶段铁饼速度较快,导致腾空和过渡阶段铁饼速度下降;在左脚单支撑阶段,宋爱民右髋的速度最大导致她重心轨迹偏向左,孙太凤最慢的右髋速度和最快的右肩速度使她的重心轨迹偏右;李艳凤在过渡阶段过快的肩关节速度是她获得较快饼速的主要原因之一。在形成最后用力双支撑瞬间,我国运动员的肩轴角速度要大于髋轴,说明我国运动员已经开始最后用力。%This article adopted the methods of literature, expert interview, photography of three dimensional in high speed, and mathematic statistics to analyze the rotation technique of Chinese elite women's discus throwers. It has been shown that size and proportion of component velocity of CG and discus have very important influence to form athlete' s technique style ; Body -discus system at flight and transition stage is very complex and the most difficulty controllable. System changes in the two stages have the decisive effect to form personal optimum technique; the second and third rotation axis of Chinese athletes have steady velocity transfer. Hip and knees velocity of the second axis decide the style of displacement. The shoulder velocity of third has a close relation to the space - time characteristics of discus.

  16. Quality of Life in Chinese Patients with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Angela; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Stearman, Sarah; Chow, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    Chinese are the largest Asian group in the U.S., constituting 23.8% of the nation’s total Asian-American population. Cancer is the leading cause of death for female Asian Americans, and breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females for all racial/ethic groups in San Francisco, which ranks 4th in the number of Asian Americans and where 152,620 Chinese account for 19.6% of the city’s total population. Previous observations among Chinese immigrant women suggested that a dia...

  17. The Folklore - Archetypal Criticism of Feminity : with the Female Image of Southern Yangtze in Chinese Modem Literature as a Critical Example%女性气质的民俗-原型批评论——以现代文学江南女性形象为批评范例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海莹

    2012-01-01

    The folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity is a native theory on Chinese female literature criticism, originated from feminist prototypal criticism. The paper attempts to analyze the female iamge in Southern Yangtze literature and tries to delineate a trajectory of prototype development from the theme, the figure to the imago in folklore. Under the multiple approaches to mod- em literature, folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity has also taken on more theoretical significance in three aspects : the em- phasis on exploration of universality and totality along with the ecological significance of the inner world development, the empha- sis on individuality and particularity along with the prominance of the author' s inner creative temperament, and the emphasis on the fusion of psychological prototype and literary prototype along with the creation of aesthetic enjoyment. As an original native theoretical approach to Chinese literature, folklore - prototypal criticism of feminity may prove to be of unique significance in building female image and developing female inner world.%从文学人类学的视角研究中国现当代文学,是对传统研究方法的一次突破与创新。女性气质的民俗一原型批评理论是在文学人类学精神关照下诞生的一种本土化的女性文学理论。这一理论的渊源是女性主义原型批评,运用此对现代文学江南作家笔下的女性文学形象进行分析,可以触摸到一条由民俗主题原型、民俗形象原型、民俗意象原型串联起来的“原型”发展轨迹。经过现代文学的多维诠释,女性气质的民俗一原型批评凸显出其理论实质,即注重普遍性与整体性及内部精神生态意义的开拓,注重个体性与特殊性及作家内在创作气质的彰显,注重心理原型与文学原型的融合并创造审美愉悦。女性气质的民俗一原型批评理论是中国文学本土化实践的又一先例,对于女性个体

  18. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  19. The Anxious “Chicks”:Identification of Female Images in Chinese “Chick Flicks”%焦虑的“小妞”:中国小妞电影中女性形象体认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攀

    2016-01-01

    Highly popular among urban women,“Chick Flicks”is not only a film genre but also an important tool to reveal existence and development of urban women.A careful observation of female body and urban space is an effective way to explore the characters in such movies and contemporary urban women in reality as well.“Chick Flicks”highlight the spiritual anxiety of current urban women,which is different from tradition-al binary gender conflict,but existential anxiety resulting from social development.Anxieties about body and space are two major sources of female anxiety.Through cultural identification with body and space in “Chick Flicks”,based both on traditional study and practical situation,we can accurately pinpoint the problems fa-cing urban women,and further more put forth suggestions to women in the new era.%作为备受都市女性观众欢迎的“小妞电影”不仅是一种电影类型,更是剖析当下都市女性生存与发展状态的重要途径。而对“小妞电影”中的女性身体与都市空间的仔细观照是体认片中人物乃至当下都市女性形象的有效策略。“小妞电影”集中且深刻地折射出当下社会都市女性所存有的精神焦虑,这是不同于传统性别二元对立冲突的生存焦虑,是在社会发展中产生的新问题。对身体与空间的焦虑是都市女性焦虑的两大源头,通过对“小妞电影”中女性身体与都市空间的文化指认,我们可以准确地认识到当下都市女性所面临的问题,并进而在传统女性研究与实践的基础上结合实际情况为新时期女性生存与发展提供新的建议。

  20. Feel Fine with Chinese Folk Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoZi

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese folk music band “Feel Fine” is composed of three accomplished young female instrumentalists. These young musicians, since their debut, have brought to audiences fresh music experiences with their splendid costumes, extraordinary skills and pop-style music.

  1. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  2. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  3. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. The Case-Control Analysis of Gallstone Incidence in Cangzhou%沧州市胆道结石发病情况的病例对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮晨; 张卫东; 芮炳峰

    2012-01-01

    Objective Through exploring the risk factors of gallstone,to provide the health education information of reducing gallstone incidence and change improper behavior for relevant people, and to make the reference of relevant prevention and control strategy. Methods 86 gallstone cases from 1164 cases in 40 -60 people were analyzed through case-control study and logistic regression analysis to find the risk factors. Results By single factor analysis,the difference had statistical significance in family history of cholecystitis, history of disease about gallstone, taking greasy food, taking animal organs, gender, and smoking. By PAR analysis, history of disease about gallstone, symptom of gallstone in family, taking animal organs, body mass index, meal pattern, and greasy food can cause gallstone with higher probability. Conclusion The gallstone risk factors were gender, family history, taking greasy food and irregular diet,and they were independent factors. Rational dietary structure,regular diet, weight control,exercise, and drinking tea were benefit to prevent the incidence of gallstone.%目的 探讨胆石症患病的危险因素,为该人群提供降低胆结石发病、改变不良行为提供健康教育信息,也为制定相关预防和控制策略提供参考依据.方法 分析沧州市1164例40 ~ 60岁体检人群的86例胆结石病例,通过病例对照分析方法,并采用条件Logistic回归分析胆石症的危险因素.结果 单因素分析胆囊炎家族史、胆囊炎史、喜食油腻食物、喜食动物内脏、女性性别、吸烟有统计学意义.人群归因危险度分析胆囊炎史、家族患胆石症、喜食动物内脏、体质指数、用餐无规律、油腻食物等因素引发胆石症的概率较高.结论 女性、家族史、喜食油腻食物、用餐不规律是胆结石的危险因素,并且其作用相对独立;合理膳食结构、规律进食、控制体重、适当运动、饮茶有助于预防胆石症的发生.

