WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese container terminals

  1. Optimizing Time Windows For Managing Export Container Arrivals At Chinese Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2010-01-01

    Management of truck transport in a port area is important for Chinese container ports as heavy traffic congestion not only limits the terminal capacity but also generates serious air pollution. This paper explores an effective way to manage the truck traffic of export containers based on a time...

  2. OPTIMIZING TIME WINDOWS FOR MANAGING ARRIVALS OF EXPORT CONTAINERS AT CHINESE CONTAINER TERMINALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen

    2009-01-01

      Managing the truck transport in a port area is important for Chinese container ports as heavy traffic congestion not only limits the terminal capacity but also generates serious air pollution. This paper explores an effective way to manage the truck traffic of export containers based on a time...... of driver and truck waiting time, the cost of container cargo storage time, the truck idle cost and terminal yard fee. Secondly, to minimize the costs, a heuristic is developed based on a genetic algorithm to optimize the time window arrangement. The optimal solution involves the position and the length...... of each time window. Finally, the heuristic is applied to a Chinese container terminal, and the result indicates that the optimization of time windows can successfully flatten the peak of truck traffic of export containers, which is the primary reason of road traffic congestion in port areas....

  3. Optimization of Container Terminal Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Bierlaire, Michel; Salani, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    Over the last years, international sea-freight container transportation has grown dramatically and container terminals play nowadays a key-role in the global shipping network. The increased competitiveness among terminals requires more and more efficiency in container operations, both along the quayside and within the yard, in order to minimize ships turnaround time. Operations research methods and techniques are therefore worth being used in optimizing terminal operations. In this work, we f...

  4. Container terminal services and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Rietveld, P.; P. Nijkamp

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the relation between container terminal services and quality is explored. Quality elements that are important to terminal customers are reliability, flexibility, availability, time, costs, control, and after sales support. Overall, it is important for the terminal operator to provide services that deliver excellent quality and fit into the value chain of its customers. From past and current research it follows that especially reliability and costs (related to quality) are import...

  5. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini; K. Khalili Damghani

    2009-01-01

    Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between ber...

  6. Yard traffic and congestion in container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Vandaele, Arnaud; Bierlaire, Michel; Salani, Matteo; Vacca, Ilaria

    2009-01-01

    In container terminals, the yard is the zone where containers are stored: it serves as a buffer for loading, unloading and transshipping containers. Yard is usually the bottleneck of the terminal, as traffic, congestion and capacity issues mainly originate from there. A berth&yard allocation plan assigns ships to berths and containers to yard blocks: a typical objective is to minimize the total distance traveled by the carriers to transfer containers from the quayside to the yard. Although c...

  7. Optimizing yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the container positioning problem (CPP) is to minimise the total handling time in the block, i.e. the time required for storage and reshuffling of containers. One...

  8. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  9. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle trans

  10. Modeling and Design of Container Terminal Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Debjit; Koster, René

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDesign of container terminal operations is complex because multiple factors affect the operational perfor- mance. These factors include: topological constraints, a large number of design parameters and settings, and stochastic interactions that interplay among the quayside, vehicle transport, and stackside processes. In this research, we propose new integrated queuing network models for rapid design evaluation of container terminals with Automated Lift Vehicles (ALVs) and Automate...

  11. Operational Optimization in Port Container Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As a result of the significant increase in worldwide containerized transportation the development of efficient handling systems in marine terminals has become very important for port competitiveness. In order to optimize the productivity the total handling time for containers in the terminal must...... be minimized. An overview of the different operational problems in port container terminals is presented and an aggregated model and solution approach is shown. Next, there will be focused on the yard storage problem and a mathematical formulation and solution proposals will be presented....

  12. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  13. Optimization at Container Terminals: Status, Trends and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Bierlaire, Michel; Salani, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    International sea-freight container transportation has grown dramatically over the last years and container terminals represent nowadays a key actor in the global shipping network. Terminal managers have to face with an increasing competitiveness among terminals, which require more and more efficiency in container operations both along the quayside and within the yard: the objective is usually to minimize ships turnaround time, one of the main indicators of the terminal performance for the sh...

  14. Optimization at Container Terminals: Status, Trends and Perspectives (revised version)

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Bierlaire, Michel; Salani, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    International sea-freight container transportation has grown dramatically over the last years and container terminals represent nowadays a key actor in the global shipping network. Terminal managers have to face with an increasing competitiveness among terminals, which require more and more efficiency in container operations both along the quayside and within the yard: the objective is usually to minimize ships turnaround time, one of the main indicators of the terminal performance for the sh...

  15. Optimization in container terminals: hierarchical vs integrated solution approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, international sea freight container transportation has grown dramatically and container terminals play nowadays a key role within the global shipping network. Terminals operations have received increasing interest in the scientific literature and operations research techniques are more and more used to improve efficiency and productivity. In this work we provide an overview of container terminals operations and associated decision problems. We review state-of-the-art opti...

  16. Optimization of operations in container terminals: hierarchical vs integrated approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, international sea freight container transportation has grown dramatically and container terminals play nowadays a key role within the global shipping network. Terminal's operations have received increasing interest in the scientific literature and operations research techniques are more and more used to improve efficiency and productivity. In this work we provide an overview of container terminal's operations and associated decision problems. We review state-of-the-art o...

  17. Using Simulation in Evaluating Berth Allocation at a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Henesey, Lawrence; Davidsson, Paul; Persson, Jan A.

    2004-01-01

    The operations and decision making at a container terminal have been simulated. A Berth Allocation Management System – (BAMS) has been built which consists of two parts: a container terminal simulator modelling the operations and a management simulator modelling the various actors involved in the allocation of container ships to berths. Together these two parts generate berth schedules for arriving container ships. Two berth assignment policies are evaluated in different scenarios, with vario...

  18. Railcar unloading at Chinese coal export terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Strachan Henshaw of Bristol, UK is currently installing its third railcar discharge facility in China, serving coal export terminals. The latest installation, located at Qianwan Harbour, Qindao in Shandong province is designed to unload coal brought from Shanxi province at a planned annual rate of 17.2 million tons. The article describes the design and operation of the railcar discharge facility. 1 fig., 3 photos.

  19. Models and Methods for Operations in Port Container Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Gudelj, Anita; Krčum, Maja; Twrdy, Elen

    2010-01-01

    The management of a container terminal is a complex process that involves many decisions. Among the problems to be solved, there are the spatial allocation of containers on the terminal yard, allocation of ships to berths and cranes, scheduling priorities and operations in order to maximize performances based on some economic indicators. Since the container port facilities are very expensive, it is desirable to optimize their performance, making better management decisions. This paper wants t...

  20. The Event Management Problem in a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bearzotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The container terminal is a convergence point in the cargo flow, being a focal point for multiple supply chains. Theoperations performed in a container terminal involve one of the most complex environments within the transportindustry. A container terminal plays a critical role in international shipping and is under pressure to cope withincreasing container traffic.This paper presents a multiagent model to solve the event management problem; this problem has a number offeatures which makes the agent a suitable technology to consider applying. The model presented is the basis fordeveloping a tool for the event management process in order to contribute to the reduction of logistics cost and toenhance the competitiveness of the container terminal.

  1. Evaluating performance of container terminal operation using simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Jamil, Fadhilah Che; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2015-05-01

    A container terminal is a facility where containers are transshipped from one mode of transport to another. Congestion problem leads to the decreasing of the customer's level of satisfaction. This study presents the application of simulation technique with the main objective of this study is to develop the current model and evaluate the performance of the container terminal. The suitable performance measure used in this study to evaluate the container terminal model are the average waiting time in queue, average of process time at berth, number of vessels enter the berth and resource utilization. Simulation technique was found to be a suitable technique to conduct in this study. The results from the simulation model had proved to solve the problem occurred in the container terminal.

  2. Computer simulation study International Container Terminal "Tanjung Perak", Surabaya, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Wanders, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Tanjung Perak harbour of the city of Surabaya on the island Java, Indonesia has experienced a considerable growth of container traffic. In order to adequately deal with the expected continuing increase of container traffic in the future, the International container terminal is presently being ex

  3. Strategies for improving import yard performance at container marine terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alcalde, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The process of containerization and its continuous development involves changes and technological innovations in containerships and maritime container terminals. In the current era of "gigantism", despite existing fleet overcapacity, shipping companies are booking larger and fuel-efficient vessels to benefit from economies of scale and to reduce operating costs. Consequently, port terminals have to cope with unprecedented container volumes and increasing demands, as a result, handling operati...

  4. Container Terminal Operations Modeling through Multi agent based Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ayub, Yasir; Faruki, Usman

    2009-01-01

    This thesis aims to propose a multi-agent based hierarchical model for the operations of container terminals. We have divided our model into four key agents that are involved in each sub processes. The proposed agent allocation policies are recommended for different situations that may occur at a container terminal. A software prototype is developed which implements the hierarchical model. This web based application is used in order to simulate the various processes involved in the following ...

  5. An approach for designing robotized marine container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saanen, Y.A.

    2004-01-01

    International transportation is rapidly growing. Even during the recent recession, trade growth percentages world-wide exceeded 5-10%. As a consequence, container handling capacity is rapidly growing as well. Larger vessels, bigger container terminals: it appears to be an on-going process of which t

  6. The Tactical Berth Allocation Problem: integrated optimization in container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    In the context of container terminal operations, the simultaneous optimization of decision problems that are usually solved hierarchically by terminal's planners represents nowadays a promising research trend. In this talk we introduce the Tactical Berth Allocation Problem (TBAP), that deals with the integration of the berth allocation problem (BAP) and the quay crane assignment problem (QCAP). The objective is to schedule incoming ships over a time horizon, assigning them a berthing position...

  7. Strategies for dispatching AGVs at automated seaport container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Lehmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Control of logistics operations at container terminals is an extremely complex task, especially if automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are employed. In AGV dispatching, the stochastic nature of the handling systems must be taken into account. For instance, handling times of quay and stacking cranes...... as well as release times of transportation orders are not exactly known in advance. We present a simulation study of AGV dispatching strategies in a seaport container terminal, where AGVs can be used in single or dual-carrier mode. The latter allows transporting two small-sized (20 ft) or one large......-sized (40 ft) container at a time, while in single-mode only one container is loaded onto the AGV irrespective of the size of the container. In our investigation, a typical on-line dispatching strategy adopted from flexible manufacturing systems is compared with a more sophisticated, pattern-based off...

  8. Strategies for dispatching AGV's at automated seaport container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Lehmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Control of logistics operations at container terminals is an extremely complex task, especially if automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are employed. In AGV dispatching, the stochastic nature of the handling systems must be taken into account. For instance, handling times of quay and stacking cranes...... as well as release times of transportation orders are not exactly known in advance. We present a simulation study of AGV dispatching strategies in a seaport container terminal, where AGVs can be used in single or dual-carrier mode. The latter allows transporting two small-sized (20 ft) or one large......-sized (40 ft) container at a time, while in single-mode only one container is loaded onto the AGV irrespective of the size of the container. In our investigation, a typical on-line dispatching strategy adopted from flexible manufacturing systems is compared with a more sophisticated, pattern-based off...

  9. Analysis and modeling of container terminal handling activities

    OpenAIRE

    Armando CARTENÌ; Luca, Stefano de

    2010-01-01

    Although the technical literature contains numerous efforts to simulate container terminal performance, little attention has been paid to setting up, calibrating and validating models for handling equipment activities. This paper presents results from the estimation of activity duration concerning three different types of handling equipment: mobile harbor cranes, gantry cranes and reach stackers. Two estimation approaches (sample means vs. random variables) were investigated with respect to d...

  10. Artificial Intelligence Techniques for the Berth Allocation and Container Stacking Problems in Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Molins, Mario; Barber, Federico

    The Container Stacking Problem and the Berth Allocation Problem are two important problems in maritime container terminal's management which are clearly related. Terminal operators normally demand all containers to be loaded into an incoming vessel should be ready and easily accessible in the terminal before vessel's arrival. Similarly, customers (i.e., vessel owners) expect prompt berthing of their vessels upon arrival. In this paper, we present an artificial intelligence based-integrated system to relate these problems. Firstly, we develop a metaheuristic algorithm for berth allocation which generates an optimized order of vessel to be served according to existing berth constraints. Secondly, we develop a domain-oriented heuristic planner for calculating the number of reshuffles needed to allocate containers in the appropriate place for a given berth ordering of vessels. By combining these optimized solutions, terminal operators can be assisted to decide the most appropriated solution in each particular case.

  11. Container terminals in Europe : their position in marketing channel flows

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows) and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and inter-modal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter’s theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive ...

  12. Verbetering van de productiviteit van een container terminal door efficiënte opslag van containers

    OpenAIRE

    Verjans, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Deze masterproef had als doel om manieren te onderzoeken om de productiviteit van een container terminal te verbeteren door een efficiëntere opslag van containers. In dit onderzoek is eerst gezocht naar de bestaande modellen in verband met de opslag van containers om vervolgens twee modellen na te bouwen. In de literatuur zijn vier verschillende categorieën van modellen terug te vinden die trachten de opslag van containers te optimaliseren. Het eerste model bestaat uit een LP probleem waar...

  13. A model for optimization of yard operations in port container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Louise K Sibbesen

    This report deals with the problem of positioning containers in a yard block of a port container terminal. The objective of the Container Positioning Problem (CPP) is to minimize the total cost of handling containers in the terminal yard. This is done by reducing the number of reshuffles in each...

  14. Migrating Birds Optimization for the Seaside Problems at Maritime Container Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz; Christopher Expósito-Izquierdo; Jesica de Armas; Belén Melián-Batista; J. Marcos Moreno-Vega

    2015-01-01

    Sea freight transportation involves moving huge amounts of freights among maritime locations widely spaced by means of container vessels. The time required to serve container vessels is the most relevant indicator when assessing the competitiveness of a maritime container terminal. In this paper, two main logistic problems stemming from the transshipment of containers in the seaside of a maritime container terminal are addressed, namely, the Berth Allocation Problem aimed at allocating and sc...

  15. Analysis of factors underlying foreign entry strategies of terminal operators in container ports

    OpenAIRE

    PAROLA, F; Notteboom, T.; Satta, G; Rodrigue, J. P

    2013-01-01

    Port reforms around the world have opened regional container port terminal markets. The emergence of a wide array of global terminal operators has led to a differentiation in entry strategies driven by their respective objectives and by factors exogenous to the firm.This paper looks at antecedent factors that play a role in a company's entry strategy in a public-private partnership (PPP) setting by performing binomial logistic regression on a large sample of container terminal deals over the ...

  16. Sea Container Terminals : New Technologies, OR models, and Emerging Research Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Gharehgozli (Amir); D. Roy (Debjit); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDue to a rapid growth in world trade and a huge increase in containerized goods, sea container terminals play a vital role in globe-spanning supply chains. Container terminals should be able to handle large ships, with large call sizes within the shortest time possible, and at competitiv

  17. Seaside operations in container terminals : literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seaside operations are considered the bottleneck operation in most container terminals around the world. This paper presents an in-depth updated overview of the seaside operations at container terminals and highlights current trends and developments. We review and classify scientific journal papers

  18. Simulation-based evaluation of berth allocation policies of container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Chervyakov, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to test and verify a hypothesis concerning policies for berth allocation to ships in a container terminal. The chosen domain is a rich research area where simulation could be used. Because of the high amount of variables involved and demand for optimal usage of available resources management of a container terminal is a great challenge.

  19. Analysis of berth allocation and inspection operations in a container terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Yongpei Guan; Kang-hung Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, approximately 90 per cent of the world's cargoes are moved by vessels, and the majority of general cargoes are transported in containers. Accordingly, a container terminal becomes one of the important nodes in the global supply chain network and it is important to make container terminals operate efficiently. Meanwhile, after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, the US Government has proposed and implemented several approaches to improve security systems, including container ...

  20. A study on RFID adoption for vehicle tracking in container terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Ting

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Numerous studies discuss that Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology can provide better container handling efficiency; however, relative lack of research concerns the tracking and monitoring the movement of vehicle in the container terminal environment. Thus, this study aims at discussing the feasibility of applying RFID for vehicle tracking purpose in a container terminal. Design/methodology/approach: This study makes use of a series of experiments in a container terminal to discuss the factors that affect the use of RFID in the terminal. The possibility and accuracy of using RFID in such challenging environment is also investigated. These propositions are investigated by a case study. Findings: The experimental results indicate that the RFID communication is good at the containers area which occupies nearly all the area in the container terminal. However, in other area such as sea side and free area, the performance is not good and 100% readability only achieved in 5m and 10m in free area and sea side respectively. Originality/value: The container terminal environment, which consists of different transport vehicles for onward transportation, will affect the performance of RFID readability. Poor setup of the RFID reader and tag will lower the feasibility of RFID adoption as well as increase the cost. In order to address the challenges of implementing RFID in the container terminal environment, this paper provides a series of real site testing experiments to study the RFID performance in the container terminal environment. This represents an original contribution of value to future research and practice in the RFID adoptions in container terminal environment.

  1. Technical Efficiency Analysis of Container Terminals in the Middle Eastern Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Sharaf Almawsheki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increasing number of studies on the efficiency of container terminals, their focus has mostly been on advanced and emerging markets. There are limited studies on container terminals in developing countries such as those of the Middle Eastern region, which are located in a critical geographic position in the international maritime route between the East and the West. Information on their potential for development relative to other terminals worldwide is thus not readily available. This study aims to evaluate the technical efficiency of 19 container terminals in the Middle Eastern region. The DEA approach is used to measure technical efficiency, and slack variable analysis identifies potential areas of improvement for inefficient terminals. The results show that the Jebel Ali, Salalah and Beirut container terminals are the most efficient terminals in the region, and that the least efficient is the terminal in Aden. The results provide valuable information for terminal managers, helping to develop resource utilisation for steady development in operational efficiency.

  2. Study on Modeling of Container Terminal Logistics System Using Agent-Based Computing and Knowledge Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Li Bin; Li Wen-Feng; Zhang Yu

    2009-01-01

    Container terminal is the transfer hinge of land-sea intermodal transportation. Container terminal logistics system (CTLS) is the central handling platform of container logistics in logistics network as the computer system is the core processing node to information flow in internet. Quay side is its “central processing unit (CPU)” of handling platform and storage yard is its “main memory.” CTLS is a highly complex system which includes parallel, negotiation, and competition relations etc. in ...

  3. Hierarchical modeling and analysis of container terminal operations

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Hacı Murat; Ozdemir, Haci Murat

    2003-01-01

    After the breakdown of trade barriers among countries, the volume of international trade has grown significantly in the last decade. This explosive growth in international trade has increased the importance of marine transportation which constitutes the major part of the global logistics network. The utilization of containers and container ships in marine transportation has also increased after the eighties due to various advantages such as packaging, flexibility, and reliability. Parallel to...

  4. 78 FR 46368 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Termination of an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Lake Forest, Illinois (collectively, ``Neptun''). 77 FR 11587 (Feb. 27, 2012). The complaint alleged... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Termination of...

  5. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard o

  6. A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Junliang He; Youfang Huang; Daofang Chang; Weimin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP) from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledg...

  7. Mathematical models and heuristic solutions for container positioning problems in port terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Louise Sibbesen

    2008-01-01

    This PhD thesis is concerned with the container positioning problem (CPP) which consists in determining optimal sequences of positions and moves for containers in a single storage block of a terminal yard. The purpose of the thesis is to apply Operations Research (OR) methods for optimizing the CPP......, and conclusive remarks. The introduction provides a basis for appreciating the presented work and sets out the scope, motivation, purpose, and contributions of the thesis. Furthermore, the CPP is defined and described, an overview of port container terminal issues in general is provided, and relevant literature...... mathematical programming formulations. First, a conceptual mixed integer linear programming (MIP) model for the entire port container terminal is presented. Subsequently, two models for the CPP are suggested: A MIP model and a binary integer linear programming (BIP) model. The models provide a basis...

  8. 77 FR 45373 - Certain Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing Same; Termination of the Investigation With a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... semiconductor chips and products containing the same. 76 FR 384 (Jan. 4, 2011). The complaint alleged the... ID in its entirety. 77 FR 27,249 (May 9, 2012). The notice of review asked the parties to brief... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing Same; Termination of the Investigation With...

  9. Container Terminal Management: Integrated Models and Large-Scale Optimization Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with models and methods for large scale optimization problems; in particular, we focus on decision problems arising in the context of seaport container terminals for the efficient management of terminal operations. Large-scale optimization problems are both difficult to handle and important in many concrete contexts. They usually originate from real world applications, such as telecommunication, transportation and logistics, and thei...

  10. Multi-agent-based Fuzzy Dispatching for Trucks at Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available At container terminals, containers are transported from the marshalling yard to the quay and vice versa by Container Trucks (CTs. This study discusses how to dispatch CTs by utilizing information about pickup and delivery locations and time in future delivery tasks based on dynamic dispatching strategy in which multiple tasks are matched with multiple CTs. n this paper, Multi-agent system (MAS is used as the basis for an intelligent dispatch system. To aim at that the characteristic of management of container terminal is how to optimize resource of terminal, the trends of decision-making way for management of container terminal, research and application of Multi-Agent system is summarized. Relationship between transport tasks and service of CTS has been taken as a contract net using the fuzzy set theory and method. Considering the load of communication and consultation efficiency in system, the bidirectional negotiation mechanism is adopted. The dispatching model based on Contract Network Protocol (CNP using bidirectional negotiation is provided for assigning optimal delivery tasks to CTs and fuzzy reasoning process of dispatching decisions is suggested. The method has both virtues of precision of static planning and flexibility of CNP and has been confirmed by cases.

  11. 77 FR 74513 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... (``CalTech''). 77 FR 33488 (June 6, 2012). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the Tariff... COMMISSION Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors...

  12. Effective algorithms for integrated scheduling of handling equipment at automated container terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.M. Meersmans; A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of integrated scheduling of various types of handling equipment at an automated container terminal, where the objective is to minimize the makespan of the schedule. We present a Branch & Bound algorithm that uses various combinatorial lower bounds. C

  13. Transport operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, research directions and classification scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internal transport operations connect the seaside, yard side, and landside processes at container terminals. This paper presents an in-depth overview of transport operations and the material handling equipment used, highlights current industry trends and developments, and proposes a new classificati

  14. 78 FR 36574 - Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Termination as to Three...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... (collectively, ``Neptun''). 77 FR 11587 (Feb. 27, 2012). The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of the... disapprove the Commission's action. See Presidential Memorandum of July 21, 2005, 70 FR 43251 (July 26, 2005... COMMISSION Certain Dimmable Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Products Containing Same; Termination as to...

  15. 78 FR 12354 - Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Pennsylvania (``X2Y''). 76 FR 39,895 (July 7, 2011). The respondents are Intel Corporation and Intel America... COMMISSION Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Termination of... microprocessors, Apple Inc. of Cupertino, California (``Apple''); and Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo...

  16. A Simple Synchro – Modal Decision Support Tool for the Piraeus Container Terminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanis, George N.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Spyrou, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    in the Mediterranean Sea basin. It exhibits an impressive container traffic growth rate over the last 4 years triggered by its partial privatization and a recently completed hinterland connection to the rail network, which associated the port with the South-Eastern European corridor e.g. the route Far Eastern ports...... Shanghai–Piraeus–Prague. The overall scenario is as follows: A container ship is arriving from China to the Piraeus Container Terminal. One of its containers is destined to an inland Enterprise in Prague. The most common way for transportation to Prague is rail, but also truck could be an alternative...

  17. Rail Mounted Gantry Crane Scheduling Optimization in Railway Container Terminal Based on Hybrid Handling Mode

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Rail mounted gantry crane (RMGC) scheduling is important in reducing makespan of handling operation and improving container handling efficiency. In this paper, we present an RMGC scheduling optimization model, whose objective is to determine an optimization handling sequence in order to minimize RMGC idle load time in handling tasks. An ant colony optimization is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments on a specific railway container terminal are conducted to illu...

  18. Operations Research for the management of a transhipment container terminal: The Gioia Tauro case

    OpenAIRE

    M Flavia Monaco; Luigi Moccia; Marcello Sammarra

    2009-01-01

    In this work we describe some decisional problems arising in the management of maritime container ports, together with optimisation models and algorithms suitably designed for their solution. We refer to the Gioia Tauro container terminal which recently has reached a high stage of growth, becoming one of the most important transhipment ports in the Mediterranean Sea. In particular, we focus on quay-side problems (berth allocation and quay crane scheduling), yard-side problems (tactical and op...

  19. 157 nm Photodissociation of a Complete Set of Dipeptide Ions Containing C-Terminal Arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Webber, Nathaniel; Reilly, James P.

    2013-05-01

    Twenty singly-charged dipeptide ions with C-terminal arginine were photodissociated with 157 nm light and their tandem mass spectra recorded. Many of the small product ions that were observed are standard peptide fragments that have been commonly seen in VUV photodissociation studies. However, the study of a library of dipeptides containing all 20 N-terminal amino acids enabled the recognition of trends associated with the occurrence of w-, v-, and immonium ions, the observation of competition between forming N- and C-terminal fragments in dipeptide RR, and the identification of some unusual fragment ions appearing at masses of 183, 187, 196, and 197 Da. A highly accurate internal calibration of the photodissociation TOF-TOF data enabled molecular formulae for these four product ions to be derived. Their proposed structures reflect the rather high-energy nature of this fragmentation phenomenon.

