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Sample records for chinese cervical cancer

  1. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  2. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  3. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  4. Whole-exome sequencing predicted cancer epitope trees of 23 early cervical cancers in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Hailiang; Guan, Yanfang; Gong, Yuhua; He, Cheng-Yi; Yi, Xin; Qi, Ming; Chen, Zhi-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggest that the heterogeneity of cancer limits the efficacy of immunotherapy. To search for optimal therapeutic targets for enhancing the efficacy, we used whole-exome sequencing data of 23 early cervical tumors from Chinese women to investigate the hierarchical structure of the somatic mutations and the neo-epitopes. The putative neo-epitopes were predicted based on the mutant peptides' strong binding with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. We found that each tumor carried an average of 117 mutations and 61 putative neo-epitopes. Each patient displayed a unique phylogenetic tree in which almost all subclones harbored neo-epitopes, highlighting the importance of individual neo-epitope tree in determination of immunotherapeutic targets. The alterations in FBXW7 and PIK3CA, or other members of the significantly altered ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and extracellular matrix receptor interaction related pathways, were proposed as the earliest changes triggering the malignant progression. The neo-epitopes involved in these pathways, and located at the top of the hierarchy tree, might become the optimal candidates for therapeutic targets, possessing the potential to mediate T-cell killing of the descendant cells. These findings expanded our understanding in early stage of cervical carcinogenesis and offered an important approach to assist optimizing the immunotherapeutic target selection.

  5. Analysis of human papillomavirus 16 variants and risk for cervical cancer in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Dong; Yin, Yin; Han, Jing; Jiang, Jie; Ma, Hongxqia; Xie, Shuanghua; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Clifford, Gary M; Dai, Min; Li, Ni

    2016-01-15

    HPV16 is the most carcinogenic HPV type, but only a minority of HPV16 infections progress to cancer. Intratype genetic variants of HPV16 have been suggested to confer differential carcinogenicity. To investigate risk implications of HPV16 variants among Chinese women, a case-control study was conducted with 298 cervical cancer patients and 85 controls (all HPV16-positive). HPV16 isolates were predominantly of the A variant lineage, and variants of A4 (previously named "Asian") sublineage were common. A4/Asian variants were significantly associated with increased risk of cervical cancer compared to A1-3 (OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.04-2.85). Furthermore, a meta-analysis including 703 cases and 323 controls from East Asia confirmed the association (OR=2.82, 95% CI=1.44-5.52). In conclusion, A4 variants appear to predict higher risk of cervical cancer among HPV16-positive women, which may provide clues to the genetic basis of differences in the carcinogenicity of HPV16 variants.

  6. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  8. CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in Chinese Han women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Tan, Shi-Qiao; Ma, Qian-Hong; Li, Lei; Huang, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Shang-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a key P450 enzyme, which could catalyze the formation of 4-hydroxy estrogen metabolites and play a role in estrogen-dependent cancers. We hypothesized that genetic variant in CYP1B1 may modify individual susceptibility to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and cervical cancer risk in Chinese women. We extracted the peripheral blood samples in 250 patients with cervical cancer and 250 female controls. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method and direct DNA sequencing were performed to detect the polymorphism. The frequencies of CC, CG, and GG genotypes of CYP1B1 C4326G in cases and controls were 66.0, 26.8, 7.2% and 75.2, 21.6, and 3.2%, respectively, and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.034). Compared with the wild-type CC genotype, the variant GG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (adjusted OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.02, 5.50). Moreover, stratification analysis by age, smoking, drinking, human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 or 18 carrier status, and family history of cervical cancer, we found that the variant genotypes containing the G allele were associated with a significantly increased risk of cervical cancer among HPV 16 or 18-positive individuals (adjusted OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.45, 5.62) and among women younger than 45 years old (adjusted OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.37). These results suggest that CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism may increase risk of cervical cancer in Chinese women, especially among young individuals with high-risk HPV infection.

  9. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  10. Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between HLA-DRBl Gene Polymorphism and Cervical Cancer in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin-zhen; Wang, Hai-lin; Liu, Xin; Lu, Ya-peng; Xu, Fei; Yuan, Jin-qiu; Ling, Ya-qin

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between HLA-DRB1 haplotypes and risk of cervical cancer in unselected and samples from Chinese ethnicities. Methods A comprehensive search for articles from their inception to April 1st, 2013 was conducted from PubMed, Medline, Elsevier Science, Springer Link, Cochrane Library database, China biology medical literature database (CBM),China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI),VIP,and Chinese literature database(Wang fang). A total of 1596 patients with cervical cancer and 2048 controls from the 12 studies on the relationship between gene polymorphism of HLA-DRB l and cervical cancer were performed and data were analyzed and processed using Review Manager 5.0 and Stata 11.0. Results Among the 13 family alleles, two (DRB1*03 and DRB1*08) were found to be negatively associated with cervical cancer in all studies or in Uighur subgroups, and two (DRB1*10 and DRB1*15) were positively associated with in all studies or in Uighur subgroups. Among the 25 specific alleles, six (DRB1*0301, *0403,*0404, *0803, *1312 and *1502) were associated with an increased risk cervical cancer in all studies. No significant association was established for other HLA-DRB1 family alleles and specific alleles. Ethnicity partially explained the race influence of DRB1*12, DRB1*14, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0403, DRB1*0404, DRB1*0803, DRB1*1312 and DRB1*1502 phenotypes. Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that the HLA-DRB1 family alleles and specific alleles might influence the susceptibility or resistance to cervical cancer, suggesting that immune regulation may play a key role in this disease, although further investigations are still needed. PMID:24551099

  11. Meta-analysis on the relationship between HLA-DRBl gene polymorphism and cervical cancer in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Zhen Wei

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the association between HLA-DRB1 haplotypes and risk of cervical cancer in unselected and samples from Chinese ethnicities. METHODS: A comprehensive search for articles from their inception to April 1st, 2013 was conducted from PubMed, Medline, Elsevier Science, Springer Link, Cochrane Library database, China biology medical literature database (CBM,China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI,VIP,and Chinese literature database(Wang fang. A total of 1596 patients with cervical cancer and 2048 controls from the 12 studies on the relationship between gene polymorphism of HLA-DRB l and cervical cancer were performed and data were analyzed and processed using Review Manager 5.0 and Stata 11.0. RESULTS: Among the 13 family alleles, two (DRB1*03 and DRB1*08 were found to be negatively associated with cervical cancer in all studies or in Uighur subgroups, and two (DRB1*10 and DRB1*15 were positively associated with in all studies or in Uighur subgroups. Among the 25 specific alleles, six (DRB1*0301, *0403,*0404, *0803, *1312 and *1502 were associated with an increased risk cervical cancer in all studies. No significant association was established for other HLA-DRB1 family alleles and specific alleles. Ethnicity partially explained the race influence of DRB1*12, DRB1*14, DRB1*0301, DRB1*0403, DRB1*0404, DRB1*0803, DRB1*1312 and DRB1*1502 phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that the HLA-DRB1 family alleles and specific alleles might influence the susceptibility or resistance to cervical cancer, suggesting that immune regulation may play a key role in this disease, although further investigations are still needed.

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  14. Role of p53 and p21 polymorphisms in the risk of cervical cancer among Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Jiang; Jianxin Liu; Wen Li; Xiaoxi Zeng; Jianxin Tang

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify whether poly morphic variants of p53 at codon 72 and p21 at codon 31 were associated with increased risk for cervical cancer,either independently or jointly,among Chinese women from southern Han.We genotyped p53 codon 72 and p21 codon 31 polymorphisms of peripheral blood DNA from 104 cervical cancer patients and 160 controls.Genotyping was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP)and direct DNA sequencing.We observed an increased risk of cervi cal cancer associated with the p53 Arg/Arg(OR,2.25;95% CI,1.11-4.54)or p21 Ser/Ser(OR,2.09;95% CI,1.04-4.19)genotype,compared with the p53 Pro/Pro or p21 Arg/Arg genotype,respectively.In additional,inter action between these pS3 and p21 polymorphisms increased the risk of cervical cancer in a multiplicative manner,with the OR being 3.96(95% CI,1.51-10.41)for subjects carrying both p53 Arg/Arg and p21 Ser/Ser genotypes.These findings suggest that there is a significant association between the genetic polymorphism of pS3,p21,and the risk of cervical cancer among Chinese southern women,and there is a possible gene-gene inter action in the incidence of cervical cancer.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  17. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  19. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  20. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  1. A significant association between rs8067378 at 17q12 and invasive cervical cancer originally identified by a genome-wide association study in Han Chinese is replicated in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kiyonori; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Yasunami, Michio; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Kitajima, Michio; Abe, Shuhei; Higashijima, Ai; Fuchi, Naoki; Miura, Shoko; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    In this study, associations between invasive cervical cancer and four cervical cancer susceptibility loci (rs13117307 at 4q12, rs8067378 at 17q12, and rs4282438 and rs9277952 at 6p21.32) in the Han Chinese population were investigated in a Japanese population. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 alleles were also investigated for their association with cervical cancer risk in the Japanese population. After receiving written informed consent, 214 unrelated Japanese women with invasive cervical cancer and 288 cancer-free Japanese women were recruited, and DNA samples were obtained (study protocol approved by Institutional Review Board of Nagasaki University). Of the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs8067378 showed a significant association with invasive cervical cancer (P=0.0071). Under a recessive model, the minor allele G of rs8067378 contributed to the risk of invasive cervical cancer (odds ratio=2.92, 95% confidence interval=1.40-6.36; P=0.0021). No association was detected between HLA-DPB1 alleles and cervical cancer risk in the Japanese population. In conclusion, we show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that an association between increased risk of invasive cervical cancer and rs8067378 in the Han Chinese population is replicated in a Japanese population. In addition, Japanese women with the GG genotype of rs8067378 are a candidate high-risk group for invasive cervical carcinoma.

  2. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at increased risk for HPV infections. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include: Giving birth to many children. Smoking cigarettes. Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill"). Having a weakened immune system . Cervical Cancer Screening ...

  3. Prognostic factors in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, P.

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the standard of care for women with early stage cervical cancer; radiotherapy is the cornerstone in patients with advanced stages of disease. Recent changes in the treatment of cervical cancer involve less radical surgery in early stage cervical cancer, concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy

  4. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  5. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  6. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. Future Directions - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about possible changes in cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  8. Treatment and prognosis of cervical cancer associated with pregnancy: analysis of 20 cases from a Chinese tumor institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Gao, Yong-liang; Yang, Yue

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic approaches and prognosis for cervical cancer associated with pregnancy. Clinical information, therapeutic strategies, and follow-up results of 20 patients with cervical cancer associated with pregnancy from Jan. 2000 to June 2009 in the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages were: in situ (n=1), stage IA1 (n=1), stage IB1 (n=5), stage IB2 (n=1), stage IIA (n=8), stage IIB (n=3), and stage IIIB (n=1). Eight patients were in the first trimester of pregnancy, four in the second, two in the third, and six at postpartum when diagnosed. The therapeutic strategies were either single or combined modalities, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Fourteen patients survived, five patients died (four of remote metastasis and one of uremia), and one patient was lost to follow-up. One newborn from a patient at stage IIA carcinoma in the third trimester with postponed therapy six weeks after diagnosis survived. Retarded fetal growth was observed in one patient receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and cesarean section. Out of the six postpartum patients, three underwent cesarean section and survived, whereas only one out of the three who underwent vaginal delivery survived. The remaining two died of remote metastasis. Therefore, personalized treatment is necessary for cervical cancer associated with pregnancy. Cervical cancer patients in the third trimester of pregnancy can continue the pregnancy for a short period of time. There may be potential risk for the fetus by chemotherapy during pregnancy. Cesarean section is the preferred mode of delivery for pregnant cervical cancer patients.

  9. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  10. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine Drugs Approved to Treat Cervical Cancer Avastin (Bevacizumab) Bevacizumab Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Hycamtin (Topotecan ...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  12. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  13. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  14. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  15. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  16. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  17. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  19. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  1. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  2. Treatment protocols for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujkov Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the second cause of cancer death among women. About 95% (90% in developed countries of invasive carcinomas are of sqamous types, and 5% (10% in developed countries are adenocarcinomas. FIGO classification of cervical carcinomas, based on clinical staging and prognostic factor dictate therapeutic procedures and help in designing treatment protocols. Therapeutic modalities Surgical therapy includes conization, radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and palliative operation urinary diversion and colostomy. Radiotherapy, brachytherapy and teletherapy are most recently combined with chemotherapy as concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion and conclusion No change in therapeutic modalities will ever decrease mortality rate of cervical carcinoma as much as education, prevention and early screening. The 5-year survival for locally advanced disease has not improved during the last 40 years as a result of failure to deliver therapy to the paraaortic region. Paraaortic lymph nodes should be evaluated before therapy planning by different imaging procedures, or more exactly by surgical staging: laparoscopy or laparotomy. Radical operations of cervical carcinoma should be performed by experienced surgeons, educated for this type of operation, with sufficient number of cases.

  3. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  4. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Genetic variants within microRNA-binding site of RAD51B are associated with risk of cervical cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Dong; Zhou, Wen; Jia, Meiqun; Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Jing; Yin, Yin; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Ni; Shen, Hongbin

    2016-09-01

    RAD51B plays a central role in homologous recombinational repair (HRR) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which is important to prevent genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. Recent studies suggested that common genetic variants of RAD51B may contribute to cancer susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether potentially functional variants within miRNA-binding sites of RAD51B are associated with risk of cervical cancer. A total of 1486 cervical cancer patients and 1536 cancer-free controls were enrolled, and two genetic variants, rs963917 (A > G) and rs963918 (T > C), were genotyped in all participants. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, we found that G allele of rs963917 conferred lower risk of cervical cancer compared to A allele (adjusted OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99, P = 0.039). Similarly, rs963918 allele C was associated with a decreased risk for cervical cancer compared with allele T (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94, P = 0.004). Haplotype analyses showed that haplotype GC was also correlated with lower risk (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73-0.95, P = 0.005) compared with the most common haplotype AT. In summary, our study suggested that miRNA-binding site genetic variants of RAD51B may modify the susceptibility to cervical cancer, which is important to identify individuals with differential risk for this malignancy and to improve the effectiveness of preventive intervention.

  7. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy.

  8. GSTM1 null genotype and susceptibility to cervical cancer in the Chinese population: An updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Sun

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides the evidence that GSTM1 null genotype may contribute to the CC development in Chinese and studies with large sample size and wider spectrum of population are warranted to verify this finding.

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy: There was a major advance in the treatment of cervical cancer when five NCI-sponsored clinical trials showed that ... to adding chemotherapy to radiation therapy in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the ...

  10. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...... human papillomavirus infections would help individualize screening guidelines and target immune-associated factors in the cervical cancer etiology....

  11. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for persiste

  12. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  13. An association analysis between mitochondrial DNA content, G10398A polymorphism, HPV infection, and the prognosis of cervical cancer in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dali; Xu, Hui; Li, Xin; Wei, Yuehua; Jiang, Huangang; Xu, Hong; Luo, Aihua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to analyze quantitative (mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content) and qualitative (G10398A polymorphism) mtDNA alterations as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in cervical cancer prognosis. One hundred and twenty-two cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical carcinoma specimens were collected from the Yichang Tumor Hospital and Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in the recent 10 years together with medical records. A quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to determine the copy number of the mitochondrial DNA and HPV expression levels. G10398A polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP assay. The overall survival of patients with higher mtDNA content was significantly reduced compared with lower mtDNA content patients (P = 0.029). But there was no difference of prognosis between the mtDNA 10398 A allele and G allele. However, the Kaplan-Meier survival curve illustrated a significantly reduced overall survival in the patients with 10398A plus high mtDNA copy number compared with the other groups (P content compared with 10398G (P content were positively related in the younger subgroup (≤45 years) (correlation coefficient = 0.456, P = 0.022). This study indicated that mtDNA content and HPV infection status are associated with cervical cancer prognosis. High mitochondrial DNA content plus 10398 A may be a marker of poor prognosis in cervical cancer. And mtDNA variation may potentially influence the predisposition to HPV infection and cervical carcinogenesis.

  14. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite...

  15. Network Topologies Decoding Cervical Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jalan

    Full Text Available According to the GLOBOCAN statistics, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. It is found to be gradually increasing in the younger population, specifically in the developing countries. We analyzed the protein-protein interaction networks of the uterine cervix cells for the normal and disease states. It was found that the disease network was less random than the normal one, providing an insight into the change in complexity of the underlying network in disease state. The study also portrayed that, the disease state has faster signal processing as the diameter of the underlying network was very close to its corresponding random control. This may be a reason for the normal cells to change into malignant state. Further, the analysis revealed VEGFA and IL-6 proteins as the distinctly high degree nodes in the disease network, which are known to manifest a major contribution in promoting cervical cancer. Our analysis, being time proficient and cost effective, provides a direction for developing novel drugs, therapeutic targets and biomarkers by identifying specific interaction patterns, that have structural importance.

  16. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bing; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  18. A pri-miR-218 variant and risk of cervical carcinoma in Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ting-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may compromise miRNA binding affinity and modify mRNA expression levels of the target genes, thus leading to cancer susceptibility. However, few studies have investigated roles of miRNA-related SNPs in the etiology of cervical carcinoma. Methods In this case–control study of 1,584 cervical cancer cases and 1,394 cancer-free female controls, we investigated associations between two miR-218-related SNPs involved in the LAMB3-miR-218 pathway and the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. Results We found that the pri-miR-218 rs11134527 variant GG genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical carcinoma compared with AA/AG genotypes (adjusted OR=0.77, 95% CI=0.63-0.95, P=0.015. However, this association was not observed for the miR-218 binding site SNP (rs2566 on LAMB3. Using the multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, we observed some evidence of interactions of these two SNPs with other risk factors, especially age at primiparity and menopausal status, in the risk of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions The pri-miR-218 rs11134527 SNP was significantly associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma in Eastern Chinese women. Larger, independent studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  19. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  20. Triapine With Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With IB2-IVA Cervical or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Vulvar Adenocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  1. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  2. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  3. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  4. Decreased cervical cancer cell adhesion on nanotubular titanium for the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crear J; Kummer KM; Webster TJ

    2013-01-01

    Jara Crear, Kim M Kummer, Thomas J Webster School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Cervical cancer can be treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. Titanium biomaterials have been suggested as a tool to help in the local delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiation to cervical cancer sites. However, current titanium medical devices used for treating cervical cancer do not by themselves possess any anticancer properties; such devices...

  5. Targeted treatments for cervical cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza,1 Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales,1 Carlos Pérez-Plasencia,2,3 Jonathan Salazar-León,1 Claudia Gómez-Cerón,1 Vicente Madrid-Marina11Direction of Chronic Infections and Cancer, Research Center in Infection Diseases, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México; 2Oncogenomics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute of Mexico, Tlalpan, México; 3Biomedicine Unit, FES-Iztacala UNAM, México City, MéxicoAbstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies merits special attention. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80%–95% of women with early stage cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. Many efforts have been made to design new drugs and develop gene therapies to treat cervical cancer. In recent decades, research on treatment strategies has proposed several options, including the role of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, which are retained and expressed in most cervical cancers and whose respective oncoproteins are critical to the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Other efforts have been focused on antitumor immunotherapy strategies. It is known that during the development of cervical cancer, a cascade of abnormal events is induced, including disruption of cellular cycle control, perturbation of antitumor immune response, alteration of gene expression, and deregulation of microRNA expression. Thus, in this review article we discuss potential targets for the treatment of cervical cancer associated with HPV infection, with special attention to immunotherapy approaches, clinical trials, siRNA molecules, and their implications as gene therapy strategies against cervical cancer development.Keywords: Cervical cancer, clinical trials, gene therapy, HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes, siRNAs

  6. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz, Nubia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs.Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infec¬tions in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in sponta¬neous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  7. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nubia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the second cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV exposures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35) account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i) Primary prevention by the use of prophylactic HPV

  8. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women, and the first or second most common in developing countries. Cervical cancer remains in Colombia the first cause of cancer mortality and the se­cond cause of cancer incidence among women, despite the existence of screening programs during the last 3 decades. Bucaramanga, Manizales and Cali reported rates around 20 per 100,000 and Pasto 27 per 100,000. The Cali cancer registry has reported a progressive decrease in the age standardized incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer over the past 40 years. Reasons for the decline in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer are multiple and probably include: improvement in socio-economic conditions, decrease in parity rates and some effect of screening programs. Human papilloma Virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, HPV natural history studies have now revealed that HPVs are the commonest of the sexually transmitted infections in most populations. Most HPV expo­sures result in spontaneous clearance without clinical manifestations and only a small fraction of the infected persons, known as chronic or persistent carriers, will retain the virus and progress to precancerous and cancer. HPV 16 and 18 account for 70% of cervical cancer and the 8 most common types. (HPV 16, 18, 45, 33, 31, 52, 58 and 35 account for about 90% of cervical cancer. Case-control studies also allowed the identification of the following cofactors that acting together with HPV increase the risk of progression from HPV persistent infection to cervical cancer: tobacco, high parity, long term use of oral contraceptives and past infections with herpes simplex type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis. The demonstration that infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV is not only the main cause but also a necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to great advances in the prevention of this disease on two fronts: (i Primary prevention by the use of

  9. Cervical cancer: screening and therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Thara, Somanathan; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown to have a wide range of sensitivity in most routine settings including in developing countries. Although liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, claims on improved sensitivity remain controversial. Human papillomavirus testing is more sensitive than cytology, but whether this gain represents protection against future cervical cancer is not clear. Recently, in a randomized trial, the use of visual inspection with 4% acetic acid was shown to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. Cryotherapy and large loop excision of the transformation zone are effective and safe treatment methods for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The clinical stage of cancer is the single most important prognostic factor and should be carefully evaluated in choosing optimal treatment between surgery and radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. At the public health level, health care infrastructure, affordability and capacity for initiating and sustaining vaccination and screening programmes are critical factors in cervical cancer control. On the other hand, an informed practitioner can utilize the multiple opportunities in routine primary care interactions for prevention, screening, early detection and prompt referral for treatment.

  10. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  11. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  12. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective. Nev...... with the introduction of screening. The data strongly suggested that the increased burden of cervical cancer in Greenlandic women was real and followed earlier changes in sexual behaviour; these changes were likely a consequence of the tremendous societal changes....

  13. Cervical cancer: A comprehensive approach towards extermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Smitha V; Thulasidasan, Arun Kumar T; Sreekanth, Chanickal N; Anto, Ruby John

    2016-01-01

    Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, globally. Oncogenic types of HPV are the causative agents of many neoplastic diseases, including cervical cancer, which ranks as the most common cancer affecting females in developing countries. HPV infection of the cervical epithelium and the subsequent integration of viral DNA into the host genome are the major risk factors for cervical cancer. The scientific discovery of HPV as the causal agent of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV-based diagnostic tools. Prophylactic vaccines, based on the oncogenic HPV type virus-like particles have been introduced in several developed countries as a preliminary preventive approach. Nevertheless, it remains a continuous threat to women in developing countries, where the prophylactic vaccines are unaffordable and organized screening programmes are lacking. This warrants implementation of prevention strategies that will reduce cervical cancer-related mortality. In this review, we have discussed molecular pathogenesis of HPV infection and the risk factors associated with it. The diagnosis, treatment and prevention strategies of HPV-related cervical cancer have also been discussed.

  14. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

    2013-09-07

    Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved.

  15. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. January is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Global Health supports global activities to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to address the challenges of cancer and reduce cancer deaths worldwide. Towards these aims, NCI has partnered with Pink Ribbon Red Ribbon, a global organization founded on public-private partnerships dedicated to saving women’s lives by advancing prevention, screening, and treatment for breast and cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

  17. U.S. Deaths from Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163192.html U.S. Deaths From Cervical Cancer May Be Underestimated Rates ... women were factored out, Rositch's team found that U.S. cervical cancer deaths are 77 percent higher among ...

  18. TRAILs towards improved cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maduro, John

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a life threatening disease occurring world-wide, but affecting especially women in developing countries. Standard treatment for cevical cancer varies per FIGO stage and patient related factors. In general patients with non bulky (<4 cm) FIGO stage IB and IIA are treated with a rad

  19. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna;

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  20. Detecting cervical cancer by quantitative promoter hypermethylation assay on cervical scrapings : A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reesink-Peters, N; Wisman, G.B.A.; Jeronimo, C; Tokumaru, CY; Cohen, Y; Dong, SM; Klip, HG; Buikema, HJ; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hollema, H; Boezen, HM; Sidransky, D; van der Zee, AGJ

    2004-01-01

    Current morphology-based cervical cancer screening is associated with significant false-positive and false-negative results. Tumor suppressor gene hypermethylation is frequently present in cervical cancer. It is unknown whether a cervical scraping reflects the methylation status of the underlying ep

  1. Natural History of HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-12

    Dr. Phil Castle, an intramural research scientist at the National Institutes of Health, talks about the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers.  Created: 10/12/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. [Application of finite element analysis in Chinese cervical manipulation biomechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihao; Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Wang, Huihao; Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng

    2013-10-01

    Clinical advantages of Chinese spinal manipulation therapy (CSMT) were recognized for spinal chronic lesions of soft tissues and bones, such as cervical spondylosis, etc. However, the security of CSMT and the hypotheses of practice mechanisms were questioned for lacking of the relevant basic researches. Researches have proved that these methods could be used to observe the dynamic effects of spine with application of finite element analysis (FEA) computer technology. Combining with other biomechanical experimental methods and applying advanced FEA technology for mechanical problems of CSMT, we may not only find the mechanisms of action and provide theoretical supports for the traditional Chinese therapy, but also standardize the key techniques and optimize the treatment options improving clinical outcomes, and even promote spreading of CSMT. Computer models are ideally suited for studying phenomena that cannot be satisfactorily investigated with other models. However, computer models of CSMT practice remain to be further refined. The results which had been acquired so far not only verified some of the traditional points of view, but also revised and specified some perspectives of the past. This paper intends to review FEA studies with Chinese cervical manipulation therapy (CCMT) for cervical spinal chronic lesions of soft tissues and bones, involving different effects for cervical spine joints (pulling/traction and thrusting) with practice techniques and cervical spine soft tissues (including vessels and its hemodynamics, muscles and fasciae, etc).

  3. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Aljoša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cyclooxygenase (COX or prostaglandin H2 synthase is the first enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. The aim of the study was to determine the expression level of COX-2 in patients with cervical cancer and compare it with that in the control group with no cervical pathology. Methods. The study included 76 patients divided into two groups: the control group - 30 patients without histopathological changes and the group A - 46 patients with cervical cancer, FIGO stage IB-IIA. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in these two groups of patients. Results. In the control group, the expression of COX-2 was not confirmed compared to the group A of 26 (56.52% patients. The expression of COX-2 showed a statistically significant difference in the presence of lymphocytic stromal infiltration (p = 0.0053. The expression of COX-2 was more pronounced in the stromal tissue without lymphocytic infiltration (80% vs 20%. Conclusion. A higher expression of COX-2 in cervical carcinoma without stromal lymphocytic infiltration suggests a possible paradoxical effect of COX-2 in immunosuppression. Frequent COX- 2 expression in the subgroup with poor prognostic histological parameters in the group A indicates the importance of COX-2 expression in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer.

  5. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  6. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  7. Progress on the study of effective constituent of Chinese medicinals inducing cervical cancer Hela cell apoptosis%中药有效成分影响宫颈癌 Hela 细胞凋亡机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史海敏; 丁库克; 张新

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing of cervical cancer incidence , the effects of Chinese medicinals in treating cervical cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy side reaction and postoperative complications were gradually attached importance to .Influencing Bax/Bcl-2 family, Caspase family , Fas/Fasl system and the expression of some related genes could induce cervical cancer Hela cells apoptosis .This article focuses on several kinds of Chinese medicinals , summarizes the faction of the mechanism of effective constituent of these Chinese medicinals in cervical cancer Hela cells apoptosis .For example , the effective constituent of curcuma zedoaria promotes Hela cell apoptosis by down-regulated expression of Bcl-2.The procedure of promoting He-la cell apoptosis of Trichosanthin has relationship with Caspase famlily .The purposes of researching Chinese medicine effective constituent influnes cervical cancer Hela cell apoptosis are providing the scientific basis for treating cervical cancer with Chinese medicine and ideas about filtering new medicines for the cancer .%目的:随着宫颈癌发病率的逐年上升,中药在治疗宫颈癌放化疗副反应及术后并发症中的作用逐渐被重视。大量研究发现诱导宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡可以通过影响Bcl-2基因家族、Caspase蛋白酶家族、Fas/Fasl基因系统、某些相关基因的表达等方式来实现。文章从目前国内外研究比较热门的一些中药入手,综述这些中药的有效成分在宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡中的作用。例如文中提到中药温莪术有效成分β-榄香烯是通过下调Bcl-2基因表达来促进Hela凋亡;栝楼根的有效活性成分天花粉蛋白促凋亡过程与Caspase家族有关;薏苡仁酯诱导Fas表达上调、Fasl表达下调来促进宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡。研究中药有效成分影响宫颈癌Hela细胞凋亡机制的目的是为临床应用中药治疗宫颈癌提供科学依据和筛选抗宫颈癌新药提供思路。

  8. 中国女性HPV感染与CIN及宫颈癌发病相关性的系统分析%Correlation between Chinese women with human papilloma virus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm and cervical cancer:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查庆兵; 帅翰林; 潘观玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective;In this meta-analysis, we sought to assess the correlation between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) and cervical cancer. Methods; Published literatures, between 2000 and 2012, regarding HPV infection and CIN and cervical carcinoma, were retrieved from CNKI, VP, Wanfang Data and miscellaneous Chinese databases. The inclusion criteria were established for subsequent screening of literatures related to the correlation between risk of cervical-related disease and HPV infection. Results; Data of 14 pooled literatures were meta-analyzed to determine the incidence rates of HPV infection, CIN and cervical carcinoma, cumulative cases and relative incidence of HPV infection in the control group. The odds ratio (OR) was 5. 19 (4.53, 5.95) for CIN I , 11. 39(9. 25, 14.03) for CIN II , 22.45 (15. 96, 31. 57) for CIN 1 and 24. 04 (16. 14, 35. 85) for cervical carcinoma, respectively. Conclusion; HPV infection is highly associated with and increases the risk of cervical-related diseases.%目的:利用Meta分析人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)相关感染与宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)及宫颈癌发病风险的相关性.方法:检索2000-2012年中国知网、维普、万方等科技期刊网已发表的CIN及宫颈癌与HPV感染相互关系的有关文献,制定纳入标准,筛选HPV相关感染与宫颈相关疾病发病风险的有关统计研究.结果:将14篇文献数据进行分析,统计各疾病累计病例数及相应HPV感染率,累计对照病例数及相应HPV感染率;分别进行Meta分析,结果HPV与CIN Ⅰ的OR值为5.19[4.53,5.95];HPV与CINⅡ的OR值为11.39[9.25,14.03];HPV与CINⅢ的OR值为22.45[15.96,31.57];HPV与宫颈癌的OR值为24.04[16.14,35.85].结论:宫颈相关疾病发病率与HPV的感染高度相关,HPV感染增加了宫颈相关疾病的发病危险性.

  9. Meta-analysis of association between GSTM1 gene polymorphism and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Liu; Liang-Zhi Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate association between glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and cervical cancer.Methods:Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, and other databases were retrieved. All studies evaluating the association betweenGSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms and cervical were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects model.Results:A total of15 case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis of GSTM1 genotypes (1 825 cases and2 104 controls). The overall result showed that the association betweenGSTM1 null genotype and risk for cervical cancer was statistically significant (OR=1.53, 95%CI=1.18-2.00). Great heterogeneity was found between studies. Subgroup analysises were performed based on smoking and ethnicity. Our results showed that smokers with nullGSTM1 genotype had higher risk of cervical cancer (OR=1.56,95%CI=1.01-2.41). For the ethnicity stratification, significant increased risk of nullGSTM1 genotype was found in Chinese and Indian population, but no increased risk in other population.Conclusions:This meta-analysis provides strong evidence that theGSTM1 null genotype is associated with the development of cervical cancer, and especially in Chinese and Indian population, and smoking shows a modification on the association between GSTM1 null genotype and cervical cancer.

  10. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  11. Cervical cancer in India--strategy for control.

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar A

    1992-01-01

    The available information on the incidence of cancers by site in India have indicated that of incidence of cancer of uterine cervix among women is by far the highest compared to other sites in women. The epidemiology of cervical cancer has been studied extensively in India and in other countries. The majority of factors related to cervical cancer are associated with sexual behaviour. The available evidence for control of cervical cancer is through secondary prevention, namely--early detection...

  12. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  13. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... mystery. Most important, however, is to have a vaccine which potentially can ... focusing their research on helping to produce second-generation HPV vaccines ...

  14. Recurrent cervical cancer : detection and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyn, A; Van Eijkeren, M; Kenter, G; Zwinderman, K; Ansink, A

    2002-01-01

    Background. Only a small proportion of cervical cancer recurrences is detected during routine follow-up. We investigated which percentage of recurrences is detected during follow-up, which diagnostic tools are helpful to detect recurrent disease and which factors are of prognostic significance once

  15. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  17. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  18. Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations.

  19. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  20. Breast and cervical cancer risk in India: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast and cervical cancers are two major cancers among Indian women. Analysis of trends would help in planning and organization of programs for control of these cancers. Objective: The objective of the following study is to compute risk of breast and cervical cancers using updated data from different cancer registries of India and study of its trends. Materials and Methods: Data on incidence rates of breast and cervical cancers were obtained from six major cancer registries of India for the years 1982-2008 and from the recently initiated cancer registries, North Eastern Registries of India with a total of 21 registries. Annual percent change in incidence and risk in terms of one in number of women likely to develop cancer was estimated for both the cancers in various registries. Results: The annual percentage change in incidence ranged from 0.46 to 2.56 and −1.14 to −3.4 for breast and cervical cancers respectively. Trends were significant for both cancers in the registries of Chennai, Bangalore, Mumbai and Delhi except Barshi and Bhopal. North East region showed decrease in risk for breast and cervical cancers whereas increasing trend was observed in Imphal (West and for cervical cancer in Silchar. Conclusion: North Eastern region recorded decline in the incidence of breast cancer which is contrary to the observation in other registries, which showed increase in breast cancer and decline in cervical cancer incidences.

