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Sample records for chinese evacuated tubular

  1. Theoretical and experimental investigations of Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated.......Four different marketed Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The advantages of the investigated solar collectors compared to normal flat plate collectors were elucidated....

  2. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    , as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat......-plate collectors. For solar heating plants, the yearly energy output from these evacuated tubular collectors is about 40%-90% higher than the output from typical flat-plate collectors at an operation temperature of about 50°C.......Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...

  3. A Long Term Test of Differently Designed Evacuated Tubular Collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    carried out with different mean solar collector fluid temperatures and in different seasons of the year. The results of the measurements are presented in this paper. The influence of the mean solar collector fluid temperature on the thermal performance of the different collector designs will be discussed......During three years seven differently designed evacuated tubular collectors (ETCs) utilizing solar radiation from all directions have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co. Ltd, four heat pipe ETCs...... of the inlet fluid to the collectors have been the same for all collectors. The volume flow rate through each of the collectors is adjusted so that the mean solar collector fluid temperature has been the same for all collectors. Thus a direct performance comparison is possible. The side-by-side tests were...

  4. VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS FOR DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    cases, a good degree of similarity between measured and calculated results is found. With these validated models detailed parameter analyses and collector design optimization are now possible. Key words: Evacuated tubular collector, Heat pipe, Thermal performance, TRNSYS simulation.......Differently designed heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical work has included development of two TRNSYS [1] simulation models for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors utilizing solar radiation from all directions. One model...... is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with flat fins and one model is developed for heat-pipe evacuated tubular collectors with curved fins. The models are characterized by detailed calculations of the heat transfer processes in the fins, by detailed shadow modeling and by fins with selective...

  5. Theoretical flow investigations of an all glass evacuated tubular collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    the highest efficiency, the optimal inlet flow rate was around 0.4-1 kg/min, the flow structures in the glass tubes were relatively uninfluenced by the inlet flow rate, Generally, the results showed only small variations in the efficiencies. This indicates that the collector design is well working for most......Heat transfer and flow structures inside all glass evacuated tubular collectors for different operating conditions are investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics. The investigations are based on a collector design with horizontal tubes connected to a vertical 14 manifold channel. Three...... different tube lengths varying from 0.59 in to 1.47 in have been modelled with five different inlet mass flow rates varying from 0.05 kg/min to 10 kg/min with a constant inlet temperature of 333 K. Under these operating conditions the results showed that: the collector with the shortest tube length achieved...

  6. EVALUATION OF EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR LARGE SDHW SYSTEMS AND COMBINED SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    . Based on thesemodels, the thermal performance of large solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems and combined domestichot water and space heating systems with the four evacuated tubular collectors was determined. To make acomparison with traditional flat-plate collectors, similar simulations were also...... carried out for systems with atypical flat-plate collector. The results show that the thermal advantage of evacuated tubular collectors variesgreatly from system to system, and increases with the solar fraction. Furthermore, the higher the operationtemperature of the collector in the system is......In the present study, detailed investigations on evacuated tubular solar collectors for large solarheating systems have been carried out. Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors were used in theinvestigation. Based on laboratory tests, simulation models for the collectors were determined...

  7. SIDE-BY-SIDE TESTS OF DIFFERENTLY DESIGNED EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Six differently designed evacuated tubular collectors, ETCs, utilizing solar radiation from all directions, have been investigated experimentally. The evacuated tubular solar collectors investigated include one SLL all-glass ETC from Tshinghua Solar Co., four heat pipe ETCs from Sunda Technolgoy Co....... and one all-glass ETC with heat pipe from Exoheat AB. The collectors have been investigated side-by-side in an outdoor test facility for a long period. During the measurements, the operating conditions – such as weather conditions, inlet and mean solar collector fluid temperatures have been the same. Thus...... a direct performance comparison is possible. The results of the measurements will be presented in this paper. Among other things, the influence on the thermal performance of the absorber design will be explained. Further, it will be illustrated how the thermal performances of the different collector types...

  8. Evaluation of high performance evacuated tubular collectors in a residential heating and cooling system: Colorado State University Solar House I. Report for October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, W.S.; Conway, T.M.; Loef, G.O.G.; Meredith, D.B.; Pratt, R.B.

    1978-03-01

    CSU Solar House I is configured with a prototype Corning evacuated tubular collector and a new Arkla lithium bromide water chiller designed for solar operation. Data have been collected for this configuration since January 1977. Prior to that time and since mid-1974, Solar House I has operated with a flat-plate collector and a previous Arkla LiBr air conditioner modified to operate in the lower solar temperature ranges. Project objectives were to develop an operating and control system for the new configuration and to compare the performance of the new residential solar heating, cooling, and hot water system with performance of the previous system. Many problems were encountered in the evolution of the operating and control systems due to the different operating characteristics of evacuated tubular collectors, such as their rapid thermal response and the possibility of much higher temperatures as compared to a flat-plate collector.

  9. EVALUATION ON THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF FILLED-TYPE EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTOR WITH U TUBE%填充型U型管式真空集热管的热性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若冰; 马良栋; 张吉礼

    2012-01-01

    The thermal performance of the filled-type evacuated tube solar collector with U tubular was researched by theoretical analysis method. The energy balance equations of fluids were established, which can find the temperature change of fluid in the flow direction. The key parameters such as overall loss coefficient, the temperature of aborsbing coating and filled-layer thermal conductivity were studied. Take the case of graphite, the filled-type evacuated tubular solar collector with U tube and U-type pipe evacuated tube solar collector with aluminum fin were studied by testing. The results showed that the experimental results coincide with theoretical calculations quite well, and the filled-type evacuated tubular solar collector with U tube has favorable thermal performance. The efficiency of filled-type evacuated tubular with U tube is 12% higher than that of U-type pipe evacuated tubular solar collector with aluminum fin.%通过理论分析方法对一种新型的填充型U型管式真空集热管的热性能进行研究,建立U型管内流体的能量平衡方程,分析U型管两支管内流体沿轴向的温度变化,对热损失系数和填充层导热系数等影响集热管热性能的关键参数进行分析.并以石墨作为填充材料,对石墨填充U型管式和铝翼U型管式真空集热管进行试验研究.结果表明:理论分析和试验研究的结果吻合较好,填充U型管式真空集热管具有良好的热性能,其集热效率可较现有铝翼型U型管式真空集热管提升12%.

  10. 全玻璃真空管太阳能空气集热器热性能试验方法研究%STUDY ON MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ALL-GLASS EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR AIR HEATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志峰

    2001-01-01

    全玻璃真空管空气集热器是一种热损较小的太阳能空气加热装置。该文对该类集热器热性能评价方法进行了研究,并对集热器的时间常数、热延迟常数、角系数修正因子及瞬时热效率的实验方法进行了初步的实验研究。研究表明,用热延迟常数比时间常数能更好地反映真空管集热器的热性能,真空管集热器的角系数修正因子在垂直入射时最小。%Evacuated tubular solar collector is good for solar air heater as its low heat loss.A study on the thermal performance of the solar air heater is presented.The methods to test the time constant,resident time,incident angular modifier and instantaneous thermal efficiency are suggested.The resident time would be better than time constant to represent the thermal properties of the solar air heater.The incident angular modifier will be minimal at solar noon for the evacuated tubular solar air heater.

  11. 内聚光CPC热管式真空集热管的光学效率分析%OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT-PIPE EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH INNER CPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余雷; 王军; 张耀明

    2012-01-01

    A detailed model of the optical efficiency for heat pipe evacuated tubular solar collector with inner CPC was built in the paper, the parameters of the model ware analyzed, such as geometrical optics efficiency, transmission rate, reflectance rate and absorption rate, with methods of optical tracking and geometrical optics. Based on the model, the optical efficiency of the designed CPC was calculated and analyzed. The models could serve as a reference for optical analysis of solar collector.%针对内聚光CPC热管式真空集热管,根据其结构建立详细完整的光学效率模型,采用光学追迹、几何光学分析等方法对模型中的各项参数(几何光学效率、透射比、反射比、吸收比等)进行分析研究.在此基础上,针对所研制的集热管构建出以太阳辐照强度、太阳光入射角为参变量的光学效率模型,并根据计算的数据结果对集热管进行相关分析.所建立的模型可为各种集热器的光学效率分析提供参考.

  12. 海外撤侨军舰的法律地位%Introduction of Legal Statue of Overseas Chinese Evacuation Warship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢莉

    2016-01-01

    中国迈向世界的步伐日益加快,而在海外工作的侨民正面临着越来越多的自然灾害、政局动荡、恐怖袭击、武装冲突等不可预知的风险。派遣军舰撤侨成为了我国保护海外侨民生命财产安全的重要举措。军舰在执行撤侨任务时会经过公海、专属经济区、领海、内水和港口,甚至会在港口遭遇武力攻击。明确撤侨军舰在不同海域以及不同时期的法律地位有利于我国遵守国际规则,履行国际义务,更是顺利开展撤侨活动,维护侨民利益的必要保障。%With the quickened pace of China into the world the nationals who are working overseas are facing more and more natural disasters, political instability, terrorist attacks, armed conflict and other unpredictable risks. Sending warships to evacuate Chinese that becomes the important measures to protect the safety of life and property of the Chinese. Warships in the evacuation mission will go through the territorial sea, exclusive economic zone, the high seas, internal waters and ports, even meeting with force attacking in the port. It is important for China to comply with the international rules and to fulfill the international duty by clearing the legal statue of evacuation warships in different sea areas and different period. Moreover, the evacuation activities can be carried out smoothly and the interests of nationals can acquire necessary protection.

  13. 全玻璃真空管式太阳热水器热性能研究(一) ——计算模型及计算结果%Thermal Performance Study on All-Glass Evacuated Tubular Water Heaters(一) ——model of calculation and results of calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋爱国

    2001-01-01

    A synthetic model of calculation which include solar radiationmodel and receiving energy model and daily efficiency model and instandaneous efficiency model are introduced for analyzing thermal performance of all-glass evacuated tubular water heaters,and results of calculation are obtained.%为了系统、全面地分析全玻璃真空管式太阳热水器(以下简称真空管式太阳热水器)的热性能,提出了包括阳光模型、真空管采集能量模型以及日平均效率、瞬时效率计算模型在内的一个综合的计算模型,并对真空管式太阳热水器的热性能进行了计算.

  14. Hurricane Evacuation Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Hurricane Evacuation Routes in the United States A hurricane evacuation route is a designated route used to direct traffic inland in case of a hurricane threat. This...

  15. Evacuation of rectilinear polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Fekete, Sandor P; Kroeller, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the problem of creating fast evacuation plans for buildings that are modeled as grid polygons, possibly containing exponentially many cells. We study this problem in two contexts: the ``confluent'' context in which the routes to exits remain fixed over time, and the ``non-confluent'' context in which routes may change. Confluent evacuation plans are simpler to carry out, as they allocate contiguous regions to exits; non-confluent allocation can possibly create faster evacuation plans. We give results on the hardness of creating the evacuation plans and strongly polynomial algorithms for finding confluent evacuation plans when the building has two exits. We also give a pseudo-polynomial time algorithm for non-confluent evacuation plans. Finally, we show that the worst-case bound between confluent and non-confluent plans is 2-2/(k+1).

  16. Evacuated aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the main characteristics of monolithic silica aerogel and its application in evacuated superinsulating aerogel glazing including the evacuation and assembling process. Furthermore, the energetic benefit of aerogel glazing is quantified. In evacuated aerogel glazing the space...... between the glass panes is filled with monolithic silica aerogel evacuated to a rough vacuum of approximately 1-10 hPa. The aerogel glazing does not depend on use of low emissive coatings that have the drawback of absorbing a relatively large part of the solar radiation that otherwise could reduce...

  17. Auditory evacuation beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Boer, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Auditory evacuation beacons can be used to guide people to safe exits, even when vision is totally obscured by smoke. Conventional beacons make use of modulated noise signals. Controlled evacuation experiments show that such signals require explicit instructions and are often misunderstood. A new si

  18. Evacuation of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run

    is to provide new data and information on children’s evacuation, which is a step towards including children in evacuation models and calculations. Little is known about children’s evacuation characteristics in fire compared to other parts of the population. In recent years there has been more focus on children...... those using a handrail designed for adults. Training has a positive effect on evacuation time and process. Fire drills showed weaknesses in evacuation procedures which could be revised accordingly. Although a number of findings have been made and new data has been provided there is need for further......Saving human lives is the highest priority in case of fire, according to fire codes around the world. Codes state that everyone should be able to escape to safety in case of fire. In order to design buildings that enable this the available safe egress time (ASET) must be held up against...

  19. Evacuation dynamics of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2010-01-01

    higher walking speeds in spiral stairs when the children are familiar with the evacuation path. Higher per-son densities and faster flow through doors were obtained among the children than found in literature on adults. Children in the younger age group are generally slower than the older children....... The children walk slower in horizontal plan than adults, however they are keen to run during evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increases and exceeds the adults’. Since the evacuation characte-ristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  20. Proximal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... are neutralized by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate ...

  1. 30-MM Tubular Projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Suiza tubular projectile 20 9. Inspection of Hispano Suiza sabot 21 10. Inspection of GAU-8 sabot 22 11. Firing data - 30-rn tubular projectile (Hispano... Suiza 23 copper banded) 12. Firing data - 30-m tubular projectile (GAU-8 plastic 24 banded) 13. Firing data - 30-m tubular projectile (GAU-8 copper 25...42 13. In-flight Hispano Suiza tubular projectiles 43 14. In-flight C4U-8 (plastic) tubular projectile 44 15. In-flight GCU-8 (copper) tubular

  2. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  3. Behavior-based evacuation planning

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we present a formulation of an evacuation planning problem that is inspired by motion planning and describe an integrated behavioral agent-based and roadmap-based motion planning approach to solve it. Our formulation allows users to test the effect on evacuation of a number of different environmental factors. One of our main focuses is to provide a mechanism to investigate how the interaction between agents influences the resulting evacuation plans. Specifically, we explore how various types of control provided by a set of directing agents effects the overall evacuation planning strategies of the evacuating agents. ©2010 IEEE.

  4. Admissible Evacuation Time

    OpenAIRE

    Jemeļjanovs, V; Malahova, J; Ziemelis, M; Bartušauskis, J; Sņegovs, O

    2012-01-01

    Fire always is unexpected. Therefore, to decrease count of victims during the panic, it is essential to timely leave a dangerous place. Unfortunately, quick and smooth evacuation is not possible in many buildings where fire safety should be at the highest level. One of the greatest civil threat risks is obstacles that impede escape from fire or other incident that can happen in the building. Therefore, more precise research and methododoly are needed for determination ...

  5. Counterflow in Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    It is shown in this work that the average individual egress time and other performance indicators for egress of people from a building can be improved under certain circumstances if counterflow occurs. The circumstances include widely varying walking speeds and two differently far located exits with different capacity. The result is achieved both with a paper and pencil calculation as well as with a micro simulation of an example scenario. As the difficulty of exit signage with counterflow remains one cannot conclude from the result that an emergency evacuation procedure with counterflow would really be the better variant.

  6. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...

  7. Evacuation from a Complex Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2014-01-01

    How is the total evacuation time of a mixed population and its subgroups predicted by the evacuation tool STEPS? Simulation using STEPS is compared with experimental data and evaluated based on individual total egress times. It was found that the total egress times were similar for the simulation...

  8. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original (tr

  9. Evacuation modeling trends

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Orlando; Alvear, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of modeling definitions and concepts, theory on human behavior and human performance data, available tools and simulation approaches, model development, and application and validation methods. It considers the data and research efforts needed to develop and incorporate functions for the different parameters into comprehensive escape and evacuation simulations, with a number of examples illustrating different aspects and approaches. After an overview of basic modeling approaches, the book discusses benefits and challenges of current techniques. The representation of evacuees is a central issue, including human behavior and the proper implementation of representational tools. Key topics include the nature and importance of the different parameters involved in ASET and RSET and the interactions between them. A review of the current literature on verification and validation methods is provided, with a set of recommended verification tests and examples of validation tests. The book c...

  10. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  11. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  12. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get better with treatment. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of distal renal tubular acidosis. Get medical help right away if you develop emergency symptoms ...

  13. Tubular apocrine adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, J; Zulaica, A; Peteiro, C

    1987-04-01

    We report a case of tubular apocrine adenoma located on the scalp, with characteristics of syringocystadenoma papilliferum in the superior part of the lesion. An interesting feature of the growth is its connective tissue involvement.

  14. Simulation study on the effect of pre-evacuation time and exit width on evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Guanquan; SUN Jinhua; WANG Qingsong; CHEN Sining

    2006-01-01

    Occupant pre-evacuation time is often oversimplified into an explicit value in evacuation calculation. In fact, it is not an explicit value but a random variable following some kind of probability distribution. In order to analyze the importance of pre-evacuation time in evacuation calculation, GridFlow evacuation model is utilized to study the effect of pre-evacuation time on evacuation under different occupant densities and exit widths in a single room scenario. The evacuation time calculated by using normal pre-evacuation distribution is compared with that calculated by explicit pre-evacuation time. Two faults are presented when pre-evacuation time is considered as an explicit value. The theory of congestion and queue is presented to analyze the calculation results. Moreover, this paper also presents probability distribution of the total evacuation time when the pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution. The results show that the evacuation time is dominated by pre-evacuation time and hardly dependent on occupant density when the mean pre- evacuation time is long. For long mean pre-evacua- tion time, low occupant density or wide exit, when pre-evacuation time follows normal distribution, the total evacuation time also follows normal distribution.

  15. City evacuations an interdisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Binner, Jane; Branicki, Layla; Galla, Tobias; Jones, Nick; King, James; Kolokitha, Magdalini; Smyrnakis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Evacuating a city is a complex problem that involves issues of governance, preparedness education, warning, information sharing, population dynamics, resilience and recovery. As natural and anthropogenic threats to cities grow, it is an increasingly pressing problem for policy makers and practitioners.   The book is the result of a unique interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers in the physical and social sciences to consider how an interdisciplinary approach can help plan for large scale evacuations.  It draws on perspectives from physics, mathematics, organisation theory, economics, sociology and education.  Importantly it goes beyond disciplinary boundaries and considers how interdisciplinary methods are necessary to approach a complex problem involving human actors and increasingly complex communications and transportation infrastructures.   Using real world case studies and modelling the book considers new approaches to evacuation dynamics.  It addresses questions of complexity, not only ...

  16. Espirales tubulares para turbinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Para el suministro y fabricación de las espirales tubulares que debían alimentar las turbinas del aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Brownlee, que constituye el primero de los cuatro saltos del grupo Hells Canyon, del río Snake, la conocida factoría S. Morgan Smith, especializada en la construcción de turbinas y material a ellas accesorio, se encargó del estudio, fabricación y montaje de cuatro de estas espirales tubulares de 5,50 m de diámetro máximo.

  17. Evacuation Shelters - MDC_HurricaneShelter

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A label feature class of Miami-Dade County Hurricane Evacuation Shelters (HEC) including Special Need Evacuation Centers (SNEC) and Medical Management Facilities...

  18. Pedestrian, Crowd, and Evacuation Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This contribution describes efforts to model the behavior of individual pedestrians and their interactions in crowds, which generate certain kinds of self-organized patterns of motion. Moreover, this article focusses on the dynamics of crowds in panic or evacuation situations, methods to optimize building designs for egress, and factors potentially causing the breakdown of orderly motion.

  19. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R

    1997-02-01

    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result.

  20. 利用同心套管的简化CPC式中高温真空管太阳能集热系统设计与实验研究%Design and experimental study of simplified CPC style medium and high temperature evacuated tubular solar collectors with concentric copper tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志兵; 刘振华; 赵峰; 肖红升

    2013-01-01

    通过实验研究了一种利用简化复合抛物面聚光器(compound parabolic concentrato,CPC),全玻璃真空集热管和同心套管组成的太阳能中高温空气集热设备,可以满足工业过程对150℃至200℃的中高温度空气需求.该太阳能空气集热系统由8级集热单元串联而成.各单元都包括一个简化式CPC、一个双层玻璃真空管和一根铜套管.套管被安装在玻璃管内,空气在套管内逐级加热.对各种天气条件和流动参数对集热系统出口空气温度、系统功率和集热效率的影响进行了分析和试验研究.结果表明,整个系统具有良好的中高温集热性能.即使出口空气温度达到210℃,系统平均集热效率仍然达到20%;秋天晴天系统出口空气温度可达210℃,秋季阴雨天也可达168℃.试验结果确认这种简化CPC式全真空玻璃集热管和套管的组合装置是一种有工业实用前途的太阳能高温空气集热器.%A set of evacuated tube solar moderate temperature collectors with simplified CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) and concentric tube device was studied to provide air with moderate temperature of 150℃ to 200 ℃ for industrial production. The solar collector system consists of 8 linked collector units. Each unit includes a simplified CPC and an all-glass evacuated tube with a concentric copper tube installed inside. A kind of high thermal conductivity medium is filled between evacuated tube and the concentric copper tube. Air passes through the solar collector system and is progressively heated in each concentric copper tube. An experimental investigation of the outlet air temperature of the collector system, system mean collecting efficiency and system effective collecting power was conducted. Experimental results demonstrate the present solar system has good collecting efficient efficiency and quite high system power even at the outlet air temperature of 210℃ on the sunny days. The whole system has

  1. Hospital evacuation; planning, assessment, performance and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wabo Nero C; Örtenwall P; Khorram-Manesh A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Malfunction in hospitals´ complex internal systems, or extern threats, may result in a hospital evacuation. Factors contributing to such evacuation must be identified, analyzed and action plans should be prepared. Our aims in this study were 1) to evaluate the use of risk and vulnerability analysis as a basis for hospital evacuation plan, 2) to identify risks/hazards triggering an evacuation and evaluate the respond needed and 3) to propose a template with main key points for planning, performance and evaluation of such evacuation. Methods: A risk and vulnerability analysis at two county hospitals along with a systematic online literature search based on the following keywords; “evacuation/closure”, “hospitals/medical facilities” and“disaster/hazards” alone or with “planning”, was conducted. Results: We found that although all hospitals have a disaster plan, there is a lack of knowledge and appropriate instruments to plan, perform and evaluate a hospital evacuation. Risk and vulnerability analysis can be used to reveal threats leading to an evacuation (e.g. on-going climate changes and terror actions). These key points can later be used to plan, perform and evaluate such evacuation. Conclusion: There is a need for an elaborated evacuation planning for hospitals. An evacuation plan should continuously be drilled based on a risk and vulnerability analysis. A general guide can be used as foundation to plan, perform and evaluate such plan.

  2. Worse Prognosis in Papillary, Compared to Tubular, Early Gastric Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiping; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Lin; Shi, Jiong; Fan, Xianshan; Zou, Xiaoping; Huang, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Papillary early gastric carcinoma (EGC) is uncommon but shows worse prognosis in our most recent study in a Chinese population with unknown reasons. The aim of the present study was to further investigate risk factors for worse prognosis in patients with papillary adenocarcinoma, compared to those with tubular adenocarcinoma. Methods: We searched the electronic pathology databank for radical gastrectomy cases over an 8-year period at a single medical center in Nanjing, China, and identified consecutive 240 EGC cases that were classified as either papillary (n=59) or tubular (n=181) EGC tumors in accordance with the World Health Organization (WHO) gastric cancer diagnosis criteria. We investigated and compared clinicopathologic risk factors for prognosis between papillary and tubular EGC groups. All patients were followed up and their 5-year survival rate was compared statistically with the Kaplan-Meier method with a log rank test. Results: Compared to tubular EGCs, papillary EGCs were significantly more common in elderly patients, more frequently occurred in the proximal stomach with protruding/elevated growth patterns, submucosal invasion, and a micropapillary component. Although lymphovascular invasion (16.9%), nodal (13.6%) and distant (11.8%) metastases in papillary EGCs were more frequent than those (8.3%, 7.2%, and 3.7%, respectively) in tubular EGCs, the differences approached but did not reach statistically significant levels. Significant risk factors for nodal metastasis included lymphovascular invasion in both EGC groups, but the ulcerative pattern and submucosal invasion only in tubular EGCs. The 5-year survival rate was significantly worse in papillary (80.5%) than in tubular (96.8%) EGCs. Conclusions: Compared to tubular EGCs, papillary EGCs diagnosed with the WHO criteria in Chinese patients were more frequent in elderly patients, proximal stomach and showed the significantly worse 5-year survival rate with more protruding/elevated growth

  3. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Gattermann, Peter; Knoflacher, Hermann; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Due to an increasing number of reported catastrophes all over the world, the safety especially of pedestrians today, is a dramatically growing field of interest, both for practitioners as well as scientists from various disciplines. The questions arising mainly address the dynamics of evacuating people and possible optimisations of the process by changing the architecture and /or the procedure. This concerns not only the case of ships, stadiums or buildings, all with restricted geometries, but also the evacuation of complete geographical regions due to natural disasters. Furthermore, also ‘simple’ crowd motion in ‘relaxed’ situations poses new questions with respect to higher comfort and efficiency since the number of involved persons at large events is as high as never before. In addition, as a new research topic in this field, collective animal behaviour is attracting increasing attention. All this was in the scope of the conference held in Vienna, September 28–30, 2005, the third one in a series ...

  4. Markers of tubular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1989-03-01

    Since the first description of tubular proteinuria in 1958, much progress has been made with regard to diagnostic means for detecting small changes in the function of the proximal tubule. Small increases in the excretion of low-molecular-weight proteins can now be determined with great accuracy. Determination of total protein is an economic way of screening large populations but does not give specific information on the type of damage. Determinations of glucose, phosphate and amino acids are relatively insensitive methods, since their excretion is also dependent on diet and nutritional status. Determination of high-molecular-weight enzymes released from damaged tubular cells may be of use for studies of acute as well as chronic effects of nephrotoxic agents, but more data are needed.

  5. Evacuation exercise at the Kindergarten

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector.  The fire brigade checked t...

  6. Modelling Traveller Behaviour under Emergency Evacuation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, A.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic traffic simulation models are frequently used to support decisions when planning an evacuation. This paper focuses on limitations in the modelling of travellers’ behaviour with respect to traffic information and compliance to evacuation instructions. More specifically, we propose a model fra

  7. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinby, T.C.

    A tool is described for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators. The target assembly comprising a uranum foil and an aluninum-alloy substrate. The tool is composed of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  8. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Uwe; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics conference (PED2012) showcased research on human locomotion. This book presents the proceedings of PED2012. Humans have walked for eons; our drive to settle the globe began with a walk out of Africa. However, much remains to discover. As the world moves toward sustainability while racing to assess and accommodate climate change, research must provide insight on the physical requirements of walking, the dynamics of pedestrians on the move and more. We must understand, predict and simulate pedestrian behaviour, to avoid dangerous situations, to plan for emergencies, and not least, to make walking more attractive and enjoyable. PED2012 offered 70 presentations and keynotes and 70 poster presentations covering new and improved mathematical models, describing new insights on pedestrian behaviour in normal and emergency cases and presenting research based on sensors and advanced observation methods. These papers offer a starting point for innova...

  9. Decision Dynamics in Group Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Fangqiu; Schlesinger, Kimberly J; Gür, Izzeddin; Carlson, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that affect human decision making and quantifying their influence remain essential and challenging tasks for the design and implementation of social and technological communication systems. We report results of a behavioral experiment involving decision making in the face of an impending natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, we characterize individual and group evacuation decision making influenced by several key factors, including the likelihood of the disaster, available shelter capacity, group size, and group decision protocol. Our results show that success in individual decision making is not a strong predictor of group performance. We use an artificial neural network trained on the collective behavior of subjects to predict individual and group outcomes. Overall model accuracy increases with the inclusion of a subject-specific performance parameter based on laboratory trials that captures individual differences. In parallel, we demonstrate that the social media activit...

  10. Active evacuation guidance using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Daiki; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Evacuation systems for buildings are designed based on event scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events that are not included in the scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new active evacuation guidance system using sensor agent robots. We first introduce a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to be used in conjunction with sensor agent robots for active evacuation guidance. Then the role of sensor agent robots is explained. An algorithm to immediately access the safety of the building after a large earthquake is also proposed using only the information taken by a sensor agent robot.

  11. General Construction of Tubular Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of locally describing tubular geometry around a submanifold embedded in a (pseudo)Riemannian manifold in its general form. Given the geometry of ambient space in an arbitrary coordinate system and equations determining the submanifold in the same system, we compute the tubular expansion coefficients in terms of this {\\it a priori data}. This is done by using an indirect method that crucially applies the tubular expansion theorem for vielbein previously derived. With an explicit construction involving the relevant coordinate and non-coordinate frames we verify consistency of the whole method up to quadratic order in vielbein expansion. Furthermore, we perform certain (long and tedious) higher order computation which verifies the first non-trivial spin connection term in the expansion for the first time. Earlier a similar method was used to compute tubular geometry in loop space. We explain this work in the light of our general construction.

  12. Tubular organ epithelialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Saksena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hollow, tubular organs including oesophagus, trachea, stomach, intestine, bladder and urethra may require repair or replacement due to disease. Current treatment is considered an unmet clinical need, and tissue engineering strategies aim to overcome these by fabricating synthetic constructs as tissue replacements. Smart, functionalised synthetic materials can act as a scaffold base of an organ and multiple cell types, including stem cells can be used to repopulate these scaffolds to replace or repair the damaged or diseased organs. Epithelial cells have not yet completely shown to have efficacious cell–scaffold interactions or good functionality in artificial organs, thus limiting the success of tissue-engineered grafts. Epithelial cells play an essential part of respective organs to maintain their function. Without successful epithelialisation, hollow organs are liable to stenosis, collapse, extensive fibrosis and infection that limit patency. It is clear that the source of cells and physicochemical properties of scaffolds determine the successful epithelialisation. This article presents a review of tissue engineering studies on oesophagus, trachea, stomach, small intestine, bladder and urethral constructs conducted to actualise epithelialised grafts.

  13. Room evacuation through two contiguous exits

    CERN Document Server

    Sticco, I M; Dorso, C O

    2016-01-01

    Current regulations demand that at least two exits should be available for a safe evacuation during a panic situation. Although the "faster is slower" effect is expected to take place near the exits, the evacuation time will improve because of the additional exits. However, rooms having contiguous doors not always reduce the leaving time as expected. We investigated the relation between the doors separation and the evacuation performance. We found that there exists a separation distance range that does not really improve the evacuation time, or it can even worsen the process performance. To our knowledge, no attention has been given to this issue in the literature. This work reports how the pedestrians dynamics differ when the separation distance between two exit doors changes and how this affects the overall performance.

  14. Emergency evacuation system for mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qing-yi; BUDIMAN Jeff; SHEN Jay

    2011-01-01

    There are many potential hazards in the underground mining these include fire,explosion,inundation,roof collapse,toxic gases,chemical pollution,etc.Over past centuries,in US alone,more than 100 000 miners lost their life in different accidents.The primary safety methods used in underground mines concentrate on the monitoring of the hazardous gases,fire detection and ventilation.Using advanced instruments and monitoring techniques have significantly reduced the accidents in the modem mines.However despite the advancement of these monitoring facilities,accidents still occur in underground mining annually in the world,and many miners were killed because they were trapped and unable to escape due to blocked of exit access.Described a new development for the emergency evacuation system in underground mines and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the system.It is expected that the new system will greatly improve the emergency exit methods and save more lives in the future.

  15. Evacuation Planning in the TMI Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    evacuation (some categories, like intensive care patients, would require quick evacuation) These items are a synthesis of elements of the plans of the four...Handicapped persons * Invalids • Persons in special treatment programs (e.g., methadone ) Some of the sources of information used were: * York County Visiting... methadone treatment. The shelter was to be staffed by personnel from the treatment program, and supplies of the drug were arranged. e A special shelter

  16. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  18. Managed traffic evacuation using distributed sensor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Biswas, Subir

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an integrated sensor network and distributed event processing architecture for managed in-building traffic evacuation during natural and human-caused disasters, including earthquakes, fire and biological/chemical terrorist attacks. The proposed wireless sensor network protocols and distributed event processing mechanisms offer a new distributed paradigm for improving reliability in building evacuation and disaster management. The networking component of the system is constructed using distributed wireless sensors for measuring environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and detecting unusual events such as smoke, structural failures, vibration, biological/chemical or nuclear agents. Distributed event processing algorithms will be executed by these sensor nodes to detect the propagation pattern of the disaster and to measure the concentration and activity of human traffic in different parts of the building. Based on this information, dynamic evacuation decisions are taken for maximizing the evacuation speed and minimizing unwanted incidents such as human exposure to harmful agents and stampedes near exits. A set of audio-visual indicators and actuators are used for aiding the automated evacuation process. In this paper we develop integrated protocols, algorithms and their simulation models for the proposed sensor networking and the distributed event processing framework. Also, efficient harnessing of the individually low, but collectively massive, processing abilities of the sensor nodes is a powerful concept behind our proposed distributed event processing algorithms. Results obtained through simulation in this paper are used for a detailed characterization of the proposed evacuation management system and its associated algorithmic components.

  19. Technology for Simulating Crowd Evacuation Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hu Qin; Guo-Hui Su; Xiao-Na Li

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for simulating crowd evacuation and investigates three widely recognized problems. For the space continuity problem, this paper presents two computation algorithms: one uses grid space to evaluate the coordinates of the obstacle's bounding box and the other employs the geometry rule to establish individual evacuation routes. For the problem of collision, avoidance, and excess among the individuals, this paper computes the generalized force and friction force and then modifies the direction of march to obtain a speed model based on the crowd density and real time speed. For the exit selection problem, this paper establishes a method of selecting the exits by combining the exit's crowd state with the individuals. Finally, a particle system is used to simulate the behavior of crowd evacuation and produces useful test results.

  20. Managing passive incontinence and incomplete evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brigitte; Norton, Christine

    Both passive faecal incontinence and evacuation difficulty are distressing and demoralising conditions, resulting in physical and psychological problems including social restrictions, loss of self-esteem, altered body image and loss of skin integrity. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy has been shown to help most patients with faecal incontinence and evacuation difficulty by creating a manageable situation that can significantly improve quality of life. However, some patients may not improve their symptoms and require alternative measures. This article reports an audit of the use of the Qufora mini irrigation system in 50 patients (48 female, 2 male) with passive faecal incontinence and/or evacuation difficulty who had failed to respond to conventional biofeedback. Seventy percent found the irrigation comfortable and 74% rated the system as good or acceptable. Two-thirds believed symptoms were improved and would wish to continue using the system. Prospective studies are needed to confirm which patients are most suitable and respond well to the irrigation.

  1. Simulation of Emergency Evacuation in Virtual Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Aizhu; CHEN Chi; LUO Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A virtual reality system was developed to simulate emergency evacuations during fires.The spreading of the flame and smoke in the virtual fire was modeled based on numerical fire simulations,so that the conditions are similar to real life.A multi-grid,multi-base-state database model was used to overcome the disadvantages of traditional smoke spreading simulations.Textured images and particle systems provide visualization of the flame and smoke.The system immerses the user in a virtual environment with detailed interactions between the users and the virtual environment.The system can show which evacuation methods are effective for building safety evaluations.

  2. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  3. Tubular cystourethroneostomy after total prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, H

    1975-01-01

    After radical prostatectomy cystourethroneostomy is done as a tubular cystourethroplasty. In the last 13 months 14 patients have been operated on in this manner. In 12 patients continence was achieved; 2 patients had a temporary stress incontinence. The stress incontinence could be treated successfully by temporary electrostimulation of the pelvic floor by an anal plug stimulator.

  4. Evacuation dynamics of asymmetrically coupled pedestrian pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze extended floor field cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics of inhomogeneous pedestrian pairs which are coupled by asymmetric group interactions. Such pairs consist of a leader, who mainly determines the couple's motion and a follower, who has a defined tendency to follow the leader. Examples for such pairs are mother and child or two siblings of different age. We examine the system properties and compare them to the case of a homogeneous crowd. We find a strong impact on evacuation times for the regime of strong pair coupling due to the occurrence of a clogging phenomenon. In addition we obtain a non-trivial dependence of evacuation times on the followers' coupling to the static floor field, which carries the information of the shortest way to the exit location. In particular we find that systems with fully passive followers, who are solely coupled to their leaders, show lower evacuation times than homogeneous systems where all pedestrians have an equal tendency to move towa...

  5. Evacuating the Area of a Hurricane

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If a hurricane warning is issued for your area, or authorities tell you to evacuate, take only essential items. If you have time, turn off gas, electricity, and water and disconnect appliances.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 10/10/2007.

  6. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    1999-01-01

    of the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the fast...

  7. Federal Evacuation Policy: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    pulling wheelchairs ). Some of these individuals were helpless because their animals could not navigate flooded streets. Others elected not to evacuate...bill would require that prescripted templates be designed to provide accurate, essential, and appropriate information and instructions to the

  8. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  9. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or...

  10. Service level-oriented route guidance during evacuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, R.L.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of evacuation management puts a strong focus on the development of optimal evacuation and control strategies. However, in operational evacuation management the means to monitor, manage, evaluate and control are limited. The authorities nevertheless have a strong need to underst

  11. 21 CFR 876.4370 - Gastroenterology-urology evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. 876.4370... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4370 Gastroenterology-urology evacuator. (a) Identification. A gastroenterology-urology evacuator is a device used to...

  12. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  13. Early detection of tubular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscator, M

    1991-11-01

    The determination of low-molecular-weight proteins in urine as a tool for early detection of damage to the proximal tubules is briefly discussed. Beta 2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein and alpha 1-microglobulin are at present the most widely used markers for tubular dysfunction. The determination of beta 2-microglobulin has earlier been the method of choice, but due to its instability at low pH there are certain disadvantages. Available data indicate that alpha 1-microglobulin may replace beta 2-microglobulin for screening purposes. The low-molecular-weight proteins are at present the best markers for early detection of tubular dysfunction; other constituents are not as well suited for this, even if the determination of urine enzymes has its supporters.

  14. Miopatias associadas a agregados tubulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Souza Carvalho

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam a caso de paciente de 58 anos de idade do sexo masculino, com quadro de características miastênicas tanto clínica como eletromiograficamente, no qual a biópsia muscular com histoquímica e microscopia eletrônica permitiu fazer o diagnostico de miopatia associada a agregados tubulares. É chamada a atenção para o fato de que as alterações anátomo-patológicas encontradas podem estar presentes em um grupo heterogêneo de pacientes com grande variedade de sintomas, não havendo portanto motivo para considerar-se a existência de uma miopatia com agregados tubulares, já que os achados anátomo-patológicos são inespecíficos e não configuram moléstia específica.

  15. A cellular automaton evacuation model based on mobile robot's behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG WenGuo; YUAN HongYong; FAN WeiCheng

    2007-01-01

    The research of evacuation in some emergencies, e.g. fire, is of great benefit to reducing the injuries of persons. In this paper, a cellular automaton evacuation model based on mobile robot's behaviors is presented. Each person is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas, including move-to-goal, avoid-obstacle, swirl-obstacle and nervous-motion, drive persons to interact with their environment. The motor schemas are combined with cellular automaton theory, and an evacuation model is built. Evacuation simulation of persons with different move velocities shows that the presented model can predict accurately the evacuation phenomena in some emergencies.