  20. Managing truck arrivals with time windows to alleviate gate congestion at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, G.; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries into gro......Long truck queues at gates often limit the efficiency of a container terminal and generate serious air pollution. To reduce the gate congestion, this paper proposes a method called'vessel dependent time windows (VDTWs)' to control truck arrivals, which involves partitioning truck entries...... into groups and assigning different time windows to the groups. The proposed VDTWs method includes three steps: (1) predicting truck arrivals based on the time window assignment, (2) estimating the queue length of trucks, and (3) optimizing the arrangement of time windows to minimize the total cost...

  1. A two-phase tabu search approach to scheduling optimization in container terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-cheng; YANG Zhong-zhen

    2007-01-01

    An optimization model for scheduling of quay cranes (QCs) and yard trailers was proposed to improve the overall efficiency of container terminals. To implement this model, a two-phase tabu search algorithra was designed. In the QCs scheduling phase of the algorithm, a search was performed to determine a good QC unloading operation order. For each QC unloading operation order generated during the QC's scheduling phase, another search was run to obtain a good yard trailer routing for the given QC's unloading order. Using this information, the time required for the operation was estimated,then the time of return to availability of the units was fed back to the QC scheduler. Numerical tests show that the two-phase Tabu Search algorithm searches the solution space efficiently, decreases the empty distance yard trailers must travel, decreases the number of trailers needed, and thereby reduces time and costs and improves the integration and reliability of container terminal operation systems.

  2. A Knowledge-based System for Berth Allocation in a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both of berth allocation and quay crane assignment are one of the most complex parts in container terminal operations, which significantly affect the operational efficiency, energy consumption and operational cost of the entire container terminal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an efficient strategy for integrated berth allocation and quay crane assignment (BACP from the perspective of knowledge, which aims at energy-saving and improving operational efficiency. In this paper, knowledge acquisition for BACP is initially conducted. And then, knowledge sorting process for BACP, including taxonomic tree generation and organization of acquired knowledge, is performed. After that, rules for BACP are extracted using the IF and THEN clause. Furthermore, a knowledge reasoning mechanism is designed. Finally, numerical experiments are used to illustrate the proposed knowledge-based system and verify the effectiveness and reliability.

  3. Migrating Birds Optimization for the Seaside Problems at Maritime Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea freight transportation involves moving huge amounts of freights among maritime locations widely spaced by means of container vessels. The time required to serve container vessels is the most relevant indicator when assessing the competitiveness of a maritime container terminal. In this paper, two main logistic problems stemming from the transshipment of containers in the seaside of a maritime container terminal are addressed, namely, the Berth Allocation Problem aimed at allocating and scheduling incoming vessels into berthing positions along the quay and the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem, whose objective is to schedule the loading and unloading tasks associated with a container vessel. For solving them, two Migrating Birds Optimization (MBO approaches are proposed. The MBO is a recently proposed nature-inspired algorithm based on the V-formation flight of migrating birds. In this algorithm, a set of solutions of the problem at hand, called birds, cooperate among themselves during the search process by sharing information within a V-line formation. The computational experiments performed over well-known problem instances reported in the literature show that the performance of our proposed MBO approaches is highly competitive and presents a better performance in terms of running time than the best approximate approach proposed in the literature.

  4. Vertical integration within the logistic chain: does "regulation" play rational? The case for dedicated container terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Cariou, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The liberalisation process of European port markets is similar to the one implemented in most of the networks industries (telecommunication, gas, water, airlines...). It takes place during a period of vertical integration within the logistical chain. The basic idea of this article is to present the main features of those processes and their major implications in one case of vertical integration: dedicated container terminals (DTs). A first section compares port systems and general network ...

  5. Two-stage column generation and applications in container terminal management

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, Ilaria; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Seaport container terminals are source of many interesting large-scale optimization problems, which arise in the management of operations at several decision levels. In this paper we firstly illustrate a recently proposed framework, called two-stage column generation (Salani and Vacca, 2008), which is suitable for a particular class of large-scale problems, where the structure of the original formulation, namely the presence of a combinatorial number of decision variables, does not allow for ...

  6. Rail mounted gantry crane scheduling optimization in railway container terminal based on hybrid handling mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhu, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Rail mounted gantry crane (RMGC) scheduling is important in reducing makespan of handling operation and improving container handling efficiency. In this paper, we present an RMGC scheduling optimization model, whose objective is to determine an optimization handling sequence in order to minimize RMGC idle load time in handling tasks. An ant colony optimization is proposed to obtain near optimal solutions. Computational experiments on a specific railway container terminal are conducted to illustrate the proposed model and solution algorithm. The results show that the proposed method is effective in reducing the idle load time of RMGC. PMID:25538768

  7. Performance Analysis on Transfer Platforms in Frame Bridge Based Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a new automated container terminal (ACT system which utilizes multistory frame bridges and rail-mounted trolleys to transport containers between the quay and the yard. Beside typical ACT systems use trucks or automated guided vehicles for transporting containers between quay cranes and yard cranes, the new design uses three types of handling machines, namely, ground trolleys (GTs, transfer platforms (TPs, and frame trolleys (FTs. These three types of handling machines collaborate with one another to transport containers. This study decomposes the system into several subsystems. Each subsystem has one TP and several FTs and GTs dedicated to this TP. Then, a Markov chain model is developed to analyze the throughput of TPs. At last, the performance of the new ACT system is estimated. Sensitivity analyzes the numbers, and the processing rates of trolleys are conducted through the numeric experiments.

  8. Synthesis and Gene Silencing Properties of siRNAs Containing Terminal Amide Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gaglione

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The active components of the RNAi are 21 nucleotides long dsRNAs containing a 2 nucleotide overhang at the 3′ end, carrying 5′-phosphate and 3′-hydroxyl groups (siRNAs. Structural analysis revealed that the siRNA is functionally bound at both ends to RISC. Terminal modifications are considered with interest as the introduction of chemical moieties interferes with the 3′ overhang recognition by the PAZ domain and the 5′-phosphate recognition by the MID and PIWI domains of RISC. Herein, we report the synthesis of modified siRNAs containing terminal amide linkages by introducing hydroxyethylglycine PNA (hegPNA moieties at 5′, and at 3′ positions and on both terminals. Results of gene silencing studies highlight that some of these modifications are compatible with the RNAi machinery and markedly increase the resistance to serum-derived nucleases even after 24 h of incubation. Molecular docking simulations were attained to give at atomistic level a clearer picture of the effect of the most performing modifications on the interactions with the human Argonaute 2 PAZ, MID, and PIWI domains. This study adds another piece to the puzzle of the heterogeneous chemical modifications that can be attained to enhance the silencing efficiency of siRNAs.

  9. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  10. A Simulation Based Approach to Optimize Berth Throughput Under Uncertainty at Marine Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golias, Mihalis M.

    2011-01-01

    Berth scheduling is a critical function at marine container terminals and determining the best berth schedule depends on several factors including the type and function of the port, size of the port, location, nearby competition, and type of contractual agreement between the terminal and the carriers. In this paper we formulate the berth scheduling problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer problem with the objective to maximize customer satisfaction and reliability of the berth schedule under the assumption that vessel handling times are stochastic parameters following a discrete and known probability distribution. A combination of an exact algorithm, a Genetic Algorithms based heuristic and a simulation post-Pareto analysis is proposed as the solution approach to the resulting problem. Based on a number of experiments it is concluded that the proposed berth scheduling policy outperforms the berth scheduling policy where reliability is not considered.

  11. 157 nm Photodissociation of Dipeptide Ions Containing N-Terminal Arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Nathaniel; He, Yi; Reilly, James P.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty singly-charged dipeptide ions with N-terminal arginine were photodissociated using 157 nm light in both a linear ion-trap mass spectrometer and a MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometer. Analogous to previous work on dipeptides containing C-terminal arginine, this set of samples enabled insights into the photofragmentation propensities associated with individual residues. In addition to familiar products such as a-, d-, and immonium ions, m2 and m2+13 ions were also observed. Certain side chains tended to cleave between their β and γ carbons without necessarily forming d- or w-type ions, and a few other ions were produced by the high-energy fragmentation of multiple bonds.

  12. Agent-Based Automatic Shore Operating Scheduling for a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhou; Nannan Yan

    2013-01-01

    This  paper  established  berth  allocation  and  quay crane  scheduling  models  of  shore  operating  for  a  container terminal. Furthermore, the structure of the berth - quay crane scheduling   agent   is   also   given.  Finally,   an   example   using genetic  algorithm  to  resolve  the  berth  allocation  model  and agent  technology  is  shown. The  experiment result shows that the  use  of  intelligent theory  and  technology  can  provide  an effective way for  container termina...

  13. Agent-Based Automatic Shore Operating Scheduling for a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  established  berth  allocation  and  quay crane  scheduling  models  of  shore  operating  for  a  container terminal. Furthermore, the structure of the berth - quay crane scheduling   agent   is   also   given.  Finally,   an   example   using genetic  algorithm  to  resolve  the  berth  allocation  model  and agent  technology  is  shown. The  experiment result shows that the  use  of  intelligent theory  and  technology  can  provide  an effective way for  container terminal operating scheduling.

  14. Investigating transportation system in container terminals and developing a yard crane scheduling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Javanshir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trade has tremendous growth in marine transportation. This paper studies yard crane scheduling problem between different blocks in container terminal. Its purpose is to minimize total travel time of cranes between blocks and total delayed workload in blocks at different periods. In this way the problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP model. The block pairs between which yard cranes will be transferred, during the various periods, is determined by this model. Afterwards the model is coded in LINGO software, which benefits from branch and bound algorithm to solve. Computational results determine the yard cranes movement sequence among blocks to achieve minimum total travel time for cranes and minimum total delayed workload in blocks at different planning periods. Also the results show capability and adequacy of the developed model.

  15. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juachi U. Dimude

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becomes a serious problem to cells if the second fork is stalled at an impediment, as replication cannot be completed, suggesting that a significant evolutionary advantage for maintaining this chromosomal arrangement must exist. Recently, we demonstrated that head-on fusion of replication forks can trigger over-replication of the chromosome. This over-replication is normally prevented by a number of proteins including RecG helicase and 3’ exonucleases. However, even in the absence of these proteins it can be safely contained within the replication fork trap, highlighting that multiple systems might be involved in coordinating replication fork fusions. Here, we discuss whether considering the problems associated with head-on replication fork fusion events helps us to better understand the important role of the replication fork trap in cellular metabolism.

  16. Optimal allocation of handling equipment in a container terminal using dynamic programming with lagrangian relaxation approach. Container futo ni okeru niyaku shisetsu haichi no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sritharan, S.; Villamor, N.

    1991-07-15

    This study describes methods for optimal crane allocation and the corresponding trailer allocation using dynamic programming with Lagrangian relaxation approach, taking the container terminal at Bangkok Port as an example. The developed system can be applied to any container terminal in any country regardless of number of berth, kind of container ship or kind of crane and trailer. This system may be used practically because the required solution can be derived from a personal computer operation for about ten minutes. The dynamic programming system relating to optimal crane allocation has been verified for its reasonability after 1000 repetitions of the simulation. Differences in the result were 1 TEU for the mean value, 12 TEU for the standard deviation, and {minus}30 to {plus}30 for the range. The standard deviation is sufficiently small at little less than 7% against a handling volume of 186 TEU. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Karyotype and DNA-Methylation Responses in Myelodysplastic Syndromes following Treatment with Traditional Chinese Formula Containing Arsenic

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Shuzhen; Ma Rou; Hu Xiaomei; Yang Xiao-hong; Xu Yong-gang; Wang Hongzhi; Yang Xiu-Peng

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula, Qing-Huang powder capsule (containing tetraarsenic tetrasulfide, As4S4), is effective in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); yet the underlined mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using standard cytogenetic analysis (G-banded) and global DNA methylation method (ChIP-on-chip assays), we aimed to determine the effect of arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula on karyotype status and the genomic methyla...

  18. Integrating truck arrival management into tactical operation planning at container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Gang; Song, Dong-Ping

    2013-01-01

    planning model and a sequential planning model are presented to coordinate the major terminal planning activities, including quayside berth allocation, yard storage space allocation and TAM. A heuristic-based genetic algorithm is developed to solve the models. A range of numerical examinations...... are performed to compare two planning models. The result shows that: the integrated model can improve the terminal performance significantly from the sequential model alone, particularly when the gate capacity and the yard capacity are relatively low; whereas the sequential model is more efficient than...

  19. Avian sarcoma virus gag and env gene structural protein precursors contain a common amino-terminal sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficht, T A; Chang, L J; Stoltzfus, C M

    1984-01-01

    The initiation site for translation of the avian sarcoma virus glycoprotein precursor, Pr63env, has been determined by analyzing the amino-terminal peptides of Pr63env and the polyprotein precursor Pr76gag encoded by the viral gag gene. The acceptor splice junction used to form the env gene mRNA has also been identified. Hybrid-selected virus-specific mRNAs were translated in vitro in the presence of either L-[35S]methionine to label at every methionine residue or L-[35S]methionine-tRNAMeti to label specifically at the amino-terminal methionine residues. Tryptic peptide maps of Pr63env labeled at every methionine residue contain all of the peptides, plus one additional peptide, present in the map of Pr57env, a nonglycosylated env-encoded polypeptide of molecular weight 57,000 immunoprecipitated from tunicamycin-treated cells. Specific amino-terminal labeling of the in vitro-synthesized polypeptides showed that the peptide missing from Pr57env corresponds to the amino-terminal tryptic peptide of Pr63env, which is removed in vivo as part of the amino-terminal signal peptide. Comparison of the amino-terminal tryptic peptides of Pr63env and Pr76gag showed that they are identical. In contrast, the chymotryptic amino-terminal peptides of Pr76gag and Pr63env are not identical. The location of the acceptor-splice junction in the env mRNA of the Prague A strain of avian sarcoma virus was determined by mung bean nuclease mapping to be at nucleotide 5,078. Fusion of the gag and env gene sequences during splicing results in use of the same AUG codon to initiate synthesis of Pr76gag and Pr63env. This sequence is contained within the 397-nucleotide 5' terminal leader that is spliced to the body of the env mRNA. The possible significance of these results for the regulation of avian sarcoma virus synthesis and translation is discussed.

  20. Second Line of Defense, Port of Buenos Aires and Exolgan Container Terminal Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Bryan W.

    2012-08-23

    The Office of the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports project team for Argentina will conduct operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) at Exolgan Container Terminal at the Port of Dock Sud from July 16-20, 2012; and at the Port of Buenos Aires from September 3-7, 2012. SLD is installing radiation detection equipment to screen export, import, and transshipment containers at these locations. The purpose of OT&E is to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the SLD mission and to ensure the system continues to perform as expected in an operational environment with Argentina Customs effectively adjudicating alarms.

  1.  Reducing Marine Container Terminal Gate Congestion with Vessel-Dependent Time Windows For Truck Entries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Zhongzhen; Jiang, Liping

    In recent years, marine container terminal gate congestion has become a serious issue, because it not only limits the efficiency of the logistics system but also generates serious air pollution. The direct reason has been recognized to be the unmanaged container truck arrivals. One of the possible...... and the heuristic of genetic algorithm is improved to be more efficient. Then two optimization strategies are proposed namely fixed end-point time window (FEP) and variable end-point time window (VEP). To compare the effectiveness of two strategies, the optimization model and the heuristic are applied to some tests...

  2. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Juachi U. Dimude; Midgley-Smith, Sarah L.; Monja Stein; Rudolph, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becom...

  3. N-terminal of L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus contains a new signal sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Yuchun; KE Yeyan; WANG Zai; YU Xiang; DENG Hongkui; DING Mingxiao

    2003-01-01

    The L protein (241 kD) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the mostimportant subunit of the replication complex. The existence of specific localization signal in the L protein was investigated by making recombinant constructs expressing truncated mutants of the L protein fused to green fluorescent protein(GFP) in transient transfection assays. The chimeric genes encoding varied N-terminal of L and GFP gene were put under the control of T7 promoter or CMV promoter. The fusion proteins were transiently expressed in BHK-21, COS-7, CHO or Hep G2 cells. When more than 120 residues were deleted or only 96 residues were kepton the N-terminal, the fusion proteins were shown to be distributed throughout the cells, cytoplasm and nucleus under the confocal microscope. However, other chimeric proteins with 120 or more amino acids were dotted and distributed in theperinuclear regions. And the fusion protein with 96-120 aa has the similar distribution. A thirteen-residue peptide QGYSFLHEVDKEA (108-120) was identified as localization signal, whose function would be absolutely distributed with the deficiency of D or V. Our results show that there is an independent localizing signal in N-terminal domain of L protein of VSV and this functional signal is conserved in different cell lines.

  4. Synthesis of nucleoside 5'-tetraphosphates containing terminal fluorescent labels via activated cyclic trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamady, Samy; Taylor, Scott D

    2014-03-01

    2'-Deoxynucleotide 5'-tetraphosphates in which a fluorescent label is attached to the terminal phosphate are used as key reagents in high-throughput DNA sequencing techniques and in single nucleotide polymorphism typing assays. We demonstrate that this class of compounds can be prepared by reacting fluorophores such as 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, methylfluorescein, fluorescein and resorufin with an activated form of cyclic trimetaphosphate to give intermediate 11. Reaction of 11 with 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-monophosphates or a nucleoside 5'-monophosphate gave the target compounds in good yield. PMID:24552623

  5. Revertants of a Transcription Termination Mutant of Yeast Contain Diverse Genetic Alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Kotval, Jeroo; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Consaul, Sandra; Sherman, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Revertants of the cyc1-512 transcription termination mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and subjected to a detailed genetic analysis. The cyc1-512 mutation previously was shown to be a 38-base pair deletion that causes only 10% of the normal steady-state levels of CYC1 mRNA and of the CYC1 gene product, iso-1-cytochrome c. Forty-one cyc1-512 revertants were classified by their content of iso-1-cytochrome c and by their genetic properties in meiotic crosses. Many of the...

  6. Flash lamp annealing of spray coated films containing oxidized or hydrogen terminated silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Falko, E-mail: falko.seidel@physik.tu-chemnitz.de [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Toader, Iulia G. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Koth, Stephan [Institute for Print and Media Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Fritzsche, Ronny [Coordination Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Schäfer, Philipp; Bülz, Daniel [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Büchter, Benjamin [Coordination Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Freitag, Hans [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Jakob, Alexander; Buschbeck, Roy [Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz,Germany (Germany); Hietschold, Michael [Solid Surface Analysis, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Lang, Heinrich [Inorganic Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz,Germany (Germany); Mehring, Michael [Coordination Chemistry, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Baumann, Reinhard [Institute for Print and Media Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A variety of silicon nanoparticle (Si NP) powders is studied with diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy before and after treatment with hydrofluoric acid. As received Si NPs and surface passivated Si NPs are dispersed in organic dispersion media such ethanol. A spray coating system is used to spray the Si NPs onto molybdenum substrates under nitrogen atmosphere. During film growth an in-line spectroscopic ellipsometer monitors the deposition process. In addition, a Xe-lamp enables to flash films in order to melt Si NPs together. Si NP films are then investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Eventually, a difference in surface termination (e.g. state of surface oxidation and hydrogen passivation) between Si NP amounts of three selected providers was found. Furthermore, the dispersion stability of Si NP powder in dry ethanol (> 99%), the film roughness after processing, and the melting of Si NP films is found to depend strongly on the surface termination of the NPs. - Highlights: • Silicon nanoparticle suspensions are spray coated on molybdenum substrates. • Spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy watch the deposition. • After deposition a light flash anneals the sample to fuse silicon nanoparticles. • Silicon nanoparticle surface oxidation correlates with the effects of annealing.

  7. A New Approach for Sequencing Loading and Unloading Operations in the Seaside Area of a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Lajjam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the considerable growth in the worldwide container transportation, optimization of container terminal operations is becoming highly needed to rationalize the use of logistics resources. For this reason, we focus our study on the Quay Crane Scheduling Problem (QCSP, which is a core task of managing maritime container terminals. From this planning problem arise two decisions to be made: The first one concerns tasks assignment to quay crane and the second one consists of finding the handling sequence of tasks such that the turnaround time of cargo vessels is minimized. In this paper, we provide a mixed-integer programming (MIP model that takes into account non-crossing constraints, safety margin constraints and precedence constraints. The QCSP has been shown NP-complete, thus, we used the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, a probabilistic technique inspired from ants’ behaviour, to find a feasible solution of such problem. The results obtained from the computational experiments indicate that the proposed method is able to produce good results while reducing the computational time.

  8. [Local straight line screening method for the detection of Chinese proprietary medicines containing undeclared prescription drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Cao, Yan; Le, Jian; Chen, Gui-Liang; Chai, Yi-Feng; Lu, Feng

    2009-02-01

    The present paper constructs a new approach named local straight-line screening (LSLS) to detect Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) containing undeclared prescription drugs (UPD). Different from traditional methods used in analysis of multi-component spectrum, LSLS is proposed according to the characteristics of original infrared spectra of the UPD and suspected CPM, without any pattern recognition or concentration model establishment. Spectrum-subtraction leads to the variance in local straight line, which serves as a key in discrimination of whether suspected CPD is adulterated or not. Sibutramine hydrochloride, fenfluramine hydrochloride, sildenafil citrate and lovastatin were used as reference substances of UPD to analyze 16 suspected CPM samples. The results show that LSLS can obtain an accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis of suspected CPM. It is possible for the method to be potentially used in the preliminary screening of CPM containing possible UPD.

  9. A Sequential AC/DC Power Flow Algorithm for Networks Containing Multi-terminal VSC HVDC Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beerten, Jef; Cole, Stijn; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a sequential AC/DC power flow algorithm is proposed to solve networks containing Multi-terminal Voltage Source Converter High Voltage Direct Current (VSC MTDC) systems. In VSC HVDC technology, the converter losses add up to a significant fraction of the overall system losses. However, they are often neglected or not taken into account in a proper manner in VSC HVDC power flows. The algorithm put forward in this paper takes the converter losses into account using a generalized c...

  10. Neutral Pectin side chains of Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) contain long, partially branched Arabinans and short galactans, both with terminal arabinopyranoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-01-21

    Amaranth is a pseudocereal of high nutritional value, including a high dietary fiber content. Amaranth dietary fiber was suggested to contain large amounts of neutral rhamnogalacturonan I side chains. In this study, endo-arabinanase and endo-galactanase were used to liberate arabinan and galactan oligosaccharides from amaranth fiber. The liberated oligosaccharides were identified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and HPLC-MS(n) using standard compounds, which were isolated from amaranth, sugar beet, potato, and red clover sprouts and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that insoluble amaranth arabinans have linear and branched areas, with the O-3 position being the dominant branching point. Minor amounts of branches at position O-2 and double substitution were also found. Amaranth arabinans were also demonstrated to contain terminal α-(1→5)-linked l-arabinopyranose units. In addition, it was evidenced that galactans from amaranth seeds are composed of β-(1→4)-linked d-galactopyranose units, which can also be terminated with l-arabinopyranose units. In direct comparison to structural elucidation of amaranth fiber by using methylation analysis, the advantage of the enzymatic approach over methylation analysis was demonstrated. PMID:25529336

  11. Neutral Pectin side chains of Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) contain long, partially branched Arabinans and short galactans, both with terminal arabinopyranoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-01-21

    Amaranth is a pseudocereal of high nutritional value, including a high dietary fiber content. Amaranth dietary fiber was suggested to contain large amounts of neutral rhamnogalacturonan I side chains. In this study, endo-arabinanase and endo-galactanase were used to liberate arabinan and galactan oligosaccharides from amaranth fiber. The liberated oligosaccharides were identified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and HPLC-MS(n) using standard compounds, which were isolated from amaranth, sugar beet, potato, and red clover sprouts and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that insoluble amaranth arabinans have linear and branched areas, with the O-3 position being the dominant branching point. Minor amounts of branches at position O-2 and double substitution were also found. Amaranth arabinans were also demonstrated to contain terminal α-(1→5)-linked l-arabinopyranose units. In addition, it was evidenced that galactans from amaranth seeds are composed of β-(1→4)-linked d-galactopyranose units, which can also be terminated with l-arabinopyranose units. In direct comparison to structural elucidation of amaranth fiber by using methylation analysis, the advantage of the enzymatic approach over methylation analysis was demonstrated.

  12. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan - Kingston Container Terminal, Port of Kingston, Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deforest, Thomas J.; VanDyke, Damon S.

    2012-03-01

    Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan - Kingston Container Terminal, Port of Kingston, Jamaica was written for the Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative. The purpose of the Operational Testing and Evaluation (OT&E) phase of the project is to prepare for turnover of the Megaports system supplied by U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) located at the Kingston Container Terminal (KCT) of the Port of Kingston, Jamaica to the Government of Jamaica (GOJ). Activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports system can be operated effectively in real time by Jamaica Customs and KCT personnel to the satisfaction of the DOE/NNSA. These activities will also determine if the Megaports system, as installed and accepted, is performing according to the Megaports Program objectives such that the system is capable of executing the mission of the Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative. The OT&E phase of the project also provides an opportunity to consider potential improvements to the system and to take remedial action if performance deficiencies are identified during the course of evaluation. Changes to the system should be considered under an appropriate change-control process. DOE/NNSA will determine that OT&E is complete by examining whether the Megaports system is performing as intended and that the GOJ is fully capable of operating the system independently without continued onsite support from the U.S. team.

  13. Preparation of shampoo containing Chinese medicine%中药洗发香波的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 张榕文; 蒋日琼; 万玉华; 黄春静; 徐静; 黄崇才

    2011-01-01

    配制中药洗发香波,并初步探讨其对烫后受损头发的修护效果.用电子显微镜观察其对烫后受损发质的修复作用.结果表明,中药提取液用量为15%时,洗发香波配伍性能和梳理性效果最好,具有改善头发梳理性能,有效修复头发的作用,各项指标均符合行业标准QB/T 1974-2004.%The Chinese medicine shampoo was prepared and it's restoration of damaged hair due to dyeing was studied. Electron microscopy was adopted to observe the restoration of damaged hair due to dyeing. Results showed that the compatibility and carding property of shampoo containing 15% of Chinese medicine extract was optimized. The shampoo improved carding property and effectively restored the damaged hair,and all the checkpoints met the standards of QB/T 1974-2004.