  1. Detection of STAT2 in early stage of cervical premalignancy and in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zeng; Li-Hua Gao; Li-Jun Cao; De-Yun Feng; Ya Cao; Qi-Zhi Luo; Ping Yu; Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To measure the expression pattern ofSTAT2 in cervical cancer initiation and progression in tissue sections from patients with cervicitis, dysplasia, and cervical cancer. Methods:Antibody against humanSTAT2 was confirmed by plasmids transient transfection andWestern blot.Immunohistochemistry was used to detectSTAT2 expression in the cervical biopsies by using the confirmed antibody againstSTAT2 as the primary antibody.Results:It was found that the overall rate of positiveSTAT2 expression in the cervicitis, dysplasia and cervical cancer groups were38.5%,69.4% and76.9%, respectively.TheSTAT2 levels are significantly increased in premalignant dysplasia and cervical cancer, as compared to cervicitis(P<0.05). Noticeably,STAT2 signals were mainly found in the cytoplasm, implying thatSTAT2 was not biologically active.Conclusions:These findings reveal an association between cervical cancer progression and augmentedSTAT2 expression.In conclusion,STAT2 increase appears to be an early detectable cellular event in cervical cancer development.

  2. The male role in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellsagué Xavier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that genital Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are predominantly sexually transmitted. Epidemiological studies in virginal and HPV-negative women clearly indicate that sexual intercourse is virtually a necessary step for acquiring HPV. As with any other sexually transmitted disease (STD men are implicated in the epidemiological chain of the infection. Penile HPVs are predominantly acquired through sexual contacts. Sexual contacts with women who are prostitutes play an important role in HPV transmission and in some populations sex workers may become an important reservoir of high-risk HPVs. Acting both as "carriers" and "vectors" of oncogenic HPVs male partners may markedly contribute to the risk of developing cervical cancer in their female partners. Thus, in the absence of screening programs, a woman's risk of cervical cancer may depend less on her own sexual behavior than on that of her husband or other male partners. Although more rarely than women, men may also become the "victims" of their own HPV infections as a fraction of infected men are at an increased risk of developing penile and anal cancers. Male circumcision status has been shown to reduce the risk not only of acquiring and transmitting genital HPVs but also of cervical cancer in their female partners. More research is needed to better understand the natural history and epidemiology of HPV infections in men.

  3. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and objectives... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical...

  4. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  5. Footprint Mismatch of Cervical Disc Prostheses with Chinese Cervical Anatomic Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Dong; Ming-Sheng Tan; Qin-Hua Yan; Ping Yi; Feng Yang; Xiang-Sheng Tang; Qing-Ying Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background:The footprint of most prostheses is designed according to Caucasian data.Total disc replacement (TDR) has been performed widely for cervical degenerative diseases in China.It is essential to analyze the match sizes of prostheses footprints and Chinese cervical anatomic dimensions in our study.Methods:The anatomic dimensions of the C4-C7 segments of 138 patients (age range 16-77 years) in a Chinese population were measured by computed tomography scans.We compared the footprints of the most commonly used cervical disc prostheses (Bryan:Medtronic,Minneapolis,MN,USA; Prestige LP:Medtronic,Fridley,Minnesota,USA; Discover:DePuy,Raynham,MA,USA; Prodisc-C:Synthes,West Chester,PA,USA) in China with Chinese cervical anatomic dimensions and assessed the match of their size.Results:The mismatch of available dimensions of prostheses and anatomic data of cervical endplates ranged from 17.03% (C4/C5,Prestige LP,Prodisc-C) to 57.61% (C6/C7,Discover) in the anterior-posterior (AP) diameter,and 35.51% (C4/C5,Prodisc-C,Prestige LP) to 94.93% (C6/C7,Bryan) in the center mediolateral (CML) diameter.About 21.01% of endplates were larger than the largest prostheses in the AP diameter and 57.25% in the CML diameter.All available footprints of prostheses expect the Bryan with an unfixed height,can accommodate the disc height (DH),however,36.23% of the middle DH was less than the smallest height of the prostheses.The average disc sagittal angles (DSAs) of C4-C7 junctions were 5.04°,5.15°,and 4.13° respectively.Only the Discover brand had a built-in 7° lordotic angle,roughly matching with the DSA.Conclusions:There is a large discrepancy between footprints of prostheses and Chinese cervical anatomic data.In recent years,possible complications of TDR related with mismatch sizes are increasing,such as subsidence,displacement,and heterotopic ossification.Manufacturers of prostheses should introduce or produce additional footprints of prostheses for Chinese TDR.

  6. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  7. Drug Delivery Approaches for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Ordikhani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a highly prevalent cancer that affects women around the world. With the availability of new technologies, researchers have increased their efforts to develop new drug delivery systems in cervical cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we summarized some of the recent research in systematic and localized drug delivery systems and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  8. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  9. DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, B.

    1988-11-18

    New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

  10. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  11. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  12. A MicroRNA Expression Signature for Cervical Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoxia; Schwarz, Julie K.; Lewis, James S.; Huettner, Phyllis C.; Rader, Janet S.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Wang, Xiaowei

    2010-01-01

    Invasive cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, resulting in about 300,000 deaths each year. The clinical outcomes of cervical cancer vary significantly and are difficult to predict. Thus, a method to reliably predict disease outcome would be important for individualized therapy by identifying patients with high-risk of treatment failures prior to therapy. In this study, we have identified a microRNA-based signature for the prediction of cervical cancer survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly identified family of small non-coding RNAs that are extensively involved in human cancers. Using our recently established PCR-based miRNA assays, we have analyzed 102 cervical cancers and identified two miRNAs (miR-200a and miR-9) that are likely to predict patient survival. A logistic regression model was developed based on these two miRNAs and the prognostic value of the model was subsequently validated with 42 independent cervical cancers. Furthermore, functional studies were performed to characterize the effect of miRNAs in cervical cancer cells. Our results suggest that both miR-200a and miR-9 could play important regulatory roles in cervical cancer control. In particular, miR-200a is likely to affect the metastatic potential of cervical cancer cells by simultaneously suppressing the expression of multiple genes that are important to cell motility. PMID:20124485

  13. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  14. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  15. THE TREATMENT AND EVOLUTION OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the evolution of cervical cancer after applying a conventional treatment. Materials and methods. The study was performed on a number of 1249 patients who were suspected of having cervical neoplasia, and who were monitored between 2006-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved the effectiveness of the conservative treatment for the patients who were diagnosed using cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and histopathology, with or without HPV viral infection. Conclusions. The patients with an early diagnose have a 15% higher surviving probability. The patients who responded to the conservative preoperative treatment well are more likely to survive than the patients who did not respond favourably to the conservative preoperative treatment.

  16. Limitations of Colposcopy in Early Invasive Cervical Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Goran

    2007-01-01

    Colposcopy is a key element in the diagnostic chain required to reduce cervical cancer mortality but it has limitations in the diagnosis of malignant disease. In the Republic of Croatia the Croatian Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology started constructing guidelines for early detection, therapy and follow-up of patients with early invasive cervical cancer in order to achieve the best possible results in diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. From 2001 to 2006 Croatian society ...

  17. Understanding cervical cancer in the context of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. Among the women, gynecological cancers are most common. Cervical cancer is a main gynecological cancer of the women. The global burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high among the developing countries where 85 per cent of the estimated 493, 000 new cases and 273, 000 deaths occur worldwide. There are several dimensions of the problem. Cervical cancer is a problem where people are poor, where the socio-economic status of the women is low and sometimes specific ethnicity also posses additional risk to the women to develop cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus infection is a main risk factor for the cervical cancer however there are some other factors which increase the risk. Among them some are number of sexual partners, age of first sexual intercourse, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormonal contraceptives, parity, age, smoking, food and diet. Apart from these factors, some other issues, such as policy on cancer, capacity of health system, socio-economic and cultural factors and awareness among the women are also associated with the cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality across the developing countries. There some interventions which give promising results in terms of reducing cervical cancer related morbidity and mortality. Among them visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid followed by treatment is one such effective method.

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  20. Paclitaxel and carboplatin concurrent with radiotherapy for primary cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, FYFL; Bos, AME; Gietema, JA; Pras, E; Van Der Zee, AGJ; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB

    2004-01-01

    Background: Concurrent radiochemotherapy is currently considered the new standard treatment in locally advanced cervical cancer. Patients and Methods: Eight women with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA were treated with standard radiation therapy in combination with standard carboplatin (AUC=2, once wee

  1. An overview of innovative techniques to improve cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Reesink-Peters, Nathalie; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; van Zanden, Jelmer; Volders, Haukeline; Hollema, Harry; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Although current cytomorphology-based cervical cancer screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, Pap-smears are associated with high false positive and false negative rates. This has spurred the search for new technologies to improve current screening. New methodologies are automation o

  2. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Hylke W.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects similar to 500,000 women worldwide, and similar to 275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%.

  3. Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Are Fewer Cervical Cancer Screenings Needed After HPV Vaccine? Less testing could reduce risk of false positives ... said. Women vaccinated with earlier versions of the HPV vaccine -- which protect against the two worst cancer-causing ...

  4. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  5. Reducing uncertainties about the effects of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Claire; Jakobsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a 1999 National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical alert was issued, chemoradiotherapy has become widely used in treating women with cervical cancer. Two subsequent systematic reviews found that interpretation of the benefits was complicated, and some important clinical questions...

  6. Aberrant Expression of Notch1 in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Qimin Zhan; Wenhua Zhang; Yongmei Song; Tong Tong

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the putative role of the Notch1 receptor in cervical cancer carcinogenesis and progression.METHODS The expression of the Notch1 protein was analyzed by a Western-blotting approach in 40 cervical cancer and 30 normal cervical tissues.Some tissues were examined using RT-PCR To determine Mrna levels.Celluar localization of the Notch1 protein in the paraffin-embedded cervical tissues was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS The Notch1 protein was detected in all 30 normal cervical tissues.In contrast.only 6 samples of 40 cervical cancer tissues showed Notch1 expression.The level of the Notch1 protein expression was significantly lower in cervical cancer tissues than that in normal tissue samples.In agreement with these observations.levels of Notch1 Mrna were found to be substantially down-regulated in cervical cancer tissues.In the immunohistochemistry staining assay,the Notch1 protein was shown to localize predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleoli of the normal cervical squamous epithelium of the cervix,but no staining was observed in the cervical cancer cells.Notch1 expression was observed to correlate with the clinical disease stage.but there were no correlations with age,tumor size,grade or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05).The levels of Notchl protein expression were significantly higher in early stages(I~lla,66.7%) compared to those in the advanced stages (Iib~IV,12.6%)(P=0.001).CONCLUSION Notch1 may play a role as a tumor suppressor in cervical tumorigenesis.Determination of Notch1 expression may be helpful for preoperative diagnosis and accuracy of staging.But its clinical use for cervical cancer requires further investigation.

  7. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  8. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  9. An special epithelial staining agents: folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Han; Hu, Ling-Yun; Du, Xin-Xin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    High-quality screening with cytology has markedly reduced mortality from cervical cancer. However, it needs experienced pathologists to review and make the final decisions. We have developed folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) kits to effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer. We conduct present study aim to assess clinical significances of FRD in screening cervical cancer. A total of 169 patients were enrolled at Chinese People's liberation Army (PLA) general hospital. We compared diagnostic significances of FRD with thinprep cytology test (TCT). Meanwhile, colposcopy was also performed to confirm any lesion suspicious for cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of FRD were 71.93% and 66.07% in diagnosis cervical cancer, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), Youden index were 51.90%, 82.22%, 0.38, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of TCT in diagnosis cervical cancer were 73.68% and 61.61% respectively. PPV, NPV and Youden index for TCT were 49.41%, 82.14% and 0.35 respectively. Overall, FRD have high values of sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. However, this difference failed to statistical significance. FRD have comparable diagnostic significance with TCT. Therefore, FRD might serve as one effective method to screen cervical cancer. Especially for those patients living in remote regions of China, where cytology was unavailable.

  10. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stewart Massad

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding.

  11. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  12. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Hu, Mengcai

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa and HTB-35 human cancer cells with gallic acid decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. BrdU proliferation and tube formation assays indicated that gallic acid significantly decreased human cervical cancer cell proliferation and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. Additionally, gallic acid decreased HeLa and HTB-35 cell invasion in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of ADAM17, EGFR, p-Akt and p-Erk was suppressed by gallic acid in the HeLa and HTB-35 cell lines. These data indicate that the suppression of ADAM17 and the downregulation of the EGFR, Akt/p-Akt and Erk/p-Erk signaling pathways may contribute to the suppression of cancer progression by Gallic acid. Gallic acid may be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  13. Risk of cervical cancer after completed post-treatment follow-up of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Helmerhorst, Theo; Habbema, Dik;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the risk of cervical cancer in women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia who returned to routine screening after having completed post-treatment follow-up with consecutive normal smear test results with women with a normal primary smear test result....

  14. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  15. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  16. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  17. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  18. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid

  19. Angiogenesis and antiangiogenic agents in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomao F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1 Anselmo Papa,2 Luigi Rossi,2 Eleonora Zaccarelli,2 Davide Caruso,2 Federica Zoratto,2 Pierluigi Benedetti Panici,1 Silverio Tomao2 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, Italy Abstract: Standard treatment of cervical cancer (CC consists of surgery in the early stages and of chemoradiation in locally advanced disease. Metastatic CC has a poor prognosis and is usually treated with palliative platinum-based chemotherapy. Current chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with significant adverse effects and only limited activity, making identification of active and tolerable novel targeted agents a high priority. Angiogenesis is a complex process that plays a crucial role in the development of many types of cancer. The dominant role of angiogenesis in CC seems to be directly related to human papillomavirus-related inhibition of p53 and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Both of these mechanisms are able to increase expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Activation of VEGF promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration, favoring formation of new blood vessels and increasing permeability of existing blood vessels. Since bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody binding to all isoforms of VEGF, has been demonstrated to significantly improve survival in gynecologic cancer, some recent clinical research has explored the possibility of using novel therapies directed toward inhibition of angiogenesis in CC too. Here we review the main results from studies concerning the use of antiangiogenic drugs that are being investigated for the treatment of CC. Keywords: cervical cancer, angiogenesis, human papillomavirus, bevacizumab, target therapies

  20. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  1. Screening for cervical cancer: when theory meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygård Mari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cervical cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer. However, there are many factors that determine the success of any cervical cancer prevention effort: the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in general population, the existence of an organized screening program and the corresponding coverage, the existence and quality of the field and laboratory facilities for screening and diagnostic follow-up, and the facilities available for treating diagnosed lesions. Monitoring the patient path or "chain of action" for each patient with an abnormal screening result is of crucial importance. Cost-effectiveness models are widely used by decision-makers to determine which cervical cancer screening program would maximize health benefits within a given, usually limited, set of resources. Regardless of their level of sophistication, however, these models cannot replace empirical evaluations of the effectiveness of screening programs. Cervical cancer prevention activities need to be monitored and evaluated in each country where they are introduced to see that they meet performance standards. Policy-makers responsible for allocating resources for cervical cancer prevention have a duty to allocate resources not only for cervical cancer screening, but also for screening program surveillance.

  2. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Cosette M.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45) have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guarant...

  3. Youtube as a source of information on cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Accurate information about cervical cancer to general public can lower the burden of the disease including its mortality. Aims: We aimed to look at the quality of information available in YouTube for cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: We searched YouTube (http://www.youtube.com for videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. Videos were then analyzed for their source and content of information. Results: We studied 172 videos using the keyword "Cervical cancer" on November 12, 2015. We found that there were videos describing the personal stories, risk factors, and the importance of screening. However, videos discussing all the aspects of cancers were lacking. Likewise, videos from the reputed organization were also lacking. Conclusion: Although there were numerous videos available in cervical cancer, videos from reputed organizations including Center for Disease Control and Prevention, American Cancer Society, and World Health Organization were lacking. We strongly believe that quality videos from such organizations via YouTube can help lower the burden of disease.

  4. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untrea......Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings...

  5. GENERAL AWARNANCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFILA NAVEED

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a survey program on the awarnance of HPV vaccine of cervical cancer in common people. Methods: For this survey we perform 2 steps. First we made a questionnaires in which we ask to female of different belongs to different education field either they are married or not. Secondly we gone in the different hospitals of Karachi and observe treatment, diagnosis, vaccination availability and frequency of cervical cancer. Results:From questionnaire we observed that only 1 % female are aware about cervical cancer and its vaccine i.e. HPV, even female belongs medical field are not aware about it. Form hospital survey we observed that frequency of cervical cancer is very less but in Shaukat Khanum hospital 90 cases reported out of 1803 cancer. The given treatment is radiology, chemotherapy and surgery.

  6. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  7. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...... of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland...

  8. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  9. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...... with endometrial and cervical cancer experience emotional problems prior to therapy and lymphedema, and urological and sexual problems following treatment. An awareness of these problems may facilitate early identification of women with unmet needs and enable individualized follow-up adjusted for such patient...

  10. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  11. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  12. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  13. Quality of life characteristics inpatients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelic-Radisic, Vesna; Jensen, Pernille T; Vlasic, Karin Kuljanic

    2012-01-01

    Annually about 500,000 women worldwide are diagnosed with cervical cancer. For many patients, young age at the time of diagnosis and a good prognosis regarding the disease imply a long life with the side-effects and sequels of various treatment options. The present study investigated the extent...... to which different quality of life (QoL) domains in patients during and after treatment for cervical cancer are affected according to menopausal status, treatment status and treatment modality....

  14. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  15. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster......INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... and pathology results from the national Danish registry (Patobank) were obtained on women from a randomised clinical trial and an observational study of subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy from the time of surgery until 2014. RESULTS: We included 501 women (259 subtotal hysterectomies and 242 total...

  16. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively. Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening.

  17. Risk of invasive cervical cancer after atypical glandular cells in cervical screening: nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Bengt; Sundström, Karin; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Elfström, K Miriam; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risks of invasive cervical cancer after detection of atypical glandular cells (AGC) during cervical screening. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Cancer and population registries in Sweden. Participants 3 054 328 women living in Sweden at any time between 1 January 1980 and 1 July 2011 who had any record of cervical cytological testing at ages 23-59. Of these, 2 899 968 women had normal cytology results at the first screening record. The first recorded abnormal result was atypical glandular cells (AGC) in 14 625, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 65 633, and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in 244 168. Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of invasive cervical cancer over 15.5 years; proportion of invasive cervical cancer within six months of abnormality (prevalence); crude incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer over 0.5-15.5 years of follow-up; incidence rate ratios compared with women with normal cytology, estimated with Poisson regression adjusted for age and stratified by histopathology of cancer; distribution of clinical assessment within six months after the abnormality. Results The prevalence of cervical cancer was 1.4% for women with AGC, which was lower than for women with HSIL (2.5%) but higher than for women with LSIL (0.2%); adenocarcinoma accounted for 73.2% of the prevalent cases associated with AGC. The incidence rate of invasive cervical cancer after AGC was significantly higher than for women with normal results on cytology for up to 15.5 years and higher than HSIL and LSIL for up to 6.5 years. The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma was 61 times higher than for women with normal results on cytology in the first screening round after AGC, and remained nine times higher for up to 15.5 years. Incidence and prevalence of invasive cervical cancer was highest when AGC was found at ages 30-39. Only 54% of women with AGC underwent histology assessment

  18. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). WLWH in Denmark attend the National ICC screening program less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical dysplasia and ICC in WLWH...... and hazard ratios (HRs) for time from inclusion to first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/ICC and time from first normal cervical cytology to first CIN/ICC were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  19. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  20. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  1. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  2. Diagnostic significance of diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Xiang, Shi-Feng; Yao, Gen-Dong; Yang, Su-Jun; Wang, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) could assist in the precise diagnosis of cervical cancer or not. Both English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for potential relevant studies followed by a comprehensive literature search without any language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included trials. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated in this meta-analysis. We chose Version 12.0 STATA statistical software to analyze our statistical data. Thirteen eligible cohort studies were selected for statistical analysis, including 645 tumor tissues and 504 normal tissues. Combined SMD of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) suggested that the ADC value in cervical cancer tissues was significantly lower than that of normal tissue (SMD = 2.80, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 2.96, P cervical cancer. DWI could therefore be an important imaging tool in potentially identifying patients with cervical cancer.

  3. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks.

  4. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  5. 中西医结合治疗宫颈癌30例的临床疗效研究%Study on the Clinical Efficacy on 30 Cases of Cervical Cancer Treated with Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南方; 陈春华

    2015-01-01

    观察中西医结合治疗对宫颈癌患者免疫状态的影响情况。方法选取2014年1月-2015年1月于本院进行治疗的60例宫颈癌患者为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组(常规西医治疗)30例和治疗组(中西医结合治疗)30例,治疗后将两组患者治疗前与治疗后1周、2周及4周的红细胞免疫与细胞免疫指标进行比较,红细胞免疫指标包括肿瘤红细胞花环( ATER)、直向肿瘤红细胞花环试验(DTER)、免疫黏附促进因子(FEER)及免疫黏附抑制因子(FEIR);细胞免疫指标包括外周血T 淋巴细胞亚群(CD3+、CD4+、CD8+)及自然杀伤细胞(NK)。结果两组治疗前的红细胞免疫与细胞免疫指标比较,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05),而治疗组治疗后1周、2周及4周的检测结果均好于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P 0. 05). In 1 week,2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment,the determination results in the treatment were better than those in the control group, indicating the significant difference(P < 0. 05). Conclusion The integrated Chinese and western medicine achieves the much more active influence on the immune state in the patients of cervical cancer,which lays the foundation for the improvements in the disorders.

  6. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  7. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  8. Prospects for primary prevention of cervical cancer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschi Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The HPV types that cause cervical cancer are sexually transmitted, but there is little evidence that infection can be avoided by behavioural changes, such as condom use. In contrast, prophylactic vaccines against HPV infection are likely to have high efficacy. In principle, the effectiveness of HPV vaccination as a strategy for cervical cancer control can be measured either by monitoring secular trends in cervical cancer incidence or by conducting randomized trials. The former approach is unlikely to provide convincing evidence of effectiveness, since cervical cancer rates are subject to strong secular trends that are independent of intervention measures. A few phase III trials of HPV prophylactic vaccines are now being started. Such trials are very expensive studies involving frequent and complicated investigations. It is important, however, to start as soon as possible simpler trials designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of HPV vaccine in field conditions, i.e. in developing or intermediate countries which suffer the major burden of mortality from cervical cancer. Such trials may capture a difference in the most severe, and rarest, preinvasive cervical lesions (i.e., the real target of any HPV vaccine over a prolonged follow-up (20 years at least. The design of such studies is briefly considered for two areas: Southern India and South Korea.

  9. Somatic LKB1 mutations promote cervical cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana N Wingo

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV is the etiologic agent for cervical cancer. Yet, infection with HPV is not sufficient to cause cervical cancer, because most infected women develop transient epithelial dysplasias that spontaneously regress. Progression to invasive cancer has been attributed to diverse host factors such as immune or hormonal status, as no recurrent genetic alterations have been identified in cervical cancers. Thus, the pressing question as to the biological basis of cervical cancer progression has remained unresolved, hampering the development of novel therapies and prognostic tests. Here we show that at least 20% of cervical cancers harbor somatically-acquired mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor. Approximately one-half of tumors with mutations harbored single nucleotide substitutions or microdeletions identifiable by exon sequencing, while the other half harbored larger monoallelic or biallelic deletions detectable by multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA. Biallelic mutations were identified in most cervical cancer cell lines; HeLa, the first human cell line, harbors a homozygous 25 kb deletion that occurred in vivo. LKB1 inactivation in primary tumors was associated with accelerated disease progression. Median survival was only 13 months for patients with LKB1-deficient tumors, but >100 months for patients with LKB1-wild type tumors (P = 0.015, log rank test; hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.083 to 0.77. LKB1 is thus a major cervical tumor suppressor, demonstrating that acquired genetic alterations drive progression of HPV-induced dysplasias to invasive, lethal cancers. Furthermore, LKB1 status can be exploited clinically to predict disease recurrence.

  10. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  11. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  12. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Sahar...

  14. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  15. Multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah, Hossein [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, 1402 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Kim, Yusung; Flynn, Ryan T., E-mail: ryan-flynn@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Wu, Xiaodong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, 4016 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and Sciences, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a novel brachytherapy technique, called multihelix rotating shield brachytherapy (H-RSBT), for the precise angular and linear positioning of a partial shield in a curved applicator. H-RSBT mechanically enables the dose delivery using only linear translational motion of the radiation source/shield combination. The previously proposed approach of serial rotating shield brachytherapy (S-RSBT), in which the partial shield is rotated to several angular positions at each source dwell position [W. Yang et al., “Rotating-shield brachytherapy for cervical cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 3931–3941 (2013)], is mechanically challenging to implement in a curved applicator, and H-RSBT is proposed as a feasible solution. Methods: A Henschke-type applicator, designed for an electronic brachytherapy source (Xoft Axxent™) and a 0.5 mm thick tungsten partial shield with 180° or 45° azimuthal emission angles and 116° asymmetric zenith angle, is proposed. The interior wall of the applicator contains six evenly spaced helical keyways that rigidly define the emission direction of the partial radiation shield as a function of depth in the applicator. The shield contains three uniformly distributed protruding keys on its exterior wall and is attached to the source such that it rotates freely, thus longitudinal translational motion of the source is transferred to rotational motion of the shield. S-RSBT and H-RSBT treatment plans with 180° and 45° azimuthal emission angles were generated for five cervical cancer patients with a diverse range of high-risk target volume (HR-CTV) shapes and applicator positions. For each patient, the total number of emission angles was held nearly constant for S-RSBT and H-RSBT by using dwell positions separated by 5 and 1.7 mm, respectively, and emission directions separated by 22.5° and 60°, respectively. Treatment delivery time and tumor coverage (D{sub 90} of HR-CTV) were the two metrics used as the basis for evaluation and

  16. Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjalma, Wiebren A; Fiander, Alison; Reich, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of differences in human papillomavirus (HPV)-type prevalence between high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial for understanding the natural history of HPV-infected cervical lesions and the potential impact of HPV vaccination...

  17. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  18. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  19. Zoledronic acid induces apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Te; Chou, Shou-Chu; Lin, Ying-Chin

    2014-12-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancers in association with high mortality and morbidity. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on viability and induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as inflammatory effects in three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa, and CaSki). Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. Induction of apoptosis was determined by quantitation of expression level of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax messenger RNA (mRNA) and identification of the proteolytic cleavage of poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Autophagic effects were examined by quantitation of mRNA expression of autophagy protein 5 (ATG5) and beclin1 and identifying accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Inflammatory effect was determined by measuring expression and production of IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). The results showed ZA significantly inhibited cell viability of cervical cancer cells. ZA-induced cell death displayed features characteristic to both apoptosis and autophagy and was associated with different changes in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bax in the various cervical cancer lines. Expression of metastatic cytokines, IL-6 and Cox-2, was upregulated in the presence of ZA at low concentration. Our data revealed that ZA inhibits cervical cancer cells through the synergistic effect of apoptosis induction and autophagy activation.

  20. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Wu, Xiaohua; Cheng, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases.

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  2. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  3. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  4. Improvements in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme since 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bos (Anita)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, and therefore an important public health problem (1 ). In developing countries, the age standardised incidence rate varies between 16 - 40 per 100,000 women in 1988- 1992 (2). In the same period, in d

  5. Cervical Microbiome and Cytokine Profile at Various Stages of Cervical Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahena-Román, Margarita; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Martínez-Barnetche, Jesús; Cortina-Ceballos, Bernardo; López-Estrada, Guillermina; Delgado-Romero, Karina; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Cantú, David; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Madrid-Marina, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by high-risk human papillomavirus persistence due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines. Vaginal microbiota determines the presence of certain cytokines locally. We assessed the association between cervical microbiota diversity and the histopathological diagnosis of each stage of CC, and we evaluated mRNA cervical expression levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α and IFN-γ across the histopathological diagnosis and specific bacterial clusters. We determined the cervical microbiota by high throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons and classified it in community state types (CST). Mean difference analyses between alpha-diversity and histopathological diagnosis were carried out, as well as a β-diversity analysis within the histological diagnosis. Cervical cytokine mRNA expression was analyzed across the CSTs and the histopathological diagnoses. We found a significant difference in microbiota's diversity in NCL-HPV negative women vs those with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and CC(p = 0.006, p = 0.036).When β-diversity was evaluated, the CC samples showed the highest variation within groups (p<0.0006) and the largest distance compared to NCL-HPV negative ones (p<0.00001). The predominant bacteria in women with normal cytology were L. crispatus and L. iners, whereas for SIL, it was Sneathia spp. and for CC, Fusobacterium spp. We found higher median cervical levels of IL-4 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the CST dominated by Fusobacterium spp. These results suggest that the cervical microbiota may be implicated in cervical cancer pathology. Further cohort studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27115350

  6. Preventing cervical cancer : overviews of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and 2 US immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kris; Curtis, C Robinette; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Stokley, Shannon; Walker, Chastity; Roland, Katherine; Benard, Vicki; Saraiya, Mona

    2008-11-15

    Three federal programs with the potential to reduce cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, especially among underserved populations, are administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the Vaccines for Children (VFC) Program, and the Section 317 immunization grant program. The NBCCEDP provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to uninsured and underinsured women. The VFC program and the Section 317 immunization grant program provide vaccines, including human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, to targeted populations at no cost for these vaccines. This article describes the programs, their histories, populations served, services offered, and roles in preventing cervical cancer through HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. Potential long-term reduction in healthcare costs resulting from HPV vaccination is also discussed. As an example of an initiative to vaccinate uninsured women aged 19-26 years through a cancer services program, a state-based effort that was recently launched in New York, is highlighted.

  7. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  8. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 950 cases of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-li ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical features of the patients suffering from cervical cancer who visited Daping Hospital affiliated to Third Military Medical University in recent 10 years. Methods The clinical data of the patients who were pathologically diagnosed as invasive cervical cancer in Daping Hospital of TMMU from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into different age groups and analyzed according to age, clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approach. Results Clinical data of 950 patients with invasive cervical cancer were reviewed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 46.9 years. The clinical features, pathological type, and surgical approaches were different in different age groups. Analysis of the age structure of the patients, the onset age of cervical cancer seemed to increase year by year. Conclusion The clinical features of cervical cancer are diversity in different age, and the strategy for controlling its development should be varied according to age. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.09

  9. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  10. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Siegel

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2. A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003. Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  11. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated.

  12. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high r

  13. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening Interventions for U.S. Latinas: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…

  15. Cost-Utility Analysis of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Cervical Screening on Cervical Cancer Patient in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Dolk, Franklin Christiaan; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Westra, Tjalke Arend; WIlschut, Jan C.; Postma, Maarten Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although cervical cancer is a preventable disease, the clinical and economic burdens of cervical cancer are still substantial issues in Indonesia. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to model the costs, clinical benefits, and cost-utility of both visual inspection with acetic

  16. Can radical parametrectomy be omitted inoccult cervical cancer afterextrafascial hysterectomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-WuLu,; JingLi,; Yun-YunLiu,; Chang-HaoLiu,; Guo-CaiXu,; Ling-LingXie,; Miao-FangWu; Zhong-QiuLin

    2015-01-01

    Background:Occult invasive cervical cancer discovered after simple hysterectomy is not common, radical parame‑trectomy (RP) is a preferred option for young women. However, the morbidity of RP was high. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of parametrial involvement in patients who underwent radical parametrectomy for occult cervical cancer or radical hysterectomy for early‑stage cervical cancer and to suggest an algorithm for the triage of patients with occult cervical cancer to avoid RP. Methods:A total of 13 patients with occult cervical cancer who had undergone RP with an upper vaginectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy were included in this retrospective study. Data on the clinicopathologic characteristics of the cases were collected. The published literature was also reviewed, and low risk factors for parametrial involvement in early‑stage cervical cancer were analyzed. Results:Of the 13 patients, 9 had a stage IB1 lesion, and 4 had a stage IA2 lesion. There were four patients with grade 1 disease, seven with grade 2 disease, and two with grade 3 disease. The median age of the entire patients was 41years. The most common indication for extrafascial hysterectomy was cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3. Three patients had visible lesions measuring 10–30mm, in diameter and ten patients had cervical stromal invasions with depths ranging from 4 to 9mm; only one patient had more than 50% stromal invasion, and four patients had lymph‑vascular space invasion (LVSI). Perioperative complications included intraoperative bowel injury, blood transfusion, vesico‑vaginal ifstula, and ileus (1 case for each). Postoperative pathologic examination results did not show residual disease or parametrial involvement. One patient with positive lymph nodes received concurrent radiation therapy. Only one patient experienced recurrence. Conclusions:Perioperative complications following RP were common, whereas the incidence of parametrial involve‑ment was very low

  17. Preprocessing: A Step in Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  18. Preprocessing for Automating Early Detection of Cervical Cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Abhishek; Bhattacharyya, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Uterine Cervical Cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in women worldwide. Most cases of cervical cancer can be prevented through screening programs aimed at detecting precancerous lesions. During Digital Colposcopy, colposcopic images or cervigrams are acquired in raw form. They contain specular reflections which appear as bright spots heavily saturated with white light and occur due to the presence of moisture on the uneven cervix surface and. The cervix region occupies about half of the raw cervigram image. Other parts of the image contain irrelevant information, such as equipment, frames, text and non-cervix tissues. This irrelevant information can confuse automatic identification of the tissues within the cervix. Therefore we focus on the cervical borders, so that we have a geometric boundary on the relevant image area. Our novel technique eliminates the SR, identifies the region of interest and makes the cervigram ready for segmentation algorithms.