  5. Reação peritoneal tardia ao calculo biliar humano, de colesterol, deixado na cavidade abdominal de ratos Late peritoneal reaction to human cholesterol gallstone left into abdominal cavity of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bertges

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os resultados tardios da colocação de cálculos biliares humanos, de colesterol, na cavidade peritoneal de ratos. Constituíram-se cinco grupos: cinco ratos foram apenas laparotomizados com manuseio da cavidade; cinco foram laparotomizados e receberam um ponto com fio monofilamentar cinco zeros no sulco paracólico direito e mesentério; dez receberam cálculos que foram deixados livres na cavidade peritoneal; em dez, os clculos foram fixados no sulco paracólico direito e, finalmente, dez tiveram clculos fixados no mesentério. Os animais foram mortos após cinco meses de pós-operatório quando se observou a cavidade abdominal e foi coletado material para estudo histopatológico. Concluiu-se que os cálculos não foram absorvidos, desenvolveram uma reação peritoneal do tipo corpo estranho com formação de plastrão e foram envolvidos por tecido fibroso e células inflamatórias.It was evaluated the late results of human gallstones placed into peritoneal cavity of rats. Five groups were created. In the first (group A five rats were submitted only to laparotomy and handling of abdominal cavity, in the second (group B five rats were submitted to laparotomy and a stitch was placed into right abdominal wall and in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum, in the third (group C ten rats received a gallstone left free into abdomen, in the fourth (group D ten rats received a gallstone fixed into right abdominal wall and in the fifth (group E ten rats received a gallstone fixed in mesenterium between the ileus and cecum. One rat in each group was selected to be use as a pilot and were re-laparotomized after 1 month and 3 months, in order to look for any possible alteration. All rats were dead after five months when the abdominal cavity was observed and specimens were collected around the gallstones to histopathology. ln groups A and B there were not important macroscopic alterations. The gallstones were not absorved in groups C, D

  6. 国家女子网球队运动员大力发球技术的运动学分析%A Kinematics Analysis of the Female Chinese National Tennis Players' Power Serve Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇亮; 周兴龙; 朱文斐

    2012-01-01

    通过国家队网球运动员的大力发球的运动学指标分析,以期提高我国网球运动员发球水平,并为教练员教学、训练提供理论依据。利用两台200Hz高速摄像机对8名国家网球队女队员发球进行三维拍摄,通过jE京体育大学视迅解析系统对所拍摄影像进行三维重构及运动学解析。结果显示:运动员抛球离手时,抛球高度平均为3.67m,最高点到击球点落差平均为1.10m。球拍后引时,膝关节最小角度分别为持拍侧91.35°、非持拍侧104.64°。“搔背”动作完成时,拍头均低于重心,平均落差为0.21m。击球后平均球速为42.64m/s,击球点高度平均为2.57m。由此可见,我国网球运动员发球时抛球较高,建议降低抛球高度;相对于FB技术,FU技术能使运动员获得更大幅度的躯干扭转角度;缓冲结束时刻,部分运动员过度顶髋的现象造成下肢发力不充分,最终导致球速下降。“搔背”动作是典型的超越器械动作,下肢的充分蹬伸是动作质量的保证。%By analyzing the kinematics indicators of the power serve of the national tennis players, to improve the serve quality of China's tennis players, to provide both the player and coach with a better understanding of the mechanical basis of the serve, 8 Chinese national tennis team players have been taken as the subject in this research 8 players were filmed using two cameras, threc-dimensional direct linear transformation set-up. Two highspeed cameras were used to record the calibration frame, which was necessary for calculating three-dimensional coordinate data using the direct linear transformation (DLT) method. Data were processed by Shi Xun Analysis System of Beijing Sport University. The result shows that the ball was hit at a mean distance of 1.10m below a peak ball toss height of 3.67m. In backswing, the front knee flexion angle was 91.35°and the back one was 104

  7. Influence of malignant tumors on the life expectancy of Chinese females in different decades%不同时期主要恶性肿瘤对中国女性预期寿命影响的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 康晓平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influence of main malignant tumors on female life expectancies in 1989, 1999 and 2009, and to provide evidences for the highest priorities of malignant tumor prevention strategies in female population. Methods The cause of death information was collected from China Annual Health Statistics Report in 2010, 1999 and 1989. The loss of life due to malignant cancers and its influences on life expectancies were analyzed for the women of different areas within different age groups.Results The mortality rate of malignant tumors was increasing rapidly in both rural and urban areas for the last two decades. Lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer death in rural and urban areas in 2009.Breast cancer increased to the fifth leading cause of cancer death while gastric cancer death decreased.The five leading causes of cancer death followed the sequence of lung, colon, liver, stomach and breast cancers among urban residents, while liver cancer took the second position of leading causes of cancer death among rural residents. Cancer death had larger influence on the loss of life in women younger than 50 years old than in women aged over 50 years. The loss of life due to cancer death was more obvious in the women of rural areas than in urban areas. Conclusion It is essential to prevent women from lung cancer risk factors including smoking and the second hand smoking exposures. Breast cancer screening is important for the middle-aged women in rural areas.%目的 比较1989年、1999年与2009年3个不同时期主要恶性肿瘤对中国女性预期寿命的影响,针对城乡及不同年龄段提出肿瘤防治重点,为改善中国女性生存质量提供参考依据.方法 利用2010年中国卫生统计年鉴与1999年、1989年全国卫生统计年报资料的死亡资料,采用Excel软件计算和编制简略寿命表及去死因简略寿命表进行分析,比较因肿瘤损失的寿命和环比增长速度等指标的时间趋势

  8. 基于推拉理论的我国女性参与体育旅游动机与特征研究%An Empirical Study of the Characteristics and Motivations of Chinese Female Sports Tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆龙; 邓维霞; 张明亚

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of relevant research , this paper studied the motivations of mountain -climb tourists in the Yulong Snow Mount in Lijiang Scenic Spot by using literature data , questionnaire and mathematical statistics and so on .The results are as fol-lows:First, most of the participants have a good educational , economic and professional background .Second, there is an space dif-ferentiation in tourist region .Based on the analysis of such characteristics , the paper put forward some suggestions on market seg-mentation, diversified management , providing personalized services to meet the needs of different levels of female sports tourists .%从“推-拉”理论的视角出发,运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、数理统计等研究方法对丽江玉龙雪山景区女性参与体育旅游的动机及影响因素进行研究与分析。调查研究结果显示:女性体育旅游者具有年轻化、高学历、高收入的人口学特征;客源地上呈现出明显的空间分异现象;参与动机及影响因素存在多元化趋势。进而提出了细分市场、多样化经营、提供个性化服务相整合的产品开发和营销策略迎合女性不同层次的体育旅游消费需求的开发建议。

  9. Arduous Female Body - Shape---historical reflection of modern Chinese women's involvement in sports%艰难的女性身体塑造--我国近代女子体育参与的历史思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 蒋苏

    2014-01-01

    以民国女性的"身体"塑造为研究对象,通过对民国时期画报、图像、照片资料的解读、分析,使得史料的表述更具“张力”。通过研究,突出社会结构变迁层面对女性身体塑造的影响。女性的身体生物性塑造,暗合了"强种保国"的军国主义的思维;在道德身体的塑造上,对塑造新女性、新国民的历史进程中,发挥了一定的作用;在沟通态的身体上,体育运动的参与,突破了女性的存在空间,是时代变革在她们身体塑造过程中的力量彰显。%Women's " body" shaping in the republic of China is used as the research object. The paper analyzes the pictorials, images and photographs in the period of the Republic of China, which makes the expression of the materials more forceful. The research highlights the influence of social level structure change on female body shaping. The biologi-cal shaping of women's body coincides with the military philosophy of “strengthening the seed to protect the country”. The moral shaping of women's bodies plays a role in shaping new women and new citizens. In the communication mode of body shaping, the involvement of sports breaks through the space in which women exist and this is the reflection of the power in their body - shaping process.

  10. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  11. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  12. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  13. Dieting and Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  14. Gallstones in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACG on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist? Podcasts and Videos GI Health Centers Colorectal Cancer Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity © ...

  15. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  16. Are Female Supervisors More Female-Friendly?

