WorldWideScience

Sample records for chinese cabbage brassica

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  3. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents. PMID:26776015

  4. Ozone fumigation increases the abundance of nutrients in Brassica vegetables: broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Ślesak, Irenusz; Edward KUNICKI; Dziurka, Michał; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    B rassicaceae vegetables, among them broccoli and Chinese cabbage, are well recognized due to the nutritional properties. Four-week-old Chinese cabbage and broccoli seedlings were fumigated with O3 for 3 days before being transplanted into the field. The effect of O3 treatment was determined after reaching marketable quality (ca. 10 weeks). The inflorescences of O3-treated broccoli were enriched in vitamin E (α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol), whereas Chinese cabbage heads had an increased conte...

  5. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  7. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26505345

  8. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...... ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich...... and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  9. Factors affecting uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg-1 dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg-1 dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10-2 to 1.1x10-2 when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of 131I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3±4.4)x10-2

  10. Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Gan; Pan, Yun-Yu; Christie, Peter; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.). PMID:27450258

  11. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980

  12. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-01-01

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage. PMID:27173304

  13. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  14. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  15. Transformation of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis) by Agrobacterium Micro-Injection into Flower Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ji-yong; HE Yu-ke; CAO Jia-shu

    2003-01-01

    We obtained two lines of Chinese head cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) selfed progenies containing both an anti-sense gene of BcpLH and a gene for resistance to kanamycin by micro-injecting buds of their primary transformants (T0) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. 31 positive plants resistant to kanamycien were recovered. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in two transgenic plants. One (DHZ-13-1) exhibits the characteristics of out-toward rosette and cauline leaves, and nested flower model in which secondary complete flower developed from the base of the primary ovary and the third flower from the ovary in the secondary flower, and so on, while another(DHZ-6-1) has no phenotype change. ABA and IAA affected the root growth of progeny of DHZ-13-1, but 6-BA was insensitive to hypocotyl growth during its seedling development.

  16. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I.; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard GF; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting ge...

  17. Beyond genomic variation - comparison and functional annotation in three Brassica rapa genotypes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, K.; Zhang, N.; Severing, E.I.; Nijveen, H.; Cheng, F; Visser, R.G.F.; Wang, X.; De, Ridder, G.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background - Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. Results - To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resultin...

  18. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  19. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  20. Construction of random sheared fosmid library from Chinese cabbage and its use for Brassica rapa genome sequencing project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-Ho Park; Beom-Seok Park; Jin-A Kim; Joon Ki Hong; Mina Jin; Young-Joo Seol; Jeong-Hwan Mun

    2011-01-01

    As a part of the Multinational Genome Sequencing Project of Brassica rapa, linkage group R9 and R3 were sequenced using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) by BAC strategy. The current physical contigs are expected to cover approximately 90% euchromatins of both chromosomes. As the project progresses, BAC selection for sequence extension becomes more limited because BAC libraries are restriction enzyme-specific. To support the project, a random sheared fosmid library was constructed. The library consists of 97536 clones with average insert size of approximately 40 kb corresponding to seven genome equivalents, assuming a Chinese cabbage genome size of 550 Mb. The library was screened with primers designed at the end of sequences of nine points of scaffold gaps where BAC clones cannot be selected to extend the physical contigs. The selected positive clones were end-sequenced to check the overlap between the fosmid clones and the adjacent BAC clones.Nine fosmid clones were selected and fully sequenced. The sequences revealed two completed gap filling and seven sequence extensions, which can be used for further selection of BAC clones confirming that the fosmid library will facilitate the sequence completion of B. rapa.

  1. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fert

  2. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on

  3. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyuan; Wang, Fengde; Li, Jingjuan; Ding, Qian; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Zhang, Jiannong; Gao, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage). In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I-VII), which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins. PMID:26633387

  5. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  7. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  8. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  9. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  10. A novel class of heat-responsive small RNAs derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marjo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small

  11. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  12. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution. PMID:26709726

  13. Compared Analysis of CBL1 Genes from Chinese Cabbage, Cabbage and Brassica nigra%大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥 CBL1基因的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化银; 姜常松; 张一卉; 高建伟; 李利斌; 曹齐卫

    2014-01-01

    CBL1基因在植物非生物逆境应答及发育过程中具有重要功能。本试验在解析大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥CBL1的基础上,对它们进行了系统地比较分析,为进一步研究CBL1基因在芸薹属植物中的分子进化和功能奠定基础。%CBL1 gene plays pivotal roles in abiotic stress response, growth and development of plant.In this study, systematic comparison was conducted based on the analysis of CBL1 genes from Chinse cabbage, cabbage and Brassica nigra.It would establish foundations for further research on molecular evolution and function of Brassica CBL1 genes.

  14. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  15. Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin WANG; Wan-Zhi YE; Jia-Shu CAO; Xiao-Lin YU; Xun XIANG; Gang LU

    2005-01-01

    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function,whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG)gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only fulllength cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and largesized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.

  16. Brassica chinensis (L.) transformation of male steriliry from non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS%以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系向乌塌菜作物转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南海龙

    2014-01-01

    试验根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系为不育源,向乌塌菜作物中转育,并对细胞核雄性不育基因转育机制进行系统研究。获得如下结果:设计遗传转育模式,完成乌塌菜4个世代雄性不育的转育工作,获得含有乌塌菜基因型的甲型“两用系”、临时保持系和雄性不育系。%In this experiment, based on the multiple allele inheritance hypothesis of Chinese cabbage, male steriliry of non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS was transferred to Brassica chinensis (L.). The experiment has been systematically investigated the transformation mechanism of genetic male sterility. Results showed that four male sterile generations of Brassica chinensis (L.) could be achieved according to the inheritance transformation mode.

  17. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  18. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after ger

  19. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced "Defense Lignin" Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen Infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3'-Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S)monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All three monomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced "defense lignin" were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be Induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that "defense lignin" was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.

  20. Production and characterization of a somatic hybrid of Chinese cabbage and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    In order to broaden Chinese cabbage gene pool, we conducted interspecific somatic hybridization between Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris, 2n=20, AA) and Cabbage (B. oleracea, 2n=18, CC). Protoplasts were isolated from 10-day-old cotyledons and hypocotyls of young seedlings, and fused by 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fused cells were cultured in modified K8p liquid medium supplemented with some plant growth regulators. Fusion products were characterized by their morphological, cytological and molecular biological traits. The results showed that, a total of 35 regenerated green plants were obtained from 320 calli, the plant regeneration frequency was 10.94%, and eleven of which were survived in greenhouse. All regenerants were true hybrids as confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis. Ploidy levels of hybrid plants were determined by chromosome counting and flow cytometry. The sum of the chromosome number (2n = 38) from the two fusion patents were found in 36.4% of regeneratns; another 36.4% had chromosomes range to 58-60; 27.2% had more chromosomes ranges to 70-76. All regenerated plants produced normal flowers. We investigated the pollen fertility and seed set after self-pollination and backcrossing with the parental species. For hybrids with chromosomes more than 38 it was possible to obtain some seeds when they after self-pollination. Within the group of hybrids with 38 chromosomes, seed set were very variable, only 0.11 seeds per pod by self-pollination, 0.23-0.76 by open-pollination, 0.02-0.04 by backcrossing with Chinese cabbage. Progeny lines obtained by self-pollination had larger leaves and leaf shapes intermediate of the parental species. Pollen fertility was gradually recovered in the first and second progenies. The backcrossing progeny lines, as a whole, exhibited morphologies were similar to Chinese cabbage. Morphological variations were observed among the somatic hybrids and their

  1. Determination of n+1 Gamete Transmission Rate of Trisomics and Location of Gene Controlling 2n Gamete Formation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-He Zhang; Xiao-Feng Li; Shu-Xing Shen; He Yuan; Shu-Xin Xuan

    2009-01-01

    A set of trisomics of Chinese cabbage was used for determining the n+1 gamete transmission rate and locating the gene controlling 2n gamete formation on the corresponding chromosome. The results showed that the transmission rates of extra chromosomes in different trisomica varied from 0% to 15.38% by male gametes and from 0% to 17.39% by female gametes. Of the nine F2 populations derived from the hybridizations between each triaomic and Bp058 (2n gamete material), only Tri-4×Bp058 showed that the segregation ratio of plants without 2n gamete formation to plants with 2n gamete formation was 10.38:1, which fitted the expected segregation ratio of the trisomics (AAa) based on the 7.37% of n+1 gamete transmission through female and 5.88% through male. In other populations the segregation ratios varied from 2.48:1 to 3.72:1, which fitted the expected 3:1 segregation ratio of the bisomice (Aa). These results suggested that the gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage Bp058 was located on chromosome 4. Further trisomic analysis based on the chromosome segregation and the incomplete stochastic chromatid segregation indicated that the gene locus was tightly linked to the centromere.

  2. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  3. Effect of Sludge on the Seed Germination Rate of Chinese Lettuce( Lactuca sativa var.ramose), Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis ) and Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum )%污泥对白菜·生菜和番茄种子发芽率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开强

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To explore the effect of urban sewage sludge on the germination rate of Lactuca sativa var. ramose, Brassica pekinensis and Lycopersicon esculenium. [ Method] A pot experiment is conducted to measure the effect of sludge application quantity on germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato. [ Result] With the increase of sludge application quantity, the seed germination rate of Chinese lettuce , cabbage and tomato decreased. [ Conclusion] Germination rate of Chinese lettuce, cabbage and tomato is obviously inhibited by sludge.%[目的]研究城市生活污水厂污泥对生菜(Lactuca satuva car.ramose)、白菜(Brassica pekinensis)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum)种子发芽率的影响.[方法]通过盆栽试验,测量污泥施用量对生菜、白菜和番茄的种子发芽率的影响.[结果]随着污泥施用量的增加,生菜、白菜和番茄种子发芽率降低.[结论]污泥对生菜、白菜和番茄的发芽率有明显的抑制作用.

  4. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  5. 定向转育卵圆生态型大白菜雄性不育系的研究%Directional Breeding of An Oval-ecotype Male Sterile Line of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭翀; 郭瑛琪; 岳艳玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探究大白菜定向转育卵圆生态型雄性不育系的方法。[方法]以大白菜核不育"复等位基因遗传假说"为理论依据,以甲型两用系‘AB12’为不育供体品系,以卵圆生态型可育品系‘06048’为待转育品系,采用杂交、回交、兄妹交和测交的方法,按照定向转育方案将核不育基因定向转育。[结果]各世代育性分离比率与理论相一致,成功育成了一种不育株率100%的具有‘06048’园艺性状的新核不育系,实现了核不育基因和园艺特性的同时转育。[结论]该研究成果验证此定向转育方案是可行的,进一步为基因型为 msms的其他园艺性状的大白菜定向转育提供理论基础,也可以推广应用到整个芸薹属其它经济作物中,极大的拓宽了优良核不育基因的实际应用范围。%Objective] The study aimed to explore the method for directional breeding of a male-sterile line in oval-ecotype Chinese cabbage. [Method] Based on "Multiple Al ele Hypothesis of Genic Male Sterile Chinese Cabbage", an inbred line ‘06048’ of oval ecotype was used as the receptor, and male fertile plant of ‘AB12’ was used as the donor line. Crossing, backcross, selfing, testcross and sibling were ap-plied to transfer the multiple al eles under the directional genetic model. [Result] Segregation ratio of every generation was consistent with theoretical value. A new male sterile line with 100% male sterility and ‘06048’ horticultural traits was ob-tained successful y, which accomplished the transfer of male sterile multiple al ele and horticultural characters of receptor line at the same time. [Conclusion] The re-search verifies that the model of directional transfer is feasible, provides a theoreti-cal basis for the directional transfer of Chinese cabbage with other horticultural traits whose genotype is msms. The model can also be applied to other Brassica crops, to generate genetic male sterile lines

  6. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  7. Transfer of uranium and radium to Chinese cabbage from soil containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 238U and 226Ra to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt) was investigated from soils contaminated with uranium-mill tailings (UMT) by means of a pot experiment in laboratory-based conditions applying different levels of soil contamination under various growing conditions. Activity concentrations for 226Ra in Chinese cabbage varied from 56-276, 156-502 and 277-877 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 20, 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively, and for 238U from 1.0-2.3 and 2.3-4.7 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively. The results showed increased accumulation of 226Ra and low accumulation of 238U in cabbage leaves in more contaminated soil. (author)

  8. 大白菜BrTCP24基因的克隆与功能分析%Cloning and Functional Analysis of BrTCP24 Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 谭婷婷; 张一卉; 李景娟; 李化银; 李利斌; 刘立锋; 高建伟

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for negative control of the leaf heading growth of Chinese cabbage,which can be help to speed up breeding progress of the small heading Chinese cabbage varieties that meet the current market demands.Here,a full-length TCP cDNA named BrTCP24,which belongs to the second subgroups of TCP domain family,was isolated from leaves of Chinese cabbage inbred line Fushanbaotou (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis).The full-length cDNA of BrTCP24 consisted of 1 221 nucleotides,and was predicted to code a 406-amino acid polypeptide.In addition,there were no introns in BrTCP24 gene.The phylogenetic analysis about BrTCP24 and TCP families in Arabidopsis was carried out using the software of MEGA4.0.The result indicated that BrTCP24 gene and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 gene would belong to the same branch,which suggested they had closely genetic relationship.The alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 indicated that there was 55.15% identity between them.Additionally,these two proteins contained conserved TCP domain and had 91.53% identity in this domain.These results suggested that BrTCP24 and Arabidopsis AtTCP3 would have similar biological functions.The semiquantitive RT-PCR indicated that BrTCP24 gene was expressed in roots,dwarf stems,rosette leaves,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers examined in Chinese cabbage.Among them,rosette leaves had the highest mRNA level,followed by roots,folding leaves,flowers,siliques and bud flowers,while dwarf stems had the lowest mRNA level.Interestingly,the expression level of BrTCP24 didn't effect by 5 μmol NAA treatment in 12 h period.To test the function of BrTCP24,we then engineered Arabidopsis plants that would over-express BrTCP24 ectopically,driven by CaMV 35S promoter,and obtained 17 transgenic lines by Kanamycin and PCR screening.Using RT-PCR method,we randomly detected 5 transgenic lines and found all of them could express

  9. Copper exposure interferes with the regulation of the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tseng, Mei Hwei; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Koralewska, Aleksandra; Posthumus, Freek S.; Venema, Jan Henk; Parmar, Saroj; Schat, Henk; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to enhanced Cu(2+) concentrations (1-10 mu M) resulted in leaf chlorosis, a loss of photosynthetic capacity and lower biomass production at >= 5 mu M. The decrease in pigment content was likely not the consequence of degradation, but due to hindered

  10. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  11. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Effect of NH4+-N/NO-3-N Ratios on Growth and Some Physiological Parameters of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LUO Jin-Kui; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The responses of three cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), one of the main vegetable crops in China,to different ratios of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was investigated to find the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrate for maximal growth and to explore ways of decreasing the nitrate content, increasing nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and determining distributions of nitrogen and carbon. Three cultivars of Chinese cabbage were hydroponically grown with three different NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratios (0:100, 25:75 and 50:50). The optimal ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N for maximal growth of Chinese cabbage was 25:75. The increase in the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N significantly decreased nitrate content in various tissues of Chinese cabbage in the order of petiole > leaf blade > root. The highest total nitrogen (N) content was found when the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was 25:75, and N contents in plant tissues were significantly different, mostly being in the order of leaf blade > petiole > root. At the NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratio of 25:75, the biomasses of Chinese cabbage nitrate and total nitrogen contents were lower. Thus, partial replacement of nitrate by ammonium could improve vegetable production by both increasing yields and decreasing nitrate content of the plants.

  13. Pengaruh pemupukan terhadap akumulasi timbal pada kubis (Brassica oleracea L.) dan sawi putih (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silviana, Ernita

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals accumulation in growing plant is influenced by the soil composition, water, air and planting sites, fertilization and crop types. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) are plants that is able to absorb toxic metals. This study aimed to determine the effect of dosage of NPK fertilizer and organic fertilizer on metal lead accumulation in cabbage and chinese cabbage. This research was carried out in plastic house in Simpang Tiga Redelong highlands...

  14. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  15. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  16. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  17. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, over the Sea in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wu

    Full Text Available The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae.

  18. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003-2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40-60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003-2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010-2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of 'oogenesis-flight syndrome'. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  19. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  20. Detecção de Pseudomonas viridiflava em sementes importadas de couve chinesa (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) Detection of Pseudomonas viridiflava in imported chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Wolf Maciel; Irene Maria Gatti de Almeida; Harllen Sandro Alves Silva; Lucas Mateus Sivero Rodrigues; Luís Otávio Saggion Beriam

    2010-01-01

    A ocorrência de Pseudomonas viridiflava é descrita em sementes de couve chinesa (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis) importadas do Japão. Do ponto de vista epidemiológico, a detecção dessa bactéria é de extrema importância. Embora já existam, em nosso país, relatos desse patógeno nas culturas de alface, alho, cebola, cenoura, feijão e mandioca, sua presença em sementes de couve chinesa pode se constituir num risco potencial para outras espécies de brássicas aqui cultivadas.A natural occurrence of ...

  1. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  2. Evaluation on physical properties of irradiated cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. var. acephala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brassica family is well known all over the world, and among their species, the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is the most consumed in Brazil, as an ingredient of salads and also usual in preparation of a typical Brazilian dish called feijoada. Food irradiation is a world wide spread technology used to improve the quality of vegetables extending the shelf-life and reducing microorganisms present in leafs. Color is the first sensorial aspect realized by consumers, being an important factor of refuse. The objective of this paper was to analyze the color of irradiated cabbage treated by electron beam from a linear accelerator at different radiation doses. The cabbage samples were irradiated at IPEN-CNEN/SP in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA, 1.5 MeV, 25 mA) at doses of 1.0 - 1.5 kGy and also a control sample. Statistical analysis was done to compare the efficacy of different radiation doses. Slight differences in color measurement were observed in the irradiated samples, although the quality of cabbage was maintained until the 7th day of storage. (author)

  3. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA AFTER INFECTION OF PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeplata Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassicaceae family include worldwide commercially grown crops. Experiments on this crop were conducted during the year 2011 in Vidhania and Jaisinghpura of Jaipur district Rajasthan, India. The aim of this study is to find out primary metabolites like chlorophyll, sugar starch protein total phenol of cauliflower. Levels of plant metabolites are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Growth factors such as light, temperature, humidity, type of soil, application of fertilizers, damage caused by microorganisms and insects, stress induced by UV radiation, heavy metals and pesticides all alter metabolite composition of plants. Different types of pests’ cause changes in plant metabolite production. The results revealed the evidence of different infestation of cabbage by common herbivores. In this review we report primary metabolites of the cabbage along with the quantification after the pests’ effect.

  4. Quantity of glucosinolates in 10 cabbage genotypes and their impact on the feeding of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, we studied the glucosinolate content in 5 cultivars and 5 cabbage hybrids grown outdoors in order to study their influence on the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars (Mamestra brassicae. The selected genotypes were categorized into three groups, early (the growth period from 55 to 70 days, mid-early (80-90 days and mid-late (110-140 days, while the samples of cabbage for glucosinolate analysis were taken at five intervals, during which we also assessed genotypes for the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. We found that the feeding of caterpillars affected primarily the mid-early and mid-late genotypes of cabbage, and that the glucosinolate content among the different cabbage genotypes varies. The highest content of the analyzed glucosinolates was established in mid-late genotypes. Glucobrassicin was the only glucosinolate found in all cabbage genotypes, yet its antixenotic effect (r=0.20 was very low. We found that sinalbin negatively affects the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars in mid-early cabbage genotypes (r=-0.34, while the same effect of sinigrin on the extent of damage can be observed in mid-late genotypes (r=-0.27. We have established a strong or moderate correlation between the gluconapin (r=0.87 and progoitrin (r=0.66 contents in mid-late genotypes and the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. Our research proves that different cabbage genotypes are responsible for different susceptibilities to damage by the cabbage moth, and that one of the factors of natural resistance of cabbage are also glucosinolates. Despite this, due to their variability in cabbage we cannot precisely determine the set of genotypes that would ensure a higher cabbage yield as a result of less damage caused by the cabbage moth. Thus, we need to identify in more detail the reasons for the time and quantum variability of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae.

  5. 鸡毛菜(Brassica rapa L.Chinensis Group.)的颜色变化动力学及两种货架期预测方法%Colour kinetic change and shelf life prediction of Chinese small cabbage(Brassica rapa L.Chinensis Group.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利平; 谢晶; 何蓉; 施建兵; 蔡青文

    2013-01-01

    实验测定了贮藏在278、283、288、293K四个温度下的鸡毛菜的颜色参数L*、-a*、b*、ΔE、h*和感官评价,并对L*和ΔE进行了动力学分析.结果表明,在实验温度范围内,鸡毛菜储藏的温度越低,颜色参数变化越慢.动力学分析显示,零级动力学比一级动力学更适合表现鸡毛菜L*和ΔE的变化规律.研究还采用Arrhenius方程对颜色变化速率常数k和温度T进行非线性拟合,得到L*和ΔE活化能Ea分别为82.09kJ/mol和100.26kJ/mol.最后得到依赖于时间、温度和颜色指标的鸡毛菜货架期预测方程(R2>0.95),从中根据不同的L*和ΔE终点可得到对应的货架期.就本研究而言,假定L*增加12%为终点时,鸡毛菜在四个温度下的预测货架期分别为11.8、5.5、2.6、1.3d.同时,Arrhenius方程与依赖于感官终点的动态颜色终点拟合方程结合预测的货架期曲线与感官寿命曲线则能得到更好的契合(两者绝对差值小于0.6d),两者结合能得到较为全面的货架期预测参数.%Color parameters L*,a*,b*,ΔE,h* and sensory evaluation of Chinese small cabbage stored at 278,283,288 and 293K,respectively,were determined in this experiment,then kinetic analysis of L* and ΔE were also studied.Results showed that the lower the temperature Brassica Lapa L.Chinensis Group.stored,slower color parameters changes in the temperature range concerned.Kinetic analyses indicated that zero-order law was more appropriate than first-order reaction kinetics to describe L* and ΔE change.Nonlinear fitting of reaction rate k and temperature T based on Arrhenius function was also studied,from which active energy Ea of L* and ΔE were 82.09kJ/mol and 100.26kJ/mol,respectively.Finally,the shelf life prediction function of Chinese small cabbage based on time,temperature and color index was obtained(R2>0.95),from which corresponding predicted shelf life could be calculated based on different ends of L* and ΔE.As for this research

  6. 花心大白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding of Genetic Male Sterile Line in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.Pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 王昊; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    以白菜核基因雄性不育系(Msms)为不育源,以花心大白菜宫古花蕊Y02(MsfMsf)为轮回亲本,采用连续回交,杂交和自交的转育方法,成功地将不育基因转入到可育品系YO2中,育成了不育度和不育株率均为100%,植物学性状与Y02相近的新核不育系GMS4.%A multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage was used as the source of male sterility, backcrossing, crossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line Y02. The new male sterile line GMS4, which contained similar botanical characters with Y02 and the sterility frequency and sterility degree were all 100%, was obtained successfully.

  7. Development of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Insertion/Deletion (InDel) Markers in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.pekinesis) and Analysis of Their Transferability%大白菜简单序列重复(SSR)和插入/缺失(InDel)标记的开发及通用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪泽会; 卢有飞; 郭晓芹; 惠麦侠; 张鲁刚; 张明科

    2012-01-01

    为探讨大白菜基因组序列中SSR位点的分布规律并开发SSR引物,利用SSRHunter软件对大白菜A10(16899818~17299817)的DNA序列进行简单序列重复(SSR)位点查找,共得到394个SSRs,平均每1.02 kb出现1个SSR.二核苷酸和三核苷酸重复是最主要的SSR类型,分别占79.44%和18.78%.为了提高SSR标记开发的准确性和通用性,对检索得到的含SSR位点的序列进行了同源比对,选取符合条件的15条SSR序列并设计引物;依据Blast过程中发现的在SSR位点不存在差异而在其侧翼序列中存在插入/缺失(InDel)差异的序列,设计了19条InDel引物.用34对SSR及InDel引物在6个大白菜(Brassica rapa ssp.pekinesis)材料中进行多态性研究,发现28对引物能扩增出理想的PCR产物,有效扩增率为82.35%,其中27对引物具有多态性,多态性比率为79.41%.为验证SSR引物的真实性,随机对4对SSR引物的部分白菜扩增片段进行了测序,发现100%的片段具有相应的SSR位点.28对SSR和InDel引物在甘蓝(B.oleracea)、油菜(B.napus)和萝卜(Raphanus sativus)品种的有效扩增率分别为85.71%、100%和77.78%,说明新开发的SSR和InDel标记具有较好的多态性和通用性.利用6对引物分析了48份十字花科种质的遗传多样性,结果表明48份材料被明显地区分成白菜和甘蓝组、萝卜组、油菜组3大类群,与传统分类一致.大白菜SSR和InDel标记的开发对于十字花科种质亲缘关系及遗传多样性分析具有重要的应用价值.%In order to analyze the SSR distribution in genomic sequence of Brassica rapa and develop new SSR markers, the DNA sequences of Chinese cabbage A10 (16899818~17299817) were screened using SSRHunter software and 394 Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were mined with an average distance of 1.02 kb. Dinucleotide and trin ucleotide repeat SSRs were the dominant types, accounting for 79.44% and 18.78%, respectively, of the SSR obtained. In order to

  8. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  9. Chinese Cabbage-pak-choi Transcriptome Map Construction with cDNA-AFLP Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shu-ying; LE Jian-gang; CHENG Guang-jie; WU Cai-jun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) transcriptome map with cDNA-APLP techniques was constructed. The inbred line Aijiaohuang 97-3-2, the inbred line Baimanjing 001-24 of turnip [B. campestris ssp. rapifera (Matzg.) Sinsk] and 183 F6 (recombinant inbred population) plants were used as experimental materials. cDNAs were synthesized from total RNA extracted from young leaves at rosette stage. 256 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers were used to detect the polymorphisms between parents Aijiaohuang 97-3-2 and Baimanjing 001-24. 56 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers with high polymorphisms were screened from 256 pairs of primer by DNA-AFLP techniques. The genetic diversity of parents and 183 F6 progenies was detected by 56 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers. The segregation and distribution of cDNA-AFLPs molecular marker were analyzed to construct transcriptome map amongst parents and F6 plants. A total of 164 cDNA-AFLPs marker loci were mapped into 13 linkage groups which covered 1 401.2 cM with an average distance of 9.7 cM. It was the first transcriptome map of Chinese cabbage using cDNA-AFLP technique.

  10. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  11. Joint effects of cadmium and lead on seedlings of four Chinese cabbage cultivars in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiqiang; ZHOU Qixing; LIU Weitao

    2009-01-01

    In northeastern China,large area of vegetable land has been simultaneously polluted by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb).Joint effects of Cd and Pb on Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) were investigated using the seed germination and sand culture method.Four Chinese cabbage cultivars including Kangbingjinchun (KB),Dongyangchunxia (DY),Qinglvwang (QL) and Qiangshi (QS) from Shenyang in northeastern China were adopted in this study.The results showed that there were positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rate of biomass,root and shoot elongation and the concentrations of Cd and Pb.In particular,root elongation was more sensitive to joint stress of Cd and Pb.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble protein (SP) and proline (PRO) changed significantly with increasing exposure concentration of Cd and Pb.The decrement in the activity of antioxidative enzymes,the content of SP and accumulation of MDA were relatively low in KB and QS.PRO played an important role in resisting Cd and Pb stress.

  12. 抑制差减杂交法研究复等位基因遗传的大白菜核雄性不育分子机制%The Molecular-mechanism Research of Genic Multiple-allele Inherited Male-sterile in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀瑞琴; 宋倩; 辛喜凤; 周雪; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    AB01, the two-type line of multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Chinensis ) was bred by our research group, the technology system of this material had been build, but its sterile molecular mechanism was not clear yet. In this research, sterility and fertility cDNA libraries including 27 differentially expressed clones were constructed using the fertile and sterile buds of AB01 by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). According to BLAST screening and functional annotation, 25 ESTs were homology to known sequence of the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI). The 25 genes, with homology to known proteins, could be divided into 4 groups (7 flowers developing-felated genes, 5 lipid metabolism, 3 energy metabolism genes, 3 chloroplast related genes and 7 encode the unclassified proteins). The results suggested the molecular mechanism of genic multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage was related with lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and photosynthesis progress.%AB01是本课题组培育的复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜甲型“两用系”,目前已建立了一套该材料的应用技术体系,但其不育分子机制尚不明确.本研究以AB01的不育株和可育株为材料,利用抑制差减杂交技术构建了正反抑制差减cDNA文库,并通过测序及生物信息学手段寻找育性相关基因,以此来推断该材料的不育分子机制.研究共找到27个差异表达基因,其中25个基因在NCBI数据库中均有同源序列,这些基因中7个与花发育相关,5个与脂类代谢相关,3个与活性氧及能量代谢相关,3个与光合作用及叶绿体合成相关,其余7个为功能未知基因.由此推测复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜不育的发生与脂类、能量代谢及光合作用有关.

  13. 茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸诱导的大白菜叶片与根系硫苷含量系统性变化研究%Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang ZANG; Jia-li GE; Ling-hui HUANG; Fei GAO; Xi-shan LV; Wei-wei ZHENG; Seung-beom HONG; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2015-01-01

      结论:茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸处理后,大白菜根系比叶片积累更多的硫苷,吲哚族硫苷比其他种类的硫苷积累更快;茉莉酸甲酯诱导硫苷合成的效果好于水杨酸,而且诱导时间更长;茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸在诱导大白菜根系硫苷合成过程中具有反协同效应。%Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Re-gardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. Al three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that ac-cumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elici-tation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA-and MeJA-mediated systemic response sys-tems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on

  14. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  15. Identification and EST Sequence Analysis of Polymorphic EST-SSRs Between Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea)%大白菜与结球甘蓝多态性EST-SSRs标记筛选及其EST序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石丽娟; 许愿超; 秦艳梅; 顾爱侠; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华; 王玉海

    2015-01-01

    为了实现大白菜遗传背景下结球甘蓝染色体、染色体片段的准确鉴定,探索结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜的影响,本研究以不同类型大白菜(Brassica rapa,AA)和结球甘蓝(Brassica oleracea,CC)为材料,对来自结球甘蓝的797个表达序列标签简单序列重复(expressed sequence tag SSR,EST-SSRs)标记进行筛选,获得了269个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜具有多态性的标记.选取其中扩增产物清晰稳定和多态性差异明显的176个EST-SSRs,对其对应的EST序列进行BLAST分析,将EST序列与基因本体(Gene Ontology,GO)、京都基因与基因组百科全书(Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes,KEGG)数据库比对,获得EST序列的注释信息,其中属于细胞组件C有124条,占总数的12.29%,属于分子功能F有184条,占总数的18.24%,属于生物学途径P有688条占总数的68.19%,未知功能N有13条,占总数的1.29%.EST序列参与的生物学过程方面的功能主要集中在细胞过程、代谢过程、生物调节和刺激应答、系统形态构成、信号转导与信号传递系统、免疫系统等方面.结球甘蓝相对于大白菜多态性的EST-SSRs标记的获得,为大白菜-结球甘蓝异附加系、易位系中附加的结球甘蓝染色体及染色体片段的鉴定奠定了基础.本研究建立了EST-SSRs标记靶向基因的功能注释,为进一步推断结球甘蓝遗传物质的添加对大白菜性状的影响提供参考.

  16. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a....... rapae as a biocontrol agent of Brevicoryne brassicae at different temperatures.......Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited...

  17. Phytotoxicity and Accumulation of Oxytetracycline from Soil in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis var. chinensis) with Different Growing Stages%土霉素对不同生长期青菜生长的影响及其在青菜地上部分的积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秋桐; 鲍陈燕; 顾国平; 章明奎

    2014-01-01

    为了解土霉素对不同生长期青菜生长的影响及不同生长期青菜对土壤中抗生素吸收能力的差异,用盆栽土培试验研究土壤中土霉素(污染水平为0~30 mg/kg之间)对不同生长期青菜生长状况及其对土壤中土霉素吸收的影响。结果表明,在研究的土霉素污染范围内,土霉素污染水平对青菜种子发芽率、营养生长盛期和成熟期的生长影响不明显;但当土霉素污染水平在10、30 mg/kg时对青菜幼苗期根系伸展、地上部茎高及生物量产生显著的影响。在土霉素添加20天后的青菜地上部分中积累的土霉素含量以在营养生长盛期和出苗-幼苗期施用土霉素者为较高;而对于生长60天后收获的青菜的地上部分土霉素残留含量则随土霉素添加时间至收获时间间隔变短而增加,并随土壤中土霉素污染水平的增加而增加。结果认为,青菜生长在前期比后期更易受抗生素污染的毒害,而对于收获的青菜中积累的抗生素含量在后期受抗生素污染者比前期抗生素污染者更易积累。%In order to understand the phytotoxicity and accumulation of oxytetracycline from soil in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis var chinensis) at different growing stages, a pot soil culture experiment was conducted to study the toxicological effects of oxytetracycline pollution (at concentrations ranging from 0 to 30 mg/kg) on the growth of Chinese cabbage and uptake of oxytetracycline by the plant. The results showed that soil oxytetracycline pollution with concentrations of<30 mg/kg had no significant effects on seed germination and plant growth of Chinese cabbage at the vegetative and mature growing stages of the crop. However, at pollution levels of 10 and 30 mg/kg, oxytetracycline had significant effects on root elongation, shoot length, and biomass of vegetable seeding. Accumulations of oxytetracycline in aboveground compartment of the plant at 20 days

  18. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  19. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  20. Genome-wide analysis and expression patterns of ZF-HD transcription factors under different developmental tissues and abiotic stresses in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenli; Wu, Peng; Li, Ying; Hou, XiLin

    2016-06-01

    The ZF-HD gene family plays an important role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the function of the ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage remains largely unknown. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence has been determined, and more than forty thousand proteins have been identified to date. In this study, 31 ZF-HD genes were identified in Chinese cabbage. We show here that the BraZF-HD genes could be categorized into ZHD and MIF subfamilies. Among them, ZHD genes are plant-specific, nearly all intronless, and related to MINI ZINC FINGER genes that possess only the zinc finger. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZHDs have expanded considerably during angiosperm evolution. In addition, the ZHD group has 24 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis ZHD group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage ZHD genes have been retained more frequently than other group genes. Real-time PCR analysis showed that most of BraZF-HD genes are preferentially expressed in flower. Furthermore, most of these genes are significantly induced under photoperiod or vernalization conditions, as well as abiotic stresses. Thereby implying that they may play important roles in these processes. This study provides insight into the evolution of ZF-HD genes in Chinese cabbage genome and may aid efforts to further characterize the function of these predicted ZF-HD genes in flowering and resistance. PMID:26546019

  1. Impacts of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Endophytic Bacteria in Chinese Cabbage in Urumqi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of agricultural irri- gation with reclaimed water in Urumqi City. [Method] Chinese cabbages were used as experimental materials and irrigated with control water, 50% reclaimed water and 100% reclaimed water, and then the number of endophytic bacteria in Chinese cab- bages was measured. [Result] Using 50% reclaimed water, the fresh weight of Chi- nese cabbage was improved by 68.94%; however, with the deepening internalization of exogenous microorganism internalization, the total number of endophytic bacteria and coliform flock in Chinese cabbages treated with 50% reclaimed water was sig- nificantly higher than the other two treatment groups (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Re- claimed water enhances both the weight of Chinese cabbage and the number of endophytic bacteria, which is unsuitable for irrigation of edible crops such as Chi- nese cabbage. Strengthening disinfection during the process of sewerage treatment could solve this problem.

  2. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  3. Influence of cornicle droplet secretions of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, on parasitism behavior of naïve and experienced Diaeretiella rapae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Rasekh, Arash; Enkegaard, Annie

    2014-01-01

    volatiles of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), on the host-searching behavior of naïve and experienced female Diaeretiella rapae (M' Intosh) parasitoids in olfactometer studies. In addition, we evaluated the role of B. brassicae cornicle droplets on the oviposition preference of the parasitoid...

  4. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  5. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  6. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  7. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  8. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  9. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  10. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  11. Electrophysiology and behavior feedback of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to volatile secondary metabolites emitted by Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The volatiles, absorbed by Porapak Q and eluted by hexane, from Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris chinesis (L.) Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee, have been identified as allyl isothiocyanate, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, 2,5-hexanediol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, nonanol, (-myrcene, (-pinene, E-2-hexen-1-ol, D-limonene, Z-3-hexenyl propanoate, linalool, geraniol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate, (-terpinene, (-caryophyllene, 3-carene and (-caryophyllene, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. The first five chemicals are the main components. All components can elicite electroantennogram (EAG) responses of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, in which allyl isothiocyanate and C6 alcohols and esters, i.e. Z-3-hexen-1-ol, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate and 2,5-hexanediol elicite stronger EAG responses than other components, and EAG responses of female moths to them are slightly larger than those of male moths. However, EAG responses elicited by terpenes are smaller, and EAG responses from females to terpenes are smaller than those from males, but ((myrcene can evoke stronger EAG responses from both females and males. Volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage, allyl isothiocyanate, 2,5-hexanediol and Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate intensely cause DBM directional flying and landing in wind tunnel, in which volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage have the strongest activity, and the next is allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate is more attractive to females than to males a bit. As for (-terpinene and other subordinate components, EAG and wind tunnel test make sure they have weak activity.

  12. 分蘖洋葱复种大白菜栽培模式初探%Preliminary Research on Cultivation Pattern of Potato Onion Multi-Cropping with Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宗仁; 张清友; 蒋欣梅; 于锡宏; 齐月; 陈典

    2013-01-01

    以分蘖洋葱(Allium cepa L.var.multiplcans Bailey)‘海伦兔耳红’和大白菜(Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)‘金福’为试材,以常规模式(分蘖洋葱复种大白菜直播栽培模式)为对照,研究分蘖洋葱复种大白菜育苗栽培模式的生产效果.结果表明,采用分蘖洋葱复种大白菜育苗栽培模式可以使大白菜播种期、出苗期、莲座期、结球期分别提前20、20、6、9d,延长了大白菜的生育期;大白菜的株高、球高和球直径显著提高,根肿病发病率显著降低.%To research the productive effects on seedling cultivation pattern of potato onion (Allium cepa L.var.multiplcans Bailey) multi-cropping with Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis),this study used potato onion ‘Hai lun tu er hong’ and Chinese cabbage ‘Jin fu’ as the materials and traditional pattern as the control.The results showed sowing stage,seedling stage,rosette stage and heading stage of Chinese cabbage were advanced correspondingly for 20、20、6 and 9 d respectively,and growing period of Chinese cabbage was extended under potato onion multi-cropping with Chinese cabbage.In addition,plant height,heading height and heading diameter of Chinese cabbage were increased significantly,and the incidence of clubroot disease had fallen greatly.

  13. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan-Binding Protein from Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ping CHEN; Lang-Lai XU

    2005-01-01

    To know the mechanism of ammonia assimilation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) leaves regulated by chitosan (CTS), a CTS-binding protein was isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage leaves using the chitosan affinity chromatography approach and this CTS-binding protein was partially characterized. The profile of the 53.1 kDa purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was compared with the native molecular weight of 106.5 kDa, which indicated that the purified protein was a dimer with identical subunits. After isoelectric focusing, a band was obtained at pH 8.25. The agglutination test and periodic acid-Schiff staining further revealed that the protein was a glycoprotein with lectin activity. Moreover, the purified protein contained 17.4 % (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 82.56% (w/w) protein. The comparison of this protein and the 67 kDa CTS-binding protein isolated previously from Rubus culture tissue exhibited some differences in characterization. According to results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protein purified in the present study does not show any similarity with any protein in the protein data bank. Thus, it was deduced that the protein purified in the present study is a novel CTS-binding protein.

  15. Analyses of phenotype and ARGOS and ASY1 expression in a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ai Xia; Zhao, Jian Jun; Li, Li Min; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Yu Jing; Hua, Fan; Xu, Yuan Chao; Shen, Shu Xing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this research was to improve our understanding of how ploidy level influences phenotype and gene expression in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis). Haploid plants (2n = 10) was induced by 0.2% colchicine to produce diploid (2n = 20) and tetraploid plants (2n = 40). The aneuploid (2n = 24) was also obtained by hybridization between diploid plants as the female and tetraploid plants. The ploidy levels of all plants were identified through chromosome counts and flow cytometry. Leaves and petals became larger as the ploidy level increased from haploid to diploid, and from aneuploid to tetraploid. Similarly, expression of ARGOS was regulated by genome size, increasing in parallel with the level of ploidy. Among the four ploidy types, expression was stronger in the floral buds than in the leaves. Expression by ASY1 also differed according to ploidy level, being highest in diploid plants, followed in order by tetraploids. Expression was similar between haploids and aneuploids at two stages-prior to and after meiosis-but was higher in the haploids during meiosis. When buds were compared within the same ploidy type at different stages, ASY1 expression was obviously higher during meiosis than either before or after. Our study demonstrated the generation and phenotype of a ploidy Chinese cabbage series derived from one haploid. Expression of genes ARGOS and ASY1 were modulated by genome size in this ploidy series, and the regulated patterns of the two genes was different. PMID:27162487

  16. Spatially-Optimized Sequential Sampling Plan for Cabbage Aphids Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Canola Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The cabbage aphid is a significant pest worldwide in brassica crops, including canola. This pest has shown considerable ability to develop resistance to insecticides, so these should only be applied on a "when and where needed" basis. Thus, optimized sampling plans to accurately assess cabbage aphid densities are critically important to determine the potential need for pesticide applications. In this study, we developed a spatially optimized binomial sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields. Based on five sampled canola fields, sampling plans were developed using 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 proportions of plants infested as action thresholds. Average sample numbers required to make a decision ranged from 10 to 25 plants. Decreasing acceptable error from 10 to 5% was not considered practically feasible, as it substantially increased the number of samples required to reach a decision. We determined the relationship between the proportions of canola plants infested and cabbage aphid densities per plant, and proposed a spatially optimized sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields, in which spatial features (i.e., edge effects) and optimization of sampling effort (i.e., sequential sampling) are combined. Two forms of stratification were performed to reduce spatial variability caused by edge effects and large field sizes. Spatially optimized sampling, starting at the edge of fields, reduced spatial variability and therefore increased the accuracy of infested plant density estimates. The proposed spatially optimized sampling plan may be used to spatially target insecticide applications, resulting in cost savings, insecticide resistance mitigation, conservation of natural enemies, and reduced environmental impact. PMID:27371709

  17. Chemoprevention of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced carcinogen-DNA adducts by Chinese cabbage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM The food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induces colon and mammary gland tumors in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of human colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to examine the potentially preventive effect of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis), a brassica vegetable most commonly consumed in China, against this carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation in rats and its possible mechanisms.METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 10 days on basal diet or diet containing 20% (w/ w) freeze-dried cabbage powder prior to administration of a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/ kg) by oral gavage. Rats were sacrificed at 20 h after PhIP treatment and PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver were analyzed using 32P-postlabeling technique. Levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2, as indicated by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and 7-methlxyresorufin O-demethylase activity, and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) towards 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) in the liver, lung and colon were measured.RESULTS Rats pre-treated with Chinese cabbage and given a single dose of PhIP had reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver, with inhibition rates of 82.3%, 60.6%, 48.4% and 48.9%, respectively (P<0.01). The enzyme assays revealed that Chinese cabbage induced both CYP1A1 and 1A2 activity, but the induction was preferential for CYP1A1 over 1A2 (81% vs 51%). GST activity towards CDNB in the liver and lung, but not colon, was also significantly increased by cabbage treatment.CONCLUSION The results indicate that Chinese cabbage has a preventive effect on PhIP-initiated carcinogenesis in rats and the mechanism is likely to involve the induction of detoxification enzymes.

  18. Field Test Of Capability To Prevent Cabbage Clubroot Disease Caused By Plasmodiophora brassicae Of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of four dose rates 0.27; 0.90; 1.80 and 3.60 kGy/h on the solution of silver (Ag+ 10-2 M, PVP 2%, ethylenglycol 6%) irradiated at 25 kGy were investigated. The results showed that as the dose rates increased, the absorption peak shifted to blue wavelengths and also the particles decreased in size. For field test, nano particles were prepared by irradiation of silver solution at 25 kGy with the dose rate of 3.60 kGy/h. The absorption peaks of the synthesized nanoparticles were obtained at wavelengths of 412 nm and the average diameter of particles were 14 nm. Using two concentrations of 15 and 20 ppm, silver nanoparticles had not affected the growth and development of cabbage but showed antifungal activity against Plasmodiophora brassicae cause club root in cabbage. Using nano particles, the clubroot disease index were 9-10% compared to 5% of nebijin (fungicide), and 12% of control. The yield of cabbage were 55 tons/ha, 63 tons/ha and 70 tons/ha for the control, nanosilver group, and nebijin group, respectively. (author)

  19. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  20. Molecular characters and morphological genetics of CAL gene in Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    BcpCAL, the homologous gene of CAL, was isolated from Chinese cabbage. Unlike BobCAL of cauliflower, BcpCAL did not hold the terminating mutation in the fifth exon. After crosses of cauliflower with Chinese cabbage, the resultant hybrids failed to form curd, which implicates the genetic complement of BcpCAL to the mutated Bob CAL in the function of curd formation. One of CAL gene isolated from the hybrid apparently comes from the female parent (Chinese cabbage) even though there are a few of the bases substituted and deleted. The result offers the molecular and genetic evidences for the study of biological function of CAL in morphological genetics of curd.

  1. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  2. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  3. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R. E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with these differences, in field experiments with natural infestation in 2005 and 2006. One factor affecting the amount of thrips damage was the timing of the development of the head. In an experiment wit...

  4. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  5. Anatomic Characteristics Associated with Head Splitting in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Pang

    Full Text Available Cabbage belonging to Brassicaceae family is one of the most important vegetables cultivated worldwide. The economically important part of cabbage crop is head, formed by leaves which may be of splitting and non-splitting types. Cabbage varieties showing head splitting causes huge loss to the farmers and therefore finding the molecular and structural basis of splitting types would be helpful to breeders. To determine which anatomical characteristics were related to head-splitting in cabbage, we analyzed two contrasting cabbage lines and their offspring using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The inbred line "747" is an early head-splitting type, while the inbred line "748" is a head-splitting-resistant type. The petiole cells of "747" seems to be larger than those of "748" at maturity; however, there was no significant difference in petiole cell size at both pre-heading and maturity stages. The lower epidermis cells of "747" were larger than those of "748" at the pre-heading and maturity stages. "747" had thinner epidermis cell wall than "748" at maturity stage, however, there was no difference of the epidermis cell wall thickness in the two lines at the pre-heading stage. The head-splitting plants in the F1 and F2 population inherited the larger cell size and thinner cell walls of epidermis cells in the petiole. In the petiole cell walls of "747" and the F1 and F2 plants that formed splitting heads, the cellulose microfibrils were loose and had separated from each other. These findings verified that anomalous cellulose microfibrils, larger cell size and thinner-walled epidermis cells are important genetic factors that make cabbage heads prone to splitting.