  19. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  20. HPV与宫颈癌%Hunum papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁玉兰; 梁新芳

    2008-01-01

    It has been approved that the genital human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer.Over two-thirds of cervical cancer cases are associated with infection of either HPV16 or HPV18.The success of HPV prophylactic vaccine development is the milestone of cervical cancer prevention of humankind.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染已被证实与宫颈癌的发生有密切关系.超过2/3的宫颈癌与HPV16或HPV18感染有关.HPV预防性疫苗研制的成功则是子宫颈癌预防研究的里程碑.

  1. DETECTION OF SENTINEL LYMPH NODE IN EARLY CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 李斌; 章文华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sentinel lymph node (SLN) localization by lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection in early cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 27 patients with operable invasive early cervical cancer and clinically proved negative pelvic lymph nodes were included in this study. The 99Tcm-dextran of 74 MBq (2 mCi) was injected around the cervix at 2( and 10(. Lymphoscintigraphy and gamma probe detection were used to find the SLN. Results: The SLN was identified in 27 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the SLN detection to predict the metastasis of the pelvic lymph node were 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: Identification of the SLN using radionuclide is feasible and possible in women with early cervical cancer.

  2. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer.

  3. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  4. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Idrees Muhammad; Khan Khalida; Zahra Amreen; Faridi Rabia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, t...

  5. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for cervical cytology terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbert, A.; Bergeron, C.; Wiener, H.; Schenck, U.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2007-01-01

    There are many different systems of cytology classification used in the member states of the European Union (EU) and many different languages. The following short annexe to Chapter 3 of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening provides a framework that will allow di

  6. Role of chemoradiation in advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh T

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective randomized study was conducted in our department of Radiotherapy, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal to evaluating the role of chemoradiation in the management of advanced inoperable cervical cancer (stage IIB-IIIB taking only radiation treatment as control spanning the period 1996-1999. Of the fifty patients accumulated in the study group, three patients did not complete treatment, one expired due to other causes and three were lost to follow up. Likewise, of the forty-six patients in the control group, one patient did not complete treatment and 4 were lost to follow up. Thus only 43 and 41 patients were available for the result analysis for the study and control groups respectively. The early treatment response as assessed after two months of treatment conclusion were 79.1%, 13.9%, 93.0% and 58.5%, 31.7%, 90.2% as complete response (CR, partial response (PR, and total response (TR respectively for the study and control groups. Our patients included in this study had a median follow up of 35 months and 33 months for study and control groups respectively. For this follow up, the disease-free survival, survival with disease and overall survival were 67.4%, 7.0%, 74.4% and 43.9%, 12.2%, 56.1% for study and control groups respectively. There was an increase in early side-effects in the chemoradiation group but the difference was not significant. Because of the early side effects, treatment delays ensued in 7 patients (16.3% and in 3 patients (7.3% in the study and control groups respectively. There was no significant increase in the late treatment toxicities in both the groups.

  7. Human Papillomavirus 16E6 Oncogene Mutation in Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Sun; Xiao-qin Ha; Tong-de Lv; Chuan-ping Xing; Bin Liu; Xiao-zhe Cao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide, after breast cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are considered to be the major causes of cervical cancer. HPV16 is the most common type of HR-HPVs and HPV16 E6 gene is one of the major oncogenes. Specific mutations are considered as dangerous factors causing CC. This study was designed to find mutations of HPV16 E6 and the relationship between the mutations and the happening of CC.Methods: The tissue DNA was extracted from 15 biopsies of CC. Part of HPV16 E6 gene (nucleotide 201-523) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the CC tissue DNA. The PCR fragments were sequenced and analyzed.Results: The result of PCR showed that the positive rate of HPV16 E6 was 93.33% (14/15). After sequencing and analyzing, in the 13 out of 14 PCR fragments, 4 maintained prototype (30.77%), 8 had a same 350G mutation (61.54%), and 1 had a 249G mutation (7.69%).Conclusion: This study suggest that there is a high infection rate of HPV in cervical cancer and most of the HPV16 E6 gene has mutations. Those mutations may have an association with the development of cervical cancer.

  8. Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Liu; Hong Li; Yu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the Twist and YB-1 gene expression in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue as well as its correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Methods:Normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and cervical cancer tissue were collected for study. ELISA kits were used to detect Twist, YB-1, E-cadherin,β-catenin, N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical tissue, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical tissue.Results:Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in normal cervical tissue; Twist and YB-1 contents, cell positive rate and immunohistochemical scores as well as N-cadherin and Vimentin contents in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue while E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents were lower than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue; the higher the Twist and YB-1 expression levels in cervical cancer tissue, the lower the E-cadherin andβ-catenin contents, and the higher the N-cadherin and Vimentin contents.Conclusions: Twist and YB-1 gene overexpression can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition to be involved in the occurrence of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  9. A Gompertzian model with random effects to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a Gompertzian model with random effects is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via maximum likehood estimation. We apply 4-stage Runge-Kutta (SRK4) for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of the cervical cancer growth. Low values of root mean-square error (RMSE) of Gompertzian model with random effect indicate good fits.

  10. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor and UTM Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (UTM-CIAM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  11. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobdey, Saurabh; Sathwara, Jignasa; Jain, Aanchal; Balasubramaniam, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), cytology (Pap smear), and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on visual screening test

  12. Burden of cervical cancer and role of screening in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women and more than a quarter of its global burden is contributed by developing countries. In India, in spite of alarmingly high figures, there is no nationwide government-sponsored screening program. This study was conducted to assess the burden of cervical cancer in India and review the performance characteristics of available cervical cancer screening tools, so as to provide evidence-based recommendations for application of most practically suited screening test to be used in resource-poor field settings. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic database were searched from January 1990 to December 2015, using the keywords such as “cervical cancer”, “screening”, “early detection”, “cervical cytology” and “visual inspection”, and their corresponding MeSH terms in combination with Boolean operators “OR, AND.” Two authors independently selected studies that are published in English and conducted in India. A total of 11 studies were found to be relevant and eligible to be included in the present study. Results: In India, cervical cancer contributes to approximately 6–29% of all cancers in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate of cervical cancer varies widely among registries; highest is 23.07/100,000 in Mizoram state and the lowest is 4.91/100,000 in Dibrugarh district. The pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA, magnified VIA, visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI, cytology (Pap smear, and human papillomavirus DNA were found to be 67.65% and 84.32%, 65.36% and 85.76%, 78.27% and 87.10%, 62.11% and 93.51%, and 77.81% and 91.54%, respectively. Conclusions: In developing countries because of lack of necessary infrastructure and quality control, high-quality cytology screening may not be feasible for wide-scale implementation. Hence, cervical cancer screening program based on

  13. Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect to cervical cancer growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mazma Syahidatul Ayuni binti; Rosli, Norhayati binti; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a Gompertzian stochastic model with time delay is introduced to describe the cervical cancer growth. The parameters values of the mathematical model are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic model numerically. The efficiency of mathematical model is measured by comparing the simulated result and the clinical data of cervical cancer growth. Low values of Mean-Square Error (MSE) of Gompertzian stochastic model with delay effect indicate good fits.

  14. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  15. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, K; Ladelund, S; Jensen-Fangel, S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are reportedly at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). A recent publication found that WLWH in Denmark attend the national ICC screening programme less often than women in the general population. We aimed to estimate the incidence of cervical...... performed to include prior screening outcome, screening intensity and treatment of CIN/ICC in the interpretation of results. RESULTS: We followed 1140 WLWH and 17 046 controls with no prior history of ICC or hysterectomy for 9491 and 156 865 person-years, respectively. Compared with controls, the overall...

  16. Illness Perception, Knowledge and Self-Care about Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Kern de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a central role in early detection of cervical cancer. Common Sense Model proposes that the nature and organization of illness representations can guide actions related to health and how self-care is exercised. The aim of this study was to describe and compare illness perception, knowledge and self-care in women with and without cancer precursor lesions. Participants were 92 women (aged 18-59 from primary care unity divided into two groups: women with and without premalignant lesion. Measures for illness perception, knowledge and self-care were used. There was no statistically significant difference (t test e chi-square test between groups in the variables analyzed. Despite the risk for cervical cancer, women with precursor lesions do not adjust their illness perceptions, knowledge and self-care to the situation. These data show the need to warn women against the cervical cancer risks, because their distorted perceptions and lack of knowledge about the disease may hamper the screening and control of cervical cancer.

  17. Cervical cancer in north-eastern Libya: 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khaial, F; Bodalal, Z; Elramli, A; Elkhwsky, F; Eltaguri, A; Bendardaf, R

    2014-08-01

    Libya is a country with a low population, listed under the EMRO. Using registers and patient records from a major primary oncology clinic, data was gathered from Libyan cervical cancer patients and various parameters were studied across 9 years. Out of 4,090 female cancer cases during the study period, 1.8% were cervical cancer (n = 74). The average age of presentation was 53 years, with most of the cases (60%, n = 44) being premenopausal. Approximately 65% (n = 48) of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at later stages (i.e. stages III and IV). The majority of these cases are squamous cell carcinoma (83.8%, n = 62), while 16.2% (n = 12) were found to be adenocarcinoma. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma presented at later stages more often than those with adenocarcinoma. Human papilloma virus was strongly implicated in cervical cancer, with 94% (n = 63) of those who were tested being positive for HPV-16 (82.5%, n = 52) and HPV-18 (12.7%, n = 8). Diagnosis was most frequently made through biopsy (97.3%, n = 72) as opposed to Pap smears (2.7%, n = 2). Most Libyan patients were put through chemotherapy (75%, n = 55) and triple therapy (surgery with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy) was the most common (38%, n = 28) modality of treatment. Comparisons were made between Libya and other nations, either in the developed world or neighbouring countries. The major problem of cervical cancer in Libya is delayed presentation and hence, all the recommendations focus on increased awareness for the populace, implementation of a national cancer control plan and a national screening programme.

  18. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the α-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species α5 (HPV51), α6 (HPV56), α7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and α9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, α7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in

  19. Folate receptor and Ki-67 nucleoprotein expressions in cervical cancer tissue and their correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Yan; Feng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect the expression of both FR-α protein and ki-67 in cervical cancer tissues, and discuss the relationship between them and clinical significance.Methods:Using immunohistochemical method test normal cervical tissue and cervical cancer tissue before FR-α protein expression and the expression of Ki-67.Results:FR- protein expression in normal cervical tissues was positive for 7.0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 82.1%. The difference was statistically significant. Ki-67 protein expression in normal cervical tissues was 0% while in cervical cancer tissue the positive rate was 80.2%. The difference was statistically significant. The two protein expression in cervical cancer stageⅠ,Ⅱ and stageⅢ were different, but the difference was not statistically significant. In cervical cancer tissues, both the two protein were positively correlated. There are correlations between them. Difference was statistically significant.Conclusion:FR-α elevated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. FR-α protein expression in cervical cancer and precancerous tissue has correlation with Ki-67, FR-α protein maybe participate in the occurrence and development of the cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

  20. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females.

  1. Intestinal obstruction after radical surgery of cervical cancer in a patient with situs inversus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Sun; Yuan-Ying Liu; Tao Yu; Zhi-Hua Zhang; Sheng-Jun Xu; Yi Cao

    2016-01-01

    Situs inversus (SI) is a rare congenital condition, which is characterized by inversion of the major visceral organs from their normal position. Although the estimated incidence of SI is low, there are still some cases have been reported recently. It is difficult for clinicians to make an appropriate diagnosis and treatment since their etiologies are not clear. With the Syndrome differentiation and treatment system, decoctions or acupuncture are often given to patients with intestinal obstruction in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This case study is about an SI patient who had been suffering intestinal obstruction after the radical surgery of cervical cancer.

  2. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  3. Chinese Food and Cancer Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatment, apart from studying the effectiveness of chemo or radiotherapy in killing cancer cells, studies should examine ways of reducing drug side effects on patients and ways of enhancing the bodies’ immune system at the same time. Our defence system not only includes immune response, there are also detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant mechanisms, the ability for DNA damage repair and regulation of the hormone metabolism. Harmful environmental oestrogens that enter the human body can cause an increase of 16-α-hydroxyestrone as a harmful estradiol metabolite, the ratio between 16-α-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestrone relates to the risk of breast cancer. It is suggested that choosing nutritional products (that decrease the amount of 16-α-hydroxyestrone to regulate the hormone metabolism can help with prevention of breast cancer. Increasing the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (Ω-3 benefits health. Unsaturated fatty acid omega-6 (Ω-6 appears to be easily oxidised which can lead to DNA damage and increase the occurrence of cancer. The most important aspect to this approach is to reduce the ratio between saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid Ω-6, which is harmful to health. Olive oil has a high content of Ω-3 that benefits health. Ω-3 fatty acid can also be obtained from some fish, green vegetables and nuts. Linoleic acid is the most important source of Ω-6 fatty acid. Linolenic acid is the most important source of Ω-3 fatty acid. Natural foods e.g., purslane, is rich in Ω-3; the mustard family vegetables can increase the activity of detoxifying enzymes. Chinese Kiwi fruit drink reduces the side effects of the chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide, which is also a DNA damaging agent. Soybean, job’s tears, garlic, mushroom varieties and tea have anti-cancer effects. Properly used nutritional products may assist treatment and recovery. Good balanced nutrition is essential for cancer healing.

  4. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women.

  5. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  6. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  7. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  8. "Inside and outside": Sikh women's perspectives on cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Nelly D; Vollman, Ardene Robinson

    2007-03-01

    Cervical cancer can be detected at an early stage through regular screening. The literature suggests that cervical cancer in immigrant women, a growing population in Canada, is less likely to be detected early than it is in the general population, as immigrant women tend not to take advantage of screening. Culturally appropriate screening services for immigrant women are few. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted with female members of an urban Sikh community in Canada to explore perspectives on cervical cancer screening. In-depth interviews (13) and focus groups (3) were carried out to uncover challenges to cervical cancer screening. The researchers identified a prevailing theme of "inside/outside" whereby the women felt confined to their community, finding it difficult to move "outside" into Canadian society in order to participate in screening. Lack of knowledge about the importance of prevention, influence of family and community, and health-provider issues affected the women's access to screening. The results will be helpful for nurses planning and delivering screening services to Sikh women.

  9. SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Kenbaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular mechanisms are quite important immunological components of tumor surveillance, being, however, most vulnerable to influence of different adverse factors, including surgery-associated stress and ionizing radiation. Our study was aimed for assessing specific effects of immunotherapy upon indices of cellular immunity in patients with cervical cancer. Eighty-eight patients with cervical cancer (clinical stage I-IIA, Т1аN0M0-T2aN0M0, who underwent appropriate surgery (for IA stage, or a combined treatment, including surgery gamma-ray teletherapy (IB, IIA stages are under study. The patients were distributed in two groups, depending on the therapy applied. Group 1 included patients subjected to surgical treatment plus and radiation therapy, Group 2 included those patients who were treated according to this protocol, with addition of a specific immunotherapy. Contents of T cells and various CD subpopulations of T-lymphocytes were identified by immunofluorescence techniques. Among patients with cervical cancer at clinical stages IA, IB, IIA, a reliable decrease in cellular immunity indices was registered, both after surgery, and during combined treatment. Introduction of specific immunotherapy to the conventional treatment schedule was associated with increase of cellular immune indices, and, in first line, the antineoplastic mechanisms (e.g., NK’s and NKT cell contents. One should point to a relatively low efficiency of this immunotherapy in combined treatment of patients with cervical cancer at IIA stage.

  10. Evolution of the health economics of cervical cancer vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferko, Nicole; Postma, Maarten; Gallivan, Steve; Kruzikas, Denise; Drummond, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of modelling for cervical cancer vaccination. We provide an interpretation and summary of conclusions pertaining to the usefulness of different models, the predicted epidemiological impact of vaccination and the cost-effectiveness of adolescent, catch-up and sex-specif

  11. Improving cervical cancer screening rates in an urban HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sara L; Suharwardy, Sanaa H; Bodavula, Phani; Schechtman, Kenneth; Overton, E Turner; Onen, Nur F; Lane, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer; however, screening rates remain low. The objectives of this study were to analyze a quality improvement intervention to increase cervical cancer screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic and to identify factors associated with inadequate screening. Barriers to screening were identified by a multidisciplinary quality improvement committee at the Washington University Infectious Diseases clinic. Several strategies were developed to address these barriers. The years pre- and post-implementation were analyzed to examine the clinical impact of the intervention. A total of 422 women were seen in both the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods. In the pre-implementation period, 222 women (53%) underwent cervical cancer screening in the form of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing. In the post-implementation period, 318 women (75.3%) underwent cervical cancer screening (p screening included fewer visits attended (pre: 4.2 ± 1.5; post: 3.4 ± 1.4; p screening rates in an urban academic HIV clinic.

  12. Recent Developments in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rebolj (Matejka)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy, diagnosed in 500,000 women each year, while 275,000 die from it. Without prevention, the peak incidence occurs at a relatively young age, between 40-55 years, when women are still active on the labour market and have

  13. Cervical cancer, quality issues in early detection and prognostic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is expected that cervical cancer incidence will reduce in The Netherlands over the next decades, as a result of hrHPV vaccination and hrHPV-based screening. Untill then, quality of care could need some improvements as suggested by the work described in this thesis. Novel tools are being indicated

  14. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  15. Early cervical cancer coexistent with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.; Kalter, C.; Roberts, W.S.; Cavanagh, D.

    1989-07-01

    Early invasive carcinoma of the cervix may be treated by surgery or radiation therapy. Two patients with early cervical cancer are presented whose concomitant inflammatory bowel disease figured significantly in the selection of surgery as treatment. The use of radiotherapy in the face of inflammatory bowel disease, however, is not clearly addressed in the literature.

  16. Cytokine expression & TGF-beta signaling in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, Judith Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Immune surveillance is of utmost importance in preventing cervical carcinogenesis. Cytokines play a central role in directing and fine tuning the immune response. In cancer, cytokines can either be involved in stimulating the anti-tumor immune response or in tumor growth and progression. The studies

  17. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  18. A risk evaluation model of cervical cancer based on etiology and human leukocyte antigen allele susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bicheng Hu

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This model, based on etiology and HLA allele susceptibility, can estimate the risk of cervical cancer in chronic cervicitis patients after HPV infection. It combines genetic and environmental factors and significantly enhances the accuracy of risk evaluation for cervical cancer. This model could be used to select patients for intervention therapy and to guide patient classification management.

  19. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved.

  20. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  1. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; Kędzia, W.; Kędzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczyński, M.

    2011-12-01

    The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

  3. Prolactin and prolactin receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascencio-Cedillo, Rafael; López-Pulido, Edgar Ivan; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Villegas-Sepúlveda, Nicolás; Del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Franco-Topete, Ramón; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin receptor (PRLR) overexpression could play a role in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to determine prolactin (PRL) and PRLR expression in biopsies from patients with precursor lesions and uterine cervical cancer. PRLR expression was analyzed in 63 paraffin-embedded biopsies of uterine cervical tissue. In total, eleven low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 23 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 21 uterine cervical cancers (UCC) and 8 normal epithelium (NE) were examined using immunoperoxidase staining and Western blot analysis. Additionally, PRL expression was identified in human cervical cancer serum and tissues. The PRLR expression was found to be significantly increased in cervical cancer in comparison with normal tissue and precursor lesions (P prolactin expression was similar in precursor lesions and cervical cancer by Western blot analysis. Our data suggest a possible role for PRLR in the progression of cervical cancer.

  4. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  5. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway.

  6. Pre-invasive cervical disease and uterine cervical cancer in Brazilian adolescents: prevalence and related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Trajano, Alexandre José Baptista; Silva,Kátia Silveira da; Russomano, Fábio Bastos

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and factors associated with uterine cervical cancer (CA) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 702 sexually active adolescents treated at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1993 to 2002. Screening was performed by cytopathology and colposcopy and confirmation by biopsy. Exposure variables were socio-demographic characteristics and those related to reproduc...

  7. Quality of life of women undergoing treatment for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Ana Dallabrida

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of women with cervical cancer. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study developed with 43 women undergoing oncological treatment assisted at an Oncology High Complexity Center, in the Southern region of Brazil. The instrument used was the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer – Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30, and the data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The average age was 54.6 years old. Married women prevailed (53.4%, with incomplete elementary education (72.1% and income from one to two minimum wages (62.8%. Quality of Life was considered very satisfactory. According to the development scales and emotional functioning, the result was from regular to satisfactory. The most frequent symptoms were fatigue, lack of appetite and pain. There is a need of structure of public health policies, for preventing cervical cancer in the most vulnerable population.

  8. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  9. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camisao, Claudia C. [Hospital Sao Lucas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ccamisao@inca.gov.br; Brenna, Sylvia M.F. [Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lombardelli, Karen V.P. [Hospital do Cancer (HCII), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Djahjah, Maria Celia R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Ginecologia

    2007-05-15

    Cervical cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer-related death of women, especially in developing countries. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends staging during surgery, however, surgical-pathologic staging would not be feasible in cases of more advanced cancers. Generally, in these cases, the staging is performed by means of clinical and gynecological examination and basic imaging studies. However, such an approach fails to demonstrate the actual extent of the disease, and does not include significant prognostic factors such as tumor volume, stromal invasion and lymph node involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging has increasingly been utilized in cervical cancer staging, since at early stages of the disease its performance may be compared to intraoperative findings and, at advanced stages, it shows to be superior to the clinical evaluation. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging presents an excellent imaging resolution for the different densities of pelvic structures, does not require ionizing radiation, is comfortable for the patient, improves de staging, allowing the early detection of recurrence and the identification of reliable prognostic factors which contribute to the therapeutic decision making process and results prediction with an excellent cost-effectiveness. The present article is aimed at reviewing the most significant aspects of magnetic resonance imaging in the cervical cancer staging. (author)

  11. [Management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincens, C; Dupaigne, D; de Tayrac, R; Mares, P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer, thanks to a literature review indexed in Medline((R)) (from 1980 till 2006 using those keywords: advanced cervix cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pregnancy), ScienceDirect (from 1990 till 2006) and the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale. It occurs that pregnancy is a privileged period to diagnose cervical cancer, particularly in early stages. We ought to beware of symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, which could be underestimated during pregnancy. Colposcopically selected biopsies are reference techniques to confirm the diagnostic. The assessment of extension includes an abdominal and pelvic MRI and echography and a radiography of the chest for locally advanced stages. The decision to interrupt pregnancy should be based on a collegial evaluation and depends on state and histology of disease, patient's desire for pregnancy, as well as gestational age and disease evolution. Cesarean is preferred to natural delivery even though survival rates are the same. The cesarean section prevents from short-term complications and recurrence on the episiotomy, but the hysterotomy type is controversial throughout literature. The prognosis of cervical cancer does not seem to be influenced by pregnancy. Management is the same, even though we have to adapt the treatment from the pregnancy state. No study could show the benefit and the safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy, due to few cases, but it could be a solution with patients suffering from an advanced cancer and not willing to stop pregnancy. To conclude, the detection by cervical smears should be systematic during pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed, cesarean section is the favourite way to deliver. Pregnancy does not modify disease's prognosis and the therapeutic choice depends on the stage of the disease.

  12. Biologia molecular do câncer cervical Molecular biology of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Augusto Rivoire

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus, de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias, talvez menos invasivas e mais efetivas.Carcinogenesis involves several steps. Disorders of the cytogenetic balance occur during the evolution from normal epithelium to cervical cancer. Several studies support the hypothesis that the Human Papiloma Virus (HPV infection is associated to development of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical cancer. In this review we show the basis to understand cervical oncogenesis. The cell cycle is controlled by protooncogenes and supressive genes. This orchestrated cell cycle can be affected by virus such as HPV. Of special interest in the cervical carcinogenesis are the HPV subtypes 16 and 18

  13. Computer aided decision support system for cervical cancer classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadwati, Rahmadwati; Naghdy, Golshah; Ros, Montserrat; Todd, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Conventional analysis of a cervical histology image, such a pap smear or a biopsy sample, is performed by an expert pathologist manually. This involves inspecting the sample for cellular level abnormalities and determining the spread of the abnormalities. Cancer is graded based on the spread of the abnormal cells. This is a tedious, subjective and time-consuming process with considerable variations in diagnosis between the experts. This paper presents a computer aided decision support system (CADSS) tool to help the pathologists in their examination of the cervical cancer biopsies. The main aim of the proposed CADSS system is to identify abnormalities and quantify cancer grading in a systematic and repeatable manner. The paper proposes three different methods which presents and compares the results using 475 images of cervical biopsies which include normal, three stages of pre cancer, and malignant cases. This paper will explore various components of an effective CADSS; image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, grading and disease identification. Cervical histological images are captured using a digital microscope. The images are captured in sufficient resolution to retain enough information for effective classification. Histology images of cervical biopsies consist of three major sections; background, stroma and squamous epithelium. Most diagnostic information are contained within the epithelium region. This paper will present two levels of segmentations; global (macro) and local (micro). At the global level the squamous epithelium is separated from the background and stroma. At the local or cellular level, the nuclei and cytoplasm are segmented for further analysis. Image features that influence the pathologists' decision during the analysis and classification of a cervical biopsy are the nuclei's shape and spread; the ratio of the areas of nuclei and cytoplasm as well as the texture and spread of the abnormalities

  14. Aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical Epidemiological aspects of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aleixo Neto

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi efetuada revisão dos aspectos epidemiológicos do câncer cervical, um dos mais freqüentes em mulheres de países em desenvolvimento. No Brasil a incidência varia de 23,7/100.000, em Porto Alegre, a 83,2/100.000, em Recife. Nos Estados Unidos a incidência em 1978 foi de 6,8/100.000 entre as mulheres brancas e de 14,7/100.000 entre as negras. Várias observações sugerem a hipótese de que o câncer cervical esteja relacionado com algum aspecto da atividade sexual, possivelmente algum agente transmitido por via venérea. As evidências têm implicado o papilomavirus humano (HPV como o principal agente etiológico deste câncer. Vários trabalhos foram analisados quanto à validade desta hipótese etiológica, mostrando que há uma relação entre HPV e o câncer cervical. Foram analisados os fatores de risco mais conhecidos, tais como o comportamento sexual, o tabagismo e a contracepção, diante das várias possibilidades etiológicas existentes.A review concerning the epidemiological issues relating to cervical cancer, one of the most frequent in the women of developing countries, was undertaken in - Brazil, the incidence rate varies from 23.7/100,000 in Porto Alegre to 83.2/100,000 in Recife. In the United States, the 1978 incidence rate was 6.8/100,000 in white women and 14.7/100,000 among black women. Several studies have suggested the hypotheses that cervical cancer could be related to some venereal agent. The evidences have shown the human papillomavirus (HPV to be the main etiological agent. Several studies on the validity of such a hypotheses were realyzed and it became clear that there does infact exist a relationship between the HPV and cervical cancer. Finally, the better known risk factors, such as sexual behaviour, smoking and the contraception were studied in the light of the various etiological hypotheses.

  15. Clinical evaluation of chemoradiotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneyasu, Yuko; Okawa, Tomohiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan); Okawa-Kita, Midori

    1997-11-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer has a poor prognosis, poor survival rate, and high local failure rate. A number of questions regarding the optimal agents and schedule of concurrent chemoradiation remain unanswered. To improve the cure rate for advanced or recurrent cervix cancer, we studied intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed 52 cases of advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated by IAIC with or without radiotherapy. IAIC regimen was separated into two groups: group I consisted of 5-FU+MMC{+-}ADM (30 cases) and group II of CDDP+MMC{+-}5-FU (22 cases). The tip of the catheter was placed in the bifurcation of abdominal aorta or the bilateral internal iliac arteries (7 cases). The overall response rate (CR+PR) was 71%, 87% in patients receiving radiotherapy, 50% in those without radiotherapy, and 100% in primary cases. The five-year survival rate was 20% in primary cases, 14% in recurrent cases, 3% in group I and 38% in group II by chemotherapy regimen. Severe (more than grade III) hematological acute side effects were found in 48% of all cases, but recovered by interruption of drugs. In 7 cases in which the tip of the catheter was placed in internal iliac arteries, there were severe skin ulcers in 2 cases and severe pain of leg or gluteal region which need narcotics in 2 cases. These data suggest that IAIC mainly with cisplatin with or without radiotherapy is one of the effective treatments for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. But we should check blood flow distribution periodically, and control the concentration of drugs. To improve the survival rate for advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, we should discuss neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy and maintenance systemic chemotherapy. (author)

  16. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  17. Issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screenings in the emergence of HPV vaccination in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the HPV vaccine has been a major breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases around the globe. Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem in Thailand. Despite the long-time availability of cervical cancer screening programs in Thailand, the uptake among the target female population remains low. HPV vaccines were approved by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand in 2007. As of March 2011, due to financial limitations, HPV vaccines have still not been included in the national immunization program under the public health benefit plans although individuals has the option to pay privately for the vaccine. This paper discusses the issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening programs in the era of HPV vaccination in Thailand. Recommendations to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening and further research to inform a policy regarding the cervical cancer screening measures are proposed.

  18. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  19. Image-Based Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer

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    Harkenrider, Matthew M., E-mail: mharkenrider@lumc.edu; Alite, Fiori; Silva, Scott R.; Small, William

    2015-07-15

    Cervical cancer is a disease that requires considerable multidisciplinary coordination of care and labor in order to maximize tumor control and survival while minimizing treatment-related toxicity. As with external beam radiation therapy, the use of advanced imaging and 3-dimensional treatment planning has generated a paradigm shift in the delivery of brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer. The use of image-based brachytherapy, most commonly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), requires additional attention and effort by the treating physician to prescribe dose to the proper volume and account for adjacent organs at risk. This represents a dramatic change from the classic Manchester approach of orthogonal radiographic images and prescribing dose to point A. We reviewed the history and currently evolving data and recommendations for the clinical use of image-based brachytherapy with an emphasis on MRI-based brachytherapy.

  20. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  1. Cervical cancer control in India: taking evidence to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib Hasan; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2012-05-01

    The most prevalent types of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer in India are HPV 16 and HPV 18, found in 60.7 per cent and 16 per cent of cases respectively. A comprehensive strategy with a judicious mix of interventions on health promotion, specific protection (vaccination), early diagnosis (screening), and treatment should be instituted to prevent and control cervical cancer in India. Proponents of vaccination and screening argue for enhanced investments on these interventions based on their relative cost-effectiveness. For policymakers, the major concerns about these interventions remain affordability and cost to government. Herein we try to review comprehensively the evidence on prevention and control interventions and to recommend appropriate policies to guide public health decision-making.

  2. A Proof of Concept Imaging System for Automated Cervical Cancer Screening in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Garcia, Mabel Karel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women around the world and affects half a million women per year. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 275,000 women die every year, and 80% to 85% of these deaths occur in low-resource countries in Africa and South America. In Peru, cervical cancer has the highest incidence and…

  3. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  4. Changes in knowledge of cervical cancer following introduction of human papillomavirus vaccine among women at high risk for cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Massad, L.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Weber, Kathleen M.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Hessol, Nancy A.; Wright, Rodney L.; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe changes in knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among women at high risk for cervical cancer in the first five years after introduction of HPV vaccination. Methods In 2007, 2008–9, and 2011, women in a multicenter U.S. cohort study completed 44-item self-report questionnaires assessing knowledge of cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and HPV vaccination. Results across time were assessed for individuals, and three study enrollment cohorts were compared. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic variables, measures of education and attention, and medical factors. Associations were assessed in multivariable models. Results In all, 974 women completed three serial questionnaires; most were minority, low income, and current or former smokers. The group included 652 (67%) HIV infected and 322 (33%) uninfected. Summary knowledge scores (possible range 0–24) increased from 2007 (12.8, S.D. 5.8) to 2008–9 (13.9, S.D. 5.3, P < 0.001) and to 2011 (14.3, S.D. 5.2, P < 0.0001 vs 2007 and < 0.04 vs 2008–9). Higher knowledge scores at first and follow-up administration of questionnaires, higher income, and higher education level were associated with improved knowledge score at third administration. Women not previously surveyed had scores similar to those of the longitudinal group at baseline. Conclusion Substantial gaps in understanding of HPV and cervical cancer prevention exist despite years of health education. While more effective educational interventions may help, optimal cancer prevention may require opt-out vaccination programs that do not require nuanced understanding. PMID:25870859

  5. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

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    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  6. Treatment of cervical cancer in the Republic of Srpska

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    Draganović Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 1897, when the first radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy was done by Wertheim in Vienna, this operation has had the central role in the surgical treatment of invasive cervical tumors. Material and methods. In the period from 1997 to 2010, 177 patients diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage IB1 - II were operated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Banja Luka. All patients underwent radical hysterectomy by Wertheim - Meigs. The aim of this study is to present the technique of this operation, as well as its effectiveness in the treatment of cervical cancer. Results. The distribution of the patients having invasive cervical cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification was as follows: I B1 - 35.67%, I B2 - 23.17%, II A - 15.48%, II B - 25.68% on average is 21.3 removed lymph glands. The rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications was 8 (4.51% and 17 (9.60%, respectively. Of the 26 patients who were operated in the period from 2005 - 2010, 13 had stage II B according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; there were 6 lethal outcomes (23.08 and the five-year survival rate was 76.92%. Discussion and conclusion. By applying the proper surgical technique and early prevention of immediate complications, we achieved satisfactory results in operative morbity and mortality, intraoperative and postoperative complications of the lesion for radical surgery by the Wertheim- Meigs-in the treatment of cancer of the uterus in the I B - II B stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification.

  7. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer Vacunas para prevenir el cáncer cervical

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    COSETTE M WHEELER

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.El potencial uso de vacunas de virus del papiloma humano (VPH en la prevención y tratamiento del cáncer cervical posiblemente será implementado durante los próximos años. Cerca de los 20 genotipos de VPH de los 75 que se encuentran identificados infectan el tracto genital femenino, pero son cuatro subtipos: 16, 18, 31 y 45 los que se han asociado en cerca de 80% a cáncer cervical. En este ensayo se plantea que para poder diseñar una vacuna profiláctica contra la infección de VPH, efectiva, se debe garantizar una adecuada respuesta inmune a través de cuatro metas: a activación de antígenos presentes en la célula; b superar la respuesta del huésped y la variabilidad genética viral en la respuesta de células T; c generación de altos niveles de células T y B de memoria, y d persistencia de antígenos.