  14. The Scavenger Receptor SSc5D Physically Interacts with Bacteria through the SRCR-Containing N-Terminal Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa Pereira, Catarina; Bocková, Markéta; Santos, Rita F.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Oliveira, Liliana; Homola, Jiří; Carmo, Alexandre M.

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Toward establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR) properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSc5D (N-SSc5D), thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein–bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to Escherichia coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively), and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time, and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5, and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3). Our work thus advocates the

  15. Modeling the circulation with three-terminal electrical networks containing special nonlinear capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitlik, J E; Halperin, H R; Popel, A S; Shoukas, A A; Yin, F C; Westerhof, N

    1992-01-01

    Development, first of analog and later of digital computers, as well as algorithms for analysis of electrical circuits, stimulated the use of electrical circuits for modeling the circulation. The networks used as building blocks for electrical models can provide accurate representation of the hydrodynamic equations relating the inflow and outflow of individual segments of the circulation. These networks, however, can contain connections in which voltages and currents have no analogues in the circulation. Problems arise because (a) electrical current must flow in closed loops, whereas no such constraints exist for hydraulic models; and (b) electrical capacitors have a number of characteristics that are not analogous to those of hydraulic compliant chambers. Disregarding these differences can lead to erroneous results and misinterpretation of phenomena. To ensure against these errors, we introduce an imaginary electrical element, the nonlinear residual-charge capacitor (NRCC), with characteristics equivalent to those of a compliant chamber. If one uses appropriate circuit connections and incorporates the residual-charge capacitor, then all voltages and currents in the model are proper analogues of pressures and flows in the circulation. It is shown that the capacitive current represents the rate of change of volume of blood inside the vessel, as well as the rate of the corresponding displacement of volume of the surrounding tissue. PMID:1449229

  16. Karyotype and DNA-Methylation Responses in Myelodysplastic Syndromes following Treatment with Traditional Chinese Formula Containing Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shuzhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula, Qing-Huang powder capsule (containing tetraarsenic tetrasulfide, As4S4, is effective in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; yet the underlined mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using standard cytogenetic analysis (G-banded and global DNA methylation method (ChIP-on-chip assays, we aimed to determine the effect of arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula on karyotype status and the genomic methylation level in primarily diagnosed MDS patients. Correlation of aberrant DNA methylation and chromosome aberrations in MDS was also investigated. We found that the number of genes with aberrant DNA methylation was highest in MDS patients with normal karyotype, followed by trisomy 8 karyotype, and relatively low in patients with cytogenetic abnormalities other than trisomy 8. Treatment with arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula had no effects on karyotype status, but resulted in a significant genome-wide demethylation. Our research uncovered a DNA demethylating activity of arsenic-containing Chinese herbal formula in the treatment of MDS.

  17. Minimization of Delay and Travel Time of Yard Trucks in Container Terminals Using an Improved GA with Guidance Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yard truck scheduling and storage allocation problems (YTS-SAP are two important issues that influence the efficiency of a container terminal. These two problems aim to determine the routing of trucks and proper storage locations for discharging containers from incoming vessels. This paper integrates YTS and SAP as a whole and tries to minimize the weighted summation of total delay and total yard trucks travel time. A genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to deal with the problem. In the proposed GA, guidance mutation approach and exhaustive heuristic for local searching are used in order to force the GA to converge faster and be steadier. To test the performance of the proposed GA, both small scale and large scale cases are studied. The results of these cases are compared with CPLEX for the small scale cases. Since this problem is an NP-hard problem, which CPLEX cannot solve, a simple GA is studied for comparison in large scale cases. The comparison demonstrates that the proposed GA can obtain near optimal solutions in much shorter computational time for small scale cases. In addition, the proposed GA can obtain better results than other methods in reasonable time for large scale cases.

  18. Post-marketing Surveillance for Combined Oral Contraceptive Containing Desogestrel (Marvelon?) in Chinese Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the side effects and the continuation rate of combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing desogestrel (Marvelon ) during 12 months. Methods This was a post-marketing surveillance study on Marvelon COC among 870 healthy rural women in 5 different counties of Jiangsu Province during 12 months. Results About 24.02% of the women who used Marvelon COC experienced side effects during 12 months. Gastrointestinal disorder, bleeding/spotting and chloasma were ranked the first three in the side effects. The rate of side effects of Marvelon COC users during the first 3 months in southern area of Jiangsu was significantly higher than that of users in northern area of Jiangsu. Most of the users did not experience obvious weight changes i.e., loss or increase in weight of more than 5 kg during 12 months. Blood pressure and biochemical indicators of almost 99% among users were within the normal range. The gross cumulative continuation rate for 12 months was 83.14%; the most common medical reason for discontinuation was gastrointestinal disorder. There was an increased risk of discontinuation use among women with lower educational level.Conclusion Marvelon COC brought fewer side effects and was well accepted when applied in Chinese rural women.

  19. Design and Implementation of Container Terminal Operation System%集装箱码头操作控制子系统产品化研发实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅

    2012-01-01

    This treatise based on years of actual development and implementation status of the container terminal, design the architecture which can be adapted to many container terminal type, abstract multiple reusable public assembly, and summarize a group content which can be configured to adapt to a variety of terminal operations at the same time from business aspect. Redueed the development cost and later executive cost of the new container terminal. It is a pilot advance for the transition development of container terminal operation system.%论文结合多年码头实际研发实施现状,设计出可适应多种码头类型的架构,抽象出多个可复用的公用组件,并从业务层面总结出一批同时适应多种码头业务的可配置内容,大大减少了新码头的开发成本以及后期实施的成本,为集装箱码头操作系统产品化道路迈出了坚实的一步。

  20. The Rho Termination Factor of Clostridium botulinum contains a Prion-Like Domain with a highly Amyloidogenic Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irantzu ePallares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prion-like proteins can switch between a soluble intrinsically disordered conformation and a highly ordered amyloid assembly. This conformational promiscuity is encoded in specific sequence regions, known as prion domains (PrDs. Prions are best known as the causative factors of neurological diseases in mammals. However, bioinformatics analyses reveal that proteins bearing PrDs are present in all kingdoms of life, including bacteria, thus supporting the idea that they serve conserved beneficial cellular functions. Despite the proportion of predicted prion-like proteins in bacterial proteomes is generally low, pathogenic species seem to have a higher prionic load, suggesting that these malleable proteins may favor pathogenic traits. In the present work, we performed a stringent computational analysis of the Clostridium botulinum pathogen proteome in the search for prion-like proteins. A total of 54 candidates were predicted for this anaerobic bacterium, including the transcription termination Rho factor. This RNA-binding protein has been shown to play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation to changing environments. We show here that the predicted disordered PrD domain of this RNA-binding protein contains an inner, highly polar, asparagine-rich short sequence able to spontaneously self-assemble into amyloid-like structures, bearing thus the potential to induce a Rho factor conformational switch that might rewire gene expression in response to environmental conditions.

  1. The N-terminal part of Als1 protein from Candida albicans specifically binds fucose-containing glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Dagmara S; Ielasi, Francesco S; Goossens, Katty V Y; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2011-06-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans expresses on its surface Als (Agglutinin like sequence) proteins, which play an important role in the adhesion to host cells and in the development of candidiasis. The binding specificity of these proteins is broad, as they can bind to various mammalian proteins, such as extracellular matrix proteins, and N- and E-cadherins. The N-terminal part of Als proteins constitutes the substrate-specific binding domain and is responsible for attachment to epithelial and endothelial cells. We have used glycan array screening to identify possible glycan receptors for the binding domain of Als1p-N. Under those conditions, Als1p-N binds specifically to fucose-containing glycans, which adds a lectin function to the functional diversity of the Als1 protein. The binding between Als1p-N and BSA-fucose glycoconjugate was quantitatively characterized using surface plasmon resonance, which demonstrated a weak millimolar affinity between Als1p-N and fucose. Furthermore, we have also quantified the affinity of Als1p-N to the extracellular matrix proteins proteins fibronectin and laminin, which is situated in the micromolar range. Surface plasmon resonance characterization of Als1p-N-Als1p-N interaction was in the micromolar affinity range.

  2. Modulating the activity of short arginine-tryptophan containing antibacterial peptides with N-terminal metallocenoyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bauke Albada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of small synthetic arginine and tryptophan containing peptides was prepared and analyzed for their antibacterial activity. The effect of N-terminal substitution with metallocenoyl groups such as ferrocene (FcCO and ruthenocene (RcCO was investigated. Antibacterial activity in different media, growth inhibition, and killing kinetics of the most active peptides were determined. The toxicity of selected derivatives was determined against erythrocytes and three human cancer cell lines. It was shown that the replacement of an N-terminal arginine residue with a metallocenoyl moiety modulates the activity of WRWRW-peptides against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MIC values of 2–6 µM for RcCO-W(RW2 and 1–11 µM for (RW3 were determined. Interestingly, W(RW2-peptides derivatized with ferrocene were significantly less active than those derivatized with ruthenocene which have similar structural but different electronic properties, suggesting a major influence of the latter. The high activities observed for the RcCO-W(RW2- and (RW3-peptides led to an investigation of the origin of activity of these peptides using several important activity-related parameters. Firstly, killing kinetics of the RcCO-W(RW2-peptide versus killing kinetics of the (RW3 derivative showed faster reduction of the colony forming units for the RcCO-W(RW2-peptide, although MIC values indicated higher activity for the (RW3-peptide. This was confirmed by growth inhibition studies. Secondly, hemolysis studies revealed that both peptides did not lead to significant destruction of erythrocytes, even up to 500 µg/mL for (RW3 and 250 µg/mL for RcCO-W(RW2. In addition, toxicity against three human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HT29, MCF7 showed that the (RW3-peptide had an IC50 value of ~140 µM and the RcW(RW2 one of ~90 µM, indicating a potentially interesting therapeutic window. Both the killing kinetics and growth inhibition studies presented in this work point to a

  3. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  4. FIRST OF ITS KIND:THE PARA GON TERMINALIN AMSTERDAM A Terminal That Can Handle Cargo on Both Sides of a Container Ship%阿姆斯特丹港的PARAGON码头

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘有钟

    2001-01-01

    @@ The Paragon Terminal constructed by CERES Terminal and Stevedores Inc. of the USA will be completed in July 2001. This dock-type terminal (or to be called indented berth, or slip berth)can enable simultaneous handling of containers on both the portside and the starboard side of a huge container ship. Therefore it can suit the container transport development in this new century.

  5. Herbivory effects of Argopistes tsekooni, a chrysomelid beetle, on container-grown Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Zhuo Zhang; James L.Hanula; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The impact of Argopistes tsekooni Chen (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a herbivore, on Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour. (Scrophulariales: Oleaceae), an invasive shrub in the United States, was studied in China. Five densities of adults were inoculated into 3-year-old potted Chinese privet plants in cages under field conditions for 1 month. Plants exposed to high densities of adults were severely damaged and the above-ground portions of some were killed, while the survival rates of adult A. tsekooni were comparatively high. The amount of new growth of the main stem, the number of new leaves, and oven-dried biomass were significantly reduced by the combined feeding of larvae and adults. Above-ground plant mortality was 100% when plants were exposed to 24 and 30 adults/plant. In this study A. tsekooni had a significant negative impact on Chinese privet growing in pots, which suggests that it may be a promising candidate for biological control of Chinese privet in the field in North America.

  6. Cryoelectron Microscopic Structures of Eukaryotic Translation Termination Complexes Containing eRF1-eRF3 or eRF1-ABCE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Preis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Termination and ribosome recycling are essential processes in translation. In eukaryotes, a stop codon in the ribosomal A site is decoded by a ternary complex consisting of release factors eRF1 and guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound eRF3. After GTP hydrolysis, eRF3 dissociates, and ABCE1 can bind to eRF1-loaded ribosomes to stimulate peptide release and ribosomal subunit dissociation. Here, we present cryoelectron microscopic (cryo-EM structures of a pretermination complex containing eRF1-eRF3 and a termination/prerecycling complex containing eRF1-ABCE1. eRF1 undergoes drastic conformational changes: its central domain harboring the catalytically important GGQ loop is either packed against eRF3 or swung toward the peptidyl transferase center when bound to ABCE1. Additionally, in complex with eRF3, the N-terminal domain of eRF1 positions the conserved NIKS motif proximal to the stop codon, supporting its suggested role in decoding, yet it appears to be delocalized in the presence of ABCE1. These results suggest that stop codon decoding and peptide release can be uncoupled during termination.

  7. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Holm, A;

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...... retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect...

  8. The N-terminal domain of the tomato immune protein Prf contains multiple homotypic and Pto kinase interaction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Isabel Marie-Luise; Conlan, Brendon Francis; Rathjen, John Paul

    2015-05-01

    Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is conferred by the Prf recognition complex, composed of the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeats protein Prf and the protein kinase Pto. The complex is activated by recognition of the P. syringae effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB. The N-terminal domain is responsible for Prf homodimerization, which brings two Pto kinases into close proximity and holds them in inactive conformation in the absence of either effector. Negative regulation is lost by effector binding to the catalytic cleft of Pto, leading to disruption of its P+1 loop within the activation segment. This change is translated through Prf to a second Pto molecule in the complex. Here we describe a schematic model of the unique Prf N-terminal domain dimer and its interaction with the effector binding determinant Pto. Using heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, we define multiple sites of N domain homotypic interaction and infer that it forms a parallel dimer folded centrally to enable contact between the N and C termini. Furthermore, we found independent binding sites for Pto at either end of the N-terminal domain. Using the constitutively active mutant ptoL205D, we identify a potential repression site for Pto in the first ∼100 amino acids of Prf. Finally, we find that the Prf leucine-rich repeats domain also binds the N-terminal region, highlighting a possible mechanism for transfer of the effector binding signal to the NB-LRR regulatory unit (consisting of a central nucleotide binding and C-terminal leucine-rich repeats).

  9. Transfer of uranium and radium to Chinese cabbage from soil containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 238U and 226Ra to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt) was investigated from soils contaminated with uranium-mill tailings (UMT) by means of a pot experiment in laboratory-based conditions applying different levels of soil contamination under various growing conditions. Activity concentrations for 226Ra in Chinese cabbage varied from 56-276, 156-502 and 277-877 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 20, 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively, and for 238U from 1.0-2.3 and 2.3-4.7 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively. The results showed increased accumulation of 226Ra and low accumulation of 238U in cabbage leaves in more contaminated soil. (author)

  10. Design of automatic container terminal monitoring system%自动化集装箱码头监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈加敏; 薛士龙; 张宁; 曹金虎

    2011-01-01

    为实现集装箱码头的自动化运转,在构建轨道式港口集装箱码头物理模型的基础上,采用西门子PLC设计自动化集装箱码头监控系统,运用Step 7编写自动装卸船程序、点动控制程序、复位程序、异常处理程序以及应急程序等.同时,在Visual Basic 6.0开发环境下设计监控系统的人机界面,并通过工业以太网实现上位机与PLC的实时通信.结果表明,可以将该监控系统成功地运用于集装箱码头物理模型中.%To realize the automatic operation of container terminals, the Siemens PLC is used to design the automatic container terminal monitoring system, and the Step 7 is used to write the procedures including automatic loading and unloading procedure, the jog control procedure, the reset procedure, the abnormity handling procedure and the emergency procedure, etc, on the basis of the construction of a physical rail-mounted container terminal model. The human-machine interface of the monitoring system is designed under Visual Basic 6.0 development environment, and the real-time communication between PC and PLC is realized via industrial Ethernet. The result shows that the monitoring system can be used in the physical container terminal model successfully.

  11. Characterization of a somatostatin-28 containing the (Tyr-7, Gly-10) derivative of somatostatin-14: a terminal active product of prosomatostatin II processing in anglerfish pancreatic islets.

    OpenAIRE

    Morel, A.; Gluschankof, P; Gomez, S. (Sara); Fafeur, V; Cohen, P.

    1984-01-01

    Anglerfish (Lophius piscatorius) Brockmann organs contain a form of somatostatin-14, identical to the hypothalamic tetradecapeptide, and two distinct forms of somatostatin-28, which can be separated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Analysis of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and comparison of the ability to incorporate 125I indicate that one of these forms corresponds to an octacosapeptide including in its sequence the (Tyr-7, Gly-10) derivative of somatostat...

  12. Capacity and quality effects from installing radiation detection equipment at the land access of a container terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Fusco, Pau; Saurí Marchán, Sergi; Spuch, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The tragic events of 2001/9/11 threw the United States into a state of anti-terrorism war. From that moment onwards multiple acts, laws and regulations have been approved not only in the US but worldwide aiming to regulate the security in the border inspections. Its goal: preventing any hazardous or even suspicious material from crossing the border of the country. This paper deals with the effects of installing scanning facilities in an already operating seaport terminal, and assesses w...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.71 - Terminals handling intermodal containers or roll-on roll-off operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or by grappling arms from above or from one side may be done only if the container is designed for... equipment used to transport containers shall be marked with their cargo capacities and shall not be...) Transporting vertically coupled containers. (1) Equipment other than cranes used to transport...

  14. Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary mission of the Containment Group is to ensure that underground nuclear tests are satisfactorily contained. The main goal is the development of sound technical bases for containment-related methodology. Major areas of activity include siting, geologic description, emplacement hole stemming, and phenomenological predictions. Performance results of sanded gypsum concrete plugs on the Jefferson, Panamint, Cornucopia, Labquark, and Bodie events are given. Activities are also described in the following areas: computational capabilities site description, predictive modeling, and cavity-pressure measurement. Containment publications are listed. 8 references

  15. Evaluation of hepatotoxicity potential of cinnabar-containing An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan, a patent traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-Fu; Wu, Qin; Liang, Shi-Xia; Miao, Jia-Wei; Shi, Jing-Shan; Liu, Jie

    2011-07-01

    An-Gong-Niu-Huang Wan (AGNH) is a patent traditional Chinese medicine for brain disorders. It contains 10% cinnabar (HgS). Hg is known to produce toxicity to the kidney, brain and liver. Is AGNH safe? Liver is a major organ for drug metabolism, whether the long-term use of AGNH would affect hepatic P450 enzymes is unknown. To address these concerns, mice were given orally cinnabar (300mg/kg), cinnabar-containing AGNH daily for 44days, and liver toxicity was examined and compared with that of methylmercury (MeHg, 2.6mg/kg) and mercuric chloride (HgCl(2), 32mg/kg). Serum aminotransferases were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2) only. Histopathology showed more severe liver damage in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice than in the cinnabar and AGNH groups. Accumulation of Hg in MeHg- and HgCl(2)-treated mice was 96- and 71-fold higher than controls, respectively, but was only 2-fold after cinnabar and AGNH administration. Expressions of metallothionein-1 and heme oxygenase-1, biomarkers for Hg toxicity, were increased by MeHg and HgCl(2,) but were not altered in cinnabar- and AGNH-treated mice. Expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 genes, such as Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and Cyp4a10 was increased only after MeHg and HgCl(2), and the expressions of Cyp3a11and Cyp3a25 were increased by all treatments, indicating the potential Hg-drug interactions after long-term use of cinnabar-containing traditional medicines. Taken together, the results demonstrate that AGNH is much less hepatotoxic than common mercurials, and that the use of total Hg content to evaluate the toxicity of cinnabar-containing traditional Chinese medicines appears to be inappropriate. PMID:21435368

  16. N-terminal domain of PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus can fold into amyloid-like oligomers and damage cholesterol and cardiolipid containing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjaji, Dalila; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Mazerat, Sandra; Chevalier, Christophe; Vidic, Jasmina

    2016-08-12

    PB1-F2 protein is a factor of virulence of influenza A viruses which increases the mortality and morbidity associated with infection. Most seasonal H1N1 Influenza A viruses express nowadays a truncated version of PB1-F2. Here we show that truncation of PB1-F2 modified supramolecular organization of the protein in a membrane-mimicking environment. In addition, full-length PB1-F2(1-90) and C-terminal PB1-F2 domain (53-90), efficiently permeabilized various anionic liposomes while N-terminal domain PB1-F2(1-52) only lysed cholesterol and cardiolipin containing lipid bilayers. These findings suggest that the truncation of PB1-F2 may impact the pathogenicity of a given virus strain. PMID:27282484

  17. The PLATO V Terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifle, J. E.

    This report provides a detailed description of the architecture and programming of the PLATO V terminal, which contains an 8080 microprocessor and is capable of being operated by programs located in a host computer. The terminal contains 8k of memory for storing local programs, a 4k ROM resident program which supervises terminal operation, a 2k…

  18. 中药洗发香波的研制%Preparation of Shampoo Containing Chinese Traditional Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海珍

    2012-01-01

      Objective Preparation of Chinese traditional medicine shampoo. Methods With the boiling method of Chinese medicine Radix, Angelica, Astragalus extract the active ingredients, add to the already made selection a good shampoo formulations. Results The shampoo is brown transparent viscous liquid, good liquidity, aromatic scent. The heat-cold, skin contact, skin test, the shampoo and no adverse reaction. After preliminary trials with successful results.Conclusion The cost of this shampoo is close to shampoo available in the market, but the production process is simple, and as a result of natural shampoo containing Chinese medicine safety without side effects, have good development prospect.%  目的制取中药洗发香波。方法用煎煮法将中药何首乌、当归、黄芪有效成分提取后,加入到已筛选好的香波配方中,制成中药洗发香波。结果该香波为棕色透明液体,流动性好,气味芳香。经耐热耐寒、皮肤接触、人体皮肤实验均未见不良反应,经自愿者半年试用后效果良好。结论本产品的成本与市面上现有的同类产品接近,但本产品生产工艺简单,且由于中药洗发香波具有安全无副作用的特点,发展前景良好。

  19. The cyanobacterial cell division factor Ftn6 contains an N-terminal DnaD-like domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saguez Cyril

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA replication and cell cycle as well as their relationship have been extensively studied in the two model organisms E. coli and B. subtilis. By contrast, little is known about these processes in cyanobacteria, even though they are crucial to the biosphere, in utilizing solar energy to renew the oxygenic atmosphere and in producing the biomass for the food chain. Recent studies have allowed the identification of several cell division factors that are specifics to cyanobacteria. Among them, Ftn6 has been proposed to function in the recruitment of the crucial FtsZ proteins to the septum or the subsequent Z-ring assembly and possibly in chromosome segregation. Results In this study, we identified an as yet undescribed domain located in the conserved N-terminal region of Ftn6. This 77 amino-acids-long domain, designated here as FND (Ftn6 N-Terminal Domain, exhibits striking sequence and structural similarities with the DNA-interacting module, listed in the PFAM database as the DnaD-like domain (pfam04271. We took advantage of the sequence similarities between FND and the DnaD-like domains to construct a homology 3D-model of the Ftn6 FND domain from the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803. Mapping of the conserved residues exposed onto the FND surface allowed us to identify a highly conserved area that could be engaged in Ftn6-specific interactions. Conclusion Overall, similarities between FND and DnaD-like domains as well as previously reported observations on Ftn6 suggest that FND may function as a DNA-interacting module thereby providing an as yet missing link between DNA replication and cell division in cyanobacteria. Consistently, we also showed that Ftn6 is involved in tolerance to DNA damages generated by UV rays.

  20. Selective electrochemical discrimination between dopamine and phenethylamine-derived psychotropic drugs using electrodes modified with an acyclic receptor containing two terminal 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Antonio; Navarro, Pilar; Arán, Vicente J; Muro, Beatriz; Montoya, Noemí; García-España, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Electrochemical discrimination between dopamine and psychotropic drugs which have in common a skeletal structure of phenethylamine, can be obtained using acyclic receptors L(1) and L(2), containing two terminal 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole rings. Upon attachment to graphite electrodes, L(1) and L(2) exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible solid state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on electrolyte-assisted reduction processes involving successive cation and anion insertion/binding. As a result, a distinctive, essentially Nernstian electrochemical response is obtained for phenethylammonium ions of methamphetamine (METH), p-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), amphetamine (AMPH), mescaline (MES), homoveratrylamine (HOM), phenethylamine (PEA) and dopamine (DA) in aqueous media.

  1. Genotoxic Effects of PAH Containing Sludge Extracts in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective Many studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxicity of chemicals and waste materials, which utilized in vivo test protocols. The use of animals for routine toxicity testing is now questioned by a growing segment of society[1]. Methods Keeping the above fact in mind, we have conducted in the present study the genotoxicity evaluation of oily sludge samples generated from a petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry and ETP sludge from petroleum refinery using DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein induction and apoptosis in short term in vitro mammalian Chinese Hamster Ovary cell cultures. Results It is evident from the results that the oily sludge compounds derived from petroleum refinery and petrochemical industry could cause DNA damage, chromosomal aberration, p53 protein accumulation and apoptotic cell death on exposure to oily sludge extracts in the presence of metabolic activation system (S-9 mix), however, ETP sludge extract could not cause significant genotoxicity in comparison to oily sludge extract and negative control. Conclusion The effect may be attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the samples as evidenced from GC-MS.