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Bednar; Dora Gicheva

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the idea that easily inferable demographic characteristics such as gender may not be sufficient to define type in the supervisor-employee mentoring relationship. We use longitudinal data on athletic directors at NCAA Division I programs to identify through observed mobility the propensity of top-level administrators to hire and retain female head coaches, above and beyond an organization's culture. We show that supervisor gender appears to be unrelated to female friendliness in t...

  17. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  18. A comparison between composition and density of the fat-free mass of young adult Singaporean Chinese and Dutch Caucasians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, A.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The body composition was measured in 30 female Singapore Chinese and 34 female Dutch Caucasians aged (mean ± SD) 22.7 ± 3.6 years and in 39 male Singapore Chinese and 39 male Dutch Caucasians aged 23.3 ± 3.2 years. Methods: The body fat percentage (BF€was measured using densitometry and deuterium ox

  19. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  20. THAI LITERATURES REFLECTING CHINESE IDENTITY IN THAI SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchawadee Kesmanee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures present the picture of people’s lives in the society in details. There have been numerous studies on Chinese-Thai literatures but none of them has an in-depth study on the Chinese identity. This study has been conducted due to personal interest to analyze the authors’ effort to present the Chinese identity through the characters, contents and social contexts. The data were collected from Thai novels and documentaries dated between 1957 and 2007 of which main characters, content and context were related to the Chinese residing in Thailand. Data collected had been inspected, classified, analyzed and composed. It was found that the Thai literatures could possibly represent Chinese identity in Thai society in the areas of the relationship of the family members from being a male-dominated family to a female-accepted one, the conservation of Chinese language to represent the unity of the Chinese community, the importance of the Chinese opera and its struggle to survive in recent times and the existence of Chinese culture and tradition, which are acculturated and assimilated to the Thai culture. From the study of Chinese identity in Thai literature in four aspects: (1 family relationships, system of relatives and surnames; (2 Chinese Language; (3 Performing Arts and (4 Culture and tradition, it was found that no matter how strict the first generations are to the traditions, they cannot resist the cultural assimilation in the next generations, who are descendants of Chinese overseas in Thailand. Since these new generations were born and grew up in Thai culture, which is different from the one of their ancestors, their versions of Chinese traditions were affected by the Thai society, economy and political situations which led to the changes of the old Chinese tradition and even result in the loss of some tradition.

  1. Female feticide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  2. 强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析%Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. But the results were limited quality and sample,More RCTs with high quality and large sample size should be conducted.%目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体

  3. Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine in the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ:a meta-analysis%强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓珍; 李永刚; 林川; 黄海溶

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价强力霉素联合中药治疗女性支原体感染的疗效及安全性。方法通过检索1966年—2014年3月期间中英文数据库,运用Endnote软件筛选相关随机对照试验(randomized controlled trial,RCT)研究。采用RevMan5.2软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入13项RCT,1107例患者,其中7项强力霉素联合口服中药,6项强力霉素联合外用中药。根据给药方式进行亚组分析,强力霉素联合口服中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01);强力霉素联合外用中药组总有效率和痊愈率均高于单用强力霉素组(P<0.01)。强力霉素联合中药组不良反应发生率是单用强力霉素组的0.68倍(95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03)。结论强力霉素联合中药治疗女性生殖道支原体感染有一定疗效,但受纳入研究质量和样本量的限制,以上结论需更多高质量研究予以验证。%Objectives This study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Doxycycline combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ. Methods Literatures from Chinese and English databases published between 1966 and March of 2014 were screened for relevant randomized controlled trials(RCTs).The software package of Review Manager 5.2(Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis.Results 13 RCTs involving 930 patients were included in the study. Doxycycline plus oral TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate (P<0.01)and Cure rate (P<0.01)for the studies;Doxycycline plus external TCM was superior to Doxycycline alone in terms of effective rate(P<0.01)and Cure rate(P<0.01)for the studies. In addition,Doxycycline plus TCM was inferior to Doxycycline alone in terms of adverse effects rate (RR=0.68,95%CI:0.48~0.97,P=0.03).Conclusion Doxycycline combined with TCM was effective in treating mycoplasma infection of female reproductive organ

  4. Study on the relation between the degree of dental calcification and chronological age about Chinese Han nationality aged 6~18 years old groups of the female gender%中国汉族6~18周岁女性人群牙齿生长发育的年龄研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雪梅; 封华; 董迎春; 谭宇; 王晓明; 王昊; 韩冰; 庹琳; 王坚; 张继宗

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was to explore the relation between degree of dental calcification and age in Chinese Han nationality adolescents and youths of the female gender, then to set up equations for estimating age by tooth.Methods The samples consisted of 6 923 pieces of digital orthopantomograms belonging to the groups aged 6 ~ 18 years old,accordance to the standard for grading the degree of dental calcification,the observers graded the low mandibular dental calcification degree showing in the samples, then dealt the data with SPSS 13.0 and set up the regression equations for estimating age;finally, a blind test was carried out based on 181 samples not used in the study.Results There was a perfect relation between chronological age and each tooth( r > 0.6 ), there were no significant statistic differences (P > 0.05 ) in the low mandibular dental calcification degree between homonymic teeth and there was a good correlation between them (r >0.93) ;the regression model used in the research was rational and the mean error between the estimated age and chronological age is 0.421 ± 0.272 year.Conclusion The methods used in this study shows a favorable foreground in estimating age for Chinese Han nationality groups aged 6 ~ 18 years old of the female gender in forensic practice.%目的 研究牙齿钙化程度与年龄的关系,建立利用牙齿推断中国汉族女性人群年龄的方程.方法 通过对6 923名6~18周岁汉族女性儿童及青少年全口曲面断层影像下领恒牙的钙化程度进行评分;将分级值及其对应的年龄输入SPSS软件进行分析,最终建立推断年龄的方程模型;从研究样本外随机抽取已知年龄的样本181例进行盲测.结果 牙齿钙化评分值与年龄相关分析结果相关系数r均大于0.6,同名牙评分值侧别间统计分析结果P>0.05且相关系数r均大于0.93,方程拟合优度检验R2=0.789,估计值标准误为1.28岁,盲测结果与真实年龄的平均误差为0.421±0

  5. Empirical Study on Functional Training of Chinese Female Hockey Team Preparing for London Olympic Games%中国女子曲棍球队备战第30届夏季奥运会过程中体能训练的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琪; 王明波; 裴怡然; 赵焕彬

    2014-01-01

    Functional training of the Chinese female hockey team was studied during the prepa-ration for 2012 London Olympic Games ,and a functional training method system specified for elite female hockey players was constructed .The preparation period was divided into three macro-cycles ,and each macro-cycle was divided into three micro-cycles :basic physical function development ,general motion function development and specific function development .Each mi-cro-cycle had specific training goals and different emphases .After 19 months of systematic im-plementation ,the athletes’ court physical fitness test results were comprehensively improved , and the Functional Movement Screen (FMS ) score ,starting velocity ,speed ,agility ,functional strength ,anaerobic endurance have been significantly increased(P<0 .01) .%以备战第30届夏季奥运会(2012,英国·伦敦)过程中中国女子曲棍球队的体能训练为研究对象,建立了体能训练系统,把备战过程划分为3个大周期,每个大周期又划分为“身体基本运动功能训练周期”、“一般运动功能训练周期”和“专项运动功能训练周期”3个中周期,在每个中周期中有其明确的体能训练目标,在训练安排比例上有所侧重。通过长达19个月的系统实施,应用功能性体能训练的理念与方法,全面提高运动员场地体能测试的成绩,在身体基本功能性动作筛查(FMS )、起动速度、速度、灵敏性、功能性力量、无氧耐力几个方面都得到明显提高(P<0.01)。

  6. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type)...