  8. Human papillomavirus genotypes and cervical cancer in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natphopsuk, Sitakan; Settheetham-Ishida, Wannapa; Pientong, Chamsai; Sinawat, Supat; Yuenyao, Pissamai; Ishida, Takafumi; Settheetham, Dariwan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer. More than 100 HPV genotypes have been identified; however the distribution varies geographically and according to ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and distribution of HPV subtypes among Northeast Thai women. Subjects included 198 cases of SCCA and 198 age-matched, healthy controls. HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using the consensus primers GP5+/6+ system followed by reverse line blot hybridization genotyping. The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 21 (10.1%) and 152 (76.8%) in the controls and in the cases, respectively. High-risk HPV significantly increased the risk for cervical cancer with an OR of 42.4 (95%CI: 22.4-81.4, p<0.001) and an adjusted OR of 40.7-fold (95%CI: 21.5-76.8, p <0.001). HPV-16 was the most prevalent HPV type in the SCCA (56.2%) followed by HPV-58 (17.8%) and HPV-18 (13.6%); whereas HPV-58 (46.4%) was a prominent genotype in the controls followed by HPV-16 (39.3%) and unidentified HPV types (25.0%). These findings indicate that HPV infection remains a critical risk factor for SCCA; particularly, HPV-16, HPV-58 and HPV-18. In order to eradicate cervical cancer, sustained health education, promoted use of prophylactics and a HPV-58 vaccine should be introduced in this region.

  9. [Consensus for the prevention of cervical cancer in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Moreno, José Antonio; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano; Vargas Hernández, Victor Manuel; Aguado Pérez, Rogelio A; Alonso de Ruiz, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a serious public health problem in the world; that is why the Mexican Federation of Schools of Obstetrics and Gynecology convened the elaboration of a consensus that is devoted this number of Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico. In recent years has strengthened perceptions (public and private) in the need for preventive strategies in the medium and long terms. The development of effective vaccines against the human papilloma virus and the application of new methods of detection from viral DNA (completely automated for personal application) allow some degree of optimism. It is proposed a consensus with general recommendations in two consecutive stages: (a) primary prevention consisting of education for the prevention of cervical cancer and universal immunization and (b) secondary prevention by early detection of infections or injuries that could favor carcinogenesis. The consensus reviewed characteristics of available vaccines in detail and proposes strategies for implementation in Mexican population. Also, check out main methods of early detection of infection (or predisposing lesions) and suggests public and private strategies for implementation. Consensus places particular emphasis on early immunization for female population and correct use of methods for detection of infections or injuries that might cause cervical cancer.

  10. Triage of HPV positive women in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schiffman, Mark; Palmer, Timothy; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Despite HPV vaccines, screening will remain central for decades to control cervical cancer. Recently, HPV testing alone or with cytology was introduced as an alternative to cytology screening. However, most HPV infections are harmless and additional tests are required to identify women with progressing infections or precancer. With three options for primary screening, and without clear strategies for triage of screen-positive women, there is great confusion about the best approach. Also, increasing HPV vaccination coverage will lead to lower disease prevalence, and force new screening approaches. Currently recommended triage strategies for primary HPV screening include HPV genotyping for HPV16 and HPV18 and cytology. Other alternatives that are currently evaluated include p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology, host methylation, and viral methylation testing. Clinical management of women with cervical cancer screening results is moving to use risk thresholds rather than individual test results. Specific risk thresholds have been defined for return to primary screening, repeat testing, referral to colposcopy, and immediate treatment. Choice of test algorithms is based on comparison of absolute risk estimates from triage tests with established clinical thresholds. Importantly, triage tests need to be evaluated together with the primary screening test and the downstream clinical management. An optimal integrated screening and triage strategy should reassure the vast majority of women that they are at very low risk of cervical cancer, send the women at highest risk to colposcopy at the right time, when disease can be colposcopically detected, and minimize the intermediate risk group that requires continued surveillance.

  11. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

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    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  12. Association Between the IL-6 rs1800795 Polymorphism and the Risk of Cervical Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 1210 Cases and 1525 Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Lyu, Dan; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Lianbing; Tang, Ning

    2016-10-24

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death among females in less developed countries. Studies have shown that the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin 6 might be associated with cervical cancer risk. A total of 710 articles from EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of science, PubMed, Springer link, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were reviewed in our study. A meta-analysis on the associations between interleukin 6 rs1800795 polymorphism and cervical cancer risk was carried out by comparison using 5 genetic models. In this systematic review, 5 studies were analyzed. The pooled population included 2735 participants (1210 cases and 1525 controls). The overall odds ratio (G vs C alleles) using fixed-effects model was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.75-0.97), P = .02. Our results show that the C genotype of interleukin 6 rs1800795 is associated with higher cervical cancer risk. Our results indicate that interleukin 6 rs1800795 polymorphism might be associated with susceptibility to cervical cancer.

  13. Understanding women's hesitancy to undergo less frequent cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Shepherd, Melissa A; Kaltz, Emily A; Davis, Whitney J; Shepherd, Janet E

    2017-02-01

    Inappropriate cervical cancer screening (e.g., screening too often) can result in unnecessary medical procedures, treatment, and psychological distress. To balance the benefits and harms, cervical cancer screening guidelines were recently modified in favor of less frequent screening (i.e., every 3 to 5 years). This study investigated women's acceptance of less frequent cervical cancer screening and their primary concerns about extending the screening interval beyond one year. A national sample of 376 U.S. women ages 21-65 completed an online survey in 2014. Predictors of willingness to get a Pap test every 3 to 5 years were identified using logistic regression. We also examined perceived consequences of less frequent screening. Over two thirds were willing to undergo less frequent screening if it was recommended by their healthcare provider. Nevertheless, nearly 20% expressed discomfort with less frequent screening and 45% were either in opposition or unsure whether they would be comfortable replacing Pap testing with primary HPV testing. Women whose most recent Pap test was (vs. was not) within the past year and women who ever (vs. never) had an abnormal Pap test were less willing to extend the screening interval. Additionally, women who typically saw an obstetrician/gynecologist or nurse practitioner for their Pap test (vs. a family physician) were less accepting of the guidelines. Hesitancy about the longer screening interval appears to stem from concern about developing cancer between screenings. Findings contribute to the growing body of research on cancer overscreening and may inform interventions for improving adherence to cancer screening guidelines.

  14. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the -Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species 5 (HPV51), 6 (HPV56), 7 (H...

  15. Morphological evaluation of rentgenendovaskular interventions for cervical cancer

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    A. V. Vazhenin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an analysis of therapeutic pathomorphosis after rentgenoendovaskular interventions in patients with cervical cancer. Found more significant changes after chemoembolization with low (10% 3rd class pathomorphosis dominated by downward 2 nd degree. Index of effect indicates more effective therapy with chemoembolization than embolization. The morphological changes in cervi- cal tissue squamous cell cancer after rentgenoendovaskular treatment are followed by circulatory parenchyma tumor destruction. Changes of tumor cells are qualitatively consistent character and were based in nekrobiosis dystrophy with subsequent necrosis of tumor tissue, and varying degrees of popularity.

  16. 宫颈癌“癌毒”的发病、致病特点及其治疗的探讨%Discussion on pathological mechanism, characteristics and treatment of Cervical Cancer ’s Aidu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜家康; 任立瑾; 迟文成

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a gynecological malignancies which is a serious damage to women's health. In ancient Chinese medical books, the statement of this disease can be found in the records of ShiJia, ZhengJia, Daixia Jiaju and so on. While a systematic exposition of cervical cancer discussed applied this traditional Chinese medical jargon still has not been found. The pathological mechanism of Aidu of Cervical Cancer is dissertated using traditional Chinese medical jargon in this paper. The characteristics of Aidu of Cervical Cancer are expounded using traditional Chinese medical jargon in this article. All these treatises come from summary of phenomenon learned from the treatment of cervical cancer using Traditional Chinese Medicine. The treatments of cervical cancer guided by Aidu of Cervical Cancer are also disserted in the paper.%宫颈癌是严重威胁女性健康的妇科恶性肿瘤,在中医古籍中,散见于“石瘕”、“积聚”、“带下瘕聚”等记载中。中医对宫颈癌的发病、致病特点等尚没有完整的论述。本文以中医理论为基础,通过总结临床治疗经验,从“癌毒”理论角度出发,分析阐述了宫颈癌“癌毒”的病因病机、发病过程及致病特点,探讨了宫颈癌“癌毒”理论在宫颈癌治疗中的指导作用。

  17. MicroRNA-373 functions as an oncogene and targets YOD1 gene in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Luo-Qiao; Zhang, Yue; Yan, Huan; Liu, Kai-Jiang, E-mail: liukaijiang@126.com; Zhang, Shu, E-mail: drzhangshu@126.com

    2015-04-10

    miR-373 was reported to be elevated in several tumors; however, the role of miR-373 in cervical cancer has not been investigated. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of miR-373 was investigated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay in 45 cervical specimens and cervical cancer cell lines. The role of miR-373 in tumorigenicity of cervical cancer cells was assessed by cell proliferation, colony formation in vitro as well as tumor growth assays in vivo with the overexpression of miR-373 or gene silencing. The functional target gene of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells was identified using integrated bioinformatics analysis, gene expression arrays, and luciferase assay. We founded that the expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues and cervical carcinoma cell lines when compared to the corresponding noncancerous tissues. Ectopic overexpression of miR-373 in human cervical cancer cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas silencing the expression of miR-373 decreased the rate of cell growth. YOD1 was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-373 in cervical cancer cells. Expression levels of miR-373 were inversely correlated with YOD1 levels in human cervical cancer tissues. RNAi-mediated knockdown of YOD1 phenocopied the proliferation-promoting effect of miR-373. Moreover, overexpression of YOD1 abrogated miR-373-induced proliferation of cervical cancer cells. These results demonstrate that miR-373 increases proliferation by directly targeting YOD1, a new potential therapeutic target in cervical cancer. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-373 is upregulated in human cervical cancer tissues. • miR-373 effects as oncogenic miRNA in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. • miR-373 increases proliferation of cervical cancer cells by directly targeting YOD1.

  18. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

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    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  19. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...

  20. Early stage cervical cancer : quality of cancer care and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Quirine Dionne

    2007-01-01

    To improve quality of cancer care treatment-related information is needed. This could be acquired by registries. Since January 1984, the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) collects prospectively more than 200 relevant clinical and pathological parameters of women with cervical cancer treated in

  1. [Epidemiology of cervical cancer in a region of western Algeria, 2006-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublenza, L; Hadef, K; Beldjillali, H; Chabni, N; Reguegba, D; Meguenni, K

    2013-05-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of data about cervical cancer from 2006 through 2010 in the province (wilaya) of Tlemcen (Algeria). During this five-year study period, 196 cases of cervical cancer were recorded, with a mean age at onset of 48.5 years. These cervical cancers accounted for 13% of all gynecologic cancers. It is the second leading cancer among women in this province, with an incidence of 13.3 per 100 000 women. The health authorities in Algeria must set up an organized screening policy and appropriate treatment to reduce the mortality rate from this cancer.

  2. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    OpenAIRE

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L. D.; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication...

  3. Waiting time for radiotherapy in women with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the waiting time for radiotherapy for patients with cervical cancer. METHODS This descriptive study was conducted with 342 cervical cancer cases that were referred to primary radiotherapy, in the Baixada Fluminense region, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, from October 1995 to August 2010. The waiting time was calculated using the recommended 60-day deadline as a parameter to obtaining the first cancer treatment and considering the date at which the diagnosis was confirmed, the date of first oncological consultation and date when the radiotherapy began. Median and proportional comparisons were made using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. RESULTS Most of the women (72.2% began their radiotherapy within 60 days from the diagnostic confirmation date. The median of this total waiting time was 41 days. This median worsened over the time period, going from 11 days (1995-1996 to 64 days (2009-2010. The median interval between the diagnostic confirmation and the first oncological consultation was 33 days, and between the first oncological consultation and the first radiotherapy session was four days. The median waiting time differed significantly (p = 0.003 according to different stages of the tumor, reaching 56 days, 35 days and 30 days for women whose cancers were classified up to IIA; from IIB to IIIB, and IVA-IVB, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Despite most of the women having had access to radiotherapy within the recommended 60 days, the implementation of procedures to define the stage of the tumor and to reestablish clinical conditions took a large part of this time, showing that at least one of these intervals needs to be improved. Even though the waiting times were ideal for all patients, the most advanced cases were quickly treated, which suggests that access to radiotherapy by women with cervical cancer has been reached with equity.

  4. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease.

  5. Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of cervical cancer and evaluation of response of uterine cervical cancer to radiochemotherapy:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchun Wang; Daoyu Hu; Shan Hu; Xuemei Hu; Jianjun Li; Yaqi Shen; Xiaoyu Liu; Zhi Wang; Xiaoyan Meng; Zhen Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) dif usion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical cancer and to evaluate the response of uterine cervical cancer to radiochemotherapy (CRT). Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from al patients. A total of 23 patients with primary cervical cancer who were undergoing CRT and 16 age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively recruited for IVIM (b = 0–800 s/mm2) and stan-dard pelvic MRI. Bi-exponential analysis was performed to derive f (perfusion fraction), D* (pseudo-dif usion coef icient), and D (true molecular dif usion coef icient) in cervical cancer (n = 23) and the normal cervix (n= 16). The apparent dif usion coef icient (standard ADC) was calculated. The independent-samples t-test and paired-samples t-test were used for comparisons. Results Pre-treatment cervical cancer had the lowest standard ADC (1.15 ± 0.13 × 10-3 mm2/s) and D (0.89 ± 0.10 × 10-3 mm2/s) values, and these were significantly dif erent from the normal cervix and post-treatment cervical cancer (P = 0.00). The f (16.67 ± 5.85%) was lowest in pre-treatment cervical cancer and was significantly dif erent from the normal cervix and post-treatment cervical cancer (p = 0.012 and 0.00, respectively). No dif erence was observed in D*. Conclusion IVIM is potential y promising for dif erentiating between the normal cervix and cervical can-cer because pre-treated cervical cancer has low perfusion and dif usion IVIM characteristics. Further, the standard ADC, D, and f of cervical cancer showed a tendency to normalize after CRT; thus, IVIM may be useful for monitoring the response to CRT in cervical cancer.

  6. The expression andprognostic value ofprotein tyrosine kinase 6 inearly-stage cervical squamous cell cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoJingWang; YingXiong; ZeBiaoMa; JianChuanXia; YanFangLi

    2016-01-01

    Background:Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) is overexpressed in many epithelial tumors and predicts poor progno‑sis. However, PTK6 expression status and its role in cervical squamous cell cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression level and clinical signiifcance of PTK6 in early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer. Methods:Quantitative reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (qRT‑PCR) and western blotting analysis were performed to detect PTK6 mRNA and protein expression levels in 10 freshly frozen, early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer specimens and adjacent non‑tumorous cervical tissues. The expression of PTK6 was detected using immuno‑histochemical staining in 150 formalin‑ifxed, paraffn‑embedded, early‑stage cervical squamous cell cancer sections and 10 normal cervical tissue sections. Results:The mRNA and protein levels of PTK6 in cancer tissues were higher than those in adjacent non‑tumorous cervical tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PTK6 was not expressed in normal cervical tissues but was overexpressed in the cytoplasm of cervical squamous cell cancer cells. The level of PTK6 expression was signiif‑cantly associated with tumor grade (P=0.020). The 5‑year overall survival rate of patients with high PTK6 expression was lower than that of patients with low PTK6 expression (81.3% vs. 96.2%,P=0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the expression level of PTK6 in cervical squamous cell cancer was an independent prognostic factor for patient survival (hazard ratio=5.999, 95% conifdence interval 1.622–22.191,P Conclusions:PTK6 is overexpressed in cervical squamous cell cancer. Increased PTK6 expression is associated with reduced 5‑year overall survival. PTK6 expression is an independent prognostic predictor for cervical cancer.

  7. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRECURSOR LESIONS FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between reproductive variables and theprecursor lesions for cervical cancer in women attended the clinic of the lower genitaltract pathology and colposcopy (PTGIC, packed in the complex regional healthCaceres city, southwest of Mato Grosso, in the year 2009.Methods:We conducted across sectional study with data collection from medical records of 142 women withabnormal cytology, colposcopy and positive underwent directed biopsy, taking intoaccount the reproductive variables.Results:indicate that the minimum age at menarchewas 9 years and maximum age was 17 years, mean 12.6 years; on the average paritywas 3.4 children, the use of hormonal contraceptive method corresponds to 34 5% and38.1% female sterilization research, 46.5% are or have use of contraception for a periodgreater than five years, with a mean of 4.7 years and 67.2% of women surveyed do notuse condoms. The variables were not significantly associated to cervical cancer.Conclusion:the characteristics of the women studied may serve as a basis for workdirected to this population in order to seek to minimize this problem.Although the dataobtained were satisfactory, it was possible to trace the profile of the reproductiveaspects of women in the Clinic ofPTGIC, there is a lack of association betweenreproductive aspects and findings of the cervical biopsy, it may be associated with somelimiting factors of the study that need to be balanced

  8. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required.

  9. A thermosensitive gel formulation of an empirical traditional Chinese prescription for treating cervical erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Zhou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical erosion, a pathological change associated with chronic cervicitis, is a common condition that is difficult to cure. Many patients particularly those with mild or medium infection and those preparing for pregnancy require a simple but effective medication. In this study, extracts of an empirical herbal prescription composed of six Chinese traditional drugs viz Cortex Phellodendri, Rhizoma Coptidis, Olibanum, Myrrha, borneol and catechu were formulated to facilitate intravaginal administration and improve efficacy. An extract of the first four components was formulated with borneol as a thermosensitive gel (TG while an extract of catechu used to prepare a regular gel (CG because of a chemical incompatibility. The optimized TG was prepared using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188. The CG was prepared using glycerin, carbopol and triethanolamine. The gels were characterized in vitro in terms of release of berberine (TG and total catechins (CG and in vivo in a rat model of cervical erosion. Treatment by once daily application of the TG for 7 days followed by once daily application of the CG for 3 days produced a restoration of normal tissues. Gel formulation of the empirical Chinese traditional remedy appears to provide a promising treatment for cervical erosion.

  10. Significance of Ebp1 and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Li, X D; Chen, H Y; Cui, J S; Xu, D Y

    2015-10-02

    In this study, the ErbB3-binding protein (Ebp1) and p53 protein expression in cervical cancer tissues, and its significance in the prognosis of the disease was investigated. Ebp1 and p53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemical analysis in cervical cancer tissues (N = 60) and normal tissues adjacent to the cancer tissues (N = 60). The rates of positive Ebp1 and p53 protein expression were 35.0 and 60.0%, respectively. Ebp1 and p53 were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, compared to normal tissues (P p53 protein expression was not correlated with age, tumor size, or family tumor history (P > 0.05). However, high levels of expression of Ebp1 and p53 were positively correlated with the TNM stage and lymphatic metastasis in cervical cancer patients (P p53 expression levels in cervical cancer patients could support the effective prediction of metastatic potential and patient prognosis.

  11. Expression of the CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 axes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Huang; Jia Zhang; Zhu-Mei Cui; Jing Zhao; Ye Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 is highly expressed in gynecologic tumors and is widely known to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread.Recent evidence suggests that CXCL16,a novel chemokine,is overexpressed in inflammation-associated tumors and mediates pro-tumorigenic effects of inflammation in prostate cancer.We therefore analyzed the expression of CXCL12 and CXCL16 and their respective receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer and further assessed their association with clinicopathologic features and outcomes.Tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of CXCL12,CXCR4,CXCL16,and CXCR6 in healthy cervical tissue (21 cases),CIN (65 cases),and cervical carcinoma (60 cases).The association of protein expression with clinicopathologic features and overall survival was analyzed.These four proteins were clearly detected in membrane and cytoplasm of neoplastic epithelial cells,and their distribution and intensity of expression increased as neoplastic lesions progressed through CIN1,CIN2,and CIN3 to invasive cancer.Furthermore,the expression of CXCR4 was associated significantly with the histologic grade of cervical carcinoma,whereas the expression of CXCR6 was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis.In Kaplan-Meier analysis,patients with high CXCR6 expression had significantly shorter overall survival than did those with low CXCR6 expression.The elevated co-expression levels of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 in CIN and cervical carcinoma suggest a durative process in cervical carcinoma development.Moreover,CXCR6 may be useful as a biomarker and a valuable prognostic factor for cervical cancer.

  12. Rectum separation in patients with cervical cancer for treatment planning in primary chemo-radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Marnitz Simone; Budach Volker; Weißer Friederike; Burova Elena; Gebauer Bernhard; Vercellino Filiberto; Köhler Christhardt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To proof feasibility of hydrogel application in patients with advanced cervical cancer undergoing chemo-radiation in order to reduce rectal toxicity from external beam radiation as well as brachytherapy. Material and methods Under transrectal sonographic guidance five patients with proven cervical cancer underwent hydro gel (20 cc) instillation into the tip of rectovaginal septum adherent to posterior part of the visible cervical tumor. Five days after this procedure all pati...

  13. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Invasive Cervical Cancer in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Asif; Serrano, Beatriz; Rasheed, Farah; Tous, Sara; Hassan, Mariam; Clavero, Omar; Raza, Muhammad; De Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Alemany, Laia

    2016-07-30

    Few studies have assessed the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Pakistan. We aim to provide specific information on HPV-type distribution in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the country. A total of 280 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were consecutively selected from Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (Lahore, Pakistan). HPV-DNA was detected by SPF10 broad-spectrum PCR followed by DNA enzyme immunoassay and genotyping by LiPA25. HPV-DNA prevalence was 87.5% (95%CI: 83.0-91.1), with 96.1% of cases histologically classified as squamous cell carcinoma. Most of the HPV-DNA positive cases presented single infections (95.9%). HPV16 was the most common type followed by HPV18 and 45. Among HPV-DNA positive, a significantly higher contribution of HPV16/18 was detected in Pakistan (78.4%; 72.7-83.3), compared to Asia (71.6%; 69.9-73.4) and worldwide (70.8%; 69.9-71.8) and a lower contribution of HPVs31/33/45/52/58 (11.1%; 7.9-15.7 vs. 19.8%; 18.3-21.3 and 18.5%; 17.7-19.3). HPV18 or HPV45 positive ICC cases were significantly younger than cases infected by HPV16 (mean age: 43.3, 44.4, 50.5 years, respectively). A routine cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination program does not yet exist in Pakistan; however, the country could benefit from national integrated efforts for cervical cancer prevention and control. Calculated estimations based on our results show that current HPV vaccine could potentially prevent new ICC cases.

  14. Pretreatment plasma levels and diagnostic utility of hematopoietic cytokines in cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Będkowska, Grażyna E; Gacuta-Szumarska, Ewa; Knapp, Paweł; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2012-07-04

    In this study, we compared plasma levels and the diagnostic utility of hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) with SCC-Ag in cervical cancer patients in relation to control groups and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy subjects. Pretreatment plasma levels of HGFs (SCF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF) were determined by the use of immunoenzyme assay (ELISA), and SCC-Ag by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Significantly different concentrations of GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF were observed in the group of patients with cervical cancer and CIN compared to the healthy controls. Significant differences in plasma levels of GM-CSF and M-CSF between cervical cancer and benign lesions patients were also found. The HGFs and SCC-Ag diagnostic specificities received high values. The diagnostic sensitivity and the predictive value of a positive and negative test result were higher for M-CSF than for antigen SCC in the cancer group. The M-CSF area under the ROC curve (AUC) was the largest from hematopoietic cytokines and SCC-Ag. These results suggest the potential utility of M-CSF as a good candidate for a marker of cervical cancer as well as benign lesions of this organ (CIN).

  15. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, Rene H. M.; Veldhuis, WB

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our terti

  16. The utility of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jianyu, E-mail: Chenjianyu5562@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Zhang Yun, E-mail: Zhangyun.7@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, 510060 (China) and Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510060 (China); Liang Biling, E-mail: liangbil@126.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Yang Zehong, E-mail: Yangzehong2000@163.co [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiangxi Road, Guangzhou 510120 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the value of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) in detection of cervical cancer, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for evaluating cervical cancer before and after chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: Thirty-three patients with cervical squamous carcinoma and 20 patients with other pelvic abnormalities underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in addition to routine MR imaging. The ADC values of normal cervical tissue, cervical area before and after chemoradiotherapy were measured and compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed to investigate whether ADC values could help in discrimination among normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer before and after therapy, and to obtain the optimal ADC threshold value. Results: Cervical cancer lesion demonstrated obviously hyperintensity on DWI images. The mean ADC value of cervical carcinoma (1.110 {+-} 0.175 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly lower than that of normal cervical tissue (1.593 {+-} 0.151 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The mean ADC value of the cervical area in 22 patients treated by chemoradiotherapy (1.436 {+-} 0.129 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher than that before therapy (1.013 {+-} 0.094 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) (P < 0.001). The difference of ADC values between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The optimal ADC threshold values for distinguishing between normal cervical tissue and cervical carcinoma was 1.359 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between cervical area before and after therapy was 1.255 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, between normal cervical tissue and cervical area after therapy was 1.525 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 84.8%, 95.5% and 100%, 70% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: DWI can be applied for the detection of cervical cancer because of its superior

  17. Expression of Pin1 and Ki67 in Cervical Cancer and Their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the expression levels of Pin1 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer and its association with Ki67 and their clinical significance, amplification of Pin1 gene was examined by RT-PCR, and the expression of both Pin1 and Ki67 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in cervical cancer tissues. It was shown that the expression levels of Pin1 were higher in cervical cancer than in normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). The expression of Pin1 protein was increased progressively along with the disease process from normal cervix to CIN and to cervical cancer (P<0. 05). No significant difference in the Pin1 expression was found between disease stages (FIGO),pathological grades or pelvic lymph node metastasis status (P>0.05). The expression of Pin1 was significantly higher in adenocarcinoma than insquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix (P<0.05).In cervical cancer, the overexpression of Pin1 was positively correlated with that of Ki67 (P<0.05). These results suggested that the overexpression of Pin1 was closely related with cancer cell proliferation or progression of cervical cancer and contributed to oncogenesis. Pin1 may serve as a potential marker for cervical cancer diagnosis.

  18. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  19. Optimization of adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer: Solutions for photon and proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, A.J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In cervical cancer radiation therapy, an adaptive strategy is required to compensate for interfraction anatomical variations in order to achieve adequate dose delivery. In this thesis, we have aimed at optimizing adaptive radiation therapy in cervical cancer to improve treatment efficiency and reduc

  20. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  1. Iodine-125 radioactive seed tissue implantation as a remedy treatment for recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Iodine-125 radioactive seed tissue implantation is a feasible, effective, and safe treatment method for remedying or palliative treatment of recurrent cervical cancer. Patients who have recurrent cervical cancer and responded effectively to radioactive seed implantation will have a longer survival period.

  2. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...

  3. Isolated mandibular condylar metastases: An uncommon manifestation of recurrent cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya D Puranik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases from recurrent cervical cancer is a rare scenario, with commonly involved sites being lumbar spine and pelvic bones report an extremely rare manifestation of cervical cancer recurrence presenting as a painful jaw swelling due to metastasis to the mandibular condyle.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening after Perimenopause: How Is Human Papillomavirus Test Performed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in women around the world. Recently in Korea, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased, but in all stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), CIN has shown a 91% increase from 1999 to 2008. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found to be the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 have been found in 70% of cervical cancer patients around the world. Cervical cancer screening such as cytology has limitations in terms of sensitivity and specificity. A discussion about the need for the HPV test is becoming active in order to compensate for the limitation of cytology. After the role of HPV in cervical cancer was identified, the importance of HPV detection test as a screening was emphasized. Several tests have been developed and each test has its own advantages and disadvantages, and new test method to overcome the disadvantages is still being developed. Today's guidelines and tests are those you would choose from among the large number of cervical cancer screening guidelines and tests, based on the consideration that the selected guidelines and the test are effective.

  5. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  6. The diagnostic process of cervical cancer; areas of good practice, and windows of opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.; de Wilde, Marlieke; Duk, M.J.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; van Haaften, Maarten; von Mensdorff-Pouilly, S.; van Diest, Paul J.; Zweemer, RP; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Verheijen, RHM

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite an extensive screening programme in The Netherlands, some cases of cervical cancer are still diagnosed in late stages of disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate which elements in the diagnostic process of cervical cancer may be improved. Methods This is a retrospec

  7. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); F. Mols (Floortje); L.V. van de Poll-Franse (Lonneke); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive afte

  8. Radical surgery in patients with residual disease after (chemo)radiation for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Aniek; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Klip, Harry; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Thomas, Gillian; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible impact of routinely scheduled biopsies and more radical surgery for residual central disease in locally advanced cervical cancer after (chemo) radiation. Methods/Materials: Data were analyzed of a consecutive series of cervical cancer patien

  9. Individualised 3D printed vaginal template for MRI guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Madsen, Mikkel Lænsø; Traberg, Anders; Meisner, Bjarne; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Tanderup, Kari; Spejlborg, Harald; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik; Nørrevang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Intracavitary-interstitial applicators for MRI guided brachytherapy are becoming increasingly important in locally advanced cervical cancer. The 3D printing technology enables a versatile method for obtaining a high degree of individualisation of the implant. Our clinical workflow is presented and exemplified by a stage IVA cervical cancer with superior dose distribution.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: comparison of screening policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Akker-van Marle; M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); R. Boer (Rob); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Recommended screening policies for cervical cancer differ widely among countries with respect to targeted age range, screening interval, and total number of scheduled screening examinations (i.e., Pap smears). We compared the efficiency of cervical cancer-sc

  11. Development of a next generation Semliki Forest virus-based DNA vaccine against cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Wall, Stephanie; Ljungberg, Karl; Peng IP, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Nijman, Hans W.; Liljeström, Peter; Daemen, Toos

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women worldwide. The disease develops as a result of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) through persistent expression of early proteins E6 and E7 with transforming capacities in cervical epithelial cells. Our group pioneered

  12. The diagnostic value of serum hybrid capture 2 (CH2) HPV DNA in cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Duo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ning; Ouyang, Ling; Lu, Yanming; Zhang, Yao; Wei, Heng; Zhang, Shulan

    2014-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer remains a clinical challenge, and a number of studies have used the serum hybrid capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the overall accuracy of HC2 HPV DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. A systematic review of studies from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Ovid, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database-disc, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Technology of Chongqing (VIP), and Wan Fang database was conducted, and the data concerning the accuracy of HC2 HPV DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer were pooled. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS). Statistical analysis was performed by employing Meta-DiSc (version 1.4) and Stata (version 12.0) software. The overall test performance was summarized using receiver operating characteristic curves. Finally, 12 studies, including 12,492 subjects, met the inclusion criteria and then included in this present meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum HC2 HPV DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer were as follows: sensitivity 0.83 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.85), specificity 0.71 (95 % CI 0.69-0.72), positive likelihood ratio 3.65 (95 % CI 1.77-7.54), negative likelihood ratio 0.32 (95 % CI 0.21-0.48), and diagnostic odds ratio 10.54 (95 % CI 4.95-22.46), and the area under the curve was 0.8922. Our findings suggest that HC2 HPV DNA may improve the accuracy of cervical cancer diagnosis, while the results of HC2 HPV DNA assays should be interpreted in parallel with conventional test results and other clinical findings.

  13. Robotic thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Se Hyun; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2016-06-01

    A robotic approach for thyroid surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide many technical advantages. This approach facilitates the surgeon's control through a magnified three-dimensional view, decreased tremor, and freedom of motion with articulated instruments. Robotic thyroidectomy is safe and technically feasible in patients with well-differentiated, low-risk thyroid cancer. Furthermore, robotic thyroidectomy may become a good surgical alternative option for patients with more advanced thyroid cancer. Our modified bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for central and lateral cervical neck lymph node (LN) dissection has yielded excellent surgical outcomes as an open procedure. The incorporation of robotics in thyroid cancer surgery will continue to evolve, and the surgical indications for robotic thyroidectomy will continue to expand. Further analyses that include long-term outcomes and randomized comparative trials remain important.

  14. Radiotherapy combined with surgery as treatment for advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perches, R.D.; Lobaton, A.T.; Garcia, M.C.

    1983-12-01

    Experience obtained in a group of 44 patients with advanced cervical cancer is reported. In this study, patients with residual cancer underwent laparotomy eight weeks after one or two different radiotherapy protocols. Sixty-eight percent of patients underwent radical surgery, 85% of patients pelvic exenterations, and 15% radical hysterectomies. In 27% of patients, no evidence of residual cancer was found in surgical specimens. Radical surgery was well tolerated, and one-third of patients were free of disease for one year or more. Control of disease was obtained in 50% of pelvic extenterations and in 60% of radical hysterectomies, regardless of prognosis, clinical stage or radiotherapy scheme. Although results show an improvement of up to 22% when comparing this to other more conventional treatments, it has been concluded that a wider experience in order to support the findings must be obtained.

  15. Radiotherapy combined with surgery as treatment for advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perches, R.D.; Lobaton, A.T.; Garcia, M.C.

    1983-12-01

    Experience obtained in a group of 44 patients with advanced cervical cancer is reported. In this study, patients with residual cancer underwent laparotomy eight weeks after one or two different radiotherapy protocols. Sixty-eight percent of patients underwent radical surgery, 85% of patients pelvic exenterations, and 15% radical hysterectomies. In 27% of patients, no evidence of residual cancer was found in surgical specimens. Radical surgery was well tolerated, and one-third of patients were free of disease for one year or more. Control of disease was obtained in 50% of pelvic extenterations and in 60% of radical hysterectomies, regardless of prognosis, clinical stage or radiotherapy scheme. Although results show an improvement of up to 22% when comparing this to other more conventional treatments, it has been concluded that we must obtain a wider experience in order to support the findingsmust be obtained.