  2. Construction of a full-length cDNA Library from Chinese oak silkworm pupa and identification of a KK-42-binding protein gene in relation to pupa-diapause termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Li, Run-Xi Xia, Huan Wang, Xi-Sheng Li, Yan-Qun Liu, Zhao-Jun Wei, Cheng Lu, Zhong-Huai Xiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, the most well-known wild silkworm used for silk production and insect food. Total RNA was extracted from a single fresh female pupa at the diapause stage. The titer of the library was 5 × 105 cfu/ml and the proportion of recombinant clones was approximately 95%. Expressed sequence tag (EST analysis was used to characterize the library. A total of 175 clustered ESTs consisting of 24 contigs and 151 singlets were generated from 250 effective sequences. Of the 175 unigenes, 97 (55.4% were known genes but only five from A. pernyi, 37 (21.2% were known ESTs without function annotation, and 41 (23.4% were novel ESTs. By EST sequencing, a gene coding KK-42-binding protein in A. pernyi (named as ApKK42-BP; GenBank accession no. FJ744151 was identified and characterized. Protein sequence analysis showed that ApKK42-BP was not a membrane protein but an extracellular protein with a signal peptide at position 1-18, and contained two putative conserved domains, abhydro_lipase and abhydrolase_1, suggesting it may be a member of lipase superfamily. Expression analysis based on number of ESTs showed that ApKK42-BP was an abundant gene in the period of diapause stage, suggesting it may also be involved in pupa-diapause termination.

  3. A Chinese Herbal Preparation Containing Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum Reduces Circulating Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. O’Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating adhesion molecules (CAMs, surface proteins expressed in the vascular endothelium, have emerged as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. CAMs are involved in intercellular communication that are believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. A Chinese medicine, the “Dantonic Pill” (DP (also known as the “Cardiotonic Pill”, containing three Chinese herbal material medica, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been used in China for the prevention and management of CVD. Previous laboratory and animal studies have suggested that this preparation reduces both atherogenesis and adhesion molecule expression. A parallel double blind randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the DP on three species of CAM (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin in participants with mild-moderate hypercholesterolemia. Secondary endpoints included biochemical and hematological variables and clinical effects. Forty participants were randomized to either treatment or control for 12 weeks. Treatment with DP was associated with a statistically significant decrease in ICAM-1 (9% decrease, P = .03 and E-Selectin (15% decrease, P = .004. There was no significant change in renal function tests, liver function tests, glucose, lipids or C-reactive protein levels and clinical adverse effects did not differ between the active and the control groups. There were no relevant changes in participants receiving placebo. These results suggest that this herbal medicine may contribute to the development of a novel approach to cardiovascular risk reduction.

  4. Effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 on Chinese constipated women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xin Yang; Mei He; Gang Hu; Jie Wei; Philippe Pages; Xian-Hua Yang; Sophie Bourdu-Naturel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN- 173010 and yogurt strains (BIO ) on adult women with constipation in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 135 adult females with constipation were randomly allocated to consume for 2 wk either 100 g of the test fermented milk or 100 g of an acidified milk containing non-living bacteria (control). Stool frequency, defecation condition scores, stool consistency and food intake were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 2 wk in an intention-to-treat population of 126 subjects. In parallel, safety evaluation parameters were performed. RESULTS: At baseline, no differences were found between groups. Following consumption of test product, stool frequency was significantly increased after 1 wk (3.5±1.5 vs 2.4±0.6, P < 0.01) and 2 wk (4.1±1.7 vs 2.4±0.6, P < 0.01), vs baseline. Similarly, after 1 and 2 wk, of test product consumption, defecation condition (1.1±0.9 vs 1.9±1.2, P < 0.01 and 0.8±1.0 vs 1.9±1.2, P < 0.01, respectively) and stool consistency (1.0±0.8 vs 1.5±1.1, P < 0.01 and 0.6±0.8 vs 1.5±1.1, P < 0.01, respectively) were significantly improved. Compared with the control group, stool frequency was also significantly increased (3.5±1.5 vs 2.5± 0.9, P <0.01 and 4.1±1.7 vs 2.6±1.0, P <0.01, respectively), and defecation condition (1.1±0.9 vs 1.6±1.1, P < 0.01 and 0.8±1.0 vs 1.6±1.1, P < 0.01, respectively) and stool consistency (1.0±0.8 vs 1.4±1.0, P < 0.05 and 0.6±0.8 vs 1.3±1.0, P < 0.01, respectively) significantly decreased after 1 and 2 wk of product consumption. During the same period, food intake did not change between the two groups, and safety parameters of the subjects were within normal ranges. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a beneficial effect of a fermented milk containing B. lactis DN-173010 on stool frequency, defecation condition and stool consistency in adult women with constipation constipated women after 1 and 2 wk of consumption.

  5. A TPR domain-containing N-terminal module of MPS1 is required for its kinetochore localization by Aurora B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Wilco; von Castelmur, Eleonore; Littler, Dene; De Marco, Valeria; Tromer, Eelco; Vleugel, Mathijs; van Osch, Maria H J; Snel, Berend; Perrakis, Anastassis; Kops, Geert J P L

    2013-04-15

    The mitotic checkpoint ensures correct chromosome segregation by delaying cell cycle progression until all kinetochores have attached to the mitotic spindle. In this paper, we show that the mitotic checkpoint kinase MPS1 contains an N-terminal localization module, organized in an N-terminal extension (NTE) and a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, for which we have determined the crystal structure. Although the module was necessary for kinetochore localization of MPS1 and essential for the mitotic checkpoint, the predominant kinetochore binding activity resided within the NTE. MPS1 localization further required HEC1 and Aurora B activity. We show that MPS1 localization to kinetochores depended on the calponin homology domain of HEC1 but not on Aurora B-dependent phosphorylation of the HEC1 tail. Rather, the TPR domain was the critical mediator of Aurora B control over MPS1 localization, as its deletion rendered MPS1 localization insensitive to Aurora B inhibition. These data are consistent with a model in which Aurora B activity relieves a TPR-dependent inhibitory constraint on MPS1 localization.

  6. A dielectric barrier discharge terminally inactivates RNase A by oxidizing sulfur-containing amino acids and breaking structural disulfide bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, J.-W.; Baldus, S.; Steinborn, E.; Edengeiser, E.; Kogelheide, F.; Langklotz, S.; Schneider, S.; Leichert, L. I. O.; Benedikt, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Bandow, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    RNases are among the most stable proteins in nature. They even refold spontaneously after heat inactivation, regaining full activity. Due to their stability and universal presence, they often pose a problem when experimenting with RNA. We investigated the capabilities of nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas to inactivate RNase A and studied the inactivation mechanism on a molecular level. While prolonged heating above 90 °C is required for heat inactivating RNase A, direct plasma treatment with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) source caused permanent inactivation within minutes. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that DBD-treated RNase A unfolds rapidly. Raman spectroscopy indicated methionine modifications and formation of sulfonic acid. A mass spectrometry-based analysis of the protein modifications that occur during plasma treatment over time revealed that methionine sulfoxide formation coincides with protein inactivation. Chemical reduction of methionine sulfoxides partially restored RNase A activity confirming that sulfoxidation is causal and sufficient for RNase A inactivation. Continued plasma exposure led to over-oxidation of structural disulfide bonds. Using antibodies, disulfide bond over-oxidation was shown to be a general protein inactivation mechanism of the DBD. The antibody’s heavy and light chains linked by disulfide bonds dissociated after plasma exposure. Based on their ability to inactivate proteins by oxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids and over-oxidation of disulfide bonds, DBD devices present a viable option for inactivating undesired or hazardous proteins on heat or solvent-sensitive surfaces.

  7. 面向集装箱码头物流系统的仿真优化研究%Simulation based optimization for container terminal logistics systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 闫新庆

    2011-01-01

    针对集装箱码头物流系统(container terminal logistics systems,CTLS)的自身特点和运营需求,根据当前国内外已有的相关研究及其发展趋势,提出了面向CTLS的仿真优化完整方法体系,并给出利用哈佛体系结构、基于Agent的计算、混合智能优化和企业服务总线的参考设计实现模型,以期为CTLS的设备配置、资源分配、生产计划和调度控制获得高效敏捷鲁棒的解决方案.通过对码头前沿泊位-岸桥联合调度生产实例的仿真、优化和分析,验证了所提思想的可行性与可信性.%Aimed at the characteristics and requirements of container terminal logistics systems (CTLS), a full framework and architecture of simulation-based optimization for CTLS is advanced on the basis of the foregone studies and the current developing trend, and furthermore the relevant referenced design and implementation model is put forward with Harvard architecture, agent-based computing, hybrid intelligent optimization and enterprise service bus, which is supposed to provide an efficient, agile and robust solution to equipment configuration, resource allocation, production planning and control scheduling for CTLS. Finally, a practical case for berth & quay crane allocation on the quay side is simulated, optimized and analyzed, which validated the feasibility and creditability of the above architecture and methodology accordingly.

  8. 门急诊含中成药处方点评调查分析%Investigation and Analysis on Comments of Prescriptions Containing Chinese Patent Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边原; 李晋奇; 杨勇; 李刚; 龙恩武; 肖洪涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyze the rationality situation in the use of Chinese patent medicines in the outpatient and emergency departments of a hospital to provide reference for using Chinese patent medicines reasonably. Methods All the prescriptions containing Chinese patent medicines in the first quarter of 2014 were extracted out by applying the PASS 2. 0 prescription comments system. Then the irrational prescriptions were screened out by the program predicting judgment. Finally,these prescriptions were performed the manual check one by one. Results Total 128 322 pieces of prescription contained the Chinese patent medicines,in which 1 277 pieces of prescriptions were irrational prescriptions The problems such as the non-standardized writing and irrational drug use existed. Conclusion The medical workers should enhance the professional knowledge learning of traditional Chinese medicine and increase the rational use level of Chinese patent medicines.%目的:调查分析某院门急诊中成药使用的合理情况,为医疗机构合理使用中成药提供参考。方法应用PASS 2.0处方点评系统调出2014年第1季度含中成药的全部处方,通过程序预判,先筛查出不合理处方,再对这些处方逐条进行人工核对。结果含有中成药的处方共128322张,其中不合格处方1277张,存在书写不规范、不合理用药等问题。结论医疗工作者应加强中医药专业知识的学习,提高中成药合理使用水平。

  9. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  10. Berth Allocation with Service Priority for Container Terminal of Hub Port%集装箱枢纽港泊位分配问题优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代丽利

    2014-01-01

    通过分析船舶大型化对船公司和码头运营商的影响,文中提出在泊位分配的过程中,码头需站在共赢的角度,箱位大的船舶的服务优先级高于箱位小的船舶。建立了具有优先权的动态泊位分配模型,采用改进的广义遗传算法对模型求解。算例结果证明模型和算法正确有效。%Through analyzing the effects of container ships with larger size to the shipping companies and terminal operators,this paper put forward a view,from a win-win perspective,that container ships with larger Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEUs)capacity should be given the higher priority in the process of berth allocation.Following the above view,a dynamic berth allocation model considering the service priority was developed and an improved generalized genetic algorithms was used to solve the model.Example application results show that the model and the algorithm are correct and effective.

  11. The Tip of the Four N-Terminal α-Helices of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin Contains the Interaction Site with Membrane Phosphatidylserine Facilitating Small GTPases Glucosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Varela Chavez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL is a powerful virulence factor responsible for severe toxic shock in man and animals. TcsL belongs to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT family which inactivates small GTPases by glucosylation with uridine-diphosphate (UDP-glucose as a cofactor. Notably, TcsL modifies Rac and Ras GTPases, leading to drastic alteration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell viability. TcsL enters cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and delivers the N-terminal glucosylating domain (TcsL-cat into the cytosol. TcsL-cat was found to preferentially bind to phosphatidylserine (PS-containing membranes and to increase the glucosylation of Rac anchored to the lipid membrane. We have previously reported that the N-terminal four helical bundle structure (1–93 domain recognizes a broad range of lipids, but that TcsL-cat specifically binds to PS and phosphatidic acid. Here, we show using mutagenesis that the PS binding site is localized on the tip of the four-helix bundle which is rich in positively-charged amino acids. Residues Y14, V15, F17, and R18 on loop 1, between helices 1 and 2, in coordination with R68 from loop 3, between helices 3 and 4, form a pocket which accommodates L-serine. The functional PS-binding site is required for TcsL-cat binding to the plasma membrane and subsequent cytotoxicity. TcsL-cat binding to PS facilitates a high enzymatic activity towards membrane-anchored Ras by about three orders of magnitude as compared to Ras in solution. The PS-binding site is conserved in LCGTs, which likely retain a common mechanism of binding to the membrane for their full activity towards membrane-bound GTPases.

  12. Container Metaphor in Language of Chinese Medicine from Cognitive Perspective%从认知角度看中医语言的容器隐喻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢菁; 贾春华

    2012-01-01

    In Conceptual Metaphor Theory of Cognitive Linguistics, it is considered that container metaphor has been commonly used by human to understand and describe some abstract concepts. In this paper, we use Chinese ancient classics as research corpus and examples. It is found that container metaphor, which is based on the structure of abstract container schema, is widely used to describe, express and understand the abstract and complex concepts in Chinese medicine such as body, body parts and organs, skins and pores, depots and palaces, meridians, etc. It has constructed the theoretical system of Chinese medicine that can interpret physiological phenomena and pathological mechanisms. This study not only confirms a certain degree of universality of container metaphor theory of cognitive linguistics, but also proves that Chinese language has cognitive characteristics of concept metaphor.%认知语言学概念隐喻理论认为,人类普遍利用容器隐喻去认识、理解一些抽象概念.本文以中医经典古籍为研究语料,举例说明中医语言在容器图式抽象结构的基础上,普遍运用了容器隐喻来表达身体及其部位、器官、腠理汗孔、藏府、经络等较为抽象和复杂的中医概念,从而建构了解释人体生理现象和病理机制的中医理论体系.本研究不仅证实了认知语言学容器隐喻理论在一定程度上的普遍性,也印证了中医语言具有概念隐喻的认知特征.

  13. Expression of the Gene Encoding the Tetraploid of Carboxyl-terminal Peptide of β-hCG Containing Thirty-seven Amino Acid Residues in E. coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 沈卫英; 周清平; 申庆祥

    2000-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to investigate the possible enhancement of immunogenicity of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of β-hCG which is made up of 37 amino acid residues (109~145) and contains the specific epitope (antigenic determinant) of hCG.Materials & Methods hCGβ-CTP37 tetraploid cDNA was constructed by linking four hCGβ-CTP37 cDNAs together. The product was then subcloned into the E. coli expression vector pQE60 to construct the expression vector pQE60/ (hCGβ-CTP37)4. Recombinant (hCGβ-CTP37 ) 4 was expressed in E. coil-X-blue.Results Western blot analysis showed that the tetraploid of hCGβ-CTP37 had an apparent molecular weight of 20 kD and had relatively stronger anti-hCG antibody-binding activity compared with the diploid from.Conclusion The tetraploid of hCGβ-CTP37 may be a more potent immunogen for raising anti-hCG vaccines for fertility regulation or suppression of tumor.

  14. Interaction of the C-terminal peptide of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B with a bicellar lipid mixture containing anionic lipid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sylvester

    Full Text Available The hydrophobic lung surfactant SP-B is essential for respiration. SP-B promotes spreading and adsorption of surfactant at the alveolar air-water interface and may facilitate connections between the surface layer and underlying lamellar reservoirs of surfactant material. SP-B63-78 is a cationic and amphipathic helical peptide containing the C-terminal helix of SP-B. (2H NMR has been used to examine the effect of SP-B63-78 on the phase behavior and dynamics of bicellar lipid dispersions containing the longer chain phospholipids DMPC-d 54 and DMPG and the shorter chain lipid DHPC mixed with a 3∶1∶1 molar ratio. Below the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition temperature of the longer chain components, bicellar mixtures form small, rapidly reorienting disk-like particles with shorter chain lipid components predominantly found around the highly curved particle edges. With increasing temperature, the particles coalesce into larger magnetically-oriented structures and then into more extended lamellar phases. The susceptibility of bicellar particles to coalescence and large scale reorganization makes them an interesting platform in which to study peptide-induced interactions between lipid assemblies. SP-B63-78 is found to lower the temperature at which the orientable phase transforms to the more extended lamellar phase. The peptide also changes the spectrum of motions contributing to quadrupole echo decay in the lamellar phase. The way in which the peptide alters interactions between bilayered micelle structures may provide some insight into some aspects of the role of full-length SP-B in maintaining a functional surfactant layer in lungs.

  15. Interaction of the C-terminal peptide of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) with a bicellar lipid mixture containing anionic lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Alexander; MacEachern, Lauren; Booth, Valerie; Morrow, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The hydrophobic lung surfactant SP-B is essential for respiration. SP-B promotes spreading and adsorption of surfactant at the alveolar air-water interface and may facilitate connections between the surface layer and underlying lamellar reservoirs of surfactant material. SP-B63-78 is a cationic and amphipathic helical peptide containing the C-terminal helix of SP-B. (2)H NMR has been used to examine the effect of SP-B63-78 on the phase behavior and dynamics of bicellar lipid dispersions containing the longer chain phospholipids DMPC-d 54 and DMPG and the shorter chain lipid DHPC mixed with a 3∶1∶1 molar ratio. Below the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition temperature of the longer chain components, bicellar mixtures form small, rapidly reorienting disk-like particles with shorter chain lipid components predominantly found around the highly curved particle edges. With increasing temperature, the particles coalesce into larger magnetically-oriented structures and then into more extended lamellar phases. The susceptibility of bicellar particles to coalescence and large scale reorganization makes them an interesting platform in which to study peptide-induced interactions between lipid assemblies. SP-B63-78 is found to lower the temperature at which the orientable phase transforms to the more extended lamellar phase. The peptide also changes the spectrum of motions contributing to quadrupole echo decay in the lamellar phase. The way in which the peptide alters interactions between bilayered micelle structures may provide some insight into some aspects of the role of full-length SP-B in maintaining a functional surfactant layer in lungs.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  17. Association of the formiminotransferase N-terminal sub-domain containing gene and thrombospondin, type 1, domain-containing 7A gene with the prevalence of vertebral fracture in 2427 consecutive autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heying; Mori, Seijiro; Kou, Ikuyo; Fuku, Noriyuki; Naka Mieno, Makiko; Honma, Naoko; Arai, Tomio; Sawabe, Motoji; Tanaka, Masashi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Ito, Hideki

    2013-02-01

    We previously reported 2 osteoporosis-susceptibility genes--formiminotransferase N-terminal sub-domain containing gene (FONG) and thrombospondin, type 1, domain-containing 7A (THSD7A)--in which we identified two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs7605378 (FONG) and rs12673692 (THSD7A). The former was associated with a predisposition to osteoporosis and the latter with bone mineral density. To further elucidate the importance of these polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, we examined their association with the incidence of vertebral fracture. DNA extracted from the renal cortex of 2427 consecutive Japanese autopsies (1331 men, mean age: 79 years; 1096 women, mean age: 82 years) were examined in this study. The presence or absence of vertebral fracture during each subject's lifetime was determined by a thorough examination of the clinical records, as well as autopsy reports. After adjustments for sex and age at autopsy, logistic regression analysis revealed that homozygotes for the risk alleles of rs7605378 (A-allele) or rs12673629 (A-allele) possess an increased risk of vertebral fracture. The subjects simultaneously homozygous for both the risk alleles of rs7605378 (AA genotype) and rs12673629 (AA genotype) showed significantly higher risk of vertebral fracture (odds ratio 2.401, 95% confidence interval 1.305-4.416, P = 0.0048) than those who had at least one non-risk allele of either rs7605378 (AC/CC genotypes) or rs12673629 (AG/GG genotypes). The results suggest that Japanese subjects homozygous for the risk alleles of rs7605378 and rs12673629 have a higher risk of vertebral fracture.

  18. Robust Optimization Model for Berth Planning Problem in Container Terminals%集装箱码头泊位计划的鲁棒优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆成; 赵孝峰; 胡祥培; 杨忠振

    2015-01-01

    To tackle the uncertainties that happen in operations of container terminals , robust optimization model and algorithms for berth planning problem are developed .The objective is to decrease the impact of uncertainties on operation efficiency of container terminals .Firstly, the robustness measures for berth schedule are proposed , and the each measure is assessed through computational experiments .Then, a two-stage robust optimization algo-rithm is designed:the first stage is to minimize the total delay of berthing vessels without considering the sched -ule robustness , and the total delay obtained is taken as a threshold value for the next stage .The second stage is to maximize the robustness measures while keeping the total vessel delay at a level equal to or smaller than the threshold value obtained by the first stage.Finally, the impact of operation resource(the number of quay cranes) on schedule robustness is analyzed .Numerical experiments indicate that weighted slack index is a valid robust-ness measure and the proposed two-stage algorithm can solve the robust optimization of berth plan efficiently .%针对集装箱码头作业中的不确定性因素,构建泊位计划的鲁棒优化模型与算法,目的是降低不确定性因素对集装箱码头作业系统的影响。首先,提出泊位计划鲁棒性度量指标,利用算例对各指标的效果进行分析。在此基础上,设计泊位计划鲁棒优化的两阶段优化算法。算法的第一阶段不考虑泊位计划的鲁棒性,以船舶总延误时间最小为目标;算法的第二阶段以所选择的鲁棒性指标最大为目标,以第一阶段获得的船舶总延误时间为约束条件,获得鲁棒调度方案。最后,研究作业资源(装卸桥数量)的变化对泊位计划鲁棒性的影响。算例分析表明,权重松弛量是有效的度量泊位计划鲁棒性的指标,两阶段算法可以有效解决泊位计划鲁棒优化问题。

  19. fac-Re(CO)3L complexes containing tridentate monoanionic ligands (L-) with a seldom-studied sulfonamido group as one terminal ligating group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Anna Maria; Fronczek, Frank R; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2007-08-20

    To achieve a net-neutral coordination unit in radiopharmaceuticals with a fac-M(CO)3+ core (M = Tc, Re), facially coordinated monoanionic tridentate ligands are needed. New neutral fac-Re(CO)3L complexes were obtained by treating fac-[Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ with unsymmetrical tridentate NNN donor ligands (LH) based primarily on a diethylenetriamine (dien) moiety with an aromatic group linked to a terminal nitrogen through a sulfonamide. LHs contain 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonyl (tmbSO2) and 5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl (DNS) groups. X-ray crystallographic and NMR analyses confirm that in both the solid and the solution states all L- in fac-Re(CO)3L complexes are bound in a tridentate fashion with one donor being nitrogen from a deprotonated sulfonamido group. Another fundamental property that is important in radiopharmaceuticals is shape, which in turn depends on ring pucker. For L- = tmbSO2-dien-, tmbSO2-N'-Medien-, and tmbSO2-N,N-Me2dien-, the two chelate rings have a different pucker chirality, as is commonly found for a broad range of metal complexes. However, for fac-Re(CO)3(DNS-dien), both chelate rings have the same pucker chirality because the sulfonamido ring has an unusual pucker for the absolute configuration at Re; a finding that is attributable to intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds from the sulfonamido oxygens to the NH2 groups. Averaging of tmb NMR signals, even at -90 degrees C for Re(CO)3(tmbSO2-N,N-Me2dien), indicates rapid dynamic motion in the complexes with this group. However, examination of the structures suggests that free rotation about the S-C(tmb) bond is not possible but that concerted coupled rotations about the N-S and the S-C bonds can explain the NMR data. PMID:17655222

  20. Pharmacological Effects of Serum Containing Chinese Medicine Bushen Huayu Jiedu Compound Recipe(补肾化瘀解毒复方)in Lung Cancer Drug-resistance Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong; XIA Qing-hua; MENG Hua; ZHONG An-pu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the pharmacologic effects of Chinese medicine Bushen Huayu Jiedu Compound Recipe (补肾化瘀解毒复方, BSHYJDR) in drug-resistance cells of lung cancer. Methods: Human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cell strain was selected, serum pharmacology and flow cytometer (FCM) method were adopted, $180 tumor-bearing mice and normal mice were given, through gastrogavage, different doses of a decocted concentration of BSHYJDR. Serum from the abdominal aorta was taken to observe the effect of drug-serum on cisplatin (DDP) concentration, free Ca2+. concentration and the expression of lung drug-resistance protein LRP-56 in A549/DDP cells. Results: Compared with the drug-resistance group, the intracellular DDP concentration in the group taking a high dose and the normal group of Chinese medicine showed significant difference (P0.05). Compared with the drug-resistance group, the Ca2+ concentration in cells and the expression of LRP in lung cancer drug-resistance cells A549/DDP of the high-dose group, the low-dose group and the normal group of Chinese medicine were significantly different (all P<0.01), the LRP expression of the normal group was obviously higher than that of the drug-resistance group (P<0.05). Conclusion: It was indicated that serum containing Chinese medicine BSHYJDR in the tumor-bearing mice and the normal mice had certainly different, tumor-bearing mice serum containing could improve drug concentration in lung cancer drug-resistance cells, prevent the inflow and release of Ca2+, and inhibit the expression of the drug-resistance gene in the lung cancer drug-resistance cells, which might be the mechanism of BSHYJDR in enhancing the efficacy in reversing and inhibiting tumor.