  6. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  7. Impact of Melia azedarach Linn. (Meliaceae Dry Fruit Extract, Farmyard Manure and Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application Against Cabbage Aphid Brevicornye brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae in Home Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Nagappan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to check the impact of Melia azedarach dry fruit extract, farmyard manure and nitrogenous fertilizer application against cabbage aphid Brevicornye brassicae. B. brassicae is one of the key pests affect the quality and market value of cabbage. The home garden experiment was conducted in two season (September to December 2009 and February to May 2010. For this experiment totally five plots were prepared with 4 m length and 0.6 m width. Among the five plots one was used as control and another four was experimental plot for the application of nutrient and botanical spraying. M. azedarach dry fruit extract (5% was mixed with 0.2% local soap solution and sprayed in experimental plot. Purposive sampling method was adopted for data collection for which the number of aphids was recorded from three leaves of each plant. The experimental results indicates that except farmyard manure and combination of farmyard manure+urea treated plot remaining all showed significant difference (p0.025 in control and farmyard manure treated plot but the remaining showed statistically significant difference. The experimental results for both cropping seasons were consistent. Nitrogenous fertilizer applications influence the growth of the plants but did not show any remarkable changes in cabbage head weight except plant growth. The study concludes that foliar and basal application of M. azedarach dry fruit powder had significant impact on cabbage aphid, B. brassicae. It can be a suitable alternative method to protect cabbage crop against aphid infestation particularly small farming community those who are unable to afford cost of chemical pesticides.

  8. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in cabbage aphid(Brevicoryne brassicae)host plants and developmental instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gazi G(o)rür

    2009-01-01

    Developmental instability in morphological characters can occur during individual development due to various environmental stresses.Fluctuating asymmetry (FA)is often used as a measurement of developmental instability.but within-environment variation(cve)is also considered an indicator of developmental instability.Cabbage aphid nated cabbage and radish plants.Developmental instability indicators were measured and their relations with fitness were explored.Results revealed that cabbage aphids exposed to Cd and Zn displayed considerable developmental instability,particularly fluctuating asymmetry.Differences in developmental instability between the two metals were also detected,as well as differences between the two developmental instability measurements.For almost all measured traits.FA was greater on Cd-and Zn-contaminated compared to non-contaminated host plants.In contrast.CV of some traits was greater on non-contami-nated host plants,yet for Otller traits CV Was greater on contaminated host plants.There were also non-significant inverse relationships between FA and fitness of cabbage aphid populations.Due to weak correlations between FA and different patterns of two developmental instability measurements,this study does not support the hypothesis that developmental instability is a useful bioindicator of environmental quality.

  9. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  10. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  11. 大白菜雄性不育系MS200712的研究简报%Brief Report on Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Line MS200712

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 苏同兵; 卢桂香

    2014-01-01

    Creation and abortive mechanism of new male sterile lines are hot-topics on Chinese cabbage breeding.F1 hybrid crossing Brassica allohexaploid(AABBCC,n=27),which owns A,B and C chromosomes simultaneously,with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Jinchun’was obtained.Then the F1 as a male parent was crossed with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Yihe No. 5’.Thus male sterile MS200712 was founded due to multi-parents crossing.MS200712 owned yellow petal and light-yellow anther.The anthers were regressive,which were 100% male sterility.Stigma of MS200712 was normal and nectaries were vigor. Meanwhile 832172,male parent of‘Beijingnew No. 3’was crossed with MS200712,and male sterile MS20071208-916 was obtained.%以芸薹属异源六倍体AABBCC为母本,以大白菜品种金春为父本进行杂交,获得F1(AABBCC×AA);再以大白菜品种义和5号为母本,与F1进行杂交,在多亲本杂交后代中获得大白菜雄性不育系MS200712。该不育系花瓣为黄色,花药浅黄色、退化、败育彻底,柱头正常,蜜腺发达。同时,利用北京新3号的父本832172与雄性不育系MS200712进行回交,获得了转育的MS20071208-916不育系。

  12. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in incompatible interaction between infected non-heading Chinese cabbage and Hyaloperonospora parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Liu, Shi-Tuo; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Dao-Yun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying; Hu, Chun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is one of the main green leafy vegetables in the world, especially in China, with significant economic value. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a fungal pathogen responsible for causing downy mildew disease in Chinese cabbage, which greatly affects its production. The objective of this study was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during incompatible interactions between non-heading Chinese cabbage and H. parasitica using complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP). We obtained 129 reliable differential transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in a resistant line 'Suzhou Qing'. Among them, 121 upregulated TDFs displayed an expression peak at 24-48 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fifteen genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 13 genes (86.7%) revealed by the cDNA-AFLP. We identified four TDFs related to fungal resistance among the 15 TDFs. Furthermore, comparative analysis of four TDFs between resistant line 'Suzhou Qing' and susceptible line 'Aijiao Huang' showed that transcript levels of TDF14 (BcLIK1_A01) peaked at 48 h.p.i. and 25.1-fold increased in the resistant line compared with the susceptible line. Similarly, transcript levels of the other three genes, TDF42 (BcCAT3_A07), TDF75 (BcAAE3_A06) and TDF88 (BcAMT2_A05) peaked at 24, 48 and 24 h.p.i. with 25.1-, 100- and 15.8-fold increases, respectively. The results suggested that the resistance genes tended to transcribe at higher levels in the resistance line than in the susceptible line, which may provide resistance against pathogen infections. The present study might facilitate elucidating the molecular basis of the infection process and identifying candidate genes for resistance improvement of susceptible cultivars. PMID:27602230

  13. The Best Method for Extracting and Concentration Detecting of Proteins Used for Two-dimensional Electrophoresis from Flowering Buds of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)%适合双向电泳的大白菜花蕾蛋白提取及浓度测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪; 冯辉; 冀瑞琴

    2013-01-01

    Extracting high-quality flower bud proteins is the prerequisite in studying of the floral-organ Proteome in Chinese cabbage. In this experiment, the flower buds of Chinese cabbage A/B line AB01 were used to extract the whole protein by using the following six methods (TCA acetone precipitation method, Tris-HC1 method, Phenol modified method, Trizol precipitation method, Tris-acetone-phenol method and Urea-thiourea extraction method). The 2-DE maps were generated by the two-dimensional electrophoresis approach as well. The best methods for flower bud protein extraction and concentration determination were selected by analyzing and comparing the protein spots in 2-DE maps. The results showed that the protein spots in the 2-DE maps generated by TCA-acetone precipitation were clear and even distributed, therefore the TCA-acetone precipitation method was recommended as an ideal methods for extracting the flower bud protein, while the Protein Assay kit should be more accurate to detect the protein concentration based on comparing the maps generated by the two-dimensional electrophoresis protein quantitative kit and Bradford method.%  高质量提取大白菜花蕾蛋白是大白菜花器官蛋白质组学研究的关键步骤。本试验以大白菜AB01可育花蕾为材料,采用TCA丙酮沉淀法、Tris-HC1法、酚改良法、Trizol沉淀法、Tris-丙酮-酚法和尿素-硫脲提取法等六种方法分别提取花蕾全蛋白,通过Bradford法和双向电泳蛋白定量试剂盒测定蛋白浓度,经双向电泳分离后得到2-DE图谱,经分析、比较图谱蛋白点的情况,找到花蕾全蛋白的最佳提取方法和浓度测定方法。结果显示:TCA丙酮沉淀法得到的2-DE图谱,蛋白点分布均匀、清晰,是一种较为理想的花蕾蛋白提取方法;采用蛋白定量试剂盒测定蛋白浓度更加准确。

  14. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of nitrate reductase gene cDNA from non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Feifei; HOU Xilin; LI Ying; CUI Xiumin

    2007-01-01

    Four non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino) cultivars,Suzhouqing,Xuekeqing,Huangxinwu,Aijiaohuang,were planted to investigate the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) in leaves.After being induced by KNO3 at 50 mmol/L for different hours,the NRAs of the four cultivars were determined in vivo.The results showed that the NRAs changing trends of these four cultivars were similar.The highest NRAs in leaves reached their maximum at the 4th,4th,6th,and the 6th hour of induction,respectively.According to these results,the level of NR mRNA in plants could be enhanced by nitrate inducement.Then,the total RNA was isolated from the leaves of Suzhouqing that was induced by KNO3 at 50 mmol/L for four hours,and two fragments ofNR cDNA were obtained through RT-PCR using specific primers.The products of PCR were cloned and sequenced.They are 1125 and 438 base pairs,which were named nr1125 and nr438,encoding 374 and 135 amino acids,respectively.Finally,nr1125 was accepted and released by GenBank (accession number DQ001901).

  16. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3k

  17. Orthogonal design for optimal ISSR-PCR system in flowering Chinese cabbage%利用正交设计优选菜心ISSR-PCR反应体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雪梅; 乔爱民; 孙敏; 桂腾琴

    2008-01-01

    利用正交设计L16(44)探讨引物、Taq聚合酶、dNTPs、Mg2+对菜心ISSR-PCR反应的影响.得到适合菜心IS-SR-PCR反应的最佳体系:在25μL反应体系中含2.5μL10×buffer,2.0 mmol/L M2+,0.5U Taq DNA聚合酶,0.24 mmol/L dNTPs,0.5 μmol/L引物,60 ng DNA模板.%Factors which affected the ISSR-PCR reaction of flowering Chinese cabbage(Brassica campestris L.ssp.Chinensis Vat.utilis Tssen.et Lee.),such as concentrations of primer,Taq DNA polymerase.dNTPs and Mg2+,was studied by L16(44)orthogonal test.The optimal ISSR-PCR system for flowering Chinese cabbage was determined.In a total volume of 25 μl,containing 2.5μL 10×buffer,2.0 mmol/L Mg2+,0.5 units of Taq DNA polymerase,0.24 mmoL/L dNTPs,0.50 μmol/L primer and 60 ng of template DNA,clear and reproducibe DNA fragments can be obtained.

  18. Measurement of Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of the Antisense Fragment of CYP86MF Gene Transgenic Male Sterile Plantlets in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; CAO Jia-shu; DONG De-kun

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the transgenic male sterility induced by the antisense fragment of gene CYP86MF, some physiological and biochemical indexes were compared between the transgenic plantlets of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) and their controls.Results showed that there was significant difference between content of the endogenous hormones in leaves and floral buds. GA3 contents in leaves of the transgenic plantlets of B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino cv.Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 31.72 and 46.88% respectively as compared with those of their controls, and GA3 contents in floral buds of them were reduced by 62.92 and 80.57 % respectively. In addition, ZT contents in leaves of cv. Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 11.81 and 181.20%respectively as compared with those of their controls and those in floral buds were reduced by 105.94 and 128.75% respectively. But, ABA content in transgenic plantlets was significantly higher than that in nontransgenic plantlets. However, differences among respiratory rate and cyanide-resistant respiratory rate, the photosynthesic rate and the content of total flavones in floral buds were not significant. In this study, the results indicated that the gene CYP86MF might be one of the key functional genes to control fertility of Chinese cabbage.

  19. Research Progress on Flowering Chinese Cabbage Breeding in Guangdong Province%广东省菜薹(菜心)育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光光; 张华; 黄红弟; 乔燕春; 郑岩松

    2011-01-01

    广东省菜薹(菜心)育种主要采用系统选育法、诱变育种、杂种优势利用、组织培养、分子标记辅助选择育种以及抗性及品质育种,各种育种方法均得到了一些目标性状的品种,但运用远缘杂交、单倍体培养、基因工程创新菜薹资源还有待深入研究.%The flowering Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis ( L.) Makino var. Utilis Tsen et Lee ] breeding in Guangdong Province adopted the following breeding methods: systematic breeding, mutation breeding, heterosis utilization, tissue culture, molecular marker-assisted selective breeding, and resistance and quality breeding. Each method has got some varieties with target traits. But the application of distant hybridization, haploid culture and genetic engineering to create new flowering Chinese cabbage resources still need further study.

  20. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua LIAO; Jianling LIU; Xinjun Wang; Ke JIA; Na MENG

    2008-01-01

    The yield response of Chinese cabbage to phosphate fertilizer and manure was studied.The effect of over-application of phosphate fertilizer and manure on plant total phosphorus content and phosphorus accumulation in soil was also investigated.The experiment was arranged in a plastic barrel in the field for two years.Application of phosphate fertilizer at the rates of 150-Chinese cabbage.Application of manure at the rates of 33.3-133.2 g.kg-1 gave a yield increase of 18.2%-25.9% of the crop.There was no significant difference of yield resfertilizer,and no significant yield response to the application of phosphate fertilizer after applying manure.The total P content in Chinese cabbage was increased gradually with the rate increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer and manure.The content of total-P,Olsen-P,water-soluble P,biological available P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Organic phosphorus in the soil was increased by the application of manure.Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble-P and biological available-P,but there was a poor relationship between Olsen-P and organic-P.

  1. Chemical characterisation of old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) seed oil by liquid chromatography and different spectroscopic detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Beccaria, Marco; Oteri, Marianna; Utczas, Margita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    We report an extensive chemical characterisation of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, tocopherols, carotenoids and polyphenols contained in the oil extracted from old cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) by cold-pressing of the seeds. Analyses were performed by GC-FID combined with mass spectrometry, HPLC with photodiode array, fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection. The 94% of the total fatty acids were unsaturated, rappresented by erucic acid (more than 50%) followed by linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids accounting for approximately 10% each. The most abundant triacylglycerols (>13%) were represented by erucic-gadolenic-linoleic, erucic-eruci-linoleic and erucic-erucic-oleic. Among tocopherols, γ-tocopherol accounted for over 70% of the total content. Thirteen carotenoids and 11 polyphenols were identified and measured. In particular, the total content in carotenoids was 10.9 ppm and all-E-lutein was the main component (7.7 ppm); among polyphenols, six hydroxycinnamic acids and five flavonoids, were identified by combining information from retention times, PDA and MS data. PMID:27314571

  2. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  3. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zheng-miao; WANG Bi-ling; SUN Ye-fang; LI Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment.

  4. Effect of Botanical Insecticide of Macleya cordata on Physiology and Biochemistry of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the effect of Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata in the Brassica oleracea L. investigated, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were determined. The results showed that under the stress of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata at the same concentration, the contents of proline, soluble sugar and soluble protein were significantly lower than those with Cyhalothrin (p<0.05 except the proline content has not significant differences between Cyhalothrin and botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata with a dosage of 50×. The degree of damage with Cyhalothrin is greater than that of botanical insecticide of Macleya cordata.

  5. Discovery and Study on Mutation Owned Orange Petal of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%橘红色花菜薹突变体的发现和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 徐家炳; 卢桂香

    2013-01-01

    以橘红色花菜薹突变体11 A-47与黄色花菜薹联记特选34号甜菜心杂交获得的F1,F2及BC1、BC1’群体为试材.将6个世代的种子经4℃低温春化处理15d后调查子叶颜色,研究菜薹橘红色花的遗传规律;同时,采用与大白菜橘红心球色基因紧密连锁的分子标记对控制菜薹橘红色花的基因进行分析,鉴定菜薹橘红色花与大白菜橘红心球色基因or之间的关系.结果表明,橘红色花菜薹11 A-47与黄色花菜薹杂交F2群体中,橘红色子叶与绿色子叶的分离比例符合1∶3,x2=1.938 9<x20.05=3.841;BC1’群体中,橘红色子叶与绿色子叶的分离比例符合1∶1,x2=1.369 7<x20.05=3.841.说明菜薹的橘红色花为质量性状,由1对隐性等位基因控制.分子标记结果表明,控制菜薹橘红色花的基因与控制大白菜橘红心球色的基因可能不同.%A F1 hybrid was obtained by crossing mutant 11A-47 with orange petal and a wild type of flowering Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. utilis Tsen et Lee ] with yellow petal. After the population of F1, F2, BC1, BC1'were taken as experiment materials. Seeds of 6 generations were vernalized at 4 ℃ for 15 days, and cotyledon colors were investigated to study the hereditary law of orange petal. Meanwhile, molecular markers linked to or gene in Chinese cabbage were applied to determine the characteristics of orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage. Results showed that the ratio of orange with green cotyledons was 1 : 3 in F2 progeny, x2= 1.938 9 < x2 0.05=3.841. The ratio of orange with green cotyledons was 1 : 1 in BC1' progeny, x2= 1.369 1 < x2 0.05=3.841. Therefore, orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage is qualitative trait, and is controlled by a pair of recessive gene. Orange petal gene in flowering Chinese cabbage was probably different from gene in Chinese cabbage by molecular markers.

  6. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  7. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  8. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea ge...

  9. Functional properties of a chitinase promoter from cabbageBrassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    The 5'-region of the chitinase gene cabch29,derived from Brassica oleracea var.capitata,has been sequenced and analyzed for cis-acting elements important in controlling gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants.Different 5'-deletion fragments were linked to reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) as translational fusions,and the expression of these chimeric genes was analyzed in vegetative organs and tissues.Sequences up to-651 showed some basal GUS activity with nearly equal levels in wounded and intact tissues.The addition of further upstream sequences(-651 to-1284) enhanced expression level,and the expression driven by this fragment was inducible by a factor of two to three-fold by wounding.Histochemical analysis of different tissue from transgenic plants that contain cabch29 promoter-gus fusion gene demonstrated woundinducible and tissue-specific cabch29 promoter activity in plants containing the 1308 base pair fragment.The location of GUS activity appears to be cell-specific,being highest in vascular cells and epidermal cells of stem,leaf and roots.Meanwhile,the temporal and spatial expression of cabch29-GUS fusion gene has been investigated.Among the different vegetative organs,a high level of GUS activity was observed in stem and a moderate one in roots;whereas,wounding stress led to a high level of GUS in stem and moderate one in leaf.

  10. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  11. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  12. Use of cabbage leaves (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) in the stabilization of bone mass after menopause Uso do suco das folhas da couve (Brassica oleracea var acephala), na estabilização da massa óssea pós-menopausa

    OpenAIRE

    João V. Pereira; Hosana B. Santos; Maria F. Agra; Diego N. Guedes; João Modesto-Filho

    2006-01-01

    This work evaluates the use of cabbage leaves, Brassica oleracea var acephala (Cruciferae family) to stabilize bone mass in 13 menopausal women. The mature leaves were used after removal of the midrib and petiole and taken as a juice and given to the patient once a day for 24 months. Densitometric exams were performed every six months. The measurement points were the Trocanter and Ward's triangle. According to the results found, the use of cabbage leaf juice results in bone mass stabilization...

  13. Glucosinolates and Myrosinase Activity in Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after Various Microwave Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Total and individual levels of glucosinolates (GSs) were measured in red cabbage after various microwave treatments varying in time and intensity of the treatments. Furthermore, the myrosinase enzyme activity of the microwave-heated vegetables was determined. The retention of GSs in the cabbage and

  14. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  15. Glucosinolate content of blanched cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) fermented by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMG-P22043

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, I.; Valerio, F.; Lonigro, S.L.; Candia, de S.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Lavermicocca, P.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional fermentation of cabbage like in sauerkraut production leads to a complete elimination of glucosinolates (GSs). In order to retain GSs in fermented cabbage, the effect of a thermal treatment (blanching) followed by fermentation (4% brine at 25 °C) by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus pa

  16. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalisation in non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Zhang, N.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Bonnema, A.B.; Hou, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop that includes pak choi, caixin and several Japanese vegetables like mizuna, mibuna and komatsuna. Gene expression studies are frequently used to unravel the genetics of complex traits and in such studies the proper selection of reference gen

  17. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the con

  18. Stress-responsive expression patterns and functional characterization of cold shock domain proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Ji; Park, Ye Rin; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2015-11-01

    Although the functional roles of cold shock domain proteins (CSDPs) have been demonstrated during the growth, development, and stress adaptation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), the functions of CSDPs in other plants species, including cabbage (Brassica rapa), are largely unknown. To gain insight into the roles of CSDPs in cabbage under stress conditions, the genes encoding CSDPs in cabbage were isolated, and the functional roles of CSDPs in response to environmental stresses were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the levels of BrCSDP transcripts increased during cold, salt, or drought stress, as well as upon ABA treatment. Among the five BrCSDP genes found in the cabbage genome, one CSDP (BRU12051), named BrCSDP3, was unique in that it is localized to the chloroplast as well as to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BrCSDP3 in Arabidopsis resulted in accelerated seed germination and better seedling growth compared to the wild-type plants under high salt or dehydration stress conditions, and in response to ABA treatment. BrCSDP3 did not affect the splicing of intron-containing genes and processing of rRNAs in the chloroplast. BrCSDP3 had the ability to complement RNA chaperone-deficient Escherichia coli mutant cells under low temperatures as well as DNA- and RNA-melting abilities, suggesting that it possesses RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results suggest that BrCSDP3, harboring RNA chaperone activity, plays a role as a positive regulator in seed germination and seedling growth under stress conditions. PMID:26263516

  19. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062)...

  20. Production and characterization of a somatic hybrid of Chinese cabbage and cabbage%白菜与甘蓝之间体细胞杂交种获得与遗传特性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廉玉姬

    2012-01-01

    In order to broaden Chinese cabbage gene pool,we conducted interspecific somatic hybridization between Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris,2n=20,AA) and Cabbage (B.oleracea,2n=18,CC).Protoplasts were isolated from 10-day-old cotyledons and hypocotyls of young seedlings,and fused by 40% polyethylene glycol (PEG).Fused cells were cultured in modified K8p liquid medium supplemented with some plant growth regulators.Fusion products were characterized by their morphological,cytological and molecular biological traits.The results showed that,a total of 35 regenerated green plants were obtained from 320 calli,the plant regeneration frequency was 10.94%,and eleven of which were survived in greenhouse.All regenerants were true hybrids as confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH) analysis.Ploidy levels of hybrid plants were determined by chromosome counting and flow eytometry.The sum of the chromosome number (2n =38) from the two fusion patents were found in 36.4% of regeneratns; another 36.4% had chromosomes range to 58-60; 27.2% had more chromosomes ranges to 70-76.All regenerated plants produced normal flowers.We investigated the pollen fertility and seed set after self-pollination and backcrossing with the parental species.For hybrids with chromosomes more than 38 it was possible to obtain some seeds when they after self-pollination.Within the group of hybrids with 38 chromosomes,seed set were very variable,only 0.11 seeds per pod by self-pollination,0.23-0.76 by open-pollination,0.02-0.04 by backcrossing with Chinese cabbage.Progeny lines obtained by self-pollination had larger leaves and leaf shapes intermediate of the parental species.Pollen fertility was gradually recovered in the first and second progenies.The backcrossing progeny lines,as a whole,exhibited morphologies were similar to Chinese cabbage.Morphological variations were observed among the somatic hybrids and their progenies.%为拓宽白菜

  1. Association between glucosinolate concentration and injuries caused by cabbage stink bugs Eurydema spp. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae on different Brassicas - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, we were determining the contents of glucosinolates in different Brassicas in order to study their influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs (Eurydema spp. and the consequent extent of damage. We confirmed that glucosinolates content depends on plant species, plant organs and the time of sampling. In the samples aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoiberin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, epiprogoitrin, sinigrin, gluconapin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin prevailed. Glucobrassicin, an important indolic glucosinolate compound, was detected in all tested Brassicas. Its concentration in the oil radish samples was highest during the first assessment (30 DAS, 8.84 ± 0.65 µmol g-1 ds, while the oilseed rape samples displayed lowest concentration during the last assessment (134 DAS, 4.30 ± 0.80 µmol g-1 ds. The stimulative activity of individual glucosinolates or their negative influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs in the Brassicas used in our experiment was not uniformly manifested. Based on a two-year field experiment we concluded that oil rape was the most adequate trap crop used to allure cabbage stink bugs. In future, glucosinolates should be employed to a greater extent in environmentally acceptable ways of food production, one of which is also the use of trap crops in order to reduce harmful effects of cabbage stink bugs.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality of Cabbage (Brassica campastris L.ssp.pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; WU Liang-huan; JU Xiao-tang; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [(NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)(ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastrisL. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  3. Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biling; Xie, Zhengmiao; Chen, Jianjun; Jiang, Juntao; Su, Qiufeng

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining tailings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates, 50, 300, and 500 g/m2 with 9 treatments and control (CK). Plants, water soluble and exchangeable (WE) extraction procedure and modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were employed. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers significantly decreased WE Pb (22.0%-81.4%), Cd (1.5%-30.7%) and Zn (11.7%-75.3%, exception of SSP treatments with no significant difference) and TCLP Pb concentration (27.1%-71.2%), compared with the control, leading to reduced uptake of Pb (16.0%-58.0%), Cd (16.5%-66.9%) and Zn (1.2%-73.2%) by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). It was suggested that P fertilizers induced immobilization of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, and Zn. CMP provided the most effective method of reducing metal toxicity, mobility, and phytoavailability. At the P application rate of 300 g/m2, CMP would be cost-effective to decrease WE Pb, Zn, and Cd concentration from 666 to 137 mg/kg, from 31.2 to 8.71 mg/kg, and from 1.69 to 1.36 mg/kg, respectively. SSP was more effective in reducing Pb bioavailability than PR but had variable effects on Zn bioavailability. Cd uptake by cabbage was negatively correlated with soil pH rather than with WE or TCLP, indicating that Cd uptake by cabbage was a complex process. It should be careful to evaluate the impact of phosphate application on Cd availability in soil. PMID:19143319

  4. 大白菜褐腐病(茎基腐病)的病原菌鉴定%Pathogen Identification of Chinese Cabbage Brown Rot (Base Stem Rot)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧敏; 谢学文; 石延霞; 郭英兰; 李宝聚

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the disease known as ' base stem rot' of Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour) Olsson ] was prevalent in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces. 12 fungi isolates were collected from rotten stem of Chinese cabbage. The morphological identification show the isolated bacteria strain is Rhizoctonia solani. PCR of rDNA-ITS was propagated by general primer ITS1/ITS4 and the sequencing result was compared and analyzed in GenBank. The results of molecular identification and morphological identification were the same. Then the isolated bacteria strains were inoculated to the healthy Chinese cabbage stems. The symptoms resembled the ones originally observed in the fields. Finally, the pathogen's identity was confirmed by re-isolation from lesions of infected plants. Based on the tests of morphological characteristics, pathogenicity and molecular biology, the pathogens of Chinese cabbage' base stem rot' found in Beijing, Hebei and Jiangsu Provinces were the same as brown rot, Rhizoctonia solani. etc.%2011年在北京、河北、江苏等地的部分大白菜种植区,当地俗称的大白菜“茎基腐病”普遍严重发生,实际调查后共采集到大白菜“茎基腐病”病样12份,分离获得12个真菌分离物,经形态学鉴定,分离到的菌株均为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani;采用真菌通用引物ITS1/ITS4对病原菌rDNA-ITS进行PCR扩增,并将测序结果在GenBank中进行同源性比对分析,分子生物学鉴定结果与形态学鉴定结果一致.将分离到的菌株分别回接健康的大白菜植株,植株表现出与田间相似的发病症状,重新进行病原菌的分离,得到相同的病原物.基于形态学、分子生物学鉴定和致病性试验最终确定北京、河北、江苏等地大白菜“茎基腐病”病原菌为立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani,大白菜“茎基腐病”与大白菜褐腐病、大白菜立枯病属同病异名.

  5. Different influences of cadmium on soil microbial activity and structure with Chinese cabbage cultivated and non-cultivated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Min; Ma Aili; Peng Ying [Dept. of Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Hangzhou (China); Xie Xiaomei [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal, accumulated in soil by anthropogenic activities and has serious effects on soil microbial activities in contaminated soils. Moreover, there is a lack of reliable data on the effects of Cd in the soil-plant system, since most of the information on Cd-microorganism interactions in soils are based on sewage sludge without plants. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of Cd on soil microbial activities and community structure during growth of plant. Materials and methods: A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of Cd on soil microbial activities during the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) in two different soils. The field soils were used in this short-term (60 days) greenhouse pot experiment. The soils were spiked with different Cd concentrations, namely, 0, 1, 3, 8, 15, 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1} oven dry soil, respectively. The experimental design was a 2 (soil) x 2 (vegetation/non-vegetation) x 5 (treatments (Cd)) x 3 (replicate factorial experiment). After 60 days, the study was terminated and soils were analyzed for selected microbial parameters, such as, microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}), basal respiration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Results and discussion: Application of Cd at lower concentrations (1 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a slight increase in C{sub mic}, whereas Cd concentrations >8 mg kg{sup -1} caused an immediate significant decline in C{sub mic}, the ratio of C{sub mic} to total organic C (C{sub mic}/C{sub org}) decreased and the metabolic quotient (qCO{sub 2}, namely, the basal respiration CO{sub 2}/C{sub mic}) increased with elevated Cd concentration. However, the impact on soil C{sub mic} and basal respiration caused by Cd was dependent from plant cover or soil properties. The results of PLFAs showed relative increase in fatty acid indicators for fungi and actinomycetes and gradual increase in the ratio of

  6. Analysis of efficiency and factors affecting the production of cabbage farming (Brassica oleracea L. in Belung village, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Ningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficiency and the factors that affect the production of cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. Samples taken by census the number of respondents 36 farmers. The analysis used is descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative analysis include analysis of costs, revenues, income, efficiency and Cobb-Douglas. Based on the analysis, known that farmer acceptance is Rp. 43,767,361 and generated revenues of Rp. 30,124,372/ ha. Result relevaled that the Cabbage farm in the village of Belung, Poncokusumo, Malang was highly efficient and profitable with an efficiency of 3.2. Factors that effect significantly on cabbage farming production are labors, lands, pesticides and seeds. Input combinations are already efficient and optimal pesticides and seeds.

  7. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future. PMID:25976879

  8. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  9. Studies on Genomic DNA Extraction and Establishment of AFLP Reaction System in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜基因组DNA的提取及AFLP反应体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟淑春; 张海英; 郑晓鹰; 刘玉梅; 王永健

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The obtained clear AFLP fingerprint of Chinese cabbage provided basis for studies on the molecular markers of Chinese cabbage cultivars and the phylogenetic relationship among Chinese cabbage cultivars. [Method] With the test materials of leaves of Chinese cabbages, the high-quality total DNA from leaves of Chinese cabbages was extracted by the modified CTAB method. DNA restriction-ligase reaction, pre-amplification and selective amplification were optimized, and the AFLP silver-staining reaction system for Chinese cabbage was established. [Result] The quality of DNA template influenced restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent ligase amplification reaction, while the modified CTAB extraction method could be used in AFLP analysis of Chinese cabbage to obtain a clear AFLP fingerprint. The optimum conditions for restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA from Chinese cabbage were as follows: 150 g DNA template, 12.5 μl reaction volume, 1.25 U Eco R Ⅰ, 1.25 U Mse Ⅰ and 5×Reaction Buffer with 4 h at 37 ℃. The ligation reaction with 2.5 h at 20 ℃ was the optimum condition. Six pairs of primers including E-AAC/M-CAG, E-AAG/M-CAC, E-ACA/M-CTG, E-ACT/M-CAC, E-ACT/M-CTT and E-ACT/M-CTC all had its own stable and clear patterns. [Conclusion] With abundant bands and high polymorphism, AFLP selective amplification is an efficient molecular marker for genomic polymorphism of Chinese cabbage.

  10. Genetic Analysis of Leaf Color Characteristics with Purple Genes on Chinese Cabbage(Chinese Cabbage×Purple Pakchoi)%大白菜(大白菜×紫色小白菜)叶片紫色性状的遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 赵岫云; 余阳俊; 徐家炳; 于拴仓; 汪维红

    2011-01-01

    F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations were obtained through crossing, self-crossing and back-crossing by Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour ) Olsson ] of green leaves with purple pakchoi [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee ] of purple leaves in order to study the genetic characteristics of leaf color. The results showed that leaf colors of F1 hybrid were purple, but its leaf colors were lighter than those of purple pakchoi. The ratios were close to 3 purple: 1 green for F2 progenies, 1 purple: 1 green for BC1 progenies. For BC2 progenies, all plants owned purple colors. The results of x2 test further proved that heredity of leaf color with purple genes on Chinese cabbage was controlled by one pair of gene. Purple genes were dominant genes compared with green genes and they showed addition effect.%以大白菜(叶片绿色)和紫色小白菜(叶片紫色)为亲本进行杂交、回交和自交,研究大白菜叶片紫色的遗传规律.结果表明,大白菜和紫色小白菜杂交F1的叶片均为紫色,但其叶片色泽较亲本紫色小白菜浅.在F2群体中,叶片颜色分离比例接近3紫色:1绿色,BC1群体为1紫色:1绿色,而BC2群体叶片全部为紫色.x2检测结果进一步证明:大白菜和紫色小白菜杂交后代叶片紫色对绿色受1对遗传基因控制,紫色对绿色为显性,决定叶片紫色的基因具有累加效应.

  11. The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Hanzhong; Wang, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    We report the annotation and analysis of the draft genome sequence of Brassica rapa accession Chiifu-401-42, a Chinese cabbage. We modeled 41,174 protein coding genes in the B. rapa genome, which has undergone genome triplication. We used Arabidopsis thaliana as an outgroup for investigating the ...

  12. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  13. Effects of Composite Exogenous Substances on Reducing the Phytotoxicity of Two Herbicides in Chinese cabbage(Brassica rapa chinensis)%复合外源活性物质对小白菜除草剂毒害的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张运红; 刘兰英; 余金龙; 吴礼树; 和爱玲; 孙克刚

    2014-01-01

    以小白菜(Brassica rapa chinensis)为材料,研究了复合外源活性物质对两种除草剂(草甘膦和2,4-D)药害的缓解效果.结果表明,草甘膦和2,4-D胁迫后,小白菜叶片分别出现黄斑或卷叶现象,产量也有不同程度降低;而施用复合外源活性物质后其药害症状得到不同程度缓解,且二者均以稀释800倍液处理(WY800)的效果最佳,谷胱甘肽含量和抗氧化酶活性也均有不同程度提高.该结果说明该复合外源活性物质可一定程度缓解草甘膦和2,4-D在小白菜上产生的药害.

  14. Biogas by two-stage microbial anaerobic and semi-continuous digestion of Chinese cabbage waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoying Dong; Lijie Shao; Yan Wang; Wei Kou; Yanxin Cao; Dalei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste was investigated through a pilot-scale two-stage digester at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. In the acidification digester, the main product was acetic acid, with the maxi-mum concentration of 4289 mg·L-1 on the fourth day, accounting for 50.32%of total volatile fatty acids. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and NH4+-N level decreased gradual y with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of acidification. In the second digestion phase, the maximum methanogenic bacterial concentration reached 9.6 × 1010 ml-1 at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5–4 kg VS·m-3, with corresponding HRT of 12–16 days. Accordingly, the optimal biogas production was 0.62 m3·(kg VS)-1, with methane content of 65%–68%. ORP and NH4+-N levels in the methanizer remained between-500 and-560 mV and 2000–4500 mg·L-1, respec-tively. Methanococcus and Methanosarcina served as the main methanogens in the anaerobic digester.

  15. The control of club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) on cabbage seedlings with trifluralin and napropamid herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    J. Robak; A. Dobrzański

    2015-01-01

    The herbicides Treflan EC 2 (24% trifluralin) and Devrinol 50 (50% napropamid) applied separately decreased efficiently the incidence of club-root on cabbage seedlings in pot experiments. If these herbicides were applied together with the fungicide Bavistin {50% carbendazim) the control of the disease was in some cases more efficient, as compared with Bavistin used alone. The higher the organic matter content in the soil, the lower the phytotoxicity and dub-root controlling activity of herbic...

  16. 大白菜育性相关蛋白差异表达%Differencial Expression of Fertility-related Proteins in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕青; 周雪; 冀瑞琴; 冯辉

    2015-01-01

    为揭示复等位基因遗传的大白菜雄性不育分子机制,通过基于质谱的蛋白质组学同位素相对标记与绝对定量技术技术( iTRAQ),开展了大白菜核基因雄性不育蛋白质组学研究,以找到不育与可育材料中差异表达蛋白,从蛋白水平来进一步揭示大白菜雄性不育的分子遗传机制。通过研究,共发现了358个差异蛋白,其中可育中上调表达的蛋白有226个,下调表达的蛋白有132个,GO 分析结果表明,鉴定的蛋白质组数据具有较好的生物学功能覆盖范围。通过双向电泳验证,差异蛋白点差异特性与 iTRAQ结果类似,表明 iTRAQ用于差异蛋白分析结果可靠。%To better understand the molecular mechanisms of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage( Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis),the iTRAQ quantitation technique based on mass spectrometry were used to study the differencial expression between proteins fertile- and sterile-buds. This research would provide the basis for analyzing the molecular mechanism of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage. In this re-search,a total of 358 differencial expressed proteins(226 up-expressed and 132 down-expressed proteins in fertile buds)were found and Gene Ontology( GO)analysis showed that the proteins identified data has better coverage of biological functions. It is verified by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE). This results is consistent with iTRAQ technique,which indicated that using iTRAQ to analyze protein profile is reliable.

  17. 大白菜黑斑病室内苗期抗性鉴定方法的研究%Study on Resistance Identification Method for Black Spot of Chinese Cabbage at Seedling Stage in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘彩霞; 祝花; 崔磊; 袁伟玲; 高翔; 符义彬; 梅时勇

    2012-01-01

    为了选育大白菜(Brassica campestris L.ssp pekinensis (Lour.) Olsson)抗黑斑病(A lternaria brassicae)新品种和种质创新,在室内利用6个品种的大白菜研究了接种物浓度、苗龄和温度对大白菜黑斑病发病的影响,结果表明,在(25±1)℃光照培养室内,选择浓度为1.0×104个孢子/mL或1.0×105个孢子/mL的黑斑病病菌孢子悬浮液喷雾接种于苗龄为3~4片真叶的大白菜幼苗,保湿24~48 h,10d后进行病情调查,可对大白菜种质资源抗黑斑病的抗性进行正确评价.%In order to provide technical support for breeding new varieties and germplasm innovation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp pekinensis(Lour.) Olsson) with resistance to black spot(Alternaria brassicae), the influence of inoculation spore concentration, seedling stage and temperature on black spot occurrence was studied with six varieties. It was showed that by spraying 1.0×104pfu/mL or 1.0×105pfu/mL spore suspension on seedling at 3~4 leaf stage and then moisturizing for 24~48 h at (25±1)℃ in door, the resistance of radish varieties on the black spot could be accurately evaluated 10 d after inoculation.

  18. Yields, Quality and Metal Accumulation of Chinese Cabbage Irrigated with Diary Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Linxian Liao; Wangwei Cai; Xiaohou Shao; Junyi Tan

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the short-term effects of wastewater (dairy effluent) and EM treated wastewater on cabbage quality (vitamin C, nitrate), yield, Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) uptakes and heavy metals (i.e., Hg, Pb and Cd) accumulation in Cabbage, field experiments were conducted with the following irrigation treatments: Clean Water (CW), Waste Water (WW), Reclaimed Water-EM treated wastewater (RW), Clear Water-wastewater rotation (C/W) and clear water-treated wastewater rotation (C/...

  19. Temperature determines size and direction of effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen form on yield quantity and quality of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; van den Meerakker, A N; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) are presumed to have a significant impact on plant growth and yield and also on mineral nutrient composition, and therefore, on nutritional quality of crops and vegetables. To assess the relevance of these effects in future agroecosystems it is important to understand how e[CO2 ] interacts with other environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the interactive effects of e[CO2 ] with temperature and the form in which nitrogen is supplied (nitrate or ammonium nitrate) on growth, amino acid content and mineral nutrient composition of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.), a crop characterised by its high nutritional value and increasing relevance for human nutrition in many developing countries. Higher temperature, ammonium nitrate and e[CO2 ] had a positive impact on net photosynthesis and growth. A stimulating effect of e[CO2 ] on growth was only observed if the temperature was high (21/18 °C, day/night), and an interaction of e[CO2 ] with N form was only observed if the temperature was ambient (15/12 °C, day/night). Mineral nutrient composition was affected in a complex manner by all three factors and their interaction. These results demonstrate how much the effect of e[CO2 ] on mineral quality of crops depends on other environmental factors. Changes in temperature, adapting N fertilisation and the oxidation state of N have the potential to counteract the mineral depletion caused by e[CO2 ].

  20. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0–55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R2 = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R2 = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R2 = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481–scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64–scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782–Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353–Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits.

  1. Whole-Genome Mapping Reveals Novel QTL Clusters Associated with Main Agronomic Traits of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Honghao; Wang, Qingbiao; Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Zhang, Yangyong

    2016-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 24 main agronomic traits of cabbage. Field experiments were performed using a 196-line double haploid population in three seasons in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate important agronomic traits related to plant type, leaf, and head traits. In total, 144 QTLs with LOD threshold >3.0 were detected for the 24 agronomic traits: 25 for four plant-type-related traits, 64 for 10 leaf-related traits, and 55 for 10 head-related traits; each QTL explained 6.0-55.7% of phenotype variation. Of the QTLs, 95 had contribution rates higher than 10%, and 51 could be detected in more than one season. Major QTLs included Ph 3.1 (max R (2) = 55.7, max LOD = 28.2) for plant height, Ll 3.2 (max R (2) = 31.7, max LOD = 13.95) for leaf length, and Htd 3.2 (max R (2) = 28.5, max LOD = 9.49) for head transverse diameter; these could all be detected in more than one season. Twelve QTL clusters were detected on eight chromosomes, and the most significant four included Indel481-scaffold18376 (3.20 Mb), with five QTLs for five traits; Indel64-scaffold35418 (2.22 Mb), six QTLs for six traits; scaffold39782-Indel84 (1.78 Mb), 11 QTLs for 11 traits; and Indel353-Indel245 (9.89 Mb), seven QTLs for six traits. Besides, most traits clustered within the same region were significantly correlated with each other. The candidate genes at these regions were also discussed. Robust QTLs and their clusters obtained in this study should prove useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in cabbage breeding and in furthering our understanding of the genetic control of these traits. PMID:27458471

  2. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭红; 彭洁松; 冯献忠; 杨素欣; 郑志仁; 唐向荣; 沈瑞娟; 刘平林; 何玉科

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile, rosette, folding and head leaves. From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage, we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes. One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH. Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP. PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage. Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA. It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional ex

  3. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile,rosette,folding and head leaves.From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage,we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes.One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH.Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP.PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage.Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA.It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional expression.

  4. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  5. Genetic Relationship between Chinese Cabbages in Anti-clubroot with Orange Head Traits%大白菜根肿病抗性与橘红心性状的遗传关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯华; 沈向群; 耿新翠; 徐硕

    2011-01-01

    以育成的黄心抗根肿病直筒叠抱型大白菜CR9112A和CR9112B为母本,直筒舒心橘红心大白菜龙园红1号JH-1自交系为父本,分别完成F1、F2及BC1F1各世代.验证龙园红1号橘红心性状的遗传规律,探究根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间的遗传关系.抗性和花色鉴定结果表明:根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间无连锁关系,二者表现为独立遗传.龙园红1号JH-1的基因型为msmsrrhh.提出了转育抗根肿病橘红心大白菜的遗传模式,以期获得经济性状优良的抗根肿病橘红心材料.%Taking the existing anti-clubroot CR9112A and CR9112B lines of straight canister folded common Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour ) Olsson ] as female parent and stably inherited ‘Longyuanhong No.l’ JH-1 inbred lines of Chinese cabbage with orange head as male parent, we prepared every generations of F1, F2 and BC1F1. The inheritance rule of ‘ Longyuanhong No.1’inbred lines was verified, and the relationship between clubroot resistance gene with orange head leaf gene was explored. The identification results showed that there was no linkage relationship between clubroot resistance and orange head characteristics, and these 2 were independently inherited. The gene type of ‘Longyuanhong No.1’ JH-1 was msmsrrhh. On this basis, the paper put forward a genetic model for transferring clubroot resistance to orange head traits, so as to obtain an excellent orange head Chinese cabbage resistant to clubroot.

  6. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育基因向卵圆型大白菜'60'的转育%Introgression of genic male sterile gene of Chinese cabbage into ovate ecotype Chinese cabbage variety '60'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雪松; 许明

    2009-01-01

    根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,运用合成转育模式将大白菜'189'细胞核雄性不育基因转入基因型为msms的卵圆型白菜'160'中,获得了卵圆型白菜'160'的新甲型'两用系'及相应的不育系和保持系.%Based on the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genie male sterility, the synthesis transferring method was used to transfer the gene of male sterility into the orbicular-ovate type Chinese cabbage variety '160', whose genotypes were msms by crossing, inbreeding, sibling and test crossing. New AB lines type I,new male sterile lines and their corresponding temporary maintainer lines of Chinese cabbage variety '160' were obtained from the transferred progenies of the Chinese cabbage variety '189'.

  7. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  8. 大白菜细菌人工染色体文库的构建及鉴定%Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library from Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯大领; 石学萍; 杨煜; 王彦华; 轩淑欣; 赵建军; 申书兴

    2011-01-01

    以我国优良的大白菜自交系'85-1'为材料,利用 pIndigoBAC-5 为载体,通过对高分子量DNA 的制备、大片段 DNA 的选择、连接转化条件等几个方面的优化,构建了大白菜细菌人工染色体文库.该文库由 57 600个克隆组成,平均大小为98.4 kb,空载率为1.5%;覆盖大白菜基因组 10.3 倍;挑取 6 个克隆培养5 d 后,经HindⅢ完全酶切检测,其指纹图谱稳定一致.大白菜细菌人工染色体文库的构建为重要功能基因的克隆和定位及比较基因组研究奠定了基础.%A bacterial artificial chromosome library of Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour.)Olsson (Chinese cabbage) was constructed from inbred line‘ 85-1’ with the vector pIndigoBAC-5. The key processes of the construction, such as preparation of high molecular weight DNA, selection of digested fragments, condition of ligation and transformation, were studied. The library consists of 57 600 clones in which the average insert size is about 98.4 kb and the empty clones are about 1.5%. The library represents an equivalent of 10.3 fold size of Chinese cabbage genome. Six clones randomly picked from this library show no HindⅢ fingerprint changes after 5 days' successive culture, which indicates that the clones in the library are stable. The library will lay the foundation for gene clone, location and comparative genomics research of Brassica.

  9. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  10. Feasibility Study for Detection of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV Infection of Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saetbyeol Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy provides many advantages compared to other common analytical techniques due to its ability of rapid and accurate identification of unknown specimens as well as simple sample preparation. Here, we described potential of Raman spectroscopic technique as an efficient and high throughput method to detect plants infected by economically important viruses. To enhance the detection sensitivity of Raman measurement, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS was employed. Spectra of extracts from healthy and Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV infected Chinese cabbage leaves were collected by mixing with gold (Au nanoparticles. Our result showed that TYMV infected plants could be discriminated from non-infected healthy plants, suggesting the current method described here would be an alternative potential tool to screen virus-infection of plants in fields although it needs more studies to generalize the technique.