  7. The grotesque female in Malaysian poems: shaping the migrant's psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DMani, Sheba

    2011-12-01

    The works of Malaysian poet, Wong Phui Nam's Against the Wilderness (vii) China bride and Variations on a Birthday Theme (iv) Kali, illustrate a bride and a mother in terrifying images. Wong's stylistic form of representing the female body through startling images of inversion and degradation evoke feelings of unease. The suspension between the known and the unknown causes a bewildering reality verging on madness. Interpreted through the lens of the carnivalesque, specifically, the grotesque body, festive language and parody, I attempt to reconstruct the psyche of the Chinese migrant which underpins these poems. The migrant who arrived in Malaya during the colonial era in the early nineteenth century faced political and social struggles in adapting to a new land. In the poems, the migrant juxtaposes his position to a female and uses the female body as a site of contention to intensify the torment of the psyche and to reflect the despair of the Chinese in Malaysia. PMID:21826502

  8. 胆囊结石与肝脏疾病的相关性研究(附4 023例分析)%Relationship Between Gallstone and Liver Diseases: Analysis of 4 023 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉成

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨胆囊结石与肝脏疾病的相关性。方法:对比分析不同病种、不同肝功能Child-Pugh分级以及不同性别肝病患者胆囊结石阳性率的差异。结果:肝病患者胆囊结石阳性率:血吸虫性肝硬化(26.4%)与脂肪肝组(28.7%)明显高于非肝脏疾病组(14.6%)(P0.05);Child-Pugh A级(15.0%)、B级(22.5%)及C级(31.3%)间有非常显著性差异(P0.05)。结论:血吸虫性肝硬化与脂肪肝患者为胆囊结石患病的高危人群;肝病患者胆囊结石患病率与肝功能损害严重程度呈正相关;肝病患者胆囊结石患病率无显著性别差异。%Purpose: To investigate the relationships between gallstones and liver diseases. Methods:???Analyzed differences by compared the positive rates of gallstone in liver diseases of which there were different types of disease, Child-Pugh scores and sexes. Results: The positive rates of gallstone in liver diseases:schistosomial cirrhosises(26.4 % ) and fatty livers(28.7 % ) were significently higher than non-hepatic diseases(14.6%) (P 0.05). A very significent difference was found among Child-Pugh A(15.0% ), B(20.7 % ) and C(31.3 % ) (P 0.05). Conclusion: Both schistosomial cirrhosises and fatty livers are the hyper-dangeral peoples of gallstone.The rates of gallstones in liver diseases are positively correlate to degree of liver injury, but not to sex.

  9. Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  10. The Female Athlete Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  11. A comparison of the effect of work stress on burnout and quality of life between female nurses and female doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si-Ying; Li, Huang-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Shu-Juan; Qiu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of work stress on job burnout and quality of life between female nurses and doctors in China. The participants were 947 female nurses and 685 female doctors selected from Fujian provinces by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey was used to measure quality of life; the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition was applied for occupational stress; and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to assess job burnout. Occupational stress (indicated by different stressors) played an important role in job burnout and quality of life among female nurses and female doctors when taking into account other potential influencing factors simultaneously. These results show that it is important to adopt different preventive measures to prevent burnout and improve quality of life among the 2 populations according to the different stressors.

  12. Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.

    1993-01-01

    Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adve

  13. Functional consequences of iron deficiency in Chinese female workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R.

    1993-01-01

    Women of the reproductive age in China play a very important role in the labour force. Information on anaemia prevalence in this group is hardly available, notwithstanding the fact that iron deficiency anaemia is considered to be a major public health problem in China. Iron deficiency may cause adverse effects on physical performance. However, data available are fragmentary, inconsistent and the results are inconclusive. Furthermore, only a few studies so far have been carried out under free ...

  14. Fecundity of the Chinese mystery snail in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce J.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a non-indigenous, invasive species in freshwater ecosystems of North America. We provide fecundity estimates for a population of these snails in a Nebraska reservoir. We dissected 70 snails, of which 29 were females. Nearly all female snails contained developing young, with an average of 25 young per female. Annual fecundity was estimated at between 27.2 and 33.3 young per female per year. Based on an estimated adult population and the calculated fecundity, the annual production for this reservoir was between 2.2 and 3.7 million young.

  15. Female intrasexual competition decreases female facial attractiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Maryanne L

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that female intrasexual competition will occur when males of high genetic quality are considered to be a resource. It is probable that women compete in terms of attractiveness since this is one of the primary criteria used by men when selecting mates. Furthermore, because hormones influence the mate-selection process, they may also mediate competition. One competitive strategy that women use is derogation--any act intended to decrease a rival's perceived value. To...

  16. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  17. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  18. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  19. Cálculo biliar "perdido": um novo problema para o ginecologista na abordagem do abdome agudo? "Lost" gallstone: a new problem for the gynecologist in acute abdomen management ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Menegoci

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com 35 anos de idade, submetida à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica há 1 ano e que apresentou quadro sugestivo de salpingite aguda com abscesso. Durante a laparotomia notou-se um abscesso que era limitado anteriormente pelo peritônio parietal e músculo reto anterior direito do abdome, e posteriormente pelo corno uterino e pelo ligamento redondo à direita. Neste abscesso havia estrutura a seguir identificada como cálculo biliar. São discutidos os aspectos relacionados à patogenia, tratamento e prevenção desta complicação que vem sendo relatada com freqüência em virtude do maior uso da cirurgia laparoscópica.The authors report a case of a thirty-five-year-old patient, submitted to videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy one year ago, who appearently had acute salpingitis with abscess. During the laparotomy an abscess was observed, anteriorly limited by parietal peritoneum and the abdominal right anterior rectus muscle, and posteriorly by the horn of the uterus and by the right round ligament. In this abscess there was a structure later identified as gallstone. The aspects related to the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention, which have been reported frequently due to the increasing number of laparoscopic surgeries, are discussed.

  20. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU...... scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7), but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition...

  1. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  2. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  3. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  4. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  5. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M=46.55; SD = 18.53 enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK.

  6. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Tina L; Shardlow, Steven M; Ng, Sik Hung

    2015-01-01

    The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M = 46.55; SD = 18.53) enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK. PMID:26504477

  7. Validity of Bioelectrical Impedance Measurement in Predicting Fat-Free Mass of Chinese Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen; Wong, Stephen Heung-sang

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to examine the validity of various published bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations in estimating FFM among Chinese children and adolescents and to develop BIA equations for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) appropriate for Chinese children and adolescents. Material/Methods A total of 255 healthy Chinese children and adolescents aged 9 to 19 years old (127 males and 128 females) from Tianjin, China, participated in the BIA measurement at 50 kHz...

  8. Family Mastery Enhances Work Engagement in Chinese Nurses: A Cross-Lagged Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling; Chen, Wei-qing; Wang, Hai-jiang

    2011-01-01

    Based on Greenhaus and Powell's (2006) theory of work-family enrichment and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of work engagement (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008), this study focused on the family-to-work enrichment process by investigating the effect of family mastery on work engagement in a Chinese context. A sample of 279 Chinese female nurses…

  9. Chinese Basic Block - The Structure Designing Principle and Technology of Dong Hua Basic Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-bin; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The principles and the interrelated factors of the basic garment pattern are discussed. Furthermore the regression relation between the different parts of the Chinese female bodies and the application rules of the box pattern are analyzed. Chinese basic block - the DongHua Basic Block is founded theoretically and practically.

  10. Female pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration (FDA) to treat female pattern baldness is minoxidil: It is applied to the scalp. For women, the 2% solution or 5% foam is recommended. Minoxidil may help hair grow in about 1 in ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  12. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000144.htm Self catheterization - female To use the sharing features on ... incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Urinary catheters - ...