  1. Optimization Model and Algorithm for Quay Crane Scheduling in Container Terminals%集装箱码头岸桥调度优化模型及算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦进; 倪玲霖; 王承娜; 缪立新

    2013-01-01

    为弥补集装箱码头岸桥调度问题的传统优化方法仅适用单船舶情况的不足,以总费用(所有岸桥使用费用和船舶停靠费用)最小为优化目标,考虑岸桥不可穿越性和安全距离约束条件,建立了了面向多艘船舶的集装箱码头岸桥统一调度和卸船任务分配问题的混合整数规划优化模型.使用任务网络图方法,搜索影响卸船任务最终完成时间的关键任务及其相应的限制任务路径,设计了基于限制任务路径进行邻域搜索的双层模拟退火算法求解模型.12个不同规模的算例结果表明:与分支定界法和遗传算法相比,本文算法节省时间6.32%~18.36%,近似最优解的质量更高,而且最优解目标值之间的差距仅为0.38% ~ 2.20%;考虑岸桥之间的安全距离约束导致系统运营成本增加3.41% ~11.21%.%In order to remedy the defect of the traditional optimization methods for the quay crane scheduling in container terminal which could only deal with single ship, a mixed-integer programming optimization model for quay crane scheduling and job assignment for multiple ships was proposed. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost, including the use cost of the quay cranes and the berthing cost of the ships in the terminal, with the non-crossing and safety distance constraints of cranes. Then, a bi-level simulated annealing algorithm with neighborhood search based on the restricted path was developed to solve the model, in which the job network graph is used to find the critical job and its restricted path that influence the end time of the ship unloading jobs. The results of 12 numerical experiments with different scales show that compared with the branch and bound (B&B) algorithm and the genetic algorithm ( GA) , the proposed algorithm could reduce the computational time by 6. 32% to 18. 36% , and obtain the approximate optimal solution of higher quality, the gaps between objective

  2. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  3. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Megan L Coghlan; James Haile; Jayne Houston; Dáithí C. Murray; White, Nicole E.; Paula Moolhuijzen; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Michael Bunce

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in En...

  4. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  5. Connections between 5-HT-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; LI Yun-qing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the connections between serotonin (5-HT)-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR)/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods: Immunofluorescence histochemical triple-staining for 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, GABA or glycine. Results: 5-HT-immunoreaetive fibers and terminals were chiefly located in the superficial laminae (laminae Ⅰ and Ⅱ) of the MDH. Neurons exhibiting 5-HT2AR-, GABA- or glycine-immunoreactivities were mainly observed in the superficial laminae. Some 5-HT2AR-immunopositive neurons also exhibited GABA- or glycine-immunoreaetivities. 5-HT-containing terminals made close contacts with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons. Conclusion: 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR /glycine co-exist in some of the neurons in the superficial laminae of the MDH. 5-HT-immunoreactive terminals form close connections with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons.

  6. Microarray based analysis of an inherited terminal 3p26.3 deletion, containing only the CHL1 gene, from a normal father to his two affected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerone Margherita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background terminal deletions of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 3 cause a rare contiguous gene disorder characterized by growth retardation, developmental delay, mental retardation, dysmorphisms, microcephaly and ptosis. The phenotype of individuals with deletions varies from normal to severe. It was suggested that a 1,5 Mb minimal terminal deletion including the two genes CRBN and CNTN4 is sufficient to cause the syndrome. In addition the CHL1 gene, mapping at 3p26.3 distally to CRBN and CNTN4, was proposed as candidate gene for a non specific mental retardation because of its high level of expression in the brain. Methods and Results we describe two affected siblings in which array-CGH analysis disclosed an identical discontinuous terminal 3p26.3 deletion spanning less than 1 Mb. The deletion was transmitted from their normal father and included only the CHL1 gene. The two brothers present microcephaly, light mental retardation, learning and language difficulties but not the typical phenotype manifestations described in 3p- syndrome. Conclusion a terminal 3p26.3 deletion including only the CHL1 gene is a very rare finding previously reported only in one family. The phenotype of the affected individuals in the two families is very similar and the deletion has been inherited from an apparently normal parent. As already described for others recurrent syndromes with variable phenotype, these findings are challenging in genetic counselling because of an evident variable penetrance.

  7. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  8. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products That Contain Dang-Qui and Risk of Endometrial Cancer among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Tung Wu; Jung-Nien Lai; Yueh-Ting Tsai

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the ...

  9. Human blood contains both the uncleaved precursor of anti-Mullerian hormone and a complex of the NH2- and COOH-terminal peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, Michael W; McLennan, Ian S

    2013-11-15

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in blood is a marker of ovarian status in women and the presence of cryptic testes in babies. Despite this, the molecular form of AMH in blood has not been verified. AMH is synthesized as an inert proprotein precursor (proAMH), which can be cleaved to yield NH2-terminal (AMHN) and COOH-terminal (AMHC) fragments, that can complex noncovalently (AMHN,C). Developing males have 10-fold more AMH than young adults. We report here that human blood is a mixture of inactive proAMH and receptor-binding AMHN,C. The AMH in the blood of boys, men, and premenopausal women was immunoprecipitated using antibodies to the NH2- and COOH-terminal peptides. The precipitated proteins were then analyzed by Western blots, using recombinant proteins as markers. The glycosylation status of AMH was verified using deglycosylating enzymes. The NH2-terminal antibody precipitated a major protein that migrated alongside rhproAMH and was detected by anti-AMHN and anti-AMHC. This antibody also precipitated significant levels of AMHN and AMHC from all participants. Antibodies specific to AMHC precipitated rhAMHC but did not precipitate AMHC from human blood. Hence, all the AMHC in human blood appears to be bound to AMHN. Both AMHN and proAMH were glycosylated, independent of age and sex. In conclusion, boys and young adults have the same form of AMH, with a significant proportion being the inactive precursor. This raises the possibility that the endocrine functions of AMH are partly controlled by its cleavage in the target organ. The presence of proAMH in blood may confound the use of AMH for diagnosis.

  10. Prescription profile of potentially aristolochic acid containing Chinese herbal products: an analysis of National Health Insurance data in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chang-Hsing

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some Chinese herbal products (CHPs may contain aristolochic acid (AA or may be adulterated by the herbs suspected of containing AA which is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. This study aims to identify the risk and the prescription profile of AA-containing CHPs (AA-CHPs in Taiwan. Methods A longitudinal analysis was conducted on a randomly sampled cohort of 200,000 patients using the data from the National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan between 1997 and 2003. Results During the 7-year study period, 78,644 patients were prescribed with AA-CHPs; most patients were females, or middle-aged, or both. A total of 526,867 prescriptions were made to use 1,218 licensed AA-CHPs. Over 85% of the AA-exposed patients took less than 60 g of AA-herbs; however, about 7% were exposed to a cumulated dose of over 100 g of Radix et Rhizoma Asari (Xixin, Caulis Akebiae (Mutong or Fructus Aristolochiae (Madouling. Patients of respiratory and musculoskeletal diseases received most of the AA-CHP prescriptions. The most frequently prescribed AA-CHPs Shujing Huoxie Tang, Chuanqiong Chadiao San and Longdan Xiegan Tang, containing Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Radix et Rhizoma Asari and Caulis Akebiae, respectively. Conclusion About one-third of people in Taiwan have been prescribed with AA-CHPs between 1997 and 2003. Although the cumulated doses were not large, further actions should be carried out to ensure the safe use of AA-CHPs.

  11. Research on Layout of Container Terminal Based on Discrete Event System Simulation%基于离散事件系统仿真的集装箱码头布置规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 严武元; 王少梅

    2011-01-01

    The layout of container terminal is regarded as a systematic design and optimizing process that involve many complicated factors. The eM-plant software is adopted to simulate the operational system of container terminal in the alternative layout, and build a simulation database based on real-time statistics. The expert investigation method is combined with hierarchy analysis method to build an evaluation index system which reflects the alternative layout as much as possible, and the above evaluation indexes are endowed with different weights. By combining with the detail of operational system simulation running, hierarchy analysis and grey correlation analysis are applied synthetically to get the multi-level weighted grey-correlation evaluation for terminal operational capability in the alternative layout. So the best layout of container terminal will be selected.%集装箱码头的规划布置涉及多种复杂的影响因素,是系统性设计和不断优化的过程.本研究采用eM-plant软件模拟集装箱码头备选方案的作业系统,并根据实时统计生成仿真数据库;采用专家调研法和层次分析法创建尽可能全面反映备选方案信息的评价指标体系,并赋予各评价指标不同的权重;结合码头作业系统仿真模拟运行的情况,综合运用层次分析法和灰色关联度分析法,对备选方案的码头作业能力进行多层次加权灰色关联评价,以实现对码头规划方案的优选.

  12. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  13. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide), a sea anemone neuropeptide containing an unusual amino-terminal blocking group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Rinehart, K L; Jacob, E;

    1990-01-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay for the carboxyl-terminal sequence Arg-Asn-NH2, we have purified a peptide from acetic acid extracts of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. By classical amino acid analyses, mass spectrometry, and 1H NMR spectroscopy, the structure of this peptide was determined as 3......-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2. By using reversed-phase HPLC and a chiral mobile phase, it was shown that the 3-phenyllactyl group had the L configuration. Immunocytochemical staining with antiserum against Arg-Asn-NH2 showed that L-3-phenyllactyl-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2 (Antho-RNamide) was localized in neurons of sea...

  14. Retrovirus-induced spongiform encephalopathy: the 3'-end long terminal repeat-containing viral sequences influence the incidence of the disease and the specificity of the neurological syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    DesGroseillers, L; Rassart, E; Robitaille, Y; Jolicoeur, P

    1985-01-01

    Using chimeric murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) constructed in vitro with parental viral genomes from the neurotropic Cas-BR-E MuLV and the nonneurotropic amphotropic 4070-A MuLV, we previously mapped the paralysis-inducing determinant of Cas-BR-E MuLV within a pol-env region. To assess the role of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) in influencing the neurological disease, we constructed another chimeric MuLV (pNEMO-1)m harboring the gag-pol-env from Cas-BR-E MuLV and the LTR region from the str...

  15. A case report of Chinese brothers with inherited MECP2-containing duplication: autism and intellectual disability, but not seizures or respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs are a family of neurodevelopmental disorders with strong genetic components. Recent studies have shown that copy number variations in dosage sensitive genes can contribute significantly to these disorders. One such gene is the transcription factor MECP2, whose loss of function in females results in Rett syndrome, while its duplication in males results in developmental delay and autism. Case presentation Here, we identified a Chinese family with two brothers both inheriting a 2.2 Mb MECP2-containing duplication (151,369,305 – 153,589,577 from their mother. In addition, both brothers also had a 213.7 kb duplication on Chromosome 2, inherited from their father. The older brother also carried a 48.4 kb duplication on Chromosome 2 inherited from the mother, and a 8.2 kb deletion at 11q13.5 inherited from the father. Based on the published literature, MECP2 is the most autism-associated gene among the identified CNVs. Consistently, the boys displayed clinical features in common with other patients carrying MECP2 duplications, including intellectual disability, autism, lack of speech, slight hypotonia and unsteadiness of movement. They also had slight dysmorphic features including a depressed nose bridge, large ears and midface hypoplasia. Interestingly, they did not exhibit other clinical features commonly observed in American-European patients with MECP2 duplication, including recurrent respiratory infections and epilepsy. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of Chinese Han patients with MECP2-containing duplications. Further cases are required to determine if the above described clinical differences are due to individual variations or related to the genetic background of the patients.

  16. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Coghlan

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica. Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety

  17. Integrated scheduling model of mixed cross-operation for container terminal%集装箱码头混合交叉作业集成调度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 张哲; 曾庆成

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the relations among several links such as berth distribution, loading operation and unloading operation and horizontal handling in the import and export operation system of container terminal, the effect of existed import and export operation system on the production efficiency and operation cost of container terminal was analyzed. By using optimization theory of system engineering, the integrated scheduling method of mixed cross-operation and synchronous optimization technology were put forward. The berth distribution, equipment configuration and the driving path of container truck were taken as decision variables, the minimum operation cost of container terminal was taken as objective function, 3-stage integrated scheduling optimization model was established, and the hierarchic genetic algorithm was designed to solve the model. In the hierarchic genetic algorithm, the upper layer genetic algorithm was used to search for the reasonable configuration combinations of facilities and equipments for container terminal, and the lower layer genetic algorithm was used to optimize the driving path of container truck based on the upper layer genetic algorithm. Calculation result indicates that compared with the independent loading and unloading operation process, by using integrated scheduling model of mixed cross-operation, container truck number is 22, and reduces by 66.2 %. The total driving distance of container trucks is 10 389.8 km, and decreases by 17.4%.Compared with the single scheduling system, by using integrated scheduling model of mixed cross-operation, the total driving distance of container trucks decreases by 14.5%. The total operation cost of container terminal is 84 266.2 yuan, and reduces by 4.6%. It is clear that by using the integrated scheduling model of mixed cross-operation for container terminal, the production efficiency of container terminal can increase significantly, and the operation cost of container terminal can reduce obviously. 4

  18. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark D; Freund, Stefan M V; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-07-01

    SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:26073604

  19. Emergency strategy of berth scheduling in container terminal based on memetic algorithm%基于Memetic算法的集装箱码头泊位应急调度策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 杨春霞; 杨赞

    2011-01-01

    To solve the emergency scheduling problem caused by the overstock of ships in container terminal,a emergency strategy of berth scheduling was proposed based on the Memetic algorithm.Firstly,a series of recovery times with different length were given through the human-computer interaction;secondly,in each recovery time,the berth rescheudling was carried out to minimize the number of rejected ships based on the Memetic algorithm;finally,the final scheme was determined with the recovery times and the optimization results considered.Numberial examples show that the proposed strategy can restore container terminal to normal production order quickly with the load-upload accomplishment for all ships,which can satisfy the decision demands of the emergency management in container terminals.%针对集装箱码头因船舶压港产生的应急调度问题,提出一种基于Memetic算法的泊位应急调度策略.首先,通过人机交互方式确定一系列不同长度的恢复时间;其次,在每段恢复时间内采用Memetic算法对相应船舶集合进行重调度,以实现甩港船舶数最少的优化目标;最后,通过综合分析恢复时间和优化结果确定最终方案.试验结果表明,该优化策略可使集装箱码头在尽量完成船舶作业的同时,以最快速度恢复到正常生产秩序,可供集装箱码头应急决策时参考.

  20. Sequence-specific and general transcriptional activation by the bovine papillomavirus-1 E2 trans-activator require an N-terminal amphipathic helix-containing E2 domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, T H; Turek, L P; Mercurio, F M; Cripe, T P; Olson, B J; Anderson, R D; D. Seidl; Karin, M; Schiller, J.

    1988-01-01

    The sequence-specific trans-activator protein of bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-1, E2, strongly increases transcription at promoters containing papillomaviral ACCG(N)4CGGT (E2P) cis motifs, but can also activate a wide range of co-transfected promoters without E2P cores to a lower extent. Analysis of multiple E2 mutants in transfected cells revealed that the C-terminal DNA binding E2 domain binds to the E2P cis sequences in the form of pre-existing nuclear dimers. The DNA binding function of E2 ...

  1. Simultaneous determination of ten active components in traditional Chinese medicinal products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qi; Sun, Lan; Zhao, Run-Huai; Chow, Moses S S; Zuo, Zhong

    2008-01-01

    In order to facilitate the quality control of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) products containing both Gegen (Pueraria lobata) and Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a new and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of 10 active components in these products has been developed. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a C(18) column eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% acetic acid in water and 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile with gradient elution. The eluent was monitored by a photodiode array UV detector at a wavelength of 250 nm for Gegen components including puerarin, daidzein 8-C-apiosyl-glucoside, daidzin and daidzein, and at 270 nm for Danshen components including danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIa. Excellent chromatographic separation was achieved for all studied compounds with good linearity (r(2)> 0.999) over the studied concentration ranges. The developed method has been applied to the simultaneous determination of the 10 studied compounds in commercially available products containing both Gegen and Danshen. The TCM product samples were extracted by sonication with a mixture of methanol:water (80:20) containing 0.5% acetic acid. Extraction recoveries for all studied compounds were in the range of 96.01-106.18%. The intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 7.25 and 5.44%, respectively, for all studied compounds. The developed method has not only proved to be effective in the simultaneous determination of the 10 components, but also provides a convenient quality control approach for TCM products containing both Gegen and Danshen. PMID:18438756

  2. Triplex staples: DNA double-strand cross-linking at internal and terminal sites using psoralen-containing triplex-forming oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Broughton-Head, Victoria J; Peng, Guomei; Powers, Vicki E C; Ovens, Matthew J; Fox, Keith R; Brown, Tom

    2006-01-01

    A method has been developed to attach 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen to the 5 position of thymine bases during solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. UV irradiation of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) containing internally attached psoralens produces photoadducts at TpA steps within target duplexes, thus relaxing the constraints on selection of psoralen target sequences. Photoreaction of TFOs containing two psoralens, located at the 5'- and 3'-ends, has been used to create double-strand cross-links (triplex staples) at both termini of the TFO. Such complexes have no free single-stranded ends. TFOs containing 4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen, 3-methyl-2-aminopyridine, and 5-(3-aminoprop-2-ynyl)deoxyuridine formed photoadducts with target duplexes under near-physiological conditions. PMID:17105237

  3. 集装箱码头专用牵引车“一拖双挂”技术应用及推广%Application and Popularization of One Tractor with Technology in Container Terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐辉; 朱琳杰

    2012-01-01

    为提高设备运行效率,节约人力成本,一些集装箱码头开创了“一拖双挂’’技术。介绍集装箱码头牵引车“一拖双挂”技术项目背景和发展情况。分析该项目节能原理,阐述车型选定、实施方案、技术创新点等。该项目取得良好节能效益、经济效益、社会效益。%In order to raise running efficiency of equipment and save manpower cost, the one tractor with two trailers technology has been developed by a few container terminals. The item background and developing situation of one tractor with two trailers in container terminal are introduced. The power-saving principle of this item is analyzed and the choice of tractor type, implement plan and technical innovation are stated. This item has got good power-saving efficicency, economic efficiency and social efficiency.

  4. Influence of terminal substitution on structural, DNA, protein binding, anticancer and antibacterial activities of palladium(II) complexes containing 3-methoxy salicylaldehyde-4(N) substituted thiosemicarbazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, P; Prabhakaran, R; Ramachandran, E; Dallemer, F; Paramaguru, G; Renganathan, R; Poornima, P; Vijaya Padma, V; Natarajan, K

    2012-02-28

    The variable chelating behavior of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde-4(N)-substituted thiosemicarbazones was observed in equimolar reactions with [PdCl(2)(PPh(3))(2)]. The new complexes were characterized by various analytical, spectroscopic techniques (mass, (1)H-NMR, absorption, IR). All the new complexes were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic results showed that the ligands H(2)L(1) and H(2)L(4) are coordinated as binegative tridentate ONS donor ligands in the complexes 1 and 4 by forming six and five member rings. However, the ligands H(2)L(2) and H(2)L(3) bound to palladium in 2 and 3 as uninegative bidentate NS donors by forming a five member chelate ring. From this study, it was found that the substitution on terminal 4(N)-nitrogen may have an influence on the chelating ability of thiosemicarbazone. The presence of hydrogen bonding in 2 and 3 might be responsible for preventing the coordination of phenolic oxygen to the metal ion. The interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been explored by absorption and emission titration methods. Based on the observations, an electrostatic binding mode of DNA has been proposed. The protein binding studies were monitored by quenching of tryptophan and tyrosine residues in the presence of complexes using Lysozyme as model protein. Antibacterial activity studies of the complexes have been screened against pathogenic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MIC50 values of the complexes showed that they exhibited significant activity against the pathogens and among them, 3 exhibited higher activity. Further, anticancer activity of the complexes on the lung cancer cell line A549 has also been studied. PMID:22222360

  5. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ivan H. W.; Chan, Kitti W. K.; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Jans, David A.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  6. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Moon Y F; Smith, Kate; Ng, Ivan H W; Chan, Kitti W K; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Luo, Dahai; Jans, David A; Forwood, Jade K; Vasudevan, Subhash G

    2016-09-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  7. Caracterización de parámetros físicos de las terminales de contenedores del sistema portuario español Characterization of physical parameters of the terminals of container of Spanish harbor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. González

    2009-12-01

    del sistema portuario español y las relaciones que se produce entre los mismos, estos valores son necesarios a la hora de abordar la planificación de una terminal. El estudio desarrollado ha permitido concluir que las terminales de contenedores españolas son muy heterogéneas, el escenario marítimo está caracterizado por terminales pequeñas, medianas y/o grandes moviendo volúmenes de tráfico no muy elevados, cuya línea de atraque no se encuentra equipada con holgura y la superficie disponible es algo limitante. Investigaciones futuras deberían orientarse en mejorar las limitaciones que se presentan en las terminales de contenedores españolas, apuntando por qué se producen estas especificidades y cómo éstas condicionan la explotación de las terminales tanto positiva como negativamente.The widespread use of management and operating ratios taken from international literature that do not conform to the reality of the Spanish port system makes it difficult to plan and manage the operation of Spanish container terminals. This is due to the lack of characterization of the physical parameters of the container terminals necessary for the operation. Container terminals in the Spanish port system is very heterogeneous and can not be characterized from international operating ratios, so we need a proper study to obtain general Spanish stage container port. The contribution of this article in the field of exploitation is characterized port Spanish container terminals port system from the values taken physical parameters (depth, size, number of cranes, etc´etera. Basic operation of a terminal, allowing to know the reality of the Spanish port system. This study allows us to characterize, at present, the main physical parameters of operation of container terminals by establishing a management and operating ratios own reality characteristic of the port system in Spain that no previous study reported to date.

  8. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg and arsenic (As, accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n=10 were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p<0.05, PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p<0.05, PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3.

  9. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  10. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  11. 中草药营养去屑洗发香波的研制%Study on shampoo with nutrition and dandruff containing chinese herbal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻育红; 周进; 张玲

    2012-01-01

    The active components of Ganoderma lucidum and StepHania tetrandra.S.Moore, triterpenoids and tetrandrine, were extracted by microwave method and then were added into Shampoo. The influence of material dosage and experiment conditions on shampoo with nutrition and dandruff was investigated. The resulted shampoo containing Chinese herbal medicine in this paper was tested according to the trade criterion GB/T11432-89. It can be used safely and there is no stimulation on the skin. The performance of and-dandruff and relieving itching, nourishing and moisten hair, and decontamination was excellent.%选取中草药灵芝和汉防己,采用微波法提取其中的有效成份灵芝三萜和汉防已碱,并将其加入到洗发香波中,考察了原料用量与实验条件对中草药营养去屑洗发香波的影响.实验研制的中草药洗发香波其各项指标均符合国家标准洗发液GB/T11432-89的标准,使用安全,无刺激,有优良的去屑止痒、营养滋润和去污效果.

  12. The methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha contains an inducible import pathway for peroxisomal matrix proteins with an N-terminal targeting signal (PTS2 proteins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, K N; Haima, P; Gietl, C; Harder, W; Ab, G; Veenhuis, M

    1994-12-20

    Two main types of peroxisomal targeting signals have been identified that reside either at the extreme C terminus (PTS1) or the N terminus (PTS2) of the protein. In the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha the majority of peroxisomal matrix proteins are of the PTS1 type. Thus far, for H. polymorpha only amine oxidase (AMO) has been shown to contain a PTS2 type signal. In the present study we expressed H. polymorpha AMO under control of the strong endogenous alcohol oxidase promoter. Partial import of AMO into peroxisomes was observed in cells grown in methanol/(NH4)2SO4-containing medium. However, complete import of AMO occurred if the cells were grown under conditions that induce expression of the endogenous AMO gene. Similar results were obtained when the heterologous PTS2 proteins, glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase from watermelon and thiolase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were synthesized in H. polymorpha. The import of PTS1 proteins, however, was not affected by the growth conditions. These results indicate that the reduced rate of AMO import in (NH4)2SO4-grown cells is not due to competition with PTS1 proteins for the same import pathway. Apparently, AMO is imported via a separate pathway that is induced by amines and functions for PTS2 proteins in general.

  13. Hepatitis B virus DNA-negative dane particles lack core protein but contain a 22-kDa precore protein without C-terminal arginine-rich domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Ohno, Shinichi; Maki, Noboru

    2005-06-10

    DNA-negative Dane particles have been observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected sera. The capsids of the empty particles are thought to be composed of core protein but have not been studied in detail. In the present study, the protein composition of the particles was examined using new enzyme immunoassays for the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and for the HBV precore/core proteins (core-related antigens, HBcrAg). HBcrAg were abundant in fractions slightly less dense than HBcAg and HBV DNA. Three times more Dane-like particles were observed in the HBcrAg-rich fraction than in the HBV DNA-rich fraction by electron microscopy. Western blots and mass spectrometry identified the HBcrAg as a 22-kDa precore protein (p22cr) containing the uncleaved signal peptide and lacking the arginine-rich domain that is involved in binding the RNA pregenome or the DNA genome. In sera from 30 HBV-infected patients, HBcAg represented only a median 10.5% of the precore/core proteins in enveloped particles. These data suggest that most of the Dane particles lack viral DNA and core capsid but contain p22cr. This study provides a model for the formation of the DNA-negative Dane particles. The precore proteins, which lack the arginine-rich nucleotide-binding domain, form viral RNA/DNA-negative capsid-like particles and are enveloped and released as empty particles.