  16. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Evacuation Process in Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chang-Qun; ZHENG Rong-Sen; GAO Chun-Yuan; QIU Bing; DENG Min-Yi; KONC Ling-Jiang; LIU Mu-Ren

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations on the evacuation process in a story are launched with cellular automaton in this article. The story is composed of five rooms and one corridor. Influence of various parameters on the evacuation process is investigated. It shows that the width of the door of rooms has little influence but the width of the corridor and themaximum velocity of the pedestrian have great influence on the time for evacuation. The relation between evacuation time and the width of corridor is found as tc ∝ W-.0.84. It is also found that appropriate shape of the room is helpful to evacuation.

  17. Modelling large-scale evacuation of music festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ronchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of multi-agent continuous evacuation modelling for representing large-scale evacuation scenarios at music festivals. A 65,000 people capacity music festival area was simulated using the model Pathfinder. Three evacuation scenarios were developed in order to explore the capabilities of evacuation modelling during such incidents, namely (1 a preventive evacuation of a section of the festival area containing approximately 15,000 people due to a fire breaking out on a ship, (2 an escalating scenario involving the total evacuation of the entire festival area (65,000 people due to a bomb threat, and (3 a cascading scenario involving the total evacuation of the entire festival area (65,000 people due to the threat of an explosion caused by a ship engine overheating. This study suggests that the analysis of the people-evacuation time curves produced by evacuation models, coupled with a visual analysis of the simulated evacuation scenarios, allows for the identification of the main factors affecting the evacuation process (e.g., delay times, overcrowding at exits in relation to exit widths, etc. and potential measures that could improve safety.

  18. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  19. Evacuation exercise at the CERN Kindergarten

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Every year fire evacuation exercises are organized through out CERN and our facility's Kindergarten is no exception. Just a few weeks ago, a fire simulation was carried out in the Kindergarten kitchen facility using synthetic smoke. The purpose of the exercise was to teach staff to react in a disciplined and professional manner when in the presence of danger. The simulation is always carried out at a random time so as to ensure that people in the area under the test are not aware of the exercise. For the Kindergarten the exercise was held early in the school year so as to train those who are new to the establishment. The evacuation was a complete success and all went as it was supposed to. When the children and teachers smelt smoke they followed the prescribed evacuation routes and left the building immediately. Once outside the situation was revealed as an exercise and everyone went back to business as usual, everyone that is, except the fire brigade and fire inspector. The fire brigade checked that the buil...

  20. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Adam Daniel; Baynes, Kevin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-03-17

    We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.

  1. Miopatias associadas a agregados tubulares

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Souza Carvalho; Lusvarghi,Edgard S.; Ângela Lobo F. Levy; Paulo N. Borsoi Salum; Consuelo J. Rodrigues; José Antonio Levy

    1993-01-01

    Os autores relatam a caso de paciente de 58 anos de idade do sexo masculino, com quadro de características miastênicas tanto clínica como eletromiograficamente, no qual a biópsia muscular com histoquímica e microscopia eletrônica permitiu fazer o diagnostico de miopatia associada a agregados tubulares. É chamada a atenção para o fato de que as alterações anátomo-patológicas encontradas podem estar presentes em um grupo heterogêneo de pacientes com grande variedade de sintomas, não havendo por...

  2. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  3. A Review of Computer Evacuation Models and Their Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    evacu- edge of aircraft exits and routes). The number of ation from trains , theaters, cinemas, and lecture halls. parameters, and their associated values...regarding training , operation, describing the system to the model, and design of aircraft to ensure as fast a cabin evacu- Accident reconstructions are a more...17). In the future when March 1993 evacuation tests are planned, consideration should be 7. G2 Reference Manual, Gensym Corporation, 125 given to

  4. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  5. Tubular stabilizer bars – calculations and construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam-Markus WITTEK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the calculation methods for tubular stabilizer bars. Modern technological and structural solutions in contemporary cars are reflected also in the construction, selection and manufacturing of tubular stabilizer bars. A proper construction and the selection of parameters influence the strength properties, the weight, durability and reliability as well as the selection of an appropriate production method.

  6. Evacuation of children - movement on stairs and on Horizontal Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on the evacuation characteristics of children. Current literature on evacuation is based mostly on studies on adults. The aim of this study is to investigate the movement of children during evacuation, focusing on flow, densities and walking. Ten Danish daycare centers participated...... in full scale evacuation experiments where two age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. It was found that flow through doors, walking speeds and densities were age-dependent and differed strongly from the data in existing literature. The results showed higher walking speeds in spiral...

  7. Public Evacuation Process Modeling and Simulatiaon Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering attraction of the nearest exit, repulsive force of the fire, barrier and its display style, effect of fire exit location on escape time in fire hazard, a mathematical model of evacuation process model was build based on cellular automatic theory. The program was developed by JavaScript. The influencing factors of evacuation were obtained through the simulation model by inputting crew size, creating initial positions of crew and fire seat stochastically. The experimental results show that the evacuation simulation model with authenticity and validity, which has guiding significance for people evacuation and public escape system design.  

  8. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders.

  9. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  10. Can cooperation slow down emergency evacuations?

    CERN Document Server

    Cirillo, Emilio N M

    2012-01-01

    We study the motion of pedestrians through obscure corridors where the lack of visibility hides the precise position of the exits. Using a lattice model, we explore the effects of cooperation on the overall exit flux (evacuation rate). More precisely, we study the effect of the buddying threshold (of no--exclusion per site) on the dynamics of the crowd. In some cases, we note that if the evacuees tend to cooperate and act altruistically, then their collective action tends to favor the occurrence of disasters.

  11. A Generic Framework for Tsunami Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Stefan; Eftichidis, George; Guillande, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Coastal communities are vulnerable with regard to the devastating impacts tsunami waves may generate to life, lifelines, assets and economy. The risk is quantified by rather rare occurrence on one hand, and by high damage to be expected on the other hand. Hence a pure numerical calculation could easily become meaningless. Yet over-dramatizing the threat could become counter-productive taking into account social behaviour and human perception of potential risk of tsunami waves. Local communities would therefore rather act in a "silent" way by gradually improving the level of preparedness. The goal should be to create a concept of an emergency and evacuation plan that could easily be invoked if necessary. Obviously such concepts are based on a huge variety of parameters which can be set in an individual way considering local particularities, scopes and questions of applicability. Nevertheless guidance through all these parameters and their calculations is difficult to find. This abstract proposes a generic framework that summarizes the application of various steps to be taken, the interdependencies of these steps and the three phases of repetition due to generation, mid-term maintenance and long-term revision of such emergency and evacuation plans. The abstract represents the outcome of research work done as part of the EU-funded SCHEMA (scenarios for hazard-induced emergencies management) project.

  12. Pedestrian Dynamics Feedback Control of Crowd Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kachroo, Pushkin P.E; Al-nasur, Sadeq J; Shende, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    Effective evacuation of people from closed spaces is an extremely important topic, since it can save real lives in emergency situations that can be brought about by natural and human made disasters. Usually there are static maps posted at various places at buildings that illustrate routes that should be taken during emergencies. However, when disasters happen, some of these routes might not be valid because of structural problems due to the disaster itself and more importantly because of the distribution of congestion of people spread over the area. The average flow of traffic depends on the traffic density. Therefore, if all the people follow the same route, or follow a route without knowing the congestion situation, they can end up being part of the congestion which results in very low flow rate or worse a traffic jam. Hence it becomes extremely important to design evacuations that inform people how fast and in which direction to move based on real-time information obtained about the people distribution usi...

  13. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  14. Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    demanding environments in which they work and the excessive lifting and reaching involved in AE tasks. This study characterized the ergonomic risks in...AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2016-0014 Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study ...March 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterizing Musculoskeletal Injury among Aeromedical Evacuation Personnel: An Observational Study 5a

  15. 48 CFR 1842.7003 - Emergency medical services and evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Emergency medical services... NASA Contract Clauses 1842.7003 Emergency medical services and evacuation. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.242-78, Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation, in all solicitations...

  16. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual release from its stowage rack. (3) Each inflatable liferaft used in conjunction with the marine... evacuation. (b) Stowage. Each marine evacuation system must be stowed as follows: (1) There must not be any... deployed; its stowage container; and its operational arrangement must not interfere with the operation...

  17. Everscape: The Making of a Disaster Evacuation Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doirado, E.; Van den Berg, M.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Prendinger, H.

    2012-01-01

    Disaster evacuation studies are important but difficult or impossible to conduct in the real world. Evacuation simulation in a virtual world can be an important tool to obtain data on the escape and choice behavior of people. However, to obtain accurate “realistic” data, the engagement of participan

  18. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Escaping in couples facilitates evacuation: Experimental study and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ning; Hu, Mao-Bin; Ding, Jian-Xun; Ding, Zhong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of escaping in couples on the evacuation dynamics has been investigated via experiments and modeling. Two sets of experiments have been implemented, in which pedestrians are asked to escape either in individual or in couples. The experiments show that escaping in couples can decrease the average evacuation time. Moreover, it is found that the average evacuation time gap is essentially constant, which means that the evacuation speed essentially does not depend on the number of pedestrians that have not yet escaped. To model the evacuation dynamics, an improved social force model has been proposed, in which it is assumed that the driving force of a pedestrian cannot be fulfilled when the composition of physical forces exceeds a threshold because the pedestrian cannot keep his/her body balance under this circumstance. To model the effect of escaping in couples, attraction force has been introduced between the partners. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  20. Effective strategies of collective evacuation from an enclosed space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Yan-Yan

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of fundamental principles of the Vicsek model and the leader-follower model, we develop an extended evacuation model of self-propelled particles system considering movable exits, and then propose effective strategies of self-organization evacuating from an enclosed space. It is found that placing exits in the corner is an effective strategy for evacuation via simulations. Furthermore, increasing the intensity of exit sign takes only effect in some extent. In addition, multi exits will make the evacuation more slowly. In general, one corner exit is the best choice for collective evacuation. Our results provide new insights into designing a safe passage in some enclosed places, such as the cinema and conference halls.

  1. Effect of authority figures for pedestrian evacuation at metro stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Zhang, Zenghui; Peng, Gongzhuang; Shi, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Most pedestrian evacuation literatures are about routing algorithm, human intelligence and behavior etc. Few works studied how to fully explore the function of authority/security figures, who know more of the environment by simply being there every day. To evaluate the effect of authority figure (AF) in complex buildings, this paper fully investigates the AF related factors that may influence the evacuation effect of crowd, such as the number and locations of AFs, their spread of direction, calming effect and distribution strategies etc. Social force based modeling and simulation results show that these factors of AFs play important roles in evacuation efficiency, which means fewer AFs with right guiding strategy can have good evacuation performance. For our case study, Zhichun Avenue station, the conclusion is that deployment of four AFs is a good choice to achieve relatively high evacuation performance yet save cost.

  2. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  3. Evacuation characteristics of visually impaired people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Evacuation characteristics for blind and visually impaired people are presented in the current study. The study was carried out in 2011 and engaged 40 participants in the age from 10 to 69 years. The participants had impairments for all of the four Danish categories for visual impairments (A......-bodied adults. It was found that people with visual impairments were able to uphold a higher walking speed descending stairs than able-bodied adults for increasing person density. The initial walking speed on horizontal planes is lower than the value suggested by the N&M-model. The horizontal mean free walking...... speed depends on the degree of vision loss. The design of the building environment is important for the ability to orientation for people with reduced sight. Walls and handrails are important for the orientation possibilities for people with visual impairments. Furthermore, obstacles placed...

  4. Evacuation of People with Visual Impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress

    by fire for this segment of the population is larger than for able-bodied people. It can therefore be questioned whether our buildings provide a sufficient safety level for this group of people. The aim of the PhD Study is to increase knowledge and data on evacuation characteristics of vulnerable people......Fire have always been a threat to human beings and claim lives every year. A lot is done to ensure fire safety in our buildings an structures, but fires still occur and lives are lost. In the past decades there has been a trend towards more and more complex buildings, which challenge fire safety...... engineers and the prescriptive fire safety codes. Consquently, performance based fire codes is developed and implemented in countires around the world. Performance based codes allow for use of engineering tools and calculations. Meanwhile, accessibility to the building environment have likewise gained...

  5. Iatrogenic Digital Compromise with Tubular Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre, Kenneth A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes a digit amputation resulting from an improperly applied tubular dressing. The safe application of digital tubular dressings, and the rationale behind it, is detailed to raise emergency physician (EP awareness.Methods: We present a case report of a recent iatrogenic-induced digit ischemia caused by improperly applied tube gauze. We review the literature on the subject and the likely sources of poor outcomes presented. The proper application of tubular gauze dressings is then outlined.Conclusion: EPs and emergency department personnel must be educated on the safe application of tubular gauze dressings to avoid dire outcomes associated with improper applications.[WestJEM. 2009;10:190-192.

  6. Evacuation time estimate for a total pedestrian evacuation using queuing network model and volunteered geographic information

    CERN Document Server

    Kunwar, Bharat; Johansson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Estimating city evacuation time is a non-trivial problem due to the interaction between thousands of individual agents, giving rise to various collective phenomena, such as bottleneck formation, intermittent flow and stop-and-go waves. We present a mean field approach to draw relationships between road network spatial attributes, number of evacuees and resultant evacuation time estimate (ETE). We divide $50$ medium sized UK cities into a total of $697$ catchment areas which we define as an area where all agents share the same nearest exit node. In these catchment areas, 90% of agents are within $5.4$ km of their designated exit node. We establish a characteristic flow rate from catchment area attributes (population, distance to exit node and exit node width) and a mean flow rate in free-flow regime by simulating total evacuations using an agent based `queuing network' model. We use these variables to determine a relationship between catchment area attributes and resultant ETE. This relationship could enable e...

  7. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  8. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D. K.; Gisladottir, G.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2009-02-01

    Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP), in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in this region. Our data can be used

  9. Endoscopic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma in a term newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Sema Rala; Turhan, Tuncer; Uygur, Ozgun; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Yalaz, Mehmet; Kultursay, Nilgun

    2013-10-01

    Intracerebellar hemorrhage is very rare in term infants and only severe cases with massive intracranial hemorrhage, posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and clinical deterioration due to increased intracranial pressure require neurosurgical evacuation. In recent adult studies endoscopic hematoma evacuation has been shown as a rapid, effective, and safe technique. A term newborn hospitalized for meconium aspiration syndrome showed hypertonia, jitteriness and abnormal amplitude integrated electroencephalogram findings. He was diagnosed with cerebellar hematoma which caused hydrocephalus by cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hematoma was successfully evacuated neuroendoscopically as the first case in literature to our knowledge. Neurologic, a-EEG and MRI findings resolved.

  10. The Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM: a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions are among the most awesome and powerful displays of nature's force, constituting a major natural hazard for society (a single eruption can claim thousands of lives in an instant. Consequently, assessment and management of volcanic risk have become critically important goals of modern volcanology. Over recent years, numerous tools have been developed to evaluate volcanic risk and support volcanic crisis management: probabilistic analysis of future eruptions, hazard and risk maps, event trees, etc. However, there has been little improvement in the tools that may help Civil Defense officials to prepare Emergency Plans. Here we present a new tool for simulating massive evacuation processes during volcanic crisis: the Variable Scale Evacuation Model (VSEM. The main objective of the VSEM software is to optimize the evacuation process of Emergency Plans during volcanic crisis. For this, the VSEM allows the simulation of an evacuation considering different strategies depending on diverse impact scenarios. VSEM is able to calculate the required time for the complete evacuation taking into account diverse evacuation scenarios (number and type of population, infrastructure, road network, etc. and to detect high-risk or "blackspots" of the road network. The program is versatile and can work at different scales, thus being capable of simulating the evacuation of small villages as well as huge cities.

  11. A microcosmic discrete occupant evacuation model based on individual characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; LI Jian; ZHAO Daoliang; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    The research of occupant evacuation in an emergency is of great benefit to building design and evacuation guidance. In this paper a microcosmic discrete evacuation model based on Cellular Automata (CA) is presented, in which the occupants' individual characteristics are considered. Thus, our model has given a description of evacuation route choice with influencing factors, including: individual knowledge of the building,individual realization of the emergency development, and the attractive and repulsive force between occupants. This model differs somewhat from other models in the attention to the associative and separate effect of influencing factors, based on occupant's behaviors. In addition, the model could reveal the phenomenon of escape in fire, as those simulations involving a fire condition have shown.

  12. Evacuation of aged persons from inundated underground space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, T; Asai, Y; Nakahata, Y; Shimada, H; Baba, Y; Toda, K

    2010-01-01

    Underground is an important space that supports function of cities, such as subways, shopping malls and basement parking. However in consequence a new type of disaster, the "urban flood" menaces these spaces. In the last decade, urban floods struck Tokyo, Nagoya and Fukuoka. When underground inundation occurs, people must evacuate to the ground as soon as possible. But, when such an inundation situation happens, aged persons may not be able to evacuate quickly to ground level. In this paper, the method of safety assessment for aged persons is discussed on the experimental results and flood simulation data in an underground space. As a criterion of the safety evacuation, the specific force per unit width is used in this study. From the result of experiments, it is difficult to implement safety evacuation when the specific force per unit width is over 0.100 m(2) for the aged male.

  13. Improving the productivity of solar still using evacuated tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qays A.Rashak, Ala'a A. Jassim, Husam N. Khanfoos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of life and population growth makes the rate of water consumption to be very high, also the operation costs of the conventional methods of the desalination process are very expensive and unfriendly to the environment; therefor it is very important to find new, cheap, clean and simple methods for producing drinkable water such as solar energy desalination systems. To improve the performance of solar still by using evacuated tubes. The effect of parameter variables such as solar intensity, wind velocity, the tilt angle and numbers of the evacuated tubes are studied and then discussed. It can be concluded that the maximum productivity of water has achieved when the tilt angle of the evacuated tubes was 15˚ on the horizone using four evacuated tubes.

  14. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  15. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  16. Study of Evacuation Behavior of Coastal Gulf of Mexico Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Sanjoy; Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hanson, Terrill R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the link between hurricane characteristics, demographics of the Coastal Gulf of Mexico residents, including their household location, and their respective evacuation behavior. Our study is significantly different from the previously made studies on hurricane evacuation behavior in two ways. At first, the research data is collected through recording responses to a series of hypothetical situations which are quite identical to the set of information that people are...

  17. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  18. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  19. Selfishness- and Selflessness-based models of pedestrian room evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ma, Liang; Ma, Yaofei; Yang, Chen; Ji, Hang

    2016-04-01

    Some pedestrian evacuation studies have employed game strategy to deal with moving conflicts involving two or three pedestrians. However, most of these have simply presented game strategies for pedestrians without analyzing the reasons why they choose to defect or cooperate. We believe that selfish and selfless behaviors are two main factors that should be considered in evacuation. In addition to these behaviors, human emotions such as sympathy and behaviors such as vying were also taken into account to investigate their impacts on pedestrians' strategies. Moreover, an essential objective factor, the building design factor of door width was tested and analyzed. Experimental results showed that the sense of self leads to more defectors and a longer evacuation time. However, sympathy does some good, leading to more cooperators and a shorter evacuation time. Moreover, the exit door width is an essential factor of the evacuation efficiency. When the width was less than 6 cells in a rectangular room with a size greater than 50 × 50, the evacuation time greatly decreased when the width increased. However, this effect was less obvious when the width increased.

  20. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus.

  1. Investigation of Thermal Performance of Flat Plate and Evacuated Tubular Solar Collectors According to a New Dynamic Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Fan, Jianhua;

    2012-01-01

    obtain fluid thermal capacitance in data processing. Then theoretical analysis and experimental verification are carried out to investigate influencing factors of obtaining accurate and stable second order term. A flat plate and ETC solar collector are compared using both the new dynamic method......A new dynamic test method is introduced. This so called improved transfer function method features on two new collector parameters. One is time term which can indicate solar collector's inner heat transfer ability and the other is a second order term of collector mean fluid temperature which can...... and a standard method. The results show that the improved function method can accurately and robustly estimate these two kinds of solar collectors....

  2. Deployable and retractable telescoping tubular structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    A new deployable and retractable telescoping boom capable of high deployed stiffness and strength is described. Deployment and retraction functions are controlled by simple, reliable, and fail-safe latches between the tubular segments. The latch and a BI-STEM (Storable Tubular Extendible Member) actuator work together to eliminate the need for the segments to overlap when deployed. This yields an unusually lightweight boom and compact launch configuration. An aluminum space-flight prototype with three joints displays zero structural deadband, low hysteresis, and high damping. The development approach and difficulties are discussed. Test results provide a joint model for sizing flight booms of any diameter and length.

  3. Agent-based Modeling with MATSim for Hazards Evacuation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Henry, K.; Peters, J.; Wood, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Hazard evacuation planning requires robust modeling tools and techniques, such as least cost distance or agent-based modeling, to gain an understanding of a community's potential to reach safety before event (e.g. tsunami) arrival. Least cost distance modeling provides a static view of the evacuation landscape with an estimate of travel times to safety from each location in the hazard space. With this information, practitioners can assess a community's overall ability for timely evacuation. More information may be needed if evacuee congestion creates bottlenecks in the flow patterns. Dynamic movement patterns are best explored with agent-based models that simulate movement of and interaction between individual agents as evacuees through the hazard space, reacting to potential congestion areas along the evacuation route. The multi-agent transport simulation model MATSim is an agent-based modeling framework that can be applied to hazard evacuation planning. Developed jointly by universities in Switzerland and Germany, MATSim is open-source software written in Java and freely available for modification or enhancement. We successfully used MATSim to illustrate tsunami evacuation challenges in two island communities in California, USA, that are impacted by limited escape routes. However, working with MATSim's data preparation, simulation, and visualization modules in an integrated development environment requires a significant investment of time to develop the software expertise to link the modules and run a simulation. To facilitate our evacuation research, we packaged the MATSim modules into a single application tailored to the needs of the hazards community. By exposing the modeling parameters of interest to researchers in an intuitive user interface and hiding the software complexities, we bring agent-based modeling closer to practitioners and provide access to the powerful visual and analytic information that this modeling can provide.

  4. Social influence on evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kinateder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is a promising tool to study evacuation behavior as it allows experimentally controlled, safe simulation of otherwise dangerous situations. However, validation studies comparing evacuation behavior in real and virtual environments are still scarce. We compare the decision to evacuate in response to a fire alarm in matched physical and virtual environments. 150 participants were tested individually in a one-trial experiment in one of three conditions. In the Control condition, the fire alarm sounded while the participant performed a bogus perceptual matching task. In the Passive bystander condition, the participant performed the task together with a confederate who ignored the fire alarm. In the Active bystander condition, the confederate left the room when the fire alarm went off. Half of the participants in each condition experienced the scenario in the real laboratory, and the other half in a matched virtual environment with a virtual bystander, presented in a head-mounted display. The active bystander group was more likely to evacuate, and the passive bystander group less likely to evacuate, than the control group. This pattern of social influence was observed in both the real and virtual environments, although the overall response to the virtual alarm was reduced; positive influence was comparable, whereas negative influence was weaker in VR. We found no reliable gender effects for the participant or the bystander. These findings extend the bystander effect to the decision to evacuate, revealing a positive as well as the previous negative social influence. The results support the ecological validity of VR as a research tool to study evacuation behavior in emergency situations, with the caveat that effect sizes may be smaller in VR.

  5. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  6. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  7. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  8. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  9. Centrifugal Casting of Tubular Perovskite Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertins, Frederic H.B.; Kruidhof, Henk; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dense tubular membranes were produced by centrifugal casting of an aqueous suspension, containing powder particles of the mixed-conducting perovskite La0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ and a dispersant. The resulting green bodies were dried and sintered to produce tubes with a maximum length of 12 cm, having a relat

  10. Parametric sensitivity and runaway in tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Varma, A.

    1982-09-01

    Parametric sensitivity of tubular reactors is analyzed to provide critical values of the heat of reaction and heat transfer parameters defining runaway and stable operations for all positive-order exothermic reactions with finite activation energies, and for all reactor inlet temperatures. Evaluation of the critical values does not involve any trial and error.

  11. Resident perception of volcanic hazards and evacuation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bird

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Katla volcano, located beneath the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap in southern Iceland, is capable of producing catastrophic jökulhlaup. The Icelandic Civil Protection (ICP, in conjunction with scientists, local police and emergency managers, developed mitigation strategies for possible jökulhlaup produced during future Katla eruptions. These strategies were tested during a full-scale evacuation exercise in March 2006. A positive public response during a volcanic crisis not only depends upon the public's knowledge of the evacuation plan but also their knowledge and perception of the possible hazards. To improve the effectiveness of residents' compliance with warning and evacuation messages it is important that emergency management officials understand how the public interpret their situation in relation to volcanic hazards and their potential response during a crisis and apply this information to the ongoing development of risk mitigation strategies. We adopted a mixed methods approach in order to gain a broad understanding of residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano in general, jökulhlaup hazards specifically and the regional emergency evacuation plan. This entailed field observations during the major evacuation exercise, interviews with key emergency management officials and questionnaire survey interviews with local residents. Our survey shows that despite living within the hazard zone, many residents do not perceive that their homes could be affected by a jökulhlaup, and many participants who perceive that their homes are safe, stated that they would not evacuate if an evacuation warning was issued. Alarmingly, most participants did not receive an evacuation message during the exercise. However, the majority of participants who took part in the exercise were positive about its implementation. This assessment of resident knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards and the evacuation plan is the first of its kind in

  12. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  13. Fluid Line Evacuation and Freezing Experiments for Digital Radiator Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, Daniel F.; Birur, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Sunada, Eric T.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Stephan, Ryan; Johnson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The digital radiator technology is one of three variable heat rejection technologies being investigated for future human-rated NASA missions. The digital radiator concept is based on a mechanically pumped fluid loop with parallel tubes carrying coolant to reject heat from the radiator surface. A series of valves actuate to start and stop fluid flow to di erent combinations of tubes, in order to vary the heat rejection capability of the radiator by a factor of 10 or more. When the flow in a particular leg is stopped, the fluid temperature drops and the fluid can freeze, causing damage or preventing flow from restarting. For this reason, the liquid in a stopped leg must be partially or fully evacuated upon shutdown. One of the challenges facing fluid evacuation from closed tubes arises from the vapor generated during pumping to low pressure, which can cause pump cavitation and incomplete evacuation. Here we present a series of laboratory experiments demonstrating fluid evacuation techniques to overcome these challenges by applying heat and pumping to partial vacuum. Also presented are results from qualitative testing of the freezing characteristics of several different candidate fluids, which demonstrate significant di erences in freezing properties, and give insight to the evacuation process.

  14. Using Crowdsourced Geodata for Agent-Based Indoor Evacuation Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zipf

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crowdsourced geodata has been proven to be a rich and major data source for environmental simulations and analysis, as well as the visualization of spatial phenomena. With the increasing size and complexity of public buildings, such as universities or hotels, there is also an increasing demand for information about indoor spaces. Trying to stimulate this growing demand, both researchers and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI communities envision to extend established communities towards indoors. It has already been showcased that VGI from OpenStreetMap (OSM can be utilized for different applications in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs as well as for simple shortest path computations inside buildings. The here presented research now tries to utilize crowdsourced indoor geodata for more complex indoor routing scenarios of multiple users. Essentially, it will be investigated if, and to what extent, the available data can be utilized for performing indoor evacuation simulations with the simulation framework MATSim. That is, this paper investigates the suitability of crowdsourced indoor information from OSM (IndoorOSM for evacuation simulations. Additionally, the applicability of MATSim for agent-based indoor evacuation simulations is conducted. The paper discusses the automatic generation simulation-related data, and provides experimental results for two different evacuation scenarios. Furthermore, limitations of the IndoorOSM data and the MATSim framework for indoor evacuation simulations are elaborated and discussed.

  15. Experimental study and numerical simulation of evacuation from a dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Zhou, Ning; Mei, Sen; Tian, Zhenguo

    2012-11-01

    The evacuation process of students from a dormitory is investigated by both experiment and modeling. We investigate the video record of pedestrian movement in a dormitory, and find some typical characteristics of evacuation, including continuous pedestrian flow, mass behavior and so on. Based on the experimental observation, we found that simulation results considering pre-movement time are closer to the experimental results. With the model considering pre-movement time, we simulate the evacuation process and compare the simulation results with the experimental results, and find that they agree with each other closely. The crowd massing phenomenon is conducted in this paper. It is found that different crowd massing phenomena will emerge due to different desired velocities. The crowd massing phenomenon could be more serious with the increase of the desired velocity. In this study, we also found the faster-is-slower effect. When the positive effect produced by increasing the desired velocity is not sufficient for making up for its negative effect, the phenomenon of the greater the desired velocity the longer the time required for evacuation will emerge. From the video record, it can be observed that the mass behavior is obvious during the evacuation process. And the mass phenomenon could also be found in simulation. The results obtained from our study are also suitable to all these buildings in which both living and resting areas occupy the majority space, such as dormitories, residential buildings, hotels (restaurants) and so on.

  16. Dual effects of pedestrian density on emergency evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yuen, Richard Kwok Kit

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic with simulation method. In the simulations, both the visibility in building and the exit limit of building are taken into account. The simulation results show that the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamics is dual. On the one hand, when the visibility in building is very large, the increased pedestrian density plays a negative effect. On the other hand, when the visibility in building is very small, the increased pedestrian density can play a positive effect. The simulation results also show that when both the exit width and visibility are very small, the varying of evacuation time with regard to the pedestrian density is non-monotonous and presents a U-shaped tendency. That is, in this case, too large or too small pedestrian density in building is disadvantageous to the evacuation process. Our findings provide a new insight about the effect of the pedestrian density in building on the evacuation dynamic.

  17. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  18. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  19. Occupant evacuation model based on cellular automata in fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By applying the rules set in traffic flow and pedestrian flow models, a basic cellular automata model is presented to simulate occupant evacuation in fire. Some extended models are introduced to study the special phenomena of evacuation from the fire room. The key of the models is the introduction of the danger grade which makes the route choice convenient and reasonable. Fire not only influences the emotional and behavioral characteristics of an individual but also affects his physical constitution, which reduces his maximal possible velocity. The models consider these influence factors by applying a set of simple but effective rules. It is needed to emphasize that all rules are established according to the essential phenomenon in fire evacuation, that is, all the occupants would try to move to the safest place as fast as possible. Some simulation examples are also presented to validate the applicability of the models.

  20. A cellular automaton model for evacuation flow using game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua; Chen, Fangyue

    2016-11-01

    Game theory serves as a good tool to explore crowd dynamic conflicts during evacuation processes. The purpose of this study is to simulate the complicated interaction behavior among the conflicting pedestrians in an evacuation flow. Two types of pedestrians, namely, defectors and cooperators, are considered, and two important factors including fear index and cost coefficient are taken into account. By combining the snowdrift game theory with a cellular automaton (CA) model, it is shown that the increase of fear index and cost coefficient will lengthen the evacuation time, which is more apparent for large values of cost coefficient. Meanwhile, it is found that the defectors to cooperators ratio could always tend to consistent states despite different values of parameters, largely owing to self-organization effects.

  1. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British......A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer......) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among...

  2. Simple technique for evacuation of traumatic subcutaneous haematomas under tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatley Edward

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic subcutaneous haematomas are common cases in the accident and emergency department. Occasionally, urgent evacuation is required to prevent skin necrosis. Methods We present a simple and safe technique, based on a principle similar to liposuction to evacuate traumatic subcutaneous haematomas under tension. Instruments readily available in the accident and emergency department are used without the need of general anaesthesia. Results The technique was performed in six cases without complication such as infection or re-collection of the haematoma under tension. We present two typical scenarios where urgent evacuation was indicated and the technique performed. Conclusion The technique is useful as an urgent and safe procedure in the accident and emergency department setting.

  3. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N G; Chabot, D; Couturier, C S

    2016-05-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod Gadus morhua or whiting Merlangius merlangus and recovered from the stomachs at different post-prandial times. The prey species were krill Meganyctiphanes norvegica; shrimps and prawns Crangon crangon, Pandalus borealis, Pandalus montagui and Eualus macilentus; crabs Liocarcinus depurator and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h) and the evacuation rate of both stages decreased (by a half) with increasing level of the crustacean armament in terms of chitin and ash. A common, interspecific parameterization of the model within each of the categories krill, shrimp and crab can probably be used if the contents of chitin and ash are similar among prey species per prey category. The model offers a simple way for estimating evacuation rates from stomach content data in order to obtain food consumption rates of wild fishes, provided that information about digestion stage of crustacean prey is available.

  4. SCALING AN URBAN EMERGENCY EVACUATION FRAMEWORK: CHALLENGES AND PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructure disruption, caused by severe weather events, natural disasters, terrorist attacks, etc., has significant impacts on urban transportation systems. We built a computational framework to simulate urban transportation systems under critical infrastructure disruption in order to aid real-time emergency evacuation. This framework will use large scale datasets to provide a scalable tool for emergency planning and management. Our framework, World-Wide Emergency Evacuation (WWEE), integrates population distribution and urban infrastructure networks to model travel demand in emergency situations at global level. Also, a computational model of agent-based traffic simulation is used to provide an optimal evacuation plan for traffic operation purpose [1]. In addition, our framework provides a web-based high resolution visualization tool for emergency evacuation modelers and practitioners. We have successfully tested our framework with scenarios in both United States (Alexandria, VA) and Europe (Berlin, Germany) [2]. However, there are still some major drawbacks for scaling this framework to handle big data workloads in real time. On our back-end, lack of proper infrastructure limits us in ability to process large amounts of data, run the simulation efficiently and quickly, and provide fast retrieval and serving of data. On the front-end, the visualization performance of microscopic evacuation results is still not efficient enough due to high volume data communication between server and client. We are addressing these drawbacks by using cloud computing and next-generation web technologies, namely Node.js, NoSQL, WebGL, Open Layers 3 and HTML5 technologies. We will describe briefly about each one and how we are using and leveraging these technologies to provide an efficient tool for emergency management organizations. Our early experimentation demonstrates that using above technologies is a promising approach to build a scalable and high performance urban

  5. Simulation of evacuation behaviors in fire using spacial grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lizhong; ZHAO Daoliang; LI Jian; FANG Weifeng; FAN Weicheng

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional Cellular Automata (CA) model to demonstrate the special phenomena of occupants evacuating from fire room is presented. A set of simple but effective models is proposed to investigate the effect of fire smoke on route choice. The concept of danger grade is introduced, and occupants select the target cell according to the value of danger grade at each time step. Some technique is introduced to substitute the human intelligence, such as premeditation. The simulation results show that human evacuation is influenced greatly by both human visual field and building exit.

  6. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result of this study was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments were obtained from reports of tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  7. A Tubular Aortopulmonary Window: An Embryological Curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Agarwal, Ravi; Hussain, Zahra M; Brown, Nigel A; Anderson, Robert H

    2016-05-01

    We describe, in this report, an unusually shaped aortopulmonary communication observed in a six-month-old infant who presented with an associated ventricular septal defect. The defect was tubular, measuring 7 mm in length, and located intrapericardially between the proximal ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. It was well defined by transthoracic echocardiogram and was suitable for surgical ligation. We share our dilemma in naming this defect appropriately. We base our explanation on our understanding of normal development of the intrapericardial arterial trunks. There is initially an extensive aortopulmonary foramen. This is closed by apposition of a protrusion from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac, the aortopulmonary septum, with the distal margins of the outflow cushions. The spiral nature of formation of the aortopulmonary septum provides an understanding of the configuration of our tubular aortopulmonary window.

  8. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics in tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wu, Xia; Xue, Shengzhang; Liang, Kehong; Cong, Wei

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the hydrodynamic characteristics in tubular photobioreactors with a series of helical static mixers built-in were numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The influences of height and screw pitch of the helical static mixer and fluid inlet velocity on the cell trajectories, swirl numbers and energy consumption were examined. In order to verify the actual results for cultivation of microalgae, cultivation experiments of freshwater Chlorella sp. were carried out in photobioreactor with and without helical static mixer built-in at the same time. It was shown that with built-in helical static mixer, the mixing of fluid could be intensified, and the light/dark cycle could also be achieved which is of benefit for the growth of microalgae. The biomass productivity of Chlorella sp. in tubular photobioreactor with helical static mixer built-in was 37.26 % higher than that in the photobioreactor without helical static mixer.

  9. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid, Afshin; Idema, Timon

    2016-09-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane mediated interactions in strongly curved tubular membranes. We model inclusions as constraints coupled to the curvature tensor of the membrane tube. First, as special test cases, we analyze the interaction between ring- and rod-shaped inclusions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we further show how pointlike inclusions interact to form linear aggregates. To minimize the curvature energy of the membrane, inclusions self-assemble into either line- or ringlike patterns. Our results show that the global curvature of the membrane strongly affects the interactions between proteins embedded in it, and can lead to the spontaneous formation of biologically relevant structures.

  10. Distal renal tubular acidosis with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv; Agarwal, Indira; Bawazir, Waleed M; Bruce, Lesley J

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), although distinct entities, share the same protein i.e. the anion exchanger1 (AE1) protein. Despite this, their coexistence has been rarely reported. We hereby describe the largest family to date with co-existence of dRTA and HS and discuss the molecular basis for the co-inheritance of these conditions.

  11. Mechanisms in hyperkalemic renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karet, Fiona E

    2009-02-01

    The form of renal tubular acidosis associated with hyperkalemia is usually attributable to real or apparent hypoaldosteronism. It is therefore a common feature in diabetes and a number of other conditions associated with underproduction of renin or aldosterone. In addition, the close relationship between potassium levels and ammonia production dictates that hyperkalemia per se can lead to acidosis. Here I describe the modern relationship between molecular function of the distal portion of the nephron, pathways of ammoniagenesis, and hyperkalemia.

  12. Prey exoskeletons influence the course of gastric evacuation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, C. S.; Andersen, N. G.; Audet, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prey exoskeleton characteristics on gastric evacuation patterns in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Three distinct stages were highlighted in the gastric evacuation of crustacean prey characterized by a robust exoskeleton. The experiments confirmed that the three shrimp...... of the prey exoskeleton all affected gastric evacuation: duration of initial delay, overall evacuation rate and a decreased evacuation rate at the end of the process. The power exponential function (PEF), with its shape parameter, described the course of evacuation for these prey types well, especially...... the initial delay. The PEF does not, however, allow describing evacuation by the current stomach content mass independent of meal size, which limits its usefulness in estimating consumption rates of wild G. morhua. To predict and describe gastric evacuation of prey with a robust exoskeleton, it is therefore...

  13. Development of Cladding Materials for Evacuated Panel Superinsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K.E.; Weaver, F.J.; Cumberbatch, G.M.; Begnoche, B.; Brodie, V.; Lamb, W.; Reitz, R.; Caldwell, P.; Meyer, C.

    1999-11-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was among E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, VacuPanel, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. Evacuated panel superinsulations have thermal resistivities (R) substantially above that of conventional existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as foam insulations blown with Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).

  14. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger;

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...

  15. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  16. "In flight catering": feeding critical care patients during aeromedical evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S; Ruth, M J; Bruce, D L

    2008-12-01

    The benefits of early enteral nutrition are well recognised but may be incompatible with CCAST evacuation due to the risk of micro-aspiration predisposing to pneumonia. A study has been approved by the Surgeon Generals Research Strategy Group designed to quantify the risks of microaspiration during CCAST flights in order to inform DMA policy with regard to feeding critically ill casualties during flight.