  11. Reactions to cadmium stress in a cadmium-tolerant variety of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.): is cadmium tolerance necessarily desirable in food crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadasa, Neel; Collins, Damian; Holford, Paul; Milham, Paul J; Conroy, Jann P

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative, chronic toxicant in humans for which the main exposure pathway is via plant foods. Cadmium-tolerant plants may be used to create healthier food products, provided that the tolerance is associated with the exclusion of Cd from the edible portion of the plant. An earlier study identified the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) variety, Pluto, as relatively Cd tolerant. We exposed the roots of intact, 4-week-old seedlings of Pluto to Cd (control ∼1 mg L(-1) treatment 500 μg L(-1)) for 4 weeks in flowing nutrient solutions and observed plant responses. Exposure began when leaf 3 started to emerge, plants were harvested after 4 weeks of Cd exposure and the high Cd treatment affected all measured parameters. The elongation rate of leaves 4-8, but not the duration of elongation was reduced; consequently, individual leaf area was also reduced (P  0.1). Phytochelatins (PCs) and glutathione (GSH) were present in the roots even at the lowest Cd concentration in the nutrient medium, i.e. ∼1 μg Cd L(-1), which would not be considered contaminated if it were a soil solution. The Cd concentration in these roots was unexpectedly high (5 mg kg(-1) DW) and the molar ratio of -SH (in PCs plus GSH) to Cd was large (>100:1). In these control plants, the Cd concentration in the leaves was 1.1 mg kg(-1) DW, and PCs were undetectable. For the high Cd treatment, the concentration of Cd in roots exceeded 680 mg kg(-1) DW and the molar -SH to Cd ratio fell to ∼1.5:1. For these plants, Cd flooded into the leaves (107 mg kg(-1) DW) where it probably induced synthesis of PCs, and the molar -SH to Cd ratio was ∼3:1. Nonetheless, this was insufficient to sequester all the Cd, as evidenced by the toxic effects on photosynthesis and growth noted above. Lastly, Cd accumulation in the leaves was associated with lowered concentrations of some trace elements, such as Zn, a combination of traits that is highly undesirable in food plants. PMID:26564184

  12. 大白菜花青素含量及色差指标相关性研究%A Study on Correlation and Regression Analysis of Anthocyanin Contents and Color Indices in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文超; 王德森; 王海龙; 纪纲尚; 刘维信

    2011-01-01

    为了探寻大白菜花青素含量快速测定的方法,本文利用pH差计法和色差仪分别测定了‘城阳青’(普通大白菜)、‘秋宝黄’(黄心白菜)和‘彩凤’3个不同叶色大白菜品种花青素含量以及色差指标,并对6个色泽参数与花青素含量进行了相关和回归分析.结果表明:6个色泽参数均能反映白菜叶片间叶色的细微变化,‘城阳青’和‘秋宝黄’不含花青素,紫色白菜‘彩凤’的花青素主要分布于由外向内的第1~4层叶片.色泽参数L,b,h和C分别与花青素含量呈极显著或显著负相关关系(相关系数分别为-0.85**,-0.58*,-0.49*,-0.58**).以色泽参数值L、a、h与花青素含量建立了多元回归方程:y =90.24- 1.07x1 +5.65x2 -142.71x3(x1为L值,x2为a值,x3为h值,y为花青素含量),该回归方程相关系数为0.9629.通过色差计依据建立的回归方程可快速测定紫色大白菜花青素的含量.%To find a fast method for determining anthocyanin content in Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ( Lour) Olsson] , anthocyanin contents and color indices of 3 different colored Chinese cabbage cul-tivars were measured by the pH method and a colorimeter, respectively. Correlation and regression analysis between the color parameters and contents of anthocyanin was conducted. The results showed that the 6 color indices including L, a, b, C, h, and H could effectively reflect minor changes of leaf color; no anthocyanin was detected in cvs. ' Cheng yang qing' and ' Qiu bao huang'. High contents of anthocyanin were detected in the 1 -4th leaf layer from outside to inside of the purple Chinese cabbage cv. ' Cai feng'. Significant correlations were found between the color indices (L, b, h, C) and contents of anthocyanin with correlation coefficients of -0. 85 * * , -0. 58 * * , -0.49 * , and -0. 58 * * , respectively. Correlation coefficient of the regression equations was 0. 9629. The regression equation obtained

  13. The Influence of Exometabolites of Fungus Botrytis Cinerеa on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage’s Callus Tissue (Brassica Pekinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN THI VUONG; Kalashnikova, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently vegetable crop loss from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during storage and cultivation is a large proportion, sometimes even 100%. Substantial damage to the culture of Chinese cabbage causes gray rot.The objects of the study were the seeds of Chinese cabbage three genotypes, which are not resistant to botrytis: grade Khibinskaya, grade Ljubasha and hybrid Nika F1. Callus tissue obtained from different segments isolated from 7 -day-old sterile seedlings. Pure culture of Botryti...

  14. Production of a primary trisomic from progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage%结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与结球甘蓝回交获得初级三体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 管志坤; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an aneuploid plant with 2n + l chromosome was obtained from the progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage. Cytological and SSR analysis showed that the aneuploid plant was a primary trisomic - 8 of cabbage. Furthermore, the chromosome number of the self ing and backcrossing progenies of the primary triso-mic-8 plant was identified, and the transfer rate of female and male gametes of extra-chromosome was clarified as 34. 74% and 6. 17%, respectively.%采用结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与二倍体结球甘蓝回交的方式,从回交后代BC2中获得了1株2n+1非整倍体植株.经细胞学和SSR鉴定分析,确认该2n+1植株为结球甘蓝8号初级三体.通过对8号初级三体植株自交和回交后代染色体数目的测定,明确了其额外染色体雌、雄配子的传递率分别为34.74%和6.17%.

  15. 大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育恢复基因BrMsf3的标记%SRAP Marker Analysis of Recessive Genic Male Sterile Restoring Gene in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张淑江; 李菲; 章时蕃; 孙日飞

    2011-01-01

    对一大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育系454AB的恢复基因BrMsf3进行了SRAP标记,构建包含320个单株的分离群体,筛选SRAP标记1 128个,筛选出与恢复基因BrMsf3连锁的2个标记BMe10SA4和M52K2,与恢复基因BrMsf3的遗传距离为4.35 cM和7.74 cM.%Genic male sterility lines were widely used in F1 seed production in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis ) . A recessive genic male sterile line 454AB which contained 320 individuals was constructed for this study. SRAP techniques and bulked segregant analysis ( BSA ) were used to screen markers linked to the RGMS restoring gene. Among the 1 128 primer combinations, only BMel0SA4 and M52K2 showed polymorphism between bulks of male sterile and fertile. The genic distances between restoring gene with BMe10SA4 and M52K2 were 4.35 cM and 7.74 cM, respectively.

  16. Preparation and Detection of Extended DNA Fibers of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜延伸DNA纤维的制备和检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李九欢; 王彦华; 李晓峰; 申书兴; 轩淑欣

    2012-01-01

    [目的]制备和检测大白菜延伸DNA纤维。[方法]以大白菜幼叶为材料,采用刀切分离细胞核、SDS释放DNA、盖玻片滑动牵拉DNA的方法,首次获得大白菜DNA延伸纤维。[结果]以基因组DNA和25SrDNA为探针进行原位杂交检测,该DNA纤维长度大约为1.93Mb,25SrDNA在大白菜基因组中的拷贝数在258—687之间。该方法获得的DNA延伸纤维平行、清晰、适合FISH分析。[结论]该研究将会促进大白菜基因图谱的构建和组织分析。%Abstract [Objective] The paper was to prepare and detect the extended DNA fibers of Chinese cabbage. [Method] Chinese cabbage nuclei was first successfully isolated by chopping young leaves with a blade, then nuclei were lysed by SDS to release DNA, and DNA fibers were dragged and extended with a coverslip. [Result] The results of Fiber-FISH with genomic DNA and 25S rDNA as probes showed that DNA fiber size as long as about 1.93 Mb could be measured and the number of 25S rDNA copies region were estimated to be 258 and 687 in Chinese cabbage genome. DNA fibers prepared by this method showed equally spread parallel thread with clear background, and were suitable for FISH analysis. [Conclusion] The study would accelerate Chinese cabbage genome mapping and organization analysis.

  17. Effect of Partial Replacement of Nitrate by Amino Acid and Urea on Nitrate Content of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage and Lettuce in Hydroponic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-lin; GAO Xiu-rui; ZHANG Xian-bin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors studied the effect of different mixtures of glyeine (Gly), isoleucine (Iso), proline (Pro), and urea solutions used as a partial (20%) replacment of nitrate in the nitrate content and quality of non-heading Chinese cabbage and lettuce in hydroponice. Five treatments were done 12 d before harvest. Compared to the control group, Gly had the best effect in reducing the nitrate content of both vegetable leaves and petioles; the mixture of Giy, Iso and Pro ranked second and urea the least. Treatments with amino acid could also increase soluble sugar and protein contents and enhance total-N in leaves significantly.In contrast, amino acid enhanced NRA in non-heading Chinese cabbage, while they decreased it slightly in lettuce. The results showed that amino acids and urea could reduce the nitrate content of both vegetables, but they had almost the same effect on non-heading Chinese cabbage. Moreover, amino acids were more effective than urea in lettuce. As a result, it was concluded that partial replacement of nitrate with amino acids not only reduced the nitrate content but also improved the quality of vegetables.

  18. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality ofCabbageBrassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChao; WULiang-huan; JUXiao-tang; ZHANGFu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [ (NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) (ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Bai

    Full Text Available bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5. Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14 and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13, are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy or LUC (LUCIFERASE expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  2. 不同钝化材料对土壤镉活性和大白菜镉吸收影响的比较%A Comparative Study on the Effects of Different Passivators on Soil Cadmium Availability and Cadmium Uptake of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富林; 夏贤格; 刘婷婷; 杨利; 熊桂云; 范先鹏; 刘冬碧; 余延丰; 张继铭

    2015-01-01

    The effects of lime, sodium metasilicate, biochar and their mixtures on soil cadmium availability and cadmium uptake of Chinese cabbage were studied comparatively using pot experiment method in this paper. The results showed that biochar, sodium metasilicate and their mixtures with lime all could inhibit the availability of soil cadmium and the uptake of Chinese cabbage on cadmium evidently, and their inhibiting capacities were almost equivalent. The inhibiting capacities of these passivators on soil cadmium availability were weaker than that of lime, but their capacities of inhibiting the cadmium uptake of Chinese cabbage were almost equivalent to that of lime. The inhibiting mechanisms of sodium silicate and lime to soil cadmium activity were decreasing the soil pH value, and the inhibition of biochar was not only related to the decrease of soil pH value, but also to the adsorption to cadmium. These passivators and their mixtures had no significant effect on the yield of Chinese cabbage.%采用盆栽试验的方法对比研究了石灰、偏硅酸钠、生物炭及其混合材料对土壤镉活性和大白菜(Brassica rapa pekinensis)镉吸收的影响。结果表明,施用生物炭、偏硅酸钠以及二者与石灰组成的混合材料都对土壤镉活性和大白菜镉吸收有抑制作用,而且抑制效果基本相当;这些材料对土壤镉活性的抑制效果都低于石灰,但对大白菜镉吸收的抑制效果与石灰基本相当;偏硅酸钠和石灰抑制土壤镉活性的机制主要是降低了土壤pH,而生物炭对土壤镉活性的降低不仅与其降低土壤pH有关,也与其对镉的吸附有关;施用3种钝化材料及其混合材料都对大白菜产量没有明显影响。

  3. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  4. 甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4的分子标记%The Effects of 5-azacytidine on DNA Methylation and Heat Tolerance of Seedlings of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红英; 钱春桃; 娄丽娜; 娄群峰; 张永兵; 伊鸿平; 吴明珠; 陈劲枫

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 5-azacytidine(5-azaC)on DNA methylation levels and heat tolerance of two commercial cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis(L.) Makino],e.i‘.Xiadi’and‘Dongshangwei’,were studied. The results showed that DNA methylation levels of seedlings of the two cultivars were significantly decreased,no abnormal growth or development was observed. Pre-treatment of seeds of non-heading Chinese cabbage with 0.1–0.2 mol · L-1 of 5-azaC would slow down the decreasing of growth,POD activity,and soluble protein content of seedlings under heat stress,and decrease MDA content and cell membrane permeability as well.%以甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)抗蔓枯病自交系PI482398(含抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4)和感病自交系‘白皮脆’以及它们的F1、BC1P1、BC1P2、F2群体为材料,苗期进行蔓枯病菌(Didymella bryoniae)接种鉴定,结果表明甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4为单显性遗传。利用集团分离分析法(bulked segregant analysis,BSA)对89对SSR引物进行筛选,引物CMTA170a在抗性材料中可扩增出约为120bp的条带,并与抗性基因Gsb-4表现出连锁关系。统计了CMTA170a在118个F2单株上的多态性,并利用MAPMAKER/Exp version3.0b软件进行了计算,其与Gsb-4的遗传连锁距离为5.14cM。

  5. 基于复合EST-SSR标记的大白菜种子纯度鉴定及SNP位点获取%Purity Identification and SNP Site Obtain of Chinese Cabbage Hybrids Using Multiplex EST-SSR Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新; 王永; 兰青阔; 贺长征; 陈锐; 李欧静; 刘娜; 朱珠; 郭永泽

    2013-01-01

      In this research,10 Chinese cabbage〔Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis(Lour) Olsson〕hybrids and their parents were taken as study objects.Based on the EST sequences from NCBI genome data base,a SNP site and multiplex EST-SSR sites,which could be used to identify the purity of Chinese cabbage hybrids,were screened by SSR marker and high resolution melting(HRM) technology.According to the requirement of seed purity identification by high throughput molecular technology,the key techniques such as seedling culture condition of single seed,extraction status of single grain plant, rapid DNA extraction method and establishment of multiplex PCR system were groped and optimized.Results showed that the single germinating seed after 48 h could gain DNA with higher quality by the improved CTAB method in 3 h. Meanwhile,plant leaves reached seeding stage after 7 d,could complete DNA extraction by chexe-100 method within 40 min.The SNP site obtained by screening could be used to indentify the purity of 6 Chinese cabbage hybrids,and the multiplex EST-SSR locus could be used to indentify the purity of 10 Chinese cabbage hybrids.%  以10份大白菜杂交种及其亲本为研究对象,基于NCBI基因组数据库中EST序列信息,应用SSR标记及高分辨率溶解曲线技术筛选出用于大白菜杂交种纯度鉴定的SNP位点及复合SSR位点,并根据高通量分子检测技术种子纯度鉴定的需要,对单粒种子育苗条件、单株植株提取状态、快速DNA提取方法、复合PCR体系的建立等关键技术进行了摸索及优化。结果显示:经过48 h破壳状态的单粒种子,采用改良CTAB法可于3 h内得到较高质量的DNA;同时经7 d达到苗期状态的单株叶片,采用chexe-100法亦可于40 min内完成DNA提取;筛选得到的SNP位点可对6份大白菜杂交种进行纯度鉴定,复合SSR位点可对10份大白菜杂交种进行纯度鉴定。

  6. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Yields,Contents of Heavy Metal and Nitrate in Chinese Cabbage and Lettuce%钾肥对大白菜和莴苣产量、重金属和硝酸盐含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小晶; 王正银; 赵欢; 刘芳; 陈燕霞; 向华辉; 李戎

    2011-01-01

    采用田间小区试验研究了酸性土壤上两种钾肥不同用量对大白菜和莴苣产量、重金属和硝酸盐含量的影响.结果表明:施用两种钾肥均明显提高了大白菜和莴苣的产量,分别增产9.0%~20.0%和8.7%~52.0%,增产作用最大的处理均为高钾处理[30 kg·(667 m2)-1].中量硫酸钾配施泥炭(K2S+M)处理较单施硫酸钾处理使大白菜和莴苣显著增产,分别增产14.6%和12.1%.施用钾肥明显降低了大白菜硝酸盐含量,但对莴苣硝酸盐含量以提高作用为主,且随着钾肥施用量的增加呈递减趋势.施用钾肥显著降低了大白菜砷和铅含量,明显降低了莴苣铬含量,对其余重金属的作用不一致.中量硫酸钾配施泥炭处理明显降低了大白菜和莴苣的重金属含量(大白菜汞和莴苣镉除外),提高了蔬菜的食用安全性.%Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of two kinds potash fertilizer with different dosages on yield, contents of heavy metal and nitrate in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. spp. pekinensis ) and lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ) under acidic soil cultivation. Results indicated that two kinds potash fertilizers could significantly increase the yields of Chinese cabbage and lettuce, which reach 9.0 %-20.0 % and 8.7 %-52.0 %. And the maximum yield was at the high potassium level ( 450 kg · hm-2 )for Chinese cabbage and lettuce. Combination of medium potassium sulfate and peat (K2S+M) could markedly increase yields of two vegetables as compared with potassium sulfate which reach 14.6 % and 12.1%. Potash fertilizers could significantly decrease nitrate content of Chinese cabbage as well improve the content of lettuce. Potash fertilizers could greatly decrease arsenic and lead content of Chinese cabbage as well chromium and lead of lettuce. The effects of potash fertilizers on other heavy metals in two vegetables were discrepancy. Combination of potassium sulfate and peat could

  7. Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Sotelo Pérez, Tamara; Velasco Pazos, Pablo; Cartea González, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Brassica vegetables include some economically interesting crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, kale and turnip, which are consumed all over the world. A high intake of Brassica vegetables reduces the risk of age-related chronic illness such as cardiovascular health and other degenerative diseases and reduces the risk of several types of cancer, thanks in part to the antioxidant properties of different compounds. Compared to other vegetables, Brassica vegetables have...

  8. “小狮头”大白菜细胞核不育系转育初探%Transferring Breeding of Cell Nucleic Sterile Line in "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建锋; 秦进华; 孙玉东; 罗德旭; 张朝阳

    2011-01-01

    Genetic male sterile gene is transferred from French 45 hot-resistance(a source of male sterility) Chinese cabbage to "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage through conventional hybrid.At the same time,new AB lines Type I,temporary maintainers and male sterile lines are obtained on the transferred progenies derived from "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage.%以法45抗热大白菜核不育系为不育源,通过常规杂交的方法,向"小狮头"大白菜转育核不育基因,初步转育成"小狮头"大白菜细胞核不育系、甲型两用系和临时保持系。

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity of Brassica rapa var. chinensis using ISSR markers and development of SCAR marker specific for Fragrant Bok Choy, a product of geographic indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Xue, J Y; Li, M M; Lin, Y B; Sun, X Q; Hang, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica rapa var. chinensis (Linnaeus) Kitamura] is a popular vegetable and is also used as a medicinal plant in traditional Chinese medicine. Fragrant Bok Choy is a unique accession of non-heading Chinese cabbage and a product of geographic indication certified by the Ministry of Agriculture of China, which is noted for its rich aromatic flavor. However, transitional and overlapping morphological traits can make it difficult to distinguish this accession from other non-heading Chinese cabbages. This study aimed to develop a molecular method for efficient identification of Fragrant Bok Choy. Genetic diversity analysis, based on inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers, was conducted for 11 non-heading Chinese cabbage accessions grown in the Yangtze River Delta region. Genetic similarity coefficients between the 11 accessions ranged from 0.5455 to 0.8961, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0755 to 0.4475. Cluster analysis divided the 11 accessions into two major groups. The primer ISSR-840 amplified a fragment specific for Fragrant Bok Choy. A pair of specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers based on this fragment amplified a target band in Fragrant Bok Choy individuals, but no band was detected in individuals of other accessions. In conclusion, this study has developed an efficient strategy for authentication of Fragrant Bok Choy. The SCAR marker described here will facilitate the conservation and utilization of this unique non-heading Chinese cabbage germplasm resource. PMID:27173238

  10. Ammonia volatilization from a Chinese cabbage field under different nitrogen treatments in the Taihu Lake Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Linan; He, Yunfeng; Chen, Jie; Huang, Qian; Wang, Hongcai

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization is a major pathway of nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems. As vegetable cultivation is one of the most important agricultural land uses worldwide, a deeper understanding of NH3 volatilization is necessary in vegetable production systems. We therefore conducted a 3-year (2010-2012) field experiment to characterize NH3 volatilization and evaluate the effect of different N fertilizer treatments on this process during the growth period of Chinese cabbage. Ammonia volatilization rate, rainfall, soil water content, pH, and soil NH4(+) were measured during the growth period. The results showed that NH3 volatilization was significantly and positively correlated to topsoil pH and NH4(+) concentration. Climate factors and fertilization method also significantly affected NH3 volatilization. Specifically, organic fertilizer (OF) increased NH3 volatilization by 11.77%-18.46%, compared to conventional fertilizer (CF, urea), while organic-inorganic compound fertilizer (OIF) reduced NH3 volatilization by 8.82%-12.67% compared to CF. Furthermore, slow-release fertilizers had significantly positive effects on controlling NH3 volatilization, with a 60.73%-68.80% reduction for sulfur-coated urea (SCU), a 71.85%-78.97% reduction for biological Carbon Power® urea (BCU), and a 77.66%-83.12% reduction for bulk-blend controlled-release fertilizer (BBCRF) relative to CF. This study provides much needed baseline information, which will help in fertilizer choice and management practices to reduce NH3 volatilization and encourage the development of new strategies for vegetable planting. PMID:26702964

  11. Preparation and Properties of Vegetable-Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Complex FilmsЦ Water Bamboo-CMC,Chinese Cabbage-CMC etc.Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymers have been researched[1].In our previous papers,cellulose-alginic acid[2],cellulose-agar[3],vegetable-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) etc.complex films have been researched.Recently,some other kinds of vegetable such as water bamboo,Chinese cabbage,eggplant,spinach,naked oats,and basella,asparagus and pumpkin were used to perpare vegetable-CMC complex films.Every kind of vegetable has different content of water,cellulose,protein,carbohydrate and a small amou...

  12. 橙色大白菜遗传转化体系的初步建立%Establishment of Genetic Transformation System for Orange Heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范爱丽; 张鲁刚

    2012-01-01

      In this study, several factors affecting the transformation rate were studied by Agrobacterium-mediated CMS7311-orf224 gene in 06J28 Chinese cabbage, and these factors included sensitivity of cotyledon segments to hygromycin (Hyg) and Cefotaxime (Cef), pre-culture days, concentrations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, co-culture days and times of being infected on the optimum culture medium. The results showed that, resistant plants could be obtained with the conditions as follows:the cotyledon segments of 06J28 Chinese cabbage were pre-cultured for 2-3 days, and then infected with EHA-105 (the OD600 value ranged from 0.3 to 0.5) for 5 minutes and were co-cultured for 2-3 days, lastly were transformed to screening-culture medium (adding 5 mg/L Hyg and 500 mg/L Cef). A higher efficient genetic transformation system was established for orange Chinese cabbage, which set up a basis for germplasm resources innovation of Chinese cabbage.%  以06J28橙色大白菜子叶段为外植体,通过根癌农杆菌介导CMS7311-orf224基因,探讨了潮霉素、头孢霉素、预培养时间、农杆菌浓度、感菌时间和共培养时间等因素对橙色大白菜遗传转化的影响.试验结果表明,子叶段预培养2~3 d后,在OD600值为0.3~0.5的农杆菌EHA-105菌液中侵染5 min,再共培养2~3 d,在培养基中加入5 mg/L Hyg (抗性筛选)和500 mg/L Cef(脱菌)可得到转化植株.试验初步建立了橙色大白菜遗传转化体系,为大白菜种质资源创新奠定了基础.

  13. 橘红心大白菜遗传育种研究进展%Research Progress of Genetics and Breeding of Orange-Heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁谦; 杜立忠; 陈士亮; 李景娟; 张一卉; 王凤德; 李化银; 高建伟

    2014-01-01

    综述了橘红心大白菜育种及种质资源、营养品质、橘红心性状的遗传规律研究现状及进展,并对未来研究的方向和面临的问题进行了阐述。%The research situation and progress of breeding, germplasm resources, nutritional quality and genetic laws of orange-head property of orange-heading Chinese cabbage were summarized in this paper.Its further research direction and facing problems were also expounded.

  14. Genetic Relationship between Chinese Cabbage with Orange Color in Inner Head and Purple Color in Leaf%大白菜橘红色和紫色遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 汪维红; 张凤兰; 赵岫云; 余阳俊; 于拴仓; 徐家炳; 卢桂香

    2011-01-01

    F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations were obtained through crossing, self-crossing and backcrossing by Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ) of orange color in inner head with pakchoi ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis ( L. ) Makino var. Communis Tsen et Lee ) of purple color in leaf, in order to study the genetic relationship between inner head color and leaf color. Results showed that colors of Fi hybrids were non orange-purple colors. The ratios of 4 genotypes were close to 9 non orange-purple : 3 non orange-non purple : 3 orange-purple : 1 orange-non purple for F2 progenies. The ratio of orange-purple genotype ororPr- was close to 18.75%, of which was close to 6.25% for pure orange-purple genotype ororPrPr. For BC1 progenies, the ratios of 4 genotypes were close to 1 non orange-purple : 1 non orange-non purple : 1 orange-purple : 1 orange-non purple. For BC2 progenies, all plants owned non orange-purple colors. Results of X test deeply showed that the genetic relationship between inner head color and leaf color on Chinese cabbage and pakchoi was not linked, which controlled by 2 independent genes. Orange gene or was located on the end of chromosome 1 in Agenome. Purple gene was located on some chromosomes except chromosome 1, which or gene was located.%以球内叶橘红色的大白菜和外叶紫色的普通白菜(小白菜)为亲本进行杂交、自交和回交,研究大白菜橘红色、紫色2对基因的遗传规律.结果表明:球内叶橘红色的大白菜和外叶紫色的普通白菜杂交,F1植株颜色为非橘红心-紫色;在F2群体中出现4种基因型,非橘红心-紫色、非橘红心-非紫色、橘红心-紫色、橘红心-非紫色,比例接近9∶3∶3∶1,其中获得橘红心-紫色基因型ororPr-的概率为18.75%,获得纯合橘红心-紫色基因型ororPrPr的概率为6.25%;在BC1群体中,4种基因型之比接近1∶1∶1∶1;BC2群体中,全部植株颜色为非橘红心-紫色.x2检测结果进

  15. 紫菜薹核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用%Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Purple Stalk Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 娄广学

    2011-01-01

    以复等位基因遗传的白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107为不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交筛选基因型的方法,向紫菜薹自交系XA500中转育核不育基因,育成了园艺学性状与XA500相近,不育株率和不育度均达到100%的紫菜薹雄性不育系GMS500.用该不育系配成的杂交组合整齐一致,园艺学性状优异,单位面积产量显著高于对照品种'紫婷11号'.%In order to solve the problems in the transfer and utilization of genie male sterile line in purple stalk Chinese cabbage, '00S107' which is a multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line was used as a source of male sterility in Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis var. Purpurca Hort. Methods of crossing and backcrossing were applied to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line' XA500' - A new genetic male sterile line 'GMS500' with 100% of male sterile plants was obtained, which was similar to 'XA500' in horticultural characteristics. An excellent hybridized combination was developed, which is uniform and superior to 'Ziting 11' in yield.

  16. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  17. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02-12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02-12 genome sequence. PMID:26622061

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing map permits identification of clubroot resistance QTLs and revision of the reference genome assembly in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Choi, Beom-Soon; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Sang-Choon; Perumal, Sampath; Seo, Joodeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Jo, Eun Ju; Choi, Gyung Ja; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yu, Yeisoo; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Clubroot is a devastating disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae and results in severe losses of yield and quality in Brassica crops. Many clubroot resistance genes and markers are available in Brassica rapa but less is known in Brassica oleracea. Here, we applied the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique to construct a high-resolution genetic map and identify clubroot resistance (CR) genes. A total of 43,821 SNPs were identified using GBS data for two parental lines, one resistant and one susceptible lines to clubroot, and 18,187 of them showed >5× coverage in the GBS data. Among those, 4,103 were credibly genotyped for all 78 F2 individual plants. These markers were clustered into nine linkage groups spanning 879.9 cM with an average interval of 1.15 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) survey based on three rounds of clubroot resistance tests using F2 : 3 progenies revealed two and single major QTLs for Race 2 and Race 9 of P. brassicae, respectively. The QTLs show similar locations to the previously reported CR loci for Race 4 in B. oleracea but are in different positions from any of the CR loci found in B. rapa. We utilized two reference genome sequences in this study. The high-resolution genetic map developed herein allowed us to reposition 37 and 2 misanchored scaffolds in the 02-12 and TO1000DH genome sequences, respectively. Our data also support additional positioning of two unanchored 3.3 Mb scaffolds into the 02-12 genome sequence.

  19. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  20. 苗用型大白菜新品种'双耐'%A New Seedling-edible Chinese Cabbage Hybrid'Shuangnai'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新民; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣

    2011-01-01

    ‘Shuangnai’ is a seedling-edible Chinese cabbage hybrid with excellent quality, which developed by crossing S99-534 with S02-PB658. It has bright and pale green leaves without fuzz, white petiole, and good quality. It has strong resistance to hot and moist environment and also a high general disease resistance. It is suitable for planting as seedling-edible Chinese cabbage in the summer in Yangtze River Valley and South China.%'双耐'是以S99-534为母本,S02-PB658为父本配制而成的优质苗用型大白菜一代杂种.叶色浅绿,叶柄色白,叶面光滑无茸毛,叶质柔嫩,品质优良,商品性状好;耐热,耐湿,综合抗病性强,适于中国长江流域及华南地区夏季作苗用型大白菜栽培.

  1. Determination of streptomycin residue in cucumber and Chinese cabbage by high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benjing; Zhang, Hongyan; Lin, Baoxiang; Ge, Jing; Qiu, Lihong

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and accurate method was developed for the determination of streptomycin using HPLC followed by postcolumn derivatization and fluorometric detection. The analyte was extracted, using aqueous solution from cucumber and Chinese cabbage, by a two-step SPE procedure. The extraction, cleanup, and chromatography conditions were optimized, and the performance of the analysis method was evaluated. The conditions of chromatography were as follows: the separation was performed on a C18 column; the isocratic mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and a mixed solution containing 10 mM sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and 0.4 mM sodium 1-heptanesulfonate (25+75, v/v); and the flow rate was 1 mL/min. The fluorescence detector was set at an excitation wavelength of 263 nm and an emission wavelength of 435 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 50-2000 ng/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995. The LOD and LOQ were 10 and 30 ng/g, respectively, in both cucumber and Chinese cabbage. The method was validated for selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy. The intraday and interday precision and accuracy were within 10%. The mean recoveries from spiked samples were more than 75%, with RSD lower than 10%. PMID:22649941

  2. Bioinformatic Analysis of GIF Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜GIF蛋白家族的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 李利斌; 李化银; 刘立峰; 高建伟

    2012-01-01

    GIF( GRF - interacting factor)家族是一类含有SNH和QG结构域的蛋白质,可与GRF( Growth regulating factor)转录因子蛋白相结合形成功能复合体,通过促进和维持细胞的分裂能力参与调控植物叶器官的发育.本研究系统鉴定了5个大白菜的GIF基因,并对这些基因编码的蛋白质序列进行了保守性和系统进化分析,最后对BrGIF1基因的表达进行了分析.结果表明,所有的大白菜和拟南芥GIF蛋白家族成员都具有高度保守的SNH和QG结构域.在进化上,GIF蛋白家族可分为两个不同的亚家族,并且这种特征在大白菜和拟南芥分离之前就已经形成.在表达模式上,BrGIF1基因在具有较大叶球的白菜自交系以及具有较强细胞分裂能力的组织中的转录表达水平较高.另外,BrGIF1基因的表达受到NAA的诱导和ABA的抑制.这些结果表明大白菜GIF蛋白可能具有和拟南芥GIF蛋白相似的生物学功能,在调控植物器官发育中具有重要作用.%GIF ( GRF - interacting factor) protein family is one kind of transcription coactivator which features the existence of SNH and QG domains. The members of this family could form a functional complex with GRF and act synergistically in regulating the development of leaves through the promotion and/or maintenance of cell proliferation activity in leaf primordia. In this study, five GIF genes were identified from Chinese cabbage by bioinformatics analysis. The conserved sequences of these proteins were analyzed and a polygenetic tree was constructed based on the corresponding GIF proteins from Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of these genes was analyzed, too. The results showed that all GIF proteins had the highly conservative SNH and QG domains and could be divided into two sub - family groups, which might have existed before the split of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thalina. The expression level of BrGIF1 was higher not only in the inbred lines

  3. 菌株Stenotrophomonas sp.ZS-S-01去除菜心中残留高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药的作用%Effects of Stenotrophomonas sp.Strain ZS-S-01 on the Degradation of β-Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate Residue on Flowering Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少华; 耿鹏; 胡美英; 肖盈; 刘明智

    2011-01-01

    通过室内盆栽和田间小区试验,评价降解菌株Stenotrophomonas sp.ZS-S-01去除菜心中残留高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药的效果.室内盆栽试验结果表明,处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯的降解率分别为71.1%和65.9%,残留量分别为0.28和0.35 mg/kg,降解半衰期(T1/2)分别为26.3和29.2 h,与对照相比,T1/2分别缩短了57.2和34.1 h.田间小区试验结果表明,处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯的降解率分别为63.2%和54.0%,残留量分别为0.35和0.46 mg/kg,T1/2分别为27.7和32.1 h,与对照相比,T1/2分别缩短了34.2和15.4 h.可见,降解菌株ZS-S-01可有效去除菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药残留.处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯残留量均低于国家叶菜类蔬菜中最大残留限量(MRLs),显示该菌具有进一步开发的潜力.%The effects of Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain ZS-S-01on the degradation of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate residue on flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ) were investigated by pot and field plot experiments, respectively. The results from the pot experiments showed that the residue of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese cabbage treated with strain ZS-S-01 were reduced by 71. 1% and 65. 9% after 72 h, leaving 0. 28 and 0. 35 mg/kg. Furthermore, the half lives ( Tl/2) of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate treated with strain ZS-S-01 were 26. 3 and 29. 2 h, reduced by 57. 2 and 34. 1 h compared with the control. The results from the field plot experiments showed that the residue of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese cabbage treated with strain ZS-S-01 were reduced by 63. 2% and 54. 0% after 72 h, leaving 0. 35 and 0. 46 mg/kg. The Tl/2 of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate were 27. 7 and 32. 1 h, reduced by 34. 2 and 15. 4 h compared with the control. The 72-hour residual values of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese

  4. Breeding Report of Purple Flowering Stalk, Flowering Chinese Cabbage and White Flowering Stalk from 1985 to 2014%“三薹”育种研究报告(1985-2014)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏儒来; 王先琳; 杨静; 陈利丹; 周妍萍

    2014-01-01

    自1985-2014年育成一批红菜薹、菜心雄性不育系及其保持系,并用不育系配成一批红菜薹、白菜薹及菜心等杂交种,育成菜心、白菜薹、红菜薹新品种共9个,极大丰富了这3种薹用不结球白菜的品种,现将其育种研究过程总结发表,希望对育种工作者有参考价值。%We have bred some male sterile lines and maintainer lines of purple flowering stalk and flowering Chinese cabbage from 1985 to 2014, and obtained some hybrids of purple flowering stalk, white flowering stalk and flowering Chinese cabbage by mating with the sterile lines, meanwhile, we bred nine new cultivars of flowering Chinese cabbage, white flowering stalk and purple flowering stalk, which has greatly enriched cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage for stalk. Here, we summarize research process of their breeding, in order to provide reference value for breeders.

  5. The Effects of Different Seedling Densities on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage Seedlings%不同育苗密度对娃娃菜幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海亭

    2013-01-01

    For selection of best seedling density ,taking Chinese cabbage Guizuhuanghuo as test material ,the effects of different densities on grow th of Chinese cabbage seedlings were studied by traies of different sizes . The results showed that main agrynomic traits of Chinese cabbage seedlings were no significant difference by traies with 98 and 128 apertures ,such as seedlings height ,leaf number ,root-top ratio and rate of strong seed-ling .Tray with 128 apertures was recommended for seedling of Chinese cabbage to reduce cost .%为了筛选娃娃菜最佳育苗密度,以娃娃菜贵族皇后为试验材料,利用不同规格穴盘研究不同密度对娃娃菜幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:采用98穴与128穴穴盘的娃娃菜幼苗在苗高、叶片数、根冠比和壮苗率等主要性状之间无显著差异,可推荐128穴穴盘作为娃娃菜育苗密度来降低育苗成本。

  6. 不结球白菜雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育的细胞学观察%Cytological Observation of Anther Development between the Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红芳; 侯瑞贤; 李晓锋; 朱玉英; 侯喜林

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)雄性不育系及其保持系为试验材料,选择不同发育阶段的花蕾,取其花药,制成石蜡切片和超薄切片,经染色后在电子显微镜下观察.结果表明,不结球白菜雄性不育系与保持系的花药发育有明显的不同:不育系花药发育受阻于花粉母细胞分化期,形成1~3个药室,并形成正常的四分体小孢子,此时细胞组织逐步解体,形成空腔花药;最后向内皱缩;保持系花粉母细胞能形成正常的四分体,进而形成小孢子,最终形成充满正常花粉粒的花药.%Buds selected at different developmental stages of a new germplasm sterile male of non-heading Chinese cabbage and its maintainer lines were studied. Anthers were collected,made into paraffin sections, stained, and observed by electron microscopy. Results show that non-heading Chinese cabbage sterile male lines and maintainer lines exhibited quite different anther development. Male sterile lines in relation to anther development were inhibited at the stage of archesporial cell, produced only 1 -3 anther sacs, and formed normal sporogenous cells. The cells gradually disintegrated,formated cavity,and finally shrunk inward. The maintainer archesporial cells formed normal anther sacs, formed sporogenous cell, and ultimately formed anthers with normal pollen.

  7. The Effect of PickIed Chinese Cabbage on Lipid Oxidation and QuaIity of Sausage%酸菜对风干香肠中脂类氧化及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车宇博; 张峰; 马利华; 宋慧; 陈学红; 陈丹; 李继昊

    2016-01-01

    Take pickled Chinese cabbage and pork as the main materials to make air-dried sausage. Take non-added pickled Chinese cabbage powder as the control,the effect of different additive amount of pickled Chinese cabbage powder on the color,texture,POV,AV,inhibition ratio of LPO of sausage is studied.The results show that adding pickled Chinese cabbage powder has a certain effect on the lipid oxidation and quality of air-dried sausage,adding 12% pickled Chinese cabbage powder, the color,texture,POV,AV of sausage are all decreased,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased compared with the control.After 100 days,the POV and AV of sausage added with pickled Chinese cabbage powder are decreased by 31.6%,21.14% compared with the control,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased by 47.24%.The lipid oxidation can be inhibited to some extent with the addition of pickled Chinese cabbage,the quality of sausage can be improved and the product has unique flavor and good taste.%实验以酸菜、猪肉为主要原料,制成风干香肠。以不加酸菜粉为对照,研究了酸菜粉不同添加量对香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价、脂质过氧化物抑制率的影响。结果表明:添加酸菜粉对风干香肠的脂类氧化及品质均有一定程度的影响,香肠添加酸菜粉12%,香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价比对照均有下降,脂质过氧化物抑制率比对照有所升高。储藏100天后,添加酸菜粉香肠的过氧化值、酸价比对照分别大幅降低了31.6%,21.14%,脂质过氧化物抑制率则显著提高了47.24%。酸菜的添加可以一定程度抑制香肠的脂类氧化,提高香肠的品质,口味独特而鲜美。

  8. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  9. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  10. Host generated cues alter the foraging behavior of Cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae and its larval parasitoids, Cotesia glomerata and Hyposoter ebeninus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Debarma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of host-generated cues on foraging speed of herbivore as well as its natural enemies was studied under net house conditions in Meghalaya, India. Foraging speed of P. brassicae was significantly higher towards the healthy plants, whereas it was lowest towards the damaged plants along with herbivore cues. In contrast foraging speed of parasitoids H. ebeninus and C. glomerata was highest towards damaged plants along with herbivore cues and lowest towards healthy plants. It indicates that herbivore and its parasitoids respond to the volatiles generated by their host. In addition to host plants natural enemies also utilize herbivore-generated cues for their detection.

  11. Obtaining and Genetic Stability of Chinese Cabbage-Cabbage Translocation Lines with Fragment of Cabbage Chromosome 8%添加甘蓝8号染色体片段的大白菜易位系的获得及其遗传稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫珍臣; 王彦华; 轩淑欣; 赵建军; 申书兴

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Cabbage-Cabbage alien addition line AC8 was radiated to obtain M1 plants.Doubled haploid lines were further obtained by microcspores culture for backcross descendants of M1.Two hundred and eighty-six specific InDel molecular markers linked to cabbage linkage group were used for detecting the DH lines.Combining with cytology observation,the translocation line AT8-1 of Chinese cabbage was identified.AT8-1 was selfed,backcrossed and hydridized,then their offsprings were identified by the specific makers.Results showed that the translocation fragment form cabbage was instability,the ratio of keeping entire exogenous fragment in selfing progenies,one backcross progeny and two hybridization progenies were 61.1%,26.3%,24.2% and 30.0%,respectively.In all progeny individuals,none translocation plant was found with smaller fragments than in AT8-1.%为创建大白菜—结球甘蓝易位系,以大白菜—结球甘蓝8号单体异附加系(ACs)为材料,对其摘去已开放花朵的花枝进行60Co-γ辐射,然后取新开放花朵花粉授与AC8,获得M1植株,再将M1与AC8亲本大白菜‘85-1’进行回交,对其回交后代进行小孢子离体培养获得DH系.利用286个结球甘蓝相对于大白菜特异的InDel分子标记对DH系植株进行鉴定,结合细胞学观察获得添加甘蓝8号染色体片段的大白菜易位系‘AT8-1’.对易位系‘AT8-1’进行自交,与‘85-1’回交,与大白菜高代自交系‘14-28’和‘14-36’杂交,对其后代进行InDel分子标记鉴定,结果表明该易位系中甘蓝染色体片段不稳定,该片段完整保留率在自交后代群体为61.1%,回交后代群体为26.3%,两个杂交后代群体分别为24.2%与30.0%.后代群体中均未见易位片段变小的植株.

  12. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  13. Electron Microscopic Study on Male Sterile CMS96 and Maintainer Line in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 徐家炳; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 王永健; 方智远

    2012-01-01

    为了研究大白菜CMS96不育系花药败育机理,采用透射和扫描电镜,观察大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系的花药发育过程、花药和花粉表面结构.透射电镜结果表明,与保持系相比,在减数分裂期,大白菜CMS96不育系绒毡层与花药壁中层分开,不育系花粉母细胞皱缩,形状不规则,空隙较大,严重影响减数分裂正常进行;在单核小孢子时期,小孢子开始液泡化,直至成熟花粉期完全液泡化为空细胞,细胞壁严重萎缩,堆积在一起,最终花粉失去功能,导致败育.扫描电镜结果表明,大白菜CMS96不育系药室内的花粉畸形,花粉粒空瘪,表现为凹陷、扁平等形状,表面纹饰也呈多种不规则形状.花粉囊不开裂,没有花粉散出.初步认为,大白菜CMS96不育系花粉的败育从减数分裂开始到成熟花粉,伴随花粉发育整个过程.大白菜CMS96不育系药室内花粉粒虽具有花粉壁的结构,但扁平、空瘪,重叠堆积在药室壁上,失去了活力,无法散开.%Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques, anther and pollen development, surface of anther and pollen grains were studied in order to obtain differences between CMS96 and maintainer line in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis). Results of transmission electron microscopy showed middle layer and tapetum of CMS96 were separated during meiosis. And early pollen mother cells (PMC) of CMS96 were with irregular shape and many larger gaps. Thus meiosis of PMC was influenced seriously. During mononuclear stage, microspore began to be vacuolated and mature pollens were empty to be seriously in cell wall and piled together leading to pollen grain abortion. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed pollen grains of CMS96 in the anther were abnormal and empty with hollow and flat shape. Pollen veins were irregular. No grains were released because pollen sac closed. Preliminary results showed pollen grains abortion

  14. Validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of residuals pesticides in cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. Capitata) for gases chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the validation of a multi-residue method for the determination of most used organo chlorine, organophosphorus and organonitrogen pesticides in cabbage in the Cundinamarca Department (Colombia). The extraction process includes blending of small sample quantity with ethyl acetate in presence of Na2SO4 and NaHCO3, filtration and concentration. The clean up steps include GPC and mini-column chromatography using silica gel. Final determination was carried out by gas chromatography with: pulsed splitless injection, HP-5 capillary column, and a parallel detection system with micro electron capture detection (μ - ECD) and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detection (NPD). The methodology is specific, selective, accurate and robust. Recovery values of majority of pesticides were in the range 70-120% at spiking levels ranging 0.05-10.73 mg/kg. Limits of detection were less than 0.10 mg/kg for most of the studied compounds. The distribution of the analyses in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The evaluation of pesticide residues was made in a specific area of municipality of Madrid-Cundinamarca, (Colombia). No residues of the studied analyses were founded

  15. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg;

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella....... The results showed that A. nemorum is a voracious predator of B. brassicae, P. xylostella and F. occidentalis and can therefore be considered as a potential candidate for biological control in cabbage....

  16. Studies on the Breeding of the Genetic Male Sterility Lines of‘Heiye’Chinese Cabbage with Anti-Clubroot%‘黑叶’大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 沈向群; 郭艳锋; 王菲菲; 洪雅婷; 陈永浩

    2013-01-01

    In order to breed new Chinese cabbage variety with anti-clubroot, according to the genetic hypothesis of multi-allele and the conclusion that the anti-clubroot is controlled by a dominant nuclear gene in Chinese cabbage, the resistant gene against clubroot disease and the sterile genes were transferred to‘Heiye’ Chinese cabbage with cycle male parents using anti-clubroot sterile plants of AB lines (type Ⅰ) of Chinese cabbage as resistance resources and infertility resources. By means of crossing, consecutive backcrossing, self-crossing, test cross, sib-mating and resistance inoculation screening, etc., anti-clubroot new AB lines (type Ⅰ) and temporary maintainer lines of‘Heiye’Chinese cabbage were achieved. Breeding the male sterility lines of‘Heiye’Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot can lay the foundation for selection of new varieties in anti-clubroot.%为选育抗根肿病大白菜新品种,根据“复等位基因”遗传假说及大白菜对根肿病的抗性由1对显性核基因控制的结论,以抗根肿病大白菜甲型雄性不育“两用系”的不育株为抗源和不育源,以‘黑叶’大白菜为轮回父本,经过杂交、连续回交、自交、测交、兄妹交和抗病接种筛选鉴定等方法,将抗根肿病基因和核不育基因导入‘黑叶’大白菜中,获得抗根肿病‘黑叶’大白菜新甲型雄性不育“两用系”和“临时保持系”。抗根肿病的大白菜雄性不育系的育成,为抗根肿病新品种选育提供参考。

  17. 两种四环素类兽药抗生素对白菜种子发芽与根伸长抑制的毒性效应%Toxicological effects of two tetracycline antibiotics on the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation of Chinese cabbages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛成军; 俞花美; 焦鹏

    2012-01-01

    The individual chlorotetracycline and oxytetracyclice pollution on the inhibition rates of seed germination and Eco-toxicity effects of Chinese cabbages (Brassica pekimensis) were tested with antibiotics spiked into the water and soils. The concentration of chlorotetracycline(soil; 0~4 000 mg·kg-1; water solution: 0~150 mg·L-1) and oxytetracycline(soil: 0-25 000 mg·L-1; water solution: 0~150 mg·L-1) was determined based on the pre-experiments. Results showed germination rate, root elongation and shoot elongation had eco-toxicity sensibility due to chlorotetracycline and oxytetracycline stress. The germination rate of Chinese cabbages showed downtrend with exogenous oxytetracycline amendment. However, it slightly fluctuated around 85% with chlorotetracycline amendment, which didn't appear significant difference (P>0.05) compared with the control. Although there was no significant difference (P>0.05), chlorotetracycline showed stronger inhibition on germination of Chinese cabbages than oxytetracycline under hydroponic culture conditions. The growth of Chinese cabbages was inhibited with addition of oxytetracycline and chlorotetracycline, shown as shortened root elongation with the increase of concentrations of oxytetracycline and chlorotetracycline in soil and solution. The root elongation of Chinese cabbages was significantly related with concentrations of those two antibiotics. Sequence orders was root elongation > shoot elongation > germination rate, in which the control rate of root elongation was better index for evaluating 2 kinds of antibiotics eco-toxicity. Chloroteiracycline and oxytetracycline in water solution on IC50 of root elongation was 20.32 mg·L-1, 287.52 mg·L-1, respectively in soil was 851.08 mg/kg, 14045.75 mg·L-1, which indicated that the toxicity effect of oxytetracycline on vegetable was less than chlorotetracycline. Meanwhile, the inhibition effects of antibiotics on the root elongation of Chinese cabbages in soils were much lower

  18. Primary Study on LBD Genes Involving in Callus Formation and Plant Regeneration of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜 LBD 基因参与愈伤组织发生及植株再生初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 朱月林; 苏同兵; 于拴仓; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 张德双; 赵岫云; 汪维红; 卢桂香

    2015-01-01

    植物离体再生主要经历愈伤组织形成、胚状体或器官发生和不定芽产生等过程,其中愈伤组织形成是在外源生长素和相关蛋白因子的共同作用下完成的,是植物离体再生的关键环节。拟南芥 LBD16、LBD17、LBD18和LBD29是促进胚性愈伤组织发生的关键转录因子。通过对37种白菜高代自交系外植体芽再生频率的统计分析,选出具有显著差异的材料,研究了大白菜愈伤组织发生过程中上述同源LBD基因的表达变化模式,初步分析了LBD基因表达对大白菜愈伤组织产生和再生频率的影响。结果显示:白菜LBD基因与拟南芥LBD基因有很高的序列同源性,共有8个上述基因的同源基因;离体培养的白菜外植体在诱导7 d时产生愈伤组织,而LBD基因在此时表达量达到最高,然后开始降低,在整个愈伤诱导过程中呈现先上升后下降的趋势;在愈伤诱导各时期中,LBD基因在高再生频率材料中的表达一般都要高于低再生材料。这些结果表明,LBD基因参与大白菜愈伤组织产生并促进离体组织植株再生的关键基因,这为从分子水平上筛选高效再生材料,建立高效遗传转化体系奠定了基础。%Callus formation ,embryogenesis and adventitious bud development are major steps of plant regenera-tion,in which callus formation is a key step .Previous reports demonstrated that exogenous auxin and LBD ( Lateral organ boundaries domain ) genes,LBD16,LBD17,LBD18 and LBD29,were involved in callus formation in Arabi-dopsis.Shoot regeneration frequency of 37 high inbred line of Chinese cabbage were analyzed and 2 of them,with significant different regeneration frequency ,were selected for further study .Here ,we focused on the function of Bras-sica LBD genes in callus formation and plant regeneration by analyzing LBD expression level during callus induction of Chinese cabbage with different regeneration capacity .The main

  19. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  20. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  1. 不结球白菜花芽分化分级及叶绿体色素含量的变化%Flower Bud Differentiation Classification and Changes of Chloroplast Pigment Contents in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王真真; 侯瑞贤; 李晓峰; 朱红芳; 朱玉英

    2013-01-01

    以不结球白菜为试验材料,通过制作石蜡切片和显微镜观察,将花芽分化过程划分为6级:生长锥伸展期、花原基分化初期、花原基伸长期、花萼原基分化期、雄蕊原基分化期、雌蕊和花瓣原基分化期.早抽薹材料09-1-328c叶片中叶绿素和类胡萝卜变化趋势一致,呈现缓慢升高,抽薹期降低的趋势;晚抽薹材料08-1 P-89和中等耐抽薹材料08-1 P-76色素变化趋势一致,在花芽分化时降低,完成分化后升高,抽薹期又下降.叶绿素a/b在早抽薹材料中呈现降低趋势,在晚抽薹材料中保持较稳定水平,叶绿素(a+b)/类胡萝卜素在花芽分化时比值降低,现蕾期又升高.%Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino) was used as the test material.By means of paraffin seations and optical microscope,the flower bud differentiation process was divided into six classes:growth cone extension stage,the early stage of floral primordia differentiation,floral primordia elongation stage,sepal primordium differentiation stage,stamen primordium differentiation stage,pistil and petal primordium differentiation stage.The contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in early bolting material 09-1-328c leaves showed the same trend,increased slowly,fell at bolting stage.As for late bolting material 08-1P-89 and secondary resistance to bolting marterial 08-1 P-76,the trends were similar,chlorophyll and carotenoid contents fell at flower bud differentiation,increased when the differentiation completed,but fell at bolting stage.Chlorophyll a/b ratio presented a decreased tendency in early bolting material,and a maintained stable level in late bolting materials.Chlorophyll (a+b)/carotenoid ratio fell in the process of flower bud differentiation,increased at flower bud emergence stage.