  13. Studies on the hepatic three-dimensional reconstruction and virtual surgery using the hepatic images of the digitized virtual Chinese human female number 1 database%虚拟中国人女性一号肝脏图像三维重建和虚拟手术的切割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方驰华; 周五一; 黄立伟; 王博亮; 钟世镇

    2005-01-01

    目的研究数字化虚拟肝脏三维重建及虚拟肝脏手术的切割.方法采用数字化虚拟中国人女性一号(Virtual Chinese Human Female No.1 VCH-F1)数据集中所有包含肝脏的连续图像, 首先对组织切片图像进行配准后从中分割提取出肝实质、肝静脉、胆管、胆囊等组织的图像信息,然后应用可视化工具包(Visualization Toolkit, VTK )三维重建,建立肝脏表面及内部结构的三维形态模型,并开发一个基于PC 机和Windows 平台的肝脏三维可视化演示系统.结果在肝脏三维可视化演示系统中,肝脏实体立体感强,可以通过设定肝脏及其管道系统的透明度,以及对模型的放大、缩小和上下左右不同方向的旋转,来观察肝脏及管道结构的立体形态.并可以按任意角度对虚拟的肝脏进行切割和观察切割面结构.结论利用VCH-F1数据集中肝脏图像,在VTK基础上开发的基于PC 机和Windows 平台的肝脏三维可视化演示系统基本达到了比较满意的程度,为今后数字化虚拟肝脏及虚拟各种肝脏手术的研究做了积极探索.

  14. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  15. Postadolescent acne in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  16. 某中医医院连续3年女性生殖系统感染解脲脲原体的耐药性%Antimicrobial resistance of Ureaplasma urealyticum from reproductive systems of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁志红; 吕春兰; 苏大林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance and change trends ofUreaplasma urealyticum (Uu) from reproductive system of female patients at a traditional Chinese medicine hospital in three consecutive years. Methods Antimicrobial resistance of Uu isolated from gynaecology leucorrhea and cervical secretion specimens of patients of dermatology & sexually transmitted diseases department and gynaecology department from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results A total of 327 Uu strains were isolated,except resistance rates of Uu to doxycycline(5.23%-6.12%)and josamycin(0-1 .96%)remained at a relatively low level in three consecutive years,resistance rate to the other antimicrobials showed an upward trend year by year,but the difference was not significant (P >0.05).The resistance of Uu to ofloxacin,clarithromycin and sparfloxacin were relatively high(42.11 %-61 .40%),to josamycin,doxycycline and minocycline were lower(0-13.07%),and multidrug re-sistance was serious.Conclusion Antimicrobial resistanc of Uu isolated from reproductive system of female patients in this hospital is high.It is necessary to realize the status and change trends of antimicrobial resistance of Uu for the treatment of disease and control of the emergence of multidrug resistance pathogens.%目的:了解某中医医院女性生殖系统解脲脲原体(Uu)感染患者连续3年的耐药现状和变化趋势。方法对该中医医院2011年1月—2013年12月皮肤性病科和妇科门诊及住院女性患者送检的白带及宫颈分泌物标本分离的 Uu 的耐药性进行回顾性分析。结果共分离 Uu 327株,其3年耐药率,除多西环素(5.23%~6.12%)和交沙霉素(0~1.96%)较低外,其余抗菌药物均稍有增高,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。Uu 对氧氟沙星、克拉霉素、司帕沙星的耐药率(42.11%~61.40%)较高,对交沙霉素、多西环素

  17. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  18. Metagenomic analysis reveals gallstone types associated with gut microbiome community composition%常见三种类型胆结石胆汁中细菌群落的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶华; 王敏; 邹玉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨常见三种类型胆结石胆汁中所含微生物群落的差异性.方法 采用末端限制性片断长度多态性(T-RFLP)技术对50例三种类型胆结石患者的胆汁细菌群落进行基因序列分析.结果(1)细菌16S rDNA基因片段的阳性检出率为76%(38/50),三组之间阳性检出率差异无统计学意义;(2)三组细菌16S rDNA基因片段分析,纯胆固醇组的细菌群落主要以肺炎克雷伯氏菌和金黄色葡萄球菌为主;胆色素结石组主要包括普通变形杆菌、厌氧消化球菌等;混合性结石胆汁组主要为厌氧消化球菌、丙酸杆菌,其中还包括了胆色素结石胆汁组中未检测到的黄微杆菌和希氏短杆菌.结论 胆结石患者胆汁标本中细菌检出率较高,但各组细菌群落构成各有不同,且成分较为复杂.%Objective To determine if the types of gallstones are associated with different bacterial profiles in bile. Methods Gallstones and bile samples were obtained from 50 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Gallstone chemical composition was determined by infrared spectrometry analysis using KBr tablets. The bacteria composition of corresponding bile samples were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T - RFLP) genetic sequencing of 16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Results Three types of gallstones were detected and the patients were grouped accordingly: pure cholesterol stones (n = 25 patients), pigment gallstones (n = 11), and mixed stones (n = 14). The overall positive detection rate of bacterial 16S rDNA gene fragments was 86% (43/50), and the positive rate was not significantly different among the three groups. The microbiome of the pure cholesterol group was mainly composed of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. The bile pigment stones group was mainly composed of Proteus vulgaris. The mixed group was mainly composed of anaerobic digestion bacteria propionic acid bacteria, and Microbacterium flavum

  19. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  20. Female rose bitterling prefer MHC-dissimilar males: experimental evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reichard

    Full Text Available The role of genetic benefits in female mate choice remains a controversial aspect of sexual selection theory. In contrast to "good allele" models of sexual selection, "compatible allele" models of mate choice predict that females prefer mates with alleles complementary to their own rather than conferring additive effects. While correlative results suggest complementary genetic effects to be plausible, direct experimental evidence is scarce. A previous study on the Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus demonstrated a positive correlation between female mate choice, offspring growth and survival, and the functional dissimilarity between the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC alleles of males and females. Here we directly tested whether females used cues associated with MHC genes to select genetically compatible males in an experimental framework. By sequentially pairing females with MHC similar and dissimilar males, based on a priori known MHC profiles, we showed that females discriminated between similar and dissimilar males and deposited significantly more eggs with MHC dissimilar males. Notably, the degree of dissimilarity was an important factor for female decision to mate, possibly indicating a potential threshold value of dissimilarity for decision making, or of an indirect effect of the MHC.

  1. 复杂胆囊结石患者行腹腔镜胆囊次全切除术的临床疗效观察%Clinical curative effect observation of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in patients with complicated gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓强

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in patients with complicated gallstone.Methods:40 patients with complicated gallstone were selected.They were randomly divided into two groups.The control group were given conventional operation treatment,and the observation group were given laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. The clinical effects of two groups were compared.Results:The operation time,intraoperatve blood soss and hospitalization time of the observation group were better than those of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The patients with complicated gallstone are given laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy in clinic.It can not only shorten the hospitalization time,reduce the intraoperatve blood soss,but also can improve the treatment effect,and improve the life quality of patients.%目的:探析复杂胆囊结石患者行腹腔镜胆囊次全切除术的临床效果。方法:收治复杂胆囊结石患者40例,随机分为两组,对照组给予常规手术治疗,观察组给予腹腔镜胆囊次全切术,对比两组治疗效果。结果:观察组的手术时间、术中出血量以及住院时间均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:临床上对复杂胆囊结石患者行腹腔镜胆囊次全切术,不仅可以缩短住院时间、降低术中出血量,还能提高治疗效果,改善患者的生活质量。