  17. Regional Evacuation Modeling: A State of the Art Reviewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, F.

    1991-01-01

    Regional evacuation modeling is treated as a five step process: involving vehicle trip generation, trip departure time, trip destination, and trip route selection modeling, supplemented by plan set-up and analysis procedures. Progress under each of these headings is reviewed and gaps in the process identified. The potential for emergency planners to make use of real time traffic data, resulting from the recent technical and economic revolutions in telecommunications and infrared traffic sensing, is identified as the single greatest opportunity for the near future; and some beginnings in the development of real time dynamic traffic modeling specifically geared to evacuation planning are highlighted. Significant data problems associated with the time of day location of large urban populations represent a second area requiring extensive research. A third area requiring much additional effort is the translation of the considerable knowledge we have on evacuee behavior in times of crisis into reliable quantitative measures of the timing of evacuee mobilization, notably by distance from the source of the hazard. Specific evacuation models are referenced and categorized by method. Incorporation of evacuation model findings into the definition of emergency planning zone boundaries is also discussed.

  18. 46 CFR 199.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (2) So it is capable of individual release from its stowage rack; (3) In accordance with the... and if necessary, is capable of being adjusted to the position required for evacuation. (b) Stowage... and platform, when deployed; its stowage container; and its operational arrangement must not...

  19. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capable of individual release from its stowage rack. (3) Each inflatable liferaft used in conjunction with...) Stowage. Each marine evacuation system must be stowed as follows: (1) There must not be any openings..., when deployed, its stowage container, and its operational arrangement must not interfere with...

  20. Quantitative comparison of three electrosurgical smoke evacuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Been, Stefan; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2010-02-01

    Electrosurgical equipment used during surgery generate smoke consisting of particles, vapor, aerosols and potentially harmful biological agents. Smoke evacuation systems are used more commonly and various types are available. A special image enhancement technique was used to study the behavior of surgical smoke and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. Three different smoke evacuation systems were investigated. Rapid vac (Valleylab Boulder CO) The Buffalo silent whisper turbo (Buffalo, NY) ERBE IES 300 ( Tübingen, Germany) A back scatter illumination technique in combination with a high speed camera was applied to image the dynamics of a smoke plume generated by vaporizing a homogenous meat paste irradiated with the beam of a 10 W cw CO2 laser moving at a constant speed. The three different smoke evacuation systems with their individual nozzles, were held 2 cm above the surface of the meat paste and were switched on and off at fixed intervals to mimic a clinical situation. For images analysis, software was developed to count 'smoke pixels' in the video frames as a quantification tool. For the observer's eye, there were no differences between the systems. However, images quantification showed significantly less 'smoke' for the Buffalo system. It is expected that the performance in a clinical situation is also influenced by additional conditions like nozzle design, airflow and noise level. Noise levels were measured at the tip of the nozzle, 80 cm from the tip, 140 cm from the tip. The Buffalo system is the loudest system at every distance measured.

  1. A cellular automata evacuation model considering friction and repulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Weiguo; YU Yanfei; FAN Weicheng; Zhang Heping

    2005-01-01

    There exist interactions among pedestrians and between pedestrian and environment in evacuation. These interactions include attraction, repulsion and friction that play key roles in human evacuation behaviors, speed and efficiency. Most former evacuation models focus on the attraction force, while repulsion and friction are not well modeled. As a kind of multi-particle self-driven model, the social force model introduced in recent years can represent those three forces but with low simulation efficiency because it is a continuous model with complex rules. Discrete models such as the cellular automata model and the lattice gas model have simple rules and high simulation efficiency, but are not quite suitable for interactions' simulation. In this paper, a new cellular automata model based on traditional models is introduced in which repulsion and friction are modeled quantitatively. It is indicated that the model can simulate some basic behaviors, e.g.arching and the "faster-is-slower" phenomenon, in evacuation as multi-particle self-driven models, but with high efficiency as the normal cellular automata model and the lattice gas model.

  2. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The con

  3. CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response): A Generic Transportation Network Model for the Calculation of Evacuation Time Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the methodology and application of the computer model CLEAR (Calculates Logical Evacuation And Response) which estimates the time required for a specific population density and distribution to evacuate an area using a specific transportation network. The CLEAR model simulates vehicle departure and movement on a transportation network according to the conditions and consequences of traffic flow. These include handling vehicles at intersecting road segments, calculating the velocity of travel on a road segment as a function of its vehicle density, and accounting for the delay of vehicles in traffic queues. The program also models the distribution of times required by individuals to prepare for an evacuation. In order to test its accuracy, the CLEAR model was used to estimate evacuatlon tlmes for the emergency planning zone surrounding the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Plant. The Beaver Valley site was selected because evacuation time estimates had previously been prepared by the licensee, Duquesne Light, as well as by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency. A lack of documentation prevented a detailed comparison of the estimates based on the CLEAR model and those obtained by Duquesne Light. However, the CLEAR model results compared favorably with the estimates prepared by the other two agencies.

  4. Behavior of horizontally curved steel tubular-flange bridge girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhuo

    A new type of curved steel bridge girder, called a curved tubular-flange girder, with rectangular tubes as flanges, is proposed and studied in this dissertation. A curved steel tubular-flange girder has much larger torsional stiffness than a curved I-girder and less potential for cross section distortion than a curved box-girder. Therefore, it has potential advantages compared to curved I-girders and box-girders. A theoretical analysis method for systems of curved tubular-flange girders braced by cross frames is presented. A stress analysis method for tubular-flange girders is also provided. The behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems is studied using the theoretical analysis method and compared to the behavior of the corresponding curved I-girder systems. A parametric study is performed using the theoretical analysis method to investigate the effects of geometric parameters on the behavior of curved tubular-flange girder systems. The studied parameters include tubular-flange width, tubular-flange depth, cross section depth, girder curvature, and the number of cross frames. Finite element analyses are conducted to verify the theoretical analysis method, to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system under dead load, and to study the behavior of a curved tubular-flange girder system with a composite concrete deck under dead and live load. The study shows that a curved tubular-flange girder system develops much less warping normal stress and cross section rotation than a corresponding curved I-girder system. The difference is especially significant for a single curved girder under its own weight, suggesting that curved tubular-flange girders would be much easier to transport and erect than curved I-girders. As girder curvature increases, the rate of increase in the stresses and displacements for a single I-girder is much greater than for a single curved tubular-flange girder. Smaller cross frame forces develop in a tubular-flange girder

  5. Discovery during Hydrogen Annealing: Formation of Nanoscale Fluorocarbon Tubular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiuchun; Tanaka, Sinya; Masuda, Atsuhiko; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Higuchi, Kohei

    2013-09-01

    A novel fabrication method for nanoscale tubular structures is presented in this paper. The tubular structures can be obtained by heating single-crystal silicon trenches or pillars formed by the inductively coupled plasma reactive-ion etching (ICP-RIE) Bosch process in hydrogen ambient. The importance of initial vacuum in the reaction chamber for tube formation and the tube formation mechanism were discussed. The components and sidewall size of the tubular structure were also studied to verify that the tube is made of the fluorocarbon (CF) passivation layer deposited by the Bosch process. The CF tubular structure would be a promising structure for BioMEMS.

  6. Problems Associated with Evacuation from the Ship in Case of an Emergency Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorota H. (L)ozowicka

    2006-01-01

    The problems associated with evacuation of people from the ship in an emergency situation are analyzed,especially passenger ships are taken under consideration. The most dangerous accidents requiring evacuation are described.Marine accidents often occur as eliminating all of the hazards to human health and life is still impossible. In every case,the evacuation process from the ship must be taken under consideration. Evacuation route arrangement should provide the possibility of safe departure from danger areas for passengers and crew members. Evacuation routes designed for human interaction within the evacuation process and other important factors are reviewed. Additionally, the method for seeking evacuation time as a function of initial distribution of passengers and evacuation routes choosing is suggested. A genetic algorithm will be used, whilst the calculated evacuation time is connected with a fitness function. Parameters of evacuation routes topology are coded as non-binary chromosomes. Genetic operators are fitted for such types of problems to avoid receiving infeasible solutions. The objective of the proposed method is to find the evacuation time in worse case scenarios.

  7. Flangeless Connections in Steel Tubular Wind Towers

    OpenAIRE

    Heistermann, Christine; Tran, Anh Tuan; Veljkovic, Milan, ed. lit.; Rebelo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research is conducted on the improvement of renewable energies. One field is the use of wind energy, where the tower construction is one of the main issues. This paper deals with new ideas and ongoing research in this area. To raise the height of steel tubular towers, fatigue as the design limit and constraints due to transportation issues have to be overcome. Changes in the cross-section are considered as one of possible solutions. This work presents an extensive finite element stu...

  8. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  9. Intelligent Exit-Selection Behaviors during a Room Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zarita Zainuddin; Lim Eng Aik

    2012-01-01

    A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles. Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions, it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models. To resolve these issues, we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians, and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation. Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model. From the simulation results, it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low, but if the density is high they will go to an aiternative exit so as to avoid a long wait. This reflects the fact that occupants may not fully utilize multiple exits during evacuation. The improvement in our proposed model is valuable for further study and for upgrading the safety aspects of building designs.%A modified version of the existing cellular automata (CA) model is proposed to simulate an evacuation procedure in a classroom with and without obstacles.Based on the numerous literature on the implementation of CA in modeling evacuation motions,it is notable that most of the published studies do not take into account the pedestrian's ability to select the exit route in their models.To resolve these issues,we develop a CA model incorporating a probabilistic neural network for determining the decision-making ability of the pedestrians,and simulate an exit-selection phenomenon in the simulation.Intelligent exit-selection behavior is observed in our model.From the simulation results,it is observed that occupants tend to select the exit closest to them when the density is low,but if the density is high they will go to an alternative exit so as to avoid a long wait.This reflects the fact

  10. Optimization-based decision support to assist in logistics planning for hospital evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Roger; Bish, Douglas R; Agca, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The evacuation of the hospital is a very complex process and evacuation planning is an important part of a hospital's emergency management plan. There are numerous factors that affect the evacuation plan including the nature of threat, availability of resources and staff the characteristics of the evacuee population, and risk to patients and staff. The safety and health of patients is of fundamental importance, but safely moving patients to alternative care facilities while under threat is a very challenging task. This article describes the logistical issues and complexities involved in planning and execution of hospital evacuations. Furthermore, this article provides examples of how optimization-based decision support tools can help evacuation planners to better plan for complex evacuations by providing real-world solutions to various evacuation scenarios.

  11. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alaeddine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.. The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1 a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2 an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37 which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45 which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster. Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  12. A spatiotemporal optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to flood hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maizia, M.

    2015-03-01

    Managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by floods, requires the development of effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to traffic network, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper: (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the developed evacuation model is applied are the Tours valley (Fr, 37), which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation), and the Gien valley (Fr, 45), which benefits from a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan, i.e., computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) according to a priority list established for this purpose. The evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a spatiotemporal optimization model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  13. A spatio-temporel optimization model for the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddine, H.; Serrhini, K.; Maïzia, M.; Néron, E.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of managing the crisis caused by natural disasters, and especially by flood, requires the development of an effective evacuation systems. An effective evacuation system must take into account certain constraints, including those related to network traffic, accessibility, human resources and material equipment (vehicles, collecting points, etc.). The main objective of this work is to provide assistance to technical services and rescue forces in terms of accessibility by offering itineraries relating to rescue and evacuation of people and property. We consider in this paper the evacuation of an urban area of medium size exposed to the hazard of flood. In case of inundation, most people will be evacuated using their own vehicles. Two evacuation types are addressed in this paper, (1) a preventive evacuation based on a flood forecasting system and (2) an evacuation during the disaster based on flooding scenarios. The two study sites on which the evacuation model developed is applied are the valley of Tours (Fr, 37) which is protected by a set of dikes (preventive evacuation) and the valley of Gien (Fr, 45) which benefits of a low rate of flooding (evacuation before and during the disaster). Our goal is to construct, for each of these two sites, a chronological evacuation plan i.e. computing for each individual the departure date and the path to reach the assembly point (also called shelter) associated according to a priorities list established for this purpose. Evacuation plan must avoid the congestion on the road network. Here we present a Spatio-Temporal Optimization Model (STOM) dedicated to the evacuation of the population exposed to natural disasters and more specifically to flood risk.

  14. Variable Message Signs for road tunnel emergency evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel; Modig, Henric; Walter, Anders Lindgren

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the design of Variable Message Signs (VMS) as a way-finding aid for road tunnel emergency evacuations. The use of the Theory of Affordances is suggested to provide recommendations on the design of VMS. A preliminary evaluation of 11 selected VMS systems was performed and 6 of them were further evaluated using an affordance-based within subject stated-preference questionnaire administered to a sample of 62 participants. Results are used to provide recommendations on the characteristics of the VMS systems, such as (1) size of the sign (large or small); (2) use of flashing lights; (3) colour scheme; (4) message coding (i.e., text, pictograms or a combination of them). The best performing VMS features for road tunnel emergency evacuation included the use of larger signs, flashing lights, the combination of emergency exit pictorial symbol in green in one panel and text in amber in the other panel.

  15. Modelling social identification and helping in evacuation simulation

    CERN Document Server

    von Sivers, I; Künzner, F; Köster, G; Drury, J; Philippides, A; Neckel, T; Bungartz, H -J

    2016-01-01

    Social scientists have criticised computer models of pedestrian streams for their treatment of psychological crowds as mere aggregations of individuals. Indeed most models for evacuation dynamics use analogies from physics where pedestrians are considered as particles. Although this ensures that the results of the simulation match important physical phenomena, such as the deceleration of the crowd with increasing density, social phenomena such as group processes are ignored. In particular, people in a crowd have social identities and share those social identities with the others in the crowd. The process of self categorisation determines norms within the crowd and influences how people will behave in evacuation situations. We formulate the application of social identity in pedestrian simulation algorithmically. The goal is to examine whether it is possible to carry over the psychological model to computer models of pedestrian motion so that simulation results correspond to observations from crowd psychology. ...

  16. Prediction and Mitigation of Crush Conditions in Emergency Evacuations

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, Peter J; Gwynne, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Several simulation environments exist for the simulation of large-scale evacuations of buildings, ships, or other enclosed spaces. These offer sophisticated tools for the study of human behaviour, the recreation of environmental factors such as fire or smoke, and the inclusion of architectural or structural features, such as elevators, pillars and exits. Although such simulation environments can provide insights into crowd behaviour, they lack the ability to examine potentially dangerous forces building up within a crowd. These are commonly referred to as crush conditions, and are a common cause of death in emergency evacuations. In this paper, we describe a methodology for the prediction and mitigation of crush conditions. The paper is organised as follows. We first establish the need for such a model, defining the main factors that lead to crush conditions, and describing several exemplar case studies. We then examine current methods for studying crush, and describe their limitations. From this, we develop ...

  17. Evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, C.; Sørensen, J.G.; Dederichs, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    . The discussion of "equal access" is only followed slowly by the demand on "equal egress". However, the passengers on trains on bridges are rarely homogeneous mixture. At the same time equal egress is far from assured today. In this paper the evacuation of mixed populations from trains on bridges are considered...... of the people in the train affects these times. More real data on subgroups of a mixed population are needed as input and validation data for models like STEPS....

  18. Measuring and modeling behavioral decision dynamics in collective evacuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean M Carlson

    Full Text Available Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In a controlled laboratory setting, our results quantify several key factors influencing individual evacuation decision making in a controlled laboratory setting. The experiment includes tensions between broadcast and peer-to-peer information, and contrasts the effects of temporal urgency associated with the imminence of the disaster and the effects of limited shelter capacity for evacuees. Based on empirical measurements of the cumulative rate of evacuations as a function of the instantaneous disaster likelihood, we develop a quantitative model for decision making that captures remarkably well the main features of observed collective behavior across many different scenarios. Moreover, this model captures the sensitivity of individual- and population-level decision behaviors to external pressures, and systematic deviations from the model provide meaningful estimates of variability in the collective response. Identification of robust methods for quantifying human decisions in the face of risk has implications for policy in disasters and other threat scenarios, specifically the development and testing of robust strategies for training and control of evacuations that account for human behavior and network topologies.

  19. Low cost vee-trough evacuated tube collector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost solar collector capable of operating at 150-200 C is described. An evacuated tube receiver is combined with asymmetric vee-trough concentrators. Peak efficiencies of about 40% at 120 C and 30% at 180 C are expected. Predicted future collector cost is $70/sq m which yields an energy cost of $4.20/GJ at 120 C. During the development of the vee trough/evacuated tube collector both mathematical models to predict thermal and optical performance were developed and tests run to verify theory. The asymmetric vee trough concentrator increases the solar flux intensity for an average value of 2 for year-round performance. Optimized collector module has reflector angles of 55 deg/85 deg. The aperture plane is tilted to the latitude. The reflector is made of electropolished aluminum. The supporting frame is formed by bending sheet metal. Evacuated tube receivers are Pyrex, 15 cm diam and 2.4 m long. The module has 12 tubes on right and left sides altogether. Attainable operation at temperatures on the order of 150-200 C are suitable for absorption refrigeration and power generation via Rankine engines.

  20. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  1. Modeling Evacuate versus Shelter-in-Place Decisions in Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A. Drews

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving community resiliency to wildfire is a challenging problem in the face of ongoing development in fire-prone regions. Evacuation and shelter-in-place are the primary options for reducing wildfire casualties, but it can be difficult to determine which option offers the most protection in urgent scenarios. Although guidelines and policies have been proposed to inform this decision, a formal approach to evaluating protective options would help advance protective-action theory. We present an optimization model based on the premise that protecting a community can be viewed as assigning threatened households to one of three actions: evacuation, shelter-in-refuge, or shelter-in-home. While evacuation generally offers the highest level of life protection, it can place residents at greater risk when little time is available. This leads to complex trade-offs involving expected fire intensity, available time, and the quality and accessibility of in-place shelter. An application of the model is presented to illustrate a range of issues that can arise across scenarios.

  2. Pedestrians’ behavior in emergency evacuation: Modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jie-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Jian-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Zhen; Zhang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    The social force model has been widely used to simulate pedestrian evacuation by analyzing attractive, repulsive, driving, and fluctuating forces among pedestrians. Many researchers have improved its limitations in simulating behaviors of large-scale population. This study modifies the well-accepted social force model by considering the impacts of interaction among companions and further develops a comprehensive model by combining that with a multi-exit utility function. Then numerical simulations of evacuations based on the comprehensive model are implemented in the waiting hall of the Wulin Square Subway Station in Hangzhou, China. The results provide safety thresholds of pedestrian density and panic levels in different operation situations. In spite of the operation situation and the panic level, a larger friend-group size results in lower evacuation efficiency. Our study makes important contributions to building a comprehensive multi-exit social force model and to applying it to actual scenarios, which produces data to facilitate decision making in contingency plans and emergency treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71471163).

  3. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, Christopher N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:37-42.

  4. Certainty of uncertainty in evacuation for threat driven response. Principles of adaptive evacuation management for flood risk planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Evacuation is a measure taken to potentially reduce the loss of life and damage to movable goods. This thesis focuses on the Netherlands as a representative urbanized delta and flood risk management. The central element of this thesis is uncertainty. Evacuation has benefits but can be costly. Theref

  5. The syndrome of renal tubular acidosis with nerve deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donckerwolcke, R A; Van Biervliet, J P; Koorevaar, G; Kuijten, R H; Van Stekelenburg, G J

    1976-01-01

    Two brothers with renal tubular acidosis and nerve deafness are described. Studies of the physiopathological characteristics of the renal acidification defect show that the defect is limited to the distal tubule. Renal tubular acidosis with nerve deafness is a distinct nosologic entity that is determined by an autosomal recessive trait.

  6. Complement activation by tubular cells is mediated by properdin binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaarkeuken, E.M.; Siezenga, M.A.; Zuidwijk, K.; Kooten, C. van; Rabelink, T.J.; Daha, M.R.; Berger, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of filtered complement products on the brush border of the tubular epithelium is thought to be a key factor underlying proteinuria-induced tubulointerstitial injury. However, the mechanism of tubular complement activation is still unclear. Recent studies on mechanisms of complement activa

  7. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  8. Why Don't People Evacuate When Nature Threatens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K. J.; Broad, K.; Meyer, R.; Orlove, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Why do so many Southern Californians fail to evacuate when warned that winter storms have critically raised the risk of a debris flow in their neighborhoods? Have they perhaps not seen or heeded news coverage of past debris flow events? Are they unaware that recent fires made the hillsides above them more prone to gravity-driven processes? Do they think they can wait to start their cars until they can actually see the flow coming? Or have they merely experienced too many "false alarms" in past years, and no longer put much stock in the judgment of public officials or the ability of scientists to judge debris flow risk? In preparation for a simulation study that will place decision makers in a virtual house in the California foothills during a winter storm event, we explore the reasons that people do and do not evacuate in the face of potential debris flows. Working in collaboration with the USGS Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project for Southern California, we are surveying hundreds of local residents, from debris-flow prone areas and from elsewhere in the state, to establish their baseline knowledge (and misconceptions) about, attitudes toward, information use regarding, and experience with debris flows. Initial interviews with residents of recently hit neighborhoods give qualitative data suggesting that false-alarm effects and underestimation of risk are driving factors; these surveys will provide quantitative evidence to extend those findings. We will discuss the results of this survey in the context of a comprehensive body of psychology research that seeks to explain why people frequently appear to ignore or discount hazard warnings: neglecting to insure their homes and crops (Kunreuther, 1984), failing to evacuate in the face of storms and fires (Baker, 1991; Packham, 1995), and (barring a recent, vivid event) showing little support for measures that would manage or mitigate future hazards (Kunreuther, 2006a, 2006b; Weber, 2006). We will also consider the

  9. The Mapping of Temporary Evacuation Site (TES) and Tsunami Evacuation Route in North Pagai Island, Mentawai Islands Regency - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Aprizon; Mutmainah, Herdiana

    2016-11-01

    Mentawai Islands Regency, especially north Pagai island, suffered two earthquakes on April 15 2016. The local government in cooperation with the relevant parties had tried to minimize casualties before the disaster or during the disaster by making an evacuation route to the TES. The purpose of this study was to the mapping of TES and tsunami evacuation route using the approach of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for disaster mitigation of tsunami-potential earthquake in north Pagai island.The research was conducted at 3 locations in the coast of Sikakap village, 4 locations in the coast of Taikako village, 3 locations in the coast of Silabu village, 7 locations in the coast of Saumanganya village, and 3 locations in the coast of Matobe village. The effort taken was to evacuate people to the TES with an average distance of 372.62 m from the beach. The results showed that the feasibility of TES that could accommodate residents, among others, were in the hills behind Sikakap Port, Taikako Silaoinan hills, the hills near the Mapinang Silabu village chief's office and Mapinang hills, Gulukguluk Saumanganya and Panatarat Matobe hills.

  10. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  11. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria and was diagnosed as having Bartter′s syndrome. The second patient is a lady who had recurrent tetany as the only manifestation of Gitelman′s syndrome, which is an unusual presentation. Potassium replacement with supplementation of other deficient ions led to satisfactory clinical and biochemical response.

  12. Multiplicity features of nonadiabatic, autothermal tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovo, M.; Balakotaiah, V. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Singularity theory is combined with asymptotic analysis to determine the exact uniqueness-multiplicity boundary and ignition and extinction locus for the non-adiabatic, autothermal tubular reactor model. It is found that the steady-state behavior of the nonadiabatic reactor is described by the two limiting cases of adiabatic and strongly cooled models. The adiabatic case has been examined in a previous study. In this paper, the authors develop limiting models to describe the strongly cooled asymptotes. The authors also classify the different types of bifurcation diagrams of conversion vs. residence time using the results of singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. Analytical criteria are developed for predicting the conditions under which autothermal operation is feasible when heat losses are significant.

  13. Tubular initial conditions and ridge formation

    CERN Document Server

    Borysova, M S; Karpenko, Iu A; Shapoval, V M; Sinyukov, Yu M

    2013-01-01

    The 2D azimuth & rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft) ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations an...

  14. Summary organic evacuation theory Saarinen%沙里宁有机疏散理论研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓斌; 章明卓

    2014-01-01

    通过对相关文献的统计、收集与分析,从我国学者对沙里宁有机疏散思想的各方面研究出发,对有机疏散理论产生的时代背景、内容、原则、与其他城市分散理论的区别等进行了概述,并分析了该理论所面临的问题,为该理论在未来城市规划中的应用提供了参考依据。%Through the statistical,collection and analysis of the related literature,from the study of various aspects of saarinen’s organic evacu-ation which was carried out by the Chinese scholar,making an overview accoding to the theory of organic evacuation’s era background,contents and principles,and the differences between other cities dispersion theory. Analizing the problems the theory were faced with,providing some ref-erence for the theory used in the future city planning.

  15. Incorporating emergency evacuation planning, through human reliability analysis, in the risk management of industrial installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Email: luquetti@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation presents many risks in the form of the process hazards, such as fire, explosion, gas and radiation release. In these situations, workers may need to evacuate from the work environment as soon as possible. In this case, the emergency evacuation planning is a key element that involves an iterative process to identify the best evacuation routes and to estimate the time required to evacuate the area at risk. The mean aspects for a successful emergency evacuation are influenced by the type of human error and the severity of the initiator event. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework for the identification of the performance shaping factors and prediction of human error probabilities of the responsible by the emergency evacuation of the workers in an industrial installation, providing a proactive approach for the allocation of the human factors in the risk assessment of the industrial installation. (author)

  16. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  17. Comprehensive Optimization of Emergency Evacuation Route and Departure Time under Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the frequent occurrence of major emergencies, emergency management gets high attention from all around the world. This paper investigates the comprehensive optimization of major emergency evacuation route and departure time, in which case the evacuation propagation mechanism is considered under traffic control. Given the practical assumptions, we first establish a comprehensive optimization model based on the simulation of evacuation route and departure time. Furthermore, we explore the reasonable description method of evacuation traffic flow propagation under traffic control, including the establishment of traffic flow propagation model and the design of the simulation mudule that can simulate the evacuation traffic flow. Finally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of this comprehensive model. In case analysis, we take some areas in Beijing as the evaluation sources to verify the reliability of our model. A series of constructive suggestions for Beijing's emergency evacuation are proposed, which can be applied to the actual situation under traffic control.

  18. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  19. Precision of ingestion time and evacuation predictors for individual prey in stomachs of predatory fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Without evaluating precision, gastric evacuation models in combination with stomach data are widely used to investigate the feeding biology of wild predatory fishes. Assuming each predator individual to operate with its own evacuation rate parameter, the precision of estimated ingestion times...... for individual prey in the stomachs of predatory fishes was derived in this study. This way, the variability of gastric evacuation not accounted for by a deterministic model of gastric evacuation was described. The variability of initial body mass of ingested prey was included as well. General values 0.03 and 0.......10 of the coefficients of variation sigma(m) and sigma(e) were obtained for the square root of initial prey mass and the evacuation rate parameter, respectively. They were estimated from length-mass data on a variety of fresh prey fishes and from data on gastric evacuation in the predatory gadoids whiting (Merlangius...

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF AN EVACUATION FROM A TSUNAMI AT PARANGTRITIS BEACH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radianta Triatmadja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami disaster in Calang (Aceh, Indonesia in December 2004 caused traffic jam at a bottleneck on an evacuation road that was fatal, killing most of the evacuees. This tragedy provides an invaluable lesson for evacuation planning in several other locations that are prone to tsunami events. Parangtritis is a local tourism destination that is also prone to tsunami hazard. Although the evacuation routes have been prepared and evacuation direction sign boards have been provided, a study on their capacity and suitability were required. One of the methods was employing mathematical simulations. This paper addresses the development of a mathematical model based on the Dijkstra algorithm and its application to evacuation during a tsunami at Parangtritis Beach, Indonesia. The running speeds of evacuees were derived from world athletes’ running records but with significantly lower coefficients to model ordinary people. Trial runs were also carried out to calibrate the value of f that represented the ratio between running speed on the certain route and on well paved, horizontal and obstacle free road. The results suggested that the existing evacuation routes were not sufficient and that the direction of evacuation need adjustment. It was found that relatively slower runners that were in front of faster runners would potentially decrease the average evacuation speed. Vertical evacuation routes, such as along steep hills or high buildings, must be wide enough (to ensure a low crowd density and easily accessible (to ensure a higher evacuation route speed to avoid traffic jams. The number of people to be evacuated and road condition are vital factors to determine the evacuation routes to the selected shelters.

  1. Mortality risk amongst nursing home residents evacuated after the Fukushima nuclear accident: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Nomura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. METHODS: A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04-3.49. There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34-1.76 to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74-4.76. No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07-3.49. CONCLUSION: High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Evacuation Process in Malaysia By Using Distinct-Element-Method Based Multi-Agent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abustan, M. S.; Rahman, N. A.; Gotoh, H.; Harada, E.; Talib, S. H. A.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, not many researches on crowd evacuation simulation had been reported. Hence, the development of numerical crowd evacuation process by taking into account people behavioral patterns and psychological characteristics is crucial in Malaysia. On the other hand, tsunami disaster began to gain attention of Malaysian citizens after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that need quick evacuation process. In relation to the above circumstances, we have conducted simulations of tsunami evacuation process at the Miami Beach of Penang Island by using Distinct Element Method (DEM)-based crowd behavior simulator. The main objectives are to investigate and reproduce current conditions of evacuation process at the said locations under different hypothetical scenarios for the efficiency study of the evacuation. The sim-1 is initial condition of evacuation planning while sim-2 as improvement of evacuation planning by adding new evacuation area. From the simulation result, sim-2 have a shorter time of evacuation process compared to the sim-1. The evacuation time recuded 53 second. The effect of the additional evacuation place is confirmed from decreasing of the evacuation completion time. Simultaneously, the numerical simulation may be promoted as an effective tool in studying crowd evacuation process.

  3. Comparative Analysis and Pedestrian Simulation Evaluation on Emergency Evacuation Test Methods for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijia Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergency evacuation test method of rail transit station not only affects the operation safety of the station, but it also has significant influence on the scale and cost of the station. A reasonable test method should guarantee both the safety of evacuation and that the investment is neither excessive nor too conservative. The paper compares and analyzes the differences of the existing emergency evacuation test methods of rail stations in China and other regions on the evacuation load, evacuation time calculation and the capacity of egress components, etc. Based on the field survey analysis, the desired velocity distribution of pedestrians in various station facilities and the capacity of egress components have been obtained, and then the parameters of pedestrian simulation tool were calibrated. By selecting a station for the case study, an evacuation simulation model has been established, where five evacuation scenarios have been set according to different specifications and the simulation results have been carefully analyzed. Through analyzing the simulation results, some modification proposals of the current emergency evacuation test method in the design manual have been considered, including taking into account the section passenger volume, walking time on escalators and stairs of the platform, and the condition in which the escalator most critical to evacuation should be considered as out of service.

  4. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  5. Kinesiske vakuumrørsolfangere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    of the collectors have been determined. The incidence angle modifier have also been determined by means of the tests. The yearly thermal performance of different solar heating systems have been calculated both with the Chinese evacuated tubular solar collectors and with normal flat plate collectors for Danish......Investigations of four different evacuated tubular solar collectors produced by different Chinese manufacturers have been carried out. Tests of a small solar heating system for domestic hot water supply with the four different collectors have been carried out. By means of the tests the efficiency...... conditions. By means of the investigations the suitability of the evacuated tubular solar collectors are evaluated....

  6. Behaviour and Perception-based Pedestrian Evacuation Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Muehlberger, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This contribution reports on the research project SKRIBT and some of its results. An evacuation simulation based on VISSIM's pedestrian dynamics simulation was developed, that -- with high time resolution -- integrates results from studies on behavior in stress and crisis situations, results from CFD models for e.g. fire dynamics simulations, and considers visibility of signage and -- adding a psychological model -- its cognition. A crucial issue is the cognition of smoke or fire by the occupant and his / her resulting spontaneous or deliberate reaction to this episode.

  7. Citizen Evacuation in Response to Nuclear and Nonnuclear Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    smell , feel, or taste (Grinspoon, 1964:120) without special equipment. The idea that a hazard, perceived to be very lethal, is for the most part... pregnancy 8.0 To avoid the confusion or danger of a forced evacuation 76.0 Pressure from someone outside family (friend/neighbor) 28.0 Trip planned before...incident 5.0 *Adapted from Flynn (1979:18). p ) 54 concerns about pregnancy . Confusing information about the threat was cited as a reason for leaving by

  8. Nonlinear Effects in Examples of Crowd Evacuation Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Berg Thomsen, Kristian; Sørensen, Asger;

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents with many fatalities have occurred when too many pedestrians had to maneuver in too tight surroundings, as during evacuations of mass events. This demonstrates the importance of a better general understanding of pedestrians and emergent complex behavior in crowds. To this end, we...... of an emergency exit on the flux through the exit, and second, the influence of other pedestrians on the route choice of an individual. The first investigation demonstrates the possibility of improving substantially the flow through an exit by placing an obstacle in a suitable way in front of it. The latter shows...

  9. Tubular Peroxiredoxin 3 as a Predictor of Renal Recovery from Acute Tubular Necrosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chung-Ho; Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2017-02-27

    Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) is a mitochondrial antioxidant that regulates apoptosis in various cancers. However, whether tubular PRX3 predicts recovery of renal function following acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 54 hospitalized patients who had AKI with biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The study endpoint was renal function recovery within 6 months. Of the 54 enrolled patients, 25 (46.3%) had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 33 (61%) recovered renal function. Tubular PRX3 expression was higher in patients with ATN than in those without renal function recovery. The level of tubular but not glomerular PRX3 expression predicted renal function recovery from AKI (AUROC = 0.76). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high PRX3 expression was independently associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery (adjusted hazard ratio = 8.99; 95% CI 1.13-71.52, P = 0.04). Furthermore, the discriminative ability of the clinical model for AKI recovery was improved by adding tubular PRX3. High tubular PRX3 expression was associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery from ATN. Therefore, tubular PRX3 in combination with conventional predictors can further improve recovery prediction and may help with risk stratification in AKI patients with pre-existing CKD.

  10. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. Conducting adequate tsunami risk assessments is essential, as the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment results allow the identification of adequate, site-specific and vulnerability-oriented risk management options, with the formulation of a tsunami evacuation plan being one of the main expected results. An evacuation plan requires the analysis of the territory and an evaluation of the relevant elements (hazard, population, evacuation routes, and shelters), the modelling of the evacuation, and the proposal of alternatives for those communities located in areas with limited opportunities for evacuation. Evacuation plans, which are developed by the responsible authorities and decision makers, would benefit from a clear and straightforward connection between the scientific and technical information from tsunami risk assessments and the subsequent risk reduction options. Scientifically-based evacuation plans would translate into benefits for the society in terms of mortality reduction. This work presents a comprehensive framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process, such as the potential location for vertical evacuation shelters and alternative routes. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge the gap between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as

  11. An Evaluation of Infrastructure for Tsunami Evacuation in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos, V.; Canney, N.; Deierlein, G.; Diposaptono, S.; Geist, E. L.; Henderson, S.; Ismail, F.; Jachowski, N.; McAdoo, B. G.; Muhari, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.; Toth, J.; Tucker, B. E.; Wood, K.

    2009-12-01

    Padang has one of the world’s highest tsunami risks due to its high hazard, vulnerable terrain and population density. The current strategy to prepare for tsunamis in Padang is focused on developing early warning systems, planning evacuation routes, conducting evacuation drills, and raising local awareness. Although these are all necessary, they are insufficient. Padang’s proximity to the Sunda Trench and flat terrain make reaching safe ground impossible for much of the population. The natural warning in Padang - a strong earthquake that lasts over a minute - will be the first indicator of a potential tsunami. People will have about 30 minutes after the earthquake to reach safe ground. It is estimated that roughly 50,000 people in Padang will be unable to evacuate in that time. Given these conditions, other means to prepare for the expected tsunami must be developed. With this motivation, GeoHazards International and Stanford University’s Chapter of Engineers for a Sustainable World partnered with Indonesian organizations - Andalas University and Tsunami Alert Community in Padang, Laboratory for Earth Hazards, and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries - in an effort to evaluate the need for and feasibility of tsunami evacuation infrastructure in Padang. Tsunami evacuation infrastructure can include earthquake-resistant bridges and evacuation structures that rise above the maximum tsunami water level, and can withstand the expected earthquake and tsunami forces. The choices for evacuation structures vary widely - new and existing buildings, evacuation towers, soil berms, elevated highways and pedestrian overpasses. This interdisciplinary project conducted a course at Stanford University, undertook several field investigations, and concluded that: (1) tsunami evacuation structures and bridges are essential to protect the people in Padang, (2) there is a need for a more thorough engineering-based evaluation than conducted to-date of the suitability of

  12. Research on the performance of low-lift diving tubular pumping system by CFD and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenzhi; Cheng, Li; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Jiren; Tang, Fangping; Jin, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Post-diving tubular pump is always used in large-discharge & low-head irrigation or storm drainage pumping station, its impeller and motor share the same shaft. Considering diving tubular pump system's excellent hydraulic performance, compact structure, good noise resistance and low operating cost, it is used in Chinese pump stations. To study the hydraulic performance and pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet passage in diving tubular pump system, both of steady and unsteady full flow fields are numerically simulated at three flow rate conditions by using CFD commercial software. The asymmetry of the longitudinal structure of inlet passage affects the flow pattern on outlet. Especially at small flow rate condition, structural asymmetry will result in the uneven velocity distribution on the outlet of passage inlet. The axial velocity distribution uniformity increases as the flow rate increases on the inlet of passage inlet, and there is a positive correlation between hydraulic loss in the passage inlet and flow rate's quadratic. The axial velocity distribution uniformity on the outlet of passage inlet is 90% at design flow rate condition. The predicted result shows the same trend with test result, and the range of high efficiency area between predicted result and test result is almost identical. The dominant frequency of pressure pulsation is low frequency in inlet passage at design condition. The dominant frequency is high frequency in inlet passage at small and large flow rate condition. At large flow rate condition, the flow pattern is significantly affected by the rotation of impeller in inlet passage. At off-design condition, the pressure pulsation is strong at outlet passage. At design condition, the dominant frequency is 35.57Hz, which is double rotation frequency.

  13. Fire and evacuation drills make the CERN safety plans work

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Regular drills are a way of making sure that we are ready and able to react in the event of a fire or other adverse event. They are also a demanding test of all the technical and organisational measures in place to allow the quick and safe evacuation of buildings. Recently, large-scale drills took place in Building 40 and at Point 5 underground.   Group photo at Point 5, after the common evacuation drill. The ability to react to unexpected, adverse events relies in particular on training. This is why CERN’s safety teams organise regular drills. One of the most recent exercises took place on 26 March in Building 40. “Building 40 is a modern building fully equipped against fire, with two emergency exits in the central atrium. We also have 29 emergency guides distributed on each floor to guide people out of their offices,” says Kate Richardson, Territorial Safety Officer of the building. “The drills are very useful for testing the building's insta...

  14. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art...