  2. 小白菜与苋菜营养生长期的吸水量研究%Water Absorption of Chinese Cabbage and Amaranth in Vegetative Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏告; 彭选明; 张乐平; 吴同斌; 李青峰; 张跃龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide more accurate reference data to irrigate crops, by using plant water absorption simple measuring instrument developed specially, the biggest water absorption of Chinese cabbage and amaranth in the vegetative growth stage was surveyed in every day and different periods in a day. The results showed that the water absorption of above mentioned plant increased in plant growth, and the water absorption of china cabbage and amaranth in the second half stage of growth were 5.93 and 2.74 times of that in the first half stage, respectively. In one day, the main time for water absorbing plants was at 7:00-19:00, and peak period was at 12:00-16:00. In addition, crop water quantity and temperature in 0.01 level has significant correlation level (bilateral). Cultivating cabbage and amaranth under the test conditions, the water consumption quantity per 1 g of grass yield were 19.7 and 17.7 g, respectively.%为了给作物浇灌提供更精准的参考数据,利用专门研制的植物吸水数量简易测量仪,测量小白菜和苋菜营养生长期每天最大吸水量,以及全天不同时段的最大吸水量.结果表明:小白菜和苋菜的吸水量随着植株的生长而增大;小白菜和苋菜营养生长期的后半段的吸水量分别为前半段的5.93倍和2.74倍,在一天中,植物的吸水时间主要是7:00~19:00,高峰时间段为12:00~16:00.植物吸水量与气温在0.01水平(双侧)上显著相关.栽培小白菜和苋菜,每lg鲜草产量消耗的水量分别为19.7 g和17.7 g.

  3. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  4. 小白菜潮汐式栽培专用基质的筛选%Screening of Special Cultivation Substrate for Chinese Cabbage with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓平; 刘静波; 刘庆叶; 杨巍; 徐明喜; 王蓓; 甘小虎; 章鸥; 王东升

    2015-01-01

    对3种不同栽培基质和常规栽培基质(市场销售)在潮汐式灌溉模式下进行小白菜栽培试验,比较小白菜的植物学性状,筛选出适用于潮汐式灌溉的小白菜专用型栽培基质。研究结果表明,处理2(40%茶渣蚓粪、20%泥炭、20%蛭石、20%珍珠岩)培育的小白菜株高、生物量、株幅、SPAD 值均显著优于其他处理,栽培效果显著提高,可推荐作为潮汐式灌溉小白菜栽培的专用型基质。%In this paper,we used 3 different special cultivation substrates and 1 common cultivation substrate (for market sale)to take the experiment of Chinese cabbage planting with ebb-and-flow irrigation, and the botany characters of Chi-nese cabbage were observed to screening special Chinese cabbage cultivation substrates with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation. The result showed that the cultivation results of treatment 2 (40% tea leaf and vermicompost, 20% peat, 20% vermiculite, 20%perlite ) were significantly better than others in plant height, biomass, SPAD value, leaves spreading, it could be recom-mended as special cultivation substrates for Chinese cabbage with ebb-and-flow irrigation.

  5. 抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”转育研究%Breeding of Anti-clubroot AB Lines Type I of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 郭艳峰; 马士芳; 洪雅婷

    2012-01-01

    Orange head Chinese cabbage is becoming an important development direction of Chinese cabbage quality breeding for its fresh and lovely color, nutritional value and health value. Its production will be affected seversly by the rapid spreading of clubroot disease. In accordance with the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genetic male sterility, genetic rules of anti-clubroot genes and head color, the transfer model of anti-clubroot AB lines type I of orange head Chinese cabbage were put forward. On the basis of the model, orange head genes were transferred to AB line type I of anti-clubroot Chinese cabbage by crossing, backcross, self ing, sibling and test-crossing. During the course of breeding, head color screening, resistance identification, economic characters sifting and fertility identification were carried out for the plants from each generation. AB lines type I of orange head plants with ho-mozygosis resistant genes were generated after 4 generations.%根据大白菜“核不育复等位基因遗传假说”、抗根肿病基因和球心色的遗传规律,提出抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”转育模式.依照转育模式采用杂交、回交、自交、系内交和测交等方法,对不同转育世代依次进行球心色筛选、抗性鉴定、经济性状筛选和育性调查,经过4代转育得到抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”.

  6. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L. Using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 曹家树; 陈杭

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica 'qisihai'. The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci, 36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups (LGs) and 2 small groups, covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM. The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits, QTL analysis, and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  7. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd, E-mail: m.hafez@usim.edu.my; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically

  11. A New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid-'Jinbaicai No.8'%大白菜新品种晋白菜8号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩爱谦; 程升; 张翠香; 刘国庆

    2013-01-01

    'Jinbaicai No.8' is a mid-late maturing Chinese cabbage variety. Its growing period is about 88 days. One of its parents HY219 comes from a variety of farmhouse Tangshan, Hebei Province. It developed by crossing through many generations and is an inbred self-incompatible line. The other parent is H226 a self-cross progeny from 'Tianjinhetaowen' ( another farmhouse variety in Tianjin ). This hybrid has vigorous growth. The outside leaves and the petiole are light green. The head is a cylinder with compact twisted central part. The 'Jinbaicai No.8' is 65 cm in height and 64 cm in stretch. The single plant weight is about 5 kg. The net vegetable rate is over 80%. Its resistance to downy mildew and soft rot is higher than the 'Taiyuanerqing'. It is tolerant to storage and has good commercial quality. It has less vein on its leaf blade, and less crude fiber content. Its net vegetable yield is about 127.5 t ·hm-2. It can be cultivated in the regions where a cylinder-like Chinese cabbage can fit.%晋白菜8号为中晚熟大白菜品种,生育期88 d(天)左右.亲本之一HY219是来源于河北唐山地区的农家品种,经多代自交选育而成的自交不亲和系;另一亲本H226是来源于天津农家品种天津核桃纹的自交后代.该品种生长势强,外叶及叶柄浅绿色,叶球为直筒拧心型.株高65 cm,开展度64cm,单株质量5 kg左右.外叶少,净菜率高达80%以上.田间调查表明对霜霉病和软腐病的抗性高于对照太原二青.耐贮性强,商品品质好,叶片叶脉少,粗纤维含量少.每667m2净菜产量8 500 kg左右,可在全国适合直筒型大白菜种植区域栽培.

  12. Cultivar Selection and Pest Control Techniques on Organic White Cabbage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile V. STOLERU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, as in many other countries, white cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crop species. The experiment was performed in the NE of the country during 2008-2009 in order to measure the impact of cultivar choice and pest control techniques on organic white cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L. var. capitata f. alba (D.C.]. This experiment included early, summer and autumn crops. The early crop compared four cultivars, the summer crop two cultivars, and the autumn crop three cultivars. The effect of various common organic pest control techniques was also measured. These techniques included: treatments with extract from neem (Azadirachta indica, potassium soap, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxins, application of a parasitic wasp (Trichogramma evanescens and covering the crop with an agrotextile. Data were collected regarding the effect of cultivar selection and pest control technique on common local cabbage pests: cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta atra, cabbage fly (Delia brassicae, cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae and cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. The highest yields for each respective growing season were obtained using the following combinations: Flavius agrotextile (early crop, Copenhagen Market agrotextile + 4 lha-1 azadirachtin + 12104 wasps/ha (summer crop and Buzau 4 lha-1 azadirachtin (autumn crop.

  13. Uso de antibióticos e leveduras para controle da podridão-mole em couve-chinesa Use of antibiotics and yeasts for controlling Chinese cabbage soft rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRF Mello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc pode ocorrer em plantios de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis com até 67% de incidência. O trabalho visou avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de Pcc a bactericidas, o efeito de Mycoshield® nas dosagens de 3,0 e 1,5 g L-1, e de leveduras a 10(8 cel/mL no controle da doença em casa de vegetação e em campo. As plantas foram pulverizadas com Mycoshield® (oxitetraciclina 20% e leveduras (Rh1 e Rh2 (Rhodotorula spp. e Sc1 (Saccharomyces cerevisae sete dias após o transplante, e inoculadas por picada com o isolado Pcc120, sete dias e 12 h após o tratamento, respectivamente. Em todos os experimentos foram avaliados os componentes epidemiológicos da doença. In vitro, 40 isolados de Pcc testados apresentaram resistência ao sulfato de cobre e sensibilidade a oxitetraciclina, estreptomicina, oxitetraciclina+estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina+sulfato de cobre, todos na concentração de 0,2 g L-1. Seis isolados de Pcc foram mais inibidos por Mycoshield® do que por Agri-Micina® (oxitetraciclina 1,5% + estreptomicina 15% ambos a 3,0 g L-1, não sendo inibidos por Kasumin® (casugamicina 2% (2,0 mL L-1. Em casa de vegetação, Mycoshield® (3,0 g L-1 reduziu a severidade e o índice de doença em até 47,4 e 19%; já a levedura Sc1 reduziu a severidade da doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD em até 27,6 e 39,3%, respectivamente, enquanto Rh1 reduziu a AACPD em até 33,5%. Em campo, Mycoshield® reduziu o índice de doença (14,4% a severidade (15,5% e a AACPD (28,9%; enquanto que Rh1 reduziu o índice de doença (8,8% e Sc1 reduziu a AACPD (15,7%. Conclui-se que o Mycoshield® e as leveduras apresentaram baixa eficiência para controle da podridão-mole da couve-chinesa em campo.The soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc may occur in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis plantations presenting till 67% of incidence

  14. Active oxygen metabolism in the floral buds and leaves of the new cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jianyu; HOU Xilin; ZHANG Changwei; YE Fan

    2007-01-01

    The cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of the newly-bred non-heading Chinese cabbage were taken as experimental materials.The production rate of superoxide anion radical(O2-),contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT)as well as ascorbate peroxidase(APX)were determined in buds of different developmental stages and leaves during vegetative and florescence stages.As showed by the results,there were higher levels of MDA and H2O2 contents,higher 02- production rate and higher activities of SOD,POD,and CAT in the buds of the CMS lines than that in the buds of the fertile lines,while the APX activity was different from the other three enzymes above.There were differences in activities of protective enzymes in leaves but no significant differences in MDA contents and O2- production rate,which showed that the differences in metabolism of active oxygen between CMS and its maintainer were mainly apparent in reproductive organs.

  15. Using a Suppression Subtractive Library-Based Approach to Identify Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Genes Up-Regulated in Early Response to Elicitor PB90

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Yun-zhe; ZHANG Zheng-guang; WANG Yuan-chao; ZHENG Xiao-bo

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring expression at the transcriptional level is the first essential step for the functional analysis of plant genes.Genes-encoding proteins directly involved in early response to elicitor constitute only a small fraction of all the genes affected by elicitor. TranscriptiOnal responses to various elicitors have been extensively studied in different plants including Nicotiana and Arabidopsis thaliana;however,corresponding data aren't available for non-heading Chinese cabbage.To address this problem,we describe a suppression subtractive library-based approach to isolate the plant's ESTs up-regulated in the early induction/execution of the HR induced by elicitor PB90 from Phytophthora boehmeriae. According to their putative identification in BLAST searches against the three genome databases,70 up-regulated genes were classified into 9 parts:some aspect of primary'metabolism'or'energy'production;'protein synthesis'or'protein fate';cellular communication/signal transduction mechanism;cell fates including Beclin,SPT1,and SPT2;HLA-B and AGO1 which participate in transcription;cellular transport and hypothetical proteins or proteins for which a function has yet to be determined.Seven selected genes such as Beclin,thioredoxin,HLA-B,MAP3K,SPT1,SPT2,and AGO1 were up-regulated induced by PB90,suggesting that the genes may play an important role in PB90-triggered HR.

  16. 津秀2号大白菜种植密度比较试验%Comparison of Planting Densities for Chinese Cabbage Cultivar Jinxiu No.2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗智敏; 张斌; 闻凤英; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 王超楠; 黄志银; 李梅

    2013-01-01

      The planting density comparative test of Jinxiu No.2 Chinese cabbage was carried out in the greenhouses at Tianjin Baodi Experimental Farm during February to May in 2011, to provide technical support for the production of Jinxiu No.2 with different market demands. The results showed that, the suitable planting density was 6 500-8 500 plants per 667 m2 to obtain the leafy head with weight about 0.7 kg, while the best planting density was 4 500-5 000 plants per 667 m2 for obtaining the leafy head with weight about 1 kg.%  2011年2~5月在天津宝坻试验农场大棚中进行了津秀2号大白菜种植密度比较试验,拟为不同市场需求的津秀2号大白菜产品种植提供技术支持。试验结果表明,要获得0.7 kg左右叶球,采用6500~8500株/667 m2的种植密度为宜;要获得1 kg左右叶球,采用4500~5000株/667 m2的种植密度最佳。

  17. 南通地区不结球白菜新品种比较试验%Comparison of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage Cultivars in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海涛; 周晶晶; 侯喜林

    2014-01-01

    将11个不结球白菜新品种与南通地区主栽品种味美2号进行了比较试验,测定了蔬菜的单株质量、表型指标以及硝态氮、可溶性蛋白、叶绿素、VC、可溶性糖、有机酸含量等品质指标。试验结果表明,品种NAU6和NAU7的产量高、品质优良,适合在南通地区推广生产。%We carried out the comparative test of eleven new non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars and the main cultivar Weimei No.2 in Nantong, and determined the single plant weight, phenotypic indexes and quality indexes, such as nitrate nitrogen content, soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, vitamin C content, soluble sugar content and organic acid content. The results showed that, the two cultivars NAU6 and NAU7 had higher yield and better quality, so they were suitable to be promoted in Nantong area.

  18. 利用分子标记辅助选育白菜薹复等位基因型雄性不育系%The Directional Transfer of a Multiple-allele Male Sterile Line in Chinese Cabbage by using Molecular Marker-assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋实; 刘志勇; 张曦; 冯辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to create an approach for utilization of heterosis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis L.), a breeding method for multiple-allele male sterile line and a“directional transfer program”was designed and carried out in the experiment. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Chinese cabbage“Wangzi”was used as a resource of male sterility, and an inbred line of Chinese cabbage was the target line. Recurrent backcr-ossing method was employed to transfer male sterility and horticultural characters while the genotype was iden-tified through molecular marker-assisted selection. The GSSR1, which is closely linked to the male sterility gene“Ms”, was chosen from 26 pairs of SSR primers to apply in the selection. GSSR1 also could select the fertile gene“ms”and the fertile restoration gene“Msf”. After three times recurrent backcrossing, a new genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage with 100%of male sterile plants and 100%of male sterility, BGMS-3, was bred. The new male sterile line was applied to develop hybrid combinations, and then one excellent combination of C3 was selected from six combinations.%为解决白菜薹杂种优势利用中的杂交制种手段问题,以大白菜复等位基因型雄性不育系为不育源,设计定向转育方案,采用连续回交的方法转育不育性和农艺性状,同时利用分子标记辅助选择目标基因型植株,向白菜薹自交系中转育不育基因,创制白菜薹雄性不育系。通过26对SSR引物的筛选鉴定,获得与显性雄性不育基因Ms紧密连锁、且同样可以标记同一位点恢复基因Msf和可育基因ms的分子标记GSSR1。经过3个世代的回交转育,创制出了具有100%不育度和100%不育株率的白菜薹复等位基因型雄性不育系BGMS-3。以BGMS-3为母本,与6个白菜薹自交系杂交,筛选出1个强优势组合C3。

  19. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of glucosinolat

  20. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Poppel, G. van

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms by which brassica vegetables might decrease the risk of cancer are reviewed in this paper. Brassicas, including all types of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, may be protective against cancer due to their relatively high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are us

  1. Effects of Different Fertilizations on Substance Accumulation and Nutrient Uptakes of Chinese Cabbage under Field Conditions%不同施肥处理对白菜的物质积累与养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯金权; 张杨珠; 龙怀玉; 周卫军; 廖超林; 曾艳; 汤宏; 黄运湘

    2009-01-01

    研究了在洞庭湖平原的冲积性菜园土条件下,不同施肥结构对白菜生育期间的物质积累与白菜对N,P,K养分的吸收规律以及土壤有效N,P,K养分的动态变化.结果表明,不同处理白菜的产量相差较大,各施肥处理比不施肥对照平均增产达33.1%,但各施肥处理之间产量差异不显著.白菜对N,P,K养分的吸收都是在移栽30 d以后的生长中、后期,与其地上部生物产量的积累规律一致.专用肥处理和有机无机肥配施处理明显促进白菜对N,P,K养分的吸收.从而提高白菜对肥料养分的利用率.当地习惯施肥处理的N,P施用量明显过大,浪费肥料,也对当地水体及环境造成污染.其施K量明显低于白菜一季的总吸钾量,既影响白菜产量和品质,也造成土壤K素的耗竭.根据不施肥对照和4个平衡施肥处理白菜地上部分的养分吸收总量结果,以白菜对肥料N,P,K的当季利用率分别为40%,25%和60%计算,供试土壤条件下白菜一季所需N,P_2O_3,K_2O的施用量分别为195.25 kg/hm~2,145.60 kg/hm~2,228.53 kg/hm~2.其N:P_2O_5: K_2O值为1:0.75-1.17.%A fieid plot experiment was carried out to study dynamic change of biomass accumulation and N, P and K nutrient uptake of Chinese cabbage, and soil nutrient content at different growth stages as affected by various fertilizations under the alluvial vegetable soil in Dongting lake plain. The results showed that both combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer and pure inorganic chemical fertilizer application increased the aboveground biological output of the vegetable crop, but the growth rate of Chinese cabbage under the mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers was higher than that under pure inorganic chemical fertilizer application. About 1/2 biomass accumulation of Chinese cabbage mainly appears in the middle vigorous growth period from the 30th to 50th days after transplanting. The laws of N, P and K absorption of

  2. Identification of novel QTLs for isolate-specific partial resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the causal agent of clubroot disease of the Brassica crops, is widespread in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs for partial resistance to 4 different isolates of P. brassicae (Pb2, Pb4, Pb7, and Pb10 were investigated using a BC1F1 population from a cross between two subspecies of Brassica rapa, i.e. Chinese cabbage inbred line C59-1 as a susceptible recurrent parent and turnip inbred line ECD04 as a resistant donor parent. The BC1F2 families were assessed for resistance under controlled conditions. A linkage map constructed with simple sequence repeats (SSR, unigene-derived microsatellite (UGMS markers, and specific markers linked to published clubroot resistance (CR genes of B. rapa was used to perform QTL mapping. A total of 6 QTLs residing in 5 CR QTL regions of the B. rapa chromosomes A01, A03, and A08 were identified to account for 12.2 to 35.2% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTL regions were found to be novel except for 3 QTLs in the respective regions of previously identified Crr1, Crr2, and Crr3. QTL mapping results indicated that 1 QTL region was common for partial resistance to the 2 isolates of Pb2 and Pb7, whereas the others were specific for each isolate. Additionally, synteny analysis between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that all CR QTL regions were aligned to a single conserved crucifer blocks (U, F, and R on 3 Arabidopsis chromosomes where 2 CR QTLs were detected in A. thaliana. These results suggest that some common ancestral genomic regions were involved in the evolution of CR genes in B. rapa.

  3. The Molecular Characteristics of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Related Gene orf138 in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)%甘蓝细胞质雄性不育相关基因orf138的分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 康宗利; 简元才; 丁云花; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育系为材料,找出能够有效鉴定由orf138导致的甘蓝CMS的标记,并明确此基因在甘蓝Ogu CMS基因组中的位置.根据萝卜CMS相关基因orf138的序列信息,设计特异引物,并在甘蓝不同类型不育系和保持系中鉴定PCR产物的稳定性.随后利用Tail-PCR技术,扩增获得此基因的侧翼序列并进行了生物信息学分析.根据orf138的全长序列设计引物B0138300BF/R,在甘蓝不育型材料中,能够稳定扩增出300 bp左右的单一条带,而在其他细胞质不育类型和可育材料中均未扩出条带,经多次验证结果稳定可靠.甘蓝中orf138的上下游侧翼序列有效碱基1789 bp,通过生物信息学分析,获得包括起始密码和终止密码的orf138的完整序列共417 bp.同源性比对结果显示:与甘蓝型油菜、白菜和萝卜的or38片段具有高度保守性.分析侧翼序列表明甘蓝orf138的3’端是由ORF83、trnfM、ORF125等基因片段构成的一个复杂序列.获得了甘蓝OguCMS特异的分子鉴定标记,明确了orf138在甘蓝线粒体中的位置,以上结果为甘蓝雄性不育的进一步研究奠定良好的基础.%The objective was to develop effective specific markers of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu CMS) line in Brassica oleracea and illustrate the upstream and downstream genome sequence arrangement of the CMS gene orf!38. The orfl38 gene fragment in cabbage CMS line was amplified based on specific primers designed according to radish orfl38 gene sequence information. The upstream and downstream mitochondrion sequences of orfl38 sterile line were identified by use of Tail-PCR technology. Ogu CMS specific primer B0I38300 BF/R was designed according to the full-length sequence of orf138. It could stably amplify a single PCR product of about 300 bp in OguCMS cabbage line, while never in fertile maintainer lines and other types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines. Upstream and downstream flanking sequence of

  4. Efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae sobre o controle de Brevicoryne brassicae em couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala Extracts effect of wild plants of the Solanaceae family on Brevicoryne brassicae control in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae disponíveis na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, sobre o pulgão-da-couve (Brevicoryne brassicae, praga agrícola de significativa importância. Nove espécies tóxicas de Solanaceae estão disponíveis na região de estudo: seis pertencem ao gênero Solanum, uma ao gênero Brugmansia e duas são cultivadas e pertencem ao gênero Nicotiana e Capsicum. A fim de determinar a capacidade de repelência e o efeito inseticida, foram testadas as seguintes espécies: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba e S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. Para obtenção dos extratos foram utilizadas folhas, flores e frutos aplicando-se duas técnicas distintas de elaboração: decocção do material fresco e extração a frio do material seco. Quanto à capacidade de repelência dos extratos, os tratamentos utilizando material fresco de S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração e S. diflorum (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração demonstraram maior eficácia. Nos testes sobre a biologia do inseto os tratamentos mais eficazes como inseticida foram S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum e var. acicularium (folhas a 10% de concentração.The objective of this study was to test the effect of plant extracts from Solanaceae available in Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, on the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, agricultural pest of significant importance. Nine toxic Solanaceae species are available in the area of study: six are wild belonging to the genus Solanum, one to the genus Brugmansia, and two are cultivated and belong to the genus Nicotiana and Capsicum. To determine the

  5. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry. PMID:26985692

  6. 小白菜新品种寒香青菜的选育%Development of New Non-heading Chinese Cabbage Cultivar Hanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅; 韩建军; 张胜; 陈虎根

    2012-01-01

    Hanxi is a new Non-heading Chinese F1 hybrid cabbage cultivar developed by crossing Ogu-CMSOOlwxq female parent with 002dxq male parent. The plants are half-erected and loose, 33 cm in height,48 cm in width. The leaves are ellipse,dark green,glossy and full fringe,surface wrinkling and uneven, veins obvious, petiole green white and flat, with average plant weight of about 450 g and average yield of 35 811. 75 kg/ha. It shows 17. 07% higher than CK in yield. The plants have fragrance after cooking. It has stronger resistance to virus, downy mildew than Heiyexi. It is a winter variety,being tolerant to cold.%寒香青菜是以Ogu-CMS001wxq胞质雄性不育系为母本、香青菜株系002dxq为父本配制而成的一个黑叶香青菜杂交新品种.寒香青菜植株半直立,株形松散,成株平均株高33 cm,开展度48 cm,叶片椭圆形、深绿色、有光泽、全缘,叶面起皱不平,叶脉明显,叶柄绿白色、扁平,单株质量450 g,平均产量35 811.75 kg/hm2,较对照黑叶香青菜增产17.07%;炒食香味浓郁;对病毒病、霜霉病的抗性强于黑叶香青菜;冬性强,适合冷凉的气候条件栽培.

  7. Breeding of Nuclear Male Sterile Line in Qingmaye Type of Chinese cabbage%青麻叶结球白菜雄性不育系的转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻凤英; 宋连玖; 王玉龙; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 丘玉秀

    2001-01-01

    The male sterile line 3A was being used as a source o f male sterility,the fertile line Qingmaye Hei227 as goal parent,the gene of m ale sterility was transferred to the Qingmaye type of Chinese cabbage by crossi ng,self,sibling and test crossing.The male sterile line of Qingmaye type S10 w as obtained,its sterility percent and degree were all 100%,its nectary and see d were all normal.Its horticultural characters were same as Qingmaye type.The co mbining ability of S10 and its combinations was tested.The transferring me thod of genetic male sterile line was discussed.%利用核型雄性不育系3A作为不育源,以青麻叶材料黑227为目标亲本,经过杂交、自交、兄妹交、测交等转育手段,将雄性不育基因转育到青麻叶结球白菜上,获得了青麻叶类型雄性不育系S10,其不育株率和不育度均为100%,蜜腺正常,结籽正常,农艺性状与青麻叶类型结球白菜基本相同。对育成的雄性不育系S10进行了配合力测定,并对所配组合做了品比试验。

  8. A New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid -'Liaobai No.19'%大白菜新品种辽白19号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海东; 王鑫; 吕艳玲; 王丽丽

    2011-01-01

    ‘Liaobai No.19’ is a new Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing genetic male sterility line Jiaobai No.1 A with selfing line Xinxiang 903-S10-1.Its growing period is about 82 days.The plant is 46.2 cm in height, 64.3 cm in width.Its leaf head is 37.5 cm in height, 17 cm in diameter.The average plant weight is 4.5 kg and the net product ratio is 87.78 %.It is resistant to TMV and downy mildew and soft rot.Its output is about 139.5 t · hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in Jilin, Liaoning,Heilongjiang Provinces and Inner Mogolian Autonomous Region, etc.%辽白19号是由细胞核基因雄性不育系胶白1号A和自交系新乡903-S10-1配制而成的筒形大白菜一代杂种.生育期82 d(天)左右,株高46.2 cm,开展度643 cm,球高37.5 cm,横径17.0 cm.单株叶球质量4.5 kg左右,净菜率87.78%,商品性好.生长势强,抗软腐病、霜霉病和病毒病,每667 m2产量9300kg左右.适宜吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、黑龙江等地栽培.

  9. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    .The Portuguese are one of the greatest brassica consumers in the entire world. Tall cabbage is grown in Portugal over an area greater than 1000 ha. Tall cabbage consumption is very popular at Christmas time. In this work, results from nitrogen and boron application, as conventional fertilisers, and from the use of Dix10, an organic amendment (˜ 10 % total N permitted in organic farming, are reported. Young cabbage plants were prepared in a greenhouse in micro-pots and transplanted with protected roots on August 29, 2005, spaced at 0.8x0.5 m between and within rows. The soil was loamy textured with 0.83 % organic matter, pH(H2O 5.2, and with median P and high K content levels. Six treatments were established: SAd treatment, without any fertilization; Dix10, applied in a rate equivalent to 80 kg N/ha; NB and N+, with 80 and 160 kg N/ha as urea, respectively; and B-and B+ treatments, without B and with 4.4 kg B/ha as borax. Boron treatments were fertilised with 80 kg N/ha and N treatments with 2.2 kg B/ha. Thus, NB is a median treatment with 80 kg N/ha and 2.2 kg B/ha. SAd plants yielded 13.7 Mg biomass/ha and took up 33.9 kg N/ha and 40.9 g B/ha, which are values significantly lower than that obtained on fertilised plots. In Dix10 treatment, cabbage yielded 18 Mg biomass/ha and took up 45.1 and 51.3 g B/ha. NB treatment produced higher biomass (38.6 Mg/ha and N uptake (107.9 kg/ha than SAd and Dix10 treatments. N+ treatment did not increase the yield, neither N uptake if compared with NB. B+ treatment has not any influence in biomass yield but increased tissue B content and B uptake. In N+ treatment there was a significant decrease in tissue B concentration and B uptake, which suggests antagonism of N over the uptake of B. The biomass yields and the apparent N and B recoveries showed that the lower biomass yielded in SAd and Dix10 treatments were due to a shortage of soil N availability in these treatments during the growing season.

  10. Effects of Bast Fiber Mulching Film on Heat Preservation and Growth and Yield of Chinese Cabbage%麻地膜覆盖保温特性及对白菜生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚瑞广; 王朝云; 易永健; 谭石林; 汪洪鹰; 李懋; 周晚来

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the heat preservation of bast fiber mulching film and its effects on growth and yield of crops in different seasons, the comparison tests of Chinese cabbage covered by different films had been conducted in winter, spring and summer respectively. The results showed that bast fiber mulching film could increase the soil temperature in different seasons and the effects were stable. In summer, the temperature under the bast fiber mulching film would not reach too high. With the covering of bast fiber mulching film, it could increase the rate of leaf emergence, the plant height, leaf number and leaf area. The interaction between different seasons and different covering was significant (P<0.0l). And the yield-increasing effects in spring and summer were more remarkable than winter. The yield of Chinese cabbage covered with bast fiber mulching film in spring and summer were 45.97% (P<0.05) and 48.89% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage without film; which were also 6.66% (P<0.05) and 51.05% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage covered with plastic film.%为了明确不同季节麻地膜覆盖栽培保温特性及对作物生长和产量的影响,分别在冬季、春季和夏季进行不同地膜覆盖白菜对比试验.结果表明:不同季节麻地膜覆盖均能提高土壤温度,增温效果平缓,夏季不会出现膜下高温情况.麻地膜覆盖能够促进白菜出叶速率、增加株高和叶片数、增大叶面积.不同季节和不同覆盖处理间互作效应极显著(p<0.01),春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖的增产效果比冬季明显.春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖下白菜产量分别比无覆盖高45.97%和48.89%,均呈显著差异(P<0.05);分别比塑料地膜覆盖的高6.66%和51.05%,也均达显著差异(P<0.05).

  11. Directional Transfer of a Genetic Male Sterile Line Derived from Flowering Chinese Cabbage ' Ever-Green'%‘四季油青’菜心核基因雄性不育系定向转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 周鹏; 王玉刚; 冯辉

    2012-01-01

    为选育菜心雄性不育系解决其杂种优势利用中的制种手段问题,以复等位基因遗传的小白菜核基因雄性不育系‘00S107’为不育源,采用连续回交转育园艺学性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向‘四季油青’菜心中转育核不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%的菜心核基因雄性不育系‘GMS203’.用菜心不育系试配的杂交组合,经品种比较试验筛选出2个综合性状优良的强优势组合.利用本项研究设计的核不育系定向转育方案,实现了不育性和园艺学性状的同时转育.%In order to create a procedure for utilization of heterosis in flowering Chinese cabbage, a breeding method for genetic male sterile line was carried out in the experiment. A multiple allele male sterile line of Chinese cabbage '00S107' was used as a source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing method was employed to transfer horticultural characters while the genotype was identified through test cross to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line ' Ever-Green' of flowering Chinese cabbage. A new genetic male sterile line of flowering Chinese cabbage with 100% of male sterile plants and 100% of male sterility ' GMS203' was bred. The new male sterile line was applied to develop hybrid combinations. Two excellent combinations were selected through variety compare test. Based on the directional transfer program designed by the research according to the genetic characteristics of the male sterility, the male sterility and horticultural characters could be transferred simultaneously.

  12. Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Milk Chinese Cabbage%奶白菜核基因雄性不育系的选育与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐巍; 冯辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to resolve the problem that cross breeding and production of hybrid in milk Chinese cabbage. According to the hypothesis of multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile, A genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage with green stipe 00S107 was used as a source of male sterility,and methods of continuous backcross-ing and identifying of the genotypes were applied to transfer the male sterile line of milk Chinese cabbage. Hybridized combinations were obtained by the male sterile line as female parent cross with excellent self-line and we analysed the hybrid vigor. A new genetic male sterile line GMS3 with 100% male sterile plants and 100% male sterility was obtained. Two excellent hybridized combinations GMS3 × B1 ,GMS3×B2 were selected, whieh is uniform and superior to CK in yield. Directional transfer model which transfer sterile gene and horticultural characters at the same time resolved the puzzle that breeding and utilization of the genetic male sterile line in milk Chinese cabbage.%为解决奶白菜杂交种生产中的杂交制种手段问题,配制优良杂交种.以核不育“复等位基因遗传”假说为指导,以青梗白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107作不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交鉴定基因型的方法,定向转育奶白菜核基因雄性不育系.并利用转育成的不育系与奶白菜优良自交系配制杂交组合,进行了杂种优势分析.选育出园艺学性状与目标品系相似,具有100%不育株率和不育度的奶白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS3,筛选出2个产量高、整齐度高的优异杂交组合GMS3×B1、GMS3×B2.定向转育模式兼顾了不育基因和园艺学性状的转育,解决了奶白菜核不育系转育和利用的难题.

  13. Study on resistance of Chinese cabbage to Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora by exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide treatment%表油菜素内酯诱导大白菜抗软腐病研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈淑平; 张灵宇; 崔崇士

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain the induced resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by 24-Epibra-ssinolide and its physiological mechanism, Chinese cabbage was used to study the effects of 24-Epibra-ssinolide on its physiological and biochemical characteristics with foliar spray. The results showed that 24-Epibrassinolide decreased disease indexes of Chinese cabbage seedlings by 25.8%, increased H_2O_2 accumulation, decreased MDA contents, increased catalase (CAT) activities, peroxidase (POD) activities trend, increased slowly in early phase, and decreased in later stage. Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora infection resulted in increased levels of H_2O_2 and MDA when plants were sprayed with EBR, but the MDA content was lower than the control treatment. Foliar spraying with EBR increased CAT activities, and POD activities reduced than the control treatment. EBR promoted the growth of Chinese cabbage seedling, this increasing appeared even after Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora infection. EBR kept the metabolism of active oxygen species at a balance state and increased the resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Chinese cabbage.%试验采用叶面喷施的方法,研究了24-表油菜素内酯(24-Epibrassinolide,EBR)对大白菜软腐病的诱抗作用及其生理机制.结果表明,外源EBR处理大白菜幼苗病情指教明显比对照降低,下降了25.8%;喷施EBR提高了大白菜叶片中H_2O_2含量,使丙二醛(Malondialdehyde,MDA)含量下降,提高了过氧化氢酶(Catalase,CAT)活性,过氧化物酶(Peroxidase,POD)活性先缓慢升高然后下降;接种软腐病菌后,EBR使H_2O_2和MDA含量缓慢增加,但EBR处理MDA含量低于对照处理,显著提高了CAT活性,POD活性与对照相比下降,呈现缓慢升高趋势;EBR处理明显促进幼苗的生长,即使在接种软腐病菌期间,植株的长势也比对照强.说明EBR通过调节植物体内氧的代谢平衡,增强对软腐病的抗性.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF SOME STORAGE CONDITIONS UPON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN WHITE AND RED CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Avramiuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it has searched the influence of storage conditions upon ascorbic acid content in cabbage. Theascorbic acid content and pH evolution for 16 weeks has been carried out using, as biological material, cabbage samplesfrom two varieties: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. f. alba DC. and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L. f. rubra (L. Thell. The cabbage samples were kept in containers of glass and wood, constituting, for eachsample, variants of experiences, in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, at following thermal thresholds: 4°C, 8°Cand 15°C. The ascorbic acid content of cabbages was determined through a method based on reduction by the ascorbicacid of 2.6-Dichlorphenol-indophenol (2.6-DCFIF to the corresponding leucoderivate. The investigations have beencarried out on freshly harvested material (week 0 and then every two weeks, for a total of 16 weeks. Compared to freshharvested cabbage, at the end of the analysed interval (after 16 weeks of storage, the ascorbic acid content has registereddifferent rates of diminution in the both varieties, depending on storage temperature, on storage length, and on variety.The ascorbic acid in white cabbage has registered losses, compared to red variety, so much the bigger as the temperaturewas higher and the storage duration was longer.

  15. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  16. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Brassica rapa Near-Isogenic Lines Carrying Clubroot-Resistant and -Susceptible Alleles in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Early Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Pang, Wenxing; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Chunyu; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2) and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2) Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1875, and 2103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 h after inoculation (hai). Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins), PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection. PMID:26779217

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Brassica rapa near-isogenic lines carrying clubroot-resistant and –susceptible alleles in response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during early infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing eChen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most common pathogens worldwide, the causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, resistance mechanisms to it are still only poorly understood. To study the early defense response induced by P. brassicae infection, a global transcriptome profiling of the roots of two near-isogenic lines (NILs of clubroot-resistant (CR BJN3-2 and clubroot-susceptible (BJN3-2 Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa was performed by RNA-seq. Among the 42,730 unique genes mapped to the reference genome of B. rapa, 1,875 and 2,103 genes were found to be up- and down-regulated between CR BJN3-2 and BJN3-2, respectively, at 0, 12, 72, and 96 hours after inoculation (hai. Functional annotation showed that most of the differently expressed genes are involved in metabolism, transport, signal transduction, and defense. Of the genes assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, 151 showed different expression patterns between two NILs, including genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and effectors recognition, calcium ion influx, hormone signaling, pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, and cell wall modification. In particular, the expression level of effector receptors (resistance proteins, PR genes involved in salicylic acid (SA signaling pathway, were higher in clubroot-resistant NIL, while half of the PAMP receptors were suppressed in CR BJN3-2. This suggests that there was a more robust effector-triggered immunity (ETI response in CR BJN3-2 and that SA signaling was important to clubroot resistance. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling may prove invaluable for further exploration of the different responses to P. brassicae between clubroot-resistant and clubroot-susceptible genotypes, and it will strongly contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of resistance genes of B. rapa against P. brassicae infection.

  19. 蜜腺发达Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜雄性不育系的鉴定%Evaluation of Late - bolting Ogura Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Lines with Developed Nectar Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 刘维信

    2011-01-01

    By comparing of bumble bee visiting and staying time on flowers of Ogura non - heading Chinese cabbage male sterile lines, two plants were identified and selected as they attracted more bumble bee visiting. Nectar gland size, flowering, and pod set of these two plants were further determined. The results showed that the two selected plants all had developed nectar glands, flowered and set pod normally. This finding set a well foundation for breeding out elite late -bolting Ogura male sterile lines in non -heading Chinese cabbage.%本试验以Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜薹ms等为材料,通过观察和比较熊蜂对不同白菜品种访花次数和访花滞留时间的差异,选择出能吸引熊蜂访花且访花滞留时间长的Ogura薹ms植株.对选择出植株的蜜腺大小和开花结实特性进行了进一步鉴定,结果表明选出的薹ms株蜜腺发达,开花结实正常,为选育优良晚抽薹胞质不结球白菜雄性不育系奠定了基础.

  20. 大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现与利用%Discovery and Utilization of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 刘志勇; 李承彧; 王玉刚; 冀瑞琴

    2011-01-01

    The discovery and its verification of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage were reviewed. The utilization models for the multiple allele male sterile line was put forward. Progresses in the developments of the male sterile lines in the varieties and sub-varieties of Chinese cabbage, and mapping of the male sterile gene were presented.%介绍了大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现过程,以及"大白菜核基因雄性不育复等位基因遗传假说"的验证试验结果.提出了不育系的应用模式,介绍了品种、变种和亚种间复等位基因型雄性不育系转育研究结果,以及不育基因分子标记、定位及表达的研究进展.

  1. 三唑酮在设施栽培土壤及大白菜中的消解动态及残留%Degradation Dynamics and Residues of Triadimefon in Protected Cultivation Soil and Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金良; 佴注; 刘宏程; 杨东顺; 邹艳虹; 杜丽娟; 王志飞; 樊建麟

    2012-01-01

    为评价三唑酮在大白菜施用后的环境安全性,建立了GC测定蔬菜及土壤中三唑酮残留的方法,进行露地与设施栽培条件三唑酮在大白莱和土壤中的消解动态和最终残留研究.在大白菜和土壤中的最低检测质量分数均为0.001 mg/kg,三唑酮的平均加标回收率为81.5%~110.6%,变异系数为1.32%~6.04%.消解动态试验为2倍推荐使用剂量施药1次,三唑酮在设施栽培大白菜的半衰期分别为2.72~3.30 d和3.21~3.35 d;露地栽培为2.35~2.87 d和2.30~3.12 d.设施栽培大白菜中三唑酮残留量与用药量正相关,随着施药量的增加,消解速度减慢,残留量相应增大.研究可为制定三唑酮设施栽培大白菜上最大残留限量和合理使用准则以及风险评估提供科学依据.%In order to definitude environmental safety and establish safe application standard, residue dynamics and final residue of Iriadimefon were comparatively studied by the method of GC in soil and Chinese cabbage in open field and greenhouse. The results showed that the limit of quantification in Chinese cabbage and soil were 0.001 mg/kg for Iriadimefon. Average fortified recovery of the method varied from 81.5% to 110.6% with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.32% to 6.04%. The half-lives of triadimefon in greenhouse Chinese cabbage were 2.72 to 3.30 and 3.21 to 3.35 d, respectively, and those in open field were 2.35 to 2.87 d and 2.30 to 3.12 d. A positive correlation was found between pesticide residue in Chinese cabbage and pesticide dose. With the pesticide dose increased, the digestion rale of pesticide residue lowed down and the residual quantity increased. The scientific basis could be provided in the study for the establishment on the maximum residue limit of triadiraefon in greenhouse Chinese cabbage, setting up reasonable application rule, and risk assessment.

  2. Identification and Main Biological Characteristics of Sclerotinia Rot Pathogen in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜菌核病病原菌鉴定及其主要生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬贤; 张鲁刚

    2015-01-01

    为明确大白菜菌核病病原菌的种类及其主要生物学特性,以大白菜菌核病病株上分离获得的菌株 XN001为试验材料,对菌株进行致病性检测和形态学观察,并结合病原菌 ITS 区序列分析鉴定病原菌的种类,此外,通过改变病原菌菌丝和菌核的培养条件,研究病原菌的主要生物学特性。结果表明:大白菜菌核病病原菌与油菜菌核病相同都是核盘菌;菌株 XN001在 pH 值4~11菌丝均可生长,pH 值4时生长最快;菌丝生长最适温度为20~25℃;诱导菌核萌发的最适温度为4~10℃,菌核在4℃下处理3~5周,萌发效果最好;菌核经低温诱导后,培养温度在15~25℃,最适宜菌核萌发。可见,大白菜菌核病病原菌为核盘菌,适宜在酸性常温条件下生长,菌核的萌发需要低温诱导。%In order to clarify the pathogen type of Chinese cabbage Sclerotinia rot and further study its main bi-ological characteristics,A strain XN001 of Chinese cabbage Sclerotinia rot was isolated from Chinese cabbage plant infected by pathogen and identified its type through pathogenicity test,morphology observation and analysis of nucle-otide sequence of internal transcribed spacer (ITS).In addition,the main biological characteristics of pathogen were also studied by changing culturing conditions of mycelial and sclerotia.The results showed that:The pathogen of Chinese cabbage Sclerotinia rot was as same as Sclerotinia rot of colza and both of them were Sclerotinia sclerotio-rum.It was suitable for strain XN001 growing when the pH value was between 4 to 11,the favourable pH value for mycelium growth was 4;The optimal temperature for its mycelium growth was between 20 ℃ and 25 ℃;The optimal temperature for inducing sclerotia germination was between 4 ℃ and 10 ℃,and the sclerotia germination was best when treated for between 3 and 5 weeks under 4 ℃;It was suitable for sclerotia germination when the

  3. Linkage Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis for Bolting Based on a Double Haploid Population of Brassica rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yang; Yang-Jun Yu; Feng-Lan Zhang; Zhi-Rong Zou; Xiu-Yun Zhao; De-Shuang Zhang; Jia-Bing Xu

    2007-01-01

    Early bolting of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) during spring cultivation often has detrimental effects on the yield and quality of the harvested products. Breeding late bolting varieties is a major objective of Chinese cabbage breeding programs. in order to analyze the genetic basis of bolting traits, a genetic map of B. rapa was constructed based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), simple sequence repeat (SSR), random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and isozyme markers. Marker analysis was carried out on 81 double haploid (DH) lines obtained by mlcrospore culture from F1 progeny of two homozygous parents: B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (BY) (an extra-early bolting Chinese cabbage line) and B. rapa L. ssp. rapifera (MM) (an extra-late bolting European turnip line). A total of 326 markers including 130 AFLPs, 123 SRAPs, 16 SSRs, 43RAPDs and 14 isozymes were used to construct a linkage map with 10 linkage groups covering 882 cM with an average distance of 2.71 cM between loci. The bolting trait of each DH line was evaluated by the bolting index under controlled conditions. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted using multiple QTL model mapping with MapQTL5.0 software. Eight QTLs controlling bolting resistance were identified. These QTLs, accounting for 14.1% to 25.2% of the phenotyplc variation with positive additive effects, were distributed into three linkage groups. These results provide useful information for molecular marker-assisted selection of late bolting traits in Chinese cabbage breeding programs.