  2. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  3. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  4. Promoting the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  5. Female athlete triad update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  6. Gender and the Politics of Female Infanticide and Prostitution Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle T. King. Between Birth and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 264 pp. $50.00 (cloth/e-book. Elizabeth J. Remick. Regulating Prostitution in China: Gender and Local Statebuilding, 1900–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 288 pp. $45.00 (cloth/e-book. The two works under review are both compelling historical studies that use gender as a category of analysis to make important contributions to our understanding of the construction of the modern Chinese state, the periodization of modern Chinese history, and the political and cultural significance of controlling the female body. While both books engage with gender as broadly construed, they adopt different approaches. Michelle King’s analysis focuses on discursive representations that took place, for the most part, outside the context of the state—what Confucian elites, foreign experts and missionaries, and Chinese nationalists wrote about female infanticide over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This discursive approach has been used before but rarely to such insightful effect. King’s research deepens our understanding of gender and imperialism in the nineteenth century by illustrating how imperialist notions of China as a backward and heathen place were constructed in part on dubious claims that identified female infanticide as an emblematically Chinese cultural practice. Elizabeth Remick’s gender analysis, in contrast, centers on the state institutions that were developed in the early 1900s to regulate prostitution, including tax policies, licensing fees, zoning regulations, medical examinations, and police supervision. Her study of the newly erected local and provincial government regulatory regimes is a pathbreaking demonstration of how the regulation of gender roles was at the heart of state-building efforts in early twentieth-century China...

  7. Female hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  8. Distribution of hair on the dorsum of the phalanges of the hand in a Chinese population from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharap, A S; Lim, B C; Ong, L B

    1996-12-01

    Hair distribution on the dorsum of phalanges of the hand was studied on 302 Chinese subjects (134 males and 168 females) randomly selected from the residents of Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Proximal phalangeal hair was seen on the dorsum of both hands in 99.3% of male subjects but in only 85.1% of female subjects. Chinese females showed a significantly lower (p hair on the hands than Chinese males. Comparison with other racial groups showed that Chinese females had significantly less (p hair on the proximal phalanges of the hands than Malay and African (Nigerian) females. The least common digital combination of proximal phalangeal hair in female subjects was the presence of proximal phalangeal hair only on the fourth digit (ring finger) and was noted in 0.6% of subjects. This has not been reported before. The frequency of middle phalangeal hair (MPH) distribution in Chinese falls between that in Malays and in Japanese which is probably explained by the fact that all these three racial groups originate from Asia. A study of digital combination of MPH in Chinese showed that the most common and the least common combinations in the Chinese differ considerably from those in other races. A total of 16 patterns of hair distribution was noted on the dorsum of the phalanges of the hands in Chinese subjects. Our study showed that though Chinese females had less digital hair on the hands than Chinese males, they showed a much larger variety of patterns of digital hair distribution than males. PMID:9008788

  9. The sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators Alligator sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan ZHAO, Hai-Qiong YANG, Li-Ming FANG, Guo-Liang PAN, Wei-Qiang ZOU, Da-Bin REN, Qiu-Hong WAN, Sheng-Guo FANG

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is one of the most endangered crocodilian species, and typically exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. It is extremely important to clarify the sex structure of Chinese alligators to implement recovery projects successfully. However, the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators remains unknown. In this study, we collected 28 years of sex ratio data from Chinese alligators residing in the natural and artificial habitats of Changxing Nature Reserve, China, and examined the differences in the sex ratio dynamics between these two populations.We observed that the sex ratio of wild Chinese alligators is 1 male to 4.507 females, which was significantly lower compared to that of the captive population (1 to 2.040; P 0.05. Overall, this study indicates that the stabilized female-biased sex ratio of Changxing Chinese alligators might result from selection pressure caused by local mate competition and major inbreeding [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 725–731, 2013 ].

  10. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  11. Factorial Structure of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shujuan, Wang; Meihua, Qian; Jianxin, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the psychometric structure of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) in Chinese adolescents. With the data collected from 212 senior high school students (94 females, 110 males, 8 unknown), seven models are tested using confirmatory factor analyses in the framework of the multitrait-multimethod strategy. Results indicate…

  12. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  13. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  14. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  15. Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, low self-esteem, etc.). Health complications of female genital mutilation Who is at risk? Procedures are mostly carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and adolescence, and occasionally on adult women. More than 3 ...

  16. Perspectives on Female Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest; Janulevièienë, Rûta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the contents of the academic evidence and debate on female entrepreneurship in the West with the current stream of research and thinking in the Central and Eastern European Countries with a view to identifying similarities and differences in thoughts and findin...

  17. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  18. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  19. The value of ultrasound in predicting non-visualization of the gall-bladder on OCG: implications for imaging strategies in patient selection for non-surgical therapy of gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, K; Laméris, J S; Nijs, H G; Ginai, A Z; Terpstra, O T

    1991-03-01

    Gall-bladder visualization on oral cholecystography (OCG) is required for most non-surgical therapies of gallstones. In this study we attempted to establish sonographic criteria which will predict non-visualization of the gall-bladder on OCG. For this purpose we compared the results of ultrasound (US) and OCG in 171 patients with gallstones being assessed for non-surgical therapy. Sonographic criteria for non-visualization were a contracted gall-bladder and stone impaction in the gall-bladder neck or cystic duct. In detecting findings which predict non-visualization on OCG, US had a sensitivity of 78.3% and a specificity of 97.6%. The predictive values were: positive findings 92.3% and negative findings 92.4%. The overall accuracy was 92.4%. We conclude that US can be used as a first step in selecting patients for non-surgical therapy and if US indicates a contracted gall-bladder, 11% of the patients can be excluded from further diagnostic imaging. PMID:2013195

  20. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  1. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  2. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  3. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  4. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  5. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  6. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  7. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  8. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  9. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that

  10. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Maticki-Sekulić Milana

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  11. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFGHANISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNUS HOLMÉN; THAW TAR MIN; EMILIA SAARELAINEN

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the motivations of eight female Afghan entrepreneurs to start up their own business and the problems they encountered during start-up and operations. Income generation was the most important push factor but pull factors including desire for independence and autonomy were also important. However, in contrast to studies in other countries, the desire for achievement was not emphasized. An unexpected finding was the emphasis on the desire to help non-family members by running...

  12. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  13. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  14. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  15. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  16. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  17. Word-Processor or Pencil-and-Paper? A Comparison of Students' Writing in Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…

  18. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Preparing for Chinese New Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

  20. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  1. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  2. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  3. The young female athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  4. Analysis the Clinical Effect of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Laparotomy in Treatment of Gallstone%腹腔镜胆囊切除术和开腹手术治疗胆结石的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conventional open cholecystectomy in treatment of the gallstones.Methods Selected 120 patients with gallstones from May 2014 to May 2015 were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group, each group had 60 cases. The control group was given conventional open cholecystectomy, the observation group was treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and compared the clinical treatment effect of two groups.Results Compared with the control group ,the observation group of patients’ average operation time was ( 55.24±4.65 ) mins and the average bleeding volume ( 42.16±10.63 ) ml were decreased, and the incidence of postoperative complications was 13.33% lower than the control group 40.00%,P<0.05, had difference statistically signiifcance.Conclusion Compared with the conventional open cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallstones, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has more clinical advantages.%目的:探讨腹腔镜胆囊切除术和开腹手术用于治疗胆结石的临床疗效并进行比较分析。方法选取2014年5月~2015年5月于我院就诊的胆结石患者120例,将患者随机分为观察组和对照组,各60例,对照组入院之后给予开腹手术治疗,观察组采用腹腔镜胆囊切除手术进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床治疗效果。结果观察组平均手术时间(55.24±4.65)min及手术平均出血量(42.16±10.63)ml均减少,术后并发症发生率为13.33%低于对照组40.00%,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论与传统的开腹手术治疗胆结石相比,腹腔镜胆囊切除术具有缩减手术时间、减少手术出血量以及降低术后并发症发生率的临床疗效,更具有临床优势。