  15. Effect of tamoxifen on spermatogenesis and tubular morphology in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UrbanJ.A.D'Souza

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To observe the effect of tamoxifen citrate on spermatogenesis and tubular morphology in rats.Methods: The effect of tamoxifen citrate i.g. at doses of 400 and 800 mg·kg-1·day-1 in 0.1 mL olive oil for 30 days on seminiferous tubular morphology, seminiferous epithelial diameter (STD), epithelial height (SEH), epididymal sperm count and percent abnormal sperm were evaluated at day 1, 12 and 36 after treatment. Controls were given the vehicle. Results: The higher dose resulted in tubular atrophy on day 31. The STD, SEH and sperm count were decreased and the abnormal spermatozoa increased in a dose-dependent manner with the maximal effect on day 36.Conclusion: Tamoxifen citrate induces tubular shrinkage and atrophy and sperm abnormality at a dose-dependent manner. (Asian J Androl 2004 Sep; 6: 223-226)

  16. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength...... steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... amplitude fatigue test results showed shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, the fatigue tests on high-strength steel tubular joints showed slightly longer fatigue lives than those obtained...

  17. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal tubul

  18. Tubular heart valves from decellularized engineered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Meier, Lee A; Reimer, Jay M; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2013-12-01

    A novel tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) was fabricated from a decellularized tissue tube mounted on a frame with three struts, which upon back-pressure cause the tube to collapse into three coapting "leaflets." The tissue was completely biological, fabricated from ovine fibroblasts dispersed within a fibrin gel, compacted into a circumferentially aligned tube on a mandrel, and matured using a bioreactor system that applied cyclic distension. Following decellularization, the resulting tissue possessed tensile mechanical properties, mechanical anisotropy, and collagen content that were comparable to native pulmonary valve leaflets. When mounted on a custom frame and tested within a pulse duplicator system, the tubular TEHV displayed excellent function under both aortic and pulmonary conditions, with minimal regurgitant fractions and transvalvular pressure gradients at peak systole, as well as well as effective orifice areas exceeding those of current commercially available valve replacements. Short-term fatigue testing of one million cycles with pulmonary pressure gradients was conducted without significant change in mechanical properties and no observable macroscopic tissue deterioration. This study presents an attractive potential alternative to current tissue valve replacements due to its avoidance of chemical fixation and utilization of a tissue conducive to recellularization by host cell infiltration.

  19. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos

    2012-07-06

    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  20. Energy production with a tubular propeller turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samora, I.; Hasmatuchi, V.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.; Ramos, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hydropower is a way of improving the energetic efficiency of existent water systems. In the particular case of drinking water systems, several studies have showed that pressure reducing valves can be by-passed with turbines in order to recover the dissipated hydraulic energy to produce electricity. As conventional turbines are not always cost-effective for power under 20 kW, a new energy converter is studied. A five blade tubular propeller (5BTP), assessed through laboratorial tests on a reduced model with a diameter of 85 mm diameter and a maximal output power of 300 W, is addressed in this work. Having showed promising potential for further development, since global efficiencies of around 60% were observed, the turbine has been further used to estimate the potential for energy production in a real case study. A sub-grid of the drinking water system of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, has been used to obtain an annual energy production through hourly simulations with several turbines.

  1. Tubular Steel Arch Stabilized by Textile Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Svoboda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tubular steel arch supporting textile membrane roofing is investigated experimentally and numerically. The stabilization effects of the textile membrane on in-plane and out-of-plane behavior of the arch is of primary interest. First a model of a large membrane structure tested in laboratory is described. Prestressed membranes of PVC coated polyester fabric Ferrari® Précontraint 702S were used as a currently standard and excellent material. The test arrangement, loading and resulting load/deflection values are presented. The supporting structure consisted of two steel arch tubes, outer at edge of the membrane and inner supporting interior of the membrane roofing. The stability and strength behavior of the inner tube under both symmetrical and asymmetrical loading was monitored and is shown in some details. Second the SOFiSTiK software was employed to analyze the structural behavior in 3D, using geometrically nonlinear analysis with imperfections (GNIA. The numerical analysis, FE mesh sensitivity, the membrane prestressing and common boundary conditions are validated by test results. Finally a parametrical study concerning stability of mid arch with various geometries in a membrane structure with several supporting arches is presented, with recommendations for a practical design.

  2. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Pressure driven flow in porous tubular membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Nils; Martinand, Denis; Serre, Eric; Lueptow, Richard

    2011-11-01

    We consider the steady laminar flow of a Newtonian incompressible fluid in a porous tubular membrane with pressure-driven transmembrane flow. Due to its fundamental importance to membrane filtration systems, this flow has been studied extensively both analytically and numerically, yet a robust analytic solution has not been found. The problem is challenging due to the coupling between the transmembrane pressure and velocity with the simultaneous coupling between the axial pressure gradient and the axial velocity. We present a robust analytical solution which incorporates Darcy's law on the membrane surface. The solution is in the form of an asymptotic expansion about a small parameter related to the membrane permeability. We verify the analytical solution with comparison to 2-D spectral direct numerical simulations of ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems with typical operating conditions, as well as extreme cases of cross-flow reversal and axial flow exhaustion. In all cases, the agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent. Finally, we use the analytical and numerical results to provide guidelines about when common simplifying assumptions about the permeate flow may be made. Specifically, the assumptions of a parabolic axial velocity profile and uniform transmembrane velocity are valid only for small permeabilities.

  4. B-tubular surfaces in Lorentzian Heisenberg Group H3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Körpınar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, B-tubular surfaces in terms of biharmonic spacelike new type B-slant helices according to Bishop frame in the Lorentzian Heisenberg group H3 are studied. The Necessary and sufficient conditions for new type B-slant helices to be biharmonic are obtained. B-tubular surfaces in the cLorentzian Heisenberg group H3 are characterized. Additionally, main results in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 are illustrated.

  5. Behaviour of concrete filled steel tubular columns under fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查晓雄; 钟善桐

    2002-01-01

    A three dimensional nonlinear FE program is used to calculate the fire resistances of concrete filledsteel tubular columns under fire. The temperature distributions in the circular section fire are decided by solvingthe Fourier Transfer Equation , and the mechanical behaviour and failure of concrete filled steel tubular columnsunder fire are thus investigated, and the effects of several parameters on the fire resistance are analysed. Theresults obtained are in good agreement with the Eurocode.

  6. Journal of the Chinese Silicate Society (selected articles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    The contents of a Chinese journal are given. The two titles of articles are: (1) The EFG Growth and Application of Small Diameter Sapphire Crystals in Tubular and Rod Shapes; and Study on the Surface Microtopography of Corundums Grown by Verneuil Method; Growing of Excellent Nd:YAG Crystals by Temperature Gradient Technique.

  7. Tubular atrophy in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    The longstanding focus in chronic kidney disease (CKD) research has been on the glomerulus, which is sensible because this is where glomerular filtration occurs, and a large proportion of progressive CKD is associated with significant glomerular pathology. However, it has been known for decades that tubular atrophy is also a hallmark of CKD and that it is superior to glomerular pathology as a predictor of glomerular filtration rate decline in CKD. Nevertheless, there are vastly fewer studies that investigate the causes of tubular atrophy, and fewer still that identify potential therapeutic targets. The purpose of this review is to discuss plausible mechanisms of tubular atrophy, including tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, cell senescence, peritubular capillary rarefaction and downstream tubule ischemia, oxidative stress, atubular glomeruli, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, interstitial inflammation, lipotoxicity and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 inactivation. Once a a better understanding of tubular atrophy (and interstitial fibrosis) pathophysiology has been obtained, it might then be possible to consider tandem glomerular and tubular therapeutic strategies, in a manner similar to cancer chemotherapy regimens, which employ multiple drugs to simultaneously target different mechanistic pathways.

  8. Simulating the effects of social networks on a population's hurricane evacuation participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Michael J.; Horner, Mark W.; Metcalf, Sara S.

    2013-04-01

    Scientists have noted that recent shifts in the earth's climate have resulted in more extreme weather events, like stronger hurricanes. Such powerful storms disrupt societal function and result in a tremendous number of casualties, as demonstrated by recent hurricane experience in the US Planning for and facilitating evacuations of populations forecast to be impacted by hurricanes is perhaps the most effective strategy for reducing risk. A potentially important yet relatively unexplored facet of people's evacuation decision-making involves the interpersonal communication processes that affect whether at-risk residents decide to evacuate. While previous research has suggested that word-of-mouth effects are limited, data supporting these assertions were collected prior to the widespread adoption of digital social media technologies. This paper argues that the influence of social network effects on evacuation decisions should be revisited given the potential of new social media for impacting and augmenting information dispersion through real-time interpersonal communication. Using geographic data within an agent-based model of hurricane evacuation in Bay County, Florida, we examine how various types of social networks influence participation in evacuation. It is found that strategies for encouraging evacuation should consider the social networks influencing individuals during extreme events, as it can be used to increase the number of evacuating residents.

  9. The simulation and analysis of small group effect in crowd evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Lei; Hu, Jun; Gu, Musong; Fan, Wenjie; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    A crowd usually tends to move in small groups during evacuation. Small group has a large proportion in crowd evacuation, and small group effect affects crowd evacuation significantly. In this work, we propose a novel methodology for calculating movement profit based on cellular automaton model. Specifically, this methodology calculates the movement profit for a target at the next moment by comprehensively combining distance profit, density profit, and average velocity profit. In particular, this paper defines three types of small-group formation with totally six different forms of small group in terms of the size, and sets the corresponding movement velocity. At last, we simulate the evacuation process of small groups, and discuss the relationship among evacuation time, average movement velocity, and pedestrian density, and analyze the efficiency of small group evacuation in terms of evacuation strategies. As the simulation results demonstrated, the evacuation efficiency of different types of small groups is greatly different, and the same type of small groups with different forms is also different.

  10. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... assignment, for hospital emergency medical evacuation service helicopter operations unless that assignment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency...

  11. An Evacuation Emergency Response Model Coupling Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-10

    concentration contours coupled with the SMI evacuation model were calculated by using the MATHEW and ADPIC codes. The evacuation emergency response...2 M ATH EW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 2 ADPIC ...CDC 7600 computer within a matter of minutes MATHEW and ADPIC codes. These two models after the computer center is notified, are described briefly

  12. 48 CFR 728.307-70 - Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). 728.307-70 Section 728.307-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY...-70 Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) Services (MAR 1993). The Contracting Officer shall insert the...

  13. Game-Based Evacuation Drill Using Augmented Reality and Head-Mounted Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Junya; Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Shishibori, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evacuation drills should be more realistic and interactive. Focusing on situational and audio-visual realities and scenario-based interactivity, the authors have developed a game-based evacuation drill (GBED) system that presents augmented reality (AR) materials on tablet computers. The paper's current research purpose is to improve…

  14. A new way to estimate the evacuation time for people involved in a building fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2004-01-01

    A survey about evacuation models is given. The current available evacuation models based on hand calculations are tested during the survey. The objectives have been to analyze the existing hand calculating methods and thereby validate or may be, disqualify a model. The survey is based on comparison...

  15. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  16. An accessibility graph-based model to optimize tsunami evacuation sites and routes in Martinique, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péroche, M.; Leone, F.; Gutton, R.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of tsunami threatens the whole Caribbean coastline especially the Lesser Antilles. The first available models of tsunami propagation estimate that the travel time from the closest seismic sources would only take few minutes to impact the Martinique Island. Considering this threat, the most effective measure is a planned and organized evacuation of the coastal population. This requires an efficient regional warning system, estimation of the maximum expected tsunami flood height, preparation of the population to evacuate, and drawing up of local and regional emergency plans. In order to produce an efficient evacuation plan, we have to assess the number of people at risk, the potential evacuation routes, the safe areas and the available time to evacuate. However, this essential information is still lacking in the French West Indies emergency plans. This paper proposes a model of tsunami evacuation sites accessibility for Martinique directly addressed to decision makers. It is based on a population database at a local scale, the development of connected graphs of roads, the identification of potential safe areas and the velocity setting for pedestrians. Evacuation routes are calculated using the Dijkstra's algorithm which gives the shortest path between areas at risk and designated evacuation sites. The first results allow us to map the theoretical times and routes to keep the exposed population safe and to compare these results with a tsunami travel time scenario.

  17. Decision support system emergency planning, creating evacuation strategies in the event of flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windhouwer, C.J.; Klunder, G.A.; Sanders, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Decision Support System (DSS) Emergency Planning is designed for use in the event of sea or river flooding. It makes accessible all the information related to the decision whether to evacuate an area. An important factor in this decision is the time required for the evacuation. The model used by

  18. 5 CFR 550.406 - Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Work assignments during evacuation; return to duty. 550.406 Section 550.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Payments During Evacuation § 550.406 Work...

  19. A fire safety engineering perspective on crowd evacuation dynamics. Comment on "Human behaviours in evacuation crowd dynamics: From modelling to "big data" toward crisis management" by Nicola Bellomo et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The review presented by Bellomo et al. [1] addresses the modelling approaches employed to represent human behaviour in evacuation in a comprehensive manner. The authors discuss crowd evacuation modelling in light of crisis management, a relevant and current topic given the recent escalation of terrorist threats all over the world. The need for designing buildings for rapid evacuation using crowd evacuation models has been recently raised in important forums [2]. This research area is strictly linked to the field of Fire Safety Engineering.

  20. Finite Element Analysis and Codal Recommendations of Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, S.; Sankar Jegadesh, J. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work presents the numerical behaviour and theoretical design of axially loaded Concrete Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) columns. A numerical investigation using commercial software ANSYS is performed. The numerical models are used for the computations and the results are validated with the corresponding experimental program from the literature. It is observed that the numerical model is able to map the load deflection response of the CFST specimens. A good concurrence is also observed between the experimental and the predicted numerical results. The column strength predicted from the finite element analysis and by using the American Institute of Steel Construction and the Chinese CECS specifications are compared with the corresponding experimental results obtained from the literature. The comparative results ensured that D/t ratio plays a prominent role on the compressive behaviour of the CFST specimens. This paper quantifies the difference between the experimental and numerical results, and the ultimate load of the CFST columns estimated by various International code procedures.

  1. Effects of Data Resolution and Human Behavior on Large Scale Evacuation Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) based macroscopic simulation studies are mostly applied in evacuation planning and operation areas. The large size in TAZ and aggregated information of macroscopic simulation underestimate the real evacuation performance. To take advantage of the high resolution demographic data LandScan USA (the zone size is much smaller than TAZ) and agent-based microscopic traffic simulation models, many new problems appeared and novel solutions are needed. A series of studies are conducted using LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) data for evacuation assignments with different network configurations, travel demand models, and travelers compliance behavior. First, a new Multiple Source Nearest Destination Shortest Path (MSNDSP) problem is defined for generating Origin Destination matrix in evacuation assignments when using LandScan dataset. Second, a new agent-based traffic assignment framework using LandScan and TRANSIMS modules is proposed for evacuation planning and operation study. Impact a...

  2. Emergency evacuation models in subway service systems: An application on Izmir (Turkey subway system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Baysal Türkölmez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population in crowded cities causes transportation problems. Public transportation is an effective solution for the crowded traffic. Subway is a fast and productive alternative for public transportation so it is a highly preferable choice in others. It is hard to evacuate people in subway station during a disaster in carriages, on subway line or in subway stations because subway systems are often located underground, a lot people use it at the same time and enter-exit gates are controlled by turnstiles. It is crucially important to know the evacuation time of people from subway. In this paper, Konak station, one of the most crowded stations of Izmir Subway System is analyzed by emergency evacuation models. The evacuation process is simulated by Simulex software. The emergency evacuation problem is modeled in three different scenarios. Solution offers are developed for them.

  3. Application of Spatial and Network Analysis to Evaluate Shelter Plan for Tsunami Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for evaluating shelter plan for emergency evacuation prior to a tsunami based on service area analysis. The evacuation service areas are generated using both spatial and network analysis based on Geographic Information System (GIS. A case study in Pacitan city, East Java Province, Indonesia which is located in the South coastal area of Java Island, is picked as study area. The field has a possibility of suffering tsunami disaster because of the movement of Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate. The simulation result shows that the current evacuation shelters arranged by local government are not easy to access if tsunami occurs. About 50% of the residents do not have enough time to evacuate to the shelters because many shelters are located far from residential area. Utilizing public buildings around residential area for temporary shelters proposed in this study, about 96% residents in inundation area have sufficient time to evacuate to the shelters.

  4. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for an urban nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-05-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. This study examines shelter-evacuate policies and effectiveness focusing on a 10 kt scenario in Los Angeles. The goal is to provide technical insights that can support development of urban response plans. Results indicate that extended shelter-in-place can offer the most robust protection when high quality shelter exists. Where less effective shelter is available and the fallout radiation intensity level is high, informed evacuation at the appropriate time can substantially reduce the overall dose to personnel. However, uncertainties in the characteristics of the fallout region and in the exit route can make evacuation a risky strategy. Analyses indicate that only a relatively small fraction of the total urban population may experience significant dose reduction benefits from even a well-informed evacuation plan.

  5. Hazard warnings and responses to evacuation orders: the case of Bangladesh's cyclone Sidr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bimal K; Dutt, Sohini

    2010-01-01

    On 15 November 2007 Cyclone Sidr, a category 4 storm, struck the southwestern coast of Bangladesh. Despite early cyclone warnings and evacuation orders for coastal residents, thousands of individuals stayed in their homes. This study examines dissemination of the warning, assesses the warning responses, and explores the reasons why many residents did not evacuate. Field data collected from 257 Sidr survivors in four severely affected coastal districts revealed that more than three-fourths of all respondents were aware of the cyclone warnings and evacuation orders. Despite the sincere efforts of the Bangladesh government, however, lapses in cyclone warnings and evacuation procedures occurred. Field data also revealed several reasons why evacuation orders were not followed. The reasons fell into three broad groups: those involving shelter characteristics; the attributes of the warning message itself; and the respondents' characteristics. Based on our findings, we recommend improved cyclone warnings and utilization of public shelters for similar events in the future.

  6. Toward high-torque electrostatic tubular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Philippe; Bourbon, Gilles; Minotti, Patrice; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    1999-10-01

    A new generation of electrostatic micro-motors is investigated using cooperation of arrayed direct-drive actuators. Electrostatic scratch-drive actuators (SDA), which combine active frictional contact mechanisms with electrostatic actuation, are particularly analyzed. Active polysilicon sheets of 2*3 mm2 that integrate up to several thousands of electrostatic scratch drive actuators are fabricated by silicon surface micro-machining process. Each elementary actuator provides its contribution according to the driving force superposition principle, with internal forces as high as 105uN are available from this sheet. According to their natural flexibility, active polysilicon sheets can be coated onto large surfaces. A new generation of self-assembled tubular electrostatic micromotors is developed using this concept. A prototype of a cylindrical micromotor, whose external diameter and length are 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively, has been realized through the insertion of a flexible active polysilicon sheet at the rotor/motor- frame interface. After final assembling, the sheet has to be jammed onto the chassis, in order to allow the rotor to be moved with respect to the motor frame. Thus, the sheet must be in close contact with both the rotor and the motor frame, whatever the gap, which separates the two macroscopic parts. The problem related to the micro/macro world interfacing is solved during the design of sheet in allowing an out-of- plane motion of SDA in order to provide a self gap compensation, whatever both the thermal expansion effects and the macroscopic machining tolerances. The expected driving characteristics show the interest of both cooperative arrayed microactuators and direct drive frictional mechanisms.

  7. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  8. Beat-the-wave evacuation mapping for tsunami hazards in Seaside, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, George R.; Stimely, Laura; Wood, Nathan J.; Madin, Ian; Watzig, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    Previous pedestrian evacuation modeling for tsunamis has not considered variable wave arrival times or critical junctures (e.g., bridges), nor does it effectively communicate multiple evacuee travel speeds. We summarize an approach that identifies evacuation corridors, recognizes variable wave arrival times, and produces a map of minimum pedestrian travel speeds to reach safety, termed a “beat-the-wave” (BTW) evacuation analysis. We demonstrate the improved approach by evaluating difficulty of pedestrian evacuation of Seaside, Oregon, for a local tsunami generated by a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. We establish evacuation paths by calculating the least cost distance (LCD) to safety for every grid cell in a tsunami-hazard zone using geospatial, anisotropic path distance algorithms. Minimum BTW speed to safety on LCD paths is calculated for every grid cell by dividing surface distance from that cell to safety by the tsunami arrival time at safety. We evaluated three scenarios of evacuation difficulty: (1) all bridges are intact with a 5-minute evacuation delay from the start of earthquake, (2) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 5-minute delay, and (3) only retrofitted bridges are considered intact with a 10-minute delay. BTW maps also take into account critical evacuation points along complex shorelines (e.g., peninsulas, bridges over shore-parallel estuaries) where evacuees could be caught by tsunami waves. The BTW map is able to communicate multiple pedestrian travel speeds, which are typically visualized by multiple maps with current LCD-based mapping practices. Results demonstrate that evacuation of Seaside is problematic seaward of the shore-parallel waterways for those with any limitations on mobility. Tsunami vertical-evacuation refuges or additional pedestrian bridges may be effective ways of reducing loss of life seaward of these waterways.

  9. Real-time micro-modelling of city evacuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner, Rainald; Haug, Eberhard; Zinggerling, Claudio; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    A methodology to integrate geographical information system (GIS) data with large-scale pedestrian simulations has been developed. Advances in automatic data acquisition and archiving from GIS databases, automatic input for pedestrian simulations, as well as scalable pedestrian simulation tools have made it possible to simulate pedestrians at the individual level for complete cities in real time. An example that simulates the evacuation of the city of Barcelona demonstrates that this is now possible. This is the first step towards a fully integrated crowd prediction and management tool that takes into account not only data gathered in real time from cameras, cell phones or other sensors, but also merges these with advanced simulation tools to predict the future state of the crowd.

  10. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, S; Kuperman, M N

    2014-03-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a lattice gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in game theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  11. Measuring and Modeling Behavioral Decision Dynamics in Collective Evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Jean M; Stromberg, Sean P; Bassett, Danielle S; Craparo, Emily M; Gutierrez-Villarreal, Francisco; Otani, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying factors influencing human decision making remains an outstanding challenge, impacting the performance and predictability of social and technological systems. In many cases, system failures are traced to human factors including congestion, overload, miscommunication, and delays. Here we report results of a behavioral network science experiment, targeting decision making in a natural disaster. In each scenario, individuals are faced with a forced "go" versus "no go" evacuation decision, based on information available on competing broadcast and peer-to-peer sources. In this controlled setting, all actions and observations are recorded prior to the decision, enabling development of a quantitative decision making model that accounts for the disaster likelihood, severity, and temporal urgency, as well as competition between networked individuals for limited emergency resources. Individual differences in behavior within this social setting are correlated with individual differences in inh...

  12. Two dimensional cellular automaton for evacuation modeling: hybrid shuffle update

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Chikashi; Appert-Rolland, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    We consider a cellular automaton model with a static floor field for pedestrians evacuating a room. After identifying some properties of real pedestrian flows, we discuss various update schemes, and we introduce a new one, the hybrid shuffle update. The properties specific to pedestrians are incorporated in variables associated to particles called phases, that represent their step cycles. The dynamics of the phases gives naturally raise to some friction, and allows to reproduce several features observed in experiments. We study in particular the crossover between a low- and a high-density regime that occurs when the density of pedestrian increases, the dependency of the outflow in the strength of the floor field, and the shape of the queue in front of the exit.

  13. Game theory in models of pedestrian room evacuation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouzat, S

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the pedestrian evacuation of a rectangular room with a single door considering a Lattice Gas scheme with the addition of behavioral aspects of the pedestrians. The movement of the individuals is based on random and rational choices and is affected by conflicts between two or more agents that want to advance to the same position. Such conflicts are solved according to certain rules closely related to the concept of strategies in Game Theory, cooperation and defection. We consider game rules analogous to those from the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, with payoffs associated to the probabilities of the individuals to advance to the selected site. We find that, even when defecting is the rational choice for any agent, under certain conditions, cooperators can take advantage from mutual cooperation and leave the room more rapidly than defectors.

  14. Thermal performance of evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Nandy; Kristian, M. R.; David, R.; Haliansyah, K.; Ariantara, Bambang

    2016-06-01

    The high fossil energy consumption not only causes the scarcity of energy but also raises problems of global warming. Increasing needs of fossil fuel could be reduced through the utilization of solar energy by using solar collectors. Indonesia has the abundant potential for solar energy, but non-renewable energy sources still dominate energy consumption. With heat pipe as passive heat transfer device, evacuated tube solar collector is expected to heat up water for industrial and home usage without external power supply needed to circulate water inside the solar collector. This research was conducted to determine the performance of heat pipe-based evacuated tube solar collector as solar water heater experimentally. The experiments were carried out using stainless steel screen mesh as a wick material, and water and Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid as working fluid, and applying inclination angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. To analyze the heat absorbed and transferred by the prototype, water at 30°C was circulated through the condenser. A 150 Watt halogen lamp was used as sun simulator, and the prototype was covered by an insulation box to obtain a steady state condition with a minimum affection of ambient changes. Experimental results show that the usage of Al2O3-water 0.1% nanofluid at 30° inclination angle provides the highest thermal performance, which gives efficiency as high as 0.196 and thermal resistance as low as 5.32 °C/W. The use of nanofluid as working fluid enhances thermal performance due to high thermal conductivity of the working fluid. The increase of the inclination angle plays a role in the drainage of the condensate to the evaporator that leads to higher thermal performance until the optimal inclination angle is reached.

  15. PYRONES: pyro-modeling and evacuation simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellos, Tassos; Doulgerakis, Adam; Georgiou, Eftichia; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Paterakis, Manolis; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Pappou, Theodora; Vrahliotis, Socrates I.; Rekouniotis, Thrasos; Protopsaltis, Byron; Rozenberg, Ofir; Livneh, Ofer

    2016-05-01

    Structural fires continue to pose a great threat towards human life and property. Due to the complexity and non-deterministic characteristics of a building fire disaster, it is not a straightforward task to assess the effectiveness of fire protection measures embedded in the building design, planned evacuation strategies and potential modes of response for mitigating the fire's consequences. Additionally, there is a lack of means that realistically and accurately recreate the conditions of building fire disasters for the purpose of training personnel in order to be sufficiently prepared when vis-a-vis with such an environment. The propagation of fire within a building, the diffusion of its volatile products, the behavior of the occupants and the sustained injuries not only exhibit non-linear behaviors as individual phenomena, but are also intertwined in a web of co-dependencies. The PYRONES system has been developed to address all these aspects through a comprehensive approach that relies on accurate and realistic computer simulations of the individual phenomena and their interactions. PYRONES offers innovative tools and services to strategically targeted niches in two market domains. In the domain of building design and engineering, PYRONES is seamlessly integrated within existing engineering Building Information Modelling (BIM) workflows and serves as a building performance assessment platform, able to evaluate fire protection systems. On another front, PYRONES penetrates the building security management market, serving as a holistic training platform for specialists in evacuation strategy planning, firefighters and first responders, both at a Command and Control and at an individual trainee level.

  16. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Holl, Stefan; Mehner, Wolfgang; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  17. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W F Bode

    Full Text Available Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  18. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  19. Transit-Based Emergency Evacuation with Transit Signal Priority in Sudden-Onset Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents methods of transit signal priority without transit-only lanes for a transit-based emergency evacuation in a sudden-onset disaster. Arterial priority signal coordination is optimized when a traffic signal control system provides priority signals for transit vehicles along an evacuation route. Transit signal priority is determined by “transit vehicle arrival time estimation,” “queuing vehicle dissipation time estimation,” “traffic signal status estimation,” “transit signal optimization,” and “arterial traffic signal coordination for transit vehicle in evacuation route.” It takes advantage of the large capacities of transit vehicles, reduces the evacuation time, and evacuates as many evacuees as possible. The proposed methods were tested on a simulation platform with Paramics V6.0. To evaluate and compare the performance of transit signal priority, three scenarios were simulated in the simulator. The results indicate that the methods of this study can reduce the travel times of transit vehicles along an evacuation route by 13% and 10%, improve the standard deviation of travel time by 16% and 46%, and decrease the average person delay at a signalized intersection by 22% and 17% when the traffic flow saturation along an evacuation route is 0.81.0, respectively.

  20. Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.O.S. Câmara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

  1. Urinary proteins of tubular origin: basic immunochemical and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherberich, J E

    1990-01-01

    A variety of tubular marker proteins, as compared to healthy controls, are excreted at an increased rate in the urine of patients with renal damage. Beside cytoplasmic glutathione-S-transferase and lysosomal beta-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) the majority of kidney-related urine proteins derives from membrane surface components of the most vulnerable proximal tubule epithelia, among them ala-(leu-gly)-aminopeptidase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), the tubular portion of angiotensinase A, the major brush border glycoprotein 'SGP-240' and adenosine-deaminase-binding protein. Urinary tissue proteins, e.g. brush border (BB) microvilli, are immunologically identical with those antigens prepared from cell membranes of the human kidney itself. BB antigens are shed into the urine of patients with glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, systemic diseases, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus and multiple myeloma, arterial hypertension, infectious diseases (malaria, AIDS) and after operations, renal grafting and administration of X-ray contrast media, aminoglycosides or certain cytostatics (cis-platinum). Tissue proteinuria of tubular proteins is determined by enzyme-kinetic or quantitative immunological assays applying either poly- or monoclonal antikidney antibodies. Clinical, ultrastructural and histochemical studies support the idea that both 'soluble' and high-molecular-weight membrane particles (vacuolar blebs, greater than 10(6) dalton) as well as microfilamental components of the epithelial cytoskeleton contribute to tubular 'histuria' which appears as a sensitive parameter in monitoring tubular damage under clinical conditions at a very early phase.

  2. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Sánchez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.

  3. A Participatory Agent-Based Simulation for Indoor Evacuation Supported by Google Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio

    2016-08-24

    Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.

  4. Public assessment of the usefulness of "draft" tsunami evacuation maps from Sydney, Australia – implications for the establishment of formal evacuation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dall'Osso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami prevention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Sydney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall'Osso et al., 2009b, we use the results of the analysis by Dall'Osso et al. (2009b to "draft" tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the survey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and understandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk management specialists during the development of official evacuation maps (and plans in the future.

  5. The glomerulo-tubular junction: a target in renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindop, G B M; Gibson, I W; Downie, T T; Vass, D; Cohen, E P

    2002-05-01

    Both global and segmental glomerulopathies may damage specific areas of the renal glomerulus. Diseases associated with glomerular hyperperfusion cause lesions at the vascular pole, while diseases associated with proteinuria often damage the tubular pole. Atubular glomeruli are now known to be plentiful in a variety of common renal diseases. These glomeruli are disconnected from their tubule at the tubular pole and therefore cannot participate in the production of urine. It is widely believed that the disconnection is a result of external compression by periglomerular fibrosis. However, the variable anatomy and cell populations within both the glomerulus and the beginning of the proximal tubule at the glomerulo-tubular junction may also have important roles to play in the response to damage at this sensitive site of the nephron.

  6. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  7. Klinefelter's syndrome with renal tubular acidosis: impact on height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebasingh, F; Paul, T V; Spurgeon, R; Abraham, S; Jacob, J J

    2010-02-01

    A 19-year-old Indian man presented with a history of proximal muscle weakness, knock knees and gynaecomastia. On examination he had features of rickets and bilateral small testes. Karyotyping revealed a chromosomal pattern of 47,XXX, confirming the diagnosis of Klinefelter's syndrome. He was also found to have hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis with hypokalaemia, hypophosphataemia, phosphaturia and glycosuria, which favoured a diagnosis of proximal renal tubular acidosis. Patients with Klinefelter's syndrome typically have a tall stature due to androgen deficiency, resulting in unfused epiphyses and an additional X chromosome. However, this patient had a short stature due to associated proximal renal tubular acidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of Klinefelter's syndrome with short stature due to associated renal tubular acidosis reported in the literature. This report highlights the need to consider other causes when patients with Klinefelter's syndrome present with a short stature.

  8. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk management: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This methodology considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami risk management situation (time needed by the responsible authorities to warn the local communities), (iv) the time needed for evacuation of the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation. The proposed methodological framework aims to fill the gap between risk assessment and management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan.

  9. The origin of tubular lava stalactites and other related forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allred

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubular lava stalactites are often found in lava tubes. Field observations, sample analysis, and comparative studies indicate that these are segregations extruded during cooling from partially crystallized lava al about 1,070 - 1,000 °C. Retrograde boiling (gas pressure within the lava provides a mechanism to expel the interstitial liquid. In addition to tubular lava stalactites, a variety of other lava features can also result, such as lava helictites, lava coralloids, barnacle-like stretched lava, runners, runner channels, and some lava blisters and squeeze-ups.

  10. RESEARCH ON HYDROFORMING TUBULAR PART WITH LARGE PERIMETER DIFFERENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S. Wang; S.J. Yuan; X.R. Huang; Y.X. Yao; Z.R. Wang

    2008-01-01

    The tube hydroforming process for manufacturing the tubular part with large perimeter difference was studied by means of experiments and FE simulation. It is an asymmetrical one and the expansion ratio is 70 percent. The part is successfully hydroformed by applying the useful wrinkles to accumulate suffcient metal in the area with large expansion ratio. The thickness distribution is analyzed, and the maximum thinning ratio of the part is 21.6 percent. It is shown from the experiment and simulation results that the tubular part with large perimeter difference, long expansion area and asymmetrical shape can be obtained in one step, applying the useful wrinkles. Typical failure modes were analyzed.

  11. Renal histology and immunopathology in distal renal tubular acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feest, T G; Lockwood, C M; Morley, A R; Uff, J S

    1978-11-01

    Renal biospy studies are reported from 10 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA). On the biopsies from 6 patients who had associated immunological abnormalities immunofluorescent studies for immunoglobulins, complement, and fibrin were performed. Interstitial cellular infiltration and fibrosis were common findings in patients with and without immunological abnormalities, and were usually associated with nephrocalcinosis and/or recurrent urinary infection. No immune deposits were demonstrated in association with the renal tubules. This study shows that DRTA in immunologically abnormal patients is not caused by tubular deposition of antibody or immune complexes. The possibility of cell mediated immune damage is discussed.

  12. Variations in disaster evacuation behavior: public responses versus private sector executive decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, T E

    1992-06-01

    Data obtained from 65 executives working for tourism firms in three sample communities permitted comparison with the public warning response literature regarding three topics: disaster evacuation planning, initial warning responses, and disaster evacuation behavior. Disaster evacuation planning was reported by nearly all of these business executives, although it was highly variable in content, completeness, and formality. Managerial responses to post-disaster warnings paralleled the type of complex social processes that have been documented within the public response literature, except that warning sources and confirmation behavior were significantly affected by contact with authorities. Five key areas of difference were discovered in disaster evacuation behavior pertaining to: influence of planning, firm versus family priorities, shelter selection, looting concerns, and media contacts.

  13. 76 FR 43265 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Evacuation Movement and Behavior Questionnaire AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ACTION... on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  14. Empirical study of the influence of social groups in evacuation scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Svachiy, Anton; Wohak, Oliver; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The effects of social groups on pedestrian dynamics, especially in evacuation scenarios, have attracted some interest recently. However, due to the lack of reliable empirical data, most of the studies focussed on modelling aspects. It was shown that social groups can have a considerable effect, e.g. on evacuation times. In order to test the model predictions we have performed laboratory experiments of evacuations with different types and sizes of the social groups. The experiments have been performed with pupils of different ages. Parameters that have been considered are (1) group size, (2) strength of intra-group interactions, and (3) composition of the groups (young adults, children, and mixtures). For all the experiments high-quality trajectories for all participants have been obtained using the PeTrack software. This allows for a detailed analysis of the group effects. One surprising observation is a decrease of the evacuation time with increasing group size.

  15. Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas, Evacuation Zones, Published in unknown, Manatee County Information Services Dept..

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Hurricane and Tsunami Inundation Areas dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Evacuation Zones'. Data...

  16. Model of skyscraper evacuation with the use of space symmetry and fluid dynamic approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, W; Kupczak, A

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of evacuation of pedestrians from skyscraper is a situation where the symmetry analysis method and equations of fluid dynamics finds to be very useful. When applied, they strongly reduce the number of free parameters used in simulations and in such a way speed up the calculations and make them easier to manage by the programmer and what is even more important, they can give a fresh insight into a problem of evacuation and help with incorporation of "Ambient Intelligent Devices" into future real buildings. We have analyzed various, simplified, cases of evacuation from skyscraper by employing improved "Social Force Model". For each of them we obtained the average force acting on the pedestrian as a function of the evacuation time. The results clearly show that both methods mentioned above, can be successfully implemented in the simulation process and return with satisfactory conclusions.

  17. 78 FR 61223 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation, Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Evacuation, Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplementary notice of proposed rulemaking... regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the Pacific Ocean south of the southern shoreline of Oahu,...

  18. 78 FR 28170 - Regulated Navigation Area; Southern Oahu Tsunami Vessel Evacuation; Honolulu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Evacuation; Honolulu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... waters contained within an area composing of an area on the southern side of Oahu, HI. The RNA...

  19. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of organic/silicon nanowire hybrid solar cells by solution-evacuated method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Zou, Xian-Shao; Zhang, Bin; Dong, Jun; Niu, Qiao-Li; Yin, Yi-An; Zhang, Yong

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunction solar cells based on n-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid structures by evacuating the PEDOT:PSS solution with dip-dropping on the top of SiNWs before spin-coating (solution-evacuating). The coverage and contact interface between PEDOT:PSS and SiNW arrays can be dramatically enhanced by optimizing the solution-evacuated time. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 9.22% for a solution-evacuated time of 2 min compared with 5.17% for the untreated pristine device. The improvement photovoltaic performance is mainly attributed to better organic coverage and contact with an n-type SiNW surface.

  20. A Mechanical and Experimental Study on the Heat Loss of Solar Evacuated Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-zhong; LIU Zhen-yan; ZHANG Min; HUANG Chen; WANG Li-hui; ZOU Zhi-jun

    2009-01-01

    The experimental system of heat loss of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes (evacuated tube) is firstly designed and constructed, which uses electric heater as thermal resource. The equilibrium temperatures are less than ±1℃ during the test, and the temperature differences of up/middle/low node in the tube are less than 1 ℃, 3 ℃, and 7℃ respectively. The heat loss of evacuated tube increases about 2.7% with vacuum state of 0.01-1 mPa, and it has the best performance at tube temperature of 20-280℃. The invalidation tube (> 200 mPa) has the biggest heat loss that increases linearly with the tube temperature. The evacuated tubes with the vacuum of 0.01-1 mPa are suitable for most solar adsorption refrigeration.

  1. [Evacuation plan of an intensive care unit: a new quality indicator?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palacios, M; Lorenzo Torrent, R; Santana-Cabrera, L; Martín García, J A; Campos, S G; Carrasco de Miguel, V

    2010-04-01

    The intensive care units must be prepared for a possible disaster, whether internal or external, in case it becomes necessary to evacuate the in-patients. They must have an Emergency and Self-protection Plan that includes the patient evacuation criteria and this must be known by all the personnel who work in the service. For that reason, the patients must be triaged, based on their attention priorities, according to their survival possibilities. Having an evacuation, known by all the personnel and updated by means of the performance of periodic drills, should be included as a quality indicator that must be met, since this would achieve better attention to the patient in case of a disaster situation requiring the evacuation of the ICU.