  14. Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene

    This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

  15. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  16. Terminal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frank; Allais, Arnaud; Mirebeau, Pierre; Ganhungu, Francois; Lallouet, Nicolas

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  17. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  18. 自动化集装箱码头多载AGV调度问题研究%Research on scheduling problem of multi-load AGV at automated container terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍凯歌; 张亚琦; 胡志华

    2016-01-01

    多载AGV是一种自动化集装箱码头水平作业设备,它可以同时搬运多个集装箱,可缩小AGV流的规模,增大AGV的利用率。为了提高自动化集装箱码头的作业效率,考虑了垂岸式集装箱堆场布局,以最小化作业总费用为规划目标,以作业限制、时间窗长度、负载平衡等为约束条件,以事件驱动的调度策略为研究方法,建立了多载 AGV调度问题的混合整数规划模型。同时利用GUROBI和遗传算法求解多载AGV的作业总费用和空载率,并与相同条件下单载AGV的作业总费用和空载率对比,验证了多载AGV的优越性。%Multi‐load AGV (automated guided vehicle ) is a kind of level work equipment for automated container terminals .It can carry multiple containers at the same time and is capable of reducing the scale of AGV flow ,w hile increasing utilization rate of AGV .In order to improve the operation efficiency of automated container terminal ,layouts of vertical shore‐type container yards are taken into account , minimal total operational cost is regarded as planning target , operational restrictions ,length of time window and load balance are viewed as constraint conditions , and scheduling policy driven by events is applied as research method to establish a mixed‐integer programming model for the scheduling of multi‐load AGV . Meanwhile , GUROBI and genetic algorithm are applied to solve the total operational costs and empty‐loading ratio of multi‐load AGV . Furthermore ,a comparison with the total operational cost and empty‐loading ratio of single‐load AGV is made to verify the superiority of multi‐load AGV .

  19. Genetic analysis of tumorigenesis: a conserved region in the human and Chinese hamster genomes contains genetically identified tumor-suppressor genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional chromosome homologies were found in a comparison of human 11p with Chinese hamster 3p. By use of probes that recognize six genes of human 11p (INS, CAT, HBBC, CALC, PTH, and HRAS), the corresponding genes were localized by in situ hybridization on Chinese hamster chromosome 3. INS and CAT were located close to the centromere on 3p, whereas HBBC, CALC, and PTH were at 3q3-4 and HRAS at 3q4. Extensive prior data from chromosome studies of tumorigenic and tumor-derived Chinese hamster cells have suggested the presence of a tumor-suppressor gene on 3p. Two tumor-suppressor genes have been described on human 11p, one linked to CAT and one to INS. The present study raises the possibility that the Chinese hamster suppressor may be closely linked to INS or CAT

  20. Impact analysis of channel dimensions on the effective utilization ratio of container terminal berths%航道尺度对集装箱码头泊位有效利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国磊; 王文渊; 郭子坚; 宋向群; 于旭会; 张冉

    2016-01-01

    The approach channel has become a key factor constraining the trafficability of seaports, and the impact of channel dimensions on the effective utilization ratio of berths needs to be considered when planning a container terminal. Using a container terminal as an example, this study integrated ship navigation and operation into a simu⁃lation of port construction and operation. Applying related industrial standards, we designed a series of simulation plans and determined the parameters of the simulation model. We then quantitatively analyzed the relationship be⁃tween the effective utilization ratio of the container terminal berths, and the quantity of berths and channel lines and the duration of navigation, to provide a theoretical basis on which to determine the effective utilization ratio of con⁃tainer terminal berths and to estimate the annual trafficability of berths. The results demonstrated that the dimen⁃sions of the approach channel are important in achieving a satisfactory effective utilization ratio of berths, especially with a single⁃line long channel. This study recommends using computer simulation technology when assessing the general port plane layout of real engineering projects to ensure the efficient operation of the port.%进港航道已经成为制约港口通过能力发挥的因素之一,在港口规划时应考虑航道尺度对泊位有效利用率的影响。本文以集装箱码头为例,将船舶航行作业过程引入港口生产作业仿真模型;根据相关行业规范,设计一系列仿真试验方案并确定仿真模型参数;定量分析集装箱码头泊位有效利用率与泊位数、航道线数和航行历时之间的影响关系,为合理确定集装箱码头泊位有效利用率、估算年泊位通过能力提供理论依据。结果表明,在选取合理泊位有效利用率时,进港航道尺度不可忽略,尤其是单线长航道。同时,建议在实际工程中采用计算机仿真技术

  1. 基于eM-plant软件的铁路集装箱中心站装卸线仿真研究%Simulation of Railway Container Terminal Handing Lines Based on eM-plant Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代华凤; 程文明; 杨武成

    2015-01-01

    This article chose the handing lines of a railway container terminal as the object to study, and optimizing its layout with eM-plant simulation platform after analyzing the working process of the handing system by field investigation .After establishing six system models ,which represent six layouts, and changing the model parameters, the potential rules between shunting ratio of arriving container and optimal layout were identified through comparing and analyzing the results of the different models with different parameters.%本文以某铁路集装箱中心站装卸线为研究对象,实地调研分析其作业过程,利用 eM-plant仿真平台进行布局优化。通过建立代表6种布局的6个系统模型和改变模型参数,对不同模型不同参数下的运行结果进行对比分析,找出到达集装箱分流比例与最优布局的潜在规律。

  2. Structure and properties of polyurethane elastomers modified with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane containing carbonyl%含羰基端羟基硅氧烷改性聚氨酯弹性体的结构及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许双喜; 冯兴卓; 王鹏; 曹彦海; 黄自华

    2012-01-01

    A series of modified polyurethane elastomers ( SPUs) with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane containing carbonyl (PDMS-C) were synthesized with polytetram-ethylene ether glycol (PTMG) and PDMS-C as mixing soft segments by prepolymer method. The structures of SPUs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the effects of PTMG/PDMS-C ( mole ratio ) on mechanical properties and high/low temperature resistance of SPUs were investigated. The results showed that PDMS-C was grafted on to polyurethane chain segment successfully. The tensile strength of SPU decreased with increasing PDMS-C content, but the retention rate of tensile strength was evidently larger than that of the polyurethane elastomers modified with common hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane. The high/low temperature resistance of SPUs was improved to a certain degree with the increase of PDMS-C content.%以聚四氢呋喃醚二醇(PTMG)和含羰基的端羟基硅氧烷(PDMS -C)为混合软段,采用预聚体法合成了一系列PDMS -C改性聚氨酯弹性体(SPUs),用傅里叶变换红外光谱对其结构进行了表征,并考察了PTMG与PDMS -C的摩尔比对SPUs力学性能和耐高低温性能的影响.结果表明,PDMS -C成功接枝到聚氨酯链段中.随着PDMS -C含量的增大,SPUs的拉伸强度降低,但与普通端羟基硅氧烷改性聚氨酯相比,其拉伸强度保持率大幅提高;随着PDMS -C含量的增大,SPUs的耐高低温性能均得到改善.

  3. Preparation and Study on Anti-dandruff Efficacy of Shampoo Containing Chinese Medicine%中药洗发香波的研制及去屑功效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋日琼; 万玉华; 张榕文; 刘丹丹; 黄崇才

    2012-01-01

    研究配制了中药洗发香波并观察其去头屑的功效.通过对比试验筛选出香波主要组分的最佳配比,确定巾药洗发香波的配方;通过体外抑菌试验及研究者头皮评估临床评分试验,评价中药洗发香波的去头屑功效.研究得到的中药提取液添加量为12%的洗发香波各项指标均符合行业标准,能抑制细菌、减少头皮屑和改善头皮瘙痒症状.%To prepare the Chinese medicine shampoo and study its anti-dandruff efficacy, the matrix formula of Chinese medicine shampoo was obtained by selecting the optimal ratios of main ingredients in shampoo with the comparison experiment. The anti-dandruff efficacy of Chinese medicine shampoo was observed on the basis of in-vitro experiment and investigators' assessments to compare the differences of the test shampoo and the controlled shampoo in improving the clinical assessment scores. All the checkpoints of shampoo containing 12% of Chinese medicine extract met the standard of QB/T 1974-2004. It could inhibit bacterial growth, reduce dandruff and improve scalp itching.

  4. Research on Cooperative Schedule for Container Terminal Apron Based on Firefly Algorithm%基于萤火虫算法的集装箱码头前沿协同调度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operation resource assignment problem in container terminal apron. It proposes a joint schedule strategy for berth and quay crane under the mode of continuous berth layout,establishes a berth assignment mode according to the feature of location preference by container vessels,establishes the quay crane schedule strategy ac-cording to the constrains of expected departure time of the container vessels and their handling states,and makes the solu-tion to the joint schedule model by adopting the firefly optimal algorithm. Through simulation experiments,the schedule re-sults under berthing in order and different number of vessels are compared and analyzed. The results show that the coopera-tive schedule strategy and optimization algorithm are effective.%针对集装箱码头前沿作业资源调度问题,构建了连续泊位划分方式下的泊位和岸桥的联合调度策略。针对船舶具有偏好位置的属性,建立了泊位分配策略;根据船舶的期望离港时间约束和过程作业情况,建立了岸桥的调度策略;采用萤火虫优化算法对联合调度模型进行了求解,通过仿真实验,对顺序靠泊和不同船舶数量条件下调度结果进行了比较分析。实验结果显示用该算法求解联合调度问题是有效的。

  5. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  6. 基于MAS的集装箱码头物流系统协同生产调度体系%Container terminal logistics systems collaborative scheduling based on multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 李文锋

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of Container Terminal Logistics System(CTLS) collaborative scheduling,the concept of Container Terminal Integrated Service Systems(CTISS) was proposed,which was supposed to obtain a new methodology for CTLS collaborative scheduling.Under the framework of CTISS,the loading and unloading,transportation,stacking,collection and distribution in CTLS were considered as a kind of generalized computation,and then the physical entity resource network and the control decision-making information network were integrated into the modeling and optimization architecture using Harvard architecture and Agent-based computing.Thus a new sort of agile,efficient and robust CTLS collaborative scheduling solution was obtained.An operational case for berth allocation,quay crane scheduling and yard trailer dispatching was simulated and analyzed to validate the feasibility and creditability of the methodology.%针对集装箱码头物流系统的协同生产调度问题,提出集装箱码头集成服务系统的核心概念,以期为集装箱码头物流系统的协同生产调度得出新的体系方法。在此思想下,将集装箱码头物流系统中的装卸、运输、堆码和集疏运作业看作是一种广义的"计算",使港口中的实体作业资源网络与控制决策信息网络集成到面向哈佛体系机构和基于Agent的计算的集装箱码头物流系统建模优化体系下,得出一种新的敏捷高效鲁棒的协同生产调度体系。最后通过对泊位指派、岸桥调度和集卡管理的协同生产作业实例进行仿真分析,验证了此建模调度方法的可行性与可信性。

  7. Hepatitis B virus in tenofovir-naive Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B contains no mutation of rtA194T conferring a reduced tenofovir susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; WANG Chun-mei; CHENG Jun; LIANG Zhao-ling; ZHONG Yan-wei; REN Xiao-qiang; XU Zhi-hui; Fabien Zoulim; XU Dong-ping

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently the Chinese Ministry of Health declared that 93 million people were chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in China. Four nucleotide analogues (Nas) are currently approved for the treatment of HBV infection, I.e., lamivudine (LAM), adefovir (ADV), entecavir (ETV), and telbivudine (L-dT).1 In contrast to therapeutic benefits, prolonged use of Nas increases the emergence of drug-resistant mutations in the HBV reverse transcriptase (RT) domain, leading to a.

  8. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  9. Genetic determinants of growth phase-dependent and adenovirus 5-responsive expression of the Chinese hamster thymidine kinase gene are contained within thymidine kinase mRNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J. A.; Matkovich, D A

    1986-01-01

    We have constructed a chimeric thymidine kinase (TK) minigene, pHe delta 6Ha, which combines the complete coding and 3' noncoding regions of a Chinese hamster TK cDNA with the promoter region and 5' untranslated region of the TK gene of herpes simplex virus type 1. We have transformed rat 4 cells to Tk+ with this gene and analyzed the pattern of TK gene expression in these transformants under various conditions of in vitro cell culture. We find that TK gene expression in these Tk+ transforman...

  10. Chinese journals: a guide for epidemiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Fung Isaac CH

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health contain much that is of potential international interest. However, few non-Chinese speakers are acquainted with this literature. This article therefore provides an overview of the contemporary scene in Chinese biomedical journal publication, Chinese bibliographic databases and Chinese journals in epidemiology, preventive medicine and public health. The challenge of switching to English as the medium of publicatio...

  11. Classification and Translation of Chinese Abbreviations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭颖婷

    2014-01-01

    Chinese abbreviation, containing fewer words and delivering a wealth of information, is a vital component of Chinese language. But the tremendous differences between Chinese and English make it an arduous task to translate Chinese abbreviations into English. Based on the analyses of the structure and patterns of word-formation of Chinese abbreviations, it makes a classifi-cation of Chinese abbreviations, summarize the translation methods, and point out some attention points in translation. A system-atic analysis on the structure and classification of Chinese abbreviations will be beneficial to reduce the mistakes in its translation.

  12. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    termination are found to significantly affect a firm's relationship termination competence. The findings suggest that managers should regard termination as a legitimate option in customer relationship management. In order to decrease the number of unwanted customers, managers must accept termination...... of organizational termination in order to improve our understanding of the management of termination. The impact of these termination dimensions on the percentage of unwanted customers is developed and tested using PLS on data gathered from a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives. We find...

  13. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated.

  14. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  15. kjac Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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  6. kgsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. khdn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. pabe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kiso Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. ktop Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kmot Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. klse Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. ktrk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. pafa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. krvs Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. pawg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. khut Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. paho Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kbfl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcsm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kdmn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kglh Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. ksjt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kmbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kpdk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kbrl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kpeq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kbhm Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kvel Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kpbg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kcpr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kgrb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kbis Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kcmi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. katw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. khys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kgck Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. ktix Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. ktex Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. phmk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kart Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kpbf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kenw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. ptkk Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. kaby Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kmhr Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. kahn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. kmce Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kcys Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. kisp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. kcgi Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. keug Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kaeg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. klwb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. ksua Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kmer Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. kiwa Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kfoe Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. kacv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kdbq Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kshv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. pkmj Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kmia Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. keyw Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  6. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  7. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-01-01

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage. PMID:27173304

  8. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  9. Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains isolated from Chinese freshwater fish contain a novel genomic island and possible regional-specific mobile genetic elements profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Meng; Nielsen, Tue K; Leisner, Jørgen J;

    2016-01-01

    variant of the genomic island AsaGEI in BG, designated as AsaGEI2c This is the first report on a GEI of A. salmonicida strain from China. Furthermore, both YK and BG strains contained a Tn7 transposon inserted at the same position in the chromosome. Finally, IS-dependent rearrangements on pAsa5 are deemed...... likely to have occurred, with omission of the resD gene in both strains as well as omission of genes related to the IncF conjugal transfer system in the YK isolate. This study demonstrates that A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida can infect non-salmonids (cyprinids) in addition to salmonids, and that Asa...... of which belonged to the cyprinid family, and the strains showed a difference in virulence. Subsequently, we performed whole genome sequencing of the strains, and comparison of their genomic sequences to the genome of the A449 reference strain revealed various genomic rearrangements, including a new...

  10. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  11. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y H; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B H; Taylor, Carmel T; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeff J; Hall, Roy A

    2015-06-08

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  12. A detailed breast model and its application for Chinese female breast dose estimation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA protocol for breast dosimetry is based on the calculations of Dance which used very simple models of the breast based on the western female data. In order to estimate the dose more precisely in the mammographic examination for the Chinese female, a 3D detailed breast model was constructed. This model contains the detailed structures in the breast, including skin, subcutaneous fat, Cooper's ligaments, and fibro-glandular region containing intra-glandular fat, gland, ductal system, and terminal ductal lobular units. And the size of this breast model was adjusted to represent the characteristic of Chinese female. The glandular tissue conversion coefficients were calculated using this detailed breast model with Monte Carlo code, Geant4. The comparison between the data obtained in this study and the data from Dance was carried out. The discrepancy may come from both the structure and size of the breast models

  13. Sequential ultrasonic extraction of a Chinese coal and characterization of nitrogen-containing compounds in the extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun-Liu; Fan, Xing; You, Chun-Yan; Wei, Xian-Yong; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Cao, Jing-Pei

    2016-07-01

    Dongming lignite was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, carbon disulfide, methanol, acetone, and isometric carbon disulfide/acetone mixed solvent at room temperature to afford extracts 1-5, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to separate and characterize heteroatomic species in the extracts at molecular level. Molecular mass of compounds in the extracts is mainly distributed from 300 to 800 u, and the relative abundance of compounds with molecular mass over 800 u in the carbon disulfide extract is 135 times of that in the petroleum ether extract. The acetone extract has the highest relative abundance for organonitrogen compounds. Double bond equivalence numbers of detected species indicate that most of the organonitrogen compounds contain N-heterocyclic aromatic rings, including pyridine, quinoline and pyrrole. Some organonitrogen isomers in Dongming lignite were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the corresponding structural information was proposed.

  14. Il termine "mafia"

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Data la confusione venutasi a creare nel corso della storia passata e recente, si propone uno studio incentrato sulla questione relativa al termine "mafia". Contrariamente a quanto si potrebbe immaginare, "mafia" oggi è un termine polisemico che non significa solo criminalità organizzata o stragi ma anche lealtà, giustizia, coraggio, potere, intrigo. Compito di questo breve saggio è di capire quali sono gli eventi che hanno contribuito a fare di "mafia" un termine polisemico. In questo senso,...

  15. Terminal Antenna Design

    OpenAIRE

    Skrivervik, A. K.; Zurcher, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces first some general considerations about antenna miniaturization and multi-band terminal antenna design. These general design principles are then illustrated on some practical applications.

  16. Fluorescence Visual Detection of Herbal Product Substitutions at Terminal Herbal Markets by CCP-based FRET technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Guang; Jin, Yan; Liu, Libing; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Inaccurate labeling of materials used in herbal products may compromise the therapeutic efficacy and may pose a threat to medicinal safety. In this paper, a rapid (within 3 h), sensitive and visual colorimetric method for identifying substitutions in terminal market products was developed using cationic conjugated polymer-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (CCP-based FRET). Chinese medicinal materials with similar morphology and chemical composition were clearly distinguished by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method. Assays using CCP-based FRET technology showed a high frequency of adulterants in Lu-Rong (52.83%) and Chuan-Bei-Mu (67.8%) decoction pieces, and patented Chinese drugs (71.4%, 5/7) containing Chuan-Bei-Mu ingredients were detected in the terminal herbal market. In comparison with DNA sequencing, this protocol simplifies procedures by eliminating the cumbersome workups and sophisticated instruments, and only a trace amount of DNA is required. The CCP-based method is particularly attractive because it can detect adulterants in admixture samples with high sensitivity. Therefore, the CCP-based detection system shows great potential for routine terminal market checks and drug safety controls. PMID:27765955

  17. Aligning barge and terminal operations using service-time profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, Albert M.; Schuur, Peter C.; Schutten, J. Marco J.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a key issue in hinterland container navigation in ports, such as Rotterdam and Antwerp, namely the barge handling problem: how to optimize the alignment of barge and terminal operations in a port. We make a major step in solving the barge handling problem for practical settings. Specifically, we consider restricted opening times of terminals, unbalanced networks, the presence of sea vessels, and closing times of containers. Consequently, at a terminal a barge faces time dependency...

  18. Correct Code Containing Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Dross, Claire; Filliâtre, Jean-Christophe; Moy, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    For critical software development, containers such as lists, vectors, sets or maps are an attractive alternative to ad-hoc data structures based on pointers. As standards like DO-178C put formal verification and testing on an equal footing, it is important to give users the ability to apply both to the verification of code using containers. In this paper, we present a definition of containers whose aim is to facilitate their use in certified software, using modern proof technology and novel s...

  19. Complete genome sequence of a recombinant Marek's disease virus field strain with one reticuloendotheliosis virus long terminal repeat insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shuai; Cui, Ning; Cui, Zhizhong; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yanpeng; Ding, Jiabo; Dong, Xuan

    2012-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) Chinese strain GX0101, isolated in 2001 from a vaccinated flock of layer chickens with severe tumors, was the first reported recombinant MDV field strain with one reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) insert. GX0101 belongs to very virulent MDV (vvMDV) but has higher horizontal transmission ability than the vvMDV strain Md5. The complete genome sequence of GX0101 is 178,101 nucleotides (nt) and contains only one REV-LTR insert at a site 267 nt upstream of the sorf2 gene. Moreover, GX0101 has 5 repeats of a 217-nt fragment in its terminal repeat short (TRS) region and 3 repeats in internal repeat short (IRS) region, compared to the other 10 strains with only 1 or 2 repeats in both TRS and IRS.

  20. 含薄荷、三七的中药牙膏对牙龈炎的疗效观察%The observation on the curative effect of Chinese toothpaste containing bergamot and pseudo-ginseng on gingivitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪慧慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the improvement of Chinese herbal toothpaste added with bergamot and pseudo-ginseng on gingivitis.Methods:30 cases of gingivitis were randomly divided into the experiment group and the control group with 15 cases in each.Patients in the experiment group used the Chinese herbal toothpaste.Patients in the control group used common toothpaste. The gingival bleeding index of 15st day and 30st day were observed.Results:There was no difference on the the gingival bleeding index at 15st day.The gingival bleeding index decreased more significant than before, also lower than the control group, and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The toothpaste containing with bergamot and pseudo-ginseng can reduce gingivitis.%目的:探讨添加薄荷和三七活性提取物的中草药牙膏对于牙龈炎的改善情况。方法:选取30例牙龈炎患者,随机分为试验组和对照组,各15例。试验组使用含薄荷和三七成分的牙膏,对照组使用普通牙膏。观察两组15 d和30 d牙龈出血指数的变化。结果:两组在第15天时牙龈出血指数差异无统计学意义,在第30天时试验组的牙龈出血指数有显著下降,低于对照组,与基线值相比,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:含薄荷和三七的牙膏具有减轻牙龈炎症的功效。

  1. Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of delta6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayanova, O; Smith, M A; Lapinskas, P; Stobart, A K; Dobson, G; Christie, W W; Shewry, P R; Napier, J A

    1997-04-15

    gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA; C18:3 delta(6,9,12)) is a component of the seed oils of evening primrose (Oenothera spp.), borage (Borago officinalis L.), and some other plants. It is widely used as a dietary supplement and for treatment of various medical conditions. GLA is synthesized by a delta6-fatty acid desaturase using linoleic acid (C18:2 delta(9,12)) as a substrate. To enable the production of GLA in conventional oilseeds, we have isolated a cDNA encoding the delta6-fatty acid desaturase from developing seeds of borage and confirmed its function by expression in transgenic tobacco plants. Analysis of leaf lipids from a transformed plant demonstrated the accumulation of GLA and octadecatetraenoic acid (C18:4 delta(6,9,12,15)) to levels of 13.2% and 9.6% of the total fatty acids, respectively. The borage delta6-fatty acid desaturase differs from other desaturase enzymes, characterized from higher plants previously, by the presence of an N-terminal domain related to cytochrome b5. PMID:9108131

  2. Design and Construction of the Pile Foundation of Yantian Port 2nd-Phase Container Terminal%盐田港二期工程集装箱码头桩基设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾寄平

    2000-01-01

    It introduces the calculation principle for the structures of three 50, 000 dwtcontainer terminals of Yantian Port 2nd-phase Project, types of foundation piles and the structural types, piling control standard, as well as the construction machinery and construction method for embedded piles, anchor piles and embedded-anchor piles. It also gives an introduction to the actural bearing capacity testing by combining high-strain dynamic test with static load test.%介绍盐田港二期3个5万吨级集装箱码头结构的计算原则,基桩类型及其结构型式,沉桩控制标准及嵌岩桩、锚定桩、锚定嵌桩的施工机具和施工方法,还介绍了采用高应变动力试验与静载试验相结合的方法验证工程桩实际承载力的情况。

  3. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  4. Facile solid-phase synthesis of sulfated tyrosine-containing peptides: Part II. Total synthesis of human big gastrin-II and its C-terminal glycine-extended peptide (G34-Gly sulfate) by the solid-phase segment condensation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, K; Aida, C; Fujiwara, H; Yagami, T; Futaki, S

    2001-08-01

    Application of the fluoren-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-based solid-phase segment condensation approach to the preparation of sulfated peptides was investigated through the synthesis of human big gastrin-II, a 34-residue sulfated tyrosine [Tyr(SO3H)]-containing peptide. Highly acid-sensitive 2-chlorotrityl resin (Clt resin) was exclusively employed as an anchor-resin for the preparation of the three peptide segments having the C-terminal Pro residue as well as of the Tyr(SO3H)-containing resin-bound segment. By using the PyBOP-mediated coupling protocol [PyBOP=benzotriazolyloxytris(pyrrolidino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphatel, we successively condensed each segment and constructed the 34-residue peptide-resin without any difficulty. The final acid treatment of the fully protected peptide-resin at low temperature (90% aqueous TFA, 0 degree C for 8 h), which can detach a Tyr(SO3H)-containing peptide from the resin and remove the protecting groups concurrently with minimum deterioration of the sulfate, afforded a crude sulfated peptide. After one-step HPLC purification, a highly homogeneous human big gastrin-II was easily obtained in 14% yield from the protected peptide-resin. The sulfate form of the C-terminal glycine-extended gastrin (G34-Gly sulfate), a posttranslational processing intermediate of gastrin-II, was also successfully prepared with the segment condensation approach (11% yield). These results demonstrated the usefulness of the segment condensation protocol for preparing large Tyr(SO3H)-containing peptides.