  4. Practices and constraints to cabbage production in urban and peri-urban Ghana: Focus on Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei M. K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available practices and constraints to production of cabbage. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from cabbage farmers in Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions where cabbage is intensively produced. The level of education among the respondents was low as only 10% had tertiary education. Majority of the respondents (68% did not own the lands they cultivated thus resulting in approximately 45% of them cultivating less than one acre of cabbage crop. Majority of cabbage farmers (62% planted cabbage on raised beds. Cabbage production in the study area was characterized by high use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK. Fifty-three percent (53% employed the use of watering cans in cabbage production. Farmers in their quest to mitigate the high Insect pest infestation; Hellula undalis, Plutella xylostella, Brevicoryne brassicae and Zonocerus variegatus, plant parasitic nematodes infection and pathological problems such as wilting of plants, leaf curl and leaf spots resorted to high frequency of pesticides application. It is expected that the information gathered from this baseline study would form the basis for the formulation and implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM strategy to enhance safe and environmentally sustainable production of cabbages. This would reduce environmental degradation and ensure maximum protection for humans, domestic animals and wild life. Keywords: Brassica oleracea, integrated pest management, insect pests, nematodes, synthetic pesticides

  5. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianli; Liu, Bo; Wu, Jian; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in leaf adaxial-abaxial (ad-ab) polarity are one of the main factors that influence leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite to the formation of a leafy head. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating their genetic variation may facilitate elucidation of the mechanisms underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. Comparative genomic analysis of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT). We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima's D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to those in non-heading accessions, indicating that they underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature, which is associated with formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26904064

  6. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leaf adaxial–abaxial (ad-ab polarity are one of the main factors that are responsible for leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, to form a leafy head, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating its genetic variations will facilitate in elucidating the mechanism underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. In the present study we conducted comparative genomic analysis of the identification of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT. We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima’s D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to that in non-heading accessions, indicating that these underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature that is associated in the formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage.

  7. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (A

  8. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Kubis (Brassica O. Capitata) dari Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Sinuhaji, Nomi Br

    2012-01-01

    NOMI BR. SINUHAJI, 2012. The Analysis of Some Variables which Influence the export of Cabbages (Brassica O. Capitata) in Karo District (Supervised by Dr. Ir. Tavi Supriana, MS and Ir. Luhut Sihombing, MP). The demand of exporting cabbages to Malaysia and Singapore tends to increase, while the market segments of exporting cabbages from Karo District at the present time are new competitors, such as the People’s Republic of China, Thailand, and Vietnam. The aim of the research was to analyze ...

  9. Residue analysis and dissipation of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate(DA-6) in Chinese cabbage and soil%胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的残留分析及消解动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁林; 薄瑞; 蒋家珍; 王素利; 马立利; 刘丰茂

    2011-01-01

    The analytical method of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate(DA-6) residue and its dissipation in chinese cabbage and soil were investigated. Samples were extracted with ethyl-acetate, then cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA (primary secondary amine) and GCB (graphitized carbon black),followed by determination with GC-MS. The recoveries at the levels of 0.005 - 0.05 mg/kg were from 83.2% to 103.2% for Chinese cabbage and 83.0% to 98.5% for soil with coefficients of variation of 3.0% to 4.8% and 3.8% to 11.3% ,respectively. The limit of detection was 0.001 mg/kg. The limit of quantification was 0.005 mg/kg for both Chinese cabbage and soil. Results of field trial showed that the half-life of DA-6 was 0.3 to 1.1 days in Chinese cabbage and 1.5 to 1.6 days in soil. The terminal residues of DA-6 in cabbage were lower than 0.06 mg/kg.%建立了胺鲜酯在大白菜及土壤中的残留分析方法.样品经乙酸乙酯提取、N-丙基乙二胺(primary secondary amine,PSA)和石墨化碳黑(graphitized carbon black,GCB)分散固相萃取净化后,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)检测,外标法定量.结果表明:当胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的添加水平在0.005~0.05 mg/kg时,其回收率分别为83.2%~103.2%和83.0%~98.5%,相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为3.0%~4.8%和3.8%~11.3%.在土壤和大白菜中胺鲜酣的检出限为0.001 mg/kg,定量限为0.005 mg/kg.田间试验结果表明,胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的半衰期分别为0.3~1.1d和1.5~1.6 d,在大白菜中的最终残留小于0.06 mg/kg.

  10. Survey and prevalence of species causing Alternaria leaf spots on brassica species in Pernambuco Levantamento e prevalência de espécies causadoras da alternariose em brássicas em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami J Michereff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassicaceae family comprises plant species that are very important as vegetable crops, such as the species complex Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae are among the most important pathogens of Brassicaceae causing Alternaria leaf spot disease. The occurrence and prevalence of Alternaria species causing leaf spots in brassica crops in Pernambuco was acessed, as well as the existence of a possible preference by vegetable host for these pathogens. Twenty-eight fields were surveyed in the Agreste region of Pernambuco state, in the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. In each year, 10 Chinese cabbage, six cabbage, six cauliflower and six broccoli fields were visited. In each field, 50 leaves showing at least five lesions were randomly collected. Species identification was performed taking into account morphology of the conidia that was compared with literature data. Among the two Alternaria species found, A. brassicae was found in all Chinese cabbage fields while A. brassicicola was found in all fields of cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. Overall, A. brassicicola was more prevalent than A. brassicae. In Chinese cabbage there was predominance of A. brassicae, with mean prevalence of 91.0% and 96.5% in 2005 and 2006. On the other hand, in broccoli and cabbage there was high predominance of A. brassicicola, with mean prevalence between 95.1% and 99.8%. In cauliflower, although the prevalence has been of A. brassicicola, high frequency of A. brassicae was noted. The frequency of co-occurrence of both Alternaria species was very low. The results of this study reinforce the hypothesis of existence of host preference within species of Alternaria that cause leaf spots in brassica crops, especially when Chinese cabbage, broccoli and cabbage are considered. This information is critical to developing strategies for managing Alternaria leaf spots in Brassicaceae species.A família Brassicaceae possui espécies importantes

  11. Tamanho de amostras para quantificação da podridão-mole da alface e da couve-chinesa Sample size for assessment of soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivos de alface e couve-chinesa podem ter a produção reduzida devido à ocorrência da podridão-mole, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os tamanhos ideais das amostras para quantificação da incidência dessa doença em levantamentos no campo. Foram realizadas amostragens da incidência da podridão-mole em oito áreas de plantio de alface e cinco de couve-chinesa, situadas nos principais municípios produtores do Estado de Pernambuco. Considerando os resultados obtidos e um erro aceitável de 20%, em futuros levantamentos da incidência da podridão-mole em alface recomenda-se a amostragem de 32 parcelas de 4,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela, enquanto em couve-chinesa a amostragem de 22 parcelas de 10,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela. Para ambas as culturas não houve correlação significativa (P=0,05 entre os níveis de incidência da doença e os tamanhos das amostras.Lettuce and Chinese cabbage may present yield reduction due to the occurrence of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This study aimed to determine the ideal sample size for assessing disease incidence in field surveys. Samples of soft rot incidence were conducted in eight lettuce growing areas and five Chinese cabbage growing areas, located in the main production cities around Pernambuco State. Considering 20% of acceptable error, the results pointed out that future surveys of the soft rot incidence on lettuce should analyze 32 plots with 4.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot, while for Chinese cabbage the sample should include 32 plots with 10.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot. No significant correlation (P=0.05 was found between disease incidence levels and sample sizes for both crops.

  12. Comparison of Methods for Transferring Genetic Male Sterile Lines of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage with Anti-clubroot%桔红心大白菜抗根肿病不育系转育方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 李林; 李茜; 陈永浩

    2012-01-01

    以普通心抗根肿病甲型“两用系”和桔红心自交系LH为试材,通过杂交、回交和系内交等方法研究了桔红心与普通心的遗传关系、桔红心自交系抗性和育性的基因型.试验结果表明:桔红心对普通心表现为一对隐性基因控制的简单遗传,桔红心自交系的抗性和育性基因型分别为rr和msms;提出了桔红心大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系的两种转育模式,其中系内交模式比回交模式提前一代得到新的不育系;在第二代筛选桔红心性状时,对子叶法、球心色法和花色法三种方法进行了比较,子叶法不但在幼苗期就可以筛选到桔红心性状,而且抗性调查和育性鉴定的群体最小,是三种方法中最理想的.%Taking the genetic male sterile AB lines (type 1) of yellow head Chinese cabbage with anti -clubroot and orange head Chinese cabbage lines (LH) as the test materials, the genetic relations between the head colors of orange and yellow and the genotypes of clubroot - resistance and fertility of orange head lines were studied through cross, backcross and sibling mate. The experimental results indecated clearly that orange to yellow was controlled by a pair of recessive genes, and rr and msms were the anti-cluhroot genotype and fertile genotype of LH. In the light of these, this study proposed two models of transferring genetic male sterile lines of orange head Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot, among which model ( 2) could get genetic male sterile lines in the fourth generation, but model ( 1) in the fifth generation. Although orange plants will be sifled out in the second generation using cotyledon method, head color method or flower color method, cotyledon method will be the best one, for in this way orange plants can be screened in the seedling stage, and survey groups of resistance and fertility will be smaller than other methods.

  13. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”细胞学观察%Cytology Observation of Anther for Genic Male Sterility of AB Line Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 郑鹏婧; 张欣; 毕高熵

    2012-01-01

    以大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”为材料,对其可育与不育株的花器结构进行比较,并进行细胞学观察来明确该雄性不育类型的败育时期及败育原因.结果表明,大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”可育株的萼片长、花瓣长、花瓣宽、雄蕊长和雌蕊长都极显著高于不育株对应部位;不育植株和可育植株花蕾大小与花发育时期相对应;不育花蕾在2.5 mm后就已经败育,败育时期可能发生在减数分裂后期到四分体时期,该时期绒毡层细胞液膨大、呈现液泡化,将四分体挤压到药室的中间,致使四分体大量发育异常,小孢子得不到营养,不能形成正常的小孢子,导致小孢子完全解体,在开花前败育.%In this experiment, the materials are genic male sterility of AB Line Chinese cabbage. Comparisons between sterile flower and fertile flower on flower organic structure in Chinese cabbage, and cytology observation of anther, to find out the stage and reason of abortion. The results showed that: the sepal length, petal length, petal width, the stamens length of fertile plants and sterile plants in Chinese cabbage are very obviously different; development of anther was observed by using acid carmine staining and paraffin section method, stertility has been aborted after 2. 5 mm, abortion may occur during after meiosis stage to tetrad stage, tapetal cells showed vacuolation and crushed tetrad into central parts during this period. A large number of tetrads become abnormal, microspore development can not enough space and nutrition. Finally, microspores completely resolved and cause abortion before flowering.

  14. Effects of Nutrient Solution Renewal Frequency and Ventilation on Yield and Quality of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%营养液更换频率和通气对菜心生长和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蔚; 吴育智; 陈玮锋; 何燕文; 宋世威; 陈日远

    2013-01-01

    In the hydroponic condition, taking the treatment regular renewal of nutrient solution and ventilation as the control (CK), we studied the effects of T1 treatment (non-renewal of nutrient solution but ventilating regularly) and T2 treatment (non-renewal of nutrient solution and ventilation) on plant growth and quality of flowering Chinese cabbage. The results showed that, compared with CK, T1 treatment didn't affect the biomass of flowering Chinese cabbage, while T2 treatment significantly reduced the biomass. In addition, T1 and T2 treatments significantly improved the vitamin C and soluble sugar content, while reduced the nitrate content significantly. T1 treatment could obtain quite the same yield of CK treatment, and improve the nutritional quality in product organs and reduced the nitrate content, thus it could be taken as a simplified management method for flowering Chinese cabbage under hydroponic condition.%在水培条件下,以定期更换营养液和通气为对照(CK),研究了不更换营养液、定期通气(T1)和不更换营养液、不通气(T2)处理对菜心生长和品质的影响。研究结果表明,与对照相比,T1处理不影响菜心的生物量,而 T2处理显著降低了菜心的生物量;T1、T2处理显著提高了 VC 和可溶性糖含量,同时显著降低了硝酸盐含量。 T1处理可获得与对照相当的产量,并且可提高产品器官的营养品质、降低了硝酸盐含量,可作为菜心的简化水培管理模式。

  15. 小白菜与大白菜亚种间杂交减数分裂染色体行为观察%Chromosome Behaviors in Meiotic of Pollen Mother Cells in Inter-subspecific Hybridization between Chinese Cabbage and Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙正; 徐海; 宋波; 樊小雪

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic behaviors of pollen mother cells ( PMCs) in inter-subspecific hybrid F1 and BC1-3 be⁃tween Chinese cabbage and non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied. It was observed that 90.7%of F1 pollen were stainable, indicating good fertility. The fertility of BC1-3 was gradually increased. 89.1%chro⁃mosome behavior in F1 meiotic PMCs was regular which could explain the good fertility. Abnormal chro⁃mosome behaviors such as double nucleoli, disordered paring in Prophase I, chromosome bridge in meta⁃phase I, segments loss in anaphase I were discovered which could explain the lower fertility of F1 hybrid than normal diploid. 14.3% abnormal chromosome behaviors were found in BC1 generation however very limited in BC2-3 which indicated that it was a repaid process for chromosome behavior of backcross genera⁃tion becoming normal;this result was consistent to phenotype and fertility investigation.%研究了小白菜与大白菜亚种间杂交及回交世代花粉母细胞减数分裂行为,发现杂种F1花粉可染率90.7%,表现出较好的育性;回交BC1-3花粉可染率升高,表明育性逐步提高.F1花粉母细胞减数分裂正常染色体行为细胞数占总观察数的89.1%,这解释了F1具有较好育性的原因.杂种F1减数分裂各个时期会出现不正常现象,如双核仁、配对紊乱、染色体桥、染色体片段丢失等,这在一定程度上可以说明杂种F1育性低于正常二倍体的原因.14.3%的BC1花粉母细胞会出现不正常现象,而BC2-3已经相对正常,极少观察到减数分裂不正常现象,表明在回交过程中染色体稳定是一个快速的过程,这与表型及育性调查结果相吻合.

  16. Cloning and Characterization of a Pectin Methylesterase Gene BrPME1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因BrPME1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 李承彧; 叶雪凌; 王晓霞; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] This paper aims at cloning a pectin methylesterase gene in order to provide assistance to study the roles of the pectin metabolism in the fertility regulation of Chinese cabbage. [Method] Analysis of gene differential expression was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line 'AB02'of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment,TDF-24, was found only in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of the gene related to TDF-24 was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR,and the characteristics of the deduced protein were analyzed using bioinformatics softwares. Gene expression characteristics were proved by Real-time PCR [Result] The novel pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) cDNA(BrPME1, GenBank accession number HM 185497), was isolated from Chinese cabbage. The cDNA was 1 290 bp long, encoding a putative preprotein of 363 amino acids with a signal peptide of 23 amino acids, which contains ten phosphorylation sites, six N-myristoylation site, one amidation site and one conserved PME domain, but no PMEI (pectin methylesterase inhibitor) site. BrPME1 was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with an extremely low expression level in sterile buds. [ Conclusion ] The results indicated that BrPME1 is a member of the PME gene family inhibited by genic male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage.%[目的]克隆大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因,为进一步探讨果胶代谢在大白菜育性调控中的分子机制提供帮助.[方法]利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-24,通过RACE技术扩增该基因的cDNA全长序列,采用生物信息学软件分析所克隆基因的编码蛋白特性,利用荧光定量PCR技术分析基因时空表达模式.[结果]该基因编码大白菜果胶甲酯酶(EC 3.1.1.11),被命名为BrPME1(GenBank登录号:HM185497).BrPME1

  17. 四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育系的选育%Breeding of 4x CMS Line of the Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁

    2014-01-01

    To provide excellent parent resource for breeding new non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars,a test cross was made by the male parent 09P70Rexiao(2n=4x)and female parent of the sterile materials(09PY)of non-heading Chinese cabbage which was obtain by the sexual polyploidization.Then the Shu No.1,of which the sterile rate reached 100%,and their degree was over 95% and their character was stable,was selected by continues back-cross.The plant height was 30.0 cm,the level of unfold was 29.8 cm,the leaf was brilliant green,the petiole was white.It had some properties such as grow faster, high yield,disease-resistant,heat resistant,and so on.%为给不结球白菜新品种的选育提供优良亲本,以秋水仙素诱导2n 配子再与四倍体雄性不育系08P76杂交创制的四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育材料09PY(14株)为母本,四倍体09P70热小材料为父本进行成对测交,后进行连续回交选育出不育株率为100%、不育度大于95%、性状稳定一致的不育系暑1。该雄性不育系株高30.0 cm,开展度29.8 cm,叶片亮绿,叶柄白色,具有生长速度快,丰产、抗病、抗热等特性。

  18. 外源物质对大白菜芝麻状斑点病发生和缓解的影响%Effects of Exogenous Substances on Occurrence and Alleviation of Black Sesame Spot on Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 杨晓云; 张清霞; 王媛; 张淑霞; 司朝光; 郭瑞玲

    2014-01-01

    以感芝麻状斑点病大白菜品系03 B9为试材,通过钵栽及外源浇灌等方式,研究硝酸钾、硫酸钾、尿素等不同形态氮肥对大白菜芝麻状斑点病发生的影响,以及铵态氮代谢、酚类物质代谢有关物质对芝麻状斑点病发生或缓解的影响。结果表明:铵态氮肥能加重芝麻状斑点病发生;EDTA-Fe和苯丙烯酸等能增加硝酸还原酶活性或酚类物质含量,也会加重芝麻状斑点病发生;能抑制酶促褐变的抗坏血酸和对细胞膜具有保护作用的硅酸钾对缓解芝麻状斑点病作用最大。%The Chinese cabbage line 03 B9 with high sensitivity to black sesame spot was used as material to investigate the influences of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate,potassium sulfate,urea) and exogenous substances related to ammonium nitrogen or phenol substance metabolism on occurrence and al -leviation of black sesame spot on Chinese cabbage through pot culture and exogenous watering .The results showed that the ammonium nitrogen fertilizer could aggravate the occurrence of black sesame spot .EDTA-Fe and cinnamic acid could increase the activity of nitrate reductase or synthesis of phenolics , and also aggravated the occurrence of black sesame spot .Whereas the ascorbic acid inhibiting enzymatic browning and potassium silicate possessing protective action on cell membrane could alleviate the black sesame spot .

  19. 大白菜与紫甘蓝种间杂种的获得与鉴定%Production and Identification of Interspecific Hybrids between Chinese Cabbage and Purple Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海云; 李菲; 张淑江; 章时蕃; 张慧; 孙日飞

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybridizations between different varieties of Brassica rapa L. ssp. peki-nensis (Lour.) Olsson and Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. were carried out. The hybrids were obtained by successive bud pollination and ovule culture and tested by means of identification by cytology. Results showed that 57 plants were obtained by interspecific hybridization between B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis and B. oleracea var. capitata L. Cytological identification and pollen characteristics survey revealed that 47 of the hybrids had the anticipated chromosomes (2n =19) and pollen fertility was aborted; while 6 hybrids had 38chromosomes and were fertile. The BC1 plants were obtained through back cross between fertile hybrids F1 and B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis. Field investigation showed that all F, hybrids had many characteristics from both parents,the BC1 plants had obvious heading and were similar to B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.%以不同类型的大白菜与紫甘蓝为材料,运用蕾期授粉结合胚挽救技术获得大白菜与紫甘蓝的种间杂种,并对其进行细胞学鉴定.结果表明,大白菜与紫甘蓝杂交,获得了57株F1代幼苗;对根尖染色体数量进行观察和杂种花粉特性调查发现,其中47株具有预期的染色体数目,2n =19,鉴定为真杂种,其花粉败育;另有6株具有38条染色体,鉴定为种间异源双二倍体,应该是发生了染色体自然加倍,其花粉可育.可育的杂种F1代与大白菜回交,获得了大白菜-紫甘蓝BC1代材料.田间观测结果显示,杂种F1代植株综合性状均介于双亲之间,BC1代植株包球明显,综合性状偏向母本大白菜.

  20. The Influence of Exometabolites of Fungus Botrytis Cinerеa on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage’s Callus Tissue (Brassica Pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NGUYEN THI VUONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently vegetable crop loss from fungal, bacterial and viral diseases during storage and cultivation is a large proportion, sometimes even 100%. Substantial damage to the culture of Chinese cabbage causes gray rot.The objects of the study were the seeds of Chinese cabbage three genotypes, which are not resistant to botrytis: grade Khibinskaya, grade Ljubasha and hybrid Nika F1. Callus tissue obtained from different segments isolated from 7 -day-old sterile seedlings. Pure culture of Botrytis cinerea was represented by three isolates: JC/F, HP/F, KM/Hrf. Callus tissue were cultured in a nutrient medium containing the pathogen exometabolites, which concentration was at 5, 10, 15, 20 %. Toxicity of culture filtrate was evaluated in terms of the growth of callus tissue. For this purpose callus tissue was weighed at the beginning and then at the end of the passage.We found in this study that the presence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea isolates JC/F, HP/F, KM/Hrf in low concentration (5 % in a nutrient medium does not lead to a substantial reduction in the growth of the callus tissue of all three genotypes studied. In this case, the growth of the callus tissue is decreased by 15-20 % compared with control. Consequently, this concentration of culture filtrate does not create the toxic effect on the growth of callus cells. When the concentration of the fungus’ culture filtrate in the culture medium is increased, the growth of the callus tissue is reduced by an average of 23 - 49 % compared with the control depended on the genotype. Maximum reduction in growth of callus tissue noted for hybrid Nika F1, for which the index was reduced 60 % (at 20% culture filtrate in compare with the control. It was also shown that the most non-aggressive isolate is JC/f, and the most aggressive - isolate KM/Hrf.

  1. PECTATE LYASE-LIKE10 is associated with pollen wall development in Brassica campestris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingjing Jiang; Lina Yao; Youjian Yu; Meiling Lv; Ying Miao; Jiashu Cao

    2014-01-01

    PECTATE LYASE‐LIKE10 (PLL10) was previously identified as one of the differentially expressed genes both in microspores during the late pollen developmental stages and in pistils during the fertilization process in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Here, antisense‐RNA was used to study the functions of BcPLL10 in Chinese cabbage. Abnormal pollen was identified in the transgenic lines (bcpll10‐4,‐5, and‐6). In fertilization experiments, fewer seeds were harvested when the antisense‐RNA lines were used as pollen donor. In vivo and in vitro pollen germination assays less germinated pollen tubes were observed in bcpll10 lines. Scanning electron microscopy observation verified that the tryphine materials were over accumulated around the pollen surface and sticked them together in bcpll10. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that the internal endintine was overdeveloped and predominantly occupied the intine, and disturbed the normal proportional distribution of the two layers in the non‐germinal furrow region; and no obvious demarcation existed between them in the germinal furrow region in the bcpll10 pollen. Collectively, this study presented a novel PLL gene that played an important role during the pollen wall development in B. campestris, which may also possess potential importance for male sterility usage in agriculture.

  2. 结球甘蓝下胚轴原生质体培养再生植株体系的优化研究%Plant Regeneration from Hypocotyl Protoplast Culture of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.var capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 钟新民; 侯喜林

    2012-01-01

    The main factors affect cabbage hypocotyl protoplast isolation, purification and cultivation were studied,in order to establish a practical technology system of isolation, purification, collection,culture and eventually a complete plant regeneration for cabbage protoplast. Then establish a basis for latter research such as asymmetric cell fusion and finally provide the conditions for cabbage variety improvement and innovation. The results are as follows: Protoplasts were isolated by enzyme digestion from hypocotyl of 4 day-old seedling of head cabbage. The optimum enzyme combination was attained with 2. 5% cellulase R-10 + 0. 05% pectolase Y-23 + 9CPW+5 mmol/L MES. In the basic medium of improved B5 supplemented with 0. 5 mg/L2,4-D,0. 2 mg/L 6-BA,0. 2 mg/L NAA, the cells divided luxuriantly. Regenerated plants were formed from callus after bud induction and root initiation. In 24 regenerated plants, 19 were normal diploid, 4 were diploid/tetraploid chimera and 1 was tetraploid.%以结球甘蓝‘新夏50’的无菌苗下胚轴为材料,对影响原生质体分离、纯化与培养的主要因素进行研究,建立适合结球甘蓝原生质体游离、纯化、收集、培养以至再生出完整植株的实用技术体系,为其非对称细胞融合及品种改良与创新等研究奠定基础.结果表明:2.5%纤维素酶R-10+0.05%果胶酶Y-23+ 9CPW+5 mmol/L MES的混合酶液,从4d苗龄的下胚轴上分离出高产率的原生质体.在改良B5+0.5 mg/L2,4-D+0.2 mg/L 6-BA+0.2 mg/L NAA的液体培养基上,原生质体分裂旺盛.形成愈伤组织后经芽诱导和生根培养,获得了再生植株.倍性检测结果表明,不同原生质体所获得的24株再生植株中,19株为正常二倍体,4株为嵌合体,1株为四倍体.

  3. 不结球白菜优异种质对小菜蛾抗性的遗传分析%Inheritance of the Resistance of Elite Germplasm to Diamondback Moth(plutella xylostella L.)in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏; 李锡香; 吴青君; 邱杨; 徐宝云; 王海平; 宋江萍; 王少伟

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜抗小菜蛾材料508为母本(P1)、以感虫材料114为父本(P2)构建了包括P1、P2、F1、F2、BC1P1和BC1P2的6个世代群体,通过人工网室鏊定各世代群体的抗虫性,利用主基因+多基因混合遗传模型联合分析法分析了不结球白菜抗虫遗传规律.结果表明:在508×114组合中,感虫对抗虫表现部分显性,抗虫性遗传符合一对加性-显性主基因+加性-显性多基因遗传模型,在BC1P1、BC1P2和F2群体中的主基因遗传率分别为57.21%、25.87%和76.05%,为有效利用抗虫资源和挖掘抗虫基因奠定了基础.%Insect-resistant inbred line 508 of the non-heading Chinese cabbage( Brassica chinensis L. )as female parent and susceptible inbred line 114 as male parent were used to construct six generation populations of P1、P2 、F1 、BC1P1 、BC1 P2and F2. The resistances of all the populations to diamondback moth(DBM) were evaluated in net, and the inheritance of insect-resistance for six generations was analyzed by joint analysis method. The results showed that the insect-resistance was partly recessive in the combination of 508 × 114 and fitted to the D-1 genetic model which is one pair of major additive-dominant gene plus additive-dominant polygene's. The heritability of the major genes in BC 1 P1, BC1 P2 and F2 populations were 57.21% ,25.87 % and 76.05 % , respectively. The results will be helpful for us to effectively utilize the insect-resistant gene resources in insect-resistance breeding.

  4. Genetic linkage map of Brassica campestris L.using AFLP and RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 陈杭; 等

    2002-01-01

    A genetic linkage map comprised of 131 loci was constructed with an F2 population derived from an inter-subspecific cross between Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis cv.aijiaohang” and ssp.rapifera cv.,”'isihai”.The genetic map included 93 RAPD loci,36 AFLP loci and 2 morphological loci organized into 10 main linkage groups(LGs) and 2 small groups,covering 1810.9cM with average distance between adjacent markers being approximately 13.8cM.The map is suitable for identification of molecular markers linked to important agronomic traits.QTL analysis,and even for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs of Chinese cabbage and turnip.

  5. Efeito da temperatura sobre a severidade de Plasmodiophora brassicae Effect of temperature on Plasmodiophora brassicae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dias Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura é um dos parâmetros importantes para que ocorra a infecção, processo primordial para que haja doença, visando-se verificar a influência deste parâmetro sobre a severidade de Plasmodiophora brassicae em plantas de couve chinesa Pak choi, montou-se testes de infecção em temperaturas variando de 5 em 5ºC, indo de 10 a 40ºC, e observou-se uma redução da severidade da doença nas mudas de 28 dias de idade, nas temperaturas acima de 30ºC, verificando-se que nas temperaturas de 20 a 25ºC a ocorrência da condição ótima para o desenvolvimento da doença.Temperature is an important parameter for infection and plant desease development. In order to determine the influence of temperature on the severity of clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae in Pak choi Chinese cabbage plants, infection tests were carried out under temperatures set at 5ºC increments, from 10 to 40ºC. A reduction in severity of the disease was observed during the analysis of results in 28-day-old seedlings, at temperatures above 30ºC. The optimal temperature for disease development and crop growth were from 20 to 25ºC. It was observed that at this temperature range inoculated seedling presented 26% less dry matter than noninoculated seedlings, thus demonstrating a direct effect of clubroot on plant dry matter accumulation.

  6. 包膜控释尿素及硝化抑制剂结合尿素对大白菜产量和品质的影响%Effect of Coated Control-Release-Urea and Nitrification Inhibitor On Yield and Quality of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文静; 林海涛; 刘兆辉; 江丽华; 张玉凤; 沈玉文

    2015-01-01

    以“北京新3号”大白菜为试材,在露地生产条件下,研究了两种聚合物包膜尿素( CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ)及硝化抑制剂结合尿素( DCD)对大白菜产量及品质的影响。结果表明,与习惯施肥( FP)相比, CRF-Ⅰ处理下大白菜产量提高了6.40%,CRF-Ⅱ、DCD处理下大白菜产量分别降低了1.48%、2.09%;CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ及DCD处理均能显著降低大白菜叶片中硝酸盐含量并提高 VC、还原糖、粗纤维含量。%Taking Chinese cabbage variety “Beijing New No.3” as material, the effects of coated control -release-urea and nitrification inhibitor on its yield and quality were studied under open -field condition.The results showed that, compared with conventional fertilization (FP), the self -made control -release-urea ( CRF-Ⅰ) could significantly increase the yield of Chinese cabbage by 6 .4%.The sold control-release-urea (CRF-Ⅱ) and nitrification inhibitor (DCD) decreased the yield of Chinese cabbage slightly by 1.48%and 2.09%respectively, and there was no significant difference .Compared with FP, CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱand DCD could improve nutritional quality , such as the contents of vitamin C , amino acid , reductive sugar and crude protein , and decrease the nitrate content in Chinese cabbage leaves .

  7. Pollen-mediated gene flow in Chinese commercial fields of glufosinate-resistant canola (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li; ZHOU BiWen; GUO XueLan; DONG CaiHua; HU XiaoJia; HOU MingSheng; LIU ShengYi

    2008-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues surrounding transgenic oilseed rape cultivation is the potential impact of GM genes entering neighboring non-GM oilseed rape plants, related weeds or closely related wild relatives. Following the principle of a case-by-case for transgenic crop safety assessment, we designed experiments to study pollen-mediated gene flow from herbicide-resistant transgenic oilseed rape to Chinese commercial varieties. The pollen dispersal was detected as the progeny of recipient plants that were identified as glufosinate resistant. The results indicated that pollen dispersal occurred up to 2000 m and its rate sharply decreased as the distance from the pollen source increased. However, the rate of long-distance pollen dispersal from 33 to 2000 m was less than 0.015% and did not present a gradual decrease, indicating the randomization of dispersal and pollination. Most pollen dispersed within a 4.5 m area around the transgenic pollen source plot, with a maximum of 1.19% at the sampling site of 1.4 m. Wind direction significantly affected the direction and the distance of pollen dispersal, resulting in the more and farther dispersal in southwest direction. However, the number of potentially pollinating bees was not correlated with direction and distance from the pollen source plot, suggesting that bee density and distribution would not contribute to the differences in pollen dispersal among different directions. This paper is the first report on research in a large-scale experiment of pollen-mediated gene flow under the China's environmental conditions and provided scientific evidence for the effective commercialization of transgenic oilseed rape and its safe management. Our results also provided important data on pollen spatial distribution pattern.

  8. 小白菜不育系应用防虫网熊蜂制种效果初探%Use of Bumblebee for Hybrid Seed Production of Chinese Cabbage Based on Male Sterile Lines in Insect-proof Net Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦武青; 马志; 宋春; 叶小松; 沈新华; 王浩挻; 高伟

    2011-01-01

    2009-2010年采用熊蜂在镇江市蔬菜研究所防虫网内进行小白菜雄性不育系制种.结果表明,利用熊蜂授粉能显著提高制种产量,熊蜂授粉种子产量较本地蜜蜂授粉种子产量提高146.7%,较人工辅助授粉种子产量提高15.9%;熊蜂制种较人工辅助授粉种子纯度提高3.5%;利用熊蜂在防虫网内进行小白菜不育系制种是可行的.%The use of bumblebee in seed production of Chinese cabbage male-sterile line in insect-proof net cage has been tested at Zhenjiang Vegetable Institute during 2009-2010. The results showed that bumblebee can significantly improve bybrid seed production based on Chinese cabbage male-sterile line. The hybrid seed yield was 246.7% of local honey bees and 115.9% of hand pollination. The hybrid seed purity also increased 3.5% compared with hand pollination. It is practical to use bumblebee for hybrid seed production base on male sterile lines of Chinese cabbage in insect-proof net cages.

  9. Regulation of bolting and identification of the α-tubulin gene family in Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Jin, D; Xu, C; Zhang, L; Guo, M H; Fang, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are important components of eukaryotic cells, and they play vital roles in cell morphogenesis, carrying of signaling molecules, transport of materials, and establishing the cell polarity. During bolting of biennial plants, cell division and elongation are involved, and cell elongation inevitably involves the microtubules arrangement and expression of related genes. So we deduce that it is of great significance to figure out the mechanism of bolting and flowering in which TUA genes are involved. In the present study, bioinformatic methods were used to predict and identify the α-tubulin gene family (BrTUAs) in Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis (Chinese cabbage) through the alignment of AtTUA gene sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana with the B. rapa genome database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/) using the basic local alignment search tool. The change in the structure and functions of BrTUAs during the process of evolution, cis-acting elements in the promoter sequences of BrTUAs, and the expression of the identified genes was also analyzed. Twelve members of the α-tubulin gene family were identified from Chinese cabbage. The gene length, intron, exon, and promoter regions were determined to have changed significantly during the genome evolution. Only five of the 12 members were encoded completely and were observed to differ in their spatial and temporal expression. The five BrTUA promoter sequences contained different numbers of cis-elements responsive to light and low-temperature response, cis-elements responsive among which hormonal responses were significantly different. We also report that the BrTUAs were involved in the regulation of the bolting in Chinese cabbage, and propose that this process could be controlled by regulating the expression of BrTUAs. PMID:26909938

  10. Breeding of Chinese Cabbage Gaokang 78 with Disease-resistance and High Quality and High Yield%抗病优质高产大白菜新品种高抗78的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞生; 刘海英; 韩靖玲; 侯奎华; 张艳欣

    2013-01-01

    The new Chinese cabbage variety Gaokang 78 was bred from the maternal parent 06C12-25 with high quality and strong combining ability and the male parent 05-10 with low affinity index and high disease resistance through incomplete diallel crossing.The variety is characterized by disease resistance, high quality and high yield which is suitable to be planted in the areas of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, north-east of China and so on.%以优质、配合力强的大白菜品种06 C12-25为母本,以亲和指数低、抗病性强的品种05-10为父本,经过不完全轮配法进行组配,选育出大白菜新品种高抗78。该品种具有抗病、优质、高产等特点,适宜在京津、河北、东北等地区播种。

  11. Selection and Identification of the SAT-chromosome Primary Trisomic of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%菜薹随体—染色体初级三体的筛选与遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申二巧; 张成合; 李晓锋; 轩淑欣; 申书兴

    2011-01-01

    The flowering Chinese cabbage cultiva'rQinglu Caixin'was used for the satellite-chromosome trisomic(SAT-trisomic)selection by karyotype analysis and morphological identification from the backcross progeny of triploid(2n = 3x = 30)× diploid parent(2n = 2x = 20).The results showed that one SAT-trisomic was obtained from the 374 progeny identified by chromosome examination and karyotype analysis.Development of the SAT-trisomic was almost normal,but its stigma was above the stamen.Transmission rate of the extra SAT-chromosome was 6.04% by female gametes and 3.20% by male gametes.%以菜薹品种‘青露菜心’为材料,采用核型分析和形态学鉴定的方法,从三倍体与二倍体的回交子代中筛选SAT-染色体初级三体。共鉴定了374个回交子代,获得了1株SAT-染色体初级三体。SAT-染色体初级三体生长发育基本正常,但柱头高出雄蕊,(n+1)雌、雄配子的传递率分别为6.04%和3.20%。

  12. Preliminary research on model for determining crop water stress index of flowering Chinese cabbage based on canopy temperature%基于冠层温度的菜心缺水指数模型初步试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫星; 罗锡文; 区颖刚; 洪添胜; 胡红斌

    2003-01-01

    In this paper canopy temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer, air temperature, dry and wet-bulb temperature, and soil water content were measured as well to establish the model for determining the CWSI(crop water stress index) of flowering Chinese cabbage. The relationship between canopy-air temperature difference and vapor pressure deficit was determined. The preliminary model was established with regard to the influence of radiation intensity. A microcomputerized real-time data acquisition system was developed to monitor water-stress status for scheduling irrigation of vegetables.%以柳叶菜心为研究对象,测试了不同干旱条件下的土壤含水量、空气温湿度和冠层温度等参数,确定了作物缺水指数经验模型的参数,并针对太阳辐射强度对模型做了改进.研制了蔬菜旱情检测系统,利用红外测温仪、土壤含水量传感器等,可以实时测得田间作物的水分亏缺状态,为同类研究提供了测试手段和数据分析方法.

  13. Comparison of Glucosinolate Profiles in Different Tissues of Nine Brassica Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Ram Bhandari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolate (GSL profiles and concentrations in various tissues (seeds, sprouts, mature root, and shoot were determined and compared across nine Brassica species, including cauliflower, cabbage, broccoli, radish, baemuchae, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, leaf mustard, and kale. The compositions and concentrations of individual GSLs varied among crops, tissues, and growth stages. Seeds had highest total GSL concentrations in most of crops, whereas shoots had the lowest GSL concentrations. Aliphatic GSL concentrations were the highest in seeds, followed by that in sprouts, shoots, and roots. Indole GSL concentration was the highest in the root or shoot tissues in most of the crops. In contrast, aromatic GSL concentrations were highest in roots. Of the nine crops examined, broccoli exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in seeds (110.76 µmol·g−1 and sprouts (162.19 µmol·g−1, whereas leaf mustard exhibited the highest total GSL concentration in shoots (61.76 µmol·g−1 and roots (73.61 µmol·g−1. The lowest GSL concentrations were observed in radish across all tissues examined.

  14. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of the flowering genes in Chinese cabbage and examination of evolutionary pattern of CO-like genes in plant kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Duan, Weike; Huang, Zhinan; Liu, Gaofeng; Wu, Peng; Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    In plants, flowering is the most important transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. The flowering patterns of monocots and eudicots are distinctly different, but few studies have described the evolutionary patterns of the flowering genes in them. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary pattern, duplication and expression level of these genes. The main results were as follows: (i) characterization of flowering genes in monocots and eudicots, including the identification of family-specific, orthologous and collinear genes; (ii) full characterization of CONSTANS-like genes in Brassica rapa (BraCOL genes), the key flowering genes; (iii) exploration of the evolution of COL genes in plant kingdom and construction of the evolutionary pattern of COL genes; (iv) comparative analysis of CO and FT genes between Brassicaceae and Grass, which identified several family-specific amino acids, and revealed that CO and FT protein structures were similar in B. rapa and Arabidopsis but different in rice; and (v) expression analysis of photoperiod pathway-related genes in B. rapa under different photoperiod treatments by RT-qPCR. This analysis will provide resources for understanding the flowering mechanisms and evolutionary pattern of COL genes. In addition, this genome-wide comparative study of COL genes may also provide clues for evolution of other flowering genes.

  16. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  17. Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Zhang, M.

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a b

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  19. Effects of inoculum potential on screening for resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae in greenhouse trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Robak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors, including growth medium, inoculum density, and inoculum storage affected the reaction of resistant and susceptible Brassicas to Plasmodiophora brassicae in the greenhouse. A high level of disease was achieved using Peat-litte mix R and a commercial greenhouse mix. There was litte difference in disease incidence when spore suspensions were pipeted into planting holes or when seedlings were dipped into spore suspensions. Seedlings transplanted from sand or Petri dishes gave higher levels of disease than direct seeding. Two-year frozen storage of clubs reduced the inoculum potential to a level unable to define resistance. Inoculum levels of 103-7 spores per ml from fresh clubs, or 105-7 spores per ml from clubs frozen for 2 or 4 years, produced 90% club incidence of susceptible cauliflower and Chinese cabbage, A concentration of only 106-8 spores per ml from fresh clubs was required for maximum disease expression in a cauliflower line partially resistant to clubroot.

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    .), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial......, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  1. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. in winter oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn. is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.. It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction. Pod damage amounted to 11.6%. The emergence of the second generation adults was detected at the end of May and in the first ten days of June. D. brassicae was found to lay eggs in healthy pods and no correlation was found with the cabbage seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis Paykull.

  2. 早熟耐热抗病大白菜新品种‘金早58’%A New Early Maturing Chinese Cabbage Cultivar 'Jinzao 58' with Diseases Resistance and Heat Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利民; 柯桂兰

    2012-01-01

    'Jinzao 58' is a new early maturing hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar with diseases resistance and heat tolerance, it was crossed with new cytoplasm male sterile line 07RC4 as female parent and self-incompatibility line 07S132 as male plant. The plant is semi-erect. The leaf head is short and leaves congruence. The whole growing stage is about 58 days, average single head is 1.6 kg, and yield is 40 - 45 t·hm2. This cultivar is easy heading and leaf head is tight. It has good quality, high resistance to mildews, viruses, black rot and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to be cultivated in summer and early autumn.%‘金早58’系以新型胞质雄性不育系07RC4作母本,白交不亲和系07S132作父本配制的早熟、耐热、抗病大白菜一代杂种。植株半直立,叶球矮桩叠抱。生长期58d,单球质量1.6kg,产量40~45t·hm-2。成球性好,叶球紧实,品质优良,抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病和黑腐病,适应性广。适宜夏季和秋季早熟栽培。

  3. Study of pollen mother cell meiosis and male gametophyte development in autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage%普通白菜同源四倍体花粉母细胞减数分裂及其雄配子体发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔群香; 王倩; 唐红艳; 韩长奎

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal meiotic behaviors and male gametophytes development of autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) derived from microspore culture were studied by using H33258 fluorescence staining technique. The results showed that tetraploid with cell division period and chromosomes morphological change was similar to the diploid; Four homologous chromosomes formed quadrivalent, bivalent (or paired bivalent) and few trivalent and univalent at metaphase Ⅰ ; There were different styles for the quadrivalent at diakinesis stage, such as rod style, ring style, or in the shape of V, L, U, S and Y et al. There were ten quadrivalents or paired bivalents appeared in majority cells at metaphase Ⅰ , while multivalent and univalent appeared in a few cells. The tetrads were mostly vertical or tetrahedral. The form of the cytokinesis of meiosis was simultaneous type. The mature pollen grains were three karyotype, including a vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei, with four germinal furrow. Lagging chromosomes were observed during the whole division period from meiosis anaphase Ⅰ to telophase Ⅱ , and even at mitosis of microspore.%应用H33258荧光染色法研究普通白菜小孢子再生四倍体植株花粉母细胞减数分裂和雄配子体发育过程.结果表明:四倍体白菜花粉母细胞减数分裂过程及各时期染色体形态等变化与二倍体植株相似;4条同源染色体中期Ⅰ可出现四价体、二价体或配对二价体、少量三价体和单价体;终变期四价体呈棒状、环状、V形、L形、U形、S形、Y形等多种构型;中期Ⅰ多数细胞中出现10个四价体或配对二价体,个别细胞中出现多价体或单价体.四分体排列方式有垂直型和四面体型;花粉母细胞减数分裂的胞质分裂方式为同时型;成熟花粉粒为三核型,包括1个营养核和2个精核,具四萌发沟.从后期Ⅰ到末期Ⅱ,甚至小孢子有丝分裂,整个

  4. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH, we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2,031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest.

  5. Mining for Candidate Genes in an Introgression Line by Using RNA Sequencing: The Anthocyanin Overaccumulation Phenotype in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lulu; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Qian, Wei; Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Sun, Rifei

    2016-01-01

    Introgression breeding is a widely used method for the genetic improvement of crop plants; however, the mechanism underlying candidate gene flow patterns during hybridization is poorly understood. In this study, we used a powerful pipeline to investigate a Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) introgression line with the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype. Our purpose was to analyze the gene flow patterns during hybridization and elucidate the genetic factors responsible for the accumulation of this important pigment compound. We performed RNA-seq analysis by using two pipelines, one with and one without a reference sequence, to obtain transcriptome data. We identified 930 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the purple-leaf introgression line and B. rapa green cultivar, namely, 389 up-regulated and 541 down-regulated DEGs that mapped to the B. rapa reference genome. Since only one anthocyanin pathway regulatory gene was identified, i.e., Bra037887 (bHLH), we mined unmapped reads, revealing 2031 de novo assembled unigenes, including c3563g1i2. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that c3563g1i2, which was transferred from the Brassica B genome of the donor parental line Brassica juncea, may represent an R2R3-MYB transcription factor that participates in the ternary transcriptional activation complex responsible for the anthocyanin overaccumulation phenotype of the B. rapa introgression line. We also identified genes involved in cold and light reaction pathways that were highly upregulated in the introgression line, as confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results of this study shed light on the mechanisms underlying the purple leaf trait in Brassica plants and may facilitate the use of introgressive hybridization for many traits of interest. PMID:27597857

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel pollen predominantly membrane protein gene BcMF12 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianghua; Zhang, Lixin; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-11-01

    A novel membrane protein gene, BcMF12, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends based on a pollen-specific cDNA fragment (DN237936). The cDNA was 1,155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 894 bp capable of encoding a putative polypeptide of 297 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 34.6 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.6. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses revealed that BcMF12 showed high similarities with some membrane protein sequences previously published in the public database and contained six highly conserved transmembrane domains corresponding to six highly hydrophobic regions. This indicates that BcMF12 may be a putative membrane protein. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the transcripts of BcMF12 were abundant in the flower bud, flower and anther, but not detected in the root, stem, leaf and pistil. Moreover, the BcMF12 transcripts were detectable at the late stages of pollen development. Morphological investigations of pollen from the BcMF12 antisense transgenic plants showed that most of pollen grains of transgenic plants were abnormal. These results strongly suggest that BcMF12 is a novel pollen-preferentially membrane protein which play an important role during the pollen development in Chinese cabbage.