  16. Radiotherapy combined with surgery as treatment for advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, R D; Lobaton, A T; Garcia, M C

    1983-12-01

    Experience obtained in a group of 44 patients with advanced cervical cancer is reported here. In this study, patients with residual cancer underwent laparotomy eight weeks after one or two different radiotherapy protocols. Sixty-eight percent of patients underwent radical surgery, 85% of patients pelvic exenterations, and 15% radical hysterectomies. In 27% of patients, no evidence of residual cancer was found in surgical specimens. Radical surgery was well tolerated, and one-third of patients were free of disease for one year or more. Control of disease was obtained in 50% of pelvic exenterations and in 60% of radical hysterectomies, regardless of prognosis, clinical stage or radiotherapy scheme. Although results show an improvement of up to 22% when comparing this to other more conventional treatments, we have concluded that we must obtain a wider experience in order to support our findings.

  17. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we identified 153...... cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio......, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. RESULTS: Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113...

  18. Analysis of human papillomavirus E7 protein status in C-33A cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Jenewein, Brigitte; Pircher, Haymo; Rostek, Ursula; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Zwerschke, Werner

    2015-02-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the main etiologic factor for the development of cervical cancer. Infections by these viruses have been detected in virtually all cervical cancers. C-33A is one of the rare cervical cancer derived cell lines considered as HPV-negative. Employing monoclonal antibodies raised against a conformational epitope of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein, we present evidence suggesting that E7-positive cells can be sporadically and transiently detected in C-33A cell cultures. Immunoblotting with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal anti-HPV 16 E7 antisera and q-RT-PCR analysis suggest that these cells do probably not express HPV-16 E7. Moreover, we show that the HPV E7 protein level differs considerably between individual cells in cultures of several established cervical cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that expression of the E7 protein is variable in established cervical cancer cell lines including C-33A cells.

  19. Time since first sexual intercourse and the risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plummer, Martyn; Peto, Julian; Franceschi, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Young age at first sexual intercourse (AFI) is an important risk factor for cervical cancer, but no simple statistical model of its influence has been established. We investigated the relationship between risk of cervical carcinoma and time since first intercourse using data on monogamous women (5...... proportional to the square of time since first intercourse (exponent 1.95, 95% CI: 1.76-2.15) up to age 45. First cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) often occurs soon after first sexual intercourse, so early AFI is a reasonable proxy for early age at first exposure to HPV. In addition, age......-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer in unscreened populations remain fairly constant above age 45. Cervical cancer thus resembles other cancers caused by strong early-stage carcinogens, with incidence rates proportional to a power of time since first exposure and also resembles cancers of the breast...

  20. Molecular tests to detect human papillomavirus infection in patients with cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait KH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Sait1, Faten S Gazzaz21Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, 2Medical Virology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine the actual human papillomavirus (HPV subtype that presents in cervical dysplasia and invasive carcinoma in the Saudi population, and the feasibility of using Hybrid Capture 2 technique (HC2 on biopsy specimens to detect certain HPV subtypes.Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted from March 2007 to December 2008. The subjects studied were women with a mean age of 48.18 years, who attended the hospital for cervical biopsy due to the suspected diagnosis of cervical dysplasia or an invasive disease, based on previous suspicious Pap smear. HPV DNA hybridization by HC2 was performed on the cervical biopsies of these patients, to detect HPV infection.Results: During the period of this study, 45 patients had cervical biopsies taken for HPV testing. Seven patients had a negative HC2 result and were found to have no cervical dysplasia on the final pathology review. Seventeen cases with cervical dysplasia and 21 patients with invasive disease were presented; the mean age was 48 years. HC2 testing for HPV were found to be positive in patients with cervical dysplasia, invasive carcinoma, and all in 5 (29.4%, 13 (61.9% and 18 (47.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the test is 47% and specificity is 100%.Conclusion: The use of molecular detection of HPV DNA by HC2 in biopsy is feasible and effective. These results confirm the finding that HPV contributes to the etiology of cervical cancer in Muslim society.Keywords: HPV, subtyping, cervical neoplasia

  1. Dosimetrically Triggered Adaptive Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Stewart, James [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kelly, Valerie [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xie, Jason [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brock, Kristy K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moseley, Joanne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, Young-Bin; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Löf, Johan [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael, E-mail: mike.milosevic@rmp.uhn.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The widespread use of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for cervical cancer has been limited by internal target and normal tissue motion. Such motion increases the risk of underdosing the target, especially as planning margins are reduced in an effort to reduce toxicity. This study explored 2 adaptive strategies to mitigate this risk and proposes a new, automated method that minimizes replanning workload. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with cervical cancer participated in a prospective clinical study and underwent pretreatment and weekly magnetic resonance (MR) scans over a 5-week course of daily external beam radiation therapy. Target volumes and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured on each of the scans. Deformable image registration was used to model the accumulated dose (the real dose delivered to the target and OARs) for 2 adaptive replanning scenarios that assumed a very small PTV margin of only 3 mm to account for setup and internal interfractional motion: (1) a preprogrammed, anatomy-driven midtreatment replan (A-IMRT); and (2) a dosimetry-triggered replan driven by target dose accumulation over time (D-IMRT). Results: Across all 30 patients, clinically relevant target dose thresholds failed for 8 patients (27%) if 3-mm margins were used without replanning. A-IMRT failed in only 3 patients and also yielded an additional small reduction in OAR doses at the cost of 30 replans. D-IMRT assured adequate target coverage in all patients, with only 23 replans in 16 patients. Conclusions: A novel, dosimetry-triggered adaptive IMRT strategy for patients with cervical cancer can minimize the risk of target underdosing in the setting of very small margins and substantial interfractional motion while minimizing programmatic workload and cost.

  2. Short-course palliative radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hye; Ki, Yong Kan; Kim, Won Taek; Park, Dahl; Kim, Dong Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ji Ho; Jeon, Sang Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of short-course hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) for the palliation of uterine cervical cancer. Seventeen patients with cancer of the uterine cervix, who underwent palliative hypofractionated 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between January 2002 and June 2012, were retrospectively analyzed. RT was delivered to symptomatic lesions (both the primary mass and/or metastatic regional lymph nodes). The total dose was 20 to 25 Gy (median, 25 Gy) in 5 Gy daily fractions. The median follow-up duration was 12.2 months (range, 4 to 24 months). The median survival time was 7.8 months (range, 4 to 24 months). Vaginal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom followed by pelvic pain (9 patients). The overall response rates were 93.8% and 66.7% for vaginal bleeding control and pelvic pain, respectively. Nine patients did not have any acute side effects and 7 patients showed minor gastrointestinal toxicity. Only 1 patient had grade 3 diarrhea 1 week after completion of treatment, which was successfully treated conservatively. Late complications occurred in 4 patients; however, none of these were of grade 3 or higher severity. Short-course hypofractionated RT was effective and well tolerated as palliative treatment for uterine cervical cancer.

  3. Requirement for estrogen receptor alpha in a mouse model for human papillomavirus-associated cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Wiedmeyer, Kerri; Shai, Anny; Korach, Kenneth S; Lambert, Paul F

    2008-12-01

    The majority of human cervical cancers are associated with the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV), which encode the potent E6 and E7 oncogenes. On prolonged treatment with physiologic levels of exogenous estrogen, K14E7 transgenic mice expressing HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein in their squamous epithelia succumb to uterine cervical cancer. Furthermore, prolonged withdrawal of exogenous estrogen results in complete or partial regression of tumors in this mouse model. In the current study, we investigated whether estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is required for the development of cervical cancer in K14E7 transgenic mice. We show that exogenous estrogen fails to promote either dysplasia or cervical cancer in K14E7/ERalpha-/- mice despite the continued presence of the presumed cervical cancer precursor cell type, reserve cells, and evidence for E7 expression therein. We also observed that cervical cancers in our mouse models are strictly associated with atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM), which is believed to be the precursor for cervical cancer in women. Consistently, E7 and exogenous estrogen failed to promote ASM in the absence of ERalpha. We conclude that ERalpha plays a crucial role at an early stage of cervical carcinogenesis in this mouse model.

  4. A panel of autoantibodies as potential early diagnostic serum biomarkers in patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Mingmei; Xu, Shuang; Li, Siyao; Sun, Baosheng; Lee, Kuang-Hui; Liu, Linlin; Sun, Shilong

    2016-07-01

    The study was designed to test whether circulating autoantibodies against associated antigens (TAAs) were altered in early cervical cancer and benign cervical tumors. A total of 111 cervical cancer patients, 137 cervical benign tumor patients, and 160 healthy volunteers matched in age were recruited in this study. The expression of autoantibodies was tested using in-house developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with linear peptide envelope antigens derived from TAAs. One-way ANOVA test showed that there was no difference in the CD25 autoantibody expression among the cervical cancer group, benign tumor group, and healthy control group (P = 0.063; P = 0.191). The expression of autoantibodies against survivin and TP53 in the cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in the benign tumor group (P cervical cancer group than in the healthy control group (P = 0.010; P = 0.001), while autoantibodies in the cervical cancer group showed no difference in expression compared with that in the benign tumor group. The panel of five TAAs showed a sensitivity of 37.8 % and a specificity of 90 %, which was much higher than the sensitivity of the single-TAA testing group. The data from this study further support our previous hypothesis that the detection of autoantibodies for the diagnosis of a specific cancer type can be enhanced using a panel of several selected TAAs as target antigens.

  5. Correlation of DNA Ploidy with Progression of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of squamous cell carcinomas of cervix are preceded by visible changes in the cervix, most often detected by cervical smear. As cervical cancer is preceded by long precancerous stages, identification of the high-risk population through detection of DNA ploidy may be of importance in effective management of this disease. Here we attempted to correlate aneuploid DNA patterns and their influence on biological behavior of flow-cytometry analysis of DNA ploidy which was carried out in cytologically diagnosed cases of mild (79, moderate (36, and severe (12 dysplasia, as well as “atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS” (57 along with controls (69, in order to understand its importance in malignant progression of disease. Cytologically diagnosed dysplasias, which were employed for DNA ploidy studies, 39 mild, 28 moderate, and 11 severe dysplasia cases were found to be aneuploid. Out of the 69 control subjects, 6 cases showed aneuploidy pattern and the rest 63 subjects were diploid. An aneuploidy pattern was observed in 8 out of 57 cases of cytologically evaluated ASCUS. The results of the followup studies showed that aberrant DNA content reliably predicts the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical smear. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA ploidy may provide a strategic diagnostic tool for early detection of carcinoma cervix. Therefore, it is a concept of an HPV screening with reflex cytology in combination with DNA flow cytometry to detect progressive lesions with the greatest possible sensitivity and specificity.

  6. From cancer screening to treatment: service delivery and referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D; Royalty, Janet E; Richardson, Lisa C

    2014-08-15

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies.

  7. Dermatomyositis related to the relapse of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dermatomyositis (DM is a rare syndrome which belongs to the group of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM. The diagnosis of DM in adults is an indication for diagnostic evaluation towards malignancy. The exacerbation of clinical symptoms or laboratory markers of DM may indicate the relapse of neoplasm, therefore close follow-up visits of patients are obligatory. We present the case of a woman with a two-month history of progressive muscle weakness, dysphagia and oedemo-erythematous skin lesions limited to the face and trunk. The patient was diagnosed with DM associated with the relapse of cervical cancer.

  8. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3...

  9. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves.

  10. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs.

  11. Vaginal cancer in a patient treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsopoulos, G; Adonakis, G; Ravazoula, P; Kourounis, G

    2006-01-01

    In 1% to 3% of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) will either coexist or occur at a later date. The time interval from an earlier diagnosis of CIN 3 to a current diagnosis of VAIN 3 varies from two to 17 years. Invasive vaginal cancer occurred in a woman five years after total abdominal hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In women who have undergone total hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer, postoperative cytologic and colposcopic follow-up of the vagina is necessary.

  12. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines......This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...

  13. Exploring the barriers to health care and psychosocial challenges in cervical cancer management in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngutu M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mariah Ngutu, Isaac K Nyamongo Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies (IAGAS, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 years and 44 years in Kenya, resulting in an estimated 4,802 women being diagnosed with cervical cancer and 2,451 dying from the disease annually. It is often detected at its advanced invasive stages, resulting in a protracted illness upon diagnosis. This qualitative study looked at the illness trajectories of women living with cervical cancer enrolled for follow-up care at Kenyatta National Hospital cancer treatment center and the Nairobi Hospice, both in Nairobi county, Kenya. Using the qualitative phenomenological approach, data were collected through 18 in-depth interviews with women living with cervical cancer between April and July 2011. In-depth interviews with their caregivers, key informant interviews with health care workers, and participant observation field notes were used to provide additional qualitative data. These data were analyzed based on grounded theory’s inductive approach. Two key themes on which the data analysis was then anchored were identified, namely, psychosocial challenges of cervical cancer and structural barriers to quality health care. Findings indicated a prolonged illness trajectory with psychosocial challenges, fueled by structural barriers that women were faced with after a cervical cancer diagnosis. To address issues relevant to the increasing numbers of women with cervical cancer, research studies need to include larger samples of these women. Also important are studies that allow in-depth understanding of the experiences of women living with cervical cancer. Keywords: qualitative, illness trajectories, women, cervical cancer

  14. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  15. [VEGF--targeted therapy for the treatment of cervical cancer --literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon-Perzyńska, Magdalena; Perzyński, Aleksander; Rembielak-Stawecka, Beata; Michalski, Bogdan; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2014-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Advances in the knowledge about molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis have created opportunities for greater use of targeted therapies in contemporary oncology In view of the unsatisfactory results of advanced cervical cancer treatment and a well-documented role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members in pathogenesis and progression of cervical cancer, the use of VEGF-targeted therapy in the treatment of cervical cancer offers interesting possibilities. The efficacy of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody neutralizing VEGF-A in the treatment of cervical cancer was first suggested in 2006 by a small retrospective analysis and confirmed in several Phase II clinical trials. Preliminary results of the randomized phase III studies presented at this year's ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology) conference shed new light on the role of VEGF-targeted therapy in the treatment of cervical cancer as they demonstrated that addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy is associated with significantly improved overall survival in the group of patients with persistent, recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer.

  16. Meta-analysis of type-specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Tohidi, Hamid Reza; Hamkar, Rasool

    2015-02-01

    To predict the impact of current vaccines on cervical cancer and for the improvement of screening programs, regional data on distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with or without cervical cancer is crucial. The present meta-analysis intend to comprehensively evaluate the HPV burden in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology, as these data will help decision making in regards with screening programs and HPV vaccination in Iran. To determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in Iranian women with or without cervical cancer, 20 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. In total, 713, 124, 104, 60, and 2577 women invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal were reviewed, respectively. Overall HPV prevalence in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology were 77.4%, 71.8%, 65.3%, 61.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. The six most common types were HPV 16, 18, 6/11, 31, and 33; among them HPV 16 was the most frequent type in all five different groups. According to this study, it was estimated that HPV vaccines could have a great impact on prevention of cervical cancer in Iran. In conclusion, this meta-analysis highlights the necessity of introducing vaccination program in Iran.

  17. Promoter polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 and risk of cervical cancer in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Woong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon Beom; Lee, Hyo Pyo

    2005-01-20

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 promoter gene -1607 bp region and cervical cancer risk in Korean women. The blood samples of 232 cervical cancer patients and 332 non-cancer control subjects who managed at Seoul National University Hospital from 1999 to 2002 were collected. Polymorphism in MMP-1 promoter -1607 region was determined using TaqMan method. Allele frequency and genotype distribution in the cervical cancer group were compared with those of the control group to determine whether this polymorphism elevates the susceptibility of Korean women to cervical cancer. The relationship between this SNP and cancer invasiveness was also evaluated by collating clinicopathologic data of those in the cancer group, such as FIGO stage, lymph node status, histologic type and parametrial invasion. In the cervical cancer group, the allele frequency of 2G was 66.1%, in the control group 68.2%, showing no significant difference (P=0.41). Similarly the genotypes with insertion (2G/2G) or deletion (1G/1G) polymorphism showed no increased risk for cervical cancer susceptibility compared with 1G/2G genotype. A subgroup analysis of the clinicopathologic parameters in cancer group also showed no significant difference suggesting the lack of an association between SNP of the MMP-1 promoter -1607 bp region and cervical cancer invasiveness. In conclusion, this study shows that Korean with specific polymorphism in MMP-1 are neither more susceptible to develop cervical cancer nor more vulnerable for cancer progression.

  18. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities.

  19. New paradigms in cervical cancer prevention: opportunities and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Rossi Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing for the DNA of high-risk types of papilloma virus (HPV is more sensitive than cytology in detecting pre-cancerous lesions. One of the main advantages will be the possibility of applying prolonged screening intervals. However adequate screening protocols (age of start and stop, screening intervals, management of HPV positive women need to be applied in order to avoid over-referral to colposcopy and over-treatment and to maintain sustainable costs. Further follow-up of running trials and research on molecular markers will better define these parameters. The new situation will require organised screening programmes with rigorous protocols and monitoring. This will be even more needed when women vaccinated for HPV 16 and 18 will be screened. Research on how to best screen vaccinated women is a priority. This paper proposes an overview of the plausible impact of new technologies in cervical cancer screening in the near future and in the vaccinated cohorts.

  20. Overexpression of p53 Gene in Esophageal and Cervical Cancer and the Relationship with Radiotherapy Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓智; 王晓丽; 李旭

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between p53 protein overexpression in esophageal and cervical squamous cell cancer and their clinical radiosensitivity. Methods: The immuno-histochemical assays were done for 52 cases with esophageal and cervical squamous cell cancer. The relationship between the assay results and short-term radiotherapy was investigated. Results: p53 overer-pression was 52.38% and 35. 48% respectively, in esophageal cancer and cervical cancer;p53 over-expression in high differentiated squamous cell cancer was knver than these in moderate and poor differentiated cases(P0. 05). In the cases of cervical cancer, p53 overexpression had the less short-term effect(P0. 05).Conclusion:This study suggests that p53 gene has the certain relationship with tumor radiosensitivity.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Allie K. [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wise-Draper, Trisha M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wells, Susanne I., E-mail: Susanne.Wells@cchmc.org [Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  2. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allie K. Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  3. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  4. Cervicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  5. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cann...

  6. SEXUAL FUNCTIONING AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CERVICAL CANCER SURVIVORS AFTER SURGERY AND RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant R Kumbhaj

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Cervical cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy had worse sexual functioning than did those treated with radical hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Appropriate measures like Pelvic exercises, Yoga, vaginal dilators, vaginal cream should be used to decrease radiotherapy related side effects on sexual functioning. Cervical cancer survivors treated with surgery alone can expect overall quality of life and sexual function not unlike that of peers without a history of cancer. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 116-118

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a prognostic marker for patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Beilei; Yao, Yuanqing; Yin, Guowu

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains one of the most common malignancies in women. Previous study proved MMP-9 might be prognostic marker for multiple human malignancies. The present study was to investigate the protein expression of MMP-9 in cervical cancer and its association with clinicopathological characteristics as well as prognosis of patients. Cervical cancer specimens from 225 cases who had not received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to surgery were collected. Immunochemistry assays were utilized to investigate MMP-9 protein expression. Results showed that MMP-9 expression was increased in cervical cancer and associated with stromal invasion, FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, and vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with cervical cancer of positive MMP-9 staining tend to have worse overall survival. In multivariate analysis stratified for known prognostic variables, MMP-9 was proved to be an independent prognostic factor. The present study confirmed that MMP-9 expression in cervical cancer was an independent prognostic factor of patients, which might be a potential diagnostic and even therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  8. Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coronado Interis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants’ intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7% screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.

  9. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (p<0.001) compared to students from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer.

  10. Relationship between hTERC gene and precancerous lesion as well as occurrence and development of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hong Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship betweenhTERC gene and precancerous lesion as well as occurrence and development of cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 120 cases receiving cervical biopsy in our hospital from May 2012 to December 2014 were selected for study, 45 cases of normal cervical tissue and inflammatory cervical tissue, 37 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and 38 cases of cervical cancer tissue were included.hTERC gene expression, oncogene expression and invasive molecule contents in cervical tissue were detected.Results:Green signal copy number and red signal copy number ofhTERC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and normal cervical tissue, and the contents of hTERTand hTP were not different from those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and normal cervical tissue; the contents of proteins encoded by p63, TNFAIP8, SRX, P459arom and Piwil2 as well as the contents of RbAp48, Furin, MT1-MMP, TGF-β1, FoxM1, uPA and tPA in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue and normal cervical tissue; the contents of proteins encoded by p63, TNFAIP8, SRX, P459arom and Piwil2 as well as the contents of RbAp48, Furin, MT1-MMP, TGF-β1, FoxM1, uPA and tPA in cervical cancer tissue with high expression of hTERC were significantly higher than those in cervical cancer tissue with low expression of hTERC.Conclusions:Activation of telomerase and increase of hTERC expression are involved in the precancerous lesion as well as the occurrence and development of cervical cancer, and hTERC can activate the expression of oncogenes and.

  11. Paraneoplastic SIADH and Dermatomyositis in Cervical Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Jones

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the first known case of a patient with cervical squamous cell carcinoma complicated by paraneoplastic syndromes of both dermatomyositis and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. The patient in this case presented with generalized body pain and vaginal bleeding. Her cervical cancer was diagnosed as stage IIB by physical exam, imaging, and cervical biopsy, her dermatomyositis was confirmed by muscle and skin biopsy, and her SIADH was diagnosed based on laboratory findings.

  12. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  13. Factors Mediating the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Cervical Cancer Among Thai Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananowan, Nanthana; Vongsirimas, Nopporn

    2016-02-01

    Previous research suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV), particularly physical or sexual violence, was associated with cervical cancer. However, there is less work examining the mechanism of the relationship between IPV and cervical cancer. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine psychosocial factors (e.g., stress, social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) as mediators of the relationship between IPV and cervical cancer among 532 Thai women with gynecological problems. About 21.1% of participants reported any type of IPV (e.g., physical, sexual, or emotional violence) in the past year and 22.2% had cervical cancer. IPV was significantly positively associated with stress, depressive symptoms, and cervical cancer but negatively correlated with social support and self-esteem. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that not only did IPV exhibit significantly direct effects on social support, stress, and depressive symptoms, and indirect effects on self-esteem, but it also had a significant, positive, total effect on cervical cancer. IPV exhibited the significant indirect effect on cervical cancer through social support, self-esteem, stress, and depressive symptoms. The model fitted very well to the empirical data and explained 9% of variance. The findings affirmed that those psychosocial factors were mediators of the relationship between IPV and cervical cancer. Health care protocols for abused women should include screening for and treatment of IPV-related psychosocial factors. Interventions that provide social support and protect self-esteem should reduce stress and depressive symptoms among abused women, thereby reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

  14. Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women with human papilloma virus (HPV associated cervical neoplasia have a higher risk of developing breast cancer than the general female population. The purpose of this study was to (i identify high risk for cancer HPVs in cervical neoplasia and subsequent HPV positive breast cancers which developed in the same patients and (ii determine if these HPVs were biologically active.Methods: A range of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of cervical precancers and subsequent breast cancers in the same patients. Results: The same high risk HPV types were identified in both the cervical and breast specimens in 13 (46% of 28 patients. HPV type 18 was the most prevalent. HPVs appeared to be biologically active as demonstrated by the expression of HPV E7 proteins and the presence of HPV associated koilocytes. The average age of these patients diagnosed with breast cancer following prior cervical precancer was 51 years, as compared to 60 years for all women with breast cancer (p for difference = 0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate that high risk HPVs can be associated with cervical neoplasia and subsequent young age breast cancer. However these associations are unusual and are a very small proportion of breast cancers. These outcomes confirm and extend the observations of 2 similar previous studies and offer one explanation for the increased prevalence of serious invasive breast cancer among young women.

  15. Methylation Markers for CCNA1 and C13ORF18 Are Strongly Associated with High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer in Cervical Scrapings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Nan; Eijsink, Jasper J. H.; Lendvai, Agnes; Volders, Haukeline H.; Klip, Harry; Buikema, Henk J.; van Hemel, Bettien M.; Schuuring, Ed; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Wisman, G. Bea A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, we reported 13 possible cervical cancer-specific methylated biomarkers identified by pharmacologic unmasking microarray in combination with large-genome computational screening. The aim of the present study was to perform an in-depth analysis of the methylation patterns of these 1

  16. [Prognostic value of cell heterogeneity in cervical cancer determined by digital image analyzer of DNA content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete, I; Gaudi, I; Szerdahelyi, A; Tóth, E; Pulay, T; Szentirmay, Z

    2000-10-01

    Frequency and prognostic value of cell heterogeneity in FIGO 1a-2a cervical cancer was examined, in 66 of patients underwent Wertheim type hysterectomy between 1989 and 1995 in National Institute of Cancer, Budapest, Hungary. A newly developed DNA image analyses (DNACE) was used in paraffin embedded tissues after enzymatic hydrolyses for evaluation of the DNA content in cervical cancer. In 30.3% of examined tissues (20/66) two subgroups was found. There was significant differences in the DNA indexes (DI) between the subgroups (p = 0.0001). In the remaining 69.7% of the cases only one subgroup was present. The frequency of two subgroups was higher between aneuploid (78.4%), or hyperploid (81.5%) type cervical cancer, however there was no significant difference between the two groups. On the other hand there was significant difference in the presence of two subgroups between the well and less differentiated cervical cancer. The frequency was higher between the less differentiated groups (p = 0.02). Looking at the prognostic value of subgroups, there was no significant correlation between the heterogeneity of cervical cancer and FIGO stage, or lymph node metastasis (p = 0.6855), or vascular/lymphatic space infiltration (p = 0.2558), or invasiveness of cancer (0.0823). There was neither significant value found between the outcome of disease and the number of subgroups present (p = 0.8738). It is though that the present of cellular heterogeneity in cervical cancer is connected with the differentiation of the cancer cells, and can be a good prognostic value in the anticipation of the aggressiveness of cervical cancer. Looking at the present result, there was no significant connection between the heterogeneity of cervical cancer and the outcome of the disease, so further examination should be done.

  17. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... after several negative smear results by age 50 is similar to the risk at younger ages. Even after several negative smear results, age is not a good discriminative factor for early cessation of cervical cancer screening....

  19. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers.

  20. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhao Niu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6 in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC. NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO stage (p = 0.006, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006, vital status (p < 0.001, tumor recurrence (p = 0.001, chemotherapy (p = 0.039, and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001. Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  1. The use of MYBL2 as a novel candidate biomarker of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cara M; Astbury, Katharine; Kehoe, Louise; O'Crowley, Jacqueline Barry; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is characterized by chromosomal aberrations and alteration in the expression levels of many cell cycle regulatory proteins, driven primarily by transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. MYBL2 is a member of the MYB proto-oncogene family that encodes DNA binding proteins. These proteins are involved in cell proliferation and control of cellular differentiation. We have previously demonstrated the utility of MYBL2 as a putative biomarker for cervical pre-cancer and cancer. In this chapter we describe the methodological approach for testing MYBL2 protein expression in tissue biopsies from cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer, using immunohistochemistry techniques on the automated immunostaining platform, the Ventana BenchMark LT. The protocol outlines the various steps in the procedure from cutting tissue sections, antibody optimization, antigen retrieval, immunostaining, and histological review.

  2. Reduced expression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 contributes to apoptosis and angiogenesis in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2 is an extracellular matrix associated broad-spectrum Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor. Recently, down regulation of TFPI-2 was suggested to be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis in some cancers. Methods This study involved 12 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 48 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and 68 cervical cancer. The expression of TFPI-2, Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were investigated by immunohistochemistry staining. The apoptolic index(AI was determined with an in situ end-labeling assay(TUNEL. And the marker of CD34 staining was used as an indicator of microvessel density (MVD. Results TFPI-2 expression has a decreasing trend with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis and HPV infection. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between the grading of TFPI-2 expression and AI(P = 0.004. In contrast, the expression of TFPI-2 and VEGF or MVD was negatively correlated (both p Conclusions The results suggested that the expression of TFPI-2 had a decreasing trend with tumor progression of cervical cancer. There was a close association between the expression of TFPI-2 and tumor cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in patients with cervical cancer. TFPI-2 may play an inhibitive role during the development of cervical cancer.

  3. Assessment of quality of life for the patients with cervical cancer at different clinical stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xie; Fang-Hui Zhao; Si-Han Lu; He Huang; Xiong-Fei Pan; Chun-Xia Yang; You-Lin Qiao

    2013-01-01

    With improved overall survival of cervical cancer patients,the importance of the quality of life (QOL)is increasingly recognized.This study was conducted to compare the QOL of women with different stage cervical cancer before and after treatment to facilitate improved cervical cancer prevention and treatment.We used the generic Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) to collect QOL information.Based on SF-36,we interviewed cervical cancer patients at West China Second Affiliated Hospital and Sichuan Cancer Hospital between May 2010 and January 2011.A total of 92 patients with precancerous lesions,93 with early cancer,and 35 with advanced cancer responded to our survey.Average physical component summary (PCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups at every time point (P < 0.05).Average mental component summary (MCS) scores were significantly different between the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05).Average PCS and MCS scores increased gradually from the pretreatment to posttreatment period for patients with precancerous lesions.However,they reached the lowest at 1 month after treatment for patients with early and advanced cancers and rebounded between 1and 6 months after treatment.Our results indicate that patients with precancerous lesions and early cervical cancer show better overall QOL than do those with advanced cervical cancer.Additionally,patients with early cancer recover more quickly than do those with advanced cancer in terms of both physical and mental functions.Thus,early detection and treatment initiatives may improve the QOL for patients with precancerous lesions and cervical cancer.

  4. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a st

  5. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV te

  6. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to org

  7. Scientific Evidence on the Supportive Cancer Care with Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William CS CHO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly utilized by cancer patients in developed countries. Among the various forms of complementary and alternative medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine is one of the few that has a well constructed theoretical framework and established treatment approaches for diseases including cancer. Recent research has revealed growing evidence suggesting that Traditional Chinese Medicine is effective in the supportive care of cancer patients during and after major conventional cancer treatments. This paper succinctly summarizes some published clinical evidence and meta-analyses which support the usage of various Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment strategies including Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture and Qigong in supportive cancer care.

  8. Prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examination, without visible lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Rangel da Veiga; Fábio Bastos Russomano; Maria José de Camargo; Aparecida Cristina Sampaio Monteiro; Aparecida Tristão; Gabriela Villar e Silva

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in Brazil. For patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, but with cervical cytological tests suggesting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the national recommendation is to repeat cervical cytological tests after three months. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of HSIL and cancer among patients with initial cervical cytological tests suggestive of HSIL but with unsa...

  9. Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms: cross-sectional community survey in post-conflict northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mwaka, A. D.; Orach, C.G.; Were, E.M.; Lyratzopoulos, G; Wabinga, H.; Roland, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Lack of awareness of risk factors and symptoms for cancer may lead to late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Objective We assessed community awareness about cervical cancer risk factors and symptoms and perceptions about prevention and cure of cervical cancer in order to contribute data to inform interventions to improve cervical cancer survival. Design Cross‐sectional population‐based survey. Setting and participants We conducted this study in Gulu, a post‐conflict district i...

  10. Correlation of microRNA-124 expression in cervical cancer tissue with cancer cell growth and invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of microRNA-124 expression in cervical cancer tissue with cancer cell growth and invasion.Methods: A total of 56 cases of cervical cancer tissue samples and 60 cases of normal cervical tissue samples were selected for study, and microRNA-124 expression levels as well as protein content of proliferation, apoptosis and invasion genes in cervical tissue samples were determined.Results: The relative expression level of miR-124 in cervical cancer tissue was significantly lower than that in normal cervical tissue and the higher the FIGO staging, the lower the relative expression level of miR-124; cervical cancer tissue with different miR-124 expression was divided into group A-D according to quartile, there were differences in the protein content of cyclinD1, CDK4, CDK6, Prdx4, TNFAIP8, Piwil2, p16, p27, Caspase-3, Ezrin, CD44v6, E-cadherin andβ-catenin in cervical cancer tissue of group A, B, C and D, and the lower the relative expression level of miR-124, the higher the protein content of cyclinD1, CDK4, CDK6, Prdx4, TNFAIP8, Piwil2 as well as Ezrin and CD44v6, and the lower the protein content of p16, p27, Caspase-3 as well as E-cadherin andβ-catenin.Conclusions: microRNA-124 shows a trend of lower expression in cervical cancer tissue and is closely related to the excessive proliferation, insufficient apoptosis and invasive growth of cancer cells.