  2. A Comparison of the Nursing Home Evacuation Experience between Hurricanes Katrina (2005) and Gustav (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Gary; Dosa, David

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the tragic legacies of Hurricane Katrina was the loss of life among Louisiana (LA) nursing home (NH) residents. Katrina revealed a staggering lack of emergency preparation and understanding of how to safely evacuate frail populations. Three years later, LA braced for Hurricane Gustav, a storm heralded to rival Katrina's power. Though its magnitude of destruction ultimately paled to Katrina, the warnings and predicted path preceding Gustav yielded a process of NH evacuations similar to Katrina. The goal of this paper was to ascertain whether NH administrative directors (ADs) felt more prepared to evacuate before Gustav. Methods In 2006, Dosa, et. al. (JAMDA, 3/07), interviewed 20 NH ADs by qualitative telephone survey to evaluate their lessons learned from Katrina. Administrators at these 20 participating nursing homes were contacted and asked to participate in a follow-up survey to compare hurricane preparedness between 2005 and 2008. Specifically, ADs were asked if they evacuated prior to Gustav, their destination, and about logistical issues with evacuation (e.g., transportation, injuries). ADs were asked to rate their confidence with state assistance, hurricane transportation, and evacuation preparedness on a 10-point scale (10=most confident) and compare their preparedness to Katrina. Results Sixteen of the 20 NHs that participated in 2006 agreed to be surveyed – 11 of whom held the same position before Katrina. Unlike Katrina, when only 45% evacuated prior to the storm, all 16 NHs evacuated before Gustav. (56% to another NH and 46% to a church, gym, college, or other facility). Overall, ADs rated their confidence in preparedness for Gustav as a mean of 8.3 (range 5 to 10) – compared with a mean of 5.4 (range 3 to 8) for Katrina, a 54% improvement. Of the 11 ADs employed pre-Katrina, 73% reported improved collaboration with the state and 55% noted improved transportation. Nevertheless, seven ADs noted significant logistical problems during

  3. Testing Refrigeration Trucks for the Emergency Evacuation of Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Vaughan A; Ellifrit, Nancy; Sime, Debra; Rowe, Mike; Hogue, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight = 1,248 kg) housed in individual crates were loaded into a 16-m refrigeration truck. Once they were loaded, the doors were closed and the percentages of O2 and CO2 were measured every 5 min by O2 and CO2 analyzers, and they were used to quantify the changes in gas pressure in the sealed truck. CO2 had a much higher-than-predicted increase, and O2 had a higher-than-predicted decrease. These 2 pressures in combination with the functionality of the respiratory system will limit the animal's ability to load O2, and over time, they will initiate asphyxia or suffocation. Over time, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in the sealed truck will decrease, causing hypoxia, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) will increase, causing hypercapnia.

  4. BIM Based Virtual Environment for Fire Emergency Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent building emergency management research has highlighted the need for the effective utilization of dynamically changing building information. BIM (building information modelling can play a significant role in this process due to its comprehensive and standardized data format and integrated process. This paper introduces a BIM based virtual environment supported by virtual reality (VR and a serious game engine to address several key issues for building emergency management, for example, timely two-way information updating and better emergency awareness training. The focus of this paper lies on how to utilize BIM as a comprehensive building information provider to work with virtual reality technologies to build an adaptable immersive serious game environment to provide real-time fire evacuation guidance. The innovation lies on the seamless integration between BIM and a serious game based virtual reality (VR environment aiming at practical problem solving by leveraging state-of-the-art computing technologies. The system has been tested for its robustness and functionality against the development requirements, and the results showed promising potential to support more effective emergency management.

  5. BIM Based Virtual Environment for Fire Emergency Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezgui, Yacine; Ong, Hoang N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent building emergency management research has highlighted the need for the effective utilization of dynamically changing building information. BIM (building information modelling) can play a significant role in this process due to its comprehensive and standardized data format and integrated process. This paper introduces a BIM based virtual environment supported by virtual reality (VR) and a serious game engine to address several key issues for building emergency management, for example, timely two-way information updating and better emergency awareness training. The focus of this paper lies on how to utilize BIM as a comprehensive building information provider to work with virtual reality technologies to build an adaptable immersive serious game environment to provide real-time fire evacuation guidance. The innovation lies on the seamless integration between BIM and a serious game based virtual reality (VR) environment aiming at practical problem solving by leveraging state-of-the-art computing technologies. The system has been tested for its robustness and functionality against the development requirements, and the results showed promising potential to support more effective emergency management. PMID:25197704

  6. 槽式太阳能真空集热管的热损失研究%HEAT LOSS OF PARABOLIC TROUGH EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚广杰; 王军; 黄鑫炎; 郝梦龙; 张耀明

    2011-01-01

    建立了真空集热管中吸收管与玻璃管之间热辐射和残余气体热对流、玻璃管与外界环境之间热对流和玻璃管对天空热辐射的数学模型,提出了模型的计算方法,并通过和实验数据的比较验证了模型的准确性.同时利用模型分析了几种影响热损失的主要因素,分析结果表明:吸收管温度越高,热损失越大;环境温度越低,风速越大,热损失越大,但影响很小;选择性吸收涂层的发射率是影响热损失的主要因素;真空度对热损失也有很大影响.%Mathematical model of radiation and residual gas convection heat transfer from absorber to glass envelope, convection and radiation heat transfer from glass to ambient was established, the calculation method of the model was also proposed in this paper, and the accuracy of the model was verified by comparing with experimental results.Several major factors that can influence heat loss were analysed using this model.The results show that the heat loss is much more when the absorber temperature is higher; lower ambient temperature and higher wind speed will cause more heat loss, but not very much; the emittance of the selective coating is a key factor to heat loss; vacuum level will also influence heat loss a lot.

  7. Intraoperative contralateral extradural hematoma during evacuation of traumatic acute extradural hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Anand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extradural hematomas (EDHs accounts for approximately 2% of patients following head trauma and 5-15% of patients with fatal head injuries. When indicated, the standard surgical management consists of evacuation of the hematoma via craniotomy. Intraoperative development of acute extradural hematoma (AEDH on the contralateral side following evacuation of acute extradural hematoma is uncommon and very few cases have been reported.

  8. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami-evacuation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N. J.; Jones, J. M.; Schmidtlein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Near-field tsunami hazards are credible threats to many coastal communities throughout the world. Along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coast, low-lying areas could be inundated by a series of catastrophic tsunamis potentially arriving in a matter of minutes following a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. We developed a geospatial-modeling method for characterizing pedestrian-evacuation flow paths and evacuation basins to support evacuation and relief planning efforts for coastal communities in this region. We demonstrate this approach using the coastal communities of Aberdeen, Hoquiam, and Cosmopolis in southwestern Grays Harbor County, Washington (USA), where previous research suggests approximately 20,500 people (99% of the residents in tsunami-hazard zones) will likely have enough time to evacuate before tsunami-wave arrival. Geospatial, anisotropic, path distance models were developed to map the most efficient pedestrian paths to higher ground from locations within the tsunami-hazard zone. This information was then used to identify evacuation basins, outlining neighborhoods sharing a common evacuation pathway to safety. We then estimated the number of people traveling along designated evacuation pathways and arriving at pre-determined safe assembly areas, helping determine shelter demand and relief support (e.g., for elderly individuals or tourists). Finally, we assessed which paths may become inaccessible due to earthquake-induced ground failures, a factor which may impact an individual's success in reaching safe ground. The presentation will include a discussion of the implications of our analysis for developing more comprehensive coastal community tsunami-evacuation planning strategies worldwide.

  9. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Investigations...

  10. Prediction of evacuation time for emergency planning zone of Uljin nuclear site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Lee, Jai Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The time for evacuation of residents in Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of Uljin nuclear site in case of a radiological emergency was estimated with traffic analysis. Evacuees were classified into 4 groups by considering population density, local jurisdictions, and whether they are residents or transients. The survey to investigate the behavioral characteristics of the residents was made for 200 households and included a hypothetical scenario explaining the accident situation and questions such as dwelling place, time demand for evacuation preparation, transportation means for evacuation, sheltering place, and evacuation direction. The microscopic traffic simulation model, CORSIM, was used to simulate the behavior of evacuating vehicles on networks. The results showed that the evacuation time required for total vehicles to move out from EPZ took longer in the daytime than at night in spite that the delay times at intersections were longer at night than in the daytime. This was analyzed due to the differences of the trip generation time distribution. To validate whether the CORSIM model can appropriately simulate the congested traffic phenomena assumable in case of emergency, a benchmark study was conducted at an intersection without an actuated traffic signal near Uljin site during the traffic peak-time in the morning. This study indicated that the predicted output by the CORSIM model was in good agreement with the observed data, satisfying the purpose of this study.

  11. K-Shortest-Path-Based Evacuation Routing with Police Resource Allocation in City Transportation Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyue He

    Full Text Available Emergency evacuation aims to transport people from dangerous places to safe shelters as quickly as possible. Police play an important role in the evacuation process, as they can handle traffic accidents immediately and help people move smoothly on roads. This paper investigates an evacuation routing problem that involves police resource allocation. We propose a novel k-th-shortest-path-based technique that uses explicit congestion control to optimize evacuation routing and police resource allocation. A nonlinear mixed-integer programming model is presented to formulate the problem. The model's objective is to minimize the overall evacuation clearance time. Two algorithms are given to solve the problem. The first one linearizes the original model and solves the linearized problem with CPLEX. The second one is a heuristic algorithm that uses a police resource utilization efficiency index to directly solve the original model. This police resource utilization efficiency index significantly aids in the evaluation of road links from an evacuation throughput perspective. The proposed algorithms are tested with a number of examples based on real data from cities of different sizes. The computational results show that the police resource utilization efficiency index is very helpful in finding near-optimal solutions. Additionally, comparing the performance of the heuristic algorithm and the linearization method by using randomly generated examples indicates that the efficiency of the heuristic algorithm is superior.

  12. An indoor augmented reality mobile application for simulation of building evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Jerripothula, Shanmukha

    2015-03-01

    Augmented Reality enables people to remain connected with the physical environment they are in, and invites them to look at the world from new and alternative perspectives. There has been an increasing interest in emergency evacuation applications for mobile devices. Nearly all the smart phones these days are Wi-Fi and GPS enabled. In this paper, we propose a novel emergency evacuation system that will help people to safely evacuate a building in case of an emergency situation. It will further enhance knowledge and understanding of where the exits are in the building and safety evacuation procedures. We have applied mobile augmented reality (mobile AR) to create an application with Unity 3D gaming engine. We show how the mobile AR application is able to display a 3D model of the building and animation of people evacuation using markers and web camera. The system gives a visual representation of a building in 3D space, allowing people to see where exits are in the building through the use of a smart phone or tablets. Pilot studies were conducted with the system showing its partial success and demonstrated the effectiveness of the application in emergency evacuation. Our computer vision methods give good results when the markers are closer to the camera, but accuracy decreases when the markers are far away from the camera.

  13. Reproductive behavior following evacuation to foster care duringWorld War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Santavirta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family disruption and separation form parents during childhood may have long-lasting effects on the child. Previous literature documents associations between separation from parents and cognitive ability, educational attainment, and health, but little is known about effects on subsequent reproductive behavior. Objective: We evaluate the associations between unaccompanied evacuation to foster care and subsequent marriage and fertility behavior by comparing Finnish children who were evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II to their non-evacuated siblings. Methods: In total, some 49,000 children were evacuated for a period ranging from months to years. We analyze a nationally representative sample of 2,009 evacuees born in 1933-1944 by combining data collected from war time government records with 1950 and 1971 censuses and 1971-2011 population registers. Results: Comparison of evacuated and nonevacuated same-sex siblings suggests no associations between evacuation and the probability of ever marrying, timing of first birth, and completed family size, although some associations are found in na¨ıve means comparisons. This difference in results across models is suggestive of negative selection of evacuee families. Conclusions: We do not find consistent evidence of any causal effect of family disruption on family formation and reproductive behavior. The results are sensitive to controlling for unobserved selection and suggest that some of the adverse outcomes documented in earlier literature could change if selection was accounted for.

  14. Optimal layout design of obstacles for panic evacuation using differential evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Li, Meifang; Lu, Xin; Tian, Lijun; Yu, Zhiyong; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yana; Li, Ting

    2017-01-01

    To improve the pedestrian outflow in panic situations by suitably placing an obstacle in front of the exit, it is vital to understand the physical mechanism behind the evacuation efficiency enhancement. In this paper, a robust differential evolution is firstly employed to optimize the geometrical parameters of different shaped obstacles in order to achieve an optimal evacuation efficiency. Moreover, it is found that all the geometrical parameters of obstacles could markedly influence the evacuation efficiency of pedestrians, and the best way for achieving an optimal pedestrian outflow is to slightly shift the obstacle from the center of the exit which is consistent with findings of extant literature. Most importantly, by analyzing the profiles of density, velocity and specific flow, as well as the spatial distribution of crowd pressure, we have proven that placing an obstacle in panic situations does not reduce or absorb the pressure in the region of exit, on the contrary, promotes the pressure to a much higher level, hence the physical mechanism behind the evacuation efficiency enhancement is not a pressure decrease in the region of exit, but a significant reduction of high density region by effective separation in space which finally causes the increasing of escape speed and evacuation outflow. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that the panel-like obstacle is considerably more robust and stable than the pillar-like obstacle to guarantee the enhancement of evacuation efficiency under different initial pedestrian distributions, different initial crowd densities as well as different desired velocities.

  15. Agent-based simulation of building evacuation using a grid graph-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L.; Lin, H.; Hu, M.; Che, W.

    2014-02-01

    Shifting from macroscope models to microscope models, the agent-based approach has been widely used to model crowd evacuation as more attentions are paid on individualized behaviour. Since indoor evacuation behaviour is closely related to spatial features of the building, effective representation of indoor space is essential for the simulation of building evacuation. The traditional cell-based representation has limitations in reflecting spatial structure and is not suitable for topology analysis. Aiming at incorporating powerful topology analysis functions of GIS to facilitate agent-based simulation of building evacuation, we used a grid graph-based model in this study to represent the indoor space. Such model allows us to establish an evacuation network at a micro level. Potential escape routes from each node thus could be analysed through GIS functions of network analysis considering both the spatial structure and route capacity. This would better support agent-based modelling of evacuees' behaviour including route choice and local movements. As a case study, we conducted a simulation of emergency evacuation from the second floor of an official building using Agent Analyst as the simulation platform. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, as well as the potential of GIS in visualizing and analysing simulation results.

  16. Evacuation of a neonatal intensive care unit in a disaster: lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiritu, Michael; Patil, Uday; Cruz, Hannaise; Gupta, Arpit; Matterson, Heideh; Kim, Yang; Caprio, Martha; Mally, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    NICU patients are among those potentially most vulnerable to the effects of natural or man-made disaster on a medical center. The published data on evacuations of NICU patients in the setting of disaster are sparse. In October of 2012, New York University Langone Medical Center was evacuated during Hurricane Sandy in the setting of a power outage secondary to a coastal surge. In this setting, 21 neonates were safely evacuated from the medical center's NICU to receiving hospitals within New York City in a span of 4.5 hours. Using data recorded during the evacuation and from staff debriefings, we describe the challenges faced and lessons learned during both the power outage and vertical evacuation. From our experience, we identify several elements that are important to the functioning of an NICU in a disaster or to an evacuation that may be incorporated into future NICU-focused disaster planning. These include a clear command structure, backups (personnel, communication, medical information, and equipment), establishing situational awareness, regional coordination, and flexibility as well as special attention to families and to the availability of neonatal transport resources.

  17. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells receive hormonal input that regulates volume and electrolyte homeostasis. In addition, numerous intrarenal, local signaling agonists have appeared on the stage of renal physiology. One such system is that of intrarenal purinergic signaling. This system involves all ...

  18. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are express...

  19. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  20. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient...

  1. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...

  2. Glutamatergic signaling maintains the epithelial phenotype of proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozic, M.; de Rooij, J.; Parisi, E.; Ortega, M.R.; Fernandez, E.; Valdivielso, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), which is present in proximal tubular epithelium, is a glutamate receptor that acts as a calcium channel. Activation of NMDAR induces actin rearrange

  3. Tubular aggregate myopathy: A phenotypic spectrum and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Amrita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tubular aggregates (TAs are inclusions described in skeletal muscle in a variety of disorders. In a retrospective analysis, TAs were found in 18 (0.24% cases and involved a spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Ultrastructurally, four distinct types of aggregates were noted. There was no correlation between the clinical phenotypes, duration of illness and types of TAs.

  4. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG, alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M, beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M, and retinol binding protein (RBP associated with early DN.

  5. Cystinosis (ctns) zebrafish mutant shows pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmonem, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Ramzi; Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Arcolino, Fanny O.; Morgan, Joseph; Pastore, Anna; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Ny, Annelii; Lowe, Martin; de Witte, Peter A.; Baelde, Hans J.; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The human ubiquitous protein cystinosin is responsible for transporting the disulphide amino acid cystine from the lysosomal compartment into the cytosol. In humans, Pathogenic mutations of CTNS lead to defective cystinosin function, intralysosomal cystine accumulation and the development of cystinosis. Kidneys are initially affected with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction (renal Fanconi syndrome), then the disease rapidly affects glomeruli and progresses towards end stage renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Animal models of cystinosis are limited, with only a Ctns knockout mouse reported, showing cystine accumulation and late signs of tubular dysfunction but lacking the glomerular phenotype. We established and characterized a mutant zebrafish model with a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.706 C > T; p.Q236X) in exon 8 of ctns. Cystinotic mutant larvae showed cystine accumulation, delayed development, and signs of pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction mimicking the early phenotype of human cystinotic patients. Furthermore, cystinotic larvae showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis that could be ameliorated with cysteamine, the human cystine depleting therapy. Our data demonstrate that, ctns gene is essential for zebrafish pronephric podocyte and proximal tubular function and that the ctns-mutant can be used for studying the disease pathogenic mechanisms and for testing novel therapies for cystinosis. PMID:28198397

  6. Distal renal tubular acidosis with multiorgan autoimmunity: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Van Den Wildenberg (Maria J.); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); N. Mohebbi (Nilufar); C.A. Wagner (Carsten); A.J.J. Woittiez; P.A.M. de Vries; P. Laverman (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA 61-year-old woman with a history of pernicious anemia presented with progressive muscle weakness and dysarthria. Hypokalemic paralysis (serum potassium, 1.4 mEq/L) due to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was diagnosed. After excluding several possible causes, dRTA was considered au

  7. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in Early Diabetic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiseha, Temesgen; Tamir, Zemenu

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common and serious complication of diabetes associated with adverse outcomes of renal failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality. Early and accurate identification of DN is therefore of critical importance to improve patient outcomes. Albuminuria, a marker of glomerular involvement in early renal damage, cannot always detect early DN. Thus, more sensitive and specific markers in addition to albuminuria are needed to predict the early onset and progression of DN. Tubular injury, as shown by the detection of tubular injury markers in the urine, is a critical component of the early course of DN. These urinary tubular markers may increase in diabetic patients, even before diagnosis of microalbuminuria representing early markers of normoalbuminuric DN. In this review we summarized some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), alpha-1 microglobulin (A1M), beta 2-microglobulin (B2-M), and retinol binding protein (RBP) associated with early DN. PMID:27293888

  8. Subanalytic Bundles and Tubular Neighbourhoods of Zero-Loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwambhar Pati

    2003-08-01

    We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle (with a finite dimensional vector space of sections) on a subanalytic subset of a real analytic manifold , and prove that when is compact, there is a Baire subset of sections in whose zero-loci in have tubular neighbourhoods, homeomorphic to the restriction of the given bundle to these zero-loci.

  9. Changes at the glomerulo-tubular junction in renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S J; Howie, A J

    1988-12-01

    We studied by microscopy 377 biopsies, nephrectomies, and necropsy kidneys from 123 human renal transplants. We discovered two common abnormalities of the renal corpuscle, both affecting the glomerulo-tubular junction. Adhesion of the tip of the glomerular tuft to the origin of the tubule, as reported in various non-transplant glomerulopathies, was seen in 197 specimens (52 per cent). This change was common in material showing acute or chronic vascular rejection and glomerulopathy, and was almost universal in transplants that had been in place for over 1 year. Another change at the glomerulo-tubular junction, not previously highlighted, consisted of an infiltrate of lymphocytes or neutrophil polymorphs into the epithelium at the tubular origin. This change was seen in 145 specimens (38 per cent) and was associated with cellular rejection and ascending infection. These changes are of importance because they show two responses of the kidney to injury that involve the glomerulo-tubular junction and thus suggest that this part of the kidney has some specific properties that have been largely neglected up to now.

  10. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei;

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, the model is validated using densification results from sintering of bi-layered tubular ceramic oxygen membrane based on porous MgO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-d layers. Model input parameters, such as the shrinkage kinetics and viscous parameters are obtained experimentally using optical dilatometry...

  11. Geochemical characterization of tubular alteration features in subseafloor basalt glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emily; Staudigel, Hubert; Templeton, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    There are numerous indications that subseafloor basalts may currently host a huge quantity of active microbial cells and contain biosignatures of ancient life in the form of physical and chemical basalt glass alteration. Unfortunately, technological challenges prevent us from observing the formation and mineralization of these alteration features in situ, or reproducing tubular basalt alteration processes in the laboratory. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of the physical and chemical traces retained in mineralized tubules is currently the best approach for deciphering a record of glass alteration. We have used a number of high-resolution spectroscopic and microscopic methods to probe the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of tubular alteration features in basalt glasses obtained from a suite of subseafloor drill cores that covers a range of different collection locations and ages. By combining three different synchrotron-based X-ray measurements - X-ray fluorescence microprobe mapping, XANES spectroscopy, and μ-XRD - with focused ion beam milling and transmission electron microscopy, we have spatially resolved the major and trace element distributions, as well as the oxidation state of Fe, determined the coordination chemistry of Fe, Mn and Ti at the micron-scale, and constrained the secondary minerals within these features. The tubular alteration features are characterized by strong losses of Fe2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ compared to fresh glass, oxidation of the residual Fe, and the accumulation of Ti and Cu. The predominant phases infilling the alteration regions are Fe3+-bearing silicates dominated by 2:1 clays, with secondary Fe- and Ti-oxides, and a partially oxidized Mn-silicate phase. These geochemical patterns observed within the tubular alteration features are comparable across a diverse suite of samples formed over the past 5-100 Ma, which shows that the microscale mineralization processes are common and consistent throughout the ocean basins and

  12. Renal tubular function in patients treated with high-dose cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of three cycles of high-dose cisplatin (40 mg/m2 day for 5 days) on renal tubular function was evaluated in 30 patients. A significant impairment of proximal tubular salt and water reabsorption rates was observed, but also distal tubular function seemed to be affected. These changes were...... and water reabsorption during cisplatin administration....

  13. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... tubular goods from India and Turkey and LTFV imports of certain oil country tubular goods from India... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  14. 78 FR 45502 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Initiation of... country tubular goods (``OCTG'') from India and the Republic of Turkey (``Turkey''), filed in proper form... Countervailing Duties on Imports of Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and the Republic of...

  15. Factor H and Properdin Recognize Different Epitopes on Renal Tubular Epithelial Heparan Sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaferani, Azadeh; Vives, Romain R.; van der Pol, Pieter; Navis, Gerjan J.; Daha, Mohamed R.; van Kooten, Cees; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Seelen, Marc A.; van den Born, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    During proteinuria, renal tubular epithelial cells become exposed to ultrafiltrate-derived serum proteins, including complement factors. Recently, we showed that properdin binds to tubular heparan sulfates (HS). We now document that factor H also binds to tubular HS, although to a different epitope

  16. Lateral diffusion on tubular membranes: quantification of measurements bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Renner

    Full Text Available Single Particle Tracking (SPT is a powerful technique for the analysis of the lateral diffusion of the lipid and protein components of biological membranes. In neurons, SPT allows the study of the real-time dynamics of receptors for neurotransmitters that diffuse continuously in and out synapses. In the simplest case where the membrane is flat and is parallel to the focal plane of the microscope the analysis of diffusion from SPT data is relatively straightforward. However, in most biological samples the membranes are curved, which complicates analysis and may lead to erroneous conclusions as for the mode of lateral diffusion. Here we considered the case of lateral diffusion in tubular membranes, such as axons, dendrites or the neck of dendritic spines. Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to evaluate the error in diffusion coefficient (D calculation if the curvature is not taken into account. The underestimation is determined by the diameter of the tubular surface, the frequency of image acquisition and the degree of mobility itself. We found that projected trajectories give estimates that are 25 to 50% lower than the real D in case of 2D-SPT over the tubular surface. The use of 3D-SPT improved the measurements if the frequency of image acquisition was fast enough in relation to the mobility of the molecules and the diameter of the tube. Nevertheless, the calculation of D from the components of displacements in the axis of the tubular structure gave accurate estimate of D, free of geometrical artefacts. We show the application of this approach to analyze the diffusion of a lipid on model tubular membranes and of a membrane-bound GFP on neurites from cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  17. Lateral diffusion on tubular membranes: quantification of measurements bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Marianne; Domanov, Yegor; Sandrin, Fanny; Izeddin, Ignacio; Bassereau, Patricia; Triller, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Single Particle Tracking (SPT) is a powerful technique for the analysis of the lateral diffusion of the lipid and protein components of biological membranes. In neurons, SPT allows the study of the real-time dynamics of receptors for neurotransmitters that diffuse continuously in and out synapses. In the simplest case where the membrane is flat and is parallel to the focal plane of the microscope the analysis of diffusion from SPT data is relatively straightforward. However, in most biological samples the membranes are curved, which complicates analysis and may lead to erroneous conclusions as for the mode of lateral diffusion. Here we considered the case of lateral diffusion in tubular membranes, such as axons, dendrites or the neck of dendritic spines. Monte Carlo simulations allowed us to evaluate the error in diffusion coefficient (D) calculation if the curvature is not taken into account. The underestimation is determined by the diameter of the tubular surface, the frequency of image acquisition and the degree of mobility itself. We found that projected trajectories give estimates that are 25 to 50% lower than the real D in case of 2D-SPT over the tubular surface. The use of 3D-SPT improved the measurements if the frequency of image acquisition was fast enough in relation to the mobility of the molecules and the diameter of the tube. Nevertheless, the calculation of D from the components of displacements in the axis of the tubular structure gave accurate estimate of D, free of geometrical artefacts. We show the application of this approach to analyze the diffusion of a lipid on model tubular membranes and of a membrane-bound GFP on neurites from cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

  18. sup 99m Tc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references.

  19. An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector using Therminol D-12 as Heat Transfer Fluid Coupled with Parabolic Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvakumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An evacuated tube solar collector using therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid coupled with parabolic trough is studied in this paper. An experimental set-up was constructed to study the performance of evacuated tube collector with therminol D-12 as heat transfer fluid. The parabolic trough is coupled with evacuated tube collector for better performance. In the traditional solar collectors water is used as heat transfer fluid. The problems in using water as heat transfer fluid are addressed in detail in this paper. The temperature characteristics of heat transfer fluid and water in the storage tank and the heating efficiency are determined under various conditions. The efficiency of therminol based evacuated tube collector coupled with parabolic trough is 40% more than that of water based evacuated tube collector coupled with parabolic trough. This study projects the potential of therminol based evacuated tube solar collector coupled with parabolic trough in the instant hot water generation.

  20. Effect of varying two key parameters in simulating evacuation for a dormitory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran

    2013-01-01

    Student dormitories are both living and resting areas for students in their spare time. There are many small rooms in the dormitories. And the students are distributed densely in the dormitories. High occupant density is the main characteristic of student dormitories. Once there is an accident, such as fire or earthquake, the losses will be cruel. Computer evacuation models developed overseas are commonly applied in working out safety management schemes. The average minimum widths of corridor and exit are the two key parameters affecting the evacuation for the dormitory. The effect of varying these two parameters will be studied in this paper by taking a dormitory in our university as an example. Evacuation performance is predicted with the software FDS + Evac. The default values in the software are used and adjusted through a field survey. The effect of varying either of the two parameters is discussed. It is found that the simulated results agree well with the experimental results. From our study it seems that the evacuation time is not in proportion to the evacuation distance. And we also named a phenomenon of “the closer is not the faster”. For the building researched in this article, a corridor width of 3 m is the most appropriate. And the suitable exit width of the dormitory for evacuation is about 2.5 to 3 m. The number of people has great influence on the walking speed of people. The purpose of this study is to optimize the building, and to make the building in favor of personnel evacuation. Then the damage could be minimized.

  1. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  2. Simulation of Evacuation Characteristics Using a 2-Dimensional Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Ji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In public places, the high pedestrian density is one of the direct causes leading to crowding and trample disaster, so it is very necessary to investigate the collective and evacuation characteristics for pedestrian movement. In the occupants’ evacuation process, the people-people interaction and the people-environment interaction are sufficiently considered in this paper, which have been divided into the exit attraction, the repulsion force between people, the friction between people, the repulsion force between human and barrier, and the attraction of surrounding people. Through analyzing the existing models, a new occupant evacuation cellular automata (CA model based on the social force model is presented, which overcomes the shortage of the high density crowd simulation and combines the advantages that CA has sample rules and faster calculating speed. The simulating result shows a great applicability for evacuation under the high density crowd condition, and the segregation phenomena have also been found in the bidirectional pedestrian flow. Besides these, setting isolated belt near the exit or entrance of underpass not only remarkably decreases the density and the risk of tramper disaster but also increases the evacuation efficiency, so it provides a new idea for infrastructure design about the exits and entrances.

  3. The Study of Evacuation Route Algorithm in Flooding by Localized Heavy Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhang; Eunmi Kim; Yun Sung Go; Chang Soo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the worst hazards of natural disaster. One of the adverse effect of flooding is that it disrupts the traffic system of a city or nation. Therefore, finding the safe path to the destination to drivers is required to implement an efficient evacuation system during a heavy rain. How to efficiently evacuate people in a road is required as well. In this study, we compared the A* algorithm and Dijkstra algorithm to find an optimal and efficient path between departure point to destination point if there is a hazard area. The result indicates A* algorithm can find the shorter optimal path better Dijkstra algorithm. We develop the evacuation route algorithm using A* algorithm when this algorithm was used in evacuation route, the road network was graded according to the flooding history and flooding danger area which is defined by lowland area information. We simulate the suggested algorithm for the test experiments demonstrate that this algorithm can enhance the efficiency of evacuation route in Busan.

  4. Influences of exit and stair conditions on human evacuation in a dormitory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenjun; Li, Angui; Gao, Ran; Wang, Xiaowei

    2012-12-01

    Evacuation processes of students are investigated by experiment and simulation. The experiment is performed for students evacuating from a dormitory with an exit and stairs. FDS+Evac is proposed to simulate the exit and stair dynamics of occupant evacuation. Concerning the exit and stair widths, we put forward some useful standpoints. Good agreement is achieved between the predicted results and experimental results. With the increase of exit width, a significant stratification phenomenon will be found in flow rate. Stratification phenomenon is that two different stable flow rates will emerge during the evacuation. And the flow rate curve looks like a ladder. The larger the exit width, the earlier the stratification phenomenon appears. When exit width is more than 2.0 m, the flow rate of each exit width is divided into two stable stages, and the evacuation times show almost no change. The judgment that the existence of stairs causes flow stratification is reasonable. By changing the width of the stairs, we proved that judgment. The smaller the width of BC, the earlier the stratification appears. We found that scenario 5 is the most adverse circumstance. Those results are helpful in performance-based design of buildings.

  5. Theoretical and experimental validation of evacuated tubes directly coupled with solar still

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, H. N.; Thakkar, H.

    2016-11-01

    Experimental study of evacuated tubes coupled solar still in the climatic conditions of Mehsana, a region of North Gujarat, India during summer and winter climate conditions has been made. Experimental setup was made by authors. Fourteen double-walled hard borosilicate glass tubes have been used. Evacuated tubes were inclined at angle of 45° from horizontal. Outer tubes of evacuated tubes were transparent, inner tubes were coated with a selective coating of Al-Ni/Al compound for better solar radiation absorption and minimum emittance. It has been shown that evacuated tube attachments to the solar still increased the water temperature inside the solar still for increment in the generation of distillate output. Evacuated tubes coupled solar still is not only produce distilled water during sunshine hours, but also off-sunshine hours due to heat storage effect. For the validation of the experimental results, a theoretical model is proposed based on the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer equations for solar still glass cover, water in basin and basin bottom. Two main statistical parameters—root mean square error and mean bias error—were calculated to compare the results of experiments and theoretical analysis. Closed matching of the experimental and theoretical results has been found.

  6. A fuzzy Bayesian network approach to quantify the human behaviour during an evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2016-06-01

    Bayesian Network (BN) has been regarded as a successful representation of inter-relationship of factors affecting human behavior during an emergency. This paper is an extension of earlier work of quantifying the variables involved in the BN model of human behavior during an evacuation using a well-known direct probability elicitation technique. To overcome judgment bias and reduce the expert's burden in providing precise probability values, a new approach for the elicitation technique is required. This study proposes a new fuzzy BN approach for quantifying human behavior during an evacuation. Three major phases of methodology are involved, namely 1) development of qualitative model representing human factors during an evacuation, 2) quantification of BN model using fuzzy probability and 3) inferencing and interpreting the BN result. A case study of three inter-dependencies of human evacuation factors such as danger assessment ability, information about the threat and stressful conditions are used to illustrate the application of the proposed method. This approach will serve as an alternative to the conventional probability elicitation technique in understanding the human behavior during an evacuation.

  7. An experimental study on single basin solar still augmented with evacuated tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampathkumar K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the solar still is determined by the temperature of water in the basin and the glass temperature. Various active methods have been adopted to increase the temperature of the basin, so as to improve the productivity of solar still. Most of the previous research works have been focusing on flat plate collector and concentrating collector. In this experimental study, a single slope solar still directly augmented with evacuated tubes was used to increase the daily productivity by reducing heat losses. Evacuated tubes were directly coupled to the lower side of the single slope solar still with an area of 1m2. Black gravel is used to increase the productivity by means of reducing quantity of water in the basin. Extensive experiments were conducted to explore the performance of solar still in several modes namely still alone, still with black stones, still with evacuated tubes, and still with evacuated tubes and black gravel. The experimental setup was designed and installed at Solar Energy Park, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore (77˚E, 11˚N, Tamilnadu, India. These experiments were conducted using tap water as feed. It was found that, after augmentation of the evacuated tubes, the daily production rate has increased by 49.7 % and it increased by 59.48% with black stones. Economic analysis was also done and payback period of this experimental setup is 235 days.

  8. A scenario-based modeling approach for emergency evacuation management and risk analysis under multiple uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Guo, L; Li, Y P; Dai, C; Wang, X W; Sun, W

    2013-02-15

    Nuclear emergency evacuation is important to prevent radioactive harms by hazardous materials and to limit the accidents' consequences; however, uncertainties are involved in the components and processes of such a management system. In the study, an interval-parameter joint-probabilistic integer programming (IJIP) method is developed for emergency evacuation management under uncertainties. Optimization techniques of interval-parameter programming (IPP) and joint-probabilistic constrained (JPC) programming are incorporated into an integer linear programming framework, so that the approach can deal with uncertainties expressed as joint probability and interval values. The IJIP method can schedule the optimal routes to guarantee the maximum population evacuated away from the effected zone during a finite time. Furthermore, it can also facilitate post optimization analysis to enhance robustness in controlling system violation risk imposed on the joint-probabilistic constraints. The developed method has been applied to a case study of nuclear emergency management; meanwhile, a number of scenarios under different system conditions have been analyzed. It is indicated that the solutions are useful for evacuation management practices. The result of the IJIP method can not only help to raise the capability of disaster responses in a systematic manner, but also provide an insight into complex relationships among evacuation planning, resources utilizations, policy requirements and system risks.

  9. Mechanical reliability of geometrically imperfect tubular oxygen transport membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Søgaard, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    Mixed ionic and electronic conductors have potential applications as oxygen transport membranes. Realization of the technology is challenged by mechanical reliability of the components which are subjected to stresses arising from oxygen stoichiometry gradients and external overpressure during...... operation. This paper investigates numerically the failure risk of tubular oxygen transport membranes under industrial operating conditions using finite element modeling and Weibull strength analysis. The effects of component manufacturing defects on fracture probability are elucidated by explicit modeling...... of imperfections in the tubular membrane geometry. A supported membrane made of dense and porous Zr-doped-BSCF is studied as an illustrative example. It is shown that stresses induced by oxygen stoichiometry gradients relax over time due to creep and external pressure is the dominating source of stress in the long...

  10. A distal renal tubular acidosis showing hyperammonemia and hyperlactacidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ripoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA presents itself with variable clinical manifestations and often with late expressions that impact on prognosis. Case report: A 45-day-old male infant was admitted with stopping growth, difficult feeding and vomiting after meals. Clinical tests and labs revealed a type 1 renal tubular acidosis, even if the first blood tests showed ammonium and lactate increase. We had to exclude metabolic diseases before having a certain diagnosis. Conclusions: blood and urine investigations and genetic tests are fundamental to formulate dRTA diagnosis and to plan follow-up, according to possible phenotypic expressions of recessive and dominant autosomal forms in patients with dRTA.

  11. An early Cambrian agglutinated tubular lophophorate with brachiopod characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.-F.; Li, G.-X.; Holmer, L. E.; Brock, G. A.; Balthasar, U.; Skovsted, C. B.; Fu, D.-J.; Zhang, X.-L.; Wang, H.-Z.; Butler, A.; Zhang, Z.-L.; Cao, C.-Q.; Han, J.; Liu, J.-N.; Shu, D.-G.

    2014-05-01

    The morphological disparity of lophotrochozoan phyla makes it difficult to predict the morphology of the last common ancestor. Only fossils of stem groups can help discover the morphological transitions that occurred along the roots of these phyla. Here, we describe a tubular fossil Yuganotheca elegans gen. et sp. nov. from the Cambrian (Stage 3) Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that exhibits an unusual combination of phoronid, brachiopod and tommotiid (Cambrian problematica) characters, notably a pair of agglutinated valves, enclosing a horseshoe-shaped lophophore, supported by a lower bipartite tubular attachment structure with a long pedicle with coelomic space. The terminal bulb of the pedicle provided anchorage in soft sediment. The discovery has important implications for the early evolution of lophotrochozoans, suggesting rooting of brachiopods into the sessile lophotrochozoans and the origination of their bivalved bauplan preceding the biomineralization of shell valves in crown brachiopods.

  12. Acute tubular necrosis in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eranga S Wijewickrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a well-recognized complication of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. The predominant mechanism is intravascular hemolysis resulting in massive hemoglobinuria ARF. We report a case of acute tubular necrosis (ATN developed in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis in a 21-year-old man with anemia, who was eventually diagnosed to have PNH. The patient presented with rapidly deteriorating renal functions in the background of iron deficiency anemia, which was attributed to reflux esophagitis. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of intravascular hemolysis. Renal biopsy revealed ATN with deposition of hemosiderin in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. Diagnosis of PNH was confirmed with a positive Ham′s test and flow cytometry. Our case emphasizes the need to consider ATN as a possible cause for ARF in patients suspected to have PNH even in the absence of overwhelming evidence of intravascular hemolysis.