  5. Order of amino acids in C-terminal cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators influences cellular processing and biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled recombinant Affibody molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altai, Mohamed; Wållberg, Helena; Orlova, Anna; Rosestedt, Maria; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Ståhl, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    Affibody molecules constitute a novel class of molecular display selected affinity proteins based on non-immunoglobulin scaffold. Preclinical investigations and pilot clinical data have demonstrated that Affibody molecules provide high contrast imaging of tumor-associated molecular targets shortly after injection. The use of cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators at the C-terminus of recombinant Affibody molecules enabled site-specific labeling with the radionuclide 99mTc. Earlier studies have demonstrated that position, composition and the order of amino acids in peptide-based chelators influence labeling stability, cellular processing and biodistribution of Affibody molecules. To investigate the influence of the amino acid order, a series of anti-HER2 Affibody molecules, containing GSGC, GEGC and GKGC chelators have been prepared and characterized. The affinity to HER2, cellular processing of 99mTc-labeled Affibody molecules and their biodistribution were investigated. These properties were compared with that of the previously studied 99mTc-labeled Affibody molecules containing GGSC, GGEC and GGKC chelators. All variants displayed picomolar affinities to HER2. The substitution of a single amino acid in the chelator had an appreciable influence on the cellular processing of 99mTc. The biodistribution of all 99mTc-labeled Affibody molecules was in general comparable, with the main difference in uptake and retention of radioactivity in excretory organs. The hepatic accumulation of radioactivity was higher for the lysine-containing chelators and the renal retention of 99mTc was significantly affected by the amino acid composition of chelators. The order of amino acids influenced renal uptake of some conjugates at 1 h after injection, but the difference decreased at later time points. Such information can be helpful for the development of other scaffold protein-based imaging and therapeutic radiolabeled conjugates.

  6. Mechanism of Seizure Termination

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and organized according to membranes, synapses, networks, and circuits are reviewed by researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

  7. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  8. 基于因子分析的集装箱码头人力资本竞争力研究%Study on Human Capital Competitiveness of Container Terminal Based on Factor Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴庆辉; 耿超凡

    2014-01-01

    This paper taking the 25 container wharfs five port groups as the object of study ,human capital evaluation index system was established .According to the analysis of factor analysis ,the values of human capital competition of each wharf were obtained.Four main factors affecting human capital competitiveness of container wharfs in China are identified .They are development potential factors ,human capital factors ,employee skill level factor and the management efficiency factor .%文中以五大港口群的25个集装箱码头为研究对象,建立了人力资本的评价指标体系。根据因子分析法的分析,得到各码头的人力资本竞争力分值。确定了影响我国集装箱码头人力资本竞争力的四大因子:发展潜力因子、人力资本投入因子、员工技能水平因子和管理效率因子。

  9. From Terminal to Terminal with Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    We study fundamental concepts of particle and heat transport in a model system using ultracold atoms. It consists of a channel connecting two macroscopic reservoirs of fermionic lithium atoms. The channel can be switched from ballistic to diffusive, and it can be structured to form a quantum point contact or a quantum wire. Measurements of the thermoelectric effect and particle transport in the quantum regime will be presented. Our measurements find an ideal description in the Landauer-Buttiker formalism, which views conduction as the transport of carriers from one terminal to another.

  10. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  11. Documents from malicious terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Istvan Z.; Vajda, Istvan

    2003-04-01

    The user wishes to communicate with a remote partner over an insecure network. Since the user is a human being, a terminal is needed for communication. Cryptographic algorithms running on the terminal may provide authenticity for the user's messages. In this paper the problem of sending authentic messages from insecure or untrusted terminals is analyzed. In this case attackers are able to gain total control over the terminal, so the user must consider the terminal a potential attacker. Smart cards are often considered the ultimate tool for secure messaging from untrusted terminals. However, their lack of user interface enables man-in-the middle attack from the terminal. The authors assume, that user is a human being with limited memory and computational power, and also makes mistakes in his calculations. They demnostrate, that only exceptional useres are able to authenticate messages without a trusted device. Several biometric media encapsulate the content of the message and the identity of the sender, such as speech, video and handwriting. The authors suggest, that such media is far more difficult to counterfeit than plaintext. Thus, the user must rely on his other resources, like biometric ones. In the protocol proposed by the authors, the user sends messages in a biometric format, strengthened by simple algorithmic authenticators. The smart card functions as a secure time gate ensuring, that the attacker has extremely little time to counterfeit both the biometric and the algorithmic protection on the message. The authors claim, that with the proper calibration of the biometric method and the time gate of the smart card, their protocol is strong enough for practical use.

  12. Local Termination: theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Endrullis, Joerg; Waldmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The characterisation of termination using well-founded monotone algebras has been a milestone on the way to automated termination techniques, of which we have seen an extensive development over the past years. Both the semantic characterisation and most known termination methods are concerned with global termination, uniformly of all the terms of a term rewriting system (TRS). In this paper we consider local termination, of specific sets of terms within a given TRS. The principal goal of this paper is generalising the semantic characterisation of global termination to local termination. This is made possible by admitting the well-founded monotone algebras to be partial. We also extend our approach to local relative termination. The interest in local termination naturally arises in program verification, where one is probably interested only in sensible inputs, or just wants to characterise the set of inputs for which a program terminates. Local termination will be also be of interest when dealing with a specif...

  13. OVERVIEW OF CHINESE CHAIN CATERING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a market overview for chain catering business situation in China. Chinese chain catering market is developing rapidly in recent years, it is a business where everybody can become a customer, but the business is highly competitive. The subject of this thesis is to give an overview of the market situation and strategies for market expansion of Chinese chain catering industry. It contains knowledge of chain management and introduction of Chinese chain catering ma...

  14. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines......, and motivation as significant antecedents. Because of this, managers need to develop their organizations in order to use relationship termination as a vital strategy....

  15. Simulation of Frontline Logistics System of Hyper-sized Container Terminals Based on Witness and Virtual Reality Platform%基于witness及虚拟现实平台的超大型集装箱码头前沿物流系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔婷婷; 邵莉; 杨凡

    2013-01-01

    为了适应超大型集装箱码头的装卸要求,提高码头前沿物流系统组织方式的效率,基于witness二维仿真数据,搭建三维虚拟现实平台,分析不同组织作业方式的优缺点,以帮助港口工作人员直观、高效地进行物流系统分析,为码头建设提供可靠性依据.%In order to meet the requirement of the hyper-sized container terminals in cargo loading and unloading and to improve the efficiency of the organization of the frontline logistics systems,we analyzed the advantage and disadvantage of different activity organizations through setting up a 3D virtual reality platform on the basis of the witness 2D simulation data.

  16. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  17. Integrated quay crane allocation and yard truck schedule problem in container terminals%集装箱码头岸桥分配与集卡调度整合问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 梁承姬

    2015-01-01

    Quay crane and truck scheduling are interrelated issues with mutual influence. In order to improve port handling efficiency, it is necessary to coordinate them in a good relationship. The scheduling problem was solved by formulating a mixed integer programming ( MIP ) model which consider both loading and unloading. The goal of this model was to minimize the completion time of both import and export containers. Due to the complexity of the problem, a layered approach was used for the solution of the two devices scheduling. Meanwhile, an improved genetic algorithm was used to solve the model. The new method was compared with CPLEX. The experiment demonstrates that the improved genetic algorithm obtains optimal solution for six cases of total cases and the aver-age gap of left cases is less than 5%. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently handle the problem within a limited time. In solving time, along with the increase of the number of trucks, the time span of the CPLEX solutions differs from the 1 second to 1 hour, but the improved algorithm only need dozens of seconds to solve the problem. Thus, the improved algorithm can effectively solve such problem.%岸桥分配与集卡调度是相互联系相互影响的问题,如果要提高码头装卸效率,就必须协调好两者的调度关系。针对集装箱码头岸桥和集卡的协同调度问题,以使进口箱和出口箱的总完工时间最短为目的,考虑了集卡路径约束和岸桥实际操作情况等实际约束,构建了边装边卸的混合整数规划模型。由于模型比较复杂,因此采用了分层方法来实现两种设备的协调调度,并用改进的遗传算法来求解模型。实验表明,通过将改进算法的结果与标准化软件CPLEX所求得的最优解或下界比较,算法求得6组最优解且剩余算例平均偏差小于5%;在求解时间方面,随着岸桥、集卡和集装箱数量的增加,CPLEX求解时间跨度由1 s到1 h快速

  18. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to channel...

  19. Simulation of proton radiography terminal at IMP

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Yan; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wang, Jie; Yao, Ze-En; Wang, Jun-Run; Wei, Zheng; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Yuan, You-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography is used for advanced hydrotesting as a new type radiography technology due to its powerful penetration capability and high detection efficiency. A new proton radiography terminal will be developed to radiograph static samples at Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Science (IMP-CAS). The proton beam with the maximum energy of 2.6 GeV will be produced by Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooling Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR). The proton radiography terminal consists of the matching magnetic lens and the Zumbro lens system. In this paper, the design scheme and all optic parameters of this beam terminal for 2.6GeV proton energy are presented by simulating the beam optics using WINAGILE code. My-BOC code is used to test the particle tracking of proton radiography beam line. Geant4 code and G4beamline code are used for simulating the proton radiography system. The results show that the transmission efficiency of proton without target is 100%, and the effect of secondary particles ca...

  20. An Interlingua-Based Chinese-English MT System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐璇; 周会平; 陈火旺

    2002-01-01

    Chinese-English machine translation is a significant and challenging problem in information processing. The paper presents an interlingua-based Chinese-English natural language translation system (ICENT). It introduces the realization mechanism of Chinese language analysis, which contains syntactic parsing and semantic analyzing and gives the design of interlingua in details. Experimental results and system evaluation are given. The result is satisfying.

  1. Econometric Analysis of Overseas Investment by Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CCPIT

    2010-01-01

    @@ The analysis contained in this chapter focuses in particular on those Chinese companies that already have overseas operations. The purpose of the chapter is threefold: i) to identify the main characteristics of the Chinese companies active in foreign markets, ii) to investigate the privileged locations abroad and iii) to understand the main driving forces leading Chinese companies to invest abroad.

  2. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  3. Intermodal freight terminals : an analysis of the terminal market

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    1998-01-01

    Intermodality has become a major goal in modem transport policy. The improvement of combined transport within the European Union includes the refinement of the freight terminal services. A freight terminal is a nodal place where goods are transhipped between any two or more transport modes. In this paper we describe and analyse the freight terminal market with the help of Porter’s model of five competitive forces. The central question is: who are the stakeholders in the terminal market? We wi...

  4. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  5. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  6. Nonlinear Mathematical Programming for Optimal Management of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedalizadeh Ganji, S. R.; Javanshir, H.; Vaseghi, F.

    Berth scheduling is the process of determining the time and position at which each arriving ship will berth. This paper attempts to minimize the serving time to ships, after introducing a proposed mathematical model, considers the berth allocation problem in form of mixed integer nonlinear programming. Then, to credit the proposed model, the results of Imai et al.'s model have been used. The results indicate that because the number of nonlinear variables in the proposed model is less than prior model, so by using the proposed model, we can obtain the results of model in less time rather than prior model.

  7. Termination Issues in Residential Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Mann-Feder, Varda

    2003-01-01

    The termination phase of residential child care placement has a powerful effect on postplacement adjustment. This article reviews relevant literature from a range of helping/caring professions and outlines implications for managing termination with children and youth in care. Major themes are: termination elicits ambivalence and can manifest as behavioural regression; intervention during the termination phase can have significant impact; and the capacity of child and youth care workers to ...

  8. Mobile Termination with Asymmetric Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines mobile termination fees and their regulation when networks are asymmetric in size. It is demonstrated that with consumer ignorance about the exact termination rates (a) a mobile network?s termination rate is the higher the smaller the network?s size (as measured through its subscriber base) and (b) asymmetric regulation of only the larger operators in a market will, ce-teris paribus, induce the smaller operators to increase their termination rates. The results are supporte...

  9. Optimalizace procesů kontejnerového terminálu

    OpenAIRE

    Matuška, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is written on the topic "Process Optimization of container terminal" and deals with the optimization process handling of containers inside the terminal, as the key elements of the logistics chain in combined transport. First, given the theoretical part to acquaint the reader with the objective and metodology works, general overview of the theoretical concepts and solved problems. Followed by a practical part, which is closer to the reader familiar with the container terminal of ...

  10. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  11. The validation of the standard Chinese version of EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL in terminal cancer patients%晚期癌症患者生活质量量表EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL中文版有效性的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志芹; 王宁; 刘家浩; 焦杰; 武景莲; 贾兰宁; 吴美静; 张雷

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the standard Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 palliative) to determine if this tool can be used to evaluate Chinese patients with cancer who receive palliative care.Methods In May to August 2013,187 patients with advanced cancer who received palliative treatment in Tianjin Cancer Hospital completed the questionnaires of EORTC QLQ-C30.We extracted QLQ-C15-PAL data for analysis.The doctor-in-charge assessed the ECOG PS score and the mental state of these patients.Results A total of 187 patients completed the study.The compliance rate was high,with the missing rate for each item ranging from 0 to 2.7%.Three of four multi-item-scale correlations showed Cronbach α values of >0.7.We divided the ECOG perform status into two groups and compared QLQ-C15-PAL subscale scores between these groups.Results showed that the questionnaire discriminated among patient subgroups with different ECOG perform status.Global quality of life was moderately correlated with the fatigue(r=-0.406) but only weakly correlated with other subscales.The proportion of variance (R2) ranged from 0.838 to 0.906,which showed that QLQ-C15-PAL subscale scores could explain between 83.8% and 90.6% of the original QLQ-C30.Conclusions The Chinese version of the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL questionnaire has higher reliability and validity,which is suitable for clinic promotion in China to determine HRQL in Chinese patients with terminal cancer.%目的 验证EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL量表中文版本的有效性,进一步确定这一工具能否用于衡量中国大陆地区接受姑息治疗的晚期癌症患者的生活质量.方法 以2013年5~8月在天津肿瘤医院接受姑息性治疗的187例晚期癌症患者为对象,让其参与完成量表EORTC QLQ-C30的问卷调查,从中提取EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL量表进行分析,并且让

  12. Electrophysiological characterization of peptidergic neurosecretory terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, I M

    1985-09-01

    Electrical activity recorded intracellularly from peptidergic neurosecretory terminal dilatations in the sinus gland of crabs (principally Cardisoma guanhumi and C. carnifex) is described. Recordings were made from the neurohaemal organ in situ on the neural tissue of the isolated eyestalk and from isolated sinus gland-sinus gland nerve preparations. Verification that electrodes penetrated terminals was obtained by dye marking. Resting potentials ranged between -30 and -80mV. Overshooting action potentials of long duration (5-20 ms at 1/2 amplitude) relative to those of non-secretory axons (less than 2ms) were recorded in approximately 70% of stable penetrations. Action potentials occurred spontaneously at slow (less than 0.2s-1) rates in 75% of penetrations. Sequential intra- and extracellular recordings with the same microelectrode, on the same terminal, indicate impulse generation by the terminal itself. Extracellular stimulation of the axon tract evokes an all-or-none action potential at distinct threshold and latency. At rates of stimulation exceeding 5s-1, discrete fluctuations in the form of responses occur. Similar waveforms occur spontaneously and can be evoked by passing current through the electrode. They are interpreted to be electrotonically recorded activity of other parts of a complex axonal terminal arborization. Some, but not all, terminals exhibit impulse broadening (up to three-fold at 1/2 amplitude) during repetitive firing exceeding 1s-1. The same terminals show reduced impulse duration with hyperpolarization and broadened impulses with imposed depolarization. The changes are due to altered repolarization rates. Terminals sustain steady impulse firing at rates (up to 5s-1) linearly related to the imposed depolarizing current. Regenerative potentials, though of reduced rate of rise and amplitude, can be evoked by depolarizing current passed through the electrode during perfusion with salines having 1/2 normal [Na+], or containing tetrodotoxin

  13. Developing New Methods for Efficient Container Stacking Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Gharehgozli (Amir)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContainerized transportation has become an essential part of the intermodal freight transport. Millions of containers pass through container terminals on an annual basis. Handling a large number of containers arriving and leaving terminals by different modalities including the new mega-

  14. Terminal weather information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1990-01-01

    Since the mid-1960's, microburst/windshear events have caused at least 30 aircraft accidents and incidents and have killed more than 600 people in the United States alone. This study evaluated alternative means of alerting an airline crew to the presence of microburst/windshear events in the terminal area. Of particular interest was the relative effectiveness of conventional and data link ground-to-air transmissions of ground-based radar and low-level windshear sensing information on microburst/windshear avoidance. The Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator located at Ames Research Center was employed in a line oriented simulation of a scheduled round-trip airline flight from Salt Lake City to Denver Stapleton Airport. Actual weather en route and in the terminal area was simulated using recorded data. The microburst/windshear incident of July 11, 1988 was re-created for the Denver area operations. Six experienced airline crews currently flying scheduled routes were employed as test subjects for each of three groups: (1) A baseline group which received alerts via conventional air traffic control (ATC) tower transmissions; (2) An experimental group which received alerts/events displayed visually and aurally in the cockpit six miles (approx. 2 min.) from the microburst event; and (3) An additional experimental group received displayed alerts/events 23 linear miles (approx. 7 min.) from the microburst event. Analyses of crew communications and decision times showed a marked improvement in both situation awareness and decision-making with visually displayed ground-based radar information. Substantial reductions in the variability of decision times among crews in the visual display groups were also found. These findings suggest that crew performance will be enhanced and individual differences among crews due to differences in training and prior experience are significantly reduced by providing real-time, graphic display of terminal weather hazards.

  15. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  16. El paciente terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Vélez Atehortua

    1994-01-01

    En el marco de la celebración de los 190 años de la Universidad de Antioquia han querido los directivos universitarios y la Fundación ";;Cátedra Fernando Zambrano Ulloa";; dedicar un espacio a la discusión de un nuevo tema que ha aparecido en la modernidad: ";;El Paciente Terminal que no es otra cosa que el hombre que muere en medio de un gran componente científico.

  17. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  18. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  19. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  20. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  2. Terminal Appointment System Design by Non-stationary M(t)/Ek/c(t) Queueing Model and Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; Govindan, Kannan; Yang, Zhong-Zhen;

    2013-01-01

    Long truck queue is a common problem at big marine container terminals, where the resources and equipment are usually scheduled to serve ships prior to trucks. To reduce truck queues, some container terminals adopt terminal appointment system (TAS) to manage truck arrivals. This paper addresses t...

  3. [Terminal ballistics. 3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A

    1993-01-01

    This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity. PMID:7923495

  4. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  5. Optimum Inter terminal Transfer Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocket trajectories in a gravitational field between two terminals with specified velocities at each terminal are investigated with a view to total velocity increment required in initiating the rocket along the transfer path at the first terminal and in the attainment of the given final velocity at the final terminal. The equations are transformed for transfer between circular orbits and numerical results for Earth-Mars transfer are calculated. Finally particular cases of the above problem are discussed and Stark's results is drived therefrom.

  6. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde b

  7. Analysis of Sheng-Mai-San, a Ginseng-Containing Multiple Components Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Physical Examination by Electron and Light Microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Sheng-Mai-San is a multi-component traditional Chinese herbal preparation. Due to the fact granulated additives, such as starch, carboxymethyl cellulose, lactose and raw herbal powder may alter the content of the bioactive markers in the herbal products, a developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of ginsenoside Rb₁, Rb₂, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg₁, Rh₁, compound K, ophiopogonin D and schizandrin from the Sheng-Mai-San herbal formulation. Besides, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the herbal granular powders. Light microscopy with Congo red and iodine-KI reagent staining was used to identify the cellulose fiber and cornstarch added to pharmaceutical herbal products. The swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), and crude fiber analysis were used to determine the contents of cellulose fiber and cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products. In this study, we developed a novel skill to assess the quantification of appended cornstarch in pharmaceutical herbal products using Aperio ImageScope software. Compared with the traditional cornstarch analysis, our analysis method is a rapid, simple and conversion process which could be applied to detect the percentage of added cornstarch in unknown powder products. The various range of the herbal content for the five pharmaceutical manufacturers varied by up to several hundreds-fold. The physical examination reveals that the morphology of the herbal pharmaceutical products is rough and irregular with sharp layers. This study provides a reference standard operating procedure guide for the quality control of the Chinese herbal pharmaceutical products of Sheng-Mai-San. PMID:27598107

  8. [Terminal ballistics. 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Merico, G; Tosi, D; Acerbi, A; Della Giacoma, G

    1993-01-01

    We have chosen to conceive of terminal ballistics as a violent and extremely rapid confrontation between two forms of resistance before the final state of rest is reached. This definition, which cannot help but don the admittedly loud and outlandish garb of physics, is the most promising for the purposes of biological interpretation. The main characters on this stage are two, but only one of these really plays the lead, namely the human target, which acts out the basic roles inherent in its physical make-up; the other, the bullet, remains a background figure, frozen in its walk-on part, and ready for the next performance. This modus operandi, which is no simplification, but rather an academic necessity, enables us to focus on images which stand out more clearly as a result of an intensive macroscopic spotlight which brings out the features of the individual phenomena, broken down into a succession of close-ups, and subtracts them from the cold physical nature of this or that form of inert matter, which here is merely an occasional, disagreeable witness, or even more, a standing from time to time for but one of the infinite facets of the biological composite being. Here, then, faced with a kind of exploded macrophotograph of a complex kaleidoscope, we see the animal universe, of which we capture so far the plasticity, the subdivisibility, the anisotropy and the cavitation. PMID:7923493

  9. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC, Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC, Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC, and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC. SMC, NMC, and FMC have been proved and applied in industry, but TMC has not. This paper gives a six-tuple definition and presents a new algorithm for TMC. Based on these, we prove that our algorithm is sound and complete. It solves the SMC’s limitation (resulting in false negative without extending from finite specification to infinite specification. At last, a case of using TMC to verify a realistic hardware circuit round-robin arbiter is achieved. Avoiding verifying the undesired paths which are not related to the specifications, TMC makes it possible to reduce the computational complexity, and the experimental results suggest that the time cost by SMC is 3.14× with TMC in the case.

  10. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  11. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions. PMID:19708408

  12. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...

  13. Terminal System for Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Quick-connect terminal system provides electrical contact and physical alinement between adjacent photovoltaic modules. Dual-ended plugs connect adjacent modules; single-ended plugs connect bus cables. No tools required to insert plugs and no live terminals exposed before, during, or after connection.

  14. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  15. The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) localize differently in the compartments of dentin and growth plate of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, Izabela; Cowan, Cameron; Svoboda, Kathy; Butler, William T; D'Souza, Rena; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-02-01

    Multiple studies have shown that dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is essential for bone and dentin mineralization. After post-translational proteolytic cleavage, DMP1 exists within the extracellular matrix of bone and dentin as an NH2-terminal fragment, a COOH-terminal fragment, and the proteoglycan form of the NH2-terminal fragment (DMP1-PG). To begin to assess the biological function of each fragment, we evaluated the distribution of both fragments in the rat tooth and bone using antibodies specific to the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal regions of DMP1 and confocal microscopy. In rat first molar organs, the NH2-terminal fragment localized to predentin, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment was mainly restricted to mineralized dentin. In the growth plate of bone, the NH2-terminal fragment appeared in the proliferation and hypertrophic zones, whereas the COOH-terminal fragment occupied the ossification zone. Forster resonance energy transfer analysis showed colocalization of both fragments of DMP1 in odontoblasts and predentin, as well as hypertrophic chondrocytes within the growth plates of bone. The biochemical analysis of bovine teeth showed that predentin is rich in DMP1-PG, whereas mineralized dentin primarily contains the COOH-terminal fragment. We conclude that the differential patterns of expression of NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal fragments of DMP1 reflect their potentially distinct roles in the biomineralization of dentin and bone matrices.

  16. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  17. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

  18. Foldable container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskermolen, R.A.; Eggers, K.; Meijers, A.V.M.; Kusuma, G.

    2010-01-01

    Foldable container (1) comprising a bottom plate (2), side plates (3) and first hinges (4) for connecting the side plates (3) to the bottom plate (2), and a roof plate (5) that is can be raised from the side plates (3), wherein the roof plate (5) connects to opposite side plates (3) by interposition

  19. Synaptic vesicle generation from central nerve terminal endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotos, Alexandros C; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Central nerve terminals contain a small number of synaptic vesicles (SVs) that must sustain the fidelity of neurotransmission across a wide range of stimulation intensities. For this to be achieved, nerve terminals integrate a number of complementary endocytosis modes whose activation spans the breadth of these neuronal stimulation patterns. Two such modes are ultrafast endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, which are triggered by stimuli at either end of the physiological range. Both endocytosis modes generate endosomes directly from the nerve terminal plasma membrane, before the subsequent production of SVs from these structures. This review will discuss the current knowledge relating to the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of SVs from nerve terminal endosomes, how this relates to other mechanisms of SV production and the functional role of such SVs.