  5. L-form bacteriologic assessment of bile from gallbladder in patients with gallstones and cholecystitis and implication%检测胆囊结石胆汁中L型细菌的研究及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文胜; 石景森; 杨毅军; 李国才; 韩月; 焦兴元; 卓健生

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of L-form bacteria in the development of gallstone and cholecystitis. Methods A L-form bacteriological study was made on 130 patients undergoing elective surgery for gallbladder diseases and 20 subjects with a normal biliary tract as a control group. Results The positive rate of bacterial L-form was 59.2 % in benign gallbladder diseases and 5.0 % in the control group. In the bile from gallbladder, the detectable rate for pigment stones was the highest (88.9 %), followed by mixed, cholesterol and black stones (80.0 %, 54.8 % and 50.0 % respectively). There was relationship between the number of gallstone and the L-form bacterial positive rate, as well as the age of the patients. Conclusion L-form bacterial infection might play a certain role in stone formation in gallbladder and the therapy for L-form bacterial infection in the patients with gallstones and chronic cholecystitis should be performed clinically.%目的探讨L型细菌在胆囊结石、胆囊炎发病中的意义。方法应用高渗培养技术对130例胆囊结石、胆囊炎及20例非胆道疾病的患者胆囊胆汁标本进行普通菌及L型菌联合培养。结果 L型菌总检出率胆囊疾病组为59.2%,对照组为5.0%;胆囊结石胆汁中,检出率最高为胆色素类结石(88.9%),其次为混合性胆石(80.0%)、胆固醇结石(54.8%)和黑色结石(50.0%);多发结石明显高于单个结石。随年龄增加,其感染检出率增高。结论 L型菌感染可能在胆囊结石、胆囊炎发生发展中有重要意义,临床上应重视其检测和治疗。

  6. Cardiovascular mortality of Chinese in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jing; Madhavan, Shantha; Alderman, Michael H

    1999-01-01

    To determine cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese migrants in New York City and compare it to both that of residents in China and whites in New York City, mortality records for 1988 through 1992 for New York City and the 1990 US census data for New York City were linked. Age-specific death rates for urban China, reported by the World Health Organization, were used for comparison. The results show that male and female Chinese residents in New York City had lower mortality rates for a...

  7. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  8. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  9. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The feature and development direction of ecological garden city; The problem and countermeasures in urban construction audio-visual file management task;Youth network moral education is imperative;A shallow discussion about moral education penetration in Chinese classroom;

  10. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  11. The Chinese Olympic Committee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余信波

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Olympic Committee (COC) is a non-governmental,non-profit national sports organization of a mass character,with the objective of developing sports and promoting the Olympic Movement in the country.

  12. Chinese Ecosystem Research Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Tieqing; Liu Jian; Chen Panqin; Fu Bojie

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, and its mission, mandate, and management mechanisms, with examples of research, demonstration and consultation for policy-setting.

  13. Chinese remainder codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Aili; LIU Xiufeng

    2006-01-01

    Chinese remainder codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and the Chinese remainder theorem of ring theory.The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In for the information bit,embed R/Ji into R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In,and assign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1 ∩ I2 ∩…∩ In as check lines.Many code classes exist in the Chinese remainder codes that have high code rates.Chinese remainder codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi codes.

  14. Chinese Remainder Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱丽; 刘秀峰; 靳蕃

    2004-01-01

    Chinese Remainder Codes are constructed by applying weak block designs and Chinese Remainder Theorem of ring theory. The new type of linear codes take the congruence class in the congruence class ring R/I1∩I2∩…∩In for the information bit, embed R/Ji into R/I1∩I2∩…∩In, and asssign the cosets of R/Ji as the subring of R/I1∩I2∩…∩In and the cosets of R/Ji in R/I1∩I2∩…∩In as check lines. There exist many code classes in Chinese Remainder Codes, which have high code rates. Chinese Remainder Codes are the essential generalization of Sun Zi Codes.

  15. Cultural Characteristics of Chinese Cuisine:From Contrastive Studies of English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乞聪妮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese cuisine plays an important role in Chinese culture. The paper illustrates the features of Chinese cuisine in Chi-nese dish naming from different perspectives, and analyze them from contrastive studies of English and Chinese.

  16. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  17. The Chinese Politeness Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王喜凤

    2012-01-01

    In order to make sense of what is said in an interaction,we have to look at various factors which relate to social distance and closeness.Generally,these factors include the specific situation language takes place,the relative status of the two participants,the message being delivered and finally the age of the participants.In this article,the Chinese Politeness Scale,based on Chinese social values and tradition,will be explained and demonstrated in detail.

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009013 Clinical observation on treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis with Chinese herbal medicine. SHENG Zhenghe(盛正和), et al.Dept TCM, 5th Affili Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Guangxi 545001. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2008;28(11):990-993. Objective To study the efficacy and safety of Chinese drugs for expelling evil-wind, removing dampness, promoting blood circulation and invigorating yin in treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

  19. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  20. Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese New Year is now known as the Spnng Festival because it starts trom the beginning otspring. Though there are some sayings about its origin (起源), all agree that the word Nian, which inmodern Chinese means “year”, was originally the name of a beast (野兽) that started to eat people thenight before the beginning of a new year.

  1. Psychiatry and Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T Y

    1983-12-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  2. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  3. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in...... psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience...... comorbid with other sexual problems and are of biopsychosocial etiology. In the assessment, a thorough sexological history as well as medical and gynecological history and examination are recommended. Treatment should be based on of the symptoms, clinical findings and, if possibly, on underlying etiology...

  4. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  5. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  6. Megalin基因在胆固醇结石病患者胆囊黏膜中的表达及调控%Expression and regulation of megalin in gallbladder mucosa associated with cholesterol gallstone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 刘颖斌; 蒋兆彦; 蔡劬; 姜志宏; 韩天权; 张圣道

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨Megalin基因在胆囊黏膜中的表达和调控与胆固醇结石病的关系.方法 采集29例胆囊胆同醇结石病患者和12例无胆石对照患者的胆囊黏膜、囊壁、胆汁、胆石.测定胆石、胆汁脂质,实时PCR检测胆囊黏膜Megalin、Cubilin基因的表达.在胆囊癌细胞株GBC-SD培养液中,分别给予核受体激动剂T0901317、9-顺维甲酸、鹅脱氧胆酸,检测Megalin、Cubilin基因的差异表达.结果 胆汁胆固醇摩尔百分比和饱和指数显著高于对照组[(7.98±0.44)t001%比(4.87±0.39)mol%,P<0.01],胆石组中Megalin的mRNA表达(17.27%±3.15%)显著高于对照组(5.84%4±1.25%,P<0.05).Cubilin的表达在两组间差异没有统计学意义.体外给予法尼醇X受体(FXR)的激动剂鹅脱氧胆酸能够诱导Megalin表达的显著上调.结论 胆固醇结石病的胆囊黏膜Mcgalin基因表达增强,有利于胆囊对胆固醇的吸收;Megalin的表达可能受到法尼醇X受体的调控.%Objective To explore the relationship between expression and regulation of megalin in gallbladder mucosa and cholesterel gallstone disease.Methods Gallbladder mucosa,gallbladderr wall,bile and gallstone were collected from 29 patients with cholesterol gallstone disease(GS)and 12 patients with gallstone free(GSF).Lipids of bile and stone were meagured by kits.Expression of megalin and eubilin was analyzed by real-time PCR GBC-SD cell line was treated with T0901317,9-cis ratinoic acid,chenodeoxycholic acid(CDCA)and agonists of LXR,RXR,FXR respectively.Gene expressions were detected.Results Biliary eholesterol % molar and CSI increased significantly in GS group[(7.98±0.44)mol% vs(4.87±0.39)mol%,P<0.01].Megalin expression in GS group was significantly higher than that in GSF group(P<0.05)and cubilin expression was similar between two groups.In vitro experiments showed that CDCA markedly increaged the expression of megalin.Conclusions The increaged expression of megalin may help to increase cholesterol