  13. Inner-tubular physicochemical processes of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Quanhong; LI Lixiang; CHENG Huiming; WANG Maozhang; BAI Jinbo

    2003-01-01

    Nanosized inner cavities of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) afford quasi-one-dimensional (1D) confined space, in which materials adsorbed or filled are of reactivity greatly different from the materials adsorbed on a planar surface and quite a number of curious physicochemical processes will possibly occur. In other words, 1D CNT nanochannels may serve as "nanosized test tubes". In this article, on the basis of the unique chemical and physical properties of CNTs, the latest progresses of the research on peculiar inner-tubular physicochemical processes of CNTs are briefly reviewed from several aspects. The extraordinary 1D adsorption, capillary filling and nanoscale-confined reaction are discussed in detail. Moreover, the characteristics of "nanosized test tubes" are summarized and many unfamiliar inner cavity chemical processes are expected. Finally, the future direction and challenges on basic researches and potential applications of inner-tubular chemistry of CNTs are discussed.

  14. Dynamic model of microalgal production in tubular photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, I; Acién, F G; Fernández, J M; Guzmán, J L; Magán, J J; Berenguel, M

    2012-12-01

    A dynamic model for microalgal culture is presented. The model takes into account the fluid-dynamic and mass transfer, in addition to biological phenomena, it being based on fundamental principles. The model has been calibrated and validated using data from a pilot-scale tubular photobioreactor but it can be extended to other designs. It can be used to determine, from experimental measurements, the values of characteristic parameters. The model also allows a simulation of the system's dynamic behaviour in response to solar radiation, making it a useful tool for design and operation optimization of photobioreactors. Moreover, the model permits the identification of local pH gradients, dissolved oxygen and dissolved carbon dioxide; that can damage microalgae growth. In addition, the developed model can map the different characteristic time scales of phenomena inside microalgae cultures within tubular photobioreactors, meaning it is a valuable tool in the development of advanced control strategies for microalgae cultures.

  15. Understanding shape and morphology of unusual tubular starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bei; Liu, Wenxia; Tan, Hua; Yu, Dehai; Song, Zhaoping; Lucia, Lucian A

    2016-10-20

    Starch nanocrystals (SNC) are aptly described as the insoluble degradation byproducts of starch granules that purportedly display morphologies that are platelet-like, round, square, and oval-like. In this work, we reported the preparation of SNC with unprecedented tubular structures through sulfuric acid hydrolysis of normal maize starch, subsequent exposure to ammonia and relaxation at 4°C. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation clearly proved that the SNCs possess tubular nanostructures with polygonal cross-section. After further reviewing the transformations of SNC by acid hydrolysis, ammonia treatment, and curing time at 4°C, a mechanism for T-SNC formation is suggested. It is conjectured that T-SNC gradually self-assembles by combination of smaller platelet-like/square nanocrystals likely loosely aggregated by starch molecular chains from residual amorphous regions. This work paves the way for the pursuit of new approaches for the preparation of starch-based nanomaterials possessing unique morphologies.

  16. Segmental tubular sodium reabsorption in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieperink, H; Eshøj, O; Leyssac, P P

    1993-01-01

    Segmental tubular sodium reabsorption in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was measured in 36 patients in a cross-sectional study including one group (n = 13) without significant albuminuria (UalbV 1), one group (n = 16) with albuminuria in the range from 30 to 300 mg 24 h-1......, and a group (n = 7) with nephropathy (UalbV > 300 mg 24 h-1). Lithium clearance was used to measure end proximal delivery. From end proximal delivery, 51Cr-EDTA clearance (GFR) and sodium clearance, segmental tubular reabsorption was calculated. For all patients, GFR was directly correlated with end proximal...... delivery (r = 0.62, p 1, the direct correlation between GFR and end proximal delivery was also significant (r = 0.77, p

  17. Catalytic Tubular Microjet Propulsion Model for Endovascular Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkis, Bruno; Folio, David; Ferreira, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes the propulsion of the catalytic tubular microjet using Navier-Stokes equations. Especially , the thrust capability of the microjet is outstanding compared with the other microsystems, but remains only partially understood. Studies have identified the internal precursory mechanisms of the propulsion of the microjet: its inner wall catalyzes the dismutation of aqueous hydrogen peroxide, and an oxygen bubble is then formed and migrates towards its wid...

  18. Lipasuria in acute pancreatitis: result of tubular dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, R; Buehler, H; Kehl, O; Ammann, R

    1987-01-01

    Lipase, in contrast to amylase, is completely reabsorbed by the proximal tubules after glomerular filtration. Therefore, no lipase is detectable in the unconcentrated urine according to the current opinion. The handling of lipase (detected with an enzyme-immunoassay) by the kidney was investigated in comparison with creatinine, amylase, and beta-2-microglobulin by clearance studies in acute pancreatitis (n = 10), burn injury (n = 4), glomerular proteinuria (n = 8), and controls without evidence of pancreatic or renal diseases (n = 5). In initial stages of acute pancreatitis a measurable clearance of lipase (mean: 49.6 microliters/min, range: 0.5-234) was found in association with corresponding increased clearances of beta-2-microglobulin (mean: 10.5 ml/min, range: 0.02-58.9) and of amylase (mean: 8.9 ml/min, range: 2.4-22.6) in nine of ten patients. This finding is consistent with a defect of tubular function. However, regression analysis failed to show a significant correlation between lipase and beta-2-microglobulin clearance. Repeated measurements during the course of pancreatitis in seven patients showed reversibility of tubular dysfunction. In patients with burn injury a similar elevation of clearances of beta-2-microglobulin and of amylase was found, but tubular dysfunction in this condition was not associated with lipasuria. In glomerular proteinuria a lipase clearance was found in two of five cases with moderate, and in the other three cases with severe impairment of creatinine clearance. beta-2-microglobulin clearance was normal in the former and only slightly elevated in the latter group. In conclusion lipase is measurable in the urine of most patients with acute pancreatitis as a result of a reversible tubular dysfunction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Study of maximum pressure for composite hepta-tubular powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gupta

    1959-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the expressions for maximum pressure occurring positions in the case of composite hepta-tubular powers used in conventional guns and the corresponding conditions have been derived under certain conditions, viz., the value of n, the ratio of specific heats, has been assumed to be the same for both the charges and the covolume corrections have not been neglected.

  20. Tissue cell assisted fabrication of tubular catalytic platinum microengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-01

    We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the cells/Pt-coated substrate in water, microscrolls of highly uniform sizes are spontaneously formed. Tubular microengines fabricated with the fruit cell assisted method exhibit a fast motion of ~100 bodylengths per s (~1 mm s-1). An extremely simple and affordable platform for mass production of the micromotors is crucial for the envisioned swarms of thousands and millions of autonomous micromotors performing biomedical and environmental remediation tasks.We report a facile platform for mass production of robust self-propelled tubular microengines. Tissue cells extracted from fruits of banana and apple, Musa acuminata and Malus domestica, are used as the support on which a thin platinum film is deposited by means of physical vapor deposition. Upon sonication of the cells/Pt-coated substrate in water, microscrolls of highly uniform sizes are spontaneously formed. Tubular microengines fabricated with the fruit cell assisted method exhibit a fast motion of ~100 bodylengths per s (~1 mm s-1). An extremely simple and affordable platform for mass production of the micromotors is crucial for the envisioned swarms of thousands and millions of autonomous micromotors performing biomedical and environmental remediation tasks. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Related video. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03720k

  1. Aerodynamic loads on a ball-obturated tubular projectile

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, William Arthur

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited A tubular projectile is one with a hole bored along its longitudinal axis. The hole presents a problem in getting the round expelled from a gun. Some means of sealing the hole until the round clears the muzzle is required. A ball -obturator offers one practical means of accomplishing this without any accompanying FOD hazard. The ball-obturator, analogous to a common ballvalve, remains closed under the force of the expand...

  2. Effect of Loading Paths on HydroformingTubular Square Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of loading path on tube hydroforming process is discussed in this paper with finiteelement simulation. Four different loading paths are utilized in simulating the forming process of square tubular component with hydroforming and the result of different loading path is presented. Among the result, the thickness distribution of bilinear loading path is the most uniform one. It shows that the increase of punch displacement in the stage of high pressure is beneficial to the forming of component for optimized stress condition.

  3. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate.

  4. Plastic deformation of tubular crystals by dislocation glide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A.; Nelson, David R.

    2016-09-01

    Tubular crystals, two-dimensional lattices wrapped into cylindrical topologies, arise in many contexts, including botany and biofilaments, and in physical systems such as carbon nanotubes. The geometrical principles of botanical phyllotaxis, describing the spiral packings on cylinders commonly found in nature, have found application in all these systems. Several recent studies have examined defects in tubular crystals associated with crystalline packings that must accommodate a fixed tube radius. Here we study the mechanics of tubular crystals with variable tube radius, with dislocations interposed between regions of different phyllotactic packings. Unbinding and separation of dislocation pairs with equal and opposite Burgers vectors allow the growth of one phyllotactic domain at the expense of another. In particular, glide separation of dislocations offers a low-energy mode for plastic deformations of solid tubes in response to external stresses, reconfiguring the lattice step by step. Through theory and simulation, we examine how the tube's radius and helicity affects, and is in turn altered by, the mechanics of dislocation glide. We also discuss how a sufficiently strong bending rigidity can alter or arrest the deformations of tubes with small radii.

  5. Evaluation of stress concentration for planar tubular joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.F.GHANAMEH; D.THEVENET; A.ZEGHLOUL

    2006-01-01

    In offshore tubular structures,a typical tubular joint may be subjected to three different types of basic loadings: axial,in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending,through its brace members. Each type will cause a different stress distribution at the joint intersection of structures. Moreover,the actual load condition of a tubular joint can be any combination of the above three basic load cases,for this reason,a combined loading was investigated in addition to these three basic loadings. This load is composed of an axial loading combined with a continuation of rotational bending loading obtained while rotate center of the brace around a circle. Different types of planar joints such as T,Y,X,K,DT,DY,DX,TY,TK,DTX,DTDY,and DTDK,with braces subjected to combined loading,were numerically analyzed to study the effect of those different cases of loading and different types of joints,on the stress concentration zone and values.

  6. A Tubular Biomaterial Construct Exhibiting a Negative Poisson's Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Developing functional small-diameter vascular grafts is an important objective in tissue engineering research. In this study, we address the problem of compliance mismatch by designing and developing a 3D tubular construct that has a negative Poisson's ratio νxy (NPR. NPR constructs have the unique ability to expand transversely when pulled axially, thereby resulting in a highly-compliant tubular construct. In this work, we used projection stereolithography to 3D-print a planar NPR sheet composed of photosensitive poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate biomaterial. We used a step-lithography exposure and a stitch process to scale up the projection printing process, and used the cut-missing rib unit design to develop a centimeter-scale NPR sheet, which was rolled up to form a tubular construct. The constructs had Poisson's ratios of -0.6 ≤ νxy ≤ -0.1. The NPR construct also supports higher cellular adhesion than does the construct that has positive νxy. Our NPR design offers a significant advance in the development of highly-compliant vascular grafts.

  7. Intragraft Tubular Vimentin and CD44 Expression Correlate With Long-Term Renal Allograft Function and Interstitial Fibrosis and Tubular Atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kers; Y.C. Xu-Dubois; E. Rondeau; N. Claessen; M.M. Idu; J.J.T.H. Roelofs; F.J. Bemelman; R.J.M. ten Berge; S. Florquin

    2010-01-01

    Background. Development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) is the main histologic feature involved in renal allograft deterioration. The aim of this study was to validate whether de novo tubular expression of CD44 (transmembrane glycoprotein) and vimentin (mesenchymal cell marker),

  8. Laboratory evaluation of 10 heat and moisture exchangers using simulated aeromedical evacuation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Huda S; Fecura, Stephen E; Baskin, Jonathan; Kalns, John E

    2011-06-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are used for airway humidification in mechanically ventilated patients and have been evaluated only under hospital conditions. U.S. Air Force aeromedical evacuation transports are performed under rugged conditions further complicated by the cold and dry environment in military aircrafts, and HMEs are used to provide airway humidification for patients. This study evaluated 10 commercial HMEs using a test system that simulated aeromedical evacuation conditions. Although the American National Standards Institute recommends inspired air to be at an absolute humidity value of > or = 30 mg/L for mechanically ventilated patients, the highest absolute humidity by any HME was approximately 20 mg/L. Although none of the HMEs were able to maintain a temperature high enough to achieve the humidity standard of the American National Standards Institute, the clinical significance of this standard may be less important than the relative humidity maintained in the respired air, especially on evacuation flights of short duration.

  9. GIS-Based emergency and evacuation planning for volcanic hazards in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, J. W.; Sabel, C. E.; Blumenthal, E.

    2005-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide a range of techniques which allow ready access to data, and the opportunity to overlay graphical location-based information for ease of interpretation. They can be used to solve complex planning and management problems. All phases of emergency management......, evacuation may be necessary, and hence transportation systems must be evaluated. Scenarios have been developed for many centres (e.g. Taranaki/Egmont and Bay of Plenty volcanoes), but so far the use of CIS in planning for evacuation is limited. This paper looks at the use of CIS, indicates how it is being...... used in emergency management, and suggests how it can be used in evacuation planning....

  10. Pollinators and Other Flying Insects inside and outside the Fukushima Evacuation Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Mishima, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants in 2011, a large evacuation zone was imposed in an area where residents had historically managed forests and farmlands. Thus, the human activities that had maintained biodiversity and ecosystem services in the zone were discontinued. Such change can affect insects, a biodiversity component that is relatively tolerant to radiation exposure. In this study, we investigated flying insects, including pollinators, important ecosystem providers inside and outside the zone, using Malaise traps. The results showed that the number of individuals of Xylocopa appendiculata, the largest Apidae species in the region, was significantly lower inside the evacuation zone than outside it, whereas those of other insects were not lower significantly. Although we suggest that flying insects and their ecosystem services (i.e., benefits from them such as pollination) 3 years after the disaster were not critically impacted, it is important to monitor the long-term effects of the evacuation in the future.

  11. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  12. Agent-Based Evacuation Model Incorporating Fire Scene and Building Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fangqin; REN Aizhu

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the key factors affecting evacuations at fire scones is necessary for accurate simulations.An agent-based simulation model which incorporates the fire scene and the building geometry is developed using a fire dynamics simulator (FDS) based on the computational fluid dynamics and geographic information system (GIS) data to model the occupant response.The building entities are generated for FDS simulation while the spatial analysis on GIS data represents the occupant's knowledge of the building.The influence of the fire is based on a hazard assessment of the combustion products.The agent behavior and decisions are affected by environmental features and the fire field.A case study demonstrates that the evacuation model effectively simulates the coexistence and interactions of the major factors including occupants,building geometry,and fire disaster during the evacuation.The results can be used for the assessments of building designs regarding fire safety.

  13. Pollinators and Other Flying Insects inside and outside the Fukushima Evacuation Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Mishima, Yoshio; Fukasawa, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants in 2011, a large evacuation zone was imposed in an area where residents had historically managed forests and farmlands. Thus, the human activities that had maintained biodiversity and ecosystem services in the zone were discontinued. Such change can affect insects, a biodiversity component that is relatively tolerant to radiation exposure. In this study, we investigated flying insects, including pollinators, important ecosystem providers inside and outside the zone, using Malaise traps. The results showed that the number of individuals of Xylocopa appendiculata, the largest Apidae species in the region, was significantly lower inside the evacuation zone than outside it, whereas those of other insects were not lower significantly. Although we suggest that flying insects and their ecosystem services (i.e., benefits from them such as pollination) 3 years after the disaster were not critically impacted, it is important to monitor the long-term effects of the evacuation in the future. PMID:26561045

  14. Increase in disaster-related deaths: risks and social impacts of evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, M

    2016-10-04

    In Fukushima Prefecture, disaster-related death is a social problem for individuals who were forced to leave their hometowns as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Disaster-related death is caused by stress, exhaustion, and worsening of pre-existing illnesses due to evacuation. The number of disaster-related deaths has reached almost 2000, and continues to rise. Prolonged uncertainty and deteriorating living conditions suggest no end to such deaths, although response measures have been taken to improve the situation. It is said that insufficient response measures were taken, in particular, during the transitional period between the emergency phase and the reconstruction phase. There is a need to apply the lessons learned in planning for evacuation after a nuclear hazard, considering radiological protection as well as risks associated with evacuation.

  15. ABM and GIS-based multi-scenarios volcanic evacuation modelling of Merapi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumadi, Carver, Steve; Quincey, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Conducting effective evacuation is one of the successful keys to deal with such crisis. Therefore, a plan that considers the probability of the spatial extent of the hazard occurrences is needed. Likewise, the evacuation plan in Merapi is already prepared before the eruption on 2010. However, the plan could not be performed because the eruption magnitude was bigger than it was predicted. In this condition, the extent of the hazardous area was increased larger than the prepared hazard model. Managing such unpredicted situation need adequate information that flexible and adaptable to the current situation. Therefore, we applied an Agent-based Model (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) using multi-scenarios hazard model to support the evacuation management. The methodology and the case study in Merapi is provided.

  16. Energy and exergy efficiency of heat pipe evacuated tube solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarkazemi Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed theoretical method for energy and exergy analysis of the collector is provided. The method is also evaluated by experiments. The results showed a good agreement between the experiment and theory. Using the theoretical model, the effect of different parameters on the collector’s energy and exergy efficiency has been investigated. It is concluded that inlet water temperature, inlet water mass flow rate, the transmittance of tubes and absorptance of the absorber surface have a direct effect on the energy and exergy efficiency of the heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector. Increasing water inlet temperature in heat pipe evacuated solar collectors leads to a decrease in heat transfer rate between the heat pipe’s condenser and water.

  17. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami evacuation and disaster relief planning in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Schmidtlein, Mathew; Schelling, John; Frazier, T.

    2016-01-01

    Successful evacuations are critical to saving lives from future tsunamis. Pedestrian-evacuation modeling related to tsunami hazards primarily has focused on identifying areas and the number of people in these areas where successful evacuations are unlikely. Less attention has been paid to identifying evacuation pathways and population demand at assembly areas for at-risk individuals that may have sufficient time to evacuate. We use the neighboring coastal communities of Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Cosmopolis (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, least-cost-distance evacuation modeling for supporting evacuation outreach, response, and relief planning. We demonstrate an approach that uses geospatial evacuation modeling to (a) map the minimum pedestrian travel speeds to safety, the most efficient paths, and collective evacuation basins, (b) estimate the total number and demographic description of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas, and (c) determine which paths may be compromised due to earthquake-induced ground failure. Results suggest a wide range in the magnitude and type of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas and highlight parts of the communities with no readily accessible assembly area. Earthquake-induced ground failures could obstruct access to some assembly areas, cause evacuees to reroute to get to other assembly areas, and isolate some evacuees from relief personnel. Evacuation-modeling methods and results discussed here have implications and application to tsunami-evacuation outreach, training, response procedures, mitigation, and long-term land use planning to increase community resilience.

  18. Analysis of constant tissue remodeling in Syrian hamster Harderian gland: intra-tubular and inter-tubular syncytial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto-Montes, Ana; García-Macía, Marina; Caballero, Beatriz; Sierra, Verónica; Rodríguez-Colunga, María J; Reiter, Russel J; Vega-Naredo, Ignacio

    2013-05-01

    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) has a marked sexual dimorphism and exhibits an extraordinary rate of porphyrinogenesis. The physiological oxidative stress, derived from constant porphyrin production, is so high that the HG needs additional survival autophagic mechanisms to fight against this chronic exposure, provoking the triggering of a holocrine secretion in female glands that forms two types of secretory masses: intra-tubular-syncytial and inter-tubular-syncytial masses. The aim of this work was to study the development of this inter-tubular holocrine secretion. To approach this task, we have considered that the steps developed during the formation of the so-called invasive masses consist of the growth of epithelial cells, cell detachment from the basal lamina and invasion of surrounding tissues. The presence of these masses, particularly in the female HG, are closely linked to sexual dimorphism in redox balance and to alterations in the expression of certain factors such as cytokeratins, P-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin H, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p53, CD-31 and vascular endothelial growth factor, which seem to be involved in tissue remodeling. The results document unusual mechanisms of secretion in Syrian hamster HG: an extraordinary system of massive secretion through the conjunctive tissue, disrupting the branched structure of the gland.

  19. Agent-based evacuation simulation for spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia; Wen, Jiahong; Jiang, Yong

    2015-12-01

    The construction of urban shelters is one of the most important work in urban planning and disaster prevention. The spatial allocation assessment is a fundamental pre-step for spatial location-allocation of urban shelters. This paper introduces a new method which makes use of agent-based technology to implement evacuation simulation so as to conduct dynamic spatial allocation assessment of urban shelters. The method can not only accomplish traditional geospatial evaluation for urban shelters, but also simulate the evacuation process of the residents to shelters. The advantage of utilizing this method lies into three aspects: (1) the evacuation time of each citizen from a residential building to the shelter can be estimated more reasonably; (2) the total evacuation time of all the residents in a region is able to be obtained; (3) the road congestions in evacuation in sheltering can be detected so as to take precautionary measures to prevent potential risks. In this study, three types of agents are designed: shelter agents, government agents and resident agents. Shelter agents select specified land uses as shelter candidates for different disasters. Government agents delimitate the service area of each shelter, in other words, regulate which shelter a person should take, in accordance with the administrative boundaries and road distance between the person's position and the location of the shelter. Resident agents have a series of attributes, such as ages, positions, walking speeds, and so on. They also have several behaviors, such as reducing speed when walking in the crowd, helping old people and children, and so on. Integrating these three types of agents which are correlated with each other, evacuation procedures can be simulated and dynamic allocation assessment of shelters will be achieved. A case study in Jing'an District, Shanghai, China, was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. A scenario of earthquake disaster which occurs in nighttime

  20. [Military history of evacuation hospital No 3457 and the head of this hospital -- Porfirii Ivanovich Zabolotnyi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2014-05-01

    The article is devoted to publication of an archive document "History of evacuation hospital AN 3457". This archive document was found in one of the deserted country house in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. 32 pages of text is bright and eloquent testimony of the period of the Great Patriotic War. Hospital was founded in 1941 in Sumy Oblast and then was deployed in Siberia, in the region of the Far North, again in Ukraine and in Hungary. Army medical officer Porfirii Zabolotnyi was the chef of evacuation hospital during this period.

  1. Pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition: The impact of communication and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuqi; Jia, Bin; Jiang, Rui; Shan, Jingjing

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies pedestrian evacuation in view and hearing limited condition based on the social force approach. It is assumed that there are two types of pedestrians: Informed individuals know the exit location whereas uninformed individuals do not. The uninformed individuals can communicate with the informed ones within their perceptual fields, thus learning to know and memorize the exit location. We consider cases with and without communication/memory. The simulations show communication and memory are able to enhance the evacuation efficiency. We also investigate the impact of communication on the efficiency of an emergency exit.

  2. 'Saving the Nation's Children': Teachers, Wartime Evacuation in England and Wales and the Construction of National Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Peter; Gardner, Philip

    1999-01-01

    Examines teachers' perceptions of evacuation that prevailed at the outbreak of World War II. Focuses on the teachers' press, central government policy documents, and contemporary evacuation surveys. Explores four issues impinging upon the teachers' role related to the national identity. (CMK)

  3. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  4. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  5. Development of a decision support system for tsunami evacuation: application to the Jiyang District of Sanya city in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jingming; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Peitao; Ren, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiaojuan

    2017-03-01

    Major tsunami disasters often cause great damage in the first few hours following an earthquake. The possible severity of such events requires preparations to prevent tsunami disasters or mitigate them. This paper is an attempt to develop a decision support system for rapid tsunami evacuation for local decision makers. Based on the numerical results database of tsunami disasters, this system can quickly obtain the tsunami inundation and travel time. Because numerical models are calculated in advance, this system can reduce decision-making time. Population distribution, as a vulnerability factor, was analyzed to identify areas of high risk for tsunami disasters. Combined with spatial data, this system can comprehensively analyze the dynamic and static evacuation process and identify problems that negatively impact evacuation, thus supporting the decision-making for tsunami evacuation in high-risk areas. When an earthquake and tsunami occur, this system can rapidly obtain the tsunami inundation and travel time and provide information to assist with tsunami evacuation operations.

  6. Usability and Visual Communication for Southern California Tsunami Evacuation Information: The importance of information design in disaster risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenichen, C.; Schandler, S.; Wells, M.; Danielsen, T.

    2015-12-01

    Evacuation behavior, including participation and response, is rarely an individual and isolated process and the outcomes are usually systemic. Ineffective evacuation information can easily attribute to delayed evacuation response. Delays increase demands on already extended emergency personal, increase the likelihood of traffic congestion, and can cause harm to self and property. From an information design perspective, addressing issues in cognitive recall and emergency psychology, this case study examines evacuation messaging including written, audio, and visual presentation of information, and describes the application of design principles and role of visual communication for Southern California tsunami evacuation outreach. The niche of this project is the inclusion of cognitive processing as the driving influence when making formal design decisions and measurable data from a 4-year cognitive recall study to support the solution. Image included shows a tsunami evacaution map before and after the redesign.

  7. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubular; Flerkanals roerstreng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1997-04-23

    The invention relates to a multi-conduit tubular having fluid conduits and electrical conduits, with associated surface fluid and electrical commutators, and downhole sensors for providing surface monitors with instantaneous formation data. Each tubular includes a plurality of uniform linear conduits there through, with a gasket seal plate interposed between joined tubular for assuring a high pressure seal between joined conduits. the seal plate includes an intermediate electrical connector for connecting electrical conduit connectors of one tubular to another. A coupling collar with uniform diameter internal coarse and fine threads joins the tubular ends having similar threads by differential thread action without respective tubular rotation. Each tubular end includes an inter-engaging index recess and index lug, and drive recesses and lugs for maintaining angular registry of the tubular string and for driving one drill tubular with another. A fluid commutator includes a rotating shaft with passages connected to the tubular conduits, and rotating in a manifold having annular grooves in communication with the shaft passages and external fluid sources. An adaptor couples each commutator shaft passage to one or more tubular conduits. Slip rings on a quill shaft and stationary brush means provide electrical continuity from the electrical conduit wires to surface equipment. A cross-over sub includes formation parameter sensors and telemetry equipment in a blocked off portion of a fluid conduit. An annular accumulator connected with the well bore annulus applies a pressure thereto in response to downhole sensors to change the effective density of the drill mud. The multi-conduit tubular is further adapted for use as a well casing to provide downhole access of a plurality of fluids and electrical parameter sensors. 28 figs.

  8. A tubular segmented-flow bioreactor for the infection of insect cells with recombinant baculovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yu-Chen; Wang, Ming-Ying; Bentley, William E.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous process of insect cell (S f9) growth and baculovirus infection is tested with the sequential combination of a CSTR and a tubular reactor. A tubular infection reactor enables continuous introduction of baculovirus and therefore avoids the ‘passage effect’ observed in two-stage CSTR systems. Moreover, a tubular reactor can be used to test cell infection kinetics and the subsequent metabolism of infected insect cells. Unlike batch and CSTR culture, cells in a horizontally positioned...

  9. 76 FR 45205 - Change in Definitions; Evacuation Pay and the Separate Maintenance Allowance at Johnston Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Maintenance Allowance at Johnston Island AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule... regulations on evacuation pay and the separate maintenance allowance for duty at Johnston Island to ensure..., subpart D, and separate maintenance allowance for duty at Johnston Island, at title 5 CFR, part...

  10. 77 FR 42903 - Change in Definitions; Evacuation Pay and the Separate Maintenance Allowance at Johnston Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Maintenance Allowance at Johnston Island AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule... separate maintenance allowance for duty at Johnston Island to ensure that same-sex domestic partners of... evacuation pay at 5 CFR part 550, subpart D, and the separate maintenance allowance for duty at...

  11. Evacuation Simulation in Kalayaan Residence Hall, up Diliman Using Gama Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridades, A. R. C.; Villanueva, J. K. S.; Macatulad, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS) with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  12. 5 CFR 550.409 - Evacuation payments during a pandemic health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... health crisis. 550.409 Section 550.409 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... during a pandemic health crisis. (a) An agency may order one or more employees to evacuate from their... the employee) during a pandemic health crisis without regard to whether the agency and the...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.242-78 - Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Emergency Medical Services... Provisions and Clauses 1852.242-78 Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation. As prescribed in 1842.7003, insert the following clause: Emergency Medical Services and Evacuation—April 2001 The Contractor...

  14. Modeling and simulation of evacuation behavior using fuzzy logic in a goal finding application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharad; Ogunlana, Kola; Sree, Swetha

    2016-05-01

    Modeling and simulation has been widely used as a training and educational tool for depicting different evacuation strategies and damage control decisions during evacuation. However, there are few simulation environments that can include human behavior with low to high levels of fidelity. It is well known that crowd stampede induced by panic leads to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Our proposed goal finding application can be used to model situations that are difficult to test in real-life due to safety considerations. It is able to include agent characteristics and behaviors. Findings of this model are very encouraging as agents are able to assume various roles to utilize fuzzy logic on the way to reaching their goals. Fuzzy logic is used to model stress, panic and the uncertainty of emotions. The fuzzy rules link these parts together while feeding into behavioral rules. The contributions of this paper lies in our approach of utilizing fuzzy logic to show learning and adaptive behavior of agents in a goal finding application. The proposed application will aid in running multiple evacuation drills for what-if scenarios by incorporating human behavioral characteristics that can scale from a room to building. Our results show that the inclusion of fuzzy attributes made the evacuation time of the agents closer to the real time drills.

  15. Incident Occurrence Modeling during Hurricane Evacuation Events: The Case of Alabama's I-65 Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraflow on major evacuation routes is one scheme that has been adopted in many Gulf and eastern coastal states for hurricane evacuation. The idea is to reverse one direction of the roadway in order to accommodate the often substantially increased travel demand moving away from the impact area. Efficient planning and operation is critical to a successful contraflow implementation. Alabama has an approximately 140-mile contraflow segment on I-65 between exit 31 and exit 167 and has carried out contraflow operations several times in past hurricane evacuations. The timing for the deployment of equipment and personnel and the initiation and termination of actual contraflow affects the effectiveness, safety, and cost of the operation. Researchers from the University of Alabama were tasked with the design of a decision support system for contraflow evacuation planning. The conceived decision support system consists of three main modules: the demand module, the network optimization module, and the incident and characterization module. This paper focuses on the design of the traffic incident generation and characterization module of the planned decision support system.

  16. 21 CFR 882.5850 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder....5850 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for bladder evacuation. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal... bladder by reflex means or by the intermittent use of catheters. The stimulator consists of an...

  17. Development of Simulation System for the Disaster Evacuation Based on Multi-Agent Model Using GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keisuke Uno; Kazuo Kashitama

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation system for the disaster evacuation based on multi-agent model considering geographical information. This system consists of three parts, the modeling for the land and buildings using GIS data, the analysis of disaster evacuation using multi-agent model, and the visualization for the numerical results using the virtual reality technique. By introducing the numerical solver of the natural disaster to the present system, it is possible to evaluate not only the damage of structure but also the dam- age of human being. Furthermore, it is possible to investigate the appropriate evacuation route by the simu- lation. The Dijkstra algorithm is used to obtain shortest route to the refuge. In addition, the visualization us- ing virtual reality technique is curried out to understand the feeling of refugee. The present system is applied to the evacuation analysis by the flood flow in urban area and is shown to be a useful tool to investigate the damage by natural disasters.

  18. Development of lifetime test procedure for powder evacuated panel insulation. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, K E; Graves, R S; Childs, K W

    1996-03-01

    This CRADA is between Appliance Research Consortium (ARC) of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) and the Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corp. A Powder Evacuated Panel (PEP) is a "super" thermal insulation, having a thermal resistivity (R) substantially above that of existing insulation without the environmental problems of some insulations such as Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blown foam.

  19. Simulation of pedestrian evacuation based on an improved dynamic parameter model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Nuo; Jia Bin; Shao Chun-Fu; Yue Hao

    2012-01-01

    An improved dynamic parameter model is presented based on cellular automata.The dynamic parameters,including direction parameter,empty parameter,and cognition parameter,are formulated to simplify tactically the process of making decisions for pedestrians.The improved model reflects the judgement of pedestrians on surrounding conditions and the action of choosing or decision.According to the two-dimensional cellular automaton Moore neighborhood we establish the pedestrian moving rule,and carry out corresponding simulations of pedestrian evacuation.The improved model considers the impact of pedestrian density near exits on the evacuation process.Simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the improvement makes sense due to the fact that except for the spatial distance to exits,people also choose an exit according to the pedestrian density around exits.The impact factors α,β,and γ are introduced to describe transition payoff,and their optimal values are determined through simulation.Moreover,the effects of pedestrian distribution,pedestrian density,and the width of exits on the evacuation time are discussed.The optimal exit layout,i.e.,the optimal position and width,is offered.The comparison between the simulated results obtained with the improved model and that from a previous model and experiments indicates that the improved model can reproduce experimental results well.Thus,it has great significance for further study,and important instructional meaning for pedestrian evacuation so as to reduce the number of casualties.

  20. Medical Treatment in Lieu of Evacuation: Techniques for Combat Casualty Care Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    rehabilitative services. The Golden Hour. Dr. R. A. Cowley, a trauma surgeon, first coined this term in 1969. The golden hour is an evacuation...transmission of bacteria and allows for a less skilled operator. Resuscitative Protocols A primary concern when treating a trauma patient is the prevention of

  1. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus...

  2. The evacuation of cairns hospitals due to severe tropical cyclone Yasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mark; Stone, Theona; Stone, Richard; Burns, Jan; Reeves, Jim; Cullen, Paul; Humble, Ian; Finn, Emmeline; Aitken, Peter; Elcock, Mark; Gillard, Noel

    2012-09-01

    On February 2, 2011, Tropical Cyclone Yasi, the largest cyclone to cross the Australian coast and a system the size of Hurricane Katrina, threatened the city of Cairns. As a result, the Cairns Base Hospital (CBH) and Cairns Private Hospital (CPH) were both evacuated, the hospitals were closed, and an alternate emergency medical center was established in a sports stadium 15 km from the Cairns central business district. This article describes the events around the evacuation of 356 patients, staff, and relatives to Brisbane (approximately 1,700 km away by road), closure of the hospitals, and the provision of a temporary emergency medical center for 28 hours during the height of the cyclone. Our experience highlights the need for adequate and exercised hospital evacuation plans; the need for clear command and control with identified decision-makers; early decision-making on when to evacuate; having good communication systems with redundancy; ensuring that patients are adequately identified and tracked and have their medications and notes; ensuring adequate staff, medications, and oxygen for holding patients; and planning in detail the alternate medical facility safety and its role, function, and equipment.

  3. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and tubular proteinuria in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankisch, P G; Wolfrum, D I; Koop, H; Winckler, K

    1979-01-01

    Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (CAm/CCr), urinary protein concentration and urinary protein pattern were studied in 102 samples from 27 patients with acute pancreatitis and in 46 controls. Raised CAm/CCr, proteinuria and a tubular protein pattern were present in 74, 56 and 96% of the patients, respectively. However, CAm/CCr and proteinuria and CAm/CCr and tubular protein pattern were not correlated. These results do not support the suggestion that an elevated CAm/CCr in acute pancreatitis is due to generalized tubular protein reabsorption failure presenting with tubular proteinuria.

  4. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  5. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)1C by some ideals, where L(A)1C is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)1C generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)1C generated by simple A-modules.

  6. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin CHEN; Ya-nan LIN

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)C1 by some ideals, where L(A)C1 is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)C1 generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)C1 generated by simple A-modules.

  7. Point-like inclusion interactions in tubular membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Vahid, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    We analytically study membrane mediated interactions between inclusions embedded in a tubular membrane. We model inclusions as constraints coupled to the curvature tensor of the membrane tube. First, as special test cases, we analyze the interaction between ring and rod shaped inclusions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we further show how point-like inclusions interact to form linear aggregates. Our results reveal that depending on the hard-core radius of the inclusions, they arrange into either lines or rings to globally minimize the curvature energy of the membrane.

  8. Partial oxidation of methane to syngas in tubular oxygenpermeable reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A dense Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ membrane tube was prepared by the extruding method. Furthermore, a membrane reactor with this tubular membrane was successfully applied to partial oxidation of methane (POM) reaction,in which the separation of oxygen from air and the partial oxidation of methane are integrated in one process. At 875℃,94% of methane conversion, 98% of CO selectivity, 95% of H2 selectivity, and as high as 8.8 mL/(min @cm2) of oxygen flux were obtained. In POM reaction condition, the membrane tube shows a very good stability.

  9. Superradiance at the localization-delocalization crossover in tubular chlorosomes

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, Rafael A; Somoza, Alejandro; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of disorder on spectral properties of tubular chlorosomes in green sulfur bacteria Cf. aurantiacus. Employing a Frenkel-exciton Hamiltonian with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder consistent with spectral and structural studies, we analyze excitonic localization and spectral statistics of the chlorosomes. A size-dependent localization-delocalization crossover is found to occur as a function of the excitonic energy. The crossover energy region coincides with the more optically active states with maximized superradiance, and is, consequently, more conducive for energy transfer.

  10. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Kulkarni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim – sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment.

  11. Type 4 renal tubular acidosis in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manjunath

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old diabetic patient who presented with muscle weakness 2 weeks after kidney transplantation. Her immunosuppressive regimen included tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. She was found to have hyperkalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Tacrolimus levels were in therapeutic range. All other drugs such as beta blockers and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole were stopped. She did not respond to routine antikalemic measures. Further evaluation revealed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Serum potassium levels returned to normal after starting sodium bicarbonate and fludrocortisone therapy. Though hyperkalemia is common in kidney transplant recipients, determining exact cause can guide specific treatment.

  12. Modelling gastric evacuation without meal size as a variable. A model applicable for the estimation of daily ration of cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temming, Axel; Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1994-01-01

    Data on gastric evacuation of cod from the International Data Base on Gastric Evacuation Experiments have been reanalysed. A general evacuation models was fitted to the data by means of non-linear regression techniques: dS/dt= - R × SB or integrated:| S(1 - B) t=S1)(1 - B) - R × (1 - B) × 1, where...

  13. A gastric evacuation model for three predatory gadoids and implications of using pooled field data of stomach contents to estimate food rations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2001-01-01

    evacuation rate was related by a negative power function to energy density of fish prey,) er an extended range from 3(.)4 to 11(.)5 kJ g (1) of the effector variable. Gastric evacuation of crustacean prey seemed to depend on the characteristics of their exoskeleton, Gastric evacuation of mixed meal, composed...

  14. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2010-05-01

    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  15. Evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhages by neuroendoscopy with transparent sheath. Experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Otero-Rodriguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH has been developed in order to reduce the tissue injury that conventional craniotomy could generate. Experimental studies are important to assess the effectiveness of the technique and its modifications. The objectives of this study are to develop in pig an experimental model of endoscopic evacuation of ICHs, to assess effectiveness of surgical evacuation, and to evaluate a new transparent sheath as complement to the endoscopy. Methods: Autologous blood was infused into the frontal lobe white matter in 16 pigs. In the problem group, endoscopic evacuation was performed with the aid of a new transparent sheath, which has outer and inner sheaths with blunt and closed finals. Pigs were sacrificed at 4 h, 24 h and 5 days. The volumes of hematoma and histopathological features were determined. Results: Residual volume of the problem group was significantly 70.09% lower than in control group, without significant differences in injected volumes, in percentage of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and in time interval from hematoma induction to pig´s death. The vital reaction after hemorrhage was similar in both groups. Conclusions: The experimental model developed is useful to assess endoscopic evacuation of ICHs. The endoscopy is an effective technique in the treatment of ICHs, without increasing the vital reaction secondary to hematoma. The new transparent sheath increases the visualization of surgical field and allows a continuous visual control since the beginning of the procedure. Its closed final prevents unwanted injury of the brain by the instruments used to remove the hematoma.