  11. The association between methylated CDKN2A and cervical carcinogenesis, and its diagnostic value in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jinyun Li,1,2,* Chongchang Zhou,1,* Haojie Zhou,3,* Tianlian Bao,1 Tengjiao Gao,1 Xiangling Jiang,1 Meng Ye1,2 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Hospital, Ningbo University, 3Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Ningbo Diagnostic Pathology Center, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors are co-first authors of this work Background: Cervical cancer is the second deadliest gynecologic malignancy, characterized by apparently precancerous lesions and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and having a long course from the development of CIN to cervical cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A is a well-documented tumor suppressor gene and is commonly methylated in cervical cancer. However, the relationship between methylated CDKN2A and carcinogenesis in cervical cancer is inconsistent, and the diagnostic accuracy of methylated CDKN2A is underinvestigated. In this study, we attempted to quantify the association between CDKN2A methylation and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer, and its diagnostic power.Methods: We systematically reviewed four electronic databases and identified 26 studies involving 1,490 cervical cancers, 1,291 CINs, and 964 controls. A pooled odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated to evaluate the association between methylated CDKN2A and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Specificity, sensitivity, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the diagnostic odds ratio were computed to assess the effect of methylated CDKN2A in the diagnosis of cervical cancer.Results: Our results indicated an upward trend in the methylation frequency of CDKN2A in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (cancer vs control: OR =23.67, 95% CI =15.54–36.06; cancer vs CIN: OR =2.53, 95% CI =1.79–3.5; CIN vs control: OR =9.68, 95% CI =5.82–16.02. The

  12. Performance of Implementing Guideline Driven Cervical Cancer Screening Measures in an Inner City Hospital System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Daryl L.; Reimers, Laura L.; Wu, Eijean; Nathan, Lisa M.; Gruenberg, Tammy; Abadi, Maria; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2006, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) updated evidence based guidelines recommending screening intervals for women with abnormal cervical cytology. In our low-income inner city population, we sought to improve performance by uniformly applying the guidelines to all patients. We report the prospective performance of a comprehensive tracking, evidence-based algorithmically driven call-back and appointment scheduling system for cervical cancer screening in a resource-limited inner city population. Materials and Methods Outreach efforts were formalized with algorithm-based protocols for triage to colposcopy, with universal adherence to evidence-based guidelines. During implementation from August 2006 through July 2008, we prospectively tracked performance using the electronic medical record with administrative and pathology reports to determine performance variables such as the total number of Pap tests, colposcopy visits, and the distribution of abnormal cytology and histology results, including all CIN 2,3 diagnoses. Results 86,257 gynecologic visits and 41,527 Pap tests were performed system-wide during this period of widespread and uniform implementation of standard cervical cancer screening guidelines. The number of Pap tests performed per month varied little. The incidence of CIN 1 significantly decreased from 117/171 (68.4%) the first tracked month to 52/95 (54.7%) the last tracked month (p=0.04). The monthly incidence rate of CIN 2,3, including incident cervical cancers did not change. The total number of colposcopy visits declined, resulting in a 50% decrease in costs related to colposcopy services and approximately a 12% decrease in costs related to excisional biopsies. Conclusions Adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines reduced the number of unnecessary colposcopies without increasing numbers of potentially missed CIN 2,3 lesions, including cervical cancer. Uniform implementation of administrative

  13. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. Results SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. Conclusion SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis.

  14. Virally mediated cervical cancer in the iatrogenically immunocompromised: applications for psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sally E; Lehman, Brandy; Antoni, Michael H; Pereira, Deidre B

    2007-08-01

    Oncogenic or high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of cancers, including cervical cancer. HPV infected individuals who are immunocompromised secondary to acquired (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or iatrogenic (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE] patients and organ and hematopoeitic stem cell transplant recipients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy) immune deficiency are particularly at risk for HPV-initiated cervical neoplasia and cancer. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI) research has demonstrated that psychosocial factors such as stress, pessimism, and sleep quality may play a role in the promotion of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia in HIV-positive women. However, no research to our knowledge has examined PNI mechanisms of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia and cancer in women who are undergoing iatrogenic immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of autoimmune disease or the prevention of graft-rejection. This article reviews the PNI mechanisms that may underlie the promotion of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia and applies this model to HPV-infected women who are iatrogenically immunosuppressed, an understudied population at-risk for cervical cancer. Female transplant recipients, one such group, may provide a unique paradigm in which to explore further PNI mechanisms of HPV-mediated cervical neoplasia.

  15. Low Proteolytic Clipping of Histone H3 in Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Basilio, Jorge; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Reyes-Hernandez, Octavio D.; Serafín-Higuera, Idanya; Leija-Montoya, Gabriela; Blanco-Morales, Magali; Sierra-Martínez, Monica; Ramos-Mondragon, Roberto; García, Silvia; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Yocupicio-Monroy, Martha; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin in cervical cancer (CC) undergoes chemical and structural changes that alter the expression pattern of genes. Recently, a potential mechanism, which regulates gene expression at transcriptional levels is the proteolytic clipping of histone H3. However, until now this process in CC has not been reported. Using HeLa cells as a model of CC and human samples from patients with CC, we identify that the H3 cleavage was lower in CC compared with control tissue. Additionally, the histone H3 clipping was performed by serine and aspartyl proteases in HeLa cells. These results suggest that histone H3 clipping operates as part of post-translational modification system in CC. PMID:27698925

  16. The 46359CT polymorphism of DNMT3B is associated with the risk of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sotelo, Daniel; García-Aguilar, Rubén; Castro-Coronel, Yaneth; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco Antonio; Alarcón-Romero, Luz del Carmen; López-Bayghen, Esther; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal methylation is related to cancer development. Since DNMT3B is an enzyme that modulates genomic methylation, we hypothesized that genetic variants of the promoter DNMT3B may be associated with an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. Our aim was to investigate the association between -579GT and 46359CT polymorphisms of DNMT3B and cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Samples from 200 healthy women and 130 women with squamous intraepithelial lesions (70 with cervical cancer, 30 with HSIL, and 30 with LSIL) were analyzed. Polymorphism genotyping was performed using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The -579GT polymorphism was not associated with cervical cancer, HSIL, or LSIL. The CT genotype of 46359CT polymorphism was significantly associated with cervical cancer risk (OR 8.75, CI 1.27-374.1), whereas the TT genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HSIL (OR 0.66, CI 0.01-0.32) and LSIL (OR 0.11, CI 0.026-0.45). Our results suggest that genotyping the 46359CT polymorphism in DNMT3B may help identify women who are genetically susceptible to cervical cancer development. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm our findings.

  17. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Chattopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ′HPV′, ′cervical′, ′CIN′, ′polymorphism(s′, ′cervical′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01 and ′HPV′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals.

  18. Activation of miR-9 by human papillomavirus in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijun; Gao, Ge; Hu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yuhui; Schwarz, Julie K; Chen, Jason J; Grigsby, Perry W; Wang, Xiaowei

    2014-11-30

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, leading to about 300,000 deaths each year. Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, persistent transcriptional activity of HPV oncogenes, which indicates active roles of HPV in cervical cancer maintenance and progression, has not been well characterized. Using our recently developed assays for comprehensive profiling of HPV E6/E7 transcripts, we have detected transcriptional activities of 10 high-risk HPV strains from 87 of the 101 cervical tumors included in the analysis. These HPV-positive patients had significantly better survival outcome compared with HPV-negative patients, indicating HPV transcriptional activity as a favorable prognostic marker for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we have determined microRNA (miRNA) expression changes that were correlated with tumor HPV status. Our profiling and functional analyses identified miR-9 as the most activated miRNA by HPV E6 in a p53-independent manner. Further target validation and functional studies showed that HPV-induced miR-9 activation led to significantly increased cell motility by downregulating multiple gene targets involved in cell migration. Thus, our work helps to understand the molecular mechanisms as well as identify potential therapeutic targets for cervical cancer and other HPV-induced cancers.

  19. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India.

  20. 雷公藤红素逆转宫颈癌细胞顺铂耐药性实验研究%An Active Component of Chinese Traditional Medicine Celastrol Reverses the Cisplatin-resistance of Cervi-cal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙菊萍; 姜凯

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究中药活性成分雷公藤红素逆转耐药宫颈癌细胞株Hela/R对顺铂的耐药性,并探讨其机制。方法采用顺铂梯度暴露法构建顺铂耐药宫颈癌细胞株Hela/R;采用MTT法检测雷公藤红素是否能增强顺铂对Hela/R的杀伤活性;Western blot试验检测常规Hela细胞及Hela/R细胞抗凋亡蛋白Bcl-2、Bcl-w及Bcl-xl表达水平;流式细胞术检测雷公藤红素联合顺铂对Hela/R细胞的凋亡诱导效应及对线粒体膜电位的影响。结果1、2、4、8、16、32、64μmol/L顺铂对Hela及Hela/R细胞的细胞活力抑制率分别为:(18.6±1.5)%(Hela),(1.9±1.0)%(Hela/R);(23.9±2.4)%(Hela),(3.1±1.2)%(Hela/R);(47.8±3.9)%(Hela),(6.8±1.5)%(Hela/R);(63.4±5.4)%(Hela),(11.6±1.8)%(Hela/R);(72.7±5.9)%(Hela),(20.4±2.0)%(Hela/R),(85.7±6.7)%(Hela),(41.2±3.3)%(Hela/R);(91.8±7.9)%(Hela),(55.8±4.3)%(Hela/R),两组比较,P均约0.05。2μmol/L雷公藤红素对Hela/R细胞的细胞活力抑制率为(6.6±1.1)%;2μmol/L雷公藤红素分别加10、20、40μmol/L顺铂组Hela/R细胞的细胞活力抑制率优于单用10、20、40μmol/L顺铂组[(57.2±3.9)%比(12.4±1.2)%、(71.4±5.1)%比(27.8±1.9)%、(84.8±6.8)%比(45.2±3.1)%,P0.05). Compared with control group, celastrol inhibited the expression of Bcl-w/β-actin in Hela/R cells (29.3±2.6 vs 68.9±4.5, P<0.05). Celastrol significantly enhanced the damage of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by cisplatin in Hela/R, leading to the release of cytochrome C and the induction of apoptosis. Conclusion Celastrol enhances the cytotoxicity of cisplatin to Hela/R cells via inhibiting the function of Bcl-w, promoting the activity of pro-apoptotic proteins, resulting in the activity of mitochondria-related apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells.

  1. Cervical cancer survival prediction using hybrid of SMOTE, CART and smooth support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Khasanah, P. M.; Sumartini, S. H.; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    According to the WHO, every two minutes there is one patient who died from cervical cancer. The high mortality rate is due to the lack of awareness of women for early detection. There are several factors that supposedly influence the survival of cervical cancer patients, including age, anemia status, stage, type of treatment, complications and secondary disease. This study wants to classify/predict cervical cancer survival based on those factors. Various classifications methods: classification and regression tree (CART), smooth support vector machine (SSVM), three order spline SSVM (TSSVM) were used. Since the data of cervical cancer are imbalanced, synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used for handling imbalanced dataset. Performances of these methods are evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results of this study show that balancing data using SMOTE as preprocessing can improve performance of classification. The SMOTE-SSVM method provided better result than SMOTE-TSSVM and SMOTE-CART.

  2. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  3. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  4. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  5. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  6. The cervical cancer prevention programme in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ileana Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Cervical and uterine cancer continues to be an important issue for women around the world, although neoplasia has the greatest demonstrated potential for prevention. Costa Rica has achieved important advances in the reduction of the incidence and mortality of these cancers since the last century. This is the result of a series of policies, programmes, and plans, not only at the level of the health care system, but also in other areas. Increased access for women to care in health centres, fundamentally at the primary level, has been vital, as has ensuring the quality of cytology readings and access to diagnosis and treatment for precursor lesions for in situ and invasive cancers. Despite all of these achievements, there are still challenges to be overcome, which are widespread in many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. It is important to learn from the experiences of other countries in order to improve women's health not only as a health objective, but also as an ethical imperative to promote the exercise of women's rights to life and health.

  7. Expanding the Scope of Nursing Research in Low Resource and Middle Resource Countries, Regions, and States Focused on Cervical Cancer Prevention, Early Detection, and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Ramsay-Johnson, Edith; Dean, Asante; Russ, Jori; Ivalis, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. There are significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality globally as well as in the United States. The most significant global disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality are reported in low resource and middle resource countries, regions, and states. This report provides an overview of cervical cancer epidemiology and etiology, and identi...

  8. Women’s Experiences of Sexual Problems after Cervical Cancer Treatment: Lessons from Indonesian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Afiyanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women. It is the second major cause of women’s deaths in Asia as well as in Indonesia. Cervical cancer treatment also raises issues of long-term physical, psychological, sexual, and social adaptation. The purpose of the study was to describe and to interpret the experiences of Indonesian women who have experienced sexual dysfunction after cervical cancer treatment. Thirteen Indonesian women who were participated in this study described their experiences on the first to two years after cervical cancer treatment. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. Four themes were identified (1 physical and psychological sexual complaints after cancer treatment; (2 negative effects of cancer treatment towards intimate relationship with their spouse; (3 efforts to overcome sexual problems; and (4 women’s needs for help to improve their sexual health. These study findings offer providing new insights into the experiences of Indonesian women with sexual health problems following cervical cancer treatment. This study can provide nurses and other health care providers with better understanding of the experiences, concern and needs of the cancer survivors.

  9. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle Westergren;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  10. Accelerated Deformable Registration of Repetitive MRI during Radiotherapy in Cervical Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Tanderup, Kari; Kiritsis, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    Tumour regression and organ deformations during radiotherapy (RT) of cervical cancer represent major challenges regarding accurate conformation and calculation of dose when using image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. Deformable registration algorithms are able to handle organ deformations, which can...... be useful with advanced tools such as auto segmentation of organs and dynamic adaptation of radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to accelerate and validate deformable registration in MRI-based image-guided radiotherapy of cervical cancer.    ...

  11. Control of cervical cancer in Peru: Current barriers and challenges for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Pinto, Joseph A.; Araujo, Jhajaira; Fajardo, Williams; Bravo, Leny; Pinillos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading malignant neoplasm in Peruvian women. This malignancy is a public health problem and several efforts were previously performed to develop cancer control plans. Geographical, cultural, structural, infrastructural and procedural barriers can limit the implementation of such strategies. Several previous studies have characterized human papilloma virus (HPV) epidemiology, where prevalence of high-risk HPV in adult females is ~12% and the prevalence in cervical cance...

  12. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography has a clinical impact for patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Rikke Mulvad; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Hendel, Helle W;

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have found that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has a high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of metastasis in cervical cancer. Herlev Hospital, Denmark, has been performing PET-CTs in stage I-IV cervical cancer since 1 May 2006. The present s...... study investigates the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of PET-CT in stage I disease and the clinical impact of the scan results in all disease stages....

  13. Mixed adenosquamous histology is associated with poorer survival of cervical cancer stage 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn; Tjessem, Ingvild; Al-Far, Hanine M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evaluation of histopathological factors for women with radical hysterectomy a.m. Okabayashi for cervical cancer in stage 1bwith similar pre- and postoperative treatment Methods: Data on 141 women with cervical cancer stage 1b were revised. The local patient registry, data charts......, while survival was found to be 89 % (83-95 %) and 86 % (79-93 %), respectively. The women’s age at diagnosis showed no association with histology type or survival....

  14. Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezechi Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proven benefit of integrating cervical cancer screening programme into HIV care has led to its adoption as a standard of care. However this is not operational in most HIV clinics in Nigeria. Of the various reasons given for non-implementation, none is backed by scientific evidence. This study was conducted to assess the willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women. Methods A cross sectional study of HIV positive women attending a large HIV treatment centre in Lagos, Nigeria. Respondents were identified using stratified sampling method. A pretested questionnaire was used to obtain information by trained research assistants. Obtained information were coded and managed using SPSS for windows version 19. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine independent predictor for acceptance of cervical cancer screening. Results Of the 1517 respondents that returned completed questionnaires, 853 (56.2% were aware of cervical cancer. Though previous cervical cancer screening was low at 9.4%, 79.8% (1210 accepted to take the test. Cost of the test (35.2% and religious denial (14.0% were the most common reasons given for refusal to take the test. After controlling for confounding variables in a multivariate logistic regression model, having a tertiary education (OR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.03-1.84, no living child (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, recent HIV diagnosis (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0 and being aware of cervical cancer (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0 retained independent association with acceptance to screen for cervical cancer. Conclusions The study shows that HIV positive women in our environment are willing to screen for cervical cancer and that the integration of reproductive health service into existing HIV programmes will strengthen rather than disrupt the services.

  15. Profile of bevacizumab and its potential in the treatment of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher CM; Schefter TE

    2015-01-01

    Christine M Fisher, Tracey E Schefter Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Blocking angiogenesis is an effective antitumor strategy proven in many disease sites. Anti-angiogenic therapies are fulfilling the promise of improved outcomes in cervical cancer as demonstrated in several recent trials. With its overall survival improvement in metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, a frame shift in the management of these patients has occurr...

  16. Improving Cervical Cancer Prevention by HPV Self-sampling, Colposcopy and Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Baars (Romy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The worldwide incidence rate of cervical cancer is around 500 000 per year with a mortality rate of around 270 000 women per year. With these figures, it represents the third most common cancer among women worldwide, after breast and colorectal cancer. However, the inc

  17. Novel Somatic Copy Number Alteration Identified for Cervical Cancer in the Mexican American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Torabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer affects millions of Americans, but the rate for cervical cancer in the Mexican American is approximately twice that for non-Mexican Americans. The etiologies of cervical cancer are still not fully understood. A number of somatic mutations, including several copy number alterations (CNAs, have been identified in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas in non-Mexican Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate CNAs in association with cervical cancer in the Mexican American population. We conducted a pilot study of genome-wide CNA analysis using 2.5 million markers in four diagnostic groups: reference (n = 125, low grade dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-I, n = 4, high grade dysplasia (CIN-II and -III, n = 5 and invasive carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 5 followed by data analyses using Partek. We observed a statistically-significant difference of CNA burden between case and reference groups of different sizes (>100 kb, 10–100 kb and 1–10 kb of CNAs that included deletions and amplifications, e.g., a statistically-significant difference of >100 kb deletions was observed between the reference (6.6% and pre-cancer and cancer (91.3% groups. Recurrent aberrations of 98 CNA regions were also identified in cases only. However, none of the CNAs have an impact on cancer progression. A total of 32 CNA regions identified contained tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Moreover, the pathway analysis revealed endometrial cancer and estrogen signaling pathways associated with this cancer (p < 0.05 using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. This is the first report of CNAs identified for cervical cancer in the U.S. Latino population using high density markers. We are aware of the small sample size in the study. Thus, additional studies with a larger sample are needed to confirm the current findings.

  18. Cervical cancer and human papillomavirus: Epidemiological evidence and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem, as it is the second most common cancer in women world-wide after breast cancer. About 80% of the half a million cases estimated to occur annually in the world, occur in developing countries. The epidemiological evidence linking human papillomavirus (HPV to cervical cancer is reviewed. It is concluded that over 90% of cervical cancers can be attributed to certain HPV types. HPV 16 accounts for the highest proportion (50% followed by HPV 18 (12%, HPV 45 (8% and HPV 31 (5%. The associations with these HPV types are very b and consistent with odds ratios over 15 in all case-control studies in high- and low-risk countries for cervical cancer. However, HPV is not a sufficient cause of this malignancy; certain cofactors are necessary for a proportion of HPV persistent infections to eventually progress to cancer. These include host factors such as histocompatibilidad types and immunological response, hormonal influences and infections with other sexually transmitted agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis. In addition, results from our studies carried out in Spain and Colombia support the hypothesis that male carriers of HPV play an important role in the development of cervical cancer in their wives. The recognition of the central role of HPV in cervical cancer has far-reaching implications for the primary and secondary prevention of this malignancy. Prophylactic and therapeutic HPV vaccines are now under development and HPV typing is being integrated into screening programmes in pilot studies in a few developed countries. In developing countries, well conducted conventional screening programmes remain the best approach for the control of cervical cancer until a safe and efficient HPV vaccine can be used in the general population.

  19. Cervical pap smear study and its utility in cancer screening to specify the strategy for cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandakini M Patel, Amrish N Pandya, Jigna Modi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to explore various lesions of Uterine cervix [inflammatory and growth], to find out target age group in which screening efforts can be concentrated for early detection as well as reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer, in our set up. Patients in the age group 15-50 and 50-78 years with various complaints were screened during June 2006 to December 2007. Total 995 patients were studied. Slides were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and stained with Pap stain. Slides were reported according to The 2001 Bethesda System, by cytopathologists. Out of 995 patients studied, 940 showed inflammation and other benign lesions. 55 patients showed premalignant and malignant lesions. Premalignant lesions were present in 30-50 year of age group.

  20. RANKL/RANK interaction promotes the growth of cervical cancer cells by strengthening the dialogue between cervical cancer cells and regulation of IL-8 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wen-Qing; Li, Hui; Liu, Li-Bing; Chang, Kai-Kai; Yu, Jia-Jun; Xie, Feng; Li, Ming-Qing; Yu, Jin-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. The interaction between RANKL and its receptor RANK plays an important role in the development and function of diverse tissues. However, the expression and role of RANKL in cervical cancer are still unknown. In the present study, we found that RANKL and RANK were highly co-expressed in cervical cancer. HeLa and SiHa cells secreted soluble RANKL (sRANKL), expressed member RANKL (mRANKL) and RANK. Recombinant human RANKL protein had no effect on the viability of HeLa and SiHa cells. Yet, blocking RANKL with an anti-human RANKL neutralizing antibody (α-RANKL) or recombinant human osteoprotegrin (OPG) protein resulted in the downregulation of Ki-67 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression and an increase in Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) expression, as well as a high level of viability and a low level of apoptosis in the HeLa and SiHa cells. In addition, α-RANKL led to a decrease in IL-8 secretion. Recombinant human IL-8 protein reversed the effect of α-RANKL on the expression of proliferation- and apoptosis‑related molecules, and proliferation and apoptosis in the HeLa and SiHa cells. The present study suggests that a high level of mRANKL/RANK expression in cervical cancer lesions plays an important role in the rapid growth of cervical cancer cells possibly through strengthening the dialogue between cervical cancer cells and regulation of IL-8 secretion, which may be a possible target for cervical cancer therapy.

  1. High parity and hormonal contraception use as risk factors for cervical cancer in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swandari Paramita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find risk factors associated with cervical cancer.Methods: This a case-control study conducted in A.W. Sjahranie County General Hospital at Samarinda East Kalimantan from January until July 2009. There were 58 patients for each case and control group. Variables in this study were age, menarche, menopause, age of first marriage, parity, spouse’s smoking status, hormonal contraception use, type of hormonal contraception, duration of hormonal contraception, IUD (intra uterine device contraception use and duration of IUD contraception.Results: final data analysis shows that parity and duration of hormonal contraception use increased the risk of cervical cancer. Women who had 5-12 children than 0-4 children had 2.6-folds increased risk to be cervical cancer. Compared to women never use of hormonal contraception, those who ever had hormonal contraception for 1-4 years and 5-25 years had two time and 4.5 times increased risk to be cervical cancer respectively.Conclusion: Cervical cancer screening recommended to be focused on high-risk groups, among others, women with the number of children born more than fi ve people or women in particular users of hormonal contraception methods with a range of use more than fi ve years. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:268-72Keywords: Cervical cancer, hormonal contraception, menarche, parity

  2. Location and Density of Immune Cells in Precursor Lesions and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Astrid M; Jaramillo, Roberto; Baena, Armando; Castaño, Jorge; Olaya, Natalia; Zea, Arnold H; Herrero, Rolando; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2013-04-01

    Only a small proportion of women infected with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) develop cervical cancer. Host immune response seems to play a role eliminating the viral infection and preventing progression to cancer. Characterization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in cervical pre-neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer may be helpful to understand the mechanisms that mediate this protection. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the localization and density (cells/mm(2)) of CD8+ T-cells, CD4+ T-cells and Tregs (CD25 + Foxp3+) in cervical pre-neoplastic lesions and cervical cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of sections of 96 (26 CIN1, 21 CIN2, 25 CIN3, and 24 SCC) samples revealed that regardless of CIN grades, CD8+ T-cells are more abundant than CD4+, CD25+ and Foxp3+ cells in both the stroma and epithelium. There was a higher density of CD8+ cells in the stroma of cervical cancer compared to CIN3 (OR = 4.20, 95% CI 1.2-15), CIN2 (OR = 7.86, 95% CI 1.7-36.4) and CIN1 (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.1-17). Studies evaluating whether these cells are recruited before or after cancer progression will be helpful to understand the role of these cells in the natural history of HPV-induced lesions.

  3. Vaginal delivery of carboplatin-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel to prevent local cervical cancer recurrence in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Jin; Wu, Wenbin; Li, Hongjun

    2016-11-01

    Local tumor recurrence after cervical cancer surgery remains a clinical problem. Vaginal delivery of thermosensitive hydrogel may be suited to reduce tumor relapse rate with more efficacy and safety. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel to prevent local recurrence of cervical cancer after surgery. In vivo vaginal retention evaluation of 27% poloxamer hydrogel in mice was proven to be a suitable vaginal drug delivery formulation due to its low gelation temperature. A mimic orthotopic cervical/vaginal cancer recurrence model after surgery was established by injecting murine cervical cancer cell line U14 into the vaginal submucosa to simulate the residual tumor cells infiltrated in the surgical site, followed by drug administration 24 h later to interfere with the formation/recurrence of the tumor. By infusing fluorescein sodium-loaded hydrogel into the vagina of mice, a maximized accumulation of fluorescein sodium (Flu) in the vagina was achieved and few signals were observed in other organs. When used in the prevention of the cervical cancer formation/recurrence in mice, the carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel exhibited great efficacy and systemic safety. In conclusion, thermosensitive hydrogel presents a simple, practical approach for the local drug delivery via vagina against cervical cancer recurrence.

  4. Perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among transmasculine individuals: patient and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Bernstein, Ida M; McDowell, Michal; Alizaga, Natalie M; Reisner, Sari L; Pardee, Dana J; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Transmasculine people (individuals assigned a female sex at birth who identify as male or masculine) are at risk of cervical cancer. Despite low rates of Pap test use in this population, research examining the determinants of cervical cancer screening among transmasculine individuals is scarce. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 49 participants (32 transmasculine patients and 17 healthcare providers) in order to examine transmasculine individuals' and healthcare providers' perceptions of cervical cancer risk and screening among individuals on the transmasculine continuum. Overall, patients believed that transmasculine individuals should receive regular Pap tests, especially in the event of gynaecological concerns. While healthcare providers' views varied, many perceived transmasculine individuals to be at low risk of cervical cancer. Contrary to existing screening guidelines, several providers believed that transmasculine individuals who did not engage in penile-vaginal intercourse with cisgender men, expressed discomfort about Pap testing or intended to obtain a hysterectomy might not need to be screened regularly or at all. Our findings underscore the importance of educating patients and providers about cervical cancer risk among transmasculine individuals and establishing evidence-based guidelines for cervical cancer screening in this underserved population.

  5. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT GENE EXPRESSION OF HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER SUBCLONE CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the main cause of death inwomen.The influence of HPV plays an i mportantrole incervial cancer.It has been provedthat humanpapillomavirus(HPV)infectionis ani mportant fac-tor in cervical carcinogenesis.Multiple HPVinfec-tion was associated less frequently with cervical car-cinoma and with precancerous lesions compared withnor mal cytology[1].The activation of oncogene,in-activition of tumor suppressor gene and instabilityof genome are also majority reason.We establisheda cell line of human...

  6. Laparoscopic Indocyanine Green Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in Pregnant Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadia, Andrea; Mohr, Stefan; Imboden, Sara; Lanz, Susanne; Bolla, Daniele; Mueller, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    We present cases of 2 pregnant patients with early-stage cervical cancer who have undergone indocyanine green (ICG) sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping followed by laparoscopic SLN biopsy, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and cervical conization. Eight milliliters of ICG were injected in the 4 quadrants of the cervix after having obtained an adequate pneumoperitoneum and having inspected the abdominal cavity. SLNs were identified in both hemipelvises in both patients. In the final pathologic analysis, both SLNs and non-SLNs were negative for metastatic disease. No adverse events from ICG injection were recorded. ICG SLN mapping seems to be feasible in pregnant cervical cancer patients.

  7. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and its relation with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV.

  8. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer.

  9. HPV16 variant lineage, clinical stage, and survival in women with invasive cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuna Rosemary E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV16 variants are associated with different risks for development of CIN3 and invasive cancer, although all are carcinogenic. The relationship of HPV 16 variants to cancer survival has not been studied. Methods 155 HPV16-positive cervical cancers were categorized according to European and non-European variant patterns by DNA sequencing of the E6 open reading frame. Clinico-pathologic parameters and clinical outcome were collected by chart review and death registry data. Results Of the 155 women (mean age 44.7 years; median follow-up 26.7 months, 85.2% harbored European variants while 14.8% had non-European sequences. HPV16 variants differed by histologic cell type (p = 0.03 and stage (1 vs. 2+; p = 0.03. Overall, 107 women (68.0% were alive with no evidence of cancer, 42 (27.1% died from cervical cancer, 2 (1.3% were alive with cervical cancer, and 4 (2.6% died of other causes. Death due to cervical cancer was associated with European variant status (p Conclusions Overall, invasive cervical cancers with non-European variants showed a less aggressive behavior than those with European variants. These findings should be replicated in a population with more non-European cases.

  10. Sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage of endometrial and cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajossadat Allameh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sentinel lymph node (SLN is defined as the first chain node in the lymphatic basin that receives primary lymphatic flow. If the SLN is negative for metastatic disease, then other nodes are expected to be disease-free. SLN techniques have been extensively applied in the staging and treatment of many tumors, including melanoma, breast and vulvar cancers. This study aims to evaluate our technique in SLN mapping in early stage endometrial and cervical cancers. Materials and Methods: We scheduled a cross-sectional pilot study for patients undergoing staging surgery for endometrial and cervical cancer from November 2012 to February 2014 in Beheshti and Sadoughi Hospitals. Our SLN mapping technique included 1 h preoperative or intraoperative injection of 4 ml of 1% methylene blue dye in the tumor site. At the time of surgery, blue lymph nodes were removed and labeled as SLNs. Then systematic lymph node dissection was completed, and all of the nodes were sent for pathologic examination concerning metastatic involvement. All of the sentinel nodes were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined. Those negative in this study were then stained with immunohistochemistry using anti-keratin antibody. Descriptive statistics, sensitivity, negative predictive values (NPV, false negative (FN and detection rates were calculated. Results: Twenty-three patients including 62% endometrial and 38% cervical cancers enrolled in the study. Median of SLN count in the endometrial and cervical cancers was 3 and 2, respectively. Among endometrial and cervical cancers, detection rate of metastatic disease was 80% and 87.5%, respectively. The FN rate for this technique was 0 and the sensitivity and NPV are 100% for both endometrial and cervical cancers. Conclusion: Considering the lower risk of metastases in early stage of both endometrial and cervical cancers, SLN technique allows for confident and accurate staging of cancer.

  11. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cervical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, M Smita K; Suryakar, A N; Swami, Sanjay C; Katkam, R V; Kumbar, K M

    2007-09-01

    Cervical cancer (CaCx) is a global public health problem as it is the second most common cancer leading to the death of women worldwide. Many references revealed that the low levels of antioxidants induce the generation of free radicals leading to DNA damage and further mutations. In the present study attempt have been made to evaluate the levels of serum Lipid peroxide, Nitric Oxide (NO(.)) Erythrocytic-Superoxide Dismutase (RBC-SOD), Vitamin-C, serum Copper (Cu) and serum Zinc (Zn). 120 patients were divided in 4 groups according to the increasing CaCx stages i.e. stage I, II, III & IV respectively. All the patients were around the age group of 25-65 years. 30 healthy women between the same age group were treated as controls. Highly significant increased values of MDA, NO(.) and Cu were observed (p<0.001) whereas the activity of RBC-SOD, levels of Vitamin-C and Zn were significantly decreased in CaCx patients as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). Cu/Zn ratio was found to be altered in CaCx patients. From our findings it can be concluded that the oxidative stress is induced among CaCx patients, which inturn increases the risk of CaCx.

  12. Pathogenic Network Analysis Predicts Candidate Genes for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Xia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to predicate candidate genes in cervical cancer (CC using a network-based strategy and to understand the pathogenic process of CC. Methods. A pathogenic network of CC was extracted based on known pathogenic genes (seed genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs between CC and normal controls. Subsequently, cluster analysis was performed to identify the subnetworks in the pathogenic network using ClusterONE. Each gene in the pathogenic network was assigned a weight value, and then candidate genes were obtained based on the weight distribution. Eventually, pathway enrichment analysis for candidate genes was performed. Results. In this work, a total of 330 DEGs were identified between CC and normal controls. From the pathogenic network, 2 intensely connected clusters were extracted, and a total of 52 candidate genes were detected under the weight values greater than 0.10. Among these candidate genes, VIM had the highest weight value. Moreover, candidate genes MMP1, CDC45, and CAT were, respectively, enriched in pathway in cancer, cell cycle, and methane metabolism. Conclusion. Candidate pathogenic genes including MMP1, CDC45, CAT, and VIM might be involved in the pathogenesis of CC. We believe that our results can provide theoretical guidelines for future clinical application.

  13. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

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    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  14. Study of factors influencing dose distribution of brachytherapy in cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zi; Gao Ying; Luo Wei; Wang Guoqing; Wang Ruihua; Zheng Wei; Liu Rui

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the factors which influence the dose distribution of brachytherapy in cervical cancer. Methods Ninety-five patients with cervical cancer Ⅱ - Ⅲ b received fundamental radiation therapy including brachytherapy in our department from Aug. 2004 to Nov. 2005. The deviation of isodose curve of brachytherapy was based on A-B reference system, and the deviation of dose was defined by measuring in a practical standard body model. Results The factors influencing isodose offset significantly were parametrial infiltrating degree, and anatomy factor of cervical cancer and operating skill. The degree of isodose offset could not be lowered with the increased frequency of brachytherapy. Conclusion Making simulation in cervical brachythecapy is necessary not only for the identification of the deviation of isodose curve but also for adjusting the dose distribution and revising the plan of radiotherapy.

  15. Microvessel density and p53 in detecting cervical cancer by FDG PET in cases of suspected recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. van der Veldt; L. Hooft; P.J. van Diest; J. Berkhof; M.R. Buist; E.F.I. Comans; O.S. Hoekstra; C.F.M. Molthoff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Cervical cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. About one-third of patients experience recurrent disease. A better chance of survival might be achieved by the early detection of recurrent cervical cancer. [F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy- D-glucose (FDG) PET could be

  16. EXPRESSION OF INTRON 9 IN CD44 GENE IN CERVICAL CANCER AND CIN AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA in cervical cancer tissue, CIN, cervicitis and their exfoliated cells, and to study their clinical significance in diagnosis and treatment of early-stage, non-invasive cervical cancer. Methods: RT-PCR methods were used to detect the retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA in 30 cases of cervical cancer tissue, 11 cases of CIN tissue, 30 cases of cervicitis tissue and their exfoliated cells. Results: The retention rate of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts were 76.7% in cervical cancer tissue, 89.8% in corresponding exfoliated cells, 70.8% in CIN tissue, and 60.0% in CIN exfoliated cells, but undetected in neither cervicitis tissue nor exfoliated cells. The relative quantity of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts was 1.10 ( 0.12 in cervical cancer tissue, 1.21 ( 0.11 in CIN tissue, 1.11 ( 0.19 in cervical cancer exfoliated cells, 1.17 ( 0.12 in CIN exfoliated cells respectively, but undetected in neither cervicitis tissue nor exfoliated cells. The retention rate and relative content of intron 9 in CD44 gene transcripts in cervical cancer and CIN tissue and their exfoliated cells were statistically higher than that in cervicitis and their exfoliated cells (P0.05). Conclusion: Detecting the retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA in cervical exfoliated cells was more sensitivity than traditional cytology exam for diagnosing cervical cancer, and the techniques was worth clinical application.