  7. 蕾用菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding for the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Brassica parachinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 冯辉; 王昊

    2011-01-01

    依据大白菜核基因雄性不育"复等位基因遗传"假说,以奶白菜核不育系06sx110为不育源,采用常规有性杂交、回交和自交方法,向"蕾用菜"Y01中转育核不育复等位基因,成功获得"蕾用菜"BC4的甲型两用系、临时保持系和雄性不育系.%According to the multiple-allele hypothesis of male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage, the material of multiple allele inheritance Milk Chinese cabbage (Msms) was used as the source of male sterility, and methods of crossing, backcrossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line of Brassica parachinensis ‘Y01' (MsfMsf). The new male sterile line ‘GMS4', the AB Line and the temporary maintainer line were obtained successfully.

  8. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  9. Phytoavailability of cadmium (Cd) to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) grown in Chinese soils: a model to evaluate the impact of soil Cd pollution on potential dietary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Yang, Xiaoe; Xiao, Wendan; Stoffella, Peter J; Saghir, Aamir; Azam, Muhammad; Li, Tingqiang

    2014-01-01

    Food chain contamination by soil cadmium (Cd) through vegetable consumption poses a threat to human health. Therefore, an understanding is needed on the relationship between the phytoavailability of Cd in soils and its uptake in edible tissues of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to establish soil Cd thresholds of representative Chinese soils based on dietary toxicity to humans and develop a model to evaluate the phytoavailability of Cd to Pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) based on soil properties. Mehlich-3 extractable Cd thresholds were more suitable for Stagnic Anthrosols, Calcareous, Ustic Cambosols, Typic Haplustalfs, Udic Ferrisols and Periudic Argosols with values of 0.30, 0.25, 0.18, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.03 mg kg-1, respectively, while total Cd is adequate threshold for Mollisols with a value of 0.86 mg kg-1. A stepwise regression model indicated that Cd phytoavailability to Pak choi was significantly influenced by soil pH, organic matter, total Zinc and Cd concentrations in soil. Therefore, since Cd accumulation in Pak choi varied with soil characteristics, they should be considered while assessing the environmental quality of soils to ensure the hygienically safe food production.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  11. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Swedish Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ) Analyzed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; Stine Tuevesson; Bo Gertsson

    2003-01-01

    We have compared genetic diversity of 24 Chinese weak-winter, Swedish winter and spring B.napus accessions by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). By cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on 125 polymorphism bands amplified with 20 primers, the 24 accessions were divided into three groups. Six Swedish winter lines and eight Chinese weak-winter lines were in the group Ⅰ and the group Ⅱ were two Chinese weakwinter lines Xiangyou15 and Bao81. The third group contained eight Swedish spring lines. Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCO) showed similar groupings to cluster analysis. Results from cluster analysis and PCO analysis showed very clearly that Chinese weak-winter, Swedish spring and winter accessions were distinguished from each other and Chinese weak-winter accessions in this study were genetically closer to Swedish winter accessions than to Swedish spring accessions. The Chinese weak-winter accessions had larger diversity than Swedish spring or winter accessions did. This study indicated that ISSR is a suitable and effective tool to evaluate genetic diversity among rapeseed germplasm.

  12. Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, A P; Santos, J; Brito, N V; Fernandes, D; Rosa, E; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2015-07-01

    The glucosinolates content of brassica plants is a distinctive characteristic, representing a healthy advantage as many of these compounds are associated to antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. Brassica sprouts are still an underutilized source of these bioactive compounds. In this work, four varieties of brassica sprouts (red cabbage, broccoli, Galega kale and Penca cabbage), including two local varieties from the North of Portugal, were grown to evaluate the glucosinolate profile and myrosinase activity during the sprouting. Also the influence of light/darkness exposure during sprouting on the glucosinolate content was assessed. Glucosinolate content and myrosinase activity of the sprouts was evaluated by HPLC methods. All sprouts revealed a higher content of aliphatic glucosinolates than of indole glucosinolates, contrary to the profile described for most of brassica mature plants. Galega kale sprouts had the highest glucosinolate content, mainly sinigrin and glucoiberin, which are recognized for their beneficial health effects. Penca cabbage sprouts were particularly richer in glucoraphanin, who was also one of the major compounds in broccoli sprouts. Red cabbage showed a higher content of progoitrin. Regarding myrosinase activity, Galega kale sprouts showed the highest values, revealing that the use of light/dark cycles and a sprouting phase of 7-9 days could be beneficial to preserve the glucosinolate content of this variety.

  13. Phloem-specific resistance in Brassica oleracea against the whitefly Aleyrodes proletella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, C.; Riviere, P.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Cuenca, M.; Kos, M.; Vosman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly [Aleyrodes proletella L. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)] is becoming a serious pest in Brassica oleracea L. (Brassicaceae) crops. However, almost nothing is known about the interaction of this insect with its host plants. Previous studies have shown differences in the natural occurren

  14. Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds to induce resistance against Peronospora parasitica in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Michta, A.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Boer, de W.J.; Davelaar, E.; Stevens, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Seed and leaf treatments with natural compounds having a low risk profile (LRP) were evaluated for their potential to induce resistance in cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) against Peronospora parasitica, causal organism of downy mildew. The selection of 34 LRP compounds comprised micronutrients, o

  15. Produção agroecológica de mudas e desenvolvimento a campo de couve-chinesa Agroecological production of seedlings and field development of Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinéia Tessaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido em duas etapas: a produção de mudas de couve-chinesa em bandejas e posterior transplante para o campo, objetivando avaliar o desempenho de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura. Para isso determinou-se, tanto na fase de formação das mudas, quanto nas plantas adultas, o comprimento da parte aérea, número de folhas, comprimento da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e diâmetro do coleto. A etapa de produção de mudas foi conduzida em ambiente protegido, com os seguintes tratamentos: T0 substrato comercial Plantmax® (HA; T1: 100% composto; T2: 95% composto + 2,5% areia + 2,5% pó de rocha; T3: 90% composto + 3% areia + 7% de pó de rocha e T4: 85% composto + 6% areia + 9% pó de rocha. Na produção de mudas, os substratos orgânicos, formulados com 100% e 85% composto, apresentaram melhores resultados, aos 15 e 28 DAS, respectivamente. Os resultados de campo demonstraram que adição de pó de rocha é um fator determinante no desempenho das mudas, sendo os melhores resultados obtidos nas parcelas cultivadas com mudas obtidas nos substratos formulados com 7 e 9% de pó de basalto.The research was carried out in two stages: the production of seedlings of chinese cabbage in trays with subsequent transplantation for the field, aiming to evaluate the performance of different substrates on the culture development. For this reason it was determined, both at the stage of formation of the seedlings, as in adult plants the length of the aerial part, number of leaves, root length, dry mass of the aerial part, root dry mass and diameter of the root collar. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment with the following treatments: T0 Plantmax substrate® (HA; T1: 100% compound; T2: 95% compost + 2.5% sand + 2.5% rock powder; T3: 90% compost + 3% sand + 7% powdered rock and T4: 85% compost + 6% sand + 9% rock powder. In the production of seedlings, the organic substrates

  16. Study on breeding and utilization of genetic male sterile line in dwarf Chinese cabbage%矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 杨宁; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    A directional transfer program was designed by using multiple allele inherited genetic male-sterile line AB01 and its temporary maintainer line B01 as source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer botanical traits, while the genotype was identified through test cross. Following the procedure, the male sterile gene was successfully transferred to the target parent "Y", the inbred line of Jinguan in dwarf Chinese cabbage. A new male sterile line GMS401, which is similar to Y on botanical traits with 100% male sterility and 100% male sterile plants, was bred. The results showed that GMS401 as the female parent, the hybridized combinations GMS401×D1 and GMS401× D2 were finally obtained and they were excellent in horticultural characters and uniformity. In addition, the yield of the combinations was apparently higher than that of CK.%以复等位基因遗传的早熟大白菜雄性不育“两用系”AB01和“临时保持系”B01为试材,设计定向转育方案,采用连续回交转育性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向源自金冠的矮脚黄白菜自交系Y中转育雄性不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%、园艺学性状与自交系Y相近的矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS401.结果表明,用GMS401试配的杂交组合(GMS401×D1)和(GMS401×D2)整齐度高,园艺学性状优异,产量显著高于对照品种南京矮脚黄和抗病矮脚黄.

  17. Identification of non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars and lines resistant to disease caused by Colletotrichum sp.%不结球白菜品种(株系)对炭疽病抗性的鉴定与筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建营; 侯喜林; 张玉明; 张正光; 郑小波

    2001-01-01

    The method for identif ying resistance of non-heading Chinese cabbage to Colletotrichum higginsianum by artificial inoculation of the plant seedlings and screening of the resistant plant varieties and lines by the fast and reliable method were reported.The critical technique of the method included inoculation of seedlings at two-leaf stage with a spore suspension of 1×106 spores*mL-1,and incubation of the inoculated plants in the controlled condition(25 ℃,100% relative humidity)for 24 h and in the green house(25 ℃)for 7 days,respectively,followed by examination of resistance levels . This method allowed for aquick identification of resistance levels of different varieties and lines.Resistance identified by the method was consistent with tha t identified by the traditional method that uses bigger seedlings(at five-leaf stage)and mature plants in the fields.Using this fast and reliable method,four varieties of 26 varieties and lines tested were scored as high resistance.It is suggested that these resistant varieties be used in the agricultural production and breeding.%报道不结球白菜对炭疽病(Colletotrichum higginsianum) 抗性的苗期鉴定方法和抗病品种(株系)的筛选结果。在2片真叶期,以1×106个·mL -1孢子浓度喷雾接种,25 ℃、RH>100%保湿24 h,25 ℃光照培育7 d,可快速地将不同抗性的品种(株系)鉴别出来。用该方法所获得的品种(株系)抗性鉴定结果与田间苗期(5 片真叶期)和成株期抗性鉴定结果基本一致。将该方法与田间抗性鉴定相结合,从26个品种(株系) 中筛选出4个高抗材料,可供生产上使用或作为抗病育种的抗源材料。

  18. Effects of different fertilizer treatments on yield, quality and economic benefit of flowering chinese cabbage%不同肥料处理对菜心产量、品质及经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永胜; 杜建军; 龙增群; 叶冰; 卢智敏

    2013-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out on flowering chinese cabbage with different fertilizer treatments,and the related indexes such as yield and quality were investigated,and then the economic benefit was analyzed.The results showed that the highest yield and the lowest economic benefit occurred in the regular fertilizing,due to its highest amount of fertilizer application,with the highest content of nitrates and the lowest content of vitamin C.The highest income and input-output ratio were obtained in the special formulated fertilizer treatment.The former was 16.4% higher than the regular fertilizing treatment,while the latter was 4.05 times higher than that.The best quality was got in the treatment,which combined application of chemical fertilizer,organic fertilizer and soil conditioner.The nitrates content was reduced by 31.4%,while vitamin C content was increased by 22.1% compared with the regular fertilizing treatment.%采用不同的肥料处理对菜心进行田间试验,测定其产量和品质,并进行经济效益分析,结果表明:常规施肥处理肥料用量最大,虽然菜心产量最高,但经济效益较低,而其硝酸盐含量最高,维生素C含量最低;配方肥处理收入和产投比最高,收入比常规施肥处理增加16.4%,产投比是常规施肥处理的4.05倍;化肥配施有机肥加土壤调理剂菜心品质最好,硝酸盐含量比常规施肥处理降低了31.4%,维生素C含量比常规施肥处理提高了22.1%.

  19. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa ssp.chinensis and Transferability Among Related Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite marker is a valuable tool for several purposes, such as mapping, fingerprinting,and breeding.In the present study, an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)-PCR technique was applied for developing SSR markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa). A total of 190 SSRs were obtained. Among these, AG or CT (54.7%) was the most frequent repeat, followed by AC or GT (31.6%) of the microsatellites. The average number of the SSRs length array was 16 and 10 times, respectively. Based on the determined SSR sequences, 143 SSR primer pairs were designed to evaluate their transferabilities among the related species of Brassica. The number of alleles produced per marker averaged 2.91, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0 to 0.863 with an average of 0.540. Monomorphism was observed in 16 primer pairs. The transferability percentage in CC genome was higher than in BB genome. More loci occurred in the BBCC genome. This result supported the hypothesis that BB genome was divergent from A and C genomes, and AA and CC genomes were relatively close. The polymorphic primers can be exploited for further evolution, fingerprinting, and variety identification.

  20. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases. PMID:27171821

  1. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  2. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  3. Spatial organization of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system in brassica specialist aphids is similar to that of the host plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Matthew; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bones, Atle M.; Hodgson, Chris; Cole, Rosemary; Bartlet, Elspeth; Wallsgrove, Roger; Karapapa, Vassiliki K; Watts, Nigel; Rossiter, John T.

    2002-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are important in plant defence against pests and diseases. Similarly, insects can use plant secondary metabolites in defence and, in some cases, synthesize their own products. The paper describes how two specialist brassica feeders, Brevicoryne brassicae (cabbage aphid) and Lipaphis erysimi (turnip aphid) can sequester glucosinolates (thioglucosides) from their host plants, yet avoid the generation of toxic degradation products by compartmentalizing myrosinase (thiogluco...

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Go-Eun Yi; Arif Hasan Khan Robin; Kiwoung Yang; Jong-In Park; Jong-Goo Kang; Tae-Jin Yang; Ill-Sup Nou

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among t...

  5. First record of parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, 1968 (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the parasitic wasp, which occurrence in Slovenia was first confirmed in August 2014 on egg layers of cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae from cabbage. The wasp Trichogrammma brassicae belongs among egg parasitoids and it is especially known as biological control agent of lepidopteran pests. In the beginning the wasp was used for controlling European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis, later it becomes an important biological control agent of some other economically important lepidopteran pests. With the first confirmation of occurrence of T. brassicae in Slovenia first condition for its placing on the List of indegenous biological control agents - it contains the organisms which practical use in Slovenia is allowed - is fulfilled.

  6. 大白菜渗透压应激活化蛋白激酶基因SRK2F的克隆与表达%Cloning and Expression ofSRK2F Gene in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志国; 王聪艳

    2015-01-01

    Taking non salt and drought tolerant inbred lines of Chinese Cabbage〔Brassica campestris L. spp.pekinensis(Lour)Olsson〕SY-14-06 as material,extracted total RNA from root,and reverse transcribed cDNA.According toSRK2F gene sequence ofBrassica rapa,primers were designed and 1 044 bp open reading frame(ORF)was cloned.TheSRK2F protein contained 347 aminoacids,with a prediction molecular weight of 39.3 kD and PI of 4.88.We construct the procayotic expressive plasmids pEASY-E1-SRK2F using pEASY-E1 vector.After transformation to Transetta(DE3),the expression of recombinant proteins were detected with SDS-PAGE.The structural analysis ofSRK2F though Smart-embl showed that it contained silk threonine structural domain,which was located at the position of 4-260 aminoacid residues.The ClustalX2 comparison indicated that the SRK2F had close genetic relationship withArabidopsis thaliana.Finally,purified this protein by affinity chromatography medium,which was known as Nickel ion metal affinity chromatography medium.Thus,gained the purified fusion protein.%以不耐盐、不耐旱的大白菜自交系SY-14-06为试材,提取根部总RNA,反转录为cDNA。根据大白菜SRK2F基因设计引物,PCR扩增SRK2F基因CDS序列1044 bp。SRK2F编码347个氨基酸,预测分子量为39.3 kD,理论等电点为4.88。利用pEASY-E1原核表达载体构建原核表达质粒pEASY-E1-SRK2F,转化表达菌株Transetta(DE3),通过SDS-PAGE检测该蛋白的表达。经Smart-embl预测其具有丝/苏氨酸激酶特有结构域,位于第4~260位氨基酸处。经ClustalX2比对,其与拟南芥同源性最高。最后利用镍离子金属螯合亲和层析介质对该蛋白进行纯化,得到了纯化的融合蛋白。

  7. Heterotic patterns in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using exotic germplasm for Chinese semi-winter hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lunwen; Chen Lunlin; Mei Jiaqin; Li Maoteng; Martin Frauen; Christian Jung; Qian Wei; Meng Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese semi-winter rapeseed,genetically differing from winter and spring rapeseed,has been consid-ered to possess strong potential as parent in winter and spring rapeseed hybrid breeding programs. However,no de-tailed researches have been documented whether winter and spring rapeseed lines have potential for Chinese semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding. The objectives of this study are to estimate the potential of winter and spring rapeseed for semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding,and to investigate the association of general combining ability (GCA) with adaptation of parental lines by combining with the data in our previous studies. Four winter and four spring male sterile lines were crossed with 14 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed lines to develop 112 hybrids,which were evaluated together with their parents for seed yield under three environments in China. The exotic parental lines were not adapted to local environment as demonstrated by late flowering,low seed weight and poor seed yield per se. However,the hybrids,especially derived from winter rapeseed exhibited strong heterosis for seed yield,indicating that winter rapeseed germplasm has a great potential for rapeseed hybrid breeding in China. Our data suggested a strong association of GCA with their adaptation ability of parental lines,since high to middle cor-relations were found for local parental lines and low correlations for exotic parental lines under spring,winter and semi-winter eco-growth environments. The hybrid breeding program using exotic germplasm in rapeseed was dis-cussed.

  8. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  9. Studies on Anther Development of 4x Sexual Polyploidization Male Sterile Lines in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage%有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育花药发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁; 张文华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对有性多倍化雄性不育系花药的败育时期和方式进行研究,为雄性不育基础研究提供理论依据.[方法]以同源四倍体白菜为母本,以秋水仙素诱导筛选出含2n配子较高的二倍体为父本杂交获得四倍体不育系及其保持系为材料,采用常规石蜡切片法对其花药进行解剖学研究,观察其花药的败育时期.[结果]退化的雄蕊可分为4种类型,均败育于孢原细胞分化期,始终处在孢原细胞期,无绒毡层与花粉母细胞的分化,不形成药室,属孢子体败育型.[结论]有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育的4种类型都是孢子体败育型.%[Objective]Cytological investigation on microsporogenesis of male sterility of sexual polyploidizationmale sterile lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied to provide theoretical basis for the male sterility. [Method]Anther anatomical structure and development were observed using a light microscope through paraffin slices on the production of Ax CMS by sexual polyploidization and its maintainer line in Chinese cabbage. Abortion stage of 4x CMS was observed. [Jiesult] There were four types in the degraded stamens. The abortion of stamen occurred at the stage of archesporial cell differentiation,at which there was no differentiation of fibrous layer,tapetum and microspore mother cell. It belonged to non-sporange cytoplasmic male sterility. [Conclusion]Four types of the 4x sexual polyploidization CMS lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were sporophyte abortion.

  10. Obtaining and Cytological Identification of a Set of Primary Trisomics in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; ZHU Hai-yan; LI Xiao-feng; SHEN Shu-xing; CHEN Xue-ping; MAN Hong; XUAN Shu-xin

    2006-01-01

    Selection of primary trisomics of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L) forms an important basis for gene chromosome mapping and for other genetic studies. The cabbage self-fertilization line - 9601 was used as material, using the root-tip cell chromosome number and pollen mother cell chromosome number identification and karyotype analysis to select the primary trisomics from the progenies of 3x × 2x in the cabbage. Many aneuploid plants with one or two extra chromosomes were obtained and a set of primary trisomics (Tri-1, Tri-2, Tri-3, Tri-4, Tri-5, Tri-6, Tri-7, Tri-8, and Tri-9, in which the Tri- 1 and Tri-4 were from 2n + 2 plants and others from 2n + 1 plants) was acquired from these plants. Each trisomic exhibited some unique features, such as plant height, plant type, leaf type, size of flower bud, and inflorescence.The triploid crossing by the diploid is a convenient and effective way to select trisomics in the cabbage.

  11. Effect of Different Light and Hormone Treatments on Isolated Microspore Cultures of Heat-Tolerance Chinese Cabbage%光照和激素对耐热型大白菜游离小孢子培养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛鹏; 张秀荣; 岳艳玲; 李晶晶; 邓静

    2011-01-01

    0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L NAA and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5, 1.0 mg/L 6-BA were added to NLN media, and A-3 000 1x light, B-10 d dark then 3 000 1x light, C-15 d dark then 3 000 lx light and D-dark were applied to culturing isolated microspore of heat-tolerance Chinese cabbage-Xiajiangjiu in order to study the effect of light and hormone on the growth and induction of microspore-derived embryos. The results showed: 0.1 mg/L 6-BA could improve induction of mi crospore-derived embryos. The highest yield, 206 embryos, was obtained. At the same time adding 0.2 mg/L NAA could not only induce higher embryos, 205 embryos, but also promote growth of em bryos . Cotylednary and Germinated embryo increased to 33.7 % and abnormal embryo decreased to 14.1% . Dark culture could improve induction of microspore-derived embryos and D treat obtained 149embryos. Light culture, however, decreased embryo yield but improved the growth of embryos and regen erated plantlet. Better B treat induced 108 embryos and rate of regenerated plantlet increased to 145 % .%将分离纯化的小孢子悬浮培养在添加0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L的NAA和0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L 6-BA的NLN培养基中,在A(3000 lx光培养)、B(10 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、C(15 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、D(ck,暗培养)条件下进行培养,研究光照和激素对耐热型大白菜“夏将军”游离小孢子成胚及胚状体发育的影响.结果表明:0.1 mg/L 6-BA能显著促进胚状体的发生,使胚产量达到最高,为206个.同时附加0.2 mg/L NAA不但保证有较高的胚产量(205个),还可促进胚状体发育,子叶胚及萌发胚可达33.7%,畸形胚比例下降到14.1%;暗培养能促进成胚,D处理成胚量高,达149个,光培养则明显抑制成胚,但可促进胚状体发育,提高成苗率,其中以B处理成胚成苗效果较好,成胚108个,成苗率145%.

  12. 小白菜表面粪大肠菌群的污染及其耐药性研究%Occurrence of Fecal Coliforms on Chinese Cabbages and Their Resistance to Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼; 李雅颖; 姚槐应; 葛超荣

    2014-01-01

    为明确粪大肠菌群对蔬菜的污染及其耐药性,对厦门市集美区主要菜市场及超市的小白菜进行抽样调查。采用平板计数和MPN法对小白菜表面的粪大肠菌群进行计数,并通过对分离的细菌进行药敏试验,揭示粪大肠菌群对常用抗生素的耐药性。结果显示平板计数粪大肠菌群数量平均为631.3 CFU·g-1,合格率达90.9%;MPN计数平均为48.2 MPN·g-1,合格率达87.9%。清洗处理后粪大肠菌群数量从564.7 CFU·g-1降到92.5 CFU·g-1;流水浸泡10 min后,粪大肠菌群数量从564.7 CFU·g-1降到99.2 CFU·g-1。药敏试验结果表明,粪大肠菌对青霉素和四环素的耐药率达到100%,对红霉素的耐药率达到85.0%,但对庆大霉素、阿米卡星和环丙沙星没有耐药性。研究表明清洗处理显著降低粪大肠菌群的数量,粪大肠菌群对常用抗生素具有一定程度的耐药性,其耐药谱较广。%Microbial contamination of vegetables has aroused public concerns. An investigation was carried out to examine occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of fecal coliforms on fresh Chinese cabbages collected from farmers-markets and supermarkets in Jimei district of Xiamen city, China. Fecal coliforms were quantified using both MPN(most-probable-number)and PC(plate count)methods. Two treat-ments(washing or immersion in water)were used to evaluate the effect of cleaning on the abundance of fecal coliforms. The resistance of the isolated fecal coliforms to six common antibiotics(gentamicin, amikacin, penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin)was eval-uated using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The results showed that average population of fecal coliforms from the samples was 631.3 CFU·g-1 by PC method, with qualified rate of 90.9%, whereas average population of fecal coliforms was 48.2 MPN·g-1 by MPN method, with qualified rate of 87.9%. Washing and 10 min immersion reduced the number of fecal

  13. Especificidade de hospedeiro nas interações Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brássicas Host specificity in interaction Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris - brassicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulândula Silva Miguel-Wruck

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Face às escassas informações acerca da variabilidade patogênica de isolados brasileiros de Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar a especificidade patogênica de trinta e três isolados do patógeno, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do exterior, a oito espécies de brássicas, através de inoculação por meio de injeção da suspensão bacteriana nas folhas. Desse total, 12 isolados foram obtidos de couve-comum (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nove de repolho (B. oleracea var. capitata, cinco de couve-flor (B. oleracea var. botrytis, dois de canola (B. napus, um de brócolos (B. oleracea var. italica, um de couve-chinesa (B. chinensis, um de couve-rábano (B. oleracea var. gongylodes e dois de rabanete (Raphanus sativus. A avaliação da patogenicidade dos isolados da bactéria, frente aos hospedeiros em estudo, demonstrou que 14 deles não apresentaram especificidade, originando sintomas em todas as diferentes plantas inoculadas. Os 19 isolados restantes, entretanto, apresentaram relativo grau de especificidade, não causando doença em uma ou mais das plantas inoculadas.Considering the lack of information in literature about the pathogenic variability of Brazilian isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a study was carried out to determine the pathogenic specificity of 33 isolates of this bacterium originated from several regions of Brazil and overseas to eight different Brassica species, through inoculation by means of injection of the bacterial suspension in leaves. From these isolates, 12 were obtained from collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, nine from cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata, five from cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis, two from canola (B. napus, one from broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica, one from Chinese cabbage (B. chinensis, one from kohlrabi (B. oleracea var. gongylodes and two from radish (Raphanus sativus. The pathogenicity of the bacterium

  14. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orient

  15. Development of Mamestra brassicae and its solitary endoparasitoid Microplitis mediator on two populations of the invasive weed, Bunias orientalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Gols, R.

    2011-01-01

    The warty cabbage Bunias orientalis is an invasive pest in much of central Europe, including much of Germany since the 1980s, whereas in other countries, such as The Netherlands, it is a less common exotic species. Here, healthy larvae of Mamestra brassicae, which has been found feeding on B. orient

  16. Evaluation of glucosinolate levels throughout the production chain of Brassica vegetables towards a novel predictive modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.

    2002-01-01

     Glucosinolates are a group of plant secondary metabolites, that can have important implications for human health. Vegetables of the Brassica genus, including cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and kohlrabi contribute almost exclusively to our intake of

  17. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables: The influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Schreiner, M.; Krumbein, A.; Ciska, E.; Holst, B.; Rowland, I.; Schrijver, de R.; Hansen, M.; Gerhäuser, C.; Mithen, R.; Dekker, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GLSs) are found in Brassica vegetables. Examples of these sources include cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower and various root vegetables (e.g. radish and turnip). A number of epidemiological studies have identified an inverse association between consumption of these veg

  18. 荣宝土壤消毒剂对西兰花、宝塔花菜等蔬菜产量及种植效益的影响%The Effect of Soil Decontaminant Ronbao on the Yield and Economic Returns of Broccoli, Tower Cauliflower and Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祖祥

    2009-01-01

    通过荣宝土壤消毒剂在西兰花、宝塔花菜、大白菜上施用的对比试验,其结果表明,施用荣宝土壤消毒剂,西兰花产量比对照产量提高51.6%,增效44.3%;宝塔花菜产量比对照产量提高21.3%,增效15.5%;大白菜产量比对照产量提高24.1%,增效16.4%.荣宝土壤消毒剂对设施大棚种植的作物效果更好,具有防止土传病危害和治理土壤障碍因子的双重作用.%The comparative experiment on the application of soil decontaminant Ronbao was performed to determine its effect on the yield and economic returns of the broccoli,tower cauliflower and Chinese cabbage. The results showed that under the application of soil decontaminant Ronbao,the yields of the broccoli,tower cauliflower and Chinese cabbage increased respectively by 51.6% ,21.3% and 24.1% ,and the economic returns of the three crops respectively raised 44.3%, 15.5% and 16.4% than their controls. In addition,soil decontaminant Ronbao,when applied in the greenhouse, will have a better yield-increase effect due to its control effect on soil-borne diseases and soil obstacle factors.

  19. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wang, Wei [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of {sup 14}C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides.

  20. Preservação do inóculo de Plasmodiophora brassicae utilizando o método de congelamento Preservation of Plasmodiophora brassicae inoculum using the freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Sodário Cruz

    2009-02-01

    brassica species naturally infected by P. brassicae, showing typical clubroot symptoms, sampled in the same farm, located in the Pardinho County, State of São Paulo, were collected during different seasons and were immediately frozen at approximately 20ºC. The treatments were divided as follows: T1: clubroots frozen for 389 days (arugula; T2: clubroots frozen for 242 days (broccoli; T3: clubroots frozen for 21 days (Chinese cabbage, and T4: control (without inoculum. The pathogenicity tests were conducted under greenhouse conditions (25±2ºC. Each plant of the susceptible variety of Chinese cabbage (Pak choi was inoculated with 2mL of a spore suspension of each treatment at a concentration of 10(7 spores.mL-1. Each treatment consisted of six replicates distributed in random blocks. The roots of plants were washed and evaluated five weeks after inoculation. There were significant differences between treatments. The frozen materials preserved their infective traits over a period of 21 to 242 days, demonstrating that the freezing method could be an option to preserve the resistance structures of this pathogen.

  1. GDSL esterase/lipase genes in Brassica rapa L.: genome-wide identification and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Yi, Hankuil; Han, Ching-Tack; Nou, Ill-Sup; Hur, Yoonkang

    2016-04-01

    GDSL esterase/lipase proteins (GELPs), a very large subfamily of lipolytic enzymes, have been identified in microbes and many plants, but only a few have been characterized with respect to their roles in growth, development, and stress responses. In Brassica crops, as in many other species, genome-wide systematic analysis and functional studies of these genes are still lacking. As a first step to study their function in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (Chinese cabbage), we comprehensively identified all GELP genes in the genome. We found a total of 121 Brassica rapa GDSL esterase/lipase protein genes (BrGELPs), forming three clades in the phylogenetic analysis (two major and one minor), with an asymmetrical chromosomal distribution. Most BrGELPs possess four strictly conserved residues (Ser-Gly-Asn-His) in four separate conserved regions, along with short conserved and clade-specific blocks, suggesting functional diversification of these proteins. Detailed expression profiling revealed that BrGELPs were expressed in various tissues, including floral organs, implying that BrGELPs play diverse roles in various tissues and during development. Ten percent of BrGELPs were specifically expressed in fertile buds, rather than male-sterile buds, implying their involvement in pollen development. Analyses of EXL6 (extracellular lipase 6) expression and its co-expressed genes in both B. rapa and Arabidopsis, as well as knockdown of this gene in Arabidopsis, revealed that this gene plays an important role in pollen development in both species. The data described in this study will facilitate future investigations of other BrGELP functions. PMID:26423069

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  3. Proteomic and gene expression analyses during bolting-related leaf color change in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Guo, M H; Tang, X B; Jin, D; Fang, Z Y

    2016-01-01

    Bolting and flowering are key processes during the growth and development of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis). Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying bolting and flowering is of significance for improving production of the vegetable. A leaf-color change from bright green to gray-green has been observed following differentiation of the flowering stem and before bolting in the vegetable, and is considered to be a signal for bolting. Proteomics in meristem tissues of an inbred line (C30) were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis during the transition period. We found that some proteins were specifically expressed while others were differentially expressed. Among these, 17 proteins were specifically expressed before the color change, 18 were specifically expressed after the color change, 21 were downregulated during the color change, and 29 were upregulated. Mass spectrometric analysis (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS) was used to analyze 17 protein spots, and four proteins (subunit E1 of vacuolar-type H+ transporter ATPase, the large subunit of Rubicon, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, and tubulin α-2) were identified. qPCR analysis was conducted to quantify the expression of genes encoding these proteins during the transitional period. The expression of BrVHA-E1, BrSAMS, BrrbcL, and BrTUA6 was significantly different before and after the leaf-color change, suggesting that these genes might be involved in regulating flower differentiation and bolting. PMID:27525926

  4. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  5. 2个不结球白菜品种硝酸盐累积差异的生理机制%Physiological mechanisms for the difference of nitrate accumulation in two cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建凤; 徐小梦; 沈其荣; 尹晓明

    2011-01-01

    采用0.5、2.0、5.0 mmol·L-1N03-3个浓度和3.75 mmol·L-1N03-与1.25 mmol·L-1NH4+混合浓度,对2个不结球白菜品种上海青(低硝酸盐累积品种)和亮白叶1号(高硝酸盐累积品种)进行水培试验,研究了供氮水平对硝酸还原酶活性(NRA)、硝酸盐含量和光合速率的影响.结果表明:不结球白菜硝酸盐含量存在品种和器官差异(P<0.05).亮白叶1号硝酸盐含量高于上海青,不同器官硝酸盐含量从高到低依次是:叶柄、叶片、根系,硝酸盐含量随外界供NO3-浓度的增加而增加,部分供NH4+降低了硝酸盐含量;上海青NRA高于亮白叶1号(P<0.05),小同器官NRA从高到低依次是:叶片、根系、叶柄,叶片和根系的NRA随外界NO3-浓度的增加而升高,部分供NH4+降低了不结球白菜NRA;在全NO3-处理下上海青叶片光合速率显著高于亮白叶1号(P<0.05),提高NO3-浓度可在一定程度上促进光合速率,部分供NH4+使光合速率有所降低.总之,上海青比亮白叶1号具有更高的NRA和光合速率,使其具有更强的NO3-还原同化能力,从而减少了NO3-在体内的积累.%Two cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Shanghaiqing, cultivar of lower nitrate content ;Liangbaiye 1,cultivar of higher nitrate content) were hydroponically grown in four different nutrient solutions containing 0.5,2.0,5.0 mmol. L-1 NO3 and 3.75 mmol. L-1 NO3-mixing with 1.25 mmol. L-1 NH4+ ,respectively. Effects of N supplement on nitrate reductase activity(NRA) ,NO3-content and photosynthetic rate were studied. The results were listed as follows:NOs-content in Liangbaiye 1 was higher than that in Shanghaiqing and also showed significant differences between their organs( P<0.05 ). NO3-contents in organs were in the decreasing order of petiole, leaf blade and root. NO3-content increased with the increasing of NO3- concentrations outside. Proper enhancing NH4 + reduced NO3content. Shanghaiqing got higher NRA than that of Liangbaiye 1

  6. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS FROM GERANIACEAE PLANTS ON PIERIS BRASSICAE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conducted studies comprised the analyses of activity of extracts derived from selected plants of the Geranium family on some processes of large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae development (oviposition, survival of eggs and caterpillar feeding. The results proved that all tested extracts showed activity against large white butterfly. Geranium pratense L. and Geranium senquineum L. showed better activity than other Geranium plants. Water extracts from these species protected cabbage plants against laying eggs, while applied on eggs caused their mortality. Alcohol and water extracts from G. pratense L. and water extracts from G. senquineum L. increased an amount of food put on mass gain of caterpillars.

  7. Effect of Deinococcus radiodurans on uptake of 134Cs by Brassica oleracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deinococcus radiodurans was inoculated into the soil which was spiked with 134Cs to investigate its effect on chemical speciation of 134Cs. The relationship between chemical speciation of 134Cs and its absorbtion capacity by cabbage (Brassica oleracea) in the presence of D. radiodurans was also investigated. The results showed that an increase of 28.64%-38.17 % in content of 134Cs in residual phase was observed with presence of D. radiodurans in comparison with the aseptic control. The amounts of radiocesium uptaken by cabbage were about 12100Bq/g under aseptic conditions, however, which were about 8500Bq/g with the presence of D. radiodurans. The proportion of 134Cs taken up by cabbage decreased about 29% in comparison with the aseptic control. The chemical speciation could be influenced by D. radiodurans so that its uptake by plants could be reduced. (authors)

  8. Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga, D.L.; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E.; Verkerk, R.; Röling, W.F.M.; Ellers, J.; Roelofs, D.; Aarts, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage ‘Wintessa’, and the wild B. oleracea accession Winspit was analysed for GSL production and used for biofumigation experiments on the beneficial soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida (springtail) and...

  9. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  10. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  11. A sequence-based genetic linkage map as a reference for Brassica rapa pseudochromosome assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Feng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica rapa is an economically important crop and a model plant for studies concerning polyploidization and the evolution of extreme morphology. The multinational B. rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP was launched in 2003. In 2008, next generation sequencing technology was used to sequence the B. rapa genome. Several maps concerning B. rapa pseudochromosome assembly have been published but their coverage of the genome is incomplete, anchoring approximately 73.6% of the scaffolds on to chromosomes. Therefore, a new genetic map to aid pseudochromosome assembly is required. Results This study concerns the construction of a reference genetic linkage map for Brassica rapa, forming the backbone for anchoring sequence scaffolds of the B. rapa genome resulting from recent sequencing efforts. One hundred and nineteen doubled haploid (DH lines derived from microspore cultures of an F1 cross between a Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis DH line (Z16 and a rapid cycling inbred line (L144 were used to construct the linkage map. PCR-based insertion/deletion (InDel markers were developed by re-sequencing the two parental lines. The map comprises a total of 507 markers including 415 InDels and 92 SSRs. Alignment and orientation using SSR markers in common with existing B. rapa linkage maps allowed ten linkage groups to be identified, designated A01-A10. The total length of the linkage map was 1234.2 cM, with an average distance of 2.43 cM between adjacent marker loci. The lengths of linkage groups ranged from 71.5 cM to 188.5 cM for A08 and A09, respectively. Using the developed linkage map, 152 scaffolds were anchored on to the chromosomes, encompassing more than 82.9% of the B. rapa genome. Taken together with the previously available linkage maps, 183 scaffolds were anchored on to the chromosomes and the total coverage of the genome was 88.9%. Conclusions The development of this linkage map is vital for the integration of genome

  12. 津黑两地大白菜褐腐病病原菌鉴定及生物学特性的比较%Identification and comparison of the biological characteristics of the pathogen causing brown rot of Chinese cabbage in Tianjin and Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗国辉; 闻凤英; 张耀伟

    2012-01-01

    采用形态特征观察、致病性测定及rDNA-ITS序列分析等方法对天津、黑龙江两地大白菜褐腐病的病原菌进行鉴定.结果表明,天津、黑龙江两地大白菜褐腐病的病原菌为立枯丝核菌(Rhizoctonia solani Kühn),分离鉴定出TJ和DB两个菌株,分属立枯丝核菌AG-2融合群和AG-1融合群;DB菌株为一新菌株.两菌株菌丝生长最适温度均为25℃,最适pH为7,最适光照为12h.DB菌株菌丝生长速率快于TJ菌株;但TJ菌株先于DB菌株形成菌核,且形成量多.两菌株在碳源、氮源利用和菌核致死温度上也存在差异.%The pathogen of Chinese cabbage brown rot was studied through morphological characteristics, patho-genicity, and ribosomal DNA-ITS sequence. The results showed that the two strains from Chinese cabbage brown rot collected from Tianjin and Heilongjiang were Rhizoctonia solani Kiihn TJ and DB, belonging to anastomosis group AG-2 and anastomosis group AG-1. The DB strain was a new strain. The optimal temperature, pH and illumination for mycelial growth of the two strains were 25 "C , 7 and 12 h, respectively. The mycelial growth rate of the TJ strain was lower than the DB strain. The quantity and rate of sclerotia formation of the TJ strain were greater. There were obvious differences in the use of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and lethal temperature in the two strains.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Genic Male Sterility-related Gene BrLTP1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜核雄性不育相关基因BrLTP1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 叶雪凌; 李承彧; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-25,通过RACE和RT-PCR技术克隆了该基因的全长cDNA序列.序列分析表明,该基因编码脂质转移蛋白,命名为BrLTP1.BrLTP1全长cDNA序列为750 bp,推测编码1个包含183个氨基酸残基的前体蛋白.BrLTP1蛋白含有典型的脂质转移蛋白N端信号肽,保守的AAI结构域和半胱氨酸位点.预测BrLTP1蛋白含有多种修饰性位点,包括1个PKC磷酸化位点,2个N-糖基化位点和10个N-端豆蔻酰基化位点.基因表达模式表明,BrLTP1在两用系不育株花蕾中受到强烈抑制,在可育株的大花蕾、成熟花药以及花瓣中高水平表达.%The gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line ‘AB02' of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment, TDF-25, was only found in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of BrLTPl, coding lipid transfer protein in Chinese cabbage, was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR. The BrLTPl gene was 750 bp long in cDNA and hypothetical protein BrLTPl included 183 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the BrLTPl protein has ten N-myristoylation sites, two N-myristoylation sites, and one PKC phosphorylation site. Gene expression characteristics indicated that BrLTPl was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with a extremely low expression level in sterile buds.

  14. 大白菜软腐病菌16S rDNA序列比对鉴定及杀菌剂对其生物活性测定试验%16S rDNA Sequence Compare of Erwinia carotovora subsp, carotovora and Bioactivity of Fungicide against Chinese Cabbage Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 刘君丽; 司乃国

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora is an important plant disease having effect on the normal growth of Chinese cabbage, which seriously results in decreasing crop's yield and quality. Chemical control is an effective messure to control the disease. In order to clarify the controlling effect of strobilurins and antibiotics on Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora, the research was carried out. [Methods] E. Carotovora subsp. Carotovora separated from the leaf of rotten Chinese cabbage was identified using method of sequence comparison to 16S rDNA, and then bioactivity of the fungicides mentioned above was tested using E. Carotovora subsp. Carotovora as target. [Results] The results indicated that there was great bioactivity difference between different fungicides for E. Carotovora subsp. Carotovora, the results of in vitro and in vivo are different for the same fungicide. [Conclusions] Due to the bioactivity difference between in vitro and in vivo, these two testing methods, in vivo and in vitro should be evaluated together to obtain accurate evaluation.%[目的]大白菜软腐病是影响白菜正常生长的重要病害,严重影响白菜的产量和品质.化学防治是控制大白菜软腐病的重要措施.为了进一步明确甲氧基丙烯酸酯类和抗生素类药剂对大白菜软腐病的防治效果,开展试验研究.[方法]从腐烂大白菜叶片分离得到大白菜软腐病菌(Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora),采用16S rDNA序列比对的方法对其进行鉴定.将其作为防治对象,测试杀菌剂的生物活性.[结果]不同药剂对大白菜软腐病菌的生物活性差异很大,同一药剂在离体试验和活体试验中的结果也并不相同.[结论]由于药剂的生物活性测试结果在离体和活体试验中表现出差异性,需要将2种试验方法相结合,才能对药剂生物活性进行准确评价.

  15. Study on the Optimum N Rates Under Spring Cabbage-Maize-Winter Cabbage Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, field trials in two soils with different Nmin were conducted to study the effects of mineral N content (Nmin) in soil on the maximum yield N rate (MYNR), N recovery of cabbage under spring cabbage-maize-winter cabbage rotation system, and the correlation of N fertilization with cabbage yield and quality, and to provide the theoretical basis for N recommendation for high-yield, quality, and safety production of vegetables. The effects of six N rates of 0, 90, 180, 270,360, and 450 kg ha-1 on the yield, N recovery of spring cabbage, maize, and winter cabbage, water-soluble sugar, Vc, and nitrate content of vegetables were observed. The results showed that soil Nmin had a remarkable influence on the MYNR in the first spring cabbage season. The MYNR for spring cabbage lessened in the soil with high Nmin. Soil Nmin could be helpful to N recommendation only for the seasonal growing crop because its effects on the following crop yield was less with the active transformation of soil Nmin. The farmer's practice was 1.8-3.2 times higher than the MYNR of cabbage resulted in the nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Both N application rate and Nmin in the soil profile affected N recovery,whereas, the relay intercropping maize in the cabbage field increased the N recovery at a higher N application rate. Lower N rate (less than 90 kg ha-1) improved the yield and quality of cabbage at the same time; higher N rates increased cabbage yield, but decreased the quality; extremely high N rates of application deceased both yield and quality of cabbage. It was concluded that the soil Nmin had close correlations with MYNR and N recovery of the seasonal growing cabbage. Although the residual effects of the N fertilizer were obvious in Shajiang black meadow soil, cabbage-maize rotation increased the N recovery in treatments with higher N rates. Considering the effects of N rates on cabbage yield and quality, it is necessary to reduce the N rate and lower the yield target for

  16. Homoeologous GSL-ELONG gene replacement for manipulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in Brassica rapa L. by marker assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind H. Hirani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliphatic glucosinolates are the predominant sulphur-rich plant secondary metabolites in economically important Brassica crops. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in plant-microbe, plant-insect, plant-animal and plant-human interactions. It is, therefore, important to manipulate glucosinolate profiles and contents in Brassica species. In this study, aliphatic glucosinolates were genetically manipulated through homoeologous recombination in backcross lines followed by marker assisted selection in B. rapa. A resynthesized B. napus line, from a cross between B. rapa and B. oleracea, was backcrossed with Chinese cabbage doubled haploid line, RI16. Marker assisted selection for non-functional gene was performed in each backcross generations. Advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 were developed to identify homoeologous gene replacement and/or introgression. Reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates (gluconapoleiferin, glucoalyssin and glucobrassicanapin was observed in BC3F2 progenies of the recurrent parent that carried the GSL-ELONG gene. The GSL-ELONG positive backcross progenies were also screened by the A-genome and BraGSL-ELONG gene specific marker, which linked with 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The A-genome specific marker was absent in the plants of advanced backcross progenies which showed reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates. The results suggest that the functional allele had been replaced by the non-functional GSL-ELONG allele from B. oleracea. Some advanced backcross progenies (BC3F2 positive for the GSL-ELONG allele and the A-genome specific SCAR marker BraMAM1-1 did not show reduction in 5C aliphatic glucosinolates, suggesting that GSL-ELONG allele is recessive. Replacement of the functional locus in the A genome by non-functional counterpart in the C genome reduced the content of 5C aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa seeds with 20 micromoles per gram.

  17. The Genetics of Brassica oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. oleracea crops encompass a family of vegetables that are among the most important in the world. The most commonly grown vegetables in this family include common cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli. Cabbage is the most widely produced of the three, cauliflower is less than cabbage, and broccoli i...

  18. Effects of Water-fertilizer Coupling on Physiological Characteristics and Yield of Baby Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis) in Hexi Oasis%水肥耦合对河西绿洲娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子孝; 陈修斌; 许耀照; 李翊华

    2016-01-01

    Using split plot design, a field experiment was conducted in an irrigated desert soil in Hexi oasis to investigate the effect of water and fertilizer coupling on yield and physiological characteristics such as net photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) , photochemical quantum yield (Fv′/Fm′), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) and photo inhibitionin by using Baby Cabbage variety‘Chunyuehuang’ . The results showed that Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs values of baby Cabbage un-der the condition of 75% ~90% field water capacity plus soil fertilizer combination of N 350 kg·hm-2 +P2 O5 400 kg·hm-2 +K 300 kg·hm-2 were significantly higher than any other treatment at the early, middle and late stage of leaf lotus throne. This indicates that Baby Cabbage plants maintain higher physiological activities under this condition. The dynamics of Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs of Baby Cabbage was in the order of middle lotus throne > late lotus throne > early lotus throne.%为探明河西绿洲灌漠土高原夏菜娃娃菜生产中,不同水肥耦合模式对娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响,以品种“春月黄”为材料,采用裂区试验设计,研究了实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学量子产量( Fv′/Fm′)、光化学猝灭系数( qP)、非光化学猝灭系数( qN)、光抑制程度和产量对不同水肥耦合的响应。结果表明:在中等的土壤水分和理论施肥水平条件下,即土壤田间持水量达75%~90%及肥料组合为N 350 kg·hm-2+ P2 O5400 kg·hm-2+K 300 kg·hm-2的W2F1处理,娃娃菜在莲座初期、中期、末期,其叶片的净光合速率( Pn )、胞间 CO2浓度( Ci )、蒸腾速率( Tr )和气孔导度( Gs)的变化值明显高于其他处理,植株保持较高的生理代谢活动;叶片的ΦPSⅡ、 Fv′/Fm′、 qP值最大,光抑制程度最低,其生物学产量和经济产量也最高。不同时期的Pn、 Ci、 Tr和Gs的数值变化规律为:莲座中期>

  19. 甘蓝转TA29-Barnase基因植株的花器特征及育性分离的初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON FLOWER CHARACTERISTICS AND SEGREGATION OF MALE STERILITY OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS WITH TA29-Barnase IN CABBAGE(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉英; 龚静; 吴晓光; 杨红娟; 沈革志; 王新其; 殷丽青; 陆桂华; 王江; 宛新杉

    2001-01-01

    Male sterile cabbage plants were got by transferring TA29-Barnasegene to common cabbage plants. These male sterile transgenic plants with TA29-Barnase gene have the same horticultural characters which can be also inherited steadily by plants in next generation as non-transgenic ones. But their flowers bear fully catagenetic stamen lacking pollens, normal fragrant nectaries and strong pistils able to receive pollens from other plants or different cultivars and set seeds. At the meantime, the sterility in transgenic plants can segregate in their posterior generations at sterility rates of 12.5%~85.7%.%利用分子生物学方法,将控制作物育性的基因(TA29-Barnase)转化甘蓝生物体,培育出了甘蓝雄性不育植株。带有TA29-Barnase基因的雄性不育植株的园艺学性状与未转化植株相同,并且其性状在后代中稳定不变;不育植株的花朵表现雄蕊完全退化,但蜜腺和雌蕊健全,能接受外来花粉,杂交结实率较高;同时,雄性不育植株的不育性在后代中出现分离,不育株率占12.5%~85.7%;此外,不育性状具有镶嵌性。

  20. Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-09-17

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture.

  1. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  2. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  3. Study on Synergetic Efficacy of Keyun Insect Attractant Combined with Pesticides Against Aphid in Chinese Cabbage Seed Production%科云昆虫诱食剂与杀虫剂混用防治大白菜制种田蚜虫的增效作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳功; 杨芳; 冯振群

    2013-01-01

    Three different insecticides such as Lambda-cyhalothrin,Imdacloprid and Avermectin showed respectively promising synergistic effects in controlling aphid of Chinese cabbage seed production when mixed with Keyun insect attractant,The effects of the insecticides increased by 8.64-11.77、1.88-8.77 and 4.34-9.34 percentage on 1d,3d or 7d after application when they were used together with Keyun insect attractant,compared with those of singly-used insecticide.Moreover,the death peak of aphid was advanced by 2 days,4 days and 2 days respectively.%高效氯氰菊酯、啶虫脒、阿维菌素3种农药和科云昆虫诱食剂混用,对于防治大白菜制种田蚜虫有明显的增效作用,药后1、3、7d的防效比其单用提高8.64~11.77、1.88~8.77、4.34~9.34个百分点,且蚜虫死亡高峰期分别提前了2、4、2d.

  4. Effects of drip fertigation uniformity and nitrogen application level on growth, yield and quality of Chinese cabbage%滴灌均匀系数和施氮量对白菜生长及产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李久生; 尹剑锋; 张航; 栗岩峰

    2011-01-01

    The effects of drip fertigation uniformity and nitrogen application level on crop growth, nitrogen uptake,chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD), yield and quality of Chinese cabbage were investigated in a solar greenhouse to determine the design and evaluation standard of drip irrigation uniformity.Three Christiansen uniformity coefficients of 0.62, 0.80 and 0.96 and two levels of nitrogen applied at 150 and 300 kg/hm2 were used.The continuous measurements using TDR sensors of Hydra Probe demonstrated an approximately similar variation pattern of soil water content and temperature during the growing season of Chinese cabbage for all the treatments tested.The observed difference of soil bulk electrical conductivity (ECb,) for different treatments could mainly attribute to the difference of the initial ECb values.Plant height, dry matter above ground, nitrogen uptake and yield with the drip irrigation system demonstrated a more uniform distribution than those with water and fertilizers applied at fertigation uniformity coefficient equal to or less than 0.80.It was found that the influence of fertigation uniformity on plant height, dry matter above ground,nitrogen uptake and yield was insignificant at a significance level of 0.05.The quality indexes of Chinese cabbage,including vitamin C, total sugar, nitrate and cellulose were also insignificantly affected by fertigation uniformity at the same significance level.Increasing fertigation uniformity might not necessarily result in an increased yield and an improved quality of Chinese cabbage.As no negative influence of fertigation uniformity on crop growth, nitrogen uptake and yield was observed, it is suggested that lower uniformity values of drip irrigation system below those recommended by the current standards can be considered.%为了完善滴灌均匀系数设计与评价标准,在日光温室内研究了滴灌均匀系数和施氮量对白菜生长、氮素吸收、相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)、产量和品质的影

  5. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  6. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders.

  7. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  8. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF FRESH LEAF OF BRASSICA OLERACEAE LINN. VAR. ACEPHALA (D.C ALEF (BRASSICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbaje, Esther Oluwatoyin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica oleraceae (BOL is the common cabbage and a familiar garden plant, widely used as spice all over the world. Cabbage is an excellent source of Vitamin C and has been widely employed locally to treat acute inflammation and peptic ulcers. The present study aimed at evaluating the anti¬ulcer activity of Brassica oleraceae, while identifying the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed effects and exploring some of the possible mechanisms of its anti¬ulcer activity, using standard laboratory procedures. Doses of 100, 300 and 750 mg / kg of Brassica oleraceae were separately administered to groups of overnight fasted rats, with appropriate standard drugs using Ethanol / HCl, Indomethacin and Cysteamine models to explore anti¬ulcer property of BOL on the stomach and duodenum respectively. The extract in a dose¬ dependent fashion, offered better protection against the ulcerogens in the gastric ulcer models, when compared with the positive control groups. However, the smallest dose of 100 mg / kg recorded the highest percentage protection in the cysteamine group. Up to 1200 mg / kg i.p and 10,000 mg / kg oral doses of Brassica oleraceae did not produce any mortality in mice. Phytochemical constituents identified included alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and saponins. The pH was 8.5. The present study has validated the local use of Brassica oleraceae in the treatment of peptic ulcer and the speculated mechanisms of action could be through acid neutralization, cytoprotection and antioxidation by flavonoids.

  9. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  10. Occurrence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel, 1895 Dowson 1939, on Brassicas in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas form the most important group of vegetable crops in Montenegro. The cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata is most commonly grown, although other brassicas,particularly kale, Brussels sprout, cauliflower and broccoli, have been increasingly producedsince recently. One of the specialties of vegetable production in Montenegro is growing ofcollard (Brassica oleracea var. acephala, which is the simplest variety of the Brassica oleraceaspecies and in the nearest relation with their wild ancestor – the sylvestris variety.Diseases are the main restrictive factors for successful production of these vegetables.Susceptibility of the cultivars and inadequate control often result in more or less damagedcrops in some plots.Causal agents of brassica diseases, especially bacterial, have not been investigated inMontenegro until 2009. Since the symptoms observed in 2009 were „V” shaped leaf edgenecrosis and black rot of vascular tissue, it was assumed that they were caused by plantpathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.Samples of the infected plants were collected from different localities in Montenegro.Isolation and identification of the bacterium were performed using laboratory methodsaccording to Schaad (1980, Lelliott and Stead (1987 and Arsenijević (1997. Examinationof chosen bacterial isolates was conducted using both, classical bacteriological methods(examination of their pathogenic, morphological, cultivation and biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics, and ELISA test.The obtained results confirmed the presence of X.campestris pv. campestris (Pammel,1895 Dowson 1939, on cabbage, kale, broccoli and collard in Montenegro. This is the firstexperimental evidence that collard is the host of X. campestris pv. campestris in Montenegro.

  11. Efeito do pH do solo em diferentes níveis de concentração de inóculo no controle de Plasmodiophora brassicae Soil pH and inoculum concentration on the control of Plasmodiophora brassicae effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimeris Ruaro

    2010-03-01

    of the most recommended control measures. Whereupon the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil pH in different inoculums concentrations in the control of P. brassicae. Four levels of soil pH were used: 4,3; 5,5; 6,2 and 7,3 and three inoculums concentrations: 1.2 x 10(7, 2.5 x 10(7 5 x 10(7 spores.mL-1 and non-inoculated control. The spores suspension was obtained from Chinese cabbage roots showing galls and it was added to the plant collars when the Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis seedlings were transplanted to pots. At 45 days after inoculation the evaluations were performed. The effect of pH on the disease severity was more expressive with the average inoculums (1.2 x 10(7 to 2.5 x 10(7 spores.mL-1 With the higher inoculums concentrations the disease severity was reduced in soil pH 6,2 and 7,3. The best development of the plants assessed by the accumulation of foliar dry phytomass was obtained where the soil presented pH between 6,2 and 7,3 and with the lowest inoculum concentration.

  12. 芥蓝高频离体再生体系的建立%Establishment of high-frequency in vitro regeneration system of Chinese kale ( Brassica alboglabra Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐君; 张蜀宁; 侯喜林; 王淑敏; 孙成振

    2011-01-01

    Based on three Chinese kale( Brassica alboglabra Bailey)varieties of' Sharp Leaf Chinses Kale' ,' Middle Flower Chinese Kale' and' Late-Flower Chinese Kale', we established a high frequency in vitro regeneration system through examining genotype, explant type,different hormones combinations and thidiazuron (TDZ)pretreatment on shoot regeneration effect.The results showed that the' Middle Flower Chinese Kale' held the most powerful regenerative capacity.The descending orders of regeneration rates from different types of explants were: hypocotyl, petiole with cotyledons, cotyledon;the optimum hormone combination of getting highfrequency shoot regeneration was 0.2 mg·L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA) and 6 mg·L-1 benzyladenine(6-BA).Hypocotyls with 0.5 mg·L-1 TDZ soaking 30 min pretreatment vaccinated medium containing 0.2 mg·L-1 NAA ,6 mg·L-1 6-BA ,8 g· L-1 agar+30 g· L-1 sucrose was suitable recipe for getting the highest rate of adventitious shoot regeneration,reaching 98.5%.%以'尖叶芥蓝'、'中花粗心芥蓝'和'迟花芥蓝'3个品种为材料,研究苯基噻二唑脲(TDZ)预处理、不同激素配比、基因型和外植体类型对不定芽再生的影响,建立芥蓝离体高频再生体系.结果表明:3个品种中,'中花粗心芥蓝'再生能力最强;不同外植体类型中再生率由大到小依次为:下胚轴、带柄子叶、子叶块;不定芽再生的最佳激素组合为0.2 mg·L-1NAA+6 mg·L-16-BA;以此激素组合为基础,下胚轴经0.5 mg·L-1TDZ浸泡30 min预处理接种在分化培养基(MS+0.2 mg·L-1NAA+6 mg·L-16-BA+8 g·L-1琼脂+30 g·L-1蔗糖)上不定芽再生率最高,达98.5%.

  13. Analysis of Sulforaphane in Chinese kale(Brassica albograbra L. H. Bailey) by HPLC%芥蓝花薹中莱菔硫烷含量的 HPLC 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占省; 刘玉梅; 方智远; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 张扬勇; 李凌云; 孙培田

    2016-01-01

    以23份芥蓝纯合自交系和21份杂交 F1为试材,采用反相高效液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)测定花薹中莱菔硫烷含量,分析芥蓝花薹中莱菔硫烷含量的变化规律。结果表明:44份芥蓝材料花薹中莱菔硫烷含量变异范围为46.89~419.45 mg·kg-1(DW),供试材料间莱菔硫烷含量差异达显著水平。获得了1份莱菔硫烷含量较高的 F1材料 A86,含量为419.45 mg·kg-1(DW);3份莱菔硫烷含量较高的高代纯合自交系材料 A1、A17和 A53,含量分别为298.50、354.19、361.06 mg·kg-1(DW),可用于芥蓝抗癌新品种的选育和利用。%Forty four lines of Chinese kale(Brassica albograbra L.H.Bailey)including 23 high inbred lines and 21 F1 generations were used to detect the sulforaphane contents in flower stalk of Chinese kale by RP-HPLC,and to analyze the changing rule in sulforaphane contents.The results showed that the changing range of sulforaphane contents in 44 Chinese kale was 46.89-419.45 mg·kg-1(DW),and there were significant differences between sulforaphane contents of the testing lines.Four lines were detected with higher sulforaphane contents,among them one line was F1 generation A86 with 419.45 mg·kg-1(DW)sulforaphane content,the other 3 were inbred lines A1,A17 and A53.Their sulforaphane contents were 298.50 mg·kg-1(DW),354.19 mg·kg-1(DW),361.06 mg·kg-1(DW),respectively.They could be used for breeding of Chinese kale in anti-cancer and marketing promotion.

  14. Levantamento da intensidade da alternariose e da podridão negra em cultivos orgânicos de brássicas em Pernambuco e Santa Catarina Survey of the intensity of Alternaria black spot and black rot on brassica species under organic farming systems in Pernambuco and Santa Catarina states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A M Peruch

    2006-12-01

    organic farming systems with different brassicas. High prevalence of the diseases was registered in both states, except on Chinese cabbage in Santa Catarina. Prevalence of Alternaria black spot was 100% on broccoli fields in Pernambuco, as well as on cauliflower in both states, while the black rot reached that level on broccoli and cauliflower fields in Santa Catarina. On the average of the different brassica species, the diseases were more prevalent in Pernambuco than in Santa Catarina. However, when the severity averages of each disease were considered, no significant differences were observed between the two states, although the climatic conditions were highly different. The Alternaria black spot severity varied among the brassica species in Pernambuco, being lower on kale. In Santa Catarina no significant differences were observed among the brassicas species. In relation to the black rot, only in Santa Catarina was there a difference in the disease severity, with the lowest level on Chinese cabbage. No significant correlations were observed either between severity levels of Alternaria black spot and black rot, neither between disease severity and total number of plants or plant age.

  15. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  16. Penetration, Development, and Reproduction of Heterodera schachtii on Fagopyrum esculentum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Brassica oleracea

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    The penetration, development, and reproduction of a California population of the sugarbeet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was observed on cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), and white mustard (Sinapis alba). With the exception of the nonhost, phacelia, all were readily penetrated by second-stage juveniles of H. schachtii. After 38 days at 25 C, no cysts were observed on phacelia...

  17. Effects of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on the Seed Germination and Characteristics of Physiology Parameters in Chinese Cabbage Seedlings%N-苯基-2-萘胺对青菜种子萌发及幼苗生理参数变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛延丰; 冯慧芳; 石志琦; 刘海琴; 严少华; 郑建初

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Chinese cabbage were soaked by the various concentrations of N-phenyl-2-naphthyl-amine. The effects of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on the seed germination,the growth,the chlorophyll content and the change of antioxidant enzymes in Chinese cabbage were studied in this paper. The results showed that the germination energy and the germination percentage increased with the increase of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration, whereas they did not have significant difference compared to the control. The change trends of the germination index and the vigor index were the same with the germination energy and the germination percentage. The germination index and the vigor index increased under the lower N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration, but there were no difference compared to the control. When the N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration was less than 1.00 mg/L,the shoot height increased with the increase of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration. Especially, in the 0.50 mg/L treatment, the shoot height was biggest and had significant difference compared to the control. The trend of the root length change liked as the fresh weight. The root length and fresh weight indicated the trend of increase-decrease with the increase of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration. Under the lower N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration, the chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes activities markedly increased with the increase of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration. However, the chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes activities markedly decreased compared with the control in the higher N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentration.%以青菜为材料,研究了不同浓度N-苯基-2-萘胺对青菜种子进行浸种后对种子发芽、生长、叶绿素含量及抗氧化酶活性的影响.结果表明,N-苯基-2-萘胺浸种可以提高种子的发芽势和发芽率,但与对照相比差异不显著;发芽指数和活力指数的变化趋势与发芽势和发芽率的

  18. Differential Analysis and Functional Marker Development of Photoperiod Regulation Factor CCA1 from Two Chinese Cabbage Inbred Lines%大白菜光周期调控因子 CCA1的差异分析及功能标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 刘辰; 刘栓桃; 李巧云; 王晓; 王立华; 赵智中; 王淑芬; 徐文玲; 刘贤娴

    2016-01-01

    By the trend of photoperiod in spring and autumn,the sensibilities of two Chinese cabbage in-bred lines,06 -247 and He102,to photoperiod were identified.The 06 -247 was sensitive to long day, while He102 was opposite.The full -length cDNA sequence of photoperiod regulation factor CCA1 (Circadian clock associated 1 )from two lines were compared by homology -based cloning.It was revealed that there were two 6 -bp InDels and 14 non -synonymous SNPs between the CCA1 coding regions of 06 -247 and He102.The coding product had 552 and 556 amino acid residues respectively.The non -synonymous SNPs caused the exchange of amino acids with different property.The amino acid differences were mainly located in middle protein -protein interaction domain and C -terminal phosphorylation domain.The codominant molec-ular markers to distinguish the two 6 -bp InDels were developed and validated.The results provided founda-tion for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of photoperiodic response of CCA1 in Chinese cabbage.%本研究利用春季和秋季条件下光周期的变化趋势,对两个大白菜自交系06-247与 He102的光周期敏感性进行了鉴定,结果是06-247对长日照敏感,而 He102对长日照不敏感。采用同源克隆技术,比较分析两材料光周期响应关键调控因子 CCA1的全长 cDNA 序列,发现二者编码区存在两处6 bp 插入/缺失和14处非同义 SNPs 差异;二者编码产物分别包含552、556个氨基酸残基;其非同义 SNPs 造成不同氨基酸的替换;二者间氨基酸序列差异主要位于 CCA1蛋白中间区域的蛋白-蛋白相互作用结构域和 C 端的磷酸化修饰结构域。本研究开发出区分两处6 bp 插入/缺失的共显性分子标记。该结果为深入研究 CCA1在大白菜光周期响应调节过程中的功能奠定了基础。

  19. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Till A; Pommerrenig, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Nadine; Hartmann, Anja; Bienert, Gerd P

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and Brassica rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins. In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re-) name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  20. N-苯基-2-萘胺对青菜生长及 AsA-GSH 循环影响研究%Effects of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on the Growth and AsA-GSH Circulation Metabolism in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛延丰; 冯慧芳; 石志琦; 严少华

    2013-01-01

      以青菜为材料,研究使用不同浓度N-苯基-2-萘胺处理后对青菜生长及其体内AsA-GSH循环的影响。结果表明,使用不同浓度N-苯基-2-萘胺对青菜的株高及生物量产生不同的影响,其中以0.50 mg/L的处理效果最好,当浓度大于0.50 mg/L时,株高和生物量均随着N-苯基-2-萘胺使用浓度的增加而降低;处理后还原型抗坏血酸(AsA)、脱氢抗坏血酸(DHA)、总量Vc和AsA/DHA比值的变化趋势相似,0.50 mg/L处理下,AsA、DHA、总量Vc、AsA/DHA比值与对照相比均显著增加,当浓度大于0.50 mg/L时,AsA、DHA、总量Vc、AsA/DHA比值与对照相比均显著降低;在AsA循环中的抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)、脱氢抗坏血酸还原酶(DHAR)和单脱氢抗坏血酸还原酶(MDHAR)活性变化趋势相似,均随着处理浓度增加呈现出先增加后降低的趋势,其中以0.50 mg/L处理下酶活性最高,而抗坏血酸氧化酶(AAO)活性则随着处理浓度的增加而逐渐降低,以0.25 mg/L处理效果最好;在还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)循环中,当处理浓度小于2.50 mg/L时,氧化型谷胱甘肽(GSSG)含量随着处理浓度的增加与对照相比稍有下降,但差异不显著,GSH含量与谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活性变化趋势相似,随着处理浓度增加呈现出先增加而后逐渐降低,其中以0.50 mg/L处理下效果最好。说明合理利用水葫芦中化感物质,有助于植株的生长,同时增加了体内AsA-GSH代谢循环,提高了青菜的抗氧化防御能力。%Effects of N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on the growth and AsA-GSH circulation metabolism in Chinese cabbage were studied in the paper.The results showed that the different phenomena were found in the shoot height and biomass when the Chinese cabbages were treated by the different N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine concentrations .Es-pecially,the treatment of 0.50 mg/L had the best

  1. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  2. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  3. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  4. 白菜根肿病菌致病性因素研究%Study on Pathogenic Factors of Cabbage Root Swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明英; 李向东; 孙道旺; 曹继芬; 彭荣珍; 杨佩文; 代玉华; 杨家鸾; 严位中

    2011-01-01

    BaSed on Study of the main factoRS of Plasmodiophora brassicae in 2002 -2004 , the reSults ahowed : ( i ) When the soil moiature were 20 % , 30 % , 40 % , 50 % , 60 % , 70 % and 80 % , the cabbage disease indax were 0,1. 5 ,10. 5 ,28. 6,26. 9,19. 8 and 2.9, respectively. ( ii ) Tte vertical distribution of dormant sprores in the field were measured, the results showed that the numbers of dormant sporea were 0. 49 × 106 -208. 27 × 106 , 83. 85 × 106 - 1400. 15 × 106 , 5. 1 × 102 - 28.7 × 102 in the soil layer of 0, 10 and 20 cm, respectively. And the numbers of dormant spores were 10 cm > 0 cm > 20 cm. ( iii) With 0, 10 and 20 cm contaminated soil to inoculated Chinese cabbage, the disase index of clubroot disease were 30. 7 , 25. 8 and 20. 0 ,respectively. But with the dried contaminated soil to inoculated the Chinese cabbage, there were no disease appearance. Soil pH was cloaely related to the occurrence of clubroot diaease in the fields. When the pH was between 5. 6 -5. 97 , the frequency of infected plants were 100 % ; the pH was between 6. 9 - 7. 59 , the frequency of infected plants were 45. 68 % - 62. 96 % . When the diseased soil uptumed under sun in 60, 40 , 20 d inoculated cabbage and kale ,the disease indcxes were 0. 47 , 4. 4 . 38. 2 and 0. 2 , 1. 2 . 24. 8 . respectively. The diseased root treated by flood damage and aun for 5 , 10 , 15 d inoculated cabbage, the diseased plant rate were 55. 2 % , 79. 2 % , 89. 6 % and 85. 7 % . 100 % , 100 % , respectively. The fresh root inoculated cabbage, the diseased plant rate was 84. 9 % , and the disease-free soil did not cause the incidence.%通过对2002年至2004年白菜根肿病主要影响因素研究,结果表明,土壤含水量为20%、30%、40%、50%、60%、70%、80%时,白菜根肿病病情指数分别为0,1.5,10.5,28.6,26.9,19.8,2.9.对病田土壤中根肿病菌休眠孢子囊垂直分布测定,结果为0 cm土层平均含菌量为0.49×106~208.27×106

  5. Brassicas limited in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Mr P

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.

  6. Growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage and cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E; Hao, D Y; Conner, D E

    1986-10-01

    Studies were done to determine the interacting effects of pH, NaCl, temperature, and time on growth, survival, and death of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Viable population of the organism steadily declined in heat-sterilized cabbage stored at 5 degrees C for 42 days. In contrast, the organism grew on raw cabbage during the first 25 days of a 64-day storage period at 5 degrees C. Growth was observed in heat-sterilized unclarified cabbage juice containing less than or equal to 5% NaCl and tryptic phosphate broth containing less than or equal to 10% NaCl. Rates of thermal inactivation increased as pH of clarified cabbage juice heating medium was decreased from 5.6 to 4.0. At 58 degrees C (pH 5.6), 4 X 10(6) cells/mL were reduced to undetectable levels within 10 min. Thermal inactivation rates in clarified cabbage juice (pH 5.6) were not significantly influenced by the presence of up to 2% NaCl; however, heat-stressed cells had increased sensitivity to NaCl in tryptic soy agar recovery medium. Cold enrichment of heat-stressed cells at 5 degrees C for 21 days enhanced resuscitation. Results indicate that L. monocytogenes can proliferate on refrigerated (5 degrees C) raw cabbage which, in turn, may represent a hazard to health of the consumer. Heat pasteurization treatments normally given to cabbage juice or sauerkraut would be expected to kill any L. monocytogenes cells which may be present.

  7. 埃塞俄比亚芥与芥蓝杂交获得异源三倍体及其细胞学研究%Synthesis and Cytological Studies of Allotriploid Interspecies between Brassica carinata and Chinese Kale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗双霞; 张成合; 陈雪平; 申二巧; 申书兴

    2013-01-01

    以埃塞饿比亚芥(2n =4x=BBCC=34)和芥蓝(2n =2x=CC=18)为材料,通过相互杂交获得了异源三倍体(2n=3x =BCC =26).该异源三倍体生长势较强;叶色等介于双亲之间;株型、花型和花大小偏向于埃塞俄比亚芥;花色与芥蓝的相同,为白花.减数分裂观察表明:在终变期,一般形成9个二价体和8个单价体(9Ⅱ+8 I),且B、C两组染色体表现出一定程度的分群现象;中期I,CC基因组的9个二价体排列在赤道板上,而B组的8个单价体游离在赤道板周围;后期Ⅰ分到两极的染色体以13/13和12/14占多数,偶见落后的染色体.该BCC异源三倍体的获得为创建CC+B染色体的异附加系和研究B、C基因组间的亲缘关系奠定了基础.%The allotriploid interspecies ( BCC) were obtained by reciprocal crosses between Brassica carinata (2n=4x = BBCC =34) and Chinese kale (2n=2x = CC =18). The interspecies displayed a stronger growth than that of parents and intermediated to the leaf color of their parents. The plant type .flower shape, and flower color tended to parent B. Carinata and the white flower color was the same as that of Chinese kale. Meiosis observation of the allotriploid showed that 9 bivalents and 8 univalents (9 Ⅱ + 8 Ⅰ ) were formed at diakinesis stage and the two kind of chromosomes (B and C) tended to separate into two groups. At metaphase Ⅰ stage,9 bivalents of CC genome arranged on equatorial plane and 8 univalents of B genome distributed around the equatorial plane. While at anaphase Ⅰ stage,the distributions of chromosomes with 13/13 or 12/14 were in the majority, including occasionally backward chromosomes. Obtaining of this allotriploid ( BCC) provided an important material for production of CC + B alien addition lines and study of chromosome homology between B and C genomes.

  8. Effect of Different Combined Application of Organic-inorganic Fertilizers on Yield, N Uptake and Utilization and Soil Inorganic Nitrogen Residual of Open-field Broccoli and Chinese Cabbage in Yellow River Irrigation Area of Ningxia%宁夏引黄灌区有机无机肥配施对露地蔬菜产量、氮素吸收利用和土壤无机氮残留的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔银萍; 罗健航; 吴涛; 冒海军; 陈晓群; 张学军

    2015-01-01

    2012—2014年在宁夏引黄灌区开展有机无机配施对露地花椰菜—大白菜产量、氮素吸收利用影响及其氮肥合理投入阈值研究.结果表明:2012—2014年花椰菜和大白菜经济产量在不同施氮肥处理间存在显著差异.相对于N0处理,除MN0处理外,其他有机无机配施氮肥均可显著提高花椰菜和大白菜经济产量;2012年和2013年花椰菜当季氮肥利用率分别为30.8%~61.0%和23.8%~41.8%,大白菜的氮肥利用率分别为26.3%~54.7%和16.2%~50.0%;合理地配施有机无机肥能显著提高露地蔬菜的经济产量及对氮素的吸收利用.在花椰菜季,0~20 cm、0~100 cm土体Nmin累积量与施氮量都呈二次曲线关系,相关性都不高;而在2012—2014年大白菜季,0~20 cm、0~100 cm土体Nmin累积量与施氮量也都呈二次曲线关系,施氮量与土壤无机氮残留量相关性也不高;表明中高肥力田块土壤基础氮素累积较高,土体Nmin残留量并不完全和施氮量同步.%A study was conducted on the effects of combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the yield, N uptake and utilization of the open-field broccoli and Chinese cabbage, and the reasonable input threshold of nitrogen fertilizer in the Yellow River Irrigation Area of Ningxia from 2012 to 2014. The results showed that the differences between the economic yields of the open-field broccoli and Chinese cabbage with different treatments of N fertilizer application were significant. In contrast to control (treatment N0) and except for the MN0 treatment, the other treatments with the combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer N could all significantly increase the economic yield of the open-field broccoli and Chinese cabbage. The N recovery efficiency (REN) of the broccoli was ranged from 30.8%~61.0% and 23.8%~41.8% in 2012 and 2013, respectively; and the corresponding REN of Chinese cabbage was 26.3%~54.7% and 16.2%~50.0%, respectively. The

  9. Overexpression of AtEDT1/HDG11 in Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) Enhances Drought and Osmotic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhangsheng; Sun, Binmei; Xu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hao; Zou, Lifang; Chen, Guoju; Cao, Bihao; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Improvement of drought and osmotic stress tolerance without yield decrease has been a great challenge in crop improvement. The Arabidopsis ENHANCED DROUGHT TOLERANCE1/HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11 (AtEDT1/HDG11), a protein of the class IV HD-Zip family, has been demonstrated to significantly improve drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice, and pepper. Here, we report that AtEDT1/HDG11 confers drought and osmotic stress tolerance in the Chinese kale. AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression lines exhibit auxin-overproduction phenotypes, such as long hypocotyls, tall stems, more root hairs, and a larger root system architecture. Compared with the untransformed control, transgenic lines have significantly reduced stomatal density. In the leaves of transgenic Chinese kale plants, proline (Pro) content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity was significantly increased after drought and osmotic stress, particularly compared to wild kale. More importantly, AtEDT1/HDG11-overexpression leads to abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, resulting in ABA inhibitor germination and induced stomatal closure. Consistent with observed phenotypes, the expression levels of auxin, ABA, and stress-related genes were also altered under both normal and/or stress conditions. Further analysis showed that AtEDT1/HDG11, as a transcription factor, can target the auxin biosynthesis gene YUCC6 and ABA response genes ABI3 and ABI5. Collectively, our results provide a new insight into the role of AtEDT1/HDG11 in enhancing abiotic stress resistance through auxin- and ABA-mediated signaling response in Chinese kale. PMID:27625663

  10. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-xiao LA; Ping FANG; Yi-bo TENG; Ya-juan LI; Xian-yong LIN

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassioa alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height,stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem,11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L,elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios.Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition.

  11. Plant science meets food science: genetic effects of glucosinolate degradation during food processing in Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Phytochemicals in plant-based foods have been linked to a reduced incidence and progression of diseases. Glucosinolates (GLs) are phytochemicals that are typical for Brassicaand other Cruciferousplants, such as cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, Chinese cabb

  12. Ultra-microstructure of Epicuticular Wax on Waxless Mutant of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey)%无蜡质芥蓝突变型叶表面蜡质超微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 苏同兵; 卢桂香; 孙雷; 张凤兰; 何洪巨; 于拴仓; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 赵学志; 汪维红

    2015-01-01

    以亮叶无蜡质紫色芥蓝突变型紫。中花芥蓝和多蜡质紫色芥蓝野生型为试材,对芥蓝叶片发育过程中最外层的表面蜡质进行系统地观察,并对无蜡质突变型紫。中花芥蓝、多蜡质野生型芥蓝和普通绿色芥蓝(CK)的干物质量、VC、可溶性糖、粗纤维、蛋白质、花青苷等主要营养成分含量进行测定分析。结果表明:在叶片发育过程中,多蜡质野生型芥蓝的叶面蜡质明显多于无蜡质突变型紫。中花芥蓝;野生型芥蓝和紫。中花芥蓝叶片背面的蜡质均明显多于叶片腹面;野生型芥蓝叶片背面的蜡质退化速度明显慢于叶片腹面。无蜡质突变型紫。中花芥蓝的VC含量高于野生型芥蓝,而粗纤维(DW)含量低于野生型芥蓝,说明紫。中花芥蓝有利于改良现有芥蓝的营养品质,有望育成高VC含量、高花青苷含量、以生食为主的芥蓝品种。芥蓝叶片的无蜡质性状对多蜡质表现为隐性遗传,紫色对绿色表现为显性遗传。%Epicuticular waxes of leaves at 4 developing stages in Chinese kale(Brassica alboglabra L. H. Bailey)waxless mutant named‘Zi.zhonghuajielan’and wild type(WT)were observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM).Meanwhile,crude weight,VC,soluble sugar,crude fiber,protein and anthocyanins were measured. The results showed that epicuticular waxes at 4 growth periods of wild type were apparently higher than those of mutant. Epicuticular waxes at leaf abaxial of mutant and WT were higher than those of leaf adaxial.Epicuticular waxes at leaf abaxial of WT degenerated slowly than those of leaf adaxial. VC in waxless mutant was higher than that of WT,and dry weight of crude weight in waxless mutant was lower than that of WT. Thus,waxless mutant in Chinese kale can supply higher nutrition of VC and anthocyanins.Gene controlled wax biosynthesis in Chinese kale waxless mutant was recessive,while gene or genes controlled

  13. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly

  14. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased by Nano zeolite, while the exchangeable Cd in soil as well as Cd concentration and Cd accumulation of cabbage were significantly reduced. PMID:27012003

  15. Genome-wide identification of aquaporin encoding genes in Brassica oleracea and their phylogenetic sequence comparison to Brassica crops and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Arvid Diehn

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are essential channel proteins that regulate plant water homeostasis and the uptake and distribution of uncharged solutes such as metalloids, urea, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Despite their importance as crop plants, little is known about AQP gene and protein function in cabbage (Brassica oleracea and other Brassica species. The recent releases of the genome sequences of B. oleracea and B. rapa allow comparative genomic studies in these species to investigate the evolution and features of Brassica genes and proteins.In this study, we identified all AQP genes in B. oleracea by a genome-wide survey. In total, 67 genes of four plant AQP subfamilies were identified. Their full-length gene sequences and locations on chromosomes and scaffolds were manually curated. The identification of six additional full-length AQP sequences in the B. rapa genome added to the recently published AQP protein family of this species. A phylogenetic analysis of AQPs of A. thaliana, B. oleracea, B. rapa allowed us to follow AQP evolution in closely related species and to systematically classify and (re- name these isoforms. Thirty-three groups of AQP-orthologous genes were identified between B. oleracea and Arabidopsis and their expression was analyzed in different organs. The two selectivity filters, gene structure and coding sequences were highly conserved within each AQP subfamily while sequence variations in some introns and untranslated regions were frequent. These data suggest a similar substrate selectivity and function of Brassica AQPs compared to Arabidopsis orthologs. The comparative analyses of all AQP subfamilies in three Brassicaceae species give initial insights into AQP evolution in these taxa. Based on the genome-wide AQP identification in B. oleracea and the sequence analysis and reprocessing of Brassica AQP information, our dataset provides a sequence resource for further investigations of the physiological and molecular functions of

  16. Wybrane zagadnienia z biologii grzyba Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. [Some problems in the life-cycle of fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae, Wor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nowicki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The quickest loss of infectivity of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. resting spores was observed in acid soil. Jnlectivity was ratained longer in neutral and alkaline soils. The infection of cabbage seedlings took place in a broad pH range from 3.3 to 8.1, the optimum soil pH for infection being at 5.3 - 5.7. When the number of spores in the soil increased the infection took place in the infection took place in the broader pH range. The plants which were planted as seedlings in infested soil were infected in a broader pH range than plants which were grown from seeds in infested soil.

  17. The relationship between antibrowning, anti-radical and reducing capacity of Brassica and Allium extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C Bustos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous vegetable extracts from Allium and Brassica families were assayed for antibrowning capacity and related to their anti-radical and reducing power activities. The treatment  of mushrooms and avocado slices, with white cabbage, cauliflower, garlic and scallion extracts, reduced color changes during storage at 4 °C and -18 °C. Storage temperature and the type of extract employed influenced change of color variables. The contribution of polyphenols on measured antioxidant activity of extracts was also discussed. Allium antibrowning properties were closely related to antioxidant capacity, while the Brassica extracts were less effective. Treatment with Allium extracts extended the storage time of frozen and refrigerated mushrooms and avocado slices, in comparison with untreated samples.

  18. Flutuação populacional e distribuição vertical de Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae em couve Populational fluctuation and vertical (within-plant distribution of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae on kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Cividanes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da dinâmica populacional e da distribuição vertical de insetos pragas em plantas hospedeiras é fundamental para o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de pragas. No presente trabalho efetuou-se um levantamento populacional de formas ápteras do pulgão Brevicoryne brassicae (L., visando determinar a época de maior densidade populacional e a distribuição vertical em plantas de couve, (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivadas em Jaboticabal, SP. O estudo foi realizado durante as safras de brássicas de 1998 e 1999, efetuando-se correção da acidez do solo por meio de aplicação de calcário apenas no campo utilizado em 1998. A amostragem dos pulgões foi feita visualmente em folhas classificadas em três categorias: apical, mediana e basal. Nas duas safras estudadas, a infestação de B. brassicae na couve atingiu a maior densidade populacional em setembro, diminuindo rapidamente a seguir. Nos dois campos não se observou a mesma distribuição de B. brassicae em folhas apicais, medianas e basais. Os fatores que podem ter contribuído para as diferenças observadas no padrão de distribuição do pulgão devem estar relacionados com a precipitação pluvial e o calcário magnesiano.The knowledge of the population dynamics and vertical distribution of insect pests in host plants are fundamental for the development of programs of integrated pest management. In the present work, a population survey of apterous cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L., was carried out aiming to determine the period when this aphid reachs the highest population density and the within-plant distributions on its common host, kale, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC., cultivated in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The study took place during the 1998 and 1999 Brassica seasons, and limestone treatment was only made in the field cultivated in 1998. The cabbage aphid was sampled by visual search on leaves classified in three

  19. 结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究和应用进展%Progress in Studying and Applying Cabbage Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季家磊; 杨丽梅; 方智远; 庄木; 张扬勇; 吕红豪; 刘玉梅; 李占省

    2016-01-01

    Strong heterosis on yield,quality,disease resistance and stress tolerance is displayed in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L.).It is an important approach for heterosis utilization to use male sterile line to produce hybrid seed.In recent years,great progress has been made in studying cabbage male sterility. This paper reviews the types of cabbage male sterility line,its genetic characteristics,and achievements gained in studying its cytology,physiology,biochemistry and molecular biology.The paper also introduces the selective breeding of cabbage male sterile line,and its application.At the same time,the paper analyzes the existing problems and prospects the future for cabbage male sterility line application.%结球甘蓝在产量、品质、抗病性、抗逆性等性状上具有明显的杂种优势。利用雄性不育系配制杂交种是杂种优势利用的重要途径。近年来,结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究取得了很大进展。本文综述了结球甘蓝雄性不育的类型、遗传特性及其在细胞学、生理生化和分子生物学等方面取得的研究成果,介绍了结球甘蓝雄性不育系的选育和应用,同时分析了目前存在的问题,并对结球甘蓝雄性不育的应用前景做了展望。

  20. Effect of extracts of the reproductive organs of brassica oleracea L. on morphogenesis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. KIRAKOSJAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cabbage is the most common vegetable. The reason is very tasty and chemical composition. It contains 2,6-5,7% sugar, 1,1-2,3% of the proteins, minerals phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iodine, etc. The most important problem of selection is still reducing the time to development new varieties.Broad prospects in the intensification of the selection process opens the application of modern techniques of applied genetics and applied biotechnology, combined with hybridization and selection. Great theoretical and practical interest, in particular, the use of haploidy. Method dihaploids allows significant acceleration of the process of selection of all cultivated plants.Work carried out on varieties and F1 hybrids of the genus Brassica: cabbage (B. oleracea L.: F1 hybrid Jubilei, line ET1 and AMF 3L. Plants - donors were grown in a greenhouse of the Breeding Timofeev-station of RSAU-MTAA during the year. Objects of our research were isolated anthers, microspores, ovaries and ovules of cabbage.Studied the effects of extracts derived from the reproductive organs of cabbage. As the solvent used: DMSO, acetone, alcohol and water. The extracts were added to a sterile medium. For cabbage we have optimized steps of obtaining regenerated plants by direct embryogenesis from microspores of isolated anthers. Found that the presence of hormones in MS medium at a concentration of NAA 1 mg / l, Dropp - 0.01 mg / l stimulated the process of direct embryogenesis. In these conditions the microspores in anther maintain their viability for a long growing in in vitro. The addition of DMSO-based extracts and acetone resulted in the induction of development of the ovaries and ovules. This was manifested in the growth of the ovaries and the formation of larger ovules. In variants with water and alcohol, this effect was not observed.

  1. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  2. 硝化抑制剂型包膜复合肥的氮素释放特征及其对大白菜生长的影响%N-release Characteristics of Coated Compound Fertilizers Added by Nitrification Inhibitor and Their Effects on Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊; 董元杰; 李光宗; 范振义; 刘双

    2011-01-01

    Four homemade compound fertilizers with nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) being ratio 0% , 1% , 2% and 4% , separately were prepared out of common compound fertilizer by coating them with fly ash as major material. Soil incubation experiment and field experiment were used to study N-release characteristics of the fertilizers and their effects on Chinese cabbage. Results showed that: (l)Using four kinds of fertilizers could keep N as NH4+ - N for a long time, consequently, reduce the risk of nitrate N losses. The effects of four kinds of fertilizers on nutrient release property were 4%>2%>1%~>0%; (2)Four kinds of fertilizers increased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration in the leaves of the Chinese cabbage during its mid and late growth stage, and the two kinds of which ratio being 1% and 2% were better than the others. The fertilizer added by 4% ratio DCD was lowest, however, the other three kinds of fertilizers improve the yield by 14. 0%~17. 2%, income by 14. 55%~17. 5%, and there were not obvious differences between the latter kinds and thermoplastic resins coated fertilizer. In addition, they decreased nitrate contents and organic acid contents by a certain extent in the functional leaves of the plant, and improved sugar-acid ratio and soluble sugar and Vc contents of the head of the pant at the harvest stage. Moreover, theeffects were not obvious comparing with common compound fertilizer and resin coated fertilizers.%以粉煤灰为主要包膜材料,同时添加硝化抑制剂双氰胺(DCD),对普通复合肥进行包膜,制备了DCD含量分别为0%,1%.2%和4%的4种包膜缓释复合肥,并进行土壤培养试验和田间试验,研究包膜缓释肥的氮素释放特征及其对大白菜生长的影响.结果表明:(1)硝化抑制剂与粉煤灰包膜结合能有效地保持氮素养分较长时间处于NH4+-N形态,减少了因转化为N3--N形态而造成的养分淋溶损失.4种自制包膜肥的缓释效果为:4%DCD>2%DCD

  3. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processor, containing at a minimum: (a) The producer's commitment to plant and grow cabbage, and to sell and deliver the cabbage production to the processor; (b) The processor's commitment to purchase all the... sales closing date, the Board of Directors or officers of the processor must execute and adopt...

  4. Steamed Sliced Pork with Dried Mustard Cabbage (Meigancai Kourou)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    500 grams pork with skin75 grams dried mustard cabbage10 grams Shaoxing wine50 grams sugar100 grams soy sauce2 grams salt5 grams spring onions5 grams ginger500 grams clear stockClean the pork, soak the dried mustard cabbage until soft, and clean and slice the spring onion and ginger.Braise the pork in a wok, then

  5. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  6. Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, Lü-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

    2008-10-01

    Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

  7. Seleção e produção de sementes em hortaliças: com referência especial ao gênero Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Brieger

    1942-01-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary work with vegetables was described and special reference was-made to the group Brassica oleracea. a Plants flowering easily in Piracicaba and probably in the whole State of São Paulo. To this group belongs the lettuce, endive, chichory, carrot, radish, kale, brocoli and cauliflower. b Plants where special treatment is necessary for flowering, as cabbage. c Plants that did not flower up to this moment, as Svisschard beet and beet. Three main factors contribute for the seedless condition in the group cabbage : lack of flowering, anormalities of the flowers and self-sterility. The preliminary experiments in controling these factors seem to indicate the possibility of seed production in this group. The systematics of the two species Brassica oleracea (Europe and Brassica juncea (Oriental Asia was discussed. The economical differences in the group Brassica oleracea are controled by Mendelian factors with complicate types of interaction. It is not necessary to look for special places in the State of São Paulo for vegetable experiments but the possibility of better results in the future, with appropriate conditions, is emphasized.

  8. Pemanfaatan Limbah Tahu untuk Peningkatan Hasil Tanaman Petsai (Brassica chinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    YULIADI ASMORO; SURANTO; D. SUTOYO

    2008-01-01

    A tofu industry potentially produced solid or liquid waste products which are potentially causing pollution. A good treatment of the wastes, waste of solid-wet tofu can be use d to make tempeh gem bus, cattle food and fish food, and the rest is also used as fertilizer especially for pak choi or petsai or Chinese cabbage (Brasssica chinensis L.). The aims of this research were examine: (i) The effect of tofu wastes for yield of petsai plant, and (ii) the effect of concentration of tofu waste t...

  9. 新型包膜缓释肥对大白菜生理特性、产量及品质的影响%EFFECTS OF HOMEMADE COATED CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS.YIELD AND QUALITY OF CHINESE CABBAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱现奎; 董元杰; 胡国庆; 王艳华

    2011-01-01

    Three controlled release fertilizers with N-P2O5-K20 ratio being 14.25-14.25-14.25, 13.5-13.5-13.5 and 12.75-12.75-12.75, separately were prepared out of a common compound fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2 O: 15-15-15 ) by coating it with fly ash and organic agglomerant.A field experiment was conducted to study effects of the coated controlled release fertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and quality of the Chinese cabbage growing in the field.Results show that the fertilizers increased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance and decreased stomatal limitation (Ls) in the leaves of the plant during its late growth stage, and improved the plant parameter characteristics, and biomass per head by 0.10 ~0.33 kg, yied by 9.72%~33.1%.In addition, the coated controlled release fertilizers decreased NO3-N significantly and organic acid contents by a certain extent in the functional leaves of the plant, and improved sugar-acid ratio and soluble sugar and Vc contents of the head of the plant at the harvest stage.%以粉煤灰和有机黏结剂为包膜材料,对普通复合肥料(N-P2O5-K2O:15-15-15)进行包膜,制备了N-P2O5-K2O分别为14.25-14.25-14.25、13.5-13.5-13.5和12.75-12.75-12.75的3种包膜缓释肥料.通过田间试验,研究了包膜缓释肥料对大白菜生理特性、产量以及品质的影响.结果表明,在施肥水平相同的情况下,与普通复合肥相比,3种包膜缓释肥料可以提高大白菜生长后期叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度,有效地降低叶片气孔限制值Ls;3种粉煤灰包膜复合肥处理能有效地改善大白菜单株参数,单株结球质量增加0.10~0.33 kg,产量提高9.72%~33.1%;同时,施用粉煤灰包膜缓释肥可以显著降低大白菜功能叶的NO-3-N含量,也一定程度上降低了有机酸含量,提高了收获期大白菜球叶中可溶性糖含量、糖酸比以及Vc含量.

  10. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  11. Contribution of cell walls, nonprotein thiols, and organic acids to cadmium resistance in two cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyun; Cui, Jin; Luo, Chunling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-02-01

    To study possible cadmium (Cd) resistance mechanisms in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), several parameters of metal uptake, distribution, and complexation were compared between two varieties Chunfeng [CF (Cd-tolerant)] and Lvfeng [LF (Cd-sensitive)]. Results showed that CF contained significantly lower Cd concentrations in leaves and higher Cd concentrations in roots than LF. Approximately 70 to 74 % and 66 to 68 % of Cd taken up by LF and CF, respectively, was transported to shoots. More Cd was bound to the cell walls of leaves, stems, and roots in CF than in LF. The higher capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots could be explained by immobilization of Cd in root cell walls. Compared with control groups, Cd treatment also significantly increased concentrations of nonprotein thiols, phytochelatins (PCs), and citric acid in the leaves and roots of the two varieties; the increases were more pronounced in CF than in LF. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater Cd resistance in CF than in LF may be attributable to the greater capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots and complex Cd in cell walls and metal binding ligands, such as PCs and citric acid. However, the contributions of PCs and citric acid to Cd detoxification might be smaller than those in cell walls.

  12. Effects of inorganic and organic amendments on the uptake of lead and trace elements by Brassica chinensis grown in an acidic red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianjin; Li, Xia; Liu, Xingmei; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the effects of inorganic (phosphate rock, single superphosphate and calcium magnesium phosphate) and organic amendments (peat, straw manure and pig manure) on the uptake of lead (Pb) and trace elements by Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis) grown in an acidic red soil. The application of all organic amendments increased the soil pH while inorganic amendments such as single superphosphate did not. Both inorganic and organic amendments decreased the availability and uptake of Pb while the organic amendments were superior to the inorganic (phosphate) amendments in reducing the availability of the more labile (soluble and exchangeable Pb) forms of soil Pb. More Pb was taken up by roots than shoots with all soil amendments. Among the organic amendments, straw manure and pig manure caused the largest decrease in Pb availability at 456.5 and 457.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, when a high level of 30 g organic amendments kg(-1) was applied. The organic amendments greatly increased the fraction D targeted to Fe-Mn oxides bound Pb, and decreased the fraction A (water-soluble), B (exchangeable), and C (carbonate-bound), thereby decreasing the solubility and mobility of Pb in soil. The organic amendments also significantly improved the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil and shoots (except Fe in shoots and/or roots), which are essential for plant nutrition. The organic amendments of straw and pig manure lowered the availability and uptake of Pb but not that of other trace metals. Thus, these amendments have the potential to remediate Pb-contaminated soils in situ. PMID:24992219

  13. Development of primer sets that can verify the enrichment of histone modifications, and their application to examining vernalization-mediated chromatin changes in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanabe, Takahiro; Osabe, Kenji; Itabashi, Etsuko; Okazaki, Keiichi; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-07-20

    Epigenetic regulation is crucial for the development of plants and for adaptation to a changing environment. Recently, genome-wide profiles of histone modifications have been determined by a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genomic tiling arrays (ChIP on chip) or ChIP and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) in species including Arabidopsis thaliana, rice and maize. Validation of ChIP analysis by PCR or qPCR using positive and negative regions of histone modification is necessary. In contrast, information about histone modifications is limited in Chinese cabbage, Brassica rapa. The aim of this study was to develop positive and negative control primer sets for H3K4me3 (trimethylation of the 4(th) lysine of H3), H3K9me2, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 in B. rapa. The expression and histone modification of four FLC paralogs in B. rapa, before and after vernalization, were examined using the method developed here. After vernalization, expression of all four BrFLC genes was reduced, and accumulation of H3K27me3 was observed in three of them. As with A. thaliana, the vernalization response and stability of FLC repression correlated with the accumulation of H3K27me3. These results suggest that the epigenetic state during vernalization is important for high bolting resistance in B. rapa. The positive and negative control primer sets developed here revealed positive and negative histone modifications in B. rapa that can be used as a control for future studies. PMID:27074983

  14. Paving the way for genetic improvement of zinc accumulation in Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.

    2007-01-01

    Brassica rapa L. comprises several vegetable crops, some of which are among the most important vegetables in China, serving as one of the main resources of mineral nutrition for Chinese people. However, the knowledge on the genetics of micronutrient accumulation, including Zn, Fe and Mn, is lacking

  15. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  16. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Mithila, J.; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A h...

  17. 超微细磷矿粉包膜缓释肥的缓释特征及其对大白菜生理特性的影响%NUTRIENT RELEASE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZERS COATED WITH SUPERFINE PHOSPHATE ROCK POWDER AND ITS EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGIC TRAITS OF CHINESE CABBAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊; 董元杰; 刘春生; 盖国胜; 邱现奎; 王全辉; 范振义

    2012-01-01

    Four types of controlled release fertilizers, CRF2 , CRF3 , CRF4 and CRF5, were prepared out of a common compound fertilizer (N-P2 O5-K2O: 15 - 15 - 15) by coating it with superfine phosphate rock powder ( SPRP) , which accounted for 0% , 40% , 50% and 60% of the total coating in mass, separately. Electronic microscope scanning, static water releasing, soil incubation and a field experiment were conduced to explore characteristics of their nutrient release and their effects on physiologic traits of Chinese cabbage. Results show that the use of superfine phosphate rock powder in coating markedly improved evenness and density of the surface of the coating and hence its capability of controlling nutrient release, and the effect increased with the proportion of the powder in coating. The four kinds of homemade SPRP-coated fertilizers had a nutrient releasing period ,58-68 days longer than the common compound fertilizer had but still shorter than 88 days the resin coated fertilizers ( CRF1) had. However, their apparent nitrogen release rates were approximate to that of CRF1. Besides, the four SPRP-coated fertilizers increased the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate in the leaves of the plant during its middle and late growth stages, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD during its balling period, the biomass per head by 0. 17 ~0. 77kg, the yield by 6. 66% ~ 35.50% , and sugar/ acid ratio, soluble sugar content, and VC content of the head of the plant at the harvest stage. Comparison with CRF1 shows that they made no big differences in physiological traits of the plant. In terms of nutrient release and effects on physiological traits of the plant the four homemade fertilizers follow the order of CRF4≈CRF5 > CRF3 > CRF2.%以超微细磷矿粉为主要膜材料对普通复合肥(N-P2O5-K2O:15-15-15)进行包膜,制备了超微细磷矿粉分别占膜材料质量0%、40%、50%和60%比例的4种包膜缓释肥料,分别为CRF2、CRF3

  18. Determination of Thioglucoside inCabbage by Using the Ultraviolet-visible Light Spectrophotometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer method was adopted to determine thioglucoside in cabbage with the seeds. Individual plant of cabbage was used as test materials,palladium chloride as complexing agent and sodium cellulose glycolate as dispersing agent. The results showed that palladiumd thioglucoside method could be taken as a quick,easy and precise quantitative analysis method to determine thioglucoside in cabbage.

  19. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, N.; Navntoft, S.; H. Philipsen; Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition b...

  20. Evaluation of red cabbage anthocyanins after partial purification on clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Jefferson Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the red cabbage anthocyanins quality after purification by static adsorption assays on clay (Tonsil Terrana 580FF. Thin-layer chromatography analysis and scan spectrometry on UV-Visible showed a good dye stability of the pigment interacting with the clay. The use of pH 3.0 buffer during the batch assays provided a protective effect on the cabbage anthocyanins, limiting the dye acid hydrolyses. Analyses of the reducing sugars contents of the extract showed that clay retained 20% average of total free sugars under the test conditions.

  1. Of cabbages and chlorine: cholera in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The low case fatality rates (1%) from the 1991 cholera epidemic in Peru was more a result of including diarrheas of a less virulent etiology than that of cholera. In fact, a study during the early phases of the cholera epidemic in Trujillo, Peru revealed that only 79% of suspected cholera cases were infected with vibrio cholera 01. Further other people contended that the government of Peru did not chlorinate many water supplies because studies by the US Environmental Protection Agency suggested that chlorine increases the cancer risk. It reacts with organic matter to make trihalomethanes. 1 study noted that this risk may explain as many as 700 cases of cancer/year in the US, yet cholera was responsible for nearly 40009 deaths in Latin America the 1st year. Besides in Trujillo, Peru the reason for not chlorinating the water supply was not due to a conscious decision to not do so on the part of the government, but because no funds had been made available to purchase chlorinators and chlorine. This is typical of many towns in developing countries. Further raw fish also played a role in transmitting cholera in Peru. Moreover the study in Trujillo indicated that water stored in containers in the home, and not the water supply, was the most important vehicle of transmission. Nevertheless chlorination of both the water supply and stored water would have prevented cholera transmission. In addition, cabbage irrigated with raw wastewater contributed to cholera transmission in Trujillo. But a concern arises if developing countries follow the advice of WHO of 1st treating wastewater in stabilization ponds. Aquatic blue green algae, other zooplankton, and phytoplankton from a microhabitat suitable for V. cholera. In fact, a study in Peru identified a seasonal pattern of the cholera epidemic with the seasonality of V. cholera non-01 from sewage lagoons in Lima. PMID:1351603

  2. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  3. Global Gene-Expression Analysis to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes Critical for the Heat Stress Response in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshu Dong

    Full Text Available Genome-wide dissection of the heat stress response (HSR is necessary to overcome problems in crop production caused by global warming. To identify HSR genes, we profiled gene expression in two Chinese cabbage inbred lines with different thermotolerances, Chiifu and Kenshin. Many genes exhibited >2-fold changes in expression upon exposure to 0.5- 4 h at 45°C (high temperature, HT: 5.2% (2,142 genes in Chiifu and 3.7% (1,535 genes in Kenshin. The most enriched GO (Gene Ontology items included 'response to heat', 'response to reactive oxygen species (ROS', 'response to temperature stimulus', 'response to abiotic stimulus', and 'MAPKKK cascade'. In both lines, the genes most highly induced by HT encoded small heat shock proteins (Hsps and heat shock factor (Hsf-like proteins such as HsfB2A (Bra029292, whereas high-molecular weight Hsps were constitutively expressed. Other upstream HSR components were also up-regulated: ROS-scavenging genes like glutathione peroxidase 2 (BrGPX2, Bra022853, protein kinases, and phosphatases. Among heat stress (HS marker genes in Arabidopsis, only exportin 1A (XPO1A (Bra008580, Bra006382 can be applied to B. rapa for basal thermotolerance (BT and short-term acquired thermotolerance (SAT gene. CYP707A3 (Bra025083, Bra021965, which is involved in the dehydration response in Arabidopsis, was associated with membrane leakage in both lines following HS. Although many transcription factors (TF genes, including DREB2A (Bra005852, were involved in HS tolerance in both lines, Bra024224 (MYB41 and Bra021735 (a bZIP/AIR1 [Anthocyanin-Impaired-Response-1] were specific to Kenshin. Several candidate TFs involved in thermotolerance were confirmed as HSR genes by real-time PCR, and these assignments were further supported by promoter analysis. Although some of our findings are similar to those obtained using other plant species, clear differences in Brassica rapa reveal a distinct HSR in this species. Our data could also provide a

  4. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop; Recuperacao no sistema solo-planta de nitrogenio derivado da adubacao verde aplicada a cultura do repolho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: bob@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Estacao Experimental de Seropedica

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with {sup 15}N. The second stage consisted of the application of {sup 15}N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  5. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  6. Cabbage-head development as affected by nitrogen and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbage plants were grown at graded levels of nitrate nitrogen (20 and 100 ppm N) and temperature (15, 20, and 250C, and the effects of these treatments on cabbage-head development were investigated. The total plant dry weight and the cabbage-head yield were always higher at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N, and at each N level the values were in the order of 20>15>250C. The nitrogen content in the outer leaves was higher at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N, and increased slightly with increase in temperature. The total sugar content was higher in the inner head leaves than in the outer leaves, and was decreased greatly at 250C in both organs. The 14CO2 assimilation of the outer leaves was larger at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N. After 14CO2 assimilation by the plants, a greater amount of 14C was lost by respiration at 250C than at 15 and 200C, resulting in a low distribution of 14C-sugars in the inner head leaves. The highest yield and a better quality of cabbage-heads were obtained when the plants were grown at 200C with a high N supply and the outer leaves had a carbohydrate/nitrogen content ratio of about 7. (author)

  7. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal seedlings. Loss of

  8. A Genetic Linkage Map of Brassica carmpestris L.ssp.pekinensis (syn. B.rapa L.ssp.pekinensis )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuan-cang; WANG Yong-jian; ZHENG Xiao-ying

    2003-01-01

    A molecular genetic map of Chinese cabbage was constructed with a 102 recombinant inbred(RI) population from a cross of two cultivated Chinese cabbage lines 177 and 276, using AFLP and RAPDmarkers. 352 markers including 265 AFLP markers and 87 RAPD markers were integrated into 17 linkagegroups. It covered a total of 2 665.7 cM with an average interval of 7.6 cM. AFLP marker is efficient formap construction while it easily forms clusters to cause big gaps in map. A total of 13. 92% abnormal segrega-tion markers distributed in the map. The molecular genetic map is fundamental for gene localization, compar-ative genomics, and QTL mapping of important agronomic traits.

  9. Variation of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin: anticancer components in Brassica during processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Me-Hea Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of cold storage and three common cooking practices, blanching, sauteing, and microwave cooking at different time intervals, on the content of glucosinolate (GSL anticancer components in six Brassica vegetables were investigated. Eleven GSLs including progoitrin, glucoraphanin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin were quantified using LC-MS and HPLC. Storage at 4 ºC indicated no significant loss of GSLs in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, and approximately 90-100% of the total concentration of aliphatic and indolyl GSLs were detected. Interestingly, glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, known as a cancer prevention agents, increased approximately above 50% in broccoli, kohlrabi, and cabbage, while the amount of glucobrassicin decreased by 5% in cauliflower for 5 days at 4 ºC. Blanching of broccoli at 120 sec significantly (36% decreased total GSLs; however, sautéing and microwaving decreased by13-26%. Individual GSLs have different response at blanching. These findings suggest that different processing methods for each vegetable would be preferred to preserve the nutritional qualities.

  10. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Cheng; Jian Wu; Xiaowu Wang

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica olera...

  11. β-环糊精-尿素控释肥对大白菜产量及硝酸盐含量的影响%Effect of β-cyclodextrin-Urea Controlled-release Fertilizer on Chinese Cabbage Output and Nutrate Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓彬

    2015-01-01

    对自行研制的β-环糊精-尿素控释肥进行田间试验,研究控释尿素对大白菜(Brassica campestris L.ssp.pekinensis)的产量、硝酸盐含量的影响.结果表明,在尿素相同用量处理下,控释尿素可以显著提高大白菜产量和降低硝酸盐含量.与普通尿素一次性施用相比,控释肥料处理产量增加21.42%~30.76%,硝酸盐含量降低9.74%~29.47%.

  12. User Guidelines for the Brassica Database: BRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequence of Brassica rapa was first released in 2011. Since then, further Brassica genomes have been sequenced or are undergoing sequencing. It is therefore necessary to develop tools that help users to mine information from genomic data efficiently. This will greatly aid scientific exploration and breeding application, especially for those with low levels of bioinformatic training. Therefore, the Brassica database (BRAD) was built to collect, integrate, illustrate, and visualize Brassica genomic datasets. BRAD provides useful searching and data mining tools, and facilitates the search of gene annotation datasets, syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and flanking regions of functional genomic elements. It also includes genome-analysis tools such as BLAST and GBrowse. One of the important aims of BRAD is to build a bridge between Brassica crop genomes with the genome of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, thus transferring the bulk of A. thaliana gene study information for use with newly sequenced Brassica crops. PMID:26519408

  13. Unleashing the Genome of Brassica Rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation ...

  14. Caracterização de isolados de Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris de sistemas de produção orgânico e reação de brássicas à podridão-negra Characterization of strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris from organic farming systems and reaction of brassicas to black rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andréa dos Santos

    2008-12-01

    .3%, resistance to amoxicilin (70%, gentamicin (40.0% and norfloxacin (45.5% and medium sensitivity (44.4% or resistance (44.4% to neomycin. Fifty-five strains of Xcc were resistant to copper sulfate at 50 mg mL-1 and all of them to 200 mg mL-1; 92.22% of the strains showed esterase activity. Strains were grouped in seven similarity groups by the Euclidean analysis-single linkage. The reaction of 14 genotypes of brassicas to strain "B21" of Xcc was also studied. The genotypes significantly differed among them in relation to incubation period, incidence and disease severity. The highest disease severity was recorded on broccoli "Ramoso", cauliflower "Bola de Neve" and "Piracicaba de Verão", and cabbage "Chato de Quintal", classified as highly susceptible to black rot. The Chinese cabbage hybrids "AF 70", "AF 72", "AF 69" and "AF 66" were highly resistant to black-rot, while broccolis "Ramoso" and "Piracicaba Precoce", cauliflower "Piracicaba de Verão" and "Híbrido Cindy" and cabbage "60 Dias" showed intermediate resistance.

  15. Blanching as a Treatment Process: Effect on Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage is considered an excellent source ofpolyphenolswith substantial antioxidant properties associated with the alleviation of oxidative stress and the prevention of free-radical mediated diseases. Many cabbage varieties are typically blanched prior to consumption mainly to enhance associated sensory attributes. Conventional hot water (80-100°C) or steam blanching are the most industrially applied methods. Blanching causes adverse losses in the antioxidant capacity of cabbage with over 70%...

  16. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher......In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied in...... external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...

  17. Physiology and Proteomics of Cabbage Under Heat and Flooding Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang KY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and excess rain, which can lead to heat and flooding stresses, seriously impact the yield and quality of cabbages. Two cabbage cultivars were examined in this study: heat- and flooding-tolerant ‘Sha-sha-jieu’ and heat-tolerant but flooding-sensitive ‘Mi-ni’. The goals of this study were to investigate leaf proteomic and physiological changes in plants responding to treatments of high temperature, flooding, and both stresses combined. Fortyfive- day-old cabbage plants at temperatures of 22°C or 40°C were treated separately with or without flooding in growth chambers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Treatment at 22°C without flooding was used as the control. Changes in stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence of stressed leaves indicate that ‘Mi-ni’ suffered more severely than ‘Sha-sha-jieu’. Separated by 2-dimensional liquid phase fractionation, 25 and 26 expressed protein spots were extracted from the stressed leaves of ‘Mi-ni’ and ‘Sha-sha-jieu’, respectively. Most of the differentially expressed proteins identified by matrixassisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were involved in photosynthesis and ATP synthesis. The most highly expressed proteins were ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO, oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE, and chloroplastic ATP synthase. However, both serine/threonine protein phosphatase 7 inactive homolog and entatricopeptide repeat-containing protein At1g79540 exhibited relatively lower expression under high temperature and flooding. In response to high temperature and flooding, proteins such as RubisCO, OEE protein 1, and chloroplastic ATP synthase generally increased, indicating that the regulation of energy production is critical for tolerating heat and flood stressing in cabbages.

  18. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  19. A Genetic Linkage Map of Brassica rapa Based on AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-jun; WANG Xiao-wu; Guusje Bonnema; SUN Ri-fei; XU Ze-yong; Dick Vreugdenhi; Maarten Koornneef

    2005-01-01

    A F2 mapping population was developed by crossing a Chinese cabbage-pe-tsai variety CC156 and an oil type Rapid cycling RC144 which were different from each other in morphology, maturity, self-compatibility, plant height, etc. Using 244 AFLP markers a map was constructed containing 10 main linkage groups covering a total distance of 857 cM,corresponding to 3.5 cM per marker. Length of linkage groups varied from 43 to 125 cM and the number of AFLP markers linkage to each group ranged from 7 to 41.

  20. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... from hazards associated with the swim event. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel...

  1. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  2. Organic farming systems benefit biodiversity and natural pest regulation in white cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Eilenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural regulation of cabbage root flies works well in experimental organic cropping systems of white cabbage. Low input and complex organic systems benefit functional biodiversity by providing good living conditions to several groups of natural enemies. Intercropped green manure benefits large predators while small predatory beetles favour low input organic systems with bare soil between crop rows.

  3. Enhancement of trace-element content of cabbages grown in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.; MacKenzie, E.J.

    1970-01-01

    Significantly higher contents of boron, molybdenum and zinc were observed in cabbages in urban than in rural areas. The levels of extractable boron, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were markedly enhanced in the urban soils but there was no corresponding enhancement of the levels of copper, lead and nickel in the cabbages. 10 references, 2 tables.

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Genes and Estimation of Glucosinolate Contents in Edible Organs of Brassica oleracea Subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28 and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51, were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs.

  5. Identification and expression analysis of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and estimation of glucosinolate contents in edible organs of Brassica oleracea subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Go-Eun; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Yang, Kiwoung; Park, Jong-In; Kang, Jong-Goo; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative biochemical compounds that defend plants from insect and microbial attack. Glucosinolates are abundant in all cruciferous crops, including all vegetable and oilseed Brassica species. Here, we studied the expression of glucosinolate biosynthesis genes and determined glucosinolate contents in the edible organs of a total of 12 genotypes of Brassica oleracea: three genotypes each from cabbage, kale, kohlrabi and cauliflower subspecies. Among the 81 genes analyzed by RT-PCR, 19 are transcription factor-related, two different sets of 25 genes are involved in aliphatic and indolic biosynthesis pathways and the rest are breakdown-related. The expression of glucosinolate-related genes in the stems of kohlrabi was remarkably different compared to leaves of cabbage and kale and florets of cauliflower as only eight genes out of 81 were expressed in the stem tissues of kohlrabi. In the stem tissue of kohlrabi, only one aliphatic transcription factor-related gene, Bol036286 (MYB28) and one indolic transcription factor-related gene, Bol030761 (MYB51), were expressed. The results indicated the expression of all genes is not essential for glucosinolate biosynthesis. Using HPLC analysis, a total of 16 different types of glucosinolates were identified in four subspecies, nine of them were aliphatic, four of them were indolic and one was aromatic. Cauliflower florets measured the highest number of 14 glucosinolates. Among the aliphatic glucosinolates, only gluconapin was found in the florets of cauliflower. Glucoiberverin and glucobrassicanapin contents were the highest in the stems of kohlrabi. The indolic methoxyglucobrassicin and aromatic gluconasturtiin accounted for the highest content in the florets of cauliflower. A further detailed investigation and analyses is required to discern the precise roles of each of the genes for aliphatic and indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis in the edible organs. PMID:26205053

  6. Molecular cloning and primary sequence analysis of a gene encoding a putative shitinase gene in Brassica oleracea var.capitata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGGUOQING; YONGYANBAI; 等

    1996-01-01

    Chitinase,which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4-acetyl-D-glucosamine linkages of the fungal cell wall polymer chitin,is involved in inducible plants defense system.By construction of cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata) genomic library and screening the library with pRCH8,a probe of rice chitinase gene fragment,a chitinase genomic sequence was isolated.The complete uncleotide sequence of the putative cabbage chitinase gene (cabch29) was determined,with its longest open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 413 aa.This polypeptide consists of a 21 aa N-terminal signal peptide,two chitin-binding domains different from those of other classes of plant chitinases,and a catalytic domain.Homology analysis illustrated that this cabch29 gene has 58.8% identity at the nucleotide level with the pRCH8 ORF probe and has 50% identity at the amino acid level tiwh the catalytic domains of chitinase from bean,maize and sugar beet.Meanwhile,several kinds of cis-elements,such as TATA box,CAAT box,GATA motif,ASF-1 binding site,wound-response elements and AATAAA,have also been discovered in the flanking region of cabch29 gene.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of bZIP Transcription Factors in Brassica oleracea under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Indeok; Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Kang, Jong-Goo; Chung, Mi-Young; Kim, Young-Wook; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Cabbages (Brassica oleracea L.) are an important vegetable crop around world, and cold temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses causing agricultural losses, especially in cabbage crops. Plant bZIP transcription factors play diverse roles in biotic/abiotic stress responses. In this study, 119 putative BolbZIP transcription factors were identified using amino acid sequences from several bZIP domain consensus sequences. The BolbZIP members were classified into 63 categories based on amino acid sequence similarity and were also compared with BrbZIP and AtbZIP transcription factors. Based on this BolbZIP identification and classification, cold stress-responsive BolbZIP genes were screened in inbred lines, BN106 and BN107, using RNA sequencing data and qRT-PCR. The expression level of the 3 genes, Bol008071, Bol033132, and Bol042729, was significantly increased in BN107 under cold conditions and was unchanged in BN106. The upregulation of these genes in BN107, a cold-susceptible inbred line, suggests that they might be significant components in the cold response. Among three identified genes, Bol033132 has 97% sequence similarity to Bra020735, which was identified in a screen for cold-related genes in B. rapa and a protein containing N-rich regions in LCRs. The results obtained in this study provide valuable information for understanding the potential function of BolbZIP transcription factors in cold stress responses. PMID:27314020

  8. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  9. Cytology Studies on Anther Development of Male Sterile Materials 'Ms2008076' in Cabbage%甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076花药发育的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆林; 任雪松; 李成琼

    2011-01-01

    对甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076的花药发育过程进行了石蜡切片和显微观察.结果表明:Ms2008076花药败育主要发生在花粉母细胞时期,表现为绒毡层细胞发育异常,花粉母细胞迅速退化以至解体,花药败育.%Microscopic observations on anther development process of male sterile materials ‘Ms2008076' in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. ) showed that ‘Ms2008076' anther development was hindered at the stage of pollen mother cell differentiation. The main characteristic is that the tapetal cells developed abnormally and pollen mother cell de-gradated rapidly to disintegrate with the ultimate result that the anthers were abortive absolutely.

  10. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  11. A new experimental hybrid of cabbage suitable for early production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental hybrids of early cabbage developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the previous period. The hybrids were tested together for two years and then one (H17 was chosen and submitted to the Variety Commission of the Republic of Serbia. In 2011, the experimental hybrid H17 was officially released as an early cabbage hybrid and registered under the name of NS Mendo F1. The hybrid had been developed by crossing two early lines, one of which was sterile. It is characterized by a short growing season - 65 days from transplanting to harvest. The head weight ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kg depending on the cultural practice applied. The head is light green in color, sweet-tasting, and suitable for fresh consumption. The hybrid’s traits that contributed significantly to the formation of the first principal component were in fact those that the breeders attach most importance to in their breeding programs. These are the traits that directly influence the market value of a new hybrid and make a given hybrid recognizable on the market. Most notable among such traits are head weight and the weight of the useful part of the head.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  12. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...

  14. 甘蓝无蜡粉突变体叶表皮蜡质超微结构观察%Observation of Ultra Microstructure of Wax-less Mutant Epicuticular Wax on Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟香丽; 王超; 王帅

    2013-01-01

    Different growth periods of epicuticular wax development on cabbage (Brassica olera-cea L. var. capitata L. ) leaves were observed by scanning electron microscope, and types of wax mutant and wild-type cabbage leaves were selected as materials. Results showed that some waxes crystals were found in the wax mutant, the waxes crystals were immature and granular in the entire growth period. Different structure of waxes crystals were found in the wild-type, granular and flaky were major crystals structure at seedling stage, while cylindrical and flaky at head-forming stage, flaky and linear at mature stage.%运用扫描电子显微镜对结球甘蓝无蜡粉突变体及野生型材料不同生长时期的叶表皮蜡质发育状况进行比较观察.结果表明:甘蓝无蜡粉突变体也有蜡质晶体存在,但蜡质发育不完全,整个生长期以颗粒状晶体结构为主;野生型不同生长时期表现出不同的蜡质晶体结构,苗期以颗粒状和片状为主,结球期以圆柱状和片状为主,成熟期以片状和线状为主.

  15. Identification of Resistance to Peppery Leaf Spot among Brassica Juncea and Brassica Rapa Plant Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica leafy greens (Brassica juncea L. and B. rapa L.) represent one of the most economically important vegetable crop groups in the southeastern United States. In the last 10 years, numerous occurrences of a leaf spot disease on these leafy vegetables have been reported in several states. This...

  16. 不同氮源与镁配施对甘蓝产量、品质和养分吸收的影响%Effects of combined application of different nitrogen sources and magnesium fertilizers on cabbage yield, quality and nutrient uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉川; 焦晓燕; 聂督; 李丽君; 黄明镜

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable crops have preferences for nitrate-nitrogen (N). Nitrate accumulation in vegetable crops is closely related with the form of N and application rate of N fertilizer, especially under over fertilization of N. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of combined application of different N sources and magnesium (Mg) fertilizers on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates of each treatment. Four N sources (no N, sole nitrate-N, sole ammonium-N, and mixed nitrate/ammonium-N) and four rates of magnesium sulfate fertilizer (0, 75 kg·hm2, 150 kg·hm2 and 300 kg·hm2) were used in the study. Results showed that under the same N conditions, combined application of different N sources and Mg fertilizers had significant effects on yield, quality and nutrient uptake of cabbage. The highest cabbage yield was obtained under combined application of sole nitrate-N and medium rate (150 kg·hm-2) of Mg fertilizer. Cabbage yield under treatment of sole nitrate-N and medium rate Mg fertilizer increased by 56.9%, 14.7% and 5.2%, respectively, compared with those under no fertilizer, sole ammonium-N, and mixed nitrate/ammonium-N applications with medium rate of Mg fertilizer. N resources had significant influence on cabbage yield. Sole nitrate-N treatment increased cabbage yield by 13.0% over sole ammonium-N treatment. No significant yield difference was noted between sole nitrate-N and mixed nitrate/ammonium-N treatments. Compared with treatments without Mg fertilizer, 75 kg·hm-2 Mg fertilizer increased cabbage yield by 9.3%. Nevertheless, no significant increase was noted with further increase in Mg fertilizer rate. The highest cabbage nitrate content was about 2 759.0 mg·kg-1, obtained under combined application of sole nitrate-N with high rate (300 kg·hm-2) of Mg fertilizer. Compared with no fertilizer

  17. 榨菜和紫甘蓝种间周缘嵌合体有性生殖特性研究%Reproductive Characteristics of Periclinal Chimera of Brassica juncea and Brassica oleracea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪云; 王海燕; 韩晓红; 陈利萍

    2011-01-01

    对榨菜(Brassica juncea)和紫甘蓝(Brassica oleracea)种间周缘嵌合体TCC(LⅠ -LⅡ-LⅢ=T-C-C,LⅠ为茎尖分生组织层最外层;LⅡ为中间层;LⅢ为最内层.T表示榨菜,C表示紫甘蓝)的有性发育、生殖器官和生殖特性等进行研究.结果发现,TCC嵌合体的花蕾和花瓣的大小介于榨菜和紫甘蓝之间,而花序形态,雄蕊、雌蕊的长度以及花粉粒的大小等性状在很大程度上与紫甘蓝接近,花瓣的颜色和香气则与榨菜相同.这些研究结果说明花器官的有些性状由茎尖分生组织的LⅠ决定(花色、香气),而有些性状很大程度上决定于内部细胞层LⅡ和/或LⅢ(雌雄蕊大小、花粉粒),还有些性状则是由LⅠ和LⅡ共同决定(花瓣大小).此外,对TCC嵌合体进行蕾期自交、杂交的结果显示TCC嵌合体可以产生果实且坐果率正常,但角果发育到一定大小即停止生长且不能产生种子.产生这一结果的原因可能是TCC嵌合体的花粉粒(来自LⅡ)与雌蕊的的柱头表皮(来自LⅠ)相互识别有障碍,亦或是受精卵发育受阻导致.%The characteristics of TCC (LⅠ-LⅡ-LⅢ , LⅠ -the outmost layer of shoot apical meristem; LⅡ-the middle layer; LⅢ -the innermost layer. T=Tuber mustard, C=Red cabbage) chimera reproductive organs and crossing were determined. It was noted that the length and width of flower buds and petals of TCC chimeras were intermediate between those of red cabbage and tuber mustard, and that the inflorescence and the size of pistils, stamens and pollens were more similar with red cabbage, while the pedal color and flavor were same with tuber mustard. This result indicated that some characters were determined by both LⅠ and L Ⅱ layers, while other characters were determined by LⅠ or LⅡ layer. In addition, TCC chimeras were artificially pollinated with the pollens of TCC chimera, red cabbage and tuber mustard. The capsule setting frequency of TCC chimera was close

  18. Morphology and anatomy of vegetative perko organs with reference to their fodder value

    OpenAIRE

    H. Dalkiewicz-Baranowska; M. Wilczyńska

    2013-01-01

    A new forage crop - perko is a hybrid of tetraploid winter tumiplike rapa (Brassica campestris L.) × tetraploid chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). Young perko plants grow slowly, at a later period their herbage yield rapidly increases, therefore they can be cut as fodder after 60 days of vegetation. The anatomical structure of perko plants shows features characteristic for Cruciferae, particularly those of the genus Brassica. The good feeding value of this plant is indicated by its anat...

  19. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. - Highlights: • We examined the effects of ozone on Pieris brassicae performance and preference. • We studied ozone and herbivore induced changes in the metabolome of Brassica nigra. • The performance of P. brassicae did not correlate with preference of ozonated plants. • Ozone and herbivore-feeding stress changes the phytochemical pools of B. nigra. - Ozone indirectly reduces herbivore performance, which is associated with change in phytochemical pools, but does not correlate with host plant preference

  20. Detection of Tocopherol in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazim Hussain; Zahra Jabeen; LI Yuan-long; CHEN Ming-xun; LI Zhi-lan; GUO Wan-li; Imran Haider Shamsi; CHEN Xiao-yang; JIANG Li-xi

    2013-01-01

    The variation among Chinese genotypes of Brassica napus L. for seed tocopherols content and their analysis using gas chromatography has not been comprehensively reported till to date. In the present study, the tocopherol contents of four Chinese genotypes of Brassica napus L., namely, Gaoyou 605, Zhejiang 619, Zheshuang 758, and Zheshuang 72, were evaluated using three modified sample preparation protocols (P1, P2, and P3) for tocopherol extraction. These methods were distinguished as follows. Protocol one (P1) included the evaporation of solvent after extraction without silylation. Protocol two (P2) followed the direct supernatant collection after overnight extraction without drying and silylation. Protocol three (P3) included trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Genotypic comparison of tocopherol and its isoforms revealed that Gaoyou 605 was dominant over the other genotypes with (140.5±10.5), (316.2± 9.2), and (559.1± 24.3)μg g-1 of seed mealα-,γ-, and total (T-) tocopherol, respectively, and a 0.44±0.04α-toγ-tocopherol ratio. The comparison of the sample preparation protocols, on the other hand, suggests that P3 is the most suitable method for the tocopherol extraction from Brassica oilseeds and for the analysis of tocopherols using gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Trimethylsilylation is the key step differentiating P3 from P1 and P2. Variations detected in tocopherol contents among the Chinese rapeseed (B. napus) genotypes signify the need to quantify a wide range of rapeseed germplasm for seed tocopherol dynamics in short and crop improvement in long.

  1. Unleashing the genome of Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibao eTang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The completion and release of the Brassica rapa genome is of great benefit to researchers of the Brassicas, Arabidopsis, and genome evolution. While its lineage is closely related to the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, the Brassicas experienced a whole genome triplication subsequent to their divergence. This event contemporaneously created three copies of its ancestral genome, which had diploidized through the process of homeologous gene loss known as fractionation. By the fractionation of homeologous gene content and genetic regulatory binding sites, Brassica’s genome is well placed to use comparative genomic techniques to identify syntenic regions, homeologous gene duplications, and putative regulatory sequences. Here, we use the comparative genomics platform CoGe to perform several different genomic analyses with which to study structural changes of its genome and dynamics of various genetic elements. Starting with whole genome comparisons, the Brassica paleohexaploidy is characterized, syntenic regions with Arabidopsis thaliana are identified, and the TOC1 gene in the circadian rhythm pathway from Arabidopsis thaliana is used to find duplicated orthologs in Brassica rapa. These TOC1 genes are further analyzed to identify conserved noncoding sequences that contain cis-acting regulatory elements and promoter sequences previously implicated in circadian rhythmicity. Each 'cookbook style' analysis includes a step-by-step walkthrough with links to CoGe to quickly reproduce each step of the analytical process.

  2. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...... markers could be assigned to six linkage groups, most probably reflecting six B. napus C-chromosomes. The presence of backcross plants with recombinant genotypes suggests that complex genetic processes can take place during the interspecific hybridisation and backcrossing in these Brassica species. The...

  3. Low Temperature Affects Stem Cell Maintenance in Brassica oleracea Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jennifer; Kodde, Jan; Severing, Edouard I; Bonnema, Guusje; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Most of the above ground tissues in higher plants originate from stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Several plant species can suffer from spontaneous stem cell arrest resulting in lack of further shoot development. In Brassica oleracea this SAM arrest is known as blindness and occurs in an unpredictable manner leading to considerable economic losses for plant raisers and farmers. Detailed analyses of seedlings showed that stem cell arrest is triggered by low temperatures during germination. To induce this arrest reproducibly and to study the effect of the environment, an assay was developed. The role of genetic variation on the susceptibility to develop blind seedlings was analyzed by a quantitative genetic mapping approach, using seeds from a double haploid population from a cross between broccoli and Chinese kale, produced at three locations. The analysis revealed, besides an effect of the seed production location, a region on linkage group C3 associated with blindness sensitivity. A subsequent dynamic genome-wide transcriptome analysis resulted in the identification of around 3000 differentially expressed genes early after blindness induction. A large number of cell cycle genes were en masse induced early during the development of blindness, whereas shortly after, all were down-regulated. This miss-regulation of core cell cycle genes is accompanied with a strong reduction of cells reaching the DNA replication phase. From the differentially expressed genes, 90 were located in the QTL region C3. Among them are two genes belonging to the MINICHROMOSOMAL MAINTENANCE gene family, known to be involved in DNA replication, a RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED gene, a key regulator for cell cycle initiation, and several MutS homologs genes, involved in DNA repair. These genes are potential candidates for being involved in the development of blindness in Brassica oleracea sensitive genotypes. PMID:27375654

  4. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality.

  5. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality. PMID:25143001

  6. Brassica oleracea MATE encodes a citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinxin; Li, Ren; Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Haijun; Xing, Yanxia; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Na; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-08-01

    The secretion of organic acid anions from roots is an important mechanism for plant aluminum (Al) tolerance. Here we report cloning and characterizing BoMATE (KF031944), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family gene from cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The expression of BoMATE was more abundant in roots than in shoots, and it was highly induced by Al treatment. The (14)C-citrate efflux experiments in oocytes demonstrated that BoMATE is a citrate transporter. Electrophysiological analysis and SIET analysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing BoMATE indicated BoMATE is activated by Al. Transient expression of BoMATE in onion epidermal cells demonstrated that it localized to the plasma membrane. Compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis, the transgenic lines constitutively overexpressing BoMATE enhanced Al tolerance and increased citrate secretion. In addition, Arabidopsis transgenic lines had a lower K(+) efflux and higher H(+) efflux, in the presence of Al, than control wild type in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This is the first direct evidence that MATE protein is involved in the K(+) and H(+) flux in response to Al treatment. Taken together, our results show that BoMATE is an Al-induced citrate transporter and enhances aluminum tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  8. Comparison of the degradation and leaching kinetics of glucosinolates during processing of four Brassicaceae (broccoli, red cabbage, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan, I.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are secondary metabolites of Brassica vegetables that are associated with health benefits. The concentrations of these compounds are strongly affected by processing of the vegetables. During thermal treatment of Brassicaceae, such as domestic cooking, different mechanisms affect

  9. Biology and harmfulness of Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) in winter oilseed rape

    OpenAIRE

    Draga Graora; Ivan Sivčev; Lazar Sivčev; Wolfgang Büchs; Vladimir Tomić; Boris Dudić; Tanja Gotlin-Čuljak

    2015-01-01

    The Brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.) is an important pest in oilseed rape (Brasica napus L.). It develops two generations per year and overwinters in the larval stage in cocoons in soil. Immigration of the first generation adults lasted from the beginning of April until the end of May. Larvae developed in pods from mid-April to mid-June, causing pod deformation and cracking, which resulted in premature falling out of seeds and yield reduction....

  10. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Acephala).

    OpenAIRE

    F. Fernandes; Ferreres, F.; Oliveira, J; Valentão, P.; Pereira, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P. B.

    2008-01-01

    Vegetables of the Brassica group are the most commonly grown and consumed worldwide. Food plants with apparent cancer and cardiovascular di sease-preventing properties include several varieties of Brassica oleraceae. The majority of the herbivorous insect species are specialized feeders, for which the behavioral decision to accept a plant as food or oviposition substrate is mainly related with sensory information. Pieris insects (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores...

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of black mustard (Brassica nigra; BB) and comparison with Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Terachi, Toru

    2014-11-01

    Crop species of Brassica (Brassicaceae) consist of three monogenomic species and three amphidiploid species resulting from interspecific hybridizations among them. Until now, mitochondrial genome sequences were available for only five of these species. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the sixth species, Brassica nigra (nuclear genome constitution BB), and compared it with those of Brassica oleracea (CC) and Brassica carinata (BBCC). The genome was assembled into a 232 145 bp circular sequence that is slightly larger than that of B. oleracea (219 952 bp). The genome of B. nigra contained 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 17 tRNA genes. The cox2-2 gene present in B. oleracea was absent in B. nigra. Although the nucleotide sequences of 52 genes were identical between B. nigra and B. carinata, the second exon of rps3 showed differences including an insertion/deletion (indel) and nucleotide substitutions. A PCR test to detect the indel revealed intraspecific variation in rps3, and in one line of B. nigra it amplified a DNA fragment of the size expected for B. carinata. In addition, the B. carinata lines tested here produced DNA fragments of the size expected for B. nigra. The results indicate that at least two mitotypes of B. nigra were present in the maternal parents of B. carinata.

  12. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induce Subspecies-Specific Patterns of Glucosinolate Accumulation and Gene Expression in Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go-Eun Yi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates have anti-carcinogenic properties. In the recent decades, the genetics of glucosinolate biosynthesis has been widely studied, however, the expression of specific genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis under exogenous phytohormone treatment has not been explored at the subspecies level in Brassica oleracea. Such data are vital for strategies aimed at selective exploitation of glucosinolate profiles. This study quantified the expression of 38 glucosinolate biosynthesis-related genes in three B. oleracea subspecies, namely cabbage, broccoli and kale, and catalogued associations between gene expression and increased contents of individual glucosinolates under methyl jasmonate (MeJA and salicylic acid (SA treatments. Glucosinolate accumulation and gene expression in response to phytohormone elicitation was subspecies specific. For instance, cabbage leaves showed enhanced accumulation of the aliphatic glucoiberin, progoitrin, sinigrin and indolic neoglucobrassicin under both MeJA and SA treatment. MeJA treatment induced strikingly higher accumulation of glucobrassicin (GBS in cabbage and kale and of neoglucobrassicin (NGBS in broccoli compared to controls. Notably higher expression of ST5a (Bol026200, CYP81F1 (Bol028913, Bol028914 and CYP81F4 genes was associated with significantly higher GBS accumulation under MeJA treatment compared to controls in all three subspecies. CYP81F4 genes, trans-activated by MYB34 genes, were expressed at remarkably high levels in all three subspecies under MeJA treatment, which also induced in higher indolic NGBS accumulation in all three subspecies. Remarkably higher expression of MYB28 (Bol036286, ST5b, ST5c, AOP2, FMOGS-OX5 (Bol031350 and GSL-OH (Bol033373 was associated with much higher contents of aliphatic glucosinolates in kale leaves compared to the other two subspecies. The genes expressed highly could be utilized in strategies to selectively increase glucosinolate compounds in B. oleracea

  13. Comportamento agronômico de cultivares e híbridos de repolho na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul Agronomic behavior of cabbage cultivars and hybrids in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fracaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata é uma das plantas hortícolas mais importantes na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Assim sendo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os melhores cultivares e híbridos de repolho para esta região. Quinze materiais comerciais de repolho, de distintos distribuidores e origens, foram avaliados quanto ao seu comportamento agronômico em Veranópolis, RS, de julho a novembro de 1997, adotando a tecnologia usualmente recomendada para esta região. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas com os híbridos Shinsei (54,8t/ha, Japonês (53,6t/ha, Astrus (48,6t/ha e Kenzan (44,8t/ha, e o cultivar Brunswick (43,5t/ha. Entretanto, considerando a preferência do mercado por repolhos de 1 a 1,5kg, os melhores materiais foram Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, com produtividades da ordem de 32 a 40t/ha.Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata is one of the most important horticultural plants in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The objective of the present study was to identify the best cultivar and hybrid of cabbage for this region. Fifteen commercial materials of cabbage, from different distributors and origins, were evaluated for their agronomic behavior in Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, from July to November, 1997, adopting the technology usually recommended for this region. The best productivities were obtained with the hybrids Shinsei (54.8t/ha, Japonês (53.6t/ha, Astrus (48.6t/ha and Kenzan (44.8t/ha, and the cultivar Brunswick (43.5t/ha. However, considering the preference of the market for cabbages of 1 to 1.5kg, the best materials were Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, with productivities of the order of 32 to 40t/ha.

  14. EFFECTS OF PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT ROT AND METALAXYL TREATMENT ON THE YIELD OF SOME FORAGE BRASSICA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Aziz; KOCH, D.W.; Gray, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    Three forage Brassica species were evaluated for their growth and adaptability to the Rocky Mountain region. Brassicas were grown in fields infested with a Phytophthora disease previoıısly observed on kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) Metalaxyl treatmıent did not affect Brassica yields signifıcantly. Although pest problems were detected, Brassica crops tolerated low temperatures and produced excellent yields ( up to 9.90 Mg/ha). The Phytophthora isolates from Brassica, which were identif...

  15. Control of cabbage diamondback moth by integrating the sterile insect technique and parasitoids in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mass rearing of DBM was carried out on cauliflower, cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae collection on aluminum foil was tested. Storage of pupae and larvae was carried out in 16 deg. C incubator and 5-10 deg. C refrigerator. Different doses of gamma radiation: 10Kr, 15Kr and 20Kr were tested to established the effective gamma radiation dose. Each one hundred cabbage plants were selected and marked for regular observations of DBM populations in control plots to assess the frequency distribution of DBM adult population in cabbage fields. DBM larvae were collected in control plots to assess the rate of DBM larvae with the parasitoid - Cotesia plutellae in fields. Mass rearing of DBM on cauliflower was better than rearing on cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae collection on cauliflower was better than those of cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae could be stored successfully for 2 weeks in 16 deg. C incubator and 5-10 deg. C refrigerator. DBM larvae reared on cauliflower could be stored for 7 days at 5-10 deg. c refrigerator. Radiation doses of 10Kr gave better results than 15 Kr and 20 Kr. 1-5 DBM adults were found in most of the plants during the season. Percentage of DBM larvae parasitised by the parasitoid - Cotesia plutellae was 30-40% in the field. (author)

  16. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  17. The nomenclature of two fungi parasitizing Brassica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1964-01-01

    The nomenclature of the perfect and imperfect stages of Mycosphaerella brassicicola (Duby) Lind. and Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & De Not. is discussed. The imperfect stages of these two parasites of Brassica spp. are often confused. Mycosphaerella brassicicola has a spermagonial stage with

  18. Anaerobic metabolism in Brassica seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    Germination typically depends on oxidative respiration. The lack of convection under space conditions may create hypoxic or conditions during seed germination. We investigated the effect of reduced oxygen on seed germination and metabolism to understand how metabolic constraints affect seed growth and responsiveness to reorientation. Germination was completely inhibited when seeds were imbibed in the absence of oxygen; germination occurred at 5% oxygen and higher levels. Adding oxygen after 72 h resulted in immediate germination (protrusion of the radicle). Hypoxia typically activates alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC 1.1.1.27) which produce ethanol and/or L-lactate, respectively. We report on the expression of ADH1 and LDH1, and changes in total soluble sugars, starch, pH, and L-lactate in seedlings grown at 28°C in 0, 2.5, 5, 10% and ambient (21%) oxygen conditions as controls. The highest consumption (lowest level) of sugars was seen at 0% oxygen but the lowest level of starch occurred 24 h after imbibition under ambient condition. Expression levels of ADH1 in ambient oxygen condition increased within 24 h but increased threefold under hypoxic conditions; LDH1 increased up to 8-fold under hypoxia compared to controls but ADH1 and LDH1 were less expressed as the oxygen levels increased. The intracellular pH of seeds decreased as the content of L-lactate increased for all oxygen concentrations. These results indicate that germination of Brassica is sensitive to oxygen levels and that oxygen availability during germination is an important factor for metabolic activities. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  19. Different myrosinase and idioblast distribution in Arabidopsis and Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Erik; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Höglund, Anna-Stina;

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis, Brassica n