  16. 灾害条件下多层次应急疏散模型的构建方法研究%Research on the Multi-levels Emergency Evacuation Model under Disaster Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐炉亮; 杨雪; 刘章; 王雪浩; 靳晨; 董坤

    2015-01-01

    So many major disasters happened in the world every year and lead to serious loss to the property and personal safety.How to formulate emergency evacuation model for high-density city under the disasters condi-tion is very important for human being.China has many high-density cities and when the disaster happened people there will be delivered by the government.So the difference between other developed countries and China is the e-vacuation model belongs to a kind of collective evacuation.Multi-level Emergency Evacuation Model ( MEEM) is put forward, which determines the space match between the multi-gathering places ( Origins) in the disaster area and multi-setting places ( Destinations) in the safe area.Based on the real road traffic and road damage in varying degrees, MEEM measures the road evacuation ability use the road impedance which is decided by road speed and pavement damage limited to the evaluation target.MEEM plans the routes from the Origins to the Destinations, and decide the numbers of the evacuation cars and population on the every route.Finally, an emergency evacuation case has been done in this paper with the data base of Shandong province, and a function compare has been done between the proposed model with other evacuation models, and the result validates the MEEM to be a promising method which fits to the Chinese condition.%人们每天都要面对各种造成严重财产和人身安全损失的重大灾害,如何建立灾害条件下中国人口高密度大范围的应急疏散模型,具有重大的意义。该文基于我国灾害条件下高密度人口的集体疏散模式,按照灾害区域的具体情况和人口分布,以道路实时速度和路面损毁程度所决定的道路阻抗性作为评判道路疏散能力的依据,构建从危险区域的多集结点到安全区域的多安置点的多层次应急疏散模型,确定集体疏散人员的疏散路径、人数和车辆,实现在最短的时间内的受灾群众整

  17. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A Koutinas

    Full Text Available Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation. The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator. Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  18. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  19. Additive manufacturing of patient-specific tubular continuum manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Ernar; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2015-03-01

    Tubular continuum robots, which are composed of multiple concentric, precurved, elastic tubes, provide more dexterity than traditional surgical instruments at the same diameter. The tubes can be precurved such that the resulting manipulator fulfills surgical task requirements. Up to now the only material used for the component tubes of those manipulators is NiTi, a super-elastic shape-memory alloy of nickel and titan. NiTi is a cost-intensive material and fabrication processes are complex, requiring (proprietary) technology, e.g. for shape setting. In this paper, we evaluate component tubes made of 3 different thermoplastic materials (PLA, PCL and nylon) using fused filament fabrication technology (3D printing). This enables quick and cost-effective production of custom, patient-specific continuum manipulators, produced on site on demand. Stress-strain and deformation characteristics are evaluated experimentally for 16 fabricated tubes of each thermoplastic with diameters and shapes equivalent to those of NiTi tubes. Tubes made of PCL and nylon exhibit properties comparable to those made of NiTi. We further demonstrate a tubular continuum manipulator composed of 3 nylon tubes in a transnasal, transsphenoidal skull base surgery scenario in vitro.

  20. Surface and interfacial creases in a bilayer tubular soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Mir Jalil; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-08-01

    Surface and interfacial creases induced by biological growth are common types of instability in soft biological tissues. This study focuses on the criteria for the onset of surface and interfacial creases as well as their morphological evolution in a growing bilayer soft tube within a confined environment. Critical growth ratios for triggering surface and interfacial creases are investigated both analytically and numerically. Analytical interpretations provide preliminary insights into critical stretches and growth ratios for the onset of instability and formation of both surface and interfacial creases. However, the analytical approach cannot predict the evolution pattern of the model after instability; therefore nonlinear finite element simulations are carried out to replicate the poststability morphological patterns of the structure. Analytical and computational simulation results demonstrate that the initial geometry, growth ratio, and shear modulus ratio of the layers are the most influential factors to control surface and interfacial crease formation in this soft tubular bilayer. The competition between the stretch ratios in the free and interfacial surfaces is one of the key driving factors to determine the location of the first crease initiation. These findings may provide some fundamental understanding in the growth modeling of tubular biological tissues such as esophagi and airways as well as offering useful clues into normal and pathological functions of these tissues.

  1. Radiologic findings of tubular adenoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Oh, Ki Keun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    Tubular adenoma (TA) is known as a rare lesion of the breast which is difficult to diagnosis preoperatively because of its rarity and similarity to fibroadenoma. Hence, our purpose is to suggest the characteristic sonographic features for its correct diagnosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and mammographic and sonographic findings. of seven patients(mean age, 23) who during the previous five years had presented at our hospital with pathologically-proven tubular adenoma. TA was misdiagnosed as fibroadenoma, since on physical examination of these young females, the lesions presented a palpable, non-tender mass. Mammographically, they showed a well defined mass similar to fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings were characteristic of TA and compared to fibroadenoma, showed a well demarcated and smooth bordered mass with transverse long axis, posterior enhancement and homogeneous lower internal echogenecity. No case showed lateral wall refractive shadowing. In young females, the clinical and mammographic findings of TA are similar to those of fibroadenoma. However, sonographic findings of TA can, be helpful in the differential diagnosis of this entity and fibroadenoma.

  2. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  3. The application of Firefly algorithm in an Adaptive Emergency Evacuation Centre Management (AEECM) for dynamic relocation of flood victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Hashim, Nor Laily; Yusof, Yuhanis; Hussain, Azham

    2016-08-01

    Flood evacuation centre is defined as a temporary location or area of people from disaster particularly flood as a rescue or precautionary measure. Gazetted evacuation centres are normally located at secure places which have small chances from being drowned by flood. However, due to extreme flood several evacuation centres in Kelantan were unexpectedly drowned. Currently, there is no study done on proposing a decision support aid to reallocate victims and resources of the evacuation centre when the situation getting worsens. Therefore, this study proposes a decision aid model to be utilized in realizing an adaptive emergency evacuation centre management system. This study undergoes two main phases; development of algorithm and models, and development of a web-based and mobile app. The proposed model operates using Firefly multi-objective optimization algorithm that creates an optimal schedule for the relocation of victims and resources for an evacuation centre. The proposed decision aid model and the adaptive system can be applied in supporting the National Security Council's respond mechanisms for handling disaster management level II (State level) especially in providing better management of the flood evacuating centres.

  4. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk reduction: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  5. Risk of large-scale evacuation based on the effectiveness of rescue strategies under different crowd densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghong; Lo, Siuming; Wang, Qingsong; Sun, Jinhua; Mu, Honglin

    2013-08-01

    Crowd density is a key factor that influences the moving characteristics of a large group of people during a large-scale evacuation. In this article, the macro features of crowd flow and subsequent rescue strategies were considered, and a series of characteristic crowd densities that affect large-scale people movement, as well as the maximum bearing density when the crowd is extremely congested, were analyzed. On the basis of characteristic crowd densities, the queuing theory was applied to simulate crowd movement. Accordingly, the moving characteristics of the crowd and the effects of typical crowd density-which is viewed as the representation of the crowd's arrival intensity in front of the evacuation passageways-on rescue strategies was studied. Furthermore, a "risk axle of crowd density" is proposed to determine the efficiency of rescue strategies in a large-scale evacuation, i.e., whether the rescue strategies are able to effectively maintain or improve evacuation efficiency. Finally, through some rational hypotheses for the value of evacuation risk, a three-dimensional distribution of the evacuation risk is established to illustrate the risk axle of crowd density. This work aims to make some macro, but original, analysis on the risk of large-scale crowd evacuation from the perspective of the efficiency of rescue strategies.

  6. Fleeing The Storm(s): An Examination of Evacuation Behavior During Florida’s 2004 Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMITH, STANLEY K.; MCCARTY, CHRIS

    2009-01-01

    The 2004 hurricane season was the worst in Florida’s history, with four hurricanes causing at least 47 deaths and some $45 billion in damages. To collect information on the demographic impact of those hurricanes, we surveyed households throughout the state and in the local areas that sustained the greatest damage. We estimate that one-quarter of Florida’s population evacuated prior to at least one hurricane; in some areas, well over one-half of the residents evacuated at least once, and many evacuated several times. Most evacuees stayed with family or friends and were away from home for only a few days. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that the strength of the hurricane and the vulnerability of the housing unit had the greatest impact on evacuation behavior; additionally, several demographic variables had significant effects on the probability of evacuating and the choice of evacuation lodging (family/friends, public shelters, or hotels/motels). With continued population growth in coastal areas and the apparent increase in hurricane activity caused by global warming, threats posed by hurricanes are rising in the United States and throughout the world. We believe the present study will help government officials plan more effectively for future hurricane evacuations. PMID:19348112

  7. Safe Ride Standards for Casualty Evacuation Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Normes de transport sans danger pour l’evacuation des blesses par vehicules aeriens sans pilote)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    water , earth /soil, and other natural resources; • And in this particular case, the biological contamination of the UAV due to human waste (blood...leur apparition sur le champ de bataille, avec ou sans orientation basée sur une doctrine. L’OTAN et les forces d’opérations spéciales – ainsi que les...with hot water bottles and blankets. Some of their evacuations were even more basic, reverting to the concepts of patients as cargo – they actually

  8. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... Turkey and several other countries.\\1\\ The CVD investigation and the AD investigations cover the same... Duty Investigation of Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from the Republic of Turkey,''...

  9. 78 FR 56865 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India and Turkey: Postponement of...\\ See Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods from India and Turkey: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...) 482-3964 (India); Shane Subler at (202) 482-0189 (Turkey), AD/CVD Operations, Import...

  10. Everything you need to know about distal renal tubular acidosis in autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Both (Tim); R. Zietse (Bob); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); J.A.M. van Laar (Jan); P.L.A. van Daele (Paul)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRenal acid-base homeostasis is a complex process, effectuated by bicarbonate reabsorption and acid secretion. Impairment of urinary acidification is called renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is the most common form of the RTA syndromes. Multiple pathophysi

  11. Dysfunctional tubular endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoar, M G; Shi, Q; Ge, Y; He, W; Hu, X; Perry, G; Zhu, X; Yan, R

    2016-09-01

    Pathological features in Alzheimer's brains include mitochondrial dysfunction and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in areas surrounding amyloid plaques. Using a mouse model that overexpresses reticulon 3 (RTN3) and spontaneously develops age-dependent hippocampal DNs, here we report that DNs contain both RTN3 and REEPs, topologically similar proteins that can shape tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, ultrastructural examinations of such DNs revealed gradual accumulation of tubular ER in axonal termini, and such abnormal tubular ER inclusion is found in areas surrounding amyloid plaques in biopsy samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Functionally, abnormally clustered tubular ER induces enhanced mitochondrial fission in the early stages of DN formation and eventual mitochondrial degeneration at later stages. Furthermore, such DNs are abrogated when RTN3 is ablated in aging and AD mouse models. Hence, abnormally clustered tubular ER can be pathogenic in brain regions: disrupting mitochondrial integrity, inducing DNs formation and impairing cognitive function in AD and aging brains.

  12. Evacuation Routes, Evacuation Routes from Maryland Transit Admnistration's Maintenace Facilities (Bus, Light Rail, Metro & MARC), Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Evacuation Routes dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described as...

  13. MICAL-L1-related and unrelated mechanisms underlying elongated tubular endosomal network (ETEN) in human dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compeer, E.B.; Boes, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal pathway constitutes a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which is composed of vesicular and tubular compartments. Endosomal tubules enable geometry-based discrimination between membrane and luminal content. Extended tubular endosomes were suggested to deliver a steady strea

  14. [Diagnostic difficulties in a case of constricted tubular visual field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Oana-Mihaela; Rusu, Monica; Hâncu, Dacia; Horvath, Kárin

    2013-01-01

    In the paper below we present the clinical case of a 48 year old female with various symptoms associated with functional visual disturbance -constricted tubular visual fields, wich lasts from 6 years; the extensive clinical and paraclinical ophthalmological investigations ruled out the presence of an organic disorder. In the present, we suspect a diagnosis of hysteria, still uncertain, wich represented over time a big challenge in psychology and ophthalmology. The mechanisms and reasons for hysteria are still not clear and it could represent a fascinating research theme. The tunnel, spiral or star-shaped visual fields are specific findings in hysteria for patients who present visual disturbance. The question of whether or not a patient with hysterical visual impairment can or cannot "see" is still unresolved.

  15. Scalable Approach for Extrusion and Perfusion of Tubular, Heterotypic Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronimo, Mark David

    Soft material tubes are critical in the vasculature of mammalian tissues, forming networks of blood vessels and airways. Homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrogel tubes were extruded in a one-step process using a three layer microfluidic device. Co-axial cylindrical flow of crosslinking solutions and an alginate matrix is generated by a radial arrangement of microfluidic channels at the device's vertical extrusion outlet. The flow is confined and begins a sol-gel transition immediately as it extrudes at velocities upwards of 4 mm/s. This approach allows for predictive control over the dimensions of the rapidly formed tubular structures for outer diameters from 600 microm to 3 mm. A second microfluidic device hosts tube segments for controlled perfusion and pressurization using a reversible vacuum seal. On-chip tube deflection is observed and modeled as a measure of material compliance and circumferential elasticity. I anticipate applications of these devices for perfusion cell culture of cell-laden hydrogel tubes.

  16. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  17. On milling of thin-wall conical and tubular workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mu-Ping; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Yeh, Cheng-Wei

    2016-05-01

    Thin-wall tubular-geometry workpieces have been widely applied in aircraft and medical industries. However, due to the special geometry of this kind of workpieces and induced poor machinability, the desired accuracy of machining tends to be greatly degraded, no matter what type of metal-cutting task such as milling, drilling or turning is undertaken. Though numerous research reports are available that the tool path can be planned on the basis of preset surface profile before actual milling operation is performed, it is still difficult to predict the real-time surface profile errors for peripheral milling of thin-wall tubular workpieces. Instead of relying on tool path planning, this research is focused on how to real-time formulate the appropriate applied cutting torque via feedback of spindle motor current. On the other hand, a few suitable cutting conditions which are able to prevent potential break/crack of thin-wall workpieces and enhance productivity but almost retain the same cutting quality is proposed in this research. To achieve this goal, estimated surface profile error on machined parts due to deflections caused by both tool and workpiece is studied at first. Traditionally, by adjusting cutting parameters such as feed rate or cut depth, the deflection of tool or workpiece can be expected not to exceed the specified limit. Instead, an effective feedback control loop is proposed by this work for applying real-time appropriate applied cutting torque to prevent potential break/crack of the thin-wall conical workpieces. The torque estimation approach by spindle motor current feedback and the corresponding fuzzy logic controller are employed. Compared with constant cutting torque during milling operation in tradition manner, it is observed that the time consumption of milling cycle by aid of the aforesaid fuzzy logic controller is greatly shortened while the resulted cutting accuracy upon finish of workpiece can be almost retained.

  18. Experimental studies of a matrix-tubular solar air collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesca, M.; Varlan, P. [Moldova Technical Univ., Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of). Dept. of Heat and Gas Supply and Ventilation

    2009-06-15

    The most common types of solar air collectors (SAC) are contact-type and matrix-type collectors, with the latter being more efficient. This paper described the design and testing of a matrix-tubular flat solar air collector in the city of Chisinau, Moldova, where the outdoor climatic radiation, heat, and humidity characteristics are favorable for the efficient use of solar energy for building heating and drying applications. The amount of solar energy absorbed by a solar energy air collector depends on the level of insulation and orientation of the solar collector; the absorbance of the absorber surface; and the transmittance of the cover material. This study examined the heat transfer, efficiency, and pressure drop using copper tubes inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber plate. The SAC consists of a glazed insulated case, an absorber, and ducting for cold air delivery and hot air discharge. Copper tubes are inserted perpendicular to the plane of the absorber. The absorber is installed in the body of the SAC in such a way that it divides it into an upper channel and lower channel. The channel bottom is lined with aluminium foil that reflects solar radiation coming through the tubes and decreases heat loss in the solar collector. Copper tubes increase the heat exchange surface, create air turbulence and intensify heat transfer. This increases the efficiency of the solar collector. The pressure drop of the matrix-tubular solar air collector is 40 per cent lower than that of the matrix-plate collectors. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Tubular dysfunction after peritonectomy and chemohyperthermic treatment with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Manna, Gaetano; Virzì, Salvatore; Deraco, Marcello; Capelli, Irene; Accorsi, Alma; Dalmastri, Vittorio; Comai, Giorgia; Bonomi, Serena; Grassi, Antonio; Selva, Saverio; Feliciangeli, Giorgio; Scolari, Maria; Stefoni, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis has always been regarded as a contraindication in traditional cancer surgery treatment; however, good results have been reported by using new combined medical-surgical loco-regional techniques. Peritonectomy and chemohyperthermic perfusion with cisplatinum (CIIP) seem to play a central role in obtaining a better survival rate than with the traditional procedures, even though there is a cisplatinum nephrotoxic effect. The aim of this study was to investigate entity and type of renal injury after CIIP. Forty-two patients (12 males and 30 females) with recurrent or primary peritoneal carcinomatosis who underwent peritonectomy and cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin were enrolled. A significant worsening in renal function was observed on the third post-operative day and this condition then persisted for three months. A reduction in estimated-Glomerular Filtration Rate (e-GFR) and an alteration in the albumin:creatinine ratio proved tubular injury. On the third post-operative day after cisplatinum administration, a high toxicity peak was found following platinum free fraction excretion. Proximal tubular injury was confirmed even at the three month analysis. A significant correlation between the total protein reduction rate and the decrease in renal function was established. In relation to that, the platinum free fraction could increase because of a binding protein shortage and the nephrotoxic effect could be enhanced due to platinum accumulation within the post-operative period. This finding suggests that the higher the protein reduction is, the lower the e-GFR determination is at three months.

  20. Tubular Scaffold with Shape Recovery Effect for Cell Guide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi M. Zakir Hossain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tubular scaffolds with aligned polylactic acid (PLA fibres were fabricated for cell guide applications by immersing rolled PLA fibre mats into a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc solution to bind the mats. The PVAc solution was also mixed with up to 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP content. Cross-sectional images of the scaffold materials obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the aligned fibre morphology along with a significant number of voids in between the bundles of fibres. The addition of β-TCP into the scaffolds played an important role in increasing the void content from 17.1% to 25.3% for the 30 wt % β-TCP loading, which was measured via micro-CT (µCT analysis. Furthermore, µCT analyses revealed the distribution of aggregated β-TCP particles in between the various PLA fibre layers of the scaffold. The compressive modulus properties of the scaffolds increased from 66 MPa to 83 MPa and the compressive strength properties decreased from 67 MPa to 41 MPa for the 30 wt % β-TCP content scaffold. The scaffolds produced were observed to change into a soft and flexible form which demonstrated shape recovery properties after immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS media at 37 °C for 24 h. The cytocompatibility studies (using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line revealed preferential cell proliferation along the longitudinal direction of the fibres as compared to the control tissue culture plastic. The manufacturing process highlighted above reveals a simple process for inducing controlled cell alignment and varying porosity features within tubular scaffolds for potential tissue engineering applications.

  1. Treatment of Pediatric Diseases by the Method of Evacuating the Bowels to Remove the Internal Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Evacuating the bowels to remove internal heat is one of the major therapeutic principles in treating pediatric diseases. Since the children are incapable of controlling in take of milk or food, the accumulated foodstuffs in the body will impede the spleen and stomach in digestion and transportation. In addition, children are easy to be attacked by exopathogens, because their organs are tender and do not fully develop. Once an exopathogen gets into the interior, it will transform into heat. However, simple measures of eliminating the heat often fail in the treatment of some critical and emergent pediatric cases. We have treated such cases by the method of evacuating bowels to remove the internal heat with miracle effects and would like to share our experience with our colleagues. The following are some examples.

  2. Evacuation effect on excess mortality among institutionalized elderly after the fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake hit Fukushima Prefecture on March 11, 2011, just over 3 years ago and it continues to affect our lives. In Fukushima, many people are confirmed dead or still missing due to the earthquake and/or tsunami. Additional "disaster-related deaths" have been attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident. Mortality among the institutionalized elderly rates after the NPP accident were exceptionally high during the first 3 months, and persisted at a lower level for 9 months, in comparison with similar periods before the accident. This study demonstrates the great impact of evacuation on mortality of institutionalized elderly, excluding inpatients. We need to pay special attention to evacuation of the elderly, regardless of whether voluntary or forced.

  3. Decision-making and evacuation planning for flood risk management in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Bas; Helsloot, Ira

    2014-07-01

    A traditional view of decision-making for evacuation planning is that, given an uncertain threat, there is a deterministic way of defining the best decision. In other words, there is a linear relation between threat, decision, and execution consequences. Alternatives and the impact of uncertainties are not taken into account. This study considers the 'top strategic decision-making' for mass evacuation owing to flooding in the Netherlands. It reveals that the top strategic decision-making process itself is probabilistic because of the decision-makers involved and their crisis managers (as advisers). The paper concludes that deterministic planning is not sufficient, and it recommends probabilistic planning that considers uncertainties in the decision-making process itself as well as other uncertainties, such as forecasts, citizens responses, and the capacity of infrastructure. This results in less optimistic, but more realistic, strategies and a need to pay attention to alternative strategies.

  4. A Case of Re-Expansion Pulmonary Edema after Rapid Pleural Evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Shahbazi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pulmonary edema after chest tube insertion is a rare complication and is associated with high mortality. The cause of this phenomenon is not clear, although causes such as decrease in surfactant and inflammatory process have been defined. Early diagnosis and treatment decrease the mortality. This study introduces a case of re-expansion pulmonary edema after rapid pleural evacuation. Case: The case is a 4.5 y/o boy, a case of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed respiratory distress after surgery (Total Correction in ICU of Namazi Hospital in 1385. Chest X ray showed pneumothorax of left lung. For the patient, chest tube was inserted and the symptoms improved. After few hours the patient developed tachypnea, tachycardia, and CXR showed pulmonary edema of left lung. Appropriate treatment was done for the patient and his condition improved. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema after sudden evacuation of pleura is a rare phenomenon and early diagnosis decreases the mortality.

  5. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  6. [Targeted small craniotomy and evacuation for subscute subdural hematomas: technical report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Kurita, Hiroki; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2005-02-01

    The etiology and proper treatment of symptomatic subacute subdural hematomas remains to be elucidated. We describe two cases of this entity successfully treated with small craniotomy and evacuation. Both patients initially treated conservatively for traumatic thin subdural hematomas because of poor medical condition and mild neurological symptoms, but suffered abrupt neurological deterioration between 2 and 3 weeks after the admission. CT scan showed decreased density of hematomas with minimal increase in volume, and significant swelling of ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. Urgent two-burr-hole small craniotomy was effective for evacuation of partially organized hematoma. During surgery, definite hematoma membrane was not confirmed. Postoperatively, brain swelling rapidly disappeared and both patients discharged ambulatory without neurological deficit. The present cases are a reminder of this peculiar type of hematoma in patients with delayed neurological deterioration after nonsurgical management of acute subdural hematoma. The rationale for use of small craniotomy is discussed in terms of current understanding of pathogenetic mechanism for this unusual condition.

  7. Analysis of sheltering and evacuation strategies for a Chicago nuclear detonation scenario.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2011-09-01

    Development of an effective strategy for shelter and evacuation is among the most important planning tasks in preparation for response to a low yield, nuclear detonation in an urban area. Extensive studies have been performed and guidance published that highlight the key principles for saving lives following such an event. However, region-specific data are important in the planning process as well. This study examines some of the unique regional factors that impact planning for a 10 kt detonation in Chicago. The work utilizes a single scenario to examine regional impacts as well as the shelter-evacuate decision alternatives at selected exemplary points. For many Chicago neighborhoods, the excellent assessed shelter quality available make shelter-in-place or selective transit to a nearby shelter a compelling post-detonation strategy.

  8. A methodology for evacuation design for urban areas: theoretical aspects and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, F.; Vitetta, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper proposes an unifying approach for the simulation and design of a transportation system under conditions of incoming safety and/or security. Safety and security are concerned with threats generated by very different factors and which, in turn, generate emergency conditions, such as the 9/11, Madrid and London attacks, the Asian tsunami, and the Katrina hurricane; just considering the last five years. In transportation systems, when exogenous events happen and there is a sufficient interval time between the instant when the event happens and the instant when the event has effect on the population, it is possible to reduce the negative effects with the population evacuation. For this event in every case it is possible to prepare with short and long term the evacuation. For other event it is possible also to plan the real time evacuation inside the general risk methodology. The development of models for emergency conditions in transportation systems has not received much attention in the literature. The main findings in this area are limited to only a few public research centres and private companies. In general, there is no systematic analysis of the risk theory applied in the transportation system. Very often, in practice, the vulnerability and exposure in the transportation system are considered as similar variables, or in other worse cases the exposure variables are treated as vulnerability variables. Models and algorithms specified and calibrated in ordinary conditions cannot be directly applied in emergency conditions under the usual hypothesis considered. This paper is developed with the following main objectives: (a) to formalize the risk problem with clear diversification (for the consequences) in the definition of the vulnerability and exposure in a transportation system; thus the book offers improvements over consolidated quantitative risk analysis models, especially transportation risk analysis models (risk assessment); (b) to formalize a system

  9. Study on the Principle Mechanisms of Heat Transfer for Cryogenic Insulations: Especially Accounting for the Temperature-Dependent Deposition-Evacuation of the Filling Gas (Self-Evacuating Systems)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Matthias; Vidi, Stephan; Ebert, Hans-Peter

    2016-11-01

    This study concentrates on the principles of heat transfer within cryogenic insulation systems, especially accounting for self-evacuating systems (deposition-evacuation of the filling gas). These principles allow the extrapolation to other temperatures, gases and other materials with the input of only a few experimentally derived or carefully estimated material properties. The type of gas (e.g. air or CO2) within the porous insulation material dominates the behaviour of the effective thermal conductivity during the cooldown of the cryogenic application. This is due to the specific temperature-dependent saturation gas pressure which determines the contribution of the gas conductivity. The selected material classes include powders, fibrous insulations, foams, aerogels and multilayer insulations in the temperature range of 20 K to 300 K. Novel within this study is an analytical function for the total and the mean thermal conductivity with respect to the temperature, type of gas, external pressure and material class of the insulation. Furthermore, the integral mean value of the thermal conductivity, the so-called mean thermal conductivity, is calculated for a mechanically evacuated insulation material and an insulation material evacuated by deposition-evacuation of the filling gas, respectively. This enables a comparison of the total thermal conductivity of cryogenic insulation materials and their applicability for a self-evacuating cryogenic insulation system.

  10. Symmetry in behavior of complex social systems - discussion of models of crowd evacuation organized in agreement with symmetry conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, W

    2011-01-01

    The evacuation of football stadium scenarios are discussed as model realizing ordered states, described as movements of individuals according to fields of displacements, calculated correspondingly to given scenario. The symmetry of the evacuation space is taken into account in calculation of displacements field - the displacements related to every point of this space are presented in the coordinate frame in the best way adapted to given symmetry space group, which the set of basic vectors of irreducible representation of given group is. The speeds of individuals at every point in the presented model have the same quantity. As the results the times of evacuation and average forces acting on individuals during the evacuation are given. Both parameters are compared with the same parameters got without symmetry considerations. They are calculated in the simulation procedure. The new program (using modified Helbing model) has been elaborated and presented in this work for realization the simulation tasks the.

  11. Evacuation Shelters, crucial infrastructures, Published in 2007, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Marion County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Evacuation Shelters dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described...

  12. TSUNAMI SCENARIO SIMULATOR: A TOOL FOR ENSURING EFFECTIVE DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND COASTAL EVACUATION IN A MULTILANGUAGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Clerveaux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An emergent paradigm in disaster-risk reduction is the issue of Multilanguage societies within the context of risk information and communication. The primary mitigation measure for tsunamis is the development of effective warning systems and evacuation strategies. The scale of the earthquake, the level of maintenance of prevention structures, such as seawalls, efficiency of the information dissemination system and the residents’ willingness to evacuate, influence the impact of a tsunami disaster. Therefore, the goal of tsunami disaster reduction is concerned not only with the use of prevention infrastructures but also with encouraging residents to evacuate quickly through the provision of disaster education and the relay of disaster information in a manner comprehendible by all groups in society. The simulator combines hydrodynamic simulation of tsunamis with warning and human-response simulations for evacuation. Additionally, because of its visual 3D/GIS presentation the simulator is an effective tool for educating the public.

  13. EVACUATION SYSTEMS OF SCREW-TYPE WATER TURBINES IN SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evacuation solutions of hydroelectric power set applied in a screw-type turbine in Small Hydropower Plant (SHP. The article compares the solutions applied in Poland and other European countries in the yield of green energy from the water sector. Innovative solutions of the turbine safety problem in hydro building development in case of flood waters of rivers in Poland.

  14. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: techniques, indications, results and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, Dean D T; Bartram, Clive

    2007-03-01

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases.

  15. Dynamic imaging of posterior compartment pelvic floor dysfunction by evacuation proctography: Techniques, indications, results and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglinte, Dean D.T. [Department of Radiology, Indiana University Medical Center, University Hospital and Outpatient Center, 550 N. University Blvd. UH 0279, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)]. E-mail: dmaglint@iupui.edu; Bartram, Clive [Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, Consulting Radiology, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, Harrow HA1 3UJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    The clinical management of patients with anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction is often difficult. Evacuation proctography has evolved from a method to evaluate the anorectum for functional disorders to its current status as a practical method for evaluating anorectal dysfunction and pelvic floor prolapse. It has a high observer accuracy and yield of positive diagnosis. Clinicians find it of major benefit and has altered management from surgical to medical and vice versa in a significant number of cases.

  16. Investigation into the interaction of people with signage systems and its implementation within evacuation models

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Signage systems are widely used in buildings in accordance with safety legislation and building standards. These aim to provide general information and safety messages to occupants, and assist them in wayfinding during both circulation and evacuation. Despite the fact that signage systems are an important component in building wayfinding systems, there is a lack of relevant data concerning how occupants perceive, interpret and use the information conveyed by emergency signage. The effectivene...

  17. EVACUATION SIMULATION IN KALAYAAN RESIDENCE HALL, UP DILIMAN USING GAMA SIMULATION SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. C. Claridades

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Agent-Based Modeling (ABM has recently been adopted in some studies for the modelling of events as a dynamic system given a set of events and parameters. In principle, ABM employs individual agents with assigned attributes and behaviors and simulates their behavior around their environment and interaction with other agents. This can be a useful tool in both micro and macroscale-applications. In this study, a model initially created and applied to an academic building was implemented in a dormitory. In particular, this research integrates three-dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS with GAMA as the multi-agent based evacuation simulation and is implemented in Kalayaan Residence Hall. A three-dimensional GIS model is created based on the floor plans and demographic data of the dorm, including respective pathways as networks, rooms, floors, exits and appropriate attributes. This model is then re-implemented in GAMA. Different states of the agents and their effect on their evacuation time were then observed. GAMA simulation with varying path width was also implemented. It has been found out that compared to their original states, panic, eating and studying will hasten evacuation, and on the other hand, sleeping and being on the bathrooms will be impedances. It is also concluded that evacuation time will be halved when path widths are doubled, however it is recommended for further studies for pathways to be modeled as spaces instead of lines. A more scientific basis for predicting agent behavior in these states is also recommended for more realistic results.

  18. Evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazing; Evakuering og samling af aerogelruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, K.I.

    1999-07-01

    The application of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation material for windows has been investigated for some years. It has been realised that a major problem of an industrial production of aerogel glazing will be the time for evacuation of the aerogel material. However, in a previous EU project a promising method was proposed, so the time for evacuation could be reduced from several hours to a few minutes. This report describes the background and the building of an apparatus for evacuation and assembly of aerogel glazing up to 60 cm x 60 cm based on the above mentioned method. The key element of the method is the vacuum chamber in which the aerogel glazing is prior to mounting of the last glass pane. This glass pane is kept above the rest of the glazing while the chamber is evacuated. When the desired gas pressure is reached the glazing is assembled and the chamber is ventilated. Due to the fast process, it can be considered as semi-online, and especially the capital cost is significantly lower for this method in comparison with a true online process. So hereby, a major obstacle is overcome with respect to a first industrial production of aerogel glazing. By means of the apparatus, six aerogel glazing have been made and four of those can be considered as fully succeeded. The reasons for the failure of the two glazing are perhaps due to the foil applied in the rim seal. The project serves a Danish input to a current EU project, in which one of the main objectives is to develop a complete process for aerogel glazing of 60 cm x 60 cm covering both the aerogel and the glazing production. (au)

  19. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  20. Identification of Evacuation Routes in Tacloban City using Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Jerico; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Santiago, Joy; Suarez, John Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    The Philippines is the second most at risk to natural hazards according to the 2014 World Risk Report. On 8 November 2013, category 5 Typhoon Haiyan crossed the central region of the Philippines with maximum sustained wind reaching 315 kph. Considered as one of the strongest typhoons that made landfall in recorded history, Typhoon Haiyan caused USD 8 billion damage to properties, 6,293 deaths, 28,689 injured and 1,061 missing persons. Tacloban City, located in the north-eastern part of the island of Leyte in Eastern Visayas region, is one of the area most devastated by Typhoon Haiyan. The city is susceptible to other natural hazards given its geography, topography and geology. This condition emphasizes the need for preventive measures to avoid further loss of lives and destruction to properties. Evacuation is a mitigating strategy which involves the process of moving people from dangerous places to safer locations. Using Geographic Information System (GIS), a multi-hazard map of Tacloban City was created to determine safe areas for evacuation centers. The optimal route for evacuation was identified using ArcGIS Network Analyst's routing solver based on Dijkstra's algorithm. The medium of transportation used in the analysis is by foot with an average speed of 5.0 kph. Furthermore, the study assumes that all roads are passable and fully functional during the travel period and that there are no structures, trees and other debris that may act as road blockage. The study can be used as a reference in hazard assessment for disaster risk management and evacuation planning. This can be further improved by incorporating behaviour of the affected population and other socio-economic factors, different modes of transportation and detailed analysis of topography.

  1. Evaluation of Neurophysiologic and Systematic Changes during Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard McCarron, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M...Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma Award Number: W81XWH-13-2-0022, 3rd Annual Report JAN2016 3...models of neurotrauma and polytrauma . We plan to investigate the effects of aero-medical evacuation on neurophysiology and lung function in swine

  2. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gong, J. H.; Zhu, J.; Ye, L.; Song, Y. Q.; Yue, Y. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  3. Human responses to multiple sources of directional information in virtual crowd evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Kemloh Wagoum, Armel U; Codling, Edward A

    2014-02-06

    The evacuation of crowds from buildings or vehicles is one example that highlights the importance of understanding how individual-level interactions and decision-making combine and lead to the overall behaviour of crowds. In particular, to make evacuations safer, we need to understand how individuals make movement decisions in crowds. Here, we present an evacuation experiment with over 500 participants testing individual behaviour in an interactive virtual environment. Participants had to choose between different exit routes under the influence of three different types of directional information: static information (signs), dynamic information (movement of simulated crowd) and memorized information, as well as the combined effect of these different sources of directional information. In contrast to signs, crowd movement and memorized information did not have a significant effect on human exit route choice in isolation. However, when we combined the latter two treatments with additional directly conflicting sources of directional information, for example signs, they showed a clear effect by reducing the number of participants that followed the opposing directional information. This suggests that the signals participants observe more closely in isolation do not simply overrule alternative sources of directional information. Age and gender did not consistently explain differences in behaviour in our experiments.

  4. Reliability analysis of road network for estimation of public evacuation time around NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sun-Young; Lee, Gab-Bock; Chung, Yang-Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The most strong protection method of radiation emergency preparedness is the evacuation of the public members when a great deal of radioactivity is released to environment. After the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant meltdown in the United States and Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster in the U.S.S.R, many advanced countries including the United States and Japan have continued research on estimation of public evacuation time as one of emergency countermeasure technologies. Also in South Korea, 'Framework Act on Civil Defense: Radioactive Disaster Preparedness Plan' was established in 1983 and nuclear power plants set up a radiation emergency plan and have regularly carried out radiation emergency preparedness trainings. Nonetheless, there is still a need to improve technology to estimate public evacuation time by executing precise analysis of traffic flow to prepare practical and efficient ways to protect the public. In this research, road network for Wolsong and Kori NPPs was constructed by CORSIM code and Reliability analysis of this road network was performed.

  5. Emergency Evacuation Simulation for Radiological Emergency; A Case Study of Gijang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyu M.; Na, Kyoungseok; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ahn, Seokyoung; Park, Seonghee [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The recent nuclear reactor accident at Fukushima caused the residents at Gijang to be concerned about the safety of their local nuclear plants. The nuclear reactor-related accidents is very rare but may cause the serious consequences and last for significant period. Especially, Gijang is located next to Busan, at which most population is concentrated. Hence, the effective and efficient emergency evacuation plan cannot be overemphasized in addition to well-designed nuclear disaster prevention measures. The central government has studied the safety issues of nuclear plants and developed the prevention systems. However, the local government also needs their emergency evacuation plan for its residents, considering its geographical and local factors such as various modes of transportations, transportation and shelters systems. The disasters related to nuclear power plants is rare but their influence is considerable. Therefore, while maintaining the safe facilities, the disaster preparedness cannot be overemphasized. An agent-based emergency evacuation simulation tool has been developed and tested for Gijang area.

  6. Food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junehee; Zottarelli, Lisa; Kwon, Sockju; Lee, Yee Ming; Ryu, Dojin

    2013-09-01

    The authors conducted a survey to identify food safety training needs at evacuation shelters operated by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in four hurricane-prone states. Five thousand randomly selected FBO leaders were asked questions about their food safety attitudes and food handling practices at evacuation shelters. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were calculated to summarize and prioritize the responses. Results from 138 leaders revealed that on average, 590 +/- 4,787 evacuees were served for 36 +/- 72 days at FBO-operated shelters. Only 19.6% felt they were well prepared for the shelter. Only 5.8% had professional food preparation staff and many accepted hot (47.8%) and cold (37%) prepared food donations. Some lacked adequate refrigerator (18.8%) or freezer (16.7%) spaces, but 40% kept hot food leftovers for later use. The majority did not provide food safety training before opening the shelters (73.2%), yet 76.9% said they will provide food to evacuation shelters again. The results show a need for food safety training and specific strategies for training at FBOs.

  7. Efficient dam break flood simulation methods for developing a preliminary evacuation plan after the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Xiaojiaqiao barrier lake, which was the second largest barrier lake formed by the Wenchuan Earthquake had seriously threatened the lives and property of the population downstream. The lake was finally dredged successfully on 7 June 2008. Because of the limited time available to conduct an inundation potential analysis and make an evacuation plan, barrier lake information extraction and real-time dam break flood simulation should be carried out quickly, integrating remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques with hydrologic/hydraulic analysis. In this paper, a technical framework and several key techniques for this real-time preliminary evacuation planning are introduced. An object-oriented method was used to extract hydrological information on the barrier lake from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV remote sensing images. The real-time flood routine was calculated by using shallow-water equations, which were solved by means of a finite volume scheme on multiblock structured grids. The results of the hydraulic computations are visualized and analyzed in a 3-D geographic information system for inundation potential analysis, and an emergency response plan is made. The results show that if either a full-break or a half-break situation had occurred for the Chapinghe barrier lake on 19 May 2008, then the Xiaoba Town region and the Sangzao Town region would have been affected, but the downstream towns would have been less influenced. Preliminary evacuation plans under different dam break situations can be effectively made using these methods.