  20. The Low pH Unfolded State of the C-terminal Domain of the Ribosomal Protein L9 Contains Significant Secondary Structure in the Absence of Denaturant but is No More Compact than the Low pH Urea Unfolded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the properties of the unfolded states of proteins, particularly unfolded states which can be populated in the absence of high concentrations of denaturants. Interest in the unfolded state ensemble reflects the fact that it is the starting point for protein folding as well as the reference state for protein stability studies, and can be the starting state for pathological aggregation. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain (residues 58 to 149) of the ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) can be populated in the absence of denaturant at low pH. CTL9 is a 92 residue globular α, β protein. The low pH unfolded state contains more secondary structure than low pH urea unfolded state but it is not a molten globule. Backbone (1H, 13C and 15N) NMR assignments as well as side chain 13Cβ and 1Hβ assignments and 15N R2 values were obtained for the pH 2.0 unfolded form of CTL9 and for the urea unfolded state at pH 2.5. Analysis of the deviations of the chemical shifts from random coil values indicates that residues that comprise the two helices in the native state show a clear preference to adopt helical φ, ψ angles in the pH 2.0 unfolded state. There is a less pronounced but nevertheless clear tendency for residues 107 to 124 to preferentially populate helical φ, ψ values in the unfolded state. The urea unfolded state has no detectable tendency to populate any type of secondary structure even though it is as compact as the pH 2.0 unfolded state. Comparison of the two unfolded forms of CTL9 provides direct experimental evidence that states which differ significantly in their secondary structure can have identical hydrodynamic properties. This in turn demonstrates that global parameters such as Rh or Rg are very poor indicators of “random coil” behavior. PMID:18707127

  1. The low-pH unfolded state of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 contains significant secondary structure in the absence of denaturant but is no more compact than the low-pH urea unfolded state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2008-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the properties of the unfolded states of proteins, particularly unfolded states which can be populated in the absence of high concentrations of denaturants. Interest in the unfolded state ensemble reflects the fact that it is the starting point for protein folding as well as the reference state for protein stability studies and can be the starting state for pathological aggregation. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain (residues 58-149) of the ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) can be populated in the absence of denaturant at low pH. CTL9 is a 92-residue globular alpha, beta protein. The low-pH unfolded state contains more secondary structure than the low-pH urea unfolded state, but it is not a molten globule. Backbone ( (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N) NMR assignments as well as side chain (13)C beta and (1)H beta assignments and (15)N R 2 values were obtained for the pH 2.0 unfolded form of CTL9 and for the urea unfolded state at pH 2.5. Analysis of the deviations of the chemical shifts from random coil values indicates that residues that comprise the two helices in the native state show a clear preference for adopting helical phi and psi angles in the pH 2.0 unfolded state. There is a less pronounced but nevertheless clear tendency for residues 107-124 to preferentially populate helical phi and psi values in the unfolded state. The urea unfolded state has no detectable tendency to populate any type of secondary structure even though it is as compact as the pH 2.0 unfolded state. Comparison of the two unfolded forms of CTL9 provides direct experimental evidence that states which differ significantly in their secondary structure can have identical hydrodynamic properties. This in turn demonstrates that global parameters such as R h or R g are very poor indicators of "random coil" behavior.

  2. The Score Model Containing Chinese Medicine Syndrome Element of Blood Stasis Presented a Better Performance Compared to APRI and FIB-4 in Diagnosing Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ling Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore a useful noninvasive assessment containing TCM syndrome elements for liver fibrosis in CHB patients. The demographic, clinical, and pathological data were retrospectively collected from 709 CHB patients who had ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal from April 2009 to October 2012. Logistical regression and area under receiver-operator curve (AUROC were used to determine the diagnostic performances of simple tests for advanced fibrosis (Scheuer stage, F ≥ 3. Results showed that the most common TCM syndrome element observed in this CHB population was dampness and Qi stagnation, followed by blood stasis, by heat, and less by Qi deficiency and Yin deficiency. The logistical regression analysis identified AST ≥ 35 IU/L, PLT ≤ 161 × 109/L, and TCM syndrome element of blood stasis as the independent risk factors for advanced fibrosis. Therefore, a score model containing these three factors was established and tested. The score model containing blood stasis resulted in a higher AUC (AUC = 0.936 compared with APRI (AUC = 0.731 and FIB-4 (AUC = 0.709. The study suggested that the score model containing TCM syndrome element of blood stasis could be used as a useful diagnostic tool for advanced fibrosis in CHB patients and presented a better performance compared to APRI and FIB-4.

  3. The Score Model Containing Chinese Medicine Syndrome Element of Blood Stasis Presented a Better Performance Compared to APRI and FIB-4 in Diagnosing Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiao-Ling; Shi, Mei-Jie; Xiao, Huan-Ming; Xie, Yu-Bao; Cai, Gao-Shu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore a useful noninvasive assessment containing TCM syndrome elements for liver fibrosis in CHB patients. The demographic, clinical, and pathological data were retrospectively collected from 709 CHB patients who had ALT less than 2 times the upper limit of normal from April 2009 to October 2012. Logistical regression and area under receiver-operator curve (AUROC) were used to determine the diagnostic performances of simple tests for advanced fibrosis (Scheuer stage, F ≥ 3). Results showed that the most common TCM syndrome element observed in this CHB population was dampness and Qi stagnation, followed by blood stasis, by heat, and less by Qi deficiency and Yin deficiency. The logistical regression analysis identified AST ≥ 35 IU/L, PLT ≤ 161 × 10(9)/L, and TCM syndrome element of blood stasis as the independent risk factors for advanced fibrosis. Therefore, a score model containing these three factors was established and tested. The score model containing blood stasis resulted in a higher AUC (AUC = 0.936) compared with APRI (AUC = 0.731) and FIB-4 (AUC = 0.709). The study suggested that the score model containing TCM syndrome element of blood stasis could be used as a useful diagnostic tool for advanced fibrosis in CHB patients and presented a better performance compared to APRI and FIB-4. PMID:26904141

  4. Balanced Branching in Transcription Termination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, K J; Liang, S

    2000-01-01

    The theory of stochastic transcription termination based on free-energy competition requires two or more reaction rates to be delicately balanced over a wide range of physical conditions. A large body of work on glasses and large molecules suggests that this should be impossible in such a large system in the absence of a new organizing principle of matter. We review the experimental literature of termination and find no evidence for such a principle but many troubling inconsistencies, most notably anomalous memory effects. These suggest that termination has a deterministic component and may conceivably be not stochastic at all. We find that a key experiment by Wilson and von Hippel allegedly refuting deterministic termination was an incorrectly analyzed regulatory effect of Mg2+ binding.

  5. Propagation Terminal Design and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James

    2015-01-01

    The NASA propagation terminal has been designed and developed by the Glenn Research Center and is presently deployed at over 5 NASA and partner ground stations worldwide collecting information on the effects of the atmosphere on Ka-band and millimeter wave communications links. This lecture provides an overview of the fundamentals and requirements of the measurement of atmospheric propagation effects and, specifically, the types of hardware and digital signal processing techniques employed by current state-of-the-art propagation terminal systems.

  6. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  7. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... of Chinese Sand Pears From China AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... would set forth shipping requirements for sand pears from China. It would require sealed containers of... importation of Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States. As a condition of...

  8. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  9. Epilepsy in Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T M; Yang, S H; Ng, P K

    2001-01-01

    This article reviewed the meaning and development of epilepsy in Chinese culture. The theories of Yin and Yang and the five elements, fundamentals of traditional Chinese medicine, were introduced, which form the context of understanding of the etiology, classification, and treatment of epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:11321477

  10. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the We

  11. The Chinese High School Student's Stress in the School and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 466 Chinese high school students, we examined the relationships between Chinese high school students' stress in the school and their academic achievements. Regression mixture modelling identified two different classes of the effects of Chinese high school students' stress on their academic achievements. One class contained 87% of…

  12. A mathematical model of inter-terminal transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Voß, Stefan; Stahlbock, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel integer programming model for analyzing inter-terminal transportation (ITT) in new and expanding sea ports. ITT is the movement of containers between terminals (sea, rail or otherwise) within a port. ITT represents a significant source of delay for containers being transshipped...... contains special structures to model the long term loading and unloading of vehicles, and our model is general enough to model a number of important real-world aspects of ITT, such as traffic congestion, penalized late container delivery, multiple ITT transportation modes, and port infrastructure...... modifications. We show that our model can scale to real-world sizes and provide ports with important information for their long term decision making....

  13. Chinese Cuisine Culture and Current Situation of its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-dan

    2013-01-01

    Chinese cuisine is the main reflection of our country’s cuisine culture. It contains profound historical and cultural background. Besides, it permeates folk-custom taste and local manners. Since the name of a cuisine is the first impression given to a dining person, undoubtedly, its translation is very important in cultural dissemination and communication. But actually, there are many problems exist in Chinese cuisine translation at present. This paper is based on a massive collection of Chinese cuisine ’s translation, classification, analysis. Besides, it has found out cultural connotation, current situation and the causes from the cultural angle;discussed the basic requirements of translating Chinese cuisine.

  14. Co-word Analysis using the Chinese Character Set

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, Chinese texts could not be studied using co-word analysis because the words are not separated by spaces in Chinese (and Japanese). A word can be composed of one or more characters. The online availability of programs that separate Chinese texts makes it possible to analyze them using semantic maps. Chinese characters contain not only information, but also meaning. This may enhance the readability of semantic maps. In this study, we analyze 58 words which occur ten or more times in the 1652 journal titles of the China Scientific and Technical Papers and Citations Database. The word occurrence matrix is visualized and factor-analyzed.

  15. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  17. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  18. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-01-01

    This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvemen...

  19. Termination of Nondeterministic Quantum Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yangjia; Ying, Mingsheng

    2012-01-01

    We define a language-independent model of nondeterministic quantum programs in which a quantum program consists of a finite set of quantum processes. These processes are represented by quantum Markov chains over the common state space. An execution of a nondeterministic quantum program is modeled by a sequence of actions of individual processes. These actions are described by super-operators on the state Hilbert space. At each step of an execution, a process is chosen nondeterministically to perform the next action. A characterization of reachable space and a characterization of diverging states of a nondeterministic quantum program are presented. We establish a zero-one law for termination probability of the states in the reachable space of a nondeterministic quantum program. A combination of these results leads to a necessary and sufficient condition for termination of nondeterministic quantum programs. Based on this condition, an algorithm is found for checking termination of nondeterministic quantum progr...

  20. Digital autonomous terminal access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novacki, S.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem for the Bus Monitor Unit is to identify the source of a given transmission. This problem arises from the fact that the label which identifies the source of the transmission as it is put into the bus is intercepted by the Digital Autonomous Terminal Access Communications (DATAC) terminal and removed from the transmission. Thus, a given subsystem will see only data associated with a label and never the identifying label itself. The Bus Monitor must identify the source of the transmission so as to be able to provide some type of error identification/location in the event that some problem with the data transmission occurs. Steps taken to alleviate this problem by modifications to the DATAC terminal are discussed.

  1. 12 CFR 611.1220 - Termination resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination resolution. 611.1220 Section 611... Institution Status § 611.1220 Termination resolution. No more than 1 week before you submit your plan of termination to us, your board of directors must adopt a termination resolution stating its support...

  2. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  3. Model Test Study of the Breakwater at the Dubai Port Terminal in Callao, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater for the Dubai Port terminal in Callao, Peru. Two cross-sections were tested namely the outer part of the breakwater (Section C) and a cross-section at the container terminal area (Section A). The length scale used...

  4. The Asian monsoon over the past 640,000 years and ice age terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Sinha, Ashish; Spötl, Christoph; Yi, Liang; Chen, Shitao; Kelly, Megan; Kathayat, Gayatri; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Xianglei; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Ning, Youfeng; Zhang, Haiwei

    2016-06-30

    Oxygen isotope records from Chinese caves characterize changes in both the Asian monsoon and global climate. Here, using our new speleothem data, we extend the Chinese record to cover the full uranium/thorium dating range, that is, the past 640,000 years. The record's length and temporal precision allow us to test the idea that insolation changes caused by the Earth's precession drove the terminations of each of the last seven ice ages as well as the millennia-long intervals of reduced monsoon rainfall associated with each of the terminations. On the basis of our record's timing, the terminations are separated by four or five precession cycles, supporting the idea that the '100,000-year' ice age cycle is an average of discrete numbers of precession cycles. Furthermore, the suborbital component of monsoon rainfall variability exhibits power in both the precession and obliquity bands, and is nearly in anti-phase with summer boreal insolation. These observations indicate that insolation, in part, sets the pace of the occurrence of millennial-scale events, including those associated with terminations and 'unfinished terminations'. PMID:27357793

  5. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  6. Transformation of Left Terminating Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro; Bossi, Annalisa

    2000-01-01

    We propose an unfold-fold transformation system which preserves left termination for definite programs besides its declarative semantics. The system extends our previous proposal in [BCE95] by allowing to switch the atoms in the clause bodies when a specific applicability condition is satisfied. The

  7. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the problem...

  8. The impact of 'terminator' technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Meer, van der I.J.M.; Louwaars, N.; Beekwilder, J.; Eaton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic use-restriction technologies enable the developers of transgenic plants or animals to protect their variety or breed from unauthorized use in a biological way. The use of 'terminator technology' can have different impacts on farmers and breeders. If the technology is effective, it impacts on

  9. Equiseparability on Terminal Wiener Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiaotie; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the properties of the terminal Wiener index, which was recently proposed by Gutman et al. (2004) [3], and to show the fact that there exist pairs of trees and chemical trees which cannot be distinguished by using it. We give some general methods for constructing...

  10. High data rate optical transceiver terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E. S.

    1973-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to design a 400 Mbps optical transceiver terminal to operate from a high-altitude balloon-borne platform in order to permit the quantitative evaluation of a space-qualifiable optical communications system design, (2) to design an atmospheric propagation experiment to operate in conjunction with the terminal to measure the degrading effects of the atmosphere on the links, and (3) to design typical optical communications experiments for space-borne laboratories in the 1980-1990 time frame. As a result of the study, a transceiver package has been configured for demonstration flights during late 1974. The transceiver contains a 400 Mbps transmitter, a 400 Mbps receiver, and acquisition and tracking receivers. The transmitter is a Nd:YAG, 200 Mhz, mode-locked, CW, diode-pumped laser operating at 1.06 um requiring 50 mW for 6 db margin. It will be designed to implement Pulse Quaternary Modulation (PQM). The 400 Mbps receiver utilizes a Dynamic Crossed-Field Photomultiplier (DCFP) detector. The acquisition receiver is a Quadrant Photomultiplier Tube (QPMT) and receives a 400 Mbps signal chopped at 0.1 Mhz.

  11. Terminal decline in motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A

    2012-12-01

    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. PMID:22612603

  12. Tyrosine kinase activity of a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor containing the insulin receptor C-terminal domain. Comparison with the tyrosine kinase activities of the insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptors using a cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, I; Tartare, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Kaliman, P; Van Obberghen, E; Ballotti, R

    1995-03-15

    In a previous study, we showed that a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, with the beta subunit C-terminal part of the insulin receptor was more efficient in stimulating glycogen synthesis and p44mapk activity compared to the wild-type IFG-1 receptor [Tartare, S., Mothe, I., Kowalski-Chauvel, A., Breittmayer, J.-P., Ballotti, R. & Van Obberghen, E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11449-11455]. These data indicate that the receptor C-terminal domain plays an important role in the transmission of biological effects. To understand the molecular basis of the differences in receptor specificity, we studied the characteristics of insulin, IGF-1 and chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase activities in a cell-free system. We found that, compared to wild-type insulin and IGF-1 receptors, the chimeric receptor showed a decrease in (a) autophosphorylation, (b) tyrosine kinase activity towards insulin receptor substrate-1 and the insulin receptor-(1142-1158)-peptide, and (c) the ability to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, for all the effects measured in a cell-free system, the chimeric receptor displayed an increased response to IGF-1 compared to the native IGF-1 receptor. Concerning the cation dependence of the tyrosine kinase activity, we showed that, at 10 mM Mg2+, the ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of poly(Glu80Tyr20) by both insulin receptor and chimeric receptor was increased by Mn2+. Conversely at 50 mM Mg2+, the chimeric receptor behaved like the IGF-1 receptor, since the presence of Mn2+ decreased the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on their kinase activity. Furthermore, the Km of the chimeric receptor for ATP was increased compared to the wild-type receptors. These data demonstrate that the replacement of the C-terminal tail of the IGF-1 receptor by that of the insulin receptor has changed the receptor characteristics studied in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that the C-terminal domain of the insulin receptor beta subunit plays a

  13. Terminal Procedures Publication/Airport Diagrams - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The U.S. Terminal Procedure Publications (TPPs) is a 26 volume set of printed paper books containing Instrument Approach Procedure charts (IAP), Departure Procedure...

  14. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  15. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chines...

  16. Flow downstream of the heliospheric terminal shock - Magnetic field kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerney, S.; Suess, S. T.; Schmahl, E. J.

    1991-01-01

    A kinematic model of the interplanetary magnetic field in the heliosheath beyond the solar wind terminal shock is presented in order to evaluate the possible importance of MHD effects in that region of space. The need for this evaluation arises because the interplanetary magnetic field is compressed across the terminal shock and further amplified by the decreasing flow speed beyond the shock. Streamlines which approach the stagnation point before turning in the downstream direction lead to the strongest effects due to the extreme slowing of the solar wind and consequent compression of the embedded magnetic field. The magnetic volume force therefore cannot be neglected on streamlines that approach the heliopause in the upstream direction, where the volume containing them is a large fraction of the overall of the heliosheath in the upstream direction. The increase in the magnetic pressure may act to bring the upstream terminal shock significantly closer to the sun, potentially reconciling a conflict between models and observations.

  17. Determinants of Operational Efficiency at Chemical Cargo Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Gúlcan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized world, one of the requirements of global supply chains is efficient transportation systems. Approximately 80 per cent of world merchandise trade carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For this reason, maritime transport has the strategic economic importance. Loading of oil and gas has the biggest share (%30 in commodities carried by sea and 2.9 billion tons oil and gas loaded to ship in 2013. This study is focus on chemical cargo terminals which is a special terminal form where high and international levels of safety and quality elements applied. Unlike conventional bulk cargo and container cargo operations, chemical cargo operations include own priorities, applications, and the evaluation criteria. The aim of this study is to perform a qualitative research to determine the factors affecting the operational efficiency of ship, berth and warehousing operations in chemical cargo terminals.

  18. 《中华人民共和国卫生部药品标准--中药成方制剂》金银花用药规律分析%Analysis on Composition Principles of Prescriptions Containing Lonicerae Japonicae Flos from National Standard for Chinese Patent Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申丹; 唐仕欢; 卢朋; 杨洪军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the composition principles of Chinese patent drugs containing Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (Jinyinhua) in National Standard for Chinese Patent Drugs (NSCPD) enacted by Ministry of Public Health of China by using Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System (TCMISS), and provide reference for its clinical application and development. Methods Based on TCMISS (V2.0), with methods of association rules and improved mutual information method, we analyzed the composition patterns and rules of single drugs and drug combinations. Results Through analyzing on the 201 patent drugs, 21 core drug combinations and 19 diseases that Jinyinhua commonly used were mined, from which influenza, and sore and ulcer were chosen to further analysis, including core drugs and drug combination rules, syndrome etc, disclosing the composition principles of Jinyinhua used in different diseases. Conclusion Patent drugs containing Jinyinhua collected from NSCPD mainly could clear heat and remove toxicity, and the composition principles reflect the compitable characteristics of Jinyinhua in treating different diseases, which are in accordence with clinical application of multiple-efficacy drugs.%目的:基于中医传承辅助平台,分析《中华人民共和国卫生部药品标准--中药成方制剂》(简称《中药部颁标准》)含金银花方剂组方规律,为临床应用及新药研发提供参考。方法应用中医传承辅助平台(V2.0)软件,构建数据库,使用软件的关联规则、改进的互信息法等数据挖掘方法,分析含有金银花方剂中常用的药物、组合规则、核心组合。结果通过对201首方剂的分析,总结金银花常用药物组合21个,主治疾病19种。基于金银花的主治疾病,选择代表性较强的“感冒”和“疮疡”,通过对用药频次、证候规律、药物组合等进一步对比分析,得出同一药物在治疗不同疾病时不同的使用规律。结论《

  19. Mobile Terminal Management in 3G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Jing; MAN Yi; SONG Jun-de; SONG Mei-na

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Terminal has become one of the key issues in the 3G development. In the paper, we study the mobile terminal management in 3G network. Based on the analysis of problems encountered with the terminals, the paper describes the use cases of terminal management. A system architecture with its function components of mobile terminal management system is proposed. Moreover, a possible implementation solution is introduced and described. A Management Information Model (MIM) for terminal management is also proposed to support the management services.

  20. Follow Whom? Chinese Users Have Different Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhaoqun; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaohan; Gu, Yuantao

    2012-01-01

    Sina Weibo, which was launched in 2009, is the most popular Chinese micro-blogging service. It has been reported that Sina Weibo has more than 400 million registered users by the end of the third quarter in 2012. Sina Weibo and Twitter have a lot in common, however, in terms of the following preference, Sina Weibo users, most of whom are Chinese, behave differently compared with those of Twitter. This work is based on a data set of Sina Weibo which contains 80.8 million users' profiles and 7....

  1. Effect of invigorating kidney and nourishing essence Chinese medicine containing serum on Wnt/β-catenin osteogenic differentiation signal pathway in BMSCs in ovariectomized mice%补肾填精中药血清对去势小鼠骨髓干细胞Wnt/β-catenin成骨分化信号通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光旺; 高娟; 郭含军; 霍维玲; 马超; 陈明; 干耀恺; 郝永强

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨补肾填精中药血清对小鼠骨髓干细胞增殖、分化、矿化功能的影响,并检测Wnt/β-catenin信号通路相关蛋白的表达,深化"肾主骨、生髓"理论的科学内涵.方法 以不同浓度含药血清培养去势小鼠骨髓干细胞,MTT观察细胞增殖,连续培养1周后,检测成骨基因的表达并进行碱性磷酸酶染色,培养28天后茜素红染色观察钙结节的形成,Elisa及Western-blot检测Wnt/β-catenin通路主要信号蛋白β-连环蛋白(β-catenin)、低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白5(LRP-5)、T细胞因子(TCF)的表达水平.结果 补肾填精含药血清促进了去势小鼠BMSCs的增殖、成骨基因的表达和钙结节的形成,β-catenin、LRP-5、TCF显著上调.结论 补肾填精中药血清促进了小鼠BMSCs的成骨分化与矿化能力,这种促进作用与Wnt/β-catenin信号通路存在密切关系.%Objective To investigate the effect of invigorating kidney and nourishing essence Chinese medicine containing serum on the proliferation , osteogenic differentiation , and mineralization of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) , to detect the expression of relevant proteins of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway , and to deepen the scientific connotation of the theory that " the kidney governs the bone and produces the marrow". Methods BMSCs isolated from ovariectomized mice were cultured in media with different concentrations of medicine containing serum . Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. After l-week culturing, osteogenic gene expression was detected . And alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining was performed. Alizarin red staining was performed to observe the formation of calcium nodules after 28-day culturing. The expression of β-catenin, low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 5 ( LRP-5 ) , and T cell factor (TCF) , the major signaling proteins of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, were detected using Elisa method and Western blotting. Results Invigorating

  2. The Synthesis of a Novel Phosphorus Containing Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Antigen 12, containing a phosphonyl peptide hapten with free C-terminal carboxylic group, was synthesized by 11 reaction steps. The design of the hapten was based on the transition state of peptide hydrolysis catalyzed by carboxypeptidase A.

  3. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  4. Pilot batch production of cocoa butter-like fats from chinese vegetable tallow by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Hu, X.; Balchen, Steen;

    1997-01-01

    Chinese vegetable tallow (CVT) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids (FHSOFA) as substrates. CVT is a naturally-rich-in-POP vegetable fat containing 80% Sn-POP which is obtained from the outer covering of the seed of the Chinese tallow tree. The FHSOFA contained about 86% stearic acid...

  5. History of Chinese medicinal wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun-Li

    2013-07-01

    Chinese medicinal wine is one type of a favorable food-drug product invented by Chinese ancestors for treating and preventing diseases, promoting people's health and corporeity, and enriching people's restorative culture. In the course of development of the millenary-old Chinese civilization, Chinese medicinal wine has made incessant progress and evolution. In different historical periods, Chinese medicinal wine presented different characteristics in basic wine medical applications, prescriptions, etc. There are many medical and Materia Medica monographs which have systemically and specifically reported on Chinese medicinal wine in past Chinese dynasties. By studying leading medical documents, this article made an outline review on the invention, development, and characteristics of Chinese medicinal wine.

  6. Excitement about inhibitory presynaptic terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandael, David H F; Espinoza, Claudia; Jonas, Peter

    2015-03-18

    Based on extrapolation from excitatory synapses, it is often assumed that depletion of the releasable pool of synaptic vesicles is the main factor underlying depression at inhibitory synapses. In this issue of Neuron, using subcellular patch-clamp recording from inhibitory presynaptic terminals, Kawaguchi and Sakaba (2015) show that at Purkinje cell-deep cerebellar nuclei neuron synapses, changes in presynaptic action potential waveform substantially contribute to synaptic depression. PMID:25789750

  7. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  8. k36u Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. 7 CFR 959.84 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to effectuate the declared policy of the act. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored by a... cease to be in effect....

  10. 7 CFR 906.55 - Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such provisions do not tend to effectuate the declared policy. (c) The Secretary shall terminate the provisions of this subpart at the end of any fiscal period whenever he finds that such termination is favored... cease to be in effect....

  11. Courting Chinese Investors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Inviting Chinese business delegations. Participating in trade fairs in China.Building an industrial park for Chinese investors. Poland is doing all theseand more to attract investment from China, according to Krzysztof Szumski,Poland ’s Ambassador to Chi

  12. Why I Learn Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keltoum; Otamani

    2013-01-01

    <正>I am eighteen years old. I have learned Chinese at the FFCA NordPas-de Calais for three years. I will continue to study Chinese during my five-year university life and try to get a job dealing with China in the future. I became interested in China at the age of 13, and my interest grew year by year.

  13. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  14. AfricaonChineseDream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    At the opening of the 2013 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) on July 23 in Beijing, former President of the Federal Repub-lic of Nigeria Olusegun Obasanjo expounded on his understanding of the Chinese dream and its implications for Africa. The ful text of his thoughts follow.

  15. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  16. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  17. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  18. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  19. Chinese Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene, Comp.

    Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

  20. About Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese pictographs for 土 tǔ (earth) are "(?)", "(?)" and "(?)", reflecting the Chinese people of remote antiquity’s understanding of earth. They divided it into two layers, upper and subterranean, and used the "二" in "土" to represent both layers, the central "(?)" representing the plants that