  17. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Iyanda, Abiodun; Osundare, Folakemi; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9%) of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3%) are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5%) know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1%) are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7%) had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3%) of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9%) have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5%) are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  18. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine

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    Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV though preventable has claimed the lives of many women worldwide. This study was embarked upon to evaluate the general knowledge and perceptions of Nigerian women on HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccine. Methods. Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 737 women randomly selected from the general population in two southwestern States of Nigeria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer software version 16. A P value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. One hundred and seventy-six (23.9% of the respondents had knowledge of HPV; 474 (64.3% are aware of cervical cancer but only 136 (18.5% know that HPV causes cervical cancer. 200 (27.1% are aware that there is an HPV vaccine while 300 (40.7% had knowledge of Pap smear test. Two hundred and sixty (35.3% of the respondents know that early detection of HPV can prevent cervical cancer and in spite of this, only 110 (14.9% have taken the Pap smear test before while 151 (20.5% are not willing to go for the test at all. Conclusions. There is therefore the need to create proper awareness on the HPV and its possible consequence of cervical carcinoma.

  19. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  20. Impact of cervical screening on cervical cancer mortality: estimation using stage-specific results from a nested case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Pesola, Francesca; Castañón, Alejandra; Sasieni, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that screening can prevent cervical cancer, but the magnitude of the impact of regular screening on cervical cancer mortality is unknown. Methods: Population-based case–control study using prospectively recorded cervical screening data, England 1988–2013. Case women had cervical cancer diagnosed during April 2007–March 2013 aged 25–79 years (N=11 619). Two cancer-free controls were individually age matched to each case. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of developing stage-specific cancer for women regularly screened or irregularly screened compared with women not screened in the preceding 15 years. Mortality was estimated from excess deaths within 5 years of diagnosis using stage-specific 5-year relative survival from England with adjustment for age within stage based on SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, USA) data. Results: In women aged 35–64 years, regular screening is associated with a 67% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62–73%) reduction in stage 1A cancer and a 95% (95% CI: 94–97%) reduction in stage 3 or worse cervical cancer: the estimated OR comparing regular (⩽5.5yearly) screening to no (or minimal) screening are 0.18 (95% CI: 0.16–0.19) for cancer incidence and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.07–0.09) for mortality. It is estimated that in England screening currently prevents 70% (95% CI: 66–73%) of cervical cancer deaths (all ages); however, if everyone attended screening regularly, 83% (95% CI: 82–84%) could be prevented. Conclusions: The association between cervical cancer screening and incidence is stronger in more advanced stage cancers, and screening is more effective at preventing death from cancer than preventing cancer itself. PMID:27632376

  1. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  2. Results of Radiation Therapy in Stage III Uterine Cervical Cancer

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    Moon, Chang Woo; Shin, Byung Chul; Yum, Ha Yong; Jeung, Tae Sig; Yoo, Myung Jin [Kosin University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    Purpose : The aim of this study is to analyze the survival rate, treatment failure and complication of radiation therapy alone in stage III uterine cervical cancer. Materials and Methods : From January 1980 through December 1985, 227 patients with stage II uterine cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy at Kosin Medical Center were retrospectively studied. Among 227 patients, 72 patients(31.7%) were stage IIIa, and 155 patients(68.3%) were stage IIIb according to FIGO classification. Age distribution was 32-71 years(median: 62 years). Sixty nine patients(95.8%) in stage IIIa and 150 patients(96.8%) in stage IIIb were squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic lymph node metastasis at initial diagnosis was 8 patients (11.1%) in stage IIIa and 29 patients(18.7%) in stage IIIb. Among 72 patients with stage IIIa, 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone by conventional technique (180-200 cGy/fr). And 36 patients(50%) were treated with external radiation therapy with intracavitary radiotherapy(ICR) with Cs137 sources, and among 155 patients with stage IIIb, 80 patients(51.6%) were treated with external radiation therapy alone and 75 patients(48.4%) were treated with external radiation therapy with ICR. Total radiation doses of stage IIIa and IIIb were 65-105 Gy(median : 78.5 Gy) and 65-125.5 Gy (median :83.5 Gy). Survival rate was calculated by life-table method. Results : Complete response rates were 58.3% (42 patients) in state IIIa and 56.1%(87 patients) in stage Iiib. Overall 5 year survival rates were 57% in stage IIIa and 40% in stage IIIb. Five year survival rates by radiation technique in stage IIIa and IIIb were 64%, 40% in group treated in combination of external radiation and ICR, and 50%, 40% in the group of external radiation therapy alone(P=NS). Five year survival rates by response of radiation therapy in stage IIIa and IIIb were 90%, 66% in responder group, and 10%, 7% in non-responder group (P<0.01). There were statistically no

  3. HPV infection in cervical and other cancers in Saudi Arabia: implication for prevention and vaccination

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    Ghazi eAlsbeih

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.

  4. Treatment results of incomplete chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

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    Gao Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ying Gao,1,* Fei Gao,2,* Zi Liu,1 Li-ping Song1 1Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Regimens that combine chemotherapy and radiotherapy increase toxicity and compromise a patient’s ability to adhere to the treatment plan. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a partially completed chemoradiation regimen prescribed for locally advanced carcinoma of the cervix. Methods: Medical records of 156 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer stage IIB–IVA who received chemoradiation with cisplatin (40 mg/m2 and 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2 from October 2006 to October 2008 were collected. The treatment protocol called for two cycles of chemotherapy. External beam radiation therapy was administered using a 10-MeV electron beam. Local control, disease free survival, overall survival, and toxicities were evaluated. Results: With a median follow-up of 37.5 months, 89 patients (57% completed the planned protocol. Sixty seven patients (43% completed fewer than two cycles. The 3-year local control rate was significantly better in the patient group that completed the prescribed plan (92.1% compared to 80.6%; P = 0.033. No statistical significance was observed between the groups that completed or did not complete the two cycle protocol with regard to disease free survival (80.9% and 73.2%, respectively; P = 0.250, overall survival (84.3% and 79.1%; P = 0.405, and progression survival (3.4% and 3.0%; P = 0.892. Differences in acute hematologic toxicity and subcutaneous toxicity were observed between the two groups. Conclusions: Completion of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with radiotherapy was effective, safe, and responsible for better local control

  5. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongtao [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Gao, Peng [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Zheng, Jie, E-mail: jiezheng54@126.com [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  6. Improving the Utilization of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cytology Co-testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kurt; Karimoto, Maxine; Marzo, Christina; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Hiraoka, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing in combination with cervical cytology (HPV co-testing) has been recommended for cervical cancer screening for women 30 to 65 years of age. In several studies, HPV co-testing increased sensitivity for detecting high grade dysplasia and resulted in cost-savings. This retrospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of HPV co-testing in an obstetrics and gynecology resident clinic before and after a brief educational intervention which was designed to reinforce current cervical cancer screening recommendations. The intervention consisted of a short presentation that was given to all residents and medical assistants in October 2011. The proportion of women age 30-65 years of age who had cervical cancer screening with HPV co-testing as compared to cervical cytology alone was compared before and after the intervention using chi-square tests. The goal of the intervention was to increase the percentage of patients receiving co-testing from 0.5% to 7.8%. Each arm (pre- and post-intervention) required 130 subjects to achieve 80% power with a significance of P = .05. No significant differences in demographics including age, insurance type, and cytology were noted. HPV co-testing increased from 0% to 55% (P cervical cancer screening for another 5 years. HPV co-testing represents an underutilized cervical cancer screening modality for women 30 years and older. This brief educational intervention, adaptable to any clinical setting, significatnly increased co-testing at the clinical site.

  7. Identification of biomarkers for cervical cancer in peripheral blood lymphocytes using oligonucleotide microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Jie; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Oligonucleotide microarrays are increasingly being used to identify gene expression profiles that associated with complex genetic diseases. Peripheral lymphocytes communicate with cells and extracellular matrixes in almost all tissues and organs in human body, suggesting that the gene expression profiles in peripheral lymphocytes may reflect the presence of disease in the body. This study aimed to identify molecular biomarkers for cervical cancer in peripheral blood lymphocytes by using oligonucleotide microarrays.Methods Total RNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 24 early stage cervical cancer patients and 18 healthy controls. We used 22K Human Genome microarrays to profile peripheral blood lymphocytes from 4 early stage cervical cancer patients and compared their gene expression profiles with those from 3 healthy controls. Differentially expressed genes would be identified if they had adjusted P values of less than 0.05 and a groupwise average fold change greater than 1.5 or less than 0.67. Then the selected 5 genes were validated in the remaining 20 early stage cervical cancer patients and the 15 healthy controls by using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Genes identified by the gene selection program expressed differently between the blood samples of the early stage cervical cancer patients and those of the healthy controls. To validate the gene expression data, 5 genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. In three of the 5 identified genes, tenasin-c (TNC), nuceolin (NCL), and enolase 2 (ENO2) showed a significant up-regulation in the blood samples of the early stage cervical cancer patients versus that of the healthy controls.Conclusions The up-regulation of TNC, NCL, and ENO2 in peripheral blood may be used to identify novel blood biomarkers for detecting cervical cancer in a clinically accessible surrogate tissue, and thus to provide a possibility to develop a noninvasive and predictive

  8. Distribution of HPV Genotypes and Involvement of Risk Factors in Cervical Lesions and Invasive Cervical Cancer: A Study in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shikha; Shahi, U P; Dibya, Arti; Gupta, Sadhana; Roy, Jagat K

    2014-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is considered as the main sexually transmitted etiological agent for the cause and progression of preneoplastic cervical lesions to cervical cancer. This study is discussing the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes in cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer tissues and their association with various risk factors in women from Varanasi and its adjoining areas in India. A total of 122 cervical biopsy samples were collected from SS Hospital and Indian Railways Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Varanasi and were screened for HPV infection by PCR using primers from L1 consensus region of the viral genome. HPV positive samples were genotyped by type-specific PCR and sequencing. The association of different risk factors with HPV infection in various grades of cervical lesion was evaluated by chi-square test. A total of 10 different HPV genotypes were observed in women with cervicitis, CIN, invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Increased frequency of HPV infection with increasing lesion grade (p=0.002) was observed. HPV16 being the predominant type was found significantly associated with severity of the disease (p=0.03). Various socio- demographic factors other than HPV including high parity (p<0.0001), rural residential area (p<0.0001), elder age (p<0.0001), low socio-economic status (p<0.0001) and women in postmenopausal group (p<0.0001) were also observed to be associated with cervical cancer.These findings show HPV as a direct cause of cervical cancer suggesting urgent need of screening programs and HPV vaccination in women with low socio-economic status and those residing in rural areas. PMID:25035855

  9. ZBRK1 acts as a metastatic suppressor by directly regulating MMP9 in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Fang; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Li, Chien-Feng; Liao, Ching-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Shen, Meng-Ru; Tseng, Joseph T; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The BRCA1-interacted transcriptional repressor ZBRK1 has been associated with antiangiogenesis, but direct evidence of a tumor suppressor role has been lacking. In this study, we provide evidence of such a role in cervical carcinoma. ZBRK1 levels in cervical tumor cells were significantly lower than in normal cervical epithelial cells. In HeLa cervical cancer cells, enforced expression inhibited malignant growth, invasion, and metastasis in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9, which is known to be an important driver of invasion and metastasis, was found to be inversely correlated with ZBRK1 in tumor tissues and a target for repression in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that ZBRK1 acts to inhibit metastasis of cervical carcinoma, perhaps by modulating MMP9 expression.

  10. Exploration of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecule expression in cervical cancer tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chong Yuan; QiongYang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of FoxM1 and downstream related target molecules in cervical cancer tissue.Methods:Cervical cancer tissue and normal cervical tissue were collected to detect the expression of FoxM1, proliferation-related genes (CDK6 and CDK8) and angiogenesis-related genes (VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC); Hela cells were cultured and transfected with FoxM1 siRNA, and then expression of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC were detected.Results:mRNA contents of FoxM1, CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC in cervical cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in normal cervical tissue; mRNA content of FoxM1 was positively correlated with mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC; mRNA contents of CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC of FoxM1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of negative control-siRNA group.Conclusion:FoxM1 expression abnormally increases in cervical cancer tissue, and its downstream target genes include CDK6, CDK8, VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFC.

  11. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  12. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning

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    Hunter Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.

  13. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1 observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2 cancer experience interviews; and (3 case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1 needed changes in health education, (2 screening frequency and age, (3 sites for screening and treatment, (4 type and availability of treatment, (5 payment issues, (6 documentation of care, and (7 the potential of herbal remedies.

  14. Cervical cancer in Iquitos, Peru: local realities to guide prevention planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer L

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America, and in much of the underdeveloped world. This issue has not historically been addressed as a health priority, but in recent years is receiving increased attention and funding. This ethnographic study on the experience of cervical cancer was conducted in Iquitos, Peru, between August 1998 and May 1999. Research methodologies included: (1) observation and household interviews to obtain background knowledge about the region, medical systems, and local cultural understanding of illness; (2) cancer experience interviews; and (3) case studies of women in various stages of cervical cancer or diagnosis. Findings are presented related to local knowledge and experience of Pap smears and cervical cancer and the ineffectiveness of a recently initiated cervical cancer screening program. The findings guide recommendations for interventions in the region in relation to: (1) needed changes in health education, (2) screening frequency and age, (3) sites for screening and treatment, (4) type and availability of treatment, (5) payment issues, (6) documentation of care, and (7) the potential of herbal remedies.

  15. The risk of breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer in oral contraceptive users

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    Veljković Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oral contraceptives, mainly combined monophasic pills, are widely used by young women who expect their physicians to prescribe them safe drugs which will not harm their health and which will simplify their life. Numerous epidemiologic studies have been performed to determine the relation between oral contraceptive use and the development of neoplasms. Breast cancer. An increased incidence of breast cancer has occurred simultaneously with the growing use of oral contraceptives. The possibility of a link between the oral contraceptive use and breast cancer has led to intensive research, but studies have provided inconsistent results causing confusion among clinicians. It was noticed that the risk of breast cancer was slightly elevated in current and recent young oral contraceptives users. That finding could be influenced by a detection bias or could be due to the biologic effect of the pills. The absolute number of additional breast cancer cases will be very small because of low baseline incidence of the disease in young women. Oral contraceptives probably promote growth of the already existing cancer, they are probably promoters not initiators of breast cancer. The available data do not provide a conclusive answer that is need. Cervical cancer. Numerous factors may influence the development of cervical cancer. The evidence suggests that current and recent oral contraceptive users have an increased risk of cervical cancer which decline after discontinuation of the application of medication. Oral contraceptives might increase the biological vulnerability of the cervix. Cervical cancer develops slowly over a long time period and can be effectively prevented by periodic cervical screening. Fortunately, oral contraceptives do not mask abnormal cervical citology. Conclusions regarding invasive cervical cancer and oral contraceptive use are not definitive but if there is any increased risk, it is low. Endometrial cancer. In oral

  16. Clinical report of cervical arthroplasty in management of spondylotic myelopathy in Chinese

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    Lu Ning

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate clinical effects and manual operational point of Bryan cervical disc prosthesis in Chinese, to observe the stability and range of movement (ROM post-operatively. Methods and materials From 2003,12 to 2005,12, Bryan disc prosthesis replacement applied in 83 cases (102 levels of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM after anterior decompression in our hospital. Clinical (JOA grade and Odom's scale and radiological (X-ray of flexion, extension; left and right bending position follow-up was performed. Systemic radiographic study about stability and ROM of replaced level post operationally were measured. CT or MRI scans were applied in all cases to evaluate the signs of the prosthesis deflexion and hetero-ossification in the replaced levels. Results At least 12 months follow-up were done in 65/83 of these paients. All of 83 patients were improved according to Odsm's scale. JOA score increased from average 8.7 to 15.5. There was no prosthesis subsidence. Replaced segment achieved stability and restored partial of normal ROM 4.73°(3.7°–5.9° early postoperation and 8.12°(5.8°–13.6° more than 12 months postoperation in flex and extension position. No obvious loss of lordosis was found. CT or MRI follow-up shows position deflexion of the prosthesis metal endplates ( Conclusion Byran cervical disc prosthesis restored motion to the level of the intact segment in flexion-extension and lateral bending in post-operative images. At the same time, it can achieve good anterior decompression treatment effect and immediate stability in replaced 1 or 2 levels, and which is a new choice for the treatment of CSM.

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care. Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in comb...

  18. Second primary cancer after treatment for cervical cancer. Late effects after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, H.H.

    1988-02-15

    Using data from the population-based Danish Cancer Registry, the relative risk (RR) of second primary cancer was assessed among 24,970 women with invasive cervical cancer (1943-1982) and 19,470 women with carcinoma in situ of the cervix. The analysis was stratified according to treatment with (+) and without (-) radiation. For all second primaries combined, a RR+ = 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.18) and a RR- = 1.3 (95% CI = 1.13-1.40) was observed after invasive cervical cancers and a RR+ = 3.5 (95% CI = 1.4-7.2) and RR- = 1.1 (95% CI = 0.7-1.6) following in situ cancer. The small overall excess of second primary cancer is accounted for by an increase of some cancers such as lung, bladder, and a concurrent decrease in others such as breast. Although not statistically different from nonirradiated, the RR increased with time since treatment among irradiated invasive cervical cancer patients in organs close to and at intermediate distance from the cervix, reaching a maximum after 30 or more years of follow-up (RR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.4-2.5). Altogether, for these sites an excess of 64 cases per 10,000 women per year were attributable to radiation among survivors of 30+ years. The highest risks among long-term survivors were observed for the following: other genital organs (RR = 5.8; 95% CI = 1.8-13.0) bladder (RR = 5.5; 95% CI = 2.8-9.5), connective tissue (RR = 3.3; 95% CI = 0.4-12.0), stomach (RR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1-4.7) and rectum (RR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-4.6). A significant deficit of risk for breast cancer (RR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6-0.8) was observed for 10+ years, may be attributable to the effect of ovarian ablation by radiotherapy.

  19. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated...... the Danish incidence trends during 1997-2011 when cervical screening coverage was high. Incidences of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were also assessed, with the latest part of the study period coinciding with introduction of free-of-charge human......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...

  20. 30 years of preventive studies of uterine cervical cancer 1982-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show and describe the clinical evolution of cervical cancer screening patients following the protocol established by the University of Padua. Methods: 12,679 patients were examined using Pap smear, colposcopy and biopsy in cases it was required. Results: From these large group of patients, 6,411 were diagnosed as patients at risk of developing cancer, from which 4,257 only had HPV infection, 1,150 had dysplastic lesions, 210 had cervical cancer and 794 cases were classified as simple oncogenic risk.

  1. Cervical cancer: Renal complications and survival after percutaneous nephrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Carvalho Paula de Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: Obstructive nephropathy is a frequent complication in the course of advanced cervical cancer (CC, and ultrasonography-guided percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN is a well established technique for fast ureteral desobstruction. Objective: To identify possible factors related to the survival and quality of life of patients with advanced CC presenting acute urinary obstructive complications that after desobstruction by PCN recovered urinary flux and renal function. Method: This is an analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study that included 45 patients with CC who underwent PCN and were divided into 2 groups: “death” (DG and “survival” (SG, in a public hospital that is reference for oncologic diseases in Northern Brazil. Results: The mean serum creatinine of the patients preceding PCN was >10 mg/dL, and after PCN 8.7g/dL and Ht >27% were associated to longer survival, and the presence of low blood pressure during follow-up was associated with progression to death.

  2. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravud Narin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is a crucial etiological factor for cervical cancer (CC development. From a diagnostic view-point, the consistent presence of HPV in CC allows the viral DNA to be used as a genetic marker. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence, physical status and clinical significant of HPV DNA in circulation of CC patients. Results Whereas 6 out of 50 (12% HPV positive CC patients revealed plasma HPV DNA, it was detected in none of 20 normal controls or 13 HPV negative CC cases. The plasma DNA exhibited an HPV type identical to the HPV in the primary tumors and the DNA from both sources was integrated into host genome. Interestingly, several findings suggested an association between plasma HPV DNA and metastasis. First, three of the HPV DNA positive cases were CC patients with clinical stage IVB or recurrence with distance metastases (P = 0.001, RR = 15.67. Second, the amount of plasma HPV DNA from metastatic patients to be three times more than three other patients without metastases. Finally, the later cases had tendency to develop recurrence distant metastases within one year after complete treatment when compared with other HPV associated CC patients with the same stage but without the present of plasma HPV DNA. Conclusions The plasma HPV DNA originated from the CC, was associated with metastasis and could be used as a marker representing the circulating free CC DNA.

  3. Proteasome inhibition mediates p53 reactivation and anti-cancer activity of 6-gingerol in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Namrata; Duggal, Shivali; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Porwal, Konica; Srivastava, Vikas Kumar; Maurya, Rakesh; Bhatt, M L B; Mishra, Durga Prasad

    2015-12-22

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) expressing E6 and E7 oncoproteins, is known to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 through proteasomal degradation in cervical cancers. Therefore, use of small molecules for inhibition of proteasome function and induction of p53 reactivation is a promising strategy for induction of apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. The polyphenolic alkanone, 6-Gingerol (6G), present in the pungent extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has shown potent anti-tumorigenic and pro-apoptotic activities against a variety of cancers. In this study we explored the molecular mechanism of action of 6G in human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. 6G potently inhibited proliferation of the HPV positive cervical cancer cells. 6G was found to: (i) inhibit the chymotrypsin activity of proteasomes, (ii) induce reactivation of p53, (iii) increase levels of p21, (iv) induce DNA damage and G2/M cell cycle arrest, (v) alter expression levels of p53-associated apoptotic markers like, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, and (vi) potentiate the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. 6G treatment induced significant reduction of tumor volume, tumor weight, proteasome inhibition and p53 accumulation in HeLa xenograft tumor cells in vivo. The 6G treatment was devoid of toxic effects as it did not affect body weights, hematological and osteogenic parameters. Taken together, our data underscores the therapeutic and chemosensitizing effects of 6G in the management and treatment of cervical cancer.

  4. Socioeconomic position and stage of cervical cancer in Danish women diagnosed 2005 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Johansen, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    To reduce social disparities in cervical cancer survival, it is important to understand the mechanisms by which social position influence cancer prognosis. We investigated the relations between socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, time since last Papanicolau smear, and stage at diagnosis in Danish...

  5. Physical status of multiple human papillomavirus genotypes in flow-sorted cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Christine F. W.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Szuhai, Karoly; Kolkman-Uljee, Sandra; Vrede, M. Albert; Peters, Alexander A. W.; Schtturing, Ed; Fleuren, Gert Jan

    2007-01-01

    Multiple human papilloma virus (HPV) infections have been detected in cervical cancer. To investigate the significance of multiple HPV infections, we studied their prevalence in cancer samples from a low-risk (Dutch) and a high-risk (Surinamese) population and the correlation of HPV infection with t

  6. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...

  7. Sexual functioning of cervical cancer survivors : A review with a female perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Ellen A. G.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Pras, Elisabeth; Reyners, Anna K. L.; Mourits, Marian J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Sex is an important, often deteriorated, dimension of quality of life after cancer treatment. We conducted a systematic review on sexual functioning of cervical cancer survivors. Methods: Studies between January 1988 and April 2010 were rated on their internal validity. Results were analy

  8. Diffusion Weighted MRI as a predictive tool for effect of radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Søren; Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars;

    Diffusion weighted MRI has shown great potential in diagnostic cancer imaging and may also have value for monitoring tumor response during radiotherapy. Patients with advanced cervical cancer are treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. This study evaluates the value of ...

  9. Clinical Evidence of Chinese Massage Therapy (Tui Na for Cervical Radiculopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The review is to assess the current evidence of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na for cervical radiculopathy. Methods. Seven databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials incorporating Tui Na alone or Tui Na combined with conventional treatment were enrolled. The authors in pairs independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Results. Five studies involving 448 patients were included. The pooled analysis from the 3 trials indicated that Tui Na alone showed a significant lowering immediate effects on pain score (SMD = −0.58; 95% CI: −0.96 to −0.21; Z=3.08, P=0.002 with moderate heterogeneity compared to cervical traction. The meta-analysis from 2 trials revealed significant immediate effects of Tui Na plus cervical traction in improving pain score (MD = −1.73; 95% CI: −2.01 to −1.44; Z=11.98, P<0.00001 with no heterogeneity compared to cervical traction alone. No adverse effect was reported. There was very low quality or low quality evidence to support the results. Conclusions. Tui Na alone or Tui Na plus cervical traction may be helpful to cervical radiculopathy patients, but supportive evidence seems generally weak. Future clinical studies with low risk of bias and adequate follow-up design are recommended.

  10. Clinical Evidence of Chinese Massage Therapy (Tui Na) for Cervical Radiculopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangquan; Li, Linghui

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The review is to assess the current evidence of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na) for cervical radiculopathy. Methods. Seven databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials incorporating Tui Na alone or Tui Na combined with conventional treatment were enrolled. The authors in pairs independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Results. Five studies involving 448 patients were included. The pooled analysis from the 3 trials indicated that Tui Na alone showed a significant lowering immediate effects on pain score (SMD = −0.58; 95% CI: −0.96 to −0.21; Z = 3.08, P = 0.002) with moderate heterogeneity compared to cervical traction. The meta-analysis from 2 trials revealed significant immediate effects of Tui Na plus cervical traction in improving pain score (MD = −1.73; 95% CI: −2.01 to −1.44; Z = 11.98, P < 0.00001) with no heterogeneity compared to cervical traction alone. No adverse effect was reported. There was very low quality or low quality evidence to support the results. Conclusions. Tui Na alone or Tui Na plus cervical traction may be helpful to cervical radiculopathy patients, but supportive evidence seems generally weak. Future clinical studies with low risk of bias and adequate follow-up design are recommended. PMID:28303163

  11. Adherence to cervical cancer screening in an Italian SLE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talarico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Papanicolau (Pap smear abnormalities are more frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE respect to the general population. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to cervical cancer (CC screening in an Italian cohort of SLE patients and, secondly, to evaluate the disease-related factors possibly influencing the patients’ behavior. Methods: Consecutive 25 to 64 year old SLE patients and aged- matched healthy women were enrolled for the study. All patients were interviewed during ambulatory visits, at admission to the clinic or by a telephone contact; disease related variables were also collected from the clinical charts. Results: 140 SLE patients (mean age 48.3±12 years and 70 controls matched for demographic and sociocultural characteristics were enrolled. Ninety-three SLE patients (66.4% declared to perform the Pap test at least every three years (23.6% yearly and 42.8% when asked by the screening programs while 47 (33.6% did not perform regular CC screening (16.4% never did the test and 17.1% only occasionally. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cancer screening adherence. No significant associations were observed between the screening program behaviours and disease-related variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing evidence of an increased risk of CC in SLE, and regardless of the broad availability of screening programs and official recommendations, our results show insufficient CC surveillance among SLE patients and emphasize to rheumatologists and/or general practitioners the importance to discuss with patients this aspect during routine evaluations in order to encourage compliance to the recommended preventive measures.

  12. Trichostatin A Enhances the Apoptotic Potential of Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches for cancer. We sought to identify alternative and effective therapeutic approaches, by first synthesizing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs, using a novel biomolecule called saponin. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by several analytical techniques. They were significantly spherical in shape, with an average size of 5 nm. Recently, PdNPs gained much interest in various therapies of cancer cells. Similarly, histone deacetylase inhibitors are known to play a vital role in anti-proliferative activity, gene expression, cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Therefore, we selected trichostatin A (TSA and PdNPs and studied their combined effect on apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cells treated with either TSA or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combinatorial effect, tested with 50 nM TSA and 50 nMPdNPs, had a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability, than either TSA or PdNPs alone. The combination of TSA and PdNPs had a more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspase-3/9 activity and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. The combinatorial treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated relevant targeted therapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the combinatory effect and cytotoxicity mechanism of TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells.

  13. Scaling up cervical cancer screening in the midst of human papillomavirus vaccination advocacy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening tests for cervical cancer are effective in reducing the disease burden. In Thailand, a Pap smear program has been implemented throughout the country for 40 years. In 2008 the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH unexpectedly decided to scale up the coverage of free cervical cancer screening services, to meet an ambitious target. This study analyzes the processes and factors that drove this policy innovation in the area of cervical cancer control in Thailand. Methods In-depth interviews with key policy actors and review of relevant documents were conducted in 2009. Data analysis was guided by a framework, developed on public policy models and existing literature on scaling-up health care interventions. Results Between 2006 and 2008 international organizations and the vaccine industry advocated the introduction of Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccine for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Meanwhile, a local study suggested that the vaccine was considerably less cost-effective than cervical cancer screening in the Thai context. Then, from August to December 2008, the MoPH carried out a campaign to expand the coverage of its cervical cancer screening program, targeting one million women. The study reveals that several factors were influential in focusing the attention of policymakers on strengthening the screening services. These included the high burden of cervical cancer in Thailand, the launch of the HPV vaccine onto the global and domestic markets, the country’s political instability, and the dissemination of scientific evidence regarding the appropriateness of different options for cervical cancer prevention. Influenced by the country’s political crisis, the MoPH’s campaign was devised in a very short time. In the view of the responsible health officials, the campaign was not successful and indeed, did not achieve its ambitious target. Conclusion The Thai case study suggests that the political crisis was a

  14. Molecular diagnosis of human papillomavirus in the development of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl; Tanya Plett-Torres; Claudia L Madrid-González; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is a major public health problem in developing countries and its most significant etiological risk factor is infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The main approach to date for the prevention of CC has been through screening programs, using the cervical smear (PAP test) to detect precursory lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of the PAP smear depend on the skills of the observer to recognize and classify a variety of cellular abnormalities. The development of ...

  15. Human papillomavirus DNA in plasma of patients with HPV16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Takako; Yamaguchi, Naohiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Yamasaki, Kentaro; Miura, Kiyonori; Katamine, Shigeru; Masuzaki, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The squamous cell carcinoma antigen is considered the most accurate serologic tumor marker for uterine cervical carcinoma. However, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels were found to correlate significantly with clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and chronic renal failure. The present study was conducted in patients with human papillomavirus 16 DNA-positive uterine cervical cancer to determine the plasma level of human papillomavirus 16 DNA and the diagnostic values of...

  16. Cervical cancer in Mexico and importance of sex education for early prevention in young people and rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl S. Moran García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a serious health problem due to high mortality rates that are associated with it. The high incidence rates can be explained by women and their families’ ignorance about this disease. In fact, cervical cancer can be diagnosed early and, if detected on time, the likelihood of cure is high. Latin America is considered at high risk for cervical cancer. More specifically, cervical cancer in Mexico ranks second in incidence after breast cancer, in spite of having a screening program for over 20 years, which has only been able to prevent 13% of potentially preventable cases. The purpose of this analysis is to once again address the importance cervical cancer, to offer a general overview of the nature of this disease, but most of all, to underscore the relevance of education as a means of detection and prevention.

  17. Risk of cervical cancer in women with autoimmune diseases, in relation with their use of immunosuppressants and screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Hallas, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    Severely immunosuppressed individuals have a strongly increased risk of cervical cancer. In patients with autoimmune diseases (AID), who have defects in their immune system and receive immunosuppressants, the risk of cervical cancer is less clear. We conducted a cohort study, using Danish....... Hazard ratios (HR) from time-dependent Cox models stratified by AID were used to explore the effect of the most frequently used immunosuppressants, taking into account potential dose-response relationships and lag times between drug exposure and cervical cancer development. Cervical screening coverage...

  18. Gene expression profiling in cervical cancer: identification of novel markers for disease diagnosis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Cara M

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer. HPV contributes to neoplastic progression through the action of two viral oncoproteins E6 and E7, which interfere with critical cell cycle pathways, p53, and retinoblastoma. However, evidence suggests that HPV infection alone is insufficient to induce malignant changes and other host genetic variations are important in the development of cervical cancer. Advances in molecular biology and high throughput gene expression profiling technologies have heralded a new era in biomarker discovery and identification of molecular targets related to carcinogenesis. These advancements have improved our understanding of carcinogenesis and will facilitate screening, early detection, management, and personalised targeted therapy. In this chapter, we have described the use of high density microarrays to assess gene expression profiles in cervical cancer. Using this approach we have identified a number of novel genes which are differentially expressed in cervical cancer, including several genes involved in cell cycle regulation. These include p16ink4a, MCM 3 and 5, CDC6, Geminin, Cyclins A-D, TOPO2A, CDCA1, and BIRC5. We have validated expression of mRNA using real-time PCR and protein by immunohistochemistry.

  19. A review of topotecan in combination chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Robati

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minoo Robati, David Holtz, Charles J DuntonDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Main Line Gynecologic Oncology, Lankenau Hospital, Wynnewood, PA, USAAbstract: Treatment of advanced, recurrent or persistent cervical cancer includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiation has been the primary treatment modality for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Concomitant systemic cisplatin chemotherapy and radiation have shown high response rates with improvements in durable remissions and overall survival. Cisplatin has been the standard medication for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. Combinations with other chemotherapeutic agents have been the subject of clinical trials with varying results. The toxicity of combination chemotherapy and tolerability of patients are other factors that should be considered in the management of patients with advanced disease. Recently topotecan, in combination with cisplatin, achieved increased response and overall survival rates without further compromising the patients’ quality of life. This review focuses on the mechanism of action and toxicities of topotecan, as well as its role as a radio-sensitizer and chemotherapeutic agent in the management of advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer. Other combination modalities and dosages are also discussed.Keywords: topotecan, combination chemotherapy, advanced cervical cancer

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening Knowledge and Behavior among Women Attending an Urban HIV Clinic in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Joelle I; Njoroge, Betty; Huchko, Megan J

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer is a highly preventable disease that disproportionately affects women in developing countries and women with HIV. As integrated HIV and cervical cancer screening programs in Sub-Saharan Africa mature, we have an opportunity to measure the impact of outreach and education efforts and identify areas for future improvement. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 106 women enrolled in care at an integrated HIV clinic in the Nyanza Province of Kenya 5 years after the start of a cervical cancer screening program. Female clinic attendees who met clinic criteria for cervical cancer screening were asked to complete an oral questionnaire assessing their cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening history. Ninety-nine percent of women had heard of screening, 70 % felt at risk, and 84 % had been screened. Increased duration of HIV diagnosis was associated with feeling at risk and with a screening history. Nearly half (48 %) of women said they would not get screened if they had to pay for it.