  7. 肝硬化合并胆囊结石的相关因素研究%Analysis of related factors of gallstones in hepatocirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕胜; 张伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study related factors and risk factors of hepatocirrhosis with gallstone for the reference of pre-vention and treatment. Methods From May 2011 to March 2013 in our hospital 180 cases of patients with cirrhosis were selected and were divided into stones groups and non-stone group, the general information, laboratory tests, and B-test results were analyzed. Results The Child-Pugh classification, drink of stones group were serious higher than non-stone group (P<0.05), levels of serum total bilirubin, endotoxin, estrogen were significantly higher than non-calcu-lus group (P <0.05), portal vein width, gallbladder wall thickness and ascites rate of stones groups were higher than non-stone group (P <0.05). Child-Pugh classification, ET, E2, liver cirrhosis ascites were risk factors for gallbladder stones (P<0.05), in decreasing order of risk as ascites liked ET,E2, Child-Pugh classification. Conclusion Child-Pugh high grade, high concentrations of endotoxin, estrogen in patients with cirrhosis and ascites are risk factors for gall-stones.%目的:研究肝硬化合并胆囊结石的相关因素并筛选危险因素,为临床防治提供参考。方法选择2011年5月~2013年3月我院收治的180例肝硬化患者,分为结石组和非结石组,分析两组一般资料、实验室检查和B超检查结果。结果结石组Child-Pugh分级较非结石组严重,饮酒率高于非结石组(P<0.05),结石组血清总胆红素、内毒素、雌激素水平均显著高于非结石组(P<0.05),结石组门静脉宽度、胆囊壁厚度均大于非结石组,腹水率高于非结石组(P<0.05)。 Child-Pugh分级、内毒素、雌激素、腹水是肝硬化合并胆囊结石的危险因素(P<0.05),危险度顺序由高到低为腹水、内毒素、雌激素、Child-Pugh分级。结论 Child-Pugh高分级、高浓度内毒素、雌激素及腹水是肝硬化患者发生胆囊结石的高危因素。

  8. Does “Tiger Parenting” Exist? Parenting Profiles of Chinese Americans and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Orozco-Lapray, Diana; Shen, Yishan; Murtuza, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    “Tiger parenting,” as described by Chua (2011), has put parenting in Asian American families in the spotlight. The current study identified parenting profiles in Chinese American families and explored their effects on adolescent adjustment. In a three-wave longitudinal design spanning eight years, from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, adolescents (54% female), fathers and mothers from 444 Chinese American families reported on eight parenting dimensions (e.g., warmth and shaming) and s...

  9. A Case Study of Chinese Bound Feet: Application of Footprint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reischl, Uwe; Nandikolla, Vidja; Colby, Conrad; Mijović, Budimir; Wei, Hsian-Chuen

    2008-01-01

    Foot print patterns of the bound feet of a 90-year-old Chinese female were made to obtain insight into the ergonomic consequences of a Chinese custom that caused significant disabilities for many women throughout history. Pressure patterns were evaluated using the techniques applied to standard thumb print analsyis. A digital summary of the pressure patterns were compared to the patterns obtained from a normal subject. The outcomes indicated that the bound foot produced greater pl...

  10. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  11. The Female Athlete Triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  12. CERN's first female firefighter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the women's changing room in the Fire Station, built in 2005, has always been empty. With the arrival of Séverine Peverelly, CERN's first female firefighter, it now has a purpose. Séverine Peverelly took up her post as a firefighter in April. Séverine, who comes from Gap in France, took up her post as a firefighter in the CERN fire brigade at the beginning of April. "We were looking for a new member," explains David Peyron, Head of the Fire and Rescue Service. It didn't matter if it was a man or a woman; we needed a firefighter with the right skills, and Séverine just happened to have them." With ten years experience working in French fire services, Séverine was looking for a new challenge. "What attracted me to CERN was the international dimension, because that creates additional challenges," she explains. And these can be considerable! For one thing, every country has its own way of worki...

  13. Representation of Self among Chinese College Job-hunters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐嗣群

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction: Some of their researches (Booher, 1988; Smith and Bernhardt, 1996; Munter, 2006) have been concentrated on teaching students writing skills.On the other hand, some of their researches (Lakoff, 1975; Labov, 1990; Coates, 1998) have been carried on about identifying and instantiating possible differences in linguistic styles between males and females.However, little work has been undertaken on investigating gender differences reflected in business letters writing, especially job-application letter, by analyzing the genre components and politeness strategies.In this project, by providing a content analysis of 20 job application letters written by Chinese college job applicants, I try to explore the differences between Chinese male and female college job hunters presented in their job application letters.

  14. Brain Embolism Secondary to Cardiac Myxoma in Fifteen Chinese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heart myxoma-related embolisms commonly involve the central nervous system, but data are lacking in Chinese patients. Methods. 27 patients diagnosed with myxoma were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Among 27 patients, fourteen (51.9% patients were women. Fifteen (55.6% patients had brain embolisms. Rarely, patients were misdiagnosed with central nervous system vasculitis (n = 2, moyamoya disease (n = 1, and neuromyelitis optica (n = 1. We found positive associations between mRS (>3 and female gender (r = 0.873, P10 × 109/L (r = 0.722, P = 0.002, tumour size (r = 0.866, P0.05. Conclusions. Neurologic manifestations in Chinese patients with cardiac myxoma-related stroke were complicated and multifarious. Female gender, infection, other severe complications, low SBP, tumour size, bilateral brain lesions, TACI, and high WBC counts could be associated with a poor prognosis.

  15. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  16. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.

  17. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine. PMID:21853349

  18. The necessity of female population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C

    1989-01-01

    Justification for and an illustrative example of female focused population studies in China is given in this article. Many questions which have not been empirically answered have been raised about women. Traditional Chinese social norms favor males over females. How has this tradition affected women's fertility, mortality, lifespan, education, and employment? How is this impact felt and to what extent? Empirical research on women is appropriate for the development of the women's movement. Women's issues are universal, of importance socially, politically, and economically. There have been 3 women's liberation movements: during the 1898 Reformation, the 1911 Revolution, and the May 4th Movement in 1919. In the past 10 years, there have been debates about Chinese women's liberation consciousness. Although women make up 50% of the population, educational levels are still below men and employment options are limited. The changing roles of women and future implications need to be investigated. Reform has benefited women, yet in economically underdeveloped areas of the north and south west there is a higher early marriage rate than in more developed areas. What accounts for this pattern? What is woman's role in reproduction in light of changing government policy? The value of women's contribution to family life and reproduction, and to economic life directly needs to be assessed. Statistical information, even though it has been collected, is not generally published as sex specific figures for urban and rural populations, the nonagricultural population, educational levels, or new employment. This prevents an appraisal of the current status or an assessment of the extent of change in the status of women. The governmental statistical system, the departmental statistical system, and statistical departments of enterprises and institutions such as the All China Federation of Women should make available indices on women. Sources of relevant statistics also need to be increased

  19. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  20. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their