  8. IoT in Action: Design and Implementation of a Building Evacuation Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Gokceli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of sensor technologies, various application areas have emerged. The usage of these technologies and exploitation of recent improvements have clear benefits on building applications. Such use-cases can improve smart functions of buildings and can increase the end-user comfort. As a similar notion, building automation systems (BAS are smart systems that target to provide automated management of various control services and to improve resource usage efficiency. However, buildings generally contain hardware and control services from a diverse set of characteristics. The automated and central management of such functions can be challenging. In order to overcome such issues, an Emergency Evacuation Service is proposed for BAS, where requirements of such central management model are analyzed and model content and subservice definitions are prepared. A crucial scenario, which could be a necessity for future BAS, is defined and an approach for evacuation of people in the buildings at emergency situations is proposed. For real-life scenarios, the Evacuation Service is implemented by using a low-cost design, which is appropriate for Internet of Things (IoT based BAS applications. As demonstrated, the proposed service model can provide effective performance in real-life deployments.

  9. An Information Perception-Based Emotion Contagion Model for Fire Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting Ting; Liu, Zhen; Ma, Minhua; Xuan, Rongrong; Chen, Tian; Lu, Tao; Yu, Lipeng

    2017-03-01

    In fires, people are easier to lose their mind. Panic will lead to irrational behavior and irreparable tragedy. It has great practical significance to make contingency plans for crowd evacuation in fires. However, existing studies about crowd simulation always paid much attention on the crowd density, but little attention on emotional contagion that may cause a panic. Based on settings about information space and information sharing, this paper proposes an emotional contagion model for crowd in panic situations. With the proposed model, a behavior mechanism is constructed for agents in the crowd and a prototype of system is developed for crowd simulation. Experiments are carried out to verify the proposed model. The results showed that the spread of panic not only related to the crowd density and the individual comfort level, but also related to people's prior knowledge of fire evacuation. The model provides a new way for safety education and evacuation management. It is possible to avoid and reduce unsafe factors in the crowd with the lowest cost.

  10. Regional analysis of social characteristics for evacuation resource planning: ARkStorm scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Anne; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Allan Baez,; Sleeter, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Local planning is insufficient for regional catastrophes; regional exercises are needed to test emergency plans and decision-making structures. The ARkStorm scenario would trigger a mass evacuation that would be complicated by the social characteristics of populations [e.g., vehicle ownership, age, poverty, English language limitation (ELL), and shelter needs]. Land cover data and dasymetric mapping improves the allocation of residential populations and their social characteristics to the ARkStorm flood zone in 21 counties in California. Numbers and concentrations of county, urban, and rural residents exposed to flooding as well as populations in and out of the scenario flood zone are profiled. The results inform mass evacuation planning by providing a means to (1) examine the sufficiency of mutual aid agreements, (2) underscore planning for carless populations, and (3) tailor multilingual communication strategies. The various geographical distinctions emphasize different challenges throughout the region. It will be important to investigate behavioral responses to warnings, identify evacuation constraints (e.g., shelter capacity versus need), and obtain comparable data on transient populations.

  11. Statistical fluctuations in pedestrian evacuation times and the effect of social contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Alexandre; Bouzat, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-08-01

    Mathematical models of pedestrian evacuation and the associated simulation software have become essential tools for the assessment of the safety of public facilities and buildings. While a variety of models is now available, their calibration and test against empirical data are generally restricted to global averaged quantities; the statistics compiled from the time series of individual escapes ("microscopic" statistics) measured in recent experiments are thus overlooked. In the same spirit, much research has primarily focused on the average global evacuation time, whereas the whole distribution of evacuation times over some set of realizations should matter. In the present paper we propose and discuss the validity of a simple relation between this distribution and the microscopic statistics, which is theoretically valid in the absence of correlations. To this purpose, we develop a minimal cellular automaton, with features that afford a semiquantitative reproduction of the experimental microscopic statistics. We then introduce a process of social contagion of impatient behavior in the model and show that the simple relation under test may dramatically fail at high contagion strengths, the latter being responsible for the emergence of strong correlations in the system. We conclude with comments on the potential practical relevance for safety science of calculations based on microscopic statistics.

  12. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  13. Dynamic changes during evacuation of a left temporal abscess in open MRI: technical case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernays, R.L.; Yonekawa, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Kollias, S.S. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrate the usefulness of ''near real-time'' neuro-navigation by open MRI systems for guidance of stereotactic evacuation of intracranial abscesses. A 70-year-old patient was referred to our institution with an intracranial left temporal abscess. He presented with headache, senso-motor aphasia and mild right hemiparesis. The abscess (35 x 25 mm) was stereotactically evacuated under MRI guidance, and a recurrence of a daughter abscess was again evacuated on the 9th postoperative day. ''Near real-time'' imaging showed an indentation of the abscess wall of 11 mm along the trajectory. A thermosensitive MRI protocol demonstrated a higher temperature around the abscess capsule than in the brain tissue more distant to the capsule, demonstrating the inflammatory process. The patient had 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy for gram-negative bacteria and was discharged with improved clinical symptoms 5 weeks after admission. Follow-up CT 2 months postoperatively showed a complete resolution of the abscess. Open MRI-guided interventions with ''near real-time'' imaging demonstrate the anatomical changes during an ongoing procedure and can be accommodated for enhancing the overall precision of stereotactic procedures. Thermosensitive MRI protocols are capable of revealing temperature gradients around inflammatory processes. (orig.)

  14. Effects of individual attitudes and motion decisions in room evacuation models

    CERN Document Server

    Dossetti, Víctor; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the evacuation of pedestrians from an enclosure considering a continuous space substrate and discrete time. We analyze the influence of behavioral features that affect the use of the empty space, that can be linked to the attitudes or characters of the pedestrians. We study how the interaction of different behavioral profiles affects the needed time to evacuate completely a room and the occurrence of clogging. We find that neither fully egotistic nor fully cooperative attitudes are optimal from the point of view of the crowd. In contrast, intermediate behaviors provide lower evacuation times. This lead us to identify some phenomena closely analogous to the {\\em faster-is-slower} effect. The proposed model enables for the introduction of Game Theory elements to solve conflicts between pedestrians which try to occupy the same space. Moreover, it allows for distinguishing between the role of the attitudes in the search for empty space and the attitudes in the conflicts. In the...

  15. Integrating Regret Psychology to Travel Mode Choice for a Transit-Oriented Evacuation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Facing the potential dangers from sudden disasters in urban cities, emergency administrators have to make an appropriate evacuation plan to mitigate negative consequences. However, little attention has been paid to evacuee real decision psychology when developing a strategy. The aim of this paper is to analyze evacuee mode choice behavior considering regret aversion psychology during evacuation. First, the utility-based and regret-based models are formulated to obtain evacuees’ preferences on travel mode choice, respectively. According to the data collected from the stated preference (SP survey on evacuee mode choice, the estimation results show that the regret-based model performs better than the utility model. Moreover, based on the estimates from behavioral analysis, the elasticities of evacuee mode choices are calculated, and transit strategy simulation is undertaken to investigate the influence on evacuee mode switching from private automobile to public transit. The results are expected to help emergency administrators to make a transit-oriented strategy for a sustainable evacuation plan, especially for the benefit of carless people.

  16. 人群疏散行为建模与仿真研究%Model and stu dy of Crowd Evacuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑美容

    2015-01-01

    Emergency evacuation has become an important subject in the safety field .Cellular automata can be used for simulating complex phenomena .This paper sets up a crowd evacuation model based on the principle of cellular automat , and determines the cellular space and state of each cell .According to the actual situation , the pa-per improves and optimizes cellular evolution rule , and develops an evacuation program to simulate the crowed e-vacuation process , and gets the basic rule and evacuation time .Simulation results show that the reality and reasona -bly for the proposed model to simulate the case of an emergency evacuation process .%元胞自动机可以对复杂现象进行模拟,利用二维元胞自动机的理论建立人群疏散模型,确定元胞空间和元胞状态,根据实际情况改进和优化元胞演化规则,编写了疏散过程的程序对突发事件下人群疏散进行模拟,获得了人群疏散的基本规律及疏散时间。研究结果表明,该模型能更加真实、合理地模拟出紧急情况下的人群疏散过程。

  17. Assessment of the place of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in the diagnosis of osteopenia of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Duygu Besnili; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Çetinkaya, Merih; Petmezci, Ercüment; Dursun, Mesut; Korkmaz, Orhan; Altuncu, Emel Kayrak

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the utility of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in the diagnosis of osteopenia of prematurity in addition to biochemical markers. Materials and Method: Premature babies with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and/or a birth weight of ≤1 500 g who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit between June 2009 and March 2011 were included in the study. These babies were evaluated at the 40th gestational week and serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, urea, creatinine, urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were measured and tubular reabsorption of phosphorus was determined. The subjects who had bone graphy findings and/or an alkaline phosphatase level of >400IU/L and a phosphorus value of 499 IU were compared with the newborns who were found to have a tubular reabsorption of phosphorus of ≥%95 for the objective of evaluating the specificity and sensitivity of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in the diagnosis of osteopenia were found to be 27%, 82%, 17% and 89%, respectively. When the osteopenic and non-osteopenic patients were compared in terms of the levels of tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions: It was thought that it was not appropriate to use tubular reabsorption of phosphorus alone in the diagnosis of osteopenia of prematurity. PMID:26078696

  18. Nephrotic syndrome and multiple tubular defects in children: an early sign of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVicar, M; Exeni, R; Susin, M

    1980-12-01

    The nephrotic syndrome is rarely associated with renal tubular defects, and the combination has been reported only in association with advanced renal insufficiency. We report here five children with nephrotic syndrome and multiple tubular defects which evolved when glomular filtration rate ranged between 56 and 90 ml/minute/1.73 m2. The tubular defects were first noted at 3, 4, 4, 7, and 22 months after the onset of the nephrotic syndrome, and renal glycosuria was the first sign in all five children. Glycosuria was intermittent in three patients, constant in two, and ceased with loss of kidney function. Four patients had hyperaminoaciduria and renal tubular acidosis (two of four tested had distal renal tubular acidosis). Three patients had decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphorus and defective maximum concentrating capacity. All five had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis proven by renal biopsy. Over a follow-up period of seven years, all of the children have developed advanced renal insufficiency, four of the five have required dialysis or transplantation within 21 to 72 months after onset, and one has stabilized renal function at 35 ml/minute/1.73 m2. The one patient receiving a kidney transplant has had recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the transplanted kidney and became nephrotic with three subsequent transplants. Our experience suggests that the nephrotic syndrome associated with tubular defects in children forms a subgroup of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with rapid progression to renal insufficiency and the potential for recurrence of the lesion in the transplanted kidney.

  19. Casualty Searching, Evacuation and Telemedicine System Based on BeiDou Navigation Satellite System%基于北斗卫星定位的伤员搜救与后送、远程医疗系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬小军; 汪陈应; 刘志; 李学成; 赵军平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a casualty searching, evacuation and telemedicine system to make the soldiers accompanied by medical support. Methods Based on telemedicine technology and locating & two-way communication ability of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, the hierarchy of the system was designed. Remits The design plan of the casualty searching, evacuation and telemedicine system based on BeiDou Navigation Satellite System was put forward. Conclusion The Casualty precision location, rescue and evacuation are realized for medical support of military operationsother than war.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal,2011,32(12):9-12]%目的:研制适合于一线救护的伤员搜救与后送、远程医疗系统,最大限度地实现医疗与士兵同在.方法:立足军队现有远程医疗技术,利用北斗卫星同时具备定位与双向通信的能力,设计一整套伤员搜寻、后送与远程医疗体系架构.结果:构建了基于北斗卫星定位的伤员搜救、后送与远程医疗平台设计方案.结论:解决了战场伤员精确定位、援救与后送的难题,满足了非战争军事行动卫勤保障的需要.

  20. Kidney specific protein-positive cells derived from embryonic stem cells reproduce tubular structures in vitro and differentiate into renal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizane, Ryuji; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Fujii, Shizuka; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Homma, Koichiro; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Okano, Hideyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various organs and tissues, and are regarded as new tools for the elucidation of disease mechanisms as well as sources for regenerative therapies. However, a method of inducing organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells is urgently needed. Although many scientists have been developing methods to induce various organ-specific cells from pluripotent stem cells, renal lineage cells have yet to be induced in vitro because of the complexity of kidney structures and the diversity of kidney-component cells. Here, we describe a method of inducing renal tubular cells from mouse embryonic stem cells via the cell purification of kidney specific protein (KSP)-positive cells using an anti-KSP antibody. The global gene expression profiles of KSP-positive cells derived from ES cells exhibited characteristics similar to those of cells in the developing kidney, and KSP-positive cells had the capacity to form tubular structures resembling renal tubular cells when grown in a 3D culture in Matrigel. Moreover, our results indicated that KSP-positive cells acquired the characteristics of each segment of renal tubular cells through tubular formation when stimulated with Wnt4. This method is an important step toward kidney disease research using pluripotent stem cells, and the development of kidney regeneration therapies.

  1. Undulating tubular liposomes through incorporation of a synthetic skin ceramide into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Tan, Grace; Zhou, Jia; He, Jibao; Lawson, Louise B; McPherson, Gary L; John, Vijay T

    2009-09-15

    Nonspherical liposomes were prepared by doping L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ceramide VI (a skin lipid). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows the liposome shape changing from spherical to an undulating tubular morphology, when the amount of ceramide VI is increased. The formation of tubular liposomes is energetically favorable and is attributed to the association of ceramide VI with PC creating regions of lower curvature. Since ceramides are the major component of skin lipids in the stratum corneum, tubular liposomes containing ceramide may potentially serve as self-enhanced nanocarriers for transdermal delivery.

  2. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  3. Diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent early delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Sun; Weiping Shi; Yusheng Shu; Hongcan Shi; Shichun Lu; Kang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical ef icacy of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after esophagectomy through the cervico-tho-racoabdominal approach. Methods A total of 980 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy through the cer-vico-thoracoabdominal approach were retrospectively included in this study and divided into two groups. Al patients underwent tubular stomach creation (group A; n = 530) or a diaphragmatic suture and tubular stomach creation (group B; n = 450). The incidence of early DGE was observed. Results The incidence of early DGE in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P Conclusion This observation study suggests that the use of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach through the cervico-thoracoabdominal approach can decrease the incidence of early DGE after esopha-gectomy.

  4. An asymmetric tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane for high temperature CO2 separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xueliang; Ortiz Landeros, José; Lin, Y S

    2013-10-25

    For the first time, a tubular asymmetric ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane was prepared by a centrifugal casting technique and used for high temperature CO2 separation. This membrane shows high CO2 permeation flux and permeance.

  5. A tubular dielectric elastomer actuator: Fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarban, R.; Jones, R. W.; Mace, B. R.;

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation performance of a core-free rolled tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator, which has been designed and developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S. PolyPower DE material, PolyPower (TM), is produced in thin sheets...... of 80 mu m thickness with corrugated metallic electrodes on both sides. Tubular actuators are manufactured by rolling the DE sheets in a cylindrical shape. The electromechanical characteristics of such actuators are modeled based on equilibrium pressure equation. The model is validated with experimental...... the dominant dynamic characteristics of the core-free tubular actuator. It has been observed that all actuators have similar dynamic characteristics in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. A tubular actuator is then used to provide active vibration isolation (AVI) of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground...

  6. Novel tubular and crystalline structures in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S

    1979-01-01

    Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.

  7. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  8. Standing wave brass-PZT square tubular ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonho; He, Siyuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports a standing wave brass-PZT tubular ultrasonic motor. The motor is composed of a brass square tube with two teeth on each tube end. Four PZT plates are attached to the outside walls of the brass tube. The motor requires only one driving signal to excite vibration in a single bending mode to generate reciprocating diagonal trajectories of teeth on the brass tube ends, which drive the motor to rotate. Bi-directional rotation is achieved by exciting different pairs of PZT plates to switch the bending vibration direction. Through using the brass-PZT tube structure, the motor can take high magnitude vibration to achieve a high output power in comparison to PZT tube based ultrasonic motors. Prototypes are fabricated and tested. The dimension of the brass-PZT tube is 3.975mm×3.975mm×16mm. Measured performance is a no-load speed of >1000RPM, a stall torque of 370μNm and a maximum output power of 16 mW when a sinusoidal driving voltage of 50V is applied. The working frequencies of the motor are 46,050Hz (clockwise) and 46,200Hz (counter-clockwise).

  9. Bioprocess kinetics in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancić, M; Santek, B; Novak, S; Horvat, P; Marić, V

    2004-04-01

    A horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB) is a plug flow bioreactor whose interior is provided with O-ring-shaped partition walls that serve as carriers for microbial biomass. During this investigation, microbial biomass was grown in suspension and on the bioreactor inner surface as a microbial biofilm with average mass that was considerably higher than suspended biomass. The dynamics of bioprocess in HRTB was studied by different combinations of process parameters (bioreactor rotation speed and mean residence time) and it was monitored by withdrawing the samples from five positions along the bioreactor. During this investigation it was also observed that mean residence time had a more pronounced effect on the bioprocess dynamics than bioreactor rotation speed. For the description of bioprocess kinetics in HRTB an unstructured kinetic model was established that defines biomass growth, product formations and substrate consumption rate by using a modified Monod (Levenspiel) model. This kinetic model defines changes in suspension and in microbial biofilm, and it shows relatively good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Tubular occlusion optimizes bonding of hydrophobic resins to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, F T; Pashley, D H; Ferrari, M; Tay, F R

    2007-06-01

    Although hydrophobic resins may be bonded to acid-etched dentin with an ethanol wet-bonding technique, the protocol is sensitive to moisture contamination when bonding is performed in deep dentin. This study tested the hypothesis that the use of oxalate or poly(glutamic) acid-modified, diluted ceramicrete (PADC) for dentinal tubule occlusion prevents fluid contamination and improves the bonding of an experimental hydrophobic adhesive to acid-etched, ethanol-dehydrated dentin. Mid-coronal and deep acid-etched moist dentin pre-treated with oxalate or PADC was dehydrated by ethanol wet-bonding and infiltrated with the experimental three-step etch-and-rinse hydrophobic adhesive under simulated pulpal pressure. Tensile bond strengths to deep dentin without pre-treatment were severely compromised. Conversely, oxalate and PADC pre-treatments reduced dentin permeability, prevented water contamination, and improved bond strengths. Minimal nanoleakage was identified within hybrid layers created in the oxalate- and PADC-pre-treated deep dentin. The use of tubular occluding agents optimized bonding of hydrophobic resins to dentin.

  11. Mechanism of hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking of tubular steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔利杰; 褚武扬; 于广华; 程以环

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogen could be enriched on grain boundaries by stress induction and other traps.The enriched hydrogen facilitated emission and movement of dislocations and lowered plastic work.Consequently,fracture occurred easily along grain boundary.A normalized threshold value of hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) along grain boundary is given as (KIH/KIC)2=1-0.162×10-3 βHCc(H)GH/(2γs-γb-0.16×103∑β CiGi),where βH and βi are the enrichment factors of hydrogen and other elements on grain boundaries,respectively;Cc(H) is hydrogen concentration induced by stress;C,is the average concentration of an element in the steel;GH and Gi are factors of fracture work along grain boundary with hydrogen and other elements,and γs and γb are surface free energy and grain boundary energy of Fe.For tubular steel,the calculated KH/KIC is 0.23 while the determined value is 0.26.The theoretical threshold value is well consistent with the experimental one.

  12. STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat J. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

  13. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  14. Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-12

    In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes' thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided.

  15. A review of the ultimate strength of tubular framed structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, H.M.; Billington, C.J.; Ward, J.K.

    1996-10-01

    This review of the ultimate strength of tubular framed structures has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by Billington Osborne-Moss Engineering Limited (BOMEL). A numerical capability to predict the nonlinear response of jacket structures has been developed over the last decade in parallel with experimental investigations. It is now being applied to assure the continued integrity of installations beyond the design event in circumstances of extreme environmental loading or damage. A recent investigation has confirmed that an extreme event static pushover analysis generally suffices to demonstrate a structure`s resistance to the cyclic loading of the full storm. This report draws together the results from published investigations and identifies key factors contributing to system reserve. It is shown that bracing configurations and relative member properties are important influences. From the work presented, it is demonstrated that many jacket analyses embody simplifying assumptions, and features such as loading asymmetry, joint nonlinearity, foundation interactions, global deflection criteria etc, are neglected. Specific examples highlighted in the review illustrate their potential importance and systematic sensitivity evaluations are therefore recommended. (UK)

  16. The thermal decomposition of methane in a tubular reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Steinberg, M.

    1992-01-01

    The reaction rate of methane decomposition using a tubular reactor having a 1 inch inside diameter with an 8 foot long heated zone was investigated in the temperature range of 700 to 900 C with pressures ranging from 28.2 to 56.1 atm. Representing the rate by a conventional model, {minus}dC{sub CH4}/dt= k1 C{sub CH4} {minus}k2 C{sub H2}{sup 2}, the rate constant k1 for methane decomposition was determined. The activation energy, 31.3 kcal/mol, calculated by an Arrhenius Plot was lower than for previously published results for methane decomposition. This result indicates that submicron particles found in the reactor adhere to the inside of the reactor and these submicron high surface area carbon particles tend to catalyze the methane decomposition. The rate constant has been found to be approximately constant at 900 C with pressure range cited above. The rate of methane decomposition increases with methane partial pressure in first-order. The rate of the methane decomposition is favored by higher temperatures and pressures while the thermochemical equilibrium of methane decomposition is favored by lower pressures. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Etiopathology of chronic tubular, glomerular and renovascular nephropathies: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic kidney disease (CKD comprises a group of pathologies in which the renal excretory function is chronically compromised. Most, but not all, forms of CKD are progressive and irreversible, pathological syndromes that start silently (i.e. no functional alterations are evident, continue through renal dysfunction and ends up in renal failure. At this point, kidney transplant or dialysis (renal replacement therapy, RRT becomes necessary to prevent death derived from the inability of the kidneys to cleanse the blood and achieve hydroelectrolytic balance. Worldwide, nearly 1.5 million people need RRT, and the incidence of CKD has increased significantly over the last decades. Diabetes and hypertension are among the leading causes of end stage renal disease, although autoimmunity, renal atherosclerosis, certain infections, drugs and toxins, obstruction of the urinary tract, genetic alterations, and other insults may initiate the disease by damaging the glomerular, tubular, vascular or interstitial compartments of the kidneys. In all cases, CKD eventually compromises all these structures and gives rise to a similar phenotype regardless of etiology. This review describes with an integrative approach the pathophysiological process of tubulointerstitial, glomerular and renovascular diseases, and makes emphasis on the key cellular and molecular events involved. It further analyses the key mechanisms leading to a merging phenotype and pathophysiological scenario as etiologically distinct diseases progress. Finally clinical implications and future experimental and therapeutic perspectives are discussed.

  18. Ammonia-water absorption in vertical tubular absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Sieres, Jaime; Rodriguez, Cristobal; Vazquez, Manuel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the heat and mass transfer processes during the absorption of ammonia into water in a co-current vertical tubular absorber. The absorber configuration is of the shell and tubes type. The absorption process progresses as the vapour and liquid contact inside the tubes. Water is used as the absorber cooling medium. A differential mathematical model has been developed on the basis of mass and energy balances and heat and mass transfer equations, in order to provide further understanding of the absorber behaviour. The model takes into account separately for the churn, slug and bubbly flow patterns experimentally forecasted in this type of absorption processes inside vertical tubes and considers the simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in both liquid and vapour phases, as well as heat transfer to the cooling medium. The model equations have been solved using the finite-difference method. Results obtained for specific data are depicted to show local values of the most important variables all along the absorber length. Parametric analyses have been performed to show the influence of design parameters and operating conditions on the absorber performance. The effect of the heat and mass transfer coefficients has also been evaluated. (authors)

  19. Influence of Geometrical Imperfections on Analyses of Door Openings in Tubular Steel Towers for Wind Turbines.

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Anh Tuan; Veljkovic, Milan, ed. lit.; Rebelo, Carlos; Da Silva, Luís Simões

    2014-01-01

    Towers for wind turbines are very sensitive to geometrical imperfections. Pattern and amplitude of imperfections significantly influence the strength of the towers. Rather limited number of experiments exists on a tubular tower like structure and no experiments are available considering door opening in towers with cylindrical or polygonal cross-section. One of the objectives of the RFCS research project “HIGH STEEL TUBULAR TOWERS FOR WIND TURBINES, HISTIWIN2” was to investigate current practi...

  20. Effect of cisplatin on renal haemodynamics and tubular function in the dog kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Abildgaard, U; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1987-01-01

    Administration of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) to dogs results in polyuric renal failure due initially to a proximal tubular functional impairment. 48-72 h after the cisplatin administration the depressed renal function can be attributed to impairment of proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorptive...... capacities associated with increased renal vascular resistance. The polyuria seems to be due to the impaired reabsorption rate in the distal nephron segments....

  1. Distal renal tubular acidosis without renal impairment after use of tenofovir: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Tenofovir, one of antiretroviral medication to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is known to cause proximal renal tubular acidosis such as Fanconi syndrome, but cases of distal renal tubular acidosis had never been reported. Case presentation A 20-year-old man with HIV infection developed nausea and vomiting without diarrhea after starting antiretroviral therapy. Arterial blood gas revealed non-anion-gap metabolic acidosis and urine test showed positive urine anio...

  2. Strength of Tubular Joints Made by Electromagnetic Compression at Quasistatic and Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro, P.; Beerwald, C.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.; Löhe, D.; Marré, M.; Schulze, V.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic compression of tubular profiles with high electrical conductivity is an innovative joining process for lightweight structures. The components are joined using pulsed magnetic fields which apply radial pressures of up to 200 MPa to tubular workpieces, causing a symmetric reduction of the diameter with typical strain rates of up to 10^4 sec^(-1). This process avoids any surface damage of the workpiece because there is no contact between component and forming tool. The strength o...

  3. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H. [NTT Integrated Information & Energy Systems Labs., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  4. Undulating tubular liposomes through incorporation of a synthetic skin ceramide into phospholipid bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peng; Tan, Grace; Zhou, Jia; He, Jibao; Lawson, Louise B.; McPherson, Gary L.; John, Vijay T.

    2009-01-01

    Non-spherical liposomes were prepared by doping L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ceramide VI (a skin lipid). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows the liposome shape changing from spherical to an undulating tubular morphology, when the amount ofceramide VI is increased. The formation of tubular liposomes is energetically favorableand is attributed to the association of ceramide VI with PC creating regions of lower curvature. Since ceramides are the major component of skin lipids inthe ...

  5. Fabrication of Coiled Tubular Heat Exchanger%绕管式换热器的制造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自涛

    2015-01-01

    本文介绍了绕管换热器的技术特点及应用。从结构设计、技术等方面阐明了绕管换热器的设计制造的问题。%In is paper,the technical characteristics and application of coiled tubular heat exchanger were introduced. And the problem in design and manufacture of coiled tubular heat exchanger were clarified .

  6. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  7. A Participatory Evacuation Map Making Towards Sustainable Urban Heritage Kotagede, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R Hizbaron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at development of Participatory Evacuation Map Making (PEMM for Kotagede, Yogyakarta – Indonesia. The research area is one of an important cultural heritage sites in Indonesia which is subjected towards earthquake hazard. The preliminary observation revealed that the area is a densely populated area, which characterized by dense wooden building structure, narrow street and minimum information of evacuation route which increase their vulnerability potentials. This leads to the idea of developing the PEMM to improve their awareness and preparedness during disaster events and creates sustainable condition for local livelihood security. The method develops within this research is actually a lesson learn from Ritsumeikan University, that has developed CSR for integration disaster management into heritage sites at Kyoto Prefecture. Their CSR covers several activities such as developing disaster information via vending machine and tourism map. Since Yogyakarta and Kyoto are engaged in “Sister City Development Program”, hereafter Universitas Gadjah Mada tries to do similar thing. Map making is an alternative prior to community experience in map making is rather frequent compare to vending machine habit. The preliminary finding of this research indicates that the Kotagede community has been involved in several map making activity, such as “Green Map” and “Rehabilitation Sites Map”.  However, they have not yet any experience to create any map which includes information such as evacuation route, fire extinguisher, shelter information center and important meeting points. An improved critics from this research is to include meeting points level. As we all aware off, each meeting point have significant carrying capacity, thereby in the future a research on similar topics should add level and or category of meeting points. This is an important steppingstone for the research to conduct further research.

  8. Analysis and Calculation of Axial Stiffness of Tubular X-joints under Compression on Braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Guo-zhi; ZHAO Jin-cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the influence factors of axial stiffness of tubular X-joints. The analysis model of tubular joints using plate and shell finite element method is also made. Systematic single-parameter analysis of tubular X-joints is performed using Ansys program. The influences of those factors, including ratio of brace diameter to chord diameter (β), ratio of chord diameter to twice chord thickness (γ), ratio of brace wall thickness to that of chord (τ), brace-to-chord intersection angle (θ), and chord stress ratio, ratio of another brace diameter to chord diameter, in-plane and out-of-plane moment of braces, etc., on stiffness of tubular X-joints are analyzed.Two non-dimensional parameters-joint axial stiffness factor ηN and axial force capacity factor ωN are proposed,and the relationship curve of the two factors is determined. Computational formulas of tubular X-joint axial stiffness are obtained by multi-element regression technology. The formulas can be used in design and analysis of steel tubular structures.

  9. Prevalence of renal tubular dysfunction in beta thalassemia minor in shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi Nakhodcheri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available  Background & objective: β-Thalassemia minor is an asymptomatic hereditary disease. The first study on the relation of renal tubular dysfunction and β-thalassemia minor was performed in 2002 but those studies seem inadequate.The main goal of this study is through evaluation of renal tubular function in 100 patients with thalassemia minor. Materials & Methods: 100 patients with β- thalassemia which confirmed by hemoglobin electrophoresis and CBC as well as RBC indices were studied.14 out of 100 cases exit because of Urinary Tract Infection, diabetes mellitus or hypertension.Complete chemistry profile was performed on serum and urine of all reminder 86 patients (46 female and 40 male. Patients classified into two groups: β-thalassemia minor with anemia and without anemia. Another control group include 50 healthy individuals also considered.Then data analyzed by proper statistical methods. Results: 20 out of 86 reminder cases e.g. 24% showed at least one index of renal tubular dysfunction.58% of patients was been anemic and 42% non anemic. The most prominent tubular dysfunction was seen in a 29 years old lady with glucosuria and without anemia. conclusion: β-Thalassemia minor is common in Iran specially in Fars province. This study revealed significant renal tubular dysfunction in patient with β-thalassemia minor. So it is necessary to check out thalassemic patients for renal function tests periodically. Key words: β-thalassemia, minor,renal tubular dysfunction

  10. Inner Surface Chirality of Single-Handed Twisted Carbonaceous Tubular Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Baozong; Guo, Yongmin; Li, Yi; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-11-01

    Single-handed twisted 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons were prepared by tuning the water/ethanol volume ratio in the reaction mixture at pH = 11.6 through a supramolecular templating approach. The single-layered nanoribbons were formed by shrinking tubular nanoribbons after the removal of the templates. In addition, solvent-induced handedness inversion was achieved. The handedness of the polybissilsesquioxanes could be controlled by changing the ethanol/water volume ratio in the reaction mixture. After carbonization at 900 °C for 4.0 h and removal of silica, single-handed twisted carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons and single-layered nanoribbons with micropores in the walls were obtained. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicated that the carbon is predominantly amorphous. The circular dichroism spectra show that the twisted tubular nanoribbons exhibit optical activity, while the twisted single-layered nanoribbons do not. The results shown here indicate that chirality is transferred from the organic self-assemblies to the inner surfaces of the 4,4'-biphenylene-bridged polybissilsesquioxane tubular nanoribbons and subsequently to those of the carbonaceous tubular nanoribbons.

  11. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  12. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  13. Cadmium and cisplatin damage erythropoietin-producing proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Hyogo; Oguma, Etsuko; Kayama, Fujio [Jichi Medical School, Division of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Tochigi (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science Technology Corporation (CREST-JST), Saitama (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The concomitant manifestations of proximal renal tubular dysfunction and anemia with erythropoietin (Epo) deficiency observed in chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication, such as Itai-itai disease, suggest a close local correlation between the Cd-targeted tubular cells and Epo-producing cells in the kidney. Therefore, we investigated the local relationship between hypoxia-induced Epo production and renal tubular injury in rats injected with Cd at 2 mg/kg twice a week for 8 months. Anemia due to insufficient production of Epo was observed in Cd-intoxicated rats. In situ hybridization detected Epo mRNA expression in the proximal renal tubular cells of hypoxic rats without Cd intoxication, and the Cd-intoxicated rats showed atrophy of Epo-expressing renal tubules and replacement of them with fibrotic tissue. A single dose of cisplatin at 8 mg/kg, which can induce clinical manifestations similar to those of Cd including renal tubular damage along with Epo-deficient anemia, resulted in Epo-expressing renal tubule destruction on day 4. These data indicate that Cd and cisplatin would induce anemia through the direct injury of the proximal renal tubular cells that are responsible for Epo production. (orig.)

  14. PERFORMANCE OF EVACUATED TUBE SOLAR COLLECTOR USING WATER-BASED TITANIUM OXIDE NANOFLUID

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahendran; Lee, G C; Sharma, K. V.; A. Shahrani; R. A. Bakar

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are undertaken to determine the efficiency of an evacuated tube solar collector using water-based Titanium Oxide (TiO2) nanofluid at the Pekan Campus (3˚32’ N, 103˚25’ E), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, for the conversion of solar thermal energy. Malaysia lies in the equatorial zone with an average daily solar insolation of more than 900 W/m², which can reach a maximum of 1200 W/m² for most of the year. Traditionally water is pumped through the coll...

  15. Evaluation of All-Day-Efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation of all day efficiency for selected flat plate and evacuated tube collectors is presented. Computations are based on a modified version of the NBSIR 78-1305A procedure for all day efficiency. The ASHMET and NOAA data bases for solar insolation are discussed. Details of the algorithm used to convert total (global) horizontal radiation to the collector tilt plane of the selected sites are given along with tables and graphs which show the results of the tests performed during this evaluation.

  16. Wildfire evacuation: outrunning the witch's curse--one animal center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Michael M; Van Zante, John D

    2010-01-01

    When the Witch Creek Fire began ravaging San Diego County, California, in October 2007 there was no way of knowing how far it would spread, how many homes it would destroy, how many families would be evacuated, or how many lives would be lost. There wasn't going to be any trail of bread crumbs to lead us out of the burning forest and safely back home. We weren't going to wake up and realize that it was a bad dream. This Witch was real and was devouring everything in her path. There might not be a home for us to return to.

  17. The Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Fire Evacuation from the Student Dormitory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeranon Saelao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this research is to investigate the fire evacuation problem from the student dormitory by using the Numerical method. The Fire Dynamics Simulator Software was used in the research with the evacuation function (FDS + Evac.. The problem under investigation concerns the building that has the open-air centre. The characteristics of the building are included with 5 floors, 2 open-air fire escape stairs located at 2 sides of the building. In addition, there is a single exit to the outside of the building and the sprinkler system is not installed inside the building. Approach: The simulation was designed to study the problem that has a source of fire occurring at the room closed to the open-air stair. The stairs will be severely affected by the smoke. The experimentation's are composed of 4 cases, which are (1 the first case assumes the true size of the door is 1 m (2 the second case assumes the true size of the door is 1 m and the smoke barrier is installed at the beam located before the stair entrance (3 the third case assumes the true size of the door is 2 m and (4 the fourth case assumes the true size of the door is 2 m and the smoke barrier is installed. Results: The results are shown that the escape time from the building with the 1 m door is 465 sec and the 2 m door is 265 sec. The time differentiation between the 1 m door and the 2 m door is 200 sec. The reason is the waiting occurred at the entrance if the smoke barrier is not installed. In this case, the smoke in the stairs without a smoke barrier installation has more than the smoke in case if the smoke barrier is installed. However, this research collected the data of the gas volume and found that the gas volume is not yet harmful to human life but the gas can be an obstacle to evacuation in the building that has an open-air centre. Conclusion: For safety reasons, the building’s user should improve the door size and install the smoke barrier at 2 sides of the

  18. A Simple, Safe Technique for Thorough Seroma Evacuation in the Outpatient Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E. Park, MD, FACS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Seroma formation, a common postoperative complication in reconstructive cases, can lead to capsular contracture and increased office visits and expenses. The authors present a safe, novel technique for ensuring the thorough removal of serous fluid in the outpatient setting. By relying on access with an angiocatheter, potential injury to permanent implants is minimized. The use of low continuous wall suction obviates the need of manual suction via multiple syringes and offers a rapid and thorough evacuation of all types of seromas.

  19. A fuzzy-theory-based behavioral model for studying pedestrian evacuation from a single-exit room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Libi; Song, Weiguo; Lo, Siuming

    2016-08-01

    Many mass events in recent years have highlighted the importance of research on pedestrian evacuation dynamics. A number of models have been developed to analyze crowd behavior under evacuation situations. However, few focus on pedestrians' decision-making with respect to uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision. In this paper, a discrete evacuation model defined on the cellular space is proposed according to the fuzzy theory which is able to describe imprecise and subjective information. Pedestrians' percept information and various characteristics are regarded as fuzzy input. Then fuzzy inference systems with rule bases, which resemble human reasoning, are established to obtain fuzzy output that decides pedestrians' movement direction. This model is tested in two scenarios, namely in a single-exit room with and without obstacles. Simulation results reproduce some classic dynamics phenomena discovered in real building evacuation situations, and are consistent with those in other models and experiments. It is hoped that this study will enrich movement rules and approaches in traditional cellular automaton models for evacuation dynamics.

  20. Factors affecting household adoption of an evacuation plan in American Samoa after the 2009 earthquake and tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatu, Emma J I; Gregg, Chris E; Richards, Kasie; Sorensen, Barbara Vogt; Wang, Liang

    2013-08-01

    American Samoa is still recovering from the debilitating consequences of the September 29, 2009 tsunami. Little is known about current household preparedness in American Samoa for future earthquakes and tsunamis. Thus, this study sought to enumerate the number of households with an earthquake and tsunami evacuation plan and to identify predictors of having a household evacuation plan through a post-tsunami survey conducted in July 2011. Members of 300 households were interviewed in twelve villages spread across regions of the principle island of Tutuila. Multiple logistic regression showed that being male, having lived in one's home for tsunami event increased the likelihood of having a household evacuation plan. The prevalence of tsunami evacuation planning was 35% indicating that survivors might feel that preparation is not necessary given effective adaptive responses during the 2009 event. Results suggest that emergency planners and public health officials should continue with educational outreach to families to spread awareness around the importance of developing plans for future earthquakes and tsunamis to help mitigate human and structural loss from such natural disasters. Additional research is needed to better understand the linkages between pre-event planning and effective evacuation responses as were observed in the 2009 events.