  1. Etiology and Prevention of Cervical Cancer%宫颈癌病因及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红杰; 李忻琳

    2011-01-01

    This article discussed the cause and prevention of cervical cancer from a philosophical point of view. Cervical cancer is the combined result of internal reason and external reason. Experimental and clinical studies found that high- risk HPV (one of human papillomavirus family) infection is the ongoing occurrence of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions, it's the main external factor. This article will discuss the HPV genotyping as an important elemen of cervical cancer screening system in the prevention of cervical cancer.%从哲学角度讨论宫颈癌的病因,思考临床工作中如何预防宫颈癌.宫颈癌的发生是内因外因综合作用的结果.实验与临床研究发现人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)家族中的高危型HPV的持续感染是宫颈癌及其癌前痛变发生的主要外因.本文将讨论HPV分型检测作为宫颈癌筛查系统的一个重要元素在预防宫颈癌发生中所处的地位.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in cervical cancer: different roles in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauvala, M; Aglund, K; Puistola, U; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T; Horvath, G; Willén, R; Stendahl, U

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of uterine cervical cancer has increased slightly in Western countries, with an increase in relatively young women. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2 and -9 has turned out as a prognostic factor in many cancers. We compared the expression of the proteins MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cervical primary tumors with clinical outcome and risk factors of cervical cancer. One hundred sixty-one patients with cervical cancer treated in Umeå University Hospital or Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden, between 1991 and 1995 were included in the study. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained prior to treatment were examined immunohistochemically by specific antibodies for MMP-2 and MMP-9. Forty-two percent of the tumors were intensively positive for MMP-2 and 31% for MMP-9. Nineteen percent of the samples were intensively positive for both proteinases and 47% negative or weak for both. Overexpression of MMP-2 seemed to predict unfavorable survival under Kaplan-Meier analysis and in the multivariate analysis. Early sexual activity and low parity seemed to correlate to overexpression of MMP-2. MMP-9 was not associated with survival or sexual behavior. Intensive MMP-9 was noted in grade 1 tumors. We conclude that MMP-2 and MMP-9 have different roles in uterine cervical cancer. MMP-2 could be associated with aggressive behavior, but MMP-9 expression diminishes in high-grade tumors.

  3. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in cervical cancer patients from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cheryl M Travasso; Mona Anand Mansi; Mansi Samarth; Aditi Deshpande; Chandan Kumar-Sinha

    2008-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in India. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the causative agent of cervical cancer; and infection with the high-risk genotypes, predominantly HPV16 and 18, is the biggest risk factor. Vaccines targeting HPV16 and 18 have been found to confer protection in large-scale clinical trials. HPV genotyping has traditionally been carried out to screen the population “at risk” using indirect methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers combined with various DNA hybridization techniques, and often followed by the sequencing of candidate products. Recently, a high-throughput and direct method based on DNA sequencing has been described for HPV genotyping using multiplex pyrosequencing. We present a pilot study on HPV genotyping of cervical cancer and non-malignant cervical samples using multiplex pyrosequencing. Using genomic DNA from cell lines, cervical biopsies, surgical tissues or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, we could successfully resolve 6 different HPV types out of the 7 tested, with their prevalence found to be in agreement with earlier reports. We also resolved coinfections with two different HPV types in several samples. An HPV16 genotype with a specific and recurrent sequence variation was observed in 8 cancer samples and one non-malignant sample. We find this technique eminently suited for high-throughput applications, which can be easily extended to large sample cohorts to determine a robust benchmark for HPV genotypes prevalent in India.

  4. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in cervical cancer: a nationwide population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Shiang-Jiun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a life-threatening condition that occurs as a complication of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of VTE in cervical cancer patients during a 5-year follow-up. Methods The study analyzed data deposited between 2003 and 2008 in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 1013 cervical cancer patients after treatment and 2026 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the VTE risk. Results The 5-year cumulative risk for VTE was significantly higher in the cervical cancer group than in the control group (3.3% vs 0.3%, p vs 30.3%, p  Conclusions The cumulative risk of VTE was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients, and these patients also had lower survival rates. Strategies to reduce these risks need to be examined.

  5. Overexpression of glycosylated proteins in cervical cancer recognized by the Machaerocereus eruca agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Carlos; Angel Mayoral, Miguel; de los Angeles Carlos, María; Berumen, Jaime; Guevara, Jorge; Raúl Chávez, Francisco; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Agundis, Concepción; Zenteno, Edgar

    2012-10-08

    In cervical cancer, glycosylation has been suggested as being involved in both its carcinogenesis and invasive capacity. In this work, we analyzed mucin type O-glycosylation in biopsies of invasive cervical cancer in FIGO stage II B through histochemistry using lectins specific for O-glycosidically linked glycans. Our results reveal that the lectin Machaerocereus eruca (MeA, specific for Gal in a Fucα1,2 (GalNAcα1,3) Galβ1,4) showed increased recognition of tumoral cells and tumoral stroma tissue compared to other lectins with similar specificity; healthy cervical tissue was negative for MeA. Trypsin treatment of recognized tissues abolished MeA's recognition;moreover, interaction of MeA was inhibited with oligosaccharides from mucin. As demonstrated by Western blot of 2-D electrophoresis, MeA recognized ten glycoproteins in the range from 122 to 42 kDa in cervical cancer lysates. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the MeAs' recognized peptides revealed that the latter matched mainly with the amino acid sequences of lamin A/C, vimentin, elongation factor 2, keratin 1, and beta actin. Our results suggest that MeA recognizes a complex of over-expressed O-glycosidically-linked proteins that play a relevant role in cervical cancer's invasive capacity. O-glycosylation participates in the disassembly of intercellular junctions favoring cancer progression.

  6. THE CONSTRUCTION AND EXPRESSION OF THE MURINE SCFV GENE IN E. COLI AGAINST HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Chen Wei; Li Xu

    2006-01-01

    Objective To obtain the gene of murine Single chain Fv fragment (ScFv) against human cervical cancer and to express it in E. coli. Methods The variable region gene fragments of the heavy and light chains, which were amplified respectively using recombinant DNA techniques from CsA125 hybridoma cells, were spliced together through a flexible linker to ScFv against human cervical cancer. The ScFv genes were then cloned into expression vector pCANTAB 5E and expressed in E. coli HB2151 and TG1 respectively. The soluble ScFv were characterized by SDS PAGE and Western blot. The antigen-binding activities of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv were assayed by ELISA and cell immunohistochemical analysis. Results The expressed ScFv antibodies were soluble and phage displayed. The soluble ScFv secreted and expressed in E. coli HB2151 induced by IPTG were confirmed with SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. The specific binding capacity of the soluble and phage displayed ScFv to the surface associated antigen of human cervical cancer cell line was further confirmed with immunohistochemical studies. Conclusion The soluble and phage displayed ScFv expressed in E. coli against human cervical cancer showed high, specific affinity for the cervical cancer cell line surface associated antigen.

  7. Application of HPLC Combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence for Protein Profile Analysis of Tissue Homogenates in Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha Bhat; Ajeetkumar Patil; Lavanya Rai; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh Chidangil

    2012-01-01

    A highly objective method, High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF) technique was used to study the protein profiles of normal and cervical cancer tissue homogenates. A total of 44 samples including normal cervical biopsy samples from the hysterectomy patients and the patients suffering from different stages of the cervical cancer were recorded by HPLC-LIF and analysed by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) to get statistical information on different t...

  8. Knowledge and attitudes about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in rural Uganda NKONWA INNOCENT H 1,2,3* , MICHAEL J...Human Papilloma virus (HPV) strains 16 and 18. While cervical cancer is widely understood as a fatal disease, knowledge and awareness of cervical...capture assay of self – collected virginal swabs in rural Uganda for detection of human papilloma virus . J Infect Disease, 1999 1999.180; p. 1316.1319. 19

  9. Detection of HPV-16 DNA by PCR in histologically cancer free lymph nodes from patients with cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baay, MFD; Koudstaal, J; Hollema, H; Duk, JM; Burger, MPM; Quint, WGV; Stolz, E; Herbrink, P

    1997-01-01

    The prognostic value of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA in histologically cancer free lymph nodes was assessed in left obturator lymph nodes from cervical cancer patients with HPV-16 positive primary tumours. HPV-16 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 12 of 35 patien

  10. Detection of HPV-16 DNA by PCR in histologically cancer free lymph nodes from patients with cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.D. Baay (Marc); J. Koudstaal; H. Hollema; J.M. Duk; M.P.M. Burger; W.G.V. Quint (Wim); E. Stolz (Ernst); P. Herbrink (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe prognostic value of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA in histologically cancer free lymph nodes was assessed in left obturator lymph nodes from cervical cancer patients with HPV-16 positive primary tumours. HPV-16 DNA was detected by po

  11. Overexpression of glycosylated proteins in cervical cancer recognized by the Machaerocereus eruca agglutinin Overexpression of glycosylated proteins in cervical cancer recognized by the Machaerocereus eruca agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Solórzano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cervical cancer, glycosylation has been suggested as being involved in both its carcinogenesis and
    invasive capacity. In this work, we analyzed mucin type O-glycosylation in biopsies of invasive cervical cancer in
    FIGO stage II B through histochemistry using lectins specific for O-glycosidically linked glycans. Our results
    reveal that the lectin Machaerocereus eruca (MeA, specific for Gal in a Fuca1,2 (GalNAca1,3 Galb1,4 showed
    increased recognition of tumoral cells and tumoral stroma tissue compared to other lectins with similar specificity;
    healthy cervical tissue was negative for MeA. Trypsin treatment of recognized tissues abolished MeA’s recognition;
    moreover, interaction of MeA was inhibited with oligosaccharides from mucin. As demonstrated by
    Western blot of 2-D electrophoresis, MeA recognized ten glycoproteins in the range from 122 to 42 kDa in
    cervical cancer lysates. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the MeAs’ recognized peptides revealed that the latter
    matched mainly with the amino acid sequences of lamin A/C, vimentin, elongation factor 2, keratin 1, and beta
    actin. Our results suggest that MeA recognizes a complex of over-expressed O-glycosidically-linked proteins that
    play a relevant role in cervical cancer’s invasive capacity. O-glycosylation participates in the disassembly of intercellular
    junctions favoring cancer progression.In cervical cancer, glycosylation has been suggested as being involved in both its carcinogenesis and
    invasive capacity. In this work, we analyzed mucin type O-glycosylation in biopsies of invasive cervical cancer in
    FIGO stage II B through histochemistry using lectins specific for O-glycosidically linked glycans. Our results
    reveal that the lectin Machaerocereus eruca (MeA, specific for Gal in a Fuca1,2 (GalNAca1,3 Galb1,4 showed
    increased recognition of tumoral cells and tumoral stroma tissue compared to other lectins

  12. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy in cervical cancer: recommendations for chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Haensgen, G. [Halle Univ., Wittenberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2001-12-01

    Background: Simultaneous radiochemotherapy has recently been demonstrated to be superior to radiation alone in the treatment of cervical cancer. The objective of this article is to summarize the data of major randomized trials and to derive recommendations for daily clinical practice. Materials and Methods: We have analyzed the data from seven randomized trials in the recent literature in which radiotherapy alone as standard treatment has been compared to simultaneous radiochemotherapy. Four trials used cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens, 5-FU, mitomycin C and epirubicin were used each in one trial. Results: All trials demonstrated some improvement in survival which was significant in the studies with cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens. The survival benefit resulted mainly from an improvement in local control whereas chemotherapy had only a small and insignificant effect on distant metastases. Thus, the main action of chemotherapy is ''radiosensitization''. Cisplatin as single drug yielded comparable results as compared to combined regimens although the cisplatin dose was lower in the studies with combination chemotherapy. For the definitive treatment of locally advanced cancers, monotherapy with cisplatin can be recommended. Mitomycin C offers an attractive alternative to cisplatin in patients with contraindications for cisplatin. For postoperative radiochemotherapy, a combination of cisplatin/5-FU should be used because data with cisplatin alone are lacking so far. Simultaneous radiochemotherapy should also be considered for the curative treatment of local recurrences. Conclusions: The addition of simultaneous chemotherapy to radiotherapy is indicated in the vast majority of patients with cervical cancers who are treated with curative intent. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die simultane Radiochemotherapie gilt seit kurzem als Behandlungsmethode der Wahl beim lokal fortgeschrittenen Zervixkarzinom. In dieser Arbeit wird versucht

  13. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  14. Impact of Age and Comorbidity on Cervical and Breast Cancer Literacy of African Americans, Latina, and Arab Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Costellia H; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between age, comorbidity, and breast and cervical cancer literacy in a sample of African American, Latina, and Arab women (N = 371) from Detroit, Michigan. The Age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACC) was used characterize the impact of age and comorbidity on breast and cervical cancer literacy. The relationship between ACC and breast and cervical cancer screening, and group differences, were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between breast cancer literacy scores. ACC had a greater impact on breast cancer literacy for African Americans.

  15. 77 FR 60703 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  16. Prevalence of High risk Human Papillomavirus in cervical dysplasia and cancer samples from twin cities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Gul

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results show a strong association between HPV infection and cervical cancer among women in twin cities of Pakistan. One way to minimize the disease burden in relation to HPV infection in Pakistani population is the use of prophylactic vaccines and routine screening. An early diagnosis of HPV infection will allow better health management to reduce the risk of developing cervical cancer.

  17. Doxycycline inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of both human papillomavirus positive and negative cervical cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Lei; Li, Changzhong

    2016-05-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer remains a challenge and the development of new treatment strategies merits attention. However, the discovery and development of novel compounds can be a long and labourious process. Drug repositioning may circumvent this process and facilitate the rapid translation of hypothesis-driven science into the clinics. In this work, we show that a FDA-approved antibiotic, doxycycline, effectively targets human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline significantly inhibits proliferation of a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. It also induces apoptosis of cervical cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the apoptosis induced by doxycycline is through caspase-dependent pathway. Mechanism studies demonstrate that doxycycline affects oxygen consumption rate, glycolysis, and reduces ATP levels in cervical cancer cells. In HeLa xenograft mouse model, doxycycline significantly inhibits growth of tumour. Our in vitro and in vivo data clearly demonstrate the inhibitory effects of doxycycline on the growth and survival of cervical cancer cells. Our work provides the evidence that doxycycline can be repurposed for the treatment of cervical cancer and targeting energy metabolism may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer.

  18. miR-214 down-regulates ARL2 and suppresses growth and invasion of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ruiqing; Men, Jianlong; Ma, Rui; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yang; Sun, Ying; Ren, Jing

    2017-03-11

    Increasing evidence has shown that miRNAs are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. In this study, we confirmed that miR-214 is frequently down-regulated in cervical cancer compared with normal cervical tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-214 suppressed proliferation, migration and invasion of HeLa and C33A cervical cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (ARL2) was a potential target of miR-214 and was remarkably up-regulated in cervical cancer. Knockdown of ARL2 markedly inhibited cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, similarly to over-expression of miR-214, indicating that ARL2 may function as an oncogene in cervical cancer. In conclusion, our study revealed that miR-214 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells through targeting ARL2, and that both miR-214 and ARL2 may serve as prognostic or therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  19. N-WASP promotes invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells through regulating p38 MAPKs signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinxuan; Yang, Hui; Huang, Xin; Leng, Xiaohua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) is an important member of the WASP family involved in the actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Recent evidence suggests that N-WASP may play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. However, the contribution of N-WASP to cervical cancer is still unknown. The present study focused on elucidating the role of N-WASP in the malignant behavior of cervical cancer cells. We found that N-WASP overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared with paired paracancerous tissues and normal tissues, and similar results were observed in several cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of N-WASP facilitated migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, while downregulation of N-WASP resulted in decreased cell migration and invasion. In addition, the data showed that N-WASP might promote invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells via regulating the activity of p38 MAPKs pathway. Altogether, the study suggested that N-WASP might serve as an oncogene in cervical cancer, and provided novel insights into the mechanism that how N-WASP promoted invasion and migration of cervical cancer cells.

  20. Geographic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality: What Are the Roles of Risk Factor Prevalence, Screening, and Use of Recommended Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabroff, K. Robin; Lawrence, William F.; King, Jason C.; Mangan, Patricia; Washington, Kathleen Shakira; Yi, Bin; Kerner, Jon F.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and prevention of cervical cancer, women living in rural areas, and particularly in Appalachia, the rural South, the Texas-Mexico border, and the central valley of California, have had consistently higher rates of cervical cancer mortality than their counterparts in other areas during the past several decades.…

  1. Prevalence of adeno-associated virus and human papillomavirus DNA in Iranian women with and without cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei-Jandaghi, Nazanin Zahra; Yavarian, Jila; Faghihloo, Ebrahim; Ghavami, Nastaran; Yousefi Ghalejoogh, Zohreh; Kiani, Seyed Jalal; Shatizadeh Malekshahi, Somayeh; Shahsiah, Reza; Jahanzad, Eisa; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mokhtari Azad, Talat

    2017-02-24

    There is plenty of substantial evidence to support anti-tumor activity of viruses. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) may interact with human papillomavirus (HPV) to modify the risk of cervical neoplasia. The seroprevalence of AAV among women with cervical cancer has been reported to be lower than healthy ones. In spite of this finding, detection of AAV DNA in cervical biopsies does not entirely support the inverse association between AAV seropositivity and cervical cancer. This association is still controversial and requires more thorough evaluation in different countries. The aim of this case-control study was to find the prevalence of AAV and HPV DNA sequences in Iranian women with and without cervical cancer to assess the probable association of AAV infection and cervical cancer. In this study, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 61 cervical cancer cases and 50 healthy controls (HCs) were investigated for AAV and HPV DNA by semi-nested and nested PCRs respectively. AAV DNA was detected in 7 cases (14%) of HCs and 9 specimens (14.8%) of case group. According to the branching in the phylogenetic tree, AAV2 was the only type detected in this study. Moreover, HPV DNA was detected in 8 cases (16%) of HCs and 44 specimens (72.13%) of case group. In conclusion, a low proportion of cervical biopsies from Iranian women contained AAV-2 genome. No significant difference in correlation between HPV and cervical cancer in presence or absence of AAV genome in cervix was found.

  2. Secondary prevention of cervical cancer through the development and implementation of a system to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic and rehabilitation measures in the background and precancerous cervical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Badretdinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive evaluation and treatment of background and pre-cancerous cervical cancer of women were studied (n = 1022. There is the complex assessment of social and obstetric gynecological risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A system for optimizing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative measures, taking into account the differentiated approach to the choice of treatment, follow-up in the near and long-term postoperative period. An individual approach to the selection of organ presentation or radical treatment using new technologies of surgical treatment are identified. Application of the developed system enabled a statistically significantly improve the results of treatment of background and precancerous cervical disease.

  3. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  4. Awareness of Risk Factors for Breast, Lung and Cervical Cancer in a UK Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M; Lane, Emily L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify levels of risk awareness for breast, lung and cervical cancer, in a UK student population. A sample of male (N=62) and female (N=58) university students, mean age 21.62 years completed a questionnaire identifying which risk factors they knew for each cancer. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences in risk awareness across gender and cancer types. Risk factor awareness was highest for lung cancer (0.78), mid-range for breast cancer (0.61) and lowest for cervical cancer (0.47). Women had greater risk factor awareness (0.67) than males (0.57) across all three cancers. There is also significant belief in mythic risk factors such as stress (from 14 to 40% across the three cancers). Previous research has demonstrated that risk factor awareness increases with educational status, yet even in a university student population, in which the majority of females would have been offered the HPV vaccination, risk factor awareness for cancers is variable. More health education is needed particularly around the risk factors for cervical cancer.

  5. Factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingham Allison

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for introducing or strengthening cervical cancer prevention programs must focus on ensuring that appropriate, cost-effective services are available and that women who most need the services will, in fact, use them. This article summarizes the experiences of research projects in Bolivia, Peru, Kenya, South Africa, and Mexico. Factors that affect participation rates in cervical cancer prevention programs are categorized in three sections. The first section describes factors that arise from prevailing sociocultural norms that influence women's views on reproductive health, well being, and notions of illness. The second section discusses factors related to the clinical requirements and the type of service delivery system in which a woman is being asked to participate. The third section discusses factors related to quality of care. Examples of strategies that programs are using to encourage women's participation in cervical cancer prevention services are provided.

  6. FGFR3–TACC3: A novel gene fusion in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito A. Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer epitomizes the success of cancer prevention through the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, but significant challenges remain in the treatment of advanced disease. We report the first three cases of cervical carcinoma harboring an FGFR3–TACC3 fusion, which serves as a novel therapeutic target. The fusion, identified by comprehensive genomic profiling, activates the FGFR pathway that has been implicated in HPV-driven carcinogenesis. One of the patients whose tumor contained the FGFR3–TACC3 fusion was treated with an investigational FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Concomitant molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAF/MEK pathways were also identified and suggest other treatment strategies that deserve investigation. This case series highlights the role of comprehensive genomic profiling in the identification of new therapeutic targets and in targeted therapy selection for patients with cervical cancer.

  7. Spontaneous perforation of pyometra in a cervical cancer patient: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Prakash, Mahesh; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Pankaj; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Pyometra is an uncommon condition with an incidence of less than 1% in gynaecologic patients. Spontaneous rupture of pyometra in cervical cancer presenting as generalized peritonitis is very rare. Only four cases have been described in the English literature to the best of our knowledge and from a PubMed search. The index case is an elderly postmenopausal female who was diagnosed with cervical cancer, started on radiotherapy and presented with features of generalized peritonitis. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed uterine perforation at the fundus with multiple abdominal and pelvic collections. A brief review of all the cases of ruptured pyometra in cervical cancer in the literature and a discussion of the role of imaging is presented. PMID:19419914

  8. Current status of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Lukas; Lukas, Rob; Robova, Helena; Helena, Robova; Halaska, Michael Jiri; Jiri, Halaska Michael; Hruda, Martin; Martin, Hruda; Skapa, Petr; Petr, Skapa

    2013-07-01

    The status of regional lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in early cervical cancer patients. Pelvic lymph node dissections are routinely performed as a part of standard surgical treatment. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy is associated with short- and long-term morbidities. This review discusses single components of the sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) technique and results of the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. SLNM biopsy performed by an experienced team for small volume tumors (<2 cm) has high specific side detection rate, excellent negative-predictive value and high sensitivity. Uncommon lymphatic drainage has been reported in 15% of cervical cancer patients. There is sufficient data now to suggest that SLNM with 99mTc plus blue dye in the hands of a surgeon with extensive experience should prove to be an important part of individualized cervical cancer surgery and increase the safety of less radical or fertility-sparing surgery.

  9. Müllerian duct anomalies and their effect on the radiotherapeutic management of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhup Rastogi; Swaroop Revannasiddaiah; Pragyat Thakur; Priyanka Thakur; Manish Gupta; Manoj K Gupta; Rajeev K Seam

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of cervical cancer.A successful radiotherapy program integrates both external beam and brachytherapy components.The principles of radiotherapy are strongly based on the anatomy of the organ and patterns of local and nodal spread.However,in patients with distorted anatomy,several practical issues arise in the delivery of optimal radiotherapy,especially with brachytherapy.Müllerian duct anomalies result in congenital malformations of the female genital tract.Though being very commonly studied for their deleterious effects on fertility and pregnancy,they have not been recognized for their potential to interfere with the delivery of radiotherapy among patients with cervical cancer.Here,we discuss the management of cervical cancer among patients with Müllerian duct anomalies and review the very sparse amount of published literature on this topic.

  10. Preferential recruitment of Th17 cells to cervical cancer via CCR6-CCL20 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Lou, Xiang-ming; He, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies suggest that Th17 cells accumulate within tumor tissues and correlate with recurrence of cervical cancer patients. However, the source of the increased tumor-infiltrating Th17 cells remains poorly understood. We investigated the prevalence, phenotype and trafficking property of Th17 cells in patients with cervical cancer. Our results showed that Th17 cells highly aggregated within tumor tissues in an activated phenotype with markedly increased expression of CCR6. Correspondingly, level of CCL20 in the tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in non-tumor and normal control tissues, and strongly positively associated with Th17 cells. Further, in vitro migration assay showed CCL20 had effective chemotaxis to circulating Th17 cells. In conclusion, Th17 cells are recruited into tumor tissues preferentially through CCR6-CCL20 pathway, which can serve as a novel therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  11. Induction of apoptosis by casticin in cervical cancer cells: reactive oxygen species-dependent sustained activation of Jun N-terminal kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanxiang Zeng; Li Tian; Fei Liu; Jianguo Cao; Meifang Quan; Xifeng Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Casticin,a polymethoxyflavone from Fructus viticis used as an anti-inflammatory agent in Chinese traditional medicine,has been reported to have anti-cancer activity.The purpose of this study was to examine the apoptotic activity of casticin on human cervical cancer cells and its molecular mechanism.We revealed a novel mechanism by which casticin-induced apoptosis occurs and showed for the first time that the apoptosis induced by casticin is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in HeLa cells.Casticin markedly increased the levels of intracellular ROS and induced the expression of phosphorylated JNK and cJun protein.Pre-treatment with N-acetylcvsteine and SP600125 effectively attenuated induction of apoptosis by casticin in HeLa cells.Moreover,casticin induced ROS production and apoptotic cell death in other cervical cancer cell lines,such as CasKi and SiHa.Importantly,casticin did not cause generation of ROS or induction of apoptosis in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and embryonic kidney epithelium 293 cells.These results suggest that ROS generation and sustained JNK activation by casticin play a role in casticin-induced apoptosis and raise the possibility that treatment with casticin might be promising as a new therapy against human cervical cancer.

  12. 宫颈糜烂与宫颈CIN及宫颈癌相关性的临床分析%Analysis of the relationship between cervical erosion and CIN or cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞辰珠

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈糜烂与宫颈CIN及宫颈癌的关系.方法:对2008~2009年在山西省人民医院门诊就医的宫颈糜烂患者临床资料进行分析.结果:宫颈CIN及宫颈癌趋于年轻化,宫颈糜烂与宫颈CIN及宫颈癌之间无明显相关性.结论:宫颈糜烂是宫颈CIN及宫颈癌的前期表现,但宫颈靡烂面积、深度与宫颈CIN及宫颈癌不成正比.%Objective: To study the relationship between cervical erosion and CIN or cervical cancer. Methods: To analyze the clinical data of cervical erosion in outpatient treatment from 2008 to 2009 in Shanxi Province Peopled Hospital. Results: The patients with cervical CIN and cervical cancer tend to be younger. The significant correlation was not found between cervical erosion and cervical CIN or cervical cancer. Conclusion: Cervical erosion is the pre - show of CIN and cervical cancer. But the area and depth of the Cervical erosion with cervical CIN and cervical cancer is not directly proportional.

  13. Detection of Recurrent Cervical Cancer by Whole-body FDG PET Scans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxin Yang; Jinhui Wang; Zhaohui Zhu; Keng Shen; Bocheng Wang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the role of whole-body {18F} fluro-2-dexoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans in the detection of recurrent cervical cancer.METHODS Between June, 2000 and January, 2006, 25 patients had undergone a PET scan at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital to evaluate possible recurrent cervical cancer. All the PET findings were reviewed and compared to available clinical data to classify each PET scan result as a true positive, true negative, false positive, or false negative.RESULTS A total of 38 PET scans were conducted on the 25patients whose median age was 46 years. The Stage distributions were IA (n = 1), IB (n = 11), IIA (n = 5), IIB (n = 4), IIIB (n = 2), WB (n= 1), and unknown Stage (n = 1). There were 22 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 3 cases of adenocarcinoma resulting in 9 true positive PET scans, 27 true negatives, 2 false positives and no false negatives. The sensitivity of the FDG PET scans for detecting recurrent cervical cancer was 100%, specificity 93.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, and negative predictive value 100%.CONCLUSION The whole body FDG PET scans are a sensitive and specific imaging modality for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. However the cost of PET scans is too high at this time. A large prospective study will determine whether this modality should be used routinely and take the place of other imaging methods in the early detection of recurrent cervical carcinoma

  14. [New paradigms and challenges in cervical cancer prevention and control in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Murillo, Raúl; Sánchez, Gloria Inés; Jerónimo, José; Salmerón, Jorge; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Herrero, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had almost no major impact on reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. The availability of new screening tools to detect precancerous lesions provide great opportunities for cervical cancer prevention in the region, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. This paper summarizes the scientific evidence and regional experiences related to: i) the use of HPV testing and visual inspection after the application of acetic acid (VIA) in primary screening and ii) the implementation of adolescent HPV vaccination programs. Finally, we outline a number of recommendations for different resource settings. The feasibility of implementing successful and sustainable national cervical cancer prevention programs in Latin American countries in the region will depend on health priorities and the availability of infrastructure and health personnel--as determined by rigorous local situational analysis.

  15. Performance of Early Diagnosis of Breast and Cervical Cancer in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Padrón González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: breast and cervical cancer are among the most frequent causes of death in women. Therefore, the early detection of these diseases is one of the prioritized programs of the Public Health System. Objective: to describe the performance of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted over the period 2010-2011 in the context of the CARMEN project. A random sample was selected which was randomly stratified. The variables analyzed included age, marital status, skin color, health professional’s visits, knowledge of breast self-examination, clinical breast exam, mammography, cervical smear and time from the last medical examination of each test. The questionnaire of the CARMEN study was used. Results analysis was performed by SPSS package version 15, 0. Statistical significance level used was 95 %. Results: a total of 428 women (41,1 % had not been examined in over a year; 49 of them (4,6 % had not been checked for more than five years. 7,2 % of the study sample have never undergone a mammography, 28,6 % have had this test performed. 91,0 % of the women whose ages are included in the program has undergone a cervical smear. Conclusions: the objectives of the General Program for Cancer Control in Cuba are not being achieved. The inefficient areas of the Breast and Cervical Cancer Program are exposed.

  16. Transcription factor KLF4 regulates microRNA-544 that targets YWHAZ in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Langyong; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Xiaolong; Mo, Wenjuan; Yu, Yao; Lu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The deregulation of microRNAs has been demonstrated in various tumor processes. Here, we report that microRNA-544 (miR-544) is decreased in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal cervical tissues. To identify the mechanisms involved in miR-544 deregulation, we studied the regulation of miR-544 expression at the transcriptional level. We first identified the transcriptional start site of miR-544 by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and subsequently determined the miR-544 promoter. We discovered that the transcription factor Krueppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is involved in the transcriptional regulation of miR-544 through interaction with the miR-544 promoter. In addition, we found that miR-544 directly targets the YWHAZ oncogene and functions as a tumor suppressor in cervical cancer cells. miR-544 is involved in cell cycle regulation and suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in a manner associated with YWHAZ downregulation. In summary, our findings demonstrate that KLF4 upregulates miR-544 transcription by activating the miR-544 promoter and that miR-544 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting YWHAZ. Therefore, miR-544 may be a potential novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker for cervical cancer.

  17. Epigenetic Silencing of CXCR4 Promotes Loss of Cell Adhesion in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of chemokine signaling pathways, recent reports have described the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. Interestingly, we found downregulation of CXCR4 at both transcript and protein level in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We also found CXCR4 promoter hypermethylation in cervical cancer cell lines and primary biopsy samples. DNA hypomethylating drug 5-AZA-2′-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A treatments in cell lines reactivate both CXCR4 transcription and protein expression. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated that autocrine SDF-1α promotes the loss of cell adhesion while paracrine SDF-1α predominantly protects the normal cervical cells from loss of cell adhesion. Cervical cancer cell line C-33A having increased expression of CXCR4 after TSA treatment showed increased cell adhesion by paracrine source of SDF-1α in comparison to untreated C-33A. These findings demonstrate the first evidence that epigenetic silencing of CXCR4 makes the cells inefficient to respond to the paracrine source of SDF-1α leading to loss of cell adhesion, one of the key events in metastases and progression of the disease. Our results provide novel insight of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in tumor microenvironment which may be promising to further delineate molecular mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis.

  18. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV.

  19. Targeting human papillomavirus to reduce the burden of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Mari; Hansen, Bo Terning; Dillner, Joakim;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally related to cervical, vulvar and vaginal pre-invasive neoplasias and cancers. Highly effective vaccines against HPV types 16/18 have been available since 2006, and are currently used in many countries in combination...... with cervical cancer screening to control the burden of cervical cancer. We estimated the overall and age-specific incidence rate (IR) of cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancer and pre-invasive neoplasia in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2004-2006, prior to the availability of HPV vaccines, in order...... to establish a baseline for surveillance. We also estimated the population attributable fraction to determine roughly the expected effect of HPV16/18 vaccination on the incidence of these diseases. METHODS: Information on incident cervical, vulvar and vaginal cancers and high-grade pre-invasive neoplasias...

  20. Optical diagnosis of colon and cervical cancer by support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Kurmi, Indrajit; Dey, Rajib; Das, Nandan K.; Pradhan, Sanjay; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-05-01

    A probabilistic robust diagnostic algorithm is very much essential for successful cancer diagnosis by optical spectroscopy. We report here support vector machine (SVM) classification to better discriminate the colon and cervical cancer tissues from normal tissues based on elastic scattering spectroscopy. The efficacy of SVM based classification with different kernel has been tested on multifractal parameters like Hurst exponent, singularity spectrum width in order to classify the cancer